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Sample records for al2o3 fgm joints

  1. Effect of Processing Parameters on Thermal Cycling Behavior of Al2O3-Al2O3 Brazed Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandapat, Nandadulal; Ghosh, Sumana; Guha, Bichitra Kumar; Datta, Someswar; Balla, Vamsi Krishna

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, alumina ceramics were active metal brazed at different temperatures ranging from 1163 K to 1183 K (890 °C to 910 °C) using TICUSIL (68.8Ag-26.7Cu-4.5Ti in wt pct) foil as filler alloy of different thicknesses. The brazed joints were subjected to thermal cycling for 100 cycles between 323 K and 873 K (50 °C and 600 °C). The microstructural and elemental composition analysis of the brazed joints were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) before and after thermal cycling. Helium (He) leak test and brazing strength measurement were also conducted after thermal cycling for 100 cycles. The joint could withstand up to 1 × 10-9 Torr pressure and brazing strength was higher than 20 MPa. The experimental results demonstrated that joints brazed at the higher temperature with thinner filler alloy produced strong Al2O3-Al2O3 joints.

  2. The Influence of Al2O3 Powder Morphology on the Properties of Cu-Al2O3 Composites Designed for Functionally Graded Materials (FGM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strojny-Nędza, Agata; Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Węglewski, Witold

    2016-08-01

    In order to meet the requirements of an increased efficiency applying to modern devices and in more general terms science and technology, it is necessary to develop new materials. Combining various types of materials (such as metals and ceramics) and developing composite materials seem to be suitable solutions. One of the most interesting materials includes Cu-Al2O3 composite and gradient materials (FGMs). Due to their potential properties, copper-alumina composites could be used in aerospace industry as rocket thrusters and components in aircraft engines. The main challenge posed by copper matrix composites reinforced by aluminum oxide particles is obtaining the uniform structure with no residual porosity (existing within the area of the ceramic phase). In the present paper, Cu-Al2O3 composites (also in a gradient form) with 1, 3, and 5 vol.% of aluminum oxide were fabricated by the hot pressing and spark plasma sintering methods. Two forms of aluminum oxide (αAl2O3 powder and electrocorundum) were used as a reinforcement. Microstructural investigations revealed that near fully dense materials with low porosity and a clear interface between the metal matrix and ceramics were obtained in the case of the SPS method. In this paper, the properties (mechanical, thermal, and tribological) of composite materials were also collected and compared. Technological tests were preceded by finite element method analyses of thermal stresses generated in the gradient structure, and additionally, the role of porosity in the formation process of composite properties was modeled. Based on the said modeling, technological conditions for obtaining FGMs were proposed.

  3. Interface behavior of Al2O3/Ti joints produced by liquid state bonding.

    PubMed

    Lemus-Ruiz, J; Guevara-Laureano, A O; Zarate-Medina, J; Arellano-Lara, A; Ceja-Cárdenas, L

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study brazing of Al2O3 to Ti with biocompatibility properties, using a Au-foil as joining element. Al2O3 was produced by sintering of powder at 1550°C. Al2O3 samples were coated with a 2 and 4μm thick of Mo layer and then stacked with Ti. Al2O3-Mo/Au/Ti combinations were joined at 1100°C in vacuum. Successful joining of Mo-Al2O3 to Ti was observed. Interface shows the formation of a homogeneous diffusion zone. Mo diffused inside Au forming a concentration line. Ti3Au and TiAu phases were observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural Understanding of Direct-Sintered Al2O3-to-Cu Joints Through Damage Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Adrian; Asama, Koji; Matsuda, Tomoki; Sano

    2017-07-01

    Al2O3-to-Cu/3 μm Ni/1 μm Au assemblies were direct-sintered with a paste consisting of micron-sized Ag2O particles and a reducing solvent that provokes Ag2O-to-Ag reduction during processing accompanied by the formation of Ag nanoparticles. The variation of process temperature, pressure and time resulted in different porosity and shear strength. This experimental data set was used to calibrate a finite element model of the assembly considering the elasto-visco-plastic joint properties and the joint porosity. Local analyses within the sintered Ag layer yielded a damage function D f and a damage criterion that could assess the joint strength as a function of geometry, microstructure and process conditions. The developed damage model introduced a parameter ζ, i.e. the product of equivalent creep strain ɛ cr,eq and stress triaxiality η, that balanced the tolerable equivalent plastic strain ɛ pl,eq at fracture. A Fortran subroutine (UVARM) visualized the damage distribution over the sintered layer. The predominant crack initiation and propagation were identified in good agreement with the experimental fracture behavior. A numerical parameter study subsequently revealed the complex interaction between the ceramic-metal interfacial porosity, the total bulk porosity and the shear strength.

  5. A nanoplate-like α-Al2O3 out-layered Al2O3-ZrO2 coating fabricated by micro-arc oxidation for hip joint prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Wenting; Han, Yong; Tang, Wu

    2016-01-01

    A nanoplate-like α-Al2O3 out-layered Al2O3-ZrO2 coating was fabricated on Zr substrate by micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The structure, formation mechanism, anti-wear property and aging behavior of the coating were explored. The obtained results show that the coating is composed of Al2O3 and ZrO2; the amount and crystallinity of Al2O3 increase gradually from inner layer to the coating surface; monoclinic ZrO2 (m-ZrO2) and tetragonal ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) are both present in the coating, and the ratio of t-ZrO2/m-ZrO2 increases with closing to the coating surface by a "constraint" mechanism of Al2O3; the coating surface mainly consists of nanoplate-like α-Al2O3, and a small amount of nanocrystallized m- and t-ZrO2. The superimposition of α-Al2O3 growth unit on {0 0 0 1} face should be prohibited by PO43- during the MAO process, resulting in the formation of nanoplate-like α-Al2O3 on the coating surface. Compared with pure Zr, the coating shows noticeable improvement in wear-resistance. For aging behavior, although more t-ZrO2 in the coating is transformed to m-ZrO2 with increasing aging time, wear loss increases slightly. It indicates that the nanoplate-like α-Al2O3 out-layered Al2O3-ZrO2 is a potential coating for articular head replacement.

  6. Effect of Ti, Nb, and Ti + Nb Coatings on the Bond Strength-Structure Relationship in Al/Al2O3 Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiazek, Marzanna; Richert, Maria; Tchorz, Aam; Boron, Lukasz

    2012-05-01

    There is a growing interest in metal-ceramic bonding for wide range of applications in electronic devices and high technology industry for fabrication of metal matrix composites and bonding of ceramic components to metals. The object of the work was to study the effect of Ti, Nb, and Ti + Nb thin films deposited by PVD method on alumina substrates on structure and bond strength properties of Al/Al2O3 joints. The joints were fabricated using the results of a wetting experiment and the sessile drop method at a temperature of 1223 K in a vacuum of 0.2 MPa for 30 min of contact. The structure of the metal/ceramic interface was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The elemental distribution at the metal-ceramic interface was analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was also used to investigate some aspects of the metal/ceramic interface. The bond strength properties of joints were measured using shear test. The shear strength results demonstrated significant improvement of shear strength of Al/Al2O3 joints due to the application of Ti + Nb thin film on alumina substrate. Microstructural investigations of the interface indicated that Al/coating/Al2O3 couples have diffusion transition interface which influences the strengthening of these joints. A conclusion could be drawn that the presence of thin film layers changes the character of interaction and leads to the formation of new reaction products in the bonding layer.

  7. Tensile Behavior of Al2o3/feal + B and Al2o3/fecraly Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Eldridge, J. I.; Aiken, B. J. M.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of Al2O3/FeAl + B and Al2O3/FeCrAlY composites for high-temperature applications was assessed. The major emphasis was on tensile behavior of both the monolithics and composites from 298 to 1100 K. However, the study also included determining the chemical compatibility of the composites, measuring the interfacial shear strengths, and investigating the effect of processing on the strength of the single-crystal Al2O3 fibers. The interfacial shear strengths were low for Al203/FeAl + B and moderate to high for Al203/FeCrAlY. The difference in interfacial bond strengths between the two systems affected the tensile behavior of the composites. The strength of the Al203 fiber was significantly degraded after composite processing for both composite systems and resulted in poor composite tensile properties. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values of the composites could generally be predicted with either rule of mixtures (ROM) calculations or existing models when using the strength of the etched-out fiber. The Al2O3/FeAl + B composite system was determined to be unfeasible due to poor interfacial shear strengths and a large mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Development of the Al2O3/FeCrAlY system would require an effective diffusion barrier to minimize the fiber strength degradation during processing and elevated temperature service.

  8. Wear studies on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 and 8mole% of Yttrium-stabilized ZrO2 composite coating on biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy for orthopedic joint application.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Perumal; Manivasagam, Geetha; Rajamanickam, Asokamani; Natarajan, Alagumurthi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the wear characteristics of the composite ceramic coating made with Al2O3-40wt%8YSZ on the biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (grade 5) used for total joint prosthetic components, with the aim of improving their tribological behavior. The coatings were deposited using a plasma spraying technique, and optimization of plasma parameters was performed using response surface methodology to obtain dense coating. The tribological behaviors of the coated and uncoated substrates were evaluated using a ball-on-plate sliding wear tester at 37°C in simulated body-fluid conditions. The microstructure of both the titanium alloy and coated specimen were examined using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The hardness of the plasma-sprayed alumina-zirconia composite coatings was 2.5 times higher than that of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, while the wear rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was 253 times higher than that of the composite-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The superior wear resistance of the alumina-zirconia coated alloy is attributed to its enhanced hardness and intersplat bonding strength. Wear-track examination showed that the predominant wear mechanism of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was abrasive and adhesive wear, whereas, in the case of alumina-zirconia composite coated alloy, the wear was dominated by microchipping and microcracking.

  9. Wear studies on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 and 8mole% of Yttrium-stabilized ZrO2 composite coating on biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy for orthopedic joint application

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, Perumal; Manivasagam, Geetha; Rajamanickam, Asokamani; Natarajan, Alagumurthi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the wear characteristics of the composite ceramic coating made with Al2O3-40wt%8YSZ on the biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (grade 5) used for total joint prosthetic components, with the aim of improving their tribological behavior. The coatings were deposited using a plasma spraying technique, and optimization of plasma parameters was performed using response surface methodology to obtain dense coating. The tribological behaviors of the coated and uncoated substrates were evaluated using a ball-on-plate sliding wear tester at 37°C in simulated body-fluid conditions. The microstructure of both the titanium alloy and coated specimen were examined using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The hardness of the plasma-sprayed alumina–zirconia composite coatings was 2.5 times higher than that of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, while the wear rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was 253 times higher than that of the composite-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The superior wear resistance of the alumina–zirconia coated alloy is attributed to its enhanced hardness and intersplat bonding strength. Wear-track examination showed that the predominant wear mechanism of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was abrasive and adhesive wear, whereas, in the case of alumina–zirconia composite coated alloy, the wear was dominated by microchipping and microcracking. PMID:26491323

  10. High Temperature Mechanical Characterization and Analysis of Al2O3 /Al2O3 Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen ply unidirectional zirconia coated single crystal Al2O3 fiber reinforced polycrystalline Al2O3 was tested in uniaxial tension at temperatures to 1400 C in air. Fiber volume fractions ranged from 26 to 31%. The matrix has primarily open porosity of approximately 40%. Theories for predicting the Young's modulus, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate strength were applied and evaluated for suitability in predicting the mechanical behavior of Al2O3/Al2O3 composites. The composite exhibited pseudo tough behavior (increased area under the stress/strain curve relative to monolithic alumina) from 22 to 1400 C. The rule-of-mixtures provides a good estimate of the Young's modulus of the composite using the constituent properties from room temperature to approximately 1200 C for short term static tensile tests in air. The ACK theory provides the best approximation of the first matrix cracking stress while accounting for residual stresses at room temperature. Difficulties in determining the fiber/matrix interfacial shear stress at high temperatures prevented the accurate prediction of the first matrix cracking stress above room temperature. The theory of Cao and Thouless, based on Weibull statistics, gave the best prediction for the composite ultimate tensile strength.

  11. Fabrication of Al2O3-W Functionally Graded Materials by Slipcasting Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Tomoyuki; Sukenaga, Sohei; Saito, Noritaka; Kagata, Hajime; Nakashima, Kunihiko

    2011-10-01

    We have successfully fabricated a functionally graded material (FGM) from tungsten and alumina powders by a slip-casting method. This FGM has applications as a sealing and conducting component for high-intensity discharge lamps (HiDLs) that have a translucent alumina envelope. Two types of W powder, with different oxidizing properties, were used as the raw powders for the Al2O3-W FGM. "Oxidized W" was prepared by heat-treatment at 200 °C for 180 min in air. Alumina and each of the W powders were mixed in ultrapure water by ultrasonic stirring. The slurry was then cast into a cylindrical acrylic mold, which had a base of porous alumina, under controlled pressure. The green compacts were subsequently dried, and then sintered using a vacuum furnace at 1600 °C for a fixed time. The microstructures of the FGMs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the polished section. The Al2O3-W FGM with the "oxidized W" powder resulted in a microscopic compositional gradient. However, the FGM with "as-received W" showed no compositional gradient. This result was mainly attributed to the difference between the ζ-potentials of the W powders with the different oxidizing conditions; basically "oxidized W" powder tends to disperse because of the larger ζ-potential of the oxide layer coated on the W powder core.

  12. Characterization of SDC-Al2O3 solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, S.; Raju, K. C. James; Reddy, C. Vishnuvardhan

    2012-06-01

    SDC20-Al2O3 materials were synthesized through the sol-gel method. Dense SDC20-Al2O3 ceramics were obtained through sintering the pellets at 1300°C. SDC20-Al2O3 materials were characterized by XRD, SEM and impedance spectroscopy. XRD measurements indicate that synthesized materials crystallized in cubic structure. Average crystallite size of the samples was in the range 11-12 nm. The relative density of SDC20-Al2O3 samples was over 95% of the theoretical density. Addition of Al2O3 promotes densification. Surface morphology was analyzed using SEM. The two-probe a.c. impedance spectroscopy was used to study the total ionic conductivity of doped and co-doped ceria in the temperature range 350-700°C. The SDC20-Al2O3 composition showed improved total ionic conductivity and minimum activation energy.

  13. Silicon solar cells with Al2O3 antireflection coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzański, Leszek A.; Szindler, Marek; Drygała, Aleksandra; Szindler, Magdalena M.

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents the possibility of using Al2O3 antireflection coatings deposited by atomic layer deposition ALD. The ALD method is based on alternate pulsing of the precursor gases and vapors onto the substrate surface and then chemisorption or surface reaction of the precursors. The reactor is purged with an inert gas between the precursor pulses. The Al2O3 thin film in structure of the finished solar cells can play the role of both antireflection and passivation layer which will simplify the process. For this research 50×50 mm monocrystalline silicon solar cells with one bus bar have been used. The metallic contacts were prepared by screen printing method and Al2O3 antireflection coating by ALD method. Results and their analysis allow to conclude that the Al2O3 antireflection coating deposited by ALD has a significant impact on the optoelectronic properties of the silicon solar cell. For about 80 nm of Al2O3 the best results were obtained in the wavelength range of 400 to 800 nm reducing the reflection to less than 1%. The difference in the solar cells efficiency between with and without antireflection coating was 5.28%. The LBIC scan measurements may indicate a positive influence of the thin film Al2O3 on the bulk passivation of the silicon.

  14. Silicon solar cells with Al2O3 antireflection coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzański, Leszek; Szindler, Marek; Drygała, Aleksandra; Szindler, Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents the possibility of using Al2O3 antireflection coatings deposited by atomic layer deposition ALD. The ALD method is based on alternate pulsing of the precursor gases and vapors onto the substrate surface and then chemisorption or surface reaction of the precursors. The reactor is purged with an inert gas between the precursor pulses. The Al2O3 thin film in structure of the finished solar cells can play the role of both antireflection and passivation layer which will simplify the process. For this research 50×50 mm monocrystalline silicon solar cells with one bus bar have been used. The metallic contacts were prepared by screen printing method and Al2O3 antireflection coating by ALD method. Results and their analysis allow to conclude that the Al2O3 antireflection coating deposited by ALD has a significant impact on the optoelectronic properties of the silicon solar cell. For about 80 nm of Al2O3 the best results were obtained in the wavelength range of 400 to 800 nm reducing the reflection to less than 1%. The difference in the solar cells efficiency between with and without antireflection coating was 5.28%. The LBIC scan measurements may indicate a positive influence of the thin film Al2O3 on the bulk passivation of the silicon.

  15. Synthesis and thermal characterization of Al2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismardi, A.; Rosadi, O. M.; Kirom, M. R.; Syarif, D. G.

    2016-11-01

    Al2O3 nanoparticle has been successfully synthesized using sol gel method from AlCl3. The obtained nanoparticles was then characterized for grain size measurement, the size of nanoparticles was 6 nm by using surface area meter (SAM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity property of the product was then checked with XRD spectroscopy, the result shows that the diffraction peaks were match with the 10-0425 JCPDS database. Thermal property of the Al2O3 nanoparticles was then studied by mixing it with engine base fluid as nanofluid. The usage of nanofluid was expected to be heat absorber and woulo increase cooling process in cooling machine. The results showed that cooling time increases when the concentration of nanofluid was increased. Finally, it is concluded that thermal property of Al2O3 was studied and applicable to be mixed with engine coolant of cooler machine to reduce cooling time process.

  16. Equation of state of α-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaele, A.; Torrent, M.

    2013-08-01

    The ambient temperature equation of state of ruby in the corundum phase (α-Al2O3) has been measured up to 165 GPa in a diamond anvil cell, using a soft pressure transmitting medium. No clear sign of phase transformation or amorphization has been observed in this range, which could affect its luminescence signal. The equation of state of α-Al2O3 has also been calculated within density functional theory, with two different approximations of the exchange-correlation energy (local density and generalized gradient). With suitable correction, these equations of state are predictive within ΔP/P=2.5%.

  17. Structural study of radiolytic catalysts Ni-Ce/Al2O3 and Ni-Pt/Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seridi, F.; Chettibi, S.; Keghouche, N.; Beaunier, P.; Belloni, J.

    2017-01-01

    Ni-Ce and Ni-Pt bimetallic catalysts supported over α-Al2O3 are synthesized by using co-impregnation method, and then reduced, each via radiolytic process or thermal H2-treatment. For Ni-Ce/Al2O3, the structural study reveals that Ce is alloyed with Ni as Ce2Ni7 nanoparticles in the radiation-reduced catalysts, while it segregates to the surface in the form of CeO2 in the H2-reduced catalysts. For Ni-Pt/Al2O3 radiolytic catalysts, Ni, Pt, NiPt and Ni3Pt nanoparticles, which size is 3.5 nm, are observed. When the radiation-reduced samples are tested in the benzene hydrogenation, they both display high conversion rate. However, the Ni-Pt/Al2O3 is more efficient than Ni-Ce/Al2O3. The performance of the catalysts is correlated with the high dispersion of the metal and the presence of intermetallic Ni-Pt and Ni-Ce phases. It is compared to that of other radiolytic monometallic/oxide catalysts of the literature.

  18. Fabrication and optical properties of nanostructured plasmonic Al2O3/Au-Al2O3/Al2O3 metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali, H.; Blanco, E.; Domínguez, M.; Garitaonandia, J. S.

    2017-08-01

    Discontinuous multilayer (DML) thin films, which consist of nano-granular metals (NGMs) embedded in a dielectric matrix, have attracted significant interest as engineered plasmonic metamaterials. In this study, a systematic layer-by-layer deposition of three-dimensional sub-wavelength periodic plasmonic DML structures via the radio frequency sputtering of a composite target has been reported. The overall optical response of the DML films composed of Au-Al2O3 NGM homogenous layers, which are periodically sandwiched between two amorphous Al2O3 layers, are studied using reflection spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission spectroscopy techniques. By applying the analytical optical approaches based on multiple Gaussian oscillators, ambient DML sub-wavelength structures have been successfully modeled. As a result, the effects of the size and shape of the Au nanoparticles as well as of the surrounding and interfacial media on their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) are elucidated, and the related films thickness and effective optical constants are determined. Interestingly, during the examination of resonance frequencies and dielectric functions, the obtained DML structures exhibit unusual characteristics that are different from those of their NGM constituents due to the electromagnetic interactions of the NGM layers with the LSPR, which represent metamaterial features.

  19. Fabrication and optical properties of nanostructured plasmonic Al2O3/Au-Al2O3/Al2O3 metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Bakkali, H; Blanco, E; Domínguez, M; Garitaonandia, J S

    2017-08-18

    Discontinuous multilayer (DML) thin films, which consist of nano-granular metals (NGMs) embedded in a dielectric matrix, have attracted significant interest as engineered plasmonic metamaterials. In this study, a systematic layer-by-layer deposition of three-dimensional sub-wavelength periodic plasmonic DML structures via the radio frequency sputtering of a composite target has been reported. The overall optical response of the DML films composed of Au-Al2O3 NGM homogenous layers, which are periodically sandwiched between two amorphous Al2O3 layers, are studied using reflection spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission spectroscopy techniques. By applying the analytical optical approaches based on multiple Gaussian oscillators, ambient DML sub-wavelength structures have been successfully modeled. As a result, the effects of the size and shape of the Au nanoparticles as well as of the surrounding and interfacial media on their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) are elucidated, and the related films thickness and effective optical constants are determined. Interestingly, during the examination of resonance frequencies and dielectric functions, the obtained DML structures exhibit unusual characteristics that are different from those of their NGM constituents due to the electromagnetic interactions of the NGM layers with the LSPR, which represent metamaterial features.

  20. Ab initio study of γ- Al2 O3 surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Henry P.; Nieminen, R. M.; Elliott, Simon D.

    2004-09-01

    Starting from the theoretical prediction of the γ-Al2O3 structure using density-functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation, we have studied the (1 1 1), (0 0 1), (1 1 0), and (1 5 0) surfaces. The surface energies and their corresponding structures are computed and compared with predictions for (0 0 0 1) α-Al2O3 and available experimental results for γ -alumina surfaces. (1 1 1) and (0 0 1) surfaces are predicted to be equally stable, but to show quite different structure and reactivity. Whereas a low coverage of highly reactive trigonal Al occurs on (1 1 1), (0 0 1) exhibits a more dense plane of both five-coordinate and tetrahedral Al. Microfaceting of a (1 1 0) surface into (1 1 1)-like planes is also observed. The implications for the structure of ultrathin dielectric films and for the surfaces of disordered transition aluminas are discussed.

  1. Hybrid visible-light responsive Al2O3 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ðorđević, Vesna; Dostanić, Jasmina; Lončarević, Davor; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip; Sredojević, Dušan N.; Švrakić, Nenad; Belić, Milivoj; Nedeljković, Jovan M.

    2017-10-01

    Detailed study of Al2O3, an insulator with the band gap of about 8.7 eV, and its different organic/inorganic charge transfer complexes with visible-light photo activity is presented. In particular, prepared Al2O3 particles of the size 0.1-0.3 μm are coated with several organic complexes - the specific details for catecholate- and salicylate-type of ligands are described below - and the light absorption properties and photocatalytic activity of such hybrids are scrutinized and compared with those of other organic/inorganic hybrid materials previously studied. In addition, the obtained experimental results are supported with quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory.

  2. Atomically Thin Al2O3 Films for Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, Jamie; Gong, Youpin; Gong, Ming; Su, Feifan; Xu, Huikai; Sakidja, Ridwan; Elliot, Alan; Lu, Rongtao; Zhao, Shiping; Han, Siyuan; Wu, Judy Z.

    2017-06-01

    Metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions are common throughout the microelectronics industry. The industry standard AlOx tunnel barrier, formed through oxygen diffusion into an Al wetting layer, is plagued by internal defects and pinholes which prevent the realization of atomically thin barriers demanded for enhanced quantum coherence. In this work, we employ in situ scanning tunneling spectroscopy along with molecular-dynamics simulations to understand and control the growth of atomically thin Al2O3 tunnel barriers using atomic-layer deposition. We find that a carefully tuned initial H2O pulse hydroxylated the Al surface and enabled the creation of an atomically thin Al2O3 tunnel barrier with a high-quality M -I interface and a significantly enhanced barrier height compared to thermal AlOx . These properties, corroborated by fabricated Josephson junctions, show that atomic-layer deposition Al2O3 is a dense, leak-free tunnel barrier with a low defect density which can be a key component for the next generation of metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions.

  3. CVD Fiber Coatings for Al2O3/NiAl Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Daniel E.

    1995-01-01

    While sapphire-fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide (Al2O3/NiAl) composites are an attractive candidate for high-temperature structures, the significant difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the NiAl matrix and the sapphire fiber creates substantial residual stresses in the composite. This study seeks to produce two fiber-coating systems with the potential to reduce the residual stresses in the sapphire/NiAl composite system. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to produce both the compensating and compliant-fiber coatings for use in sapphire/NiAl composites. A special reactor was designed and built to produce the FGM and to handle the toxic nickel precursors. This process was successfully used to produce 500-foot lengths of fiber with coating thicknesses of approximately 3 microns, 5 microns, and 10 microns.

  4. Transparent and flexible capacitors based on nanolaminate Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhen; Wu, Hao; Chen, Chao; Wang, Ti; Yue, Jin; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Transparent and flexible capacitors based on nanolaminate Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 dielectrics have been fabricated on indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene naphthalate substrates by atomic layer deposition. A capacitance density of 7.8 fF/μm(2) at 10 KHz was obtained, corresponding to a dielectric constant of 26.3. Moreover, a low leakage current density of 3.9 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at 1 V has been realized. Bending test shows that the capacitors have better performances in concave conditions than in convex conditions. The capacitors exhibit an average optical transmittance of about 70% in visible range and thus open the door for applications in transparent and flexible integrated circuits.

  5. Al2O3-based nanofluids: a review.

    PubMed

    Sridhara, Veeranna; Satapathy, Lakshmi Narayan

    2011-07-16

    Ultrahigh performance cooling is one of the important needs of many industries. However, low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in developing energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required for cooling purposes. Nanofluids are engineered by suspending nanoparticles with average sizes below 100 nm in heat transfer fluids such as water, oil, diesel, ethylene glycol, etc. Innovative heat transfer fluids are produced by suspending metallic or nonmetallic nanometer-sized solid particles. Experiments have shown that nanofluids have substantial higher thermal conductivities compared to the base fluids. These suspended nanoparticles can change the transport and thermal properties of the base fluid. As can be seen from the literature, extensive research has been carried out in alumina-water and CuO-water systems besides few reports in Cu-water-, TiO2-, zirconia-, diamond-, SiC-, Fe3O4-, Ag-, Au-, and CNT-based systems. The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in research on the stability of nanofluids, enhancement of thermal conductivities, viscosity, and heat transfer characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)-based nanofluids. The Al2O3 nanoparticles varied in the range of 13 to 302 nm to prepare nanofluids, and the observed enhancement in the thermal conductivity is 2% to 36%.

  6. Al2O3-based nanofluids: a review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ultrahigh performance cooling is one of the important needs of many industries. However, low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in developing energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required for cooling purposes. Nanofluids are engineered by suspending nanoparticles with average sizes below 100 nm in heat transfer fluids such as water, oil, diesel, ethylene glycol, etc. Innovative heat transfer fluids are produced by suspending metallic or nonmetallic nanometer-sized solid particles. Experiments have shown that nanofluids have substantial higher thermal conductivities compared to the base fluids. These suspended nanoparticles can change the transport and thermal properties of the base fluid. As can be seen from the literature, extensive research has been carried out in alumina-water and CuO-water systems besides few reports in Cu-water-, TiO2-, zirconia-, diamond-, SiC-, Fe3O4-, Ag-, Au-, and CNT-based systems. The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in research on the stability of nanofluids, enhancement of thermal conductivities, viscosity, and heat transfer characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)-based nanofluids. The Al2O3 nanoparticles varied in the range of 13 to 302 nm to prepare nanofluids, and the observed enhancement in the thermal conductivity is 2% to 36%. PMID:21762528

  7. Impurity Enhancement of Al_2O_3/Al Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Zhang, Wenqing; Evans, Anthony

    2003-03-01

    Our first-principles computations indicate that the clean Al_2O_3/Al interface is relatively weak - weaker than bulk Al. Fracture experiments reveal that the interface is relatively strong with observed failure in bulk Al, however. This paradox is resolved via doping effects of the common impurity C. We have found that only 1/3 of a monolayer of carbon segregated to the interface can increase the work of separation by a factor of 3. The resulting strong interface is consistent with fracture experiments. It arises due to void formation in the interface, which provides low-strain sites for the carbon to segregate to. The degree of void formation is consistent with the relatively high heat of oxide formation of Al.

  8. Characterization of ultrafast microstructuring of alumina (Al2O3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrie, Walter; Rushton, Anne; Gill, Matthew; Fox, Peter; O'Neill, William

    2005-03-01

    Alumina ceramic, Al2O3, presents a challenge to laser micro-structuring due to its neglible linear absorption coefficient in the optical region coupled with its physical properties such as extremely high melting point and high thermal conductivity. In this work, we demonstrate clean micro-structuring of alumina using NIR (λ=775 nm) ultrafast optical pulses with 180 fs duration at 1kHz repetition rate. Sub-picosecond pulses can minimise thermal effects along with collateral damage when processing conditions are optimised, consequently, observed edge quality is excellent in this regime. We present results of changing micro-structure and morphology during ultrafast processing along with measured ablation rates and characteristics of developing surface relief. Initial crystalline phase (alpha Al2O3) is unaltered by femtosecond processing. Multi-pulse ablation threshold fluence Fth ~ 1.1 Jcm-2 and at low fluence ~ 3 Jcm-2, independent of machined depth, there appears to remain a ~ 2μm thick rapidly re-melted layer. On the other hand, micro-structuring at high fluence F ~ 21 Jcm-2 shows no evidence of melting and the machined surface is covered with a fine layer of debris, loosely attached. The nature of debris produced by femtosecond ablation has been investigated and consists mainly of alumina nanoparticles with diameters from 20 nm to 1 micron with average diameter ~ 300 nm. Electron diffraction shows these particles to be essentially single crystal in nature. By developing a holographic technique, we have demonstrated periodic micrometer level structuring on polished samples of this extremely hard material.

  9. Study of ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2 and Al2O3/ZrO2/Al2O3 stack structures deposited by sol-gel method on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, P.; Harizanova, A.; Ivanova, T.; Dimitrova, T.

    2010-02-01

    Based on our previous experience with pseudobinary alloys of (Al2O3)x(ZrO2)1-x as high-k materials and passivating coatings for solar cells, stack systems of ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2and Al2O3/ZrO2/Al2O3, deposited by simple and low cost sol-gel technology have been studied. The thin films of ZrO2 and Al2O3 were sequentially obtained on Si substrates including spin coating deposition from stable solutions. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) was used to compare the morphology of the nanolaminates. The layers were optically characterized by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The electrical measurements were carried out on metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. Their leakage current and relative permittivity were determined.

  10. Antimicrobial effect of Al2O3, Ag and Al2O3/Ag thin films on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, O.; Stoyanova, D.; Ivanova, I.; Todorova, S.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of Al2O3, Ag and Al2O3/Ag thin films on bacterial growth of Gramnegative bacteria Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli is studied. The nanostructured thin films are deposited on glass substrates without intentional heating through r.f. magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere of Al2O3 and Ag targets or through sequential sputtering of Al2O3 and Ag targets, respectively. The individual Ag thin films (thickness 8 nm) have a weak bacteriostatic effect on Escherichia coli expressed as an extended adaptive phase of the bacteria up to 5 hours from the beginning of the experiment, but the final effect is only 10 times lower bacterial density than in the control. The individual Al2O3 film (20 nm) has no antibacterial effect against two strains E. coli - industrial and pathogenic. The Al2O3/Ag bilayer films (Al2O3 20 nm/Ag 8 nm) have strong bactericidal effect on Pseudomonas putida and demonstrate an effective time of disinfection for 2 hours. The individual films Al2O3 and Ag have not pronounced antibacterial effect on Pseudomonas putida. A synergistic effect of Al2O3/Ag bilayer films in formation of oxidative species on the surface in contact with the bacterial suspension could be a reason for their antimicrobial effect on E. coli and P. putida.

  11. Characteristics of ethylene glycol-Al2O3 nanofluids prepared by utilizing Al2O3 nanoparticles synthesized from local bauxite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarif, D. G.

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles of Al2O3 have been synthesized from local bauxite mineral, and ethylene glycol (EG)-Al2O3 nanofluids have been prepared. Powder Al(OOH) was extracted from local bauxite using bayer process, and heated at 600°C for 3 hours to get Al2O3 nanoparticles. XRD analyses showed that the Al2O3 nanoparticles crystallizes in γ-Al2O3 with crystallite size of 4.12 nm. The specific surface area of the ACO3 nanoparticles was 296.72 m2/gr. Viscosity of the EG-Al2O3 nanofluids was temperature dependent, and decreased with increasing temperature. The viscosity of the nanofluids increased with the concentration of the Al2O3 nanoparticles. Meanwhile, Critical Heat Flux (CHF) enhancement of the nanofluids increased with the concentration of the Al2O3 nanoparticles. The largest CHF enhancement was 54% at Al2O3 concentration of 0.095 vol %.

  12. Al2O3 passivation effect in HfO2·Al2O3 laminate structures grown on InP substrates.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hang-Kyu; Kang, Yu-Seon; Kim, Dae-Kyoung; Baik, Min; Song, Jin Dong; An, Youngseo; Kim, Hyoungsub; Cho, Mann-Ho

    2017-04-07

    The passivation effect of an Al2O3 layer on electrical properties were investigated in HfO2--Al2O3 laminate structures grown on InP substrate by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The chemical state using HR-XPS showed that interfacial reactions were dependent on the presence of the Al2O3 passivation layer and its sequence in the HfO2--Al2O3 laminate structures. The Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 structure showed the best electrical characteristics, due to the interfacial reaction, compared with those of different stacking structures. The top Al2O3 layer suppressed the interdiffusion of oxidizing species into the HfO2 films, while the bottom Al2O3 layer blocked the outdiffusion of In and P atoms. As a result, the formation of In-O bonds was effectively suppressed in the Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3/InP structure than that of HfO2-on-InP system. Moreover, conductance data revealed that the Al2O3/ layer on InP reduces the midgap traps to 2.6 × 10(12) eV(-1)cm(-2) (compared with that of HfO2/InP = 5.4 × 10(12) eV(-1)cm(-2)). The suppression of gap states caused by the outdiffusion of In atoms significantly controls the degradation of capacitors caused by leakage current through the stacked oxide layers.

  13. Microstructural development of protective Al2O3 scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of Al2O3 scales grown as protective coatings on NiCrAl alloys used in jet engines are described. The alloys were pure or doped with 0.3 percent Zr or Y and oxidized in 1 atm air at 1100 C for 0.1, 1 or 20.0 hr. The scales were then examined under a microscope. Transient epitaxial scales, formed during the 0.1 hr treatment and containing Ni, Cr and Al, consisted of a mosaic of subgrains and precipitates of different phases. The Y and Zr dopants had no effect on the nucleation site locations. The appearance of intergranular porosity at 0.1 hr was exacerbated after the 1 hr treatment. A bimodal void distribution appeared after 20 hr, when no porosity was evident. The detection of local areas of preferred orientation is taken as a spur to further studies of scale growth to gain control of the grain size or even to produce single crystal scales.

  14. Radiation endurance in Al2O3 nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    García Ferré, F.; Mairov, A.; Ceseracciu, L.; Serruys, Y.; Trocellier, P.; Baumier, C.; Kaïtasov, O.; Brescia, R.; Gastaldi, D.; Vena, P.; Beghi, M. G.; Beck, L.; Sridharan, K.; Di Fonzo, F.

    2016-01-01

    The lack of suitable materials solutions stands as a major challenge for the development of advanced nuclear systems. Most issues are related to the simultaneous action of high temperatures, corrosive environments and radiation damage. Oxide nanoceramics are a promising class of materials which may benefit from the radiation tolerance of nanomaterials and the chemical compatibility of ceramics with many highly corrosive environments. Here, using thin films as a model system, we provide new insights into the radiation tolerance of oxide nanoceramics exposed to increasing damage levels at 600 °C –namely 20, 40 and 150 displacements per atom. Specifically, we investigate the evolution of the structural features, the mechanical properties, and the response to impact loading of Al2O3 thin films. Initially, the thin films contain a homogeneous dispersion of nanocrystals in an amorphous matrix. Irradiation induces crystallization of the amorphous phase, followed by grain growth. Crystallization brings along an enhancement of hardness, while grain growth induces softening according to the Hall-Petch effect. During grain growth, the excess mechanical energy is dissipated by twinning. The main energy dissipation mechanisms available upon impact loading are lattice plasticity and localized amorphization. These mechanisms are available in the irradiated material, but not in the as-deposited films. PMID:27653832

  15. Al-Al2O3-Pd junction hydrogen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, K.; Takinami, N.; Chiba, Y.; Ohshima, S.; Kambe, S.

    1994-07-01

    Al-Al2O3-Pd MIM (metal insulator metal) junctions fabricated on a glass substrate were tested as hydrogen sensors. The I-V (current versus voltage) characteristics of the junctions were measured at room temperature in a vacuum of 10-5 Torr and in H2 gas of 10-2-100 Torr. A significant increase in the current was observed upon introduction of H2 gas. This phenomenon is believed to occur due to the work function lowering of the hydrogen-absorbed Pd top electrode. The rise time was on the order of minutes, while the recovery time when hydrogen was purged was more than 20 h. However, when the junction was placed in an oxidizing ambient such as air, the recovery time was drastically reduced to the order of minutes, indicating that the device is operative as a hydrogen sensor in the atmospheric ambient. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption behavior of the Pd film was also investigated using a Pd coated quartz microbalance, and the results explained the current response of the Pd MIM junction to hydrogen in the presence of oxygen.

  16. Radiation endurance in Al2O3 nanoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Ferré, F.; Mairov, A.; Ceseracciu, L.; Serruys, Y.; Trocellier, P.; Baumier, C.; Kaïtasov, O.; Brescia, R.; Gastaldi, D.; Vena, P.; Beghi, M. G.; Beck, L.; Sridharan, K.; di Fonzo, F.

    2016-09-01

    The lack of suitable materials solutions stands as a major challenge for the development of advanced nuclear systems. Most issues are related to the simultaneous action of high temperatures, corrosive environments and radiation damage. Oxide nanoceramics are a promising class of materials which may benefit from the radiation tolerance of nanomaterials and the chemical compatibility of ceramics with many highly corrosive environments. Here, using thin films as a model system, we provide new insights into the radiation tolerance of oxide nanoceramics exposed to increasing damage levels at 600 °C –namely 20, 40 and 150 displacements per atom. Specifically, we investigate the evolution of the structural features, the mechanical properties, and the response to impact loading of Al2O3 thin films. Initially, the thin films contain a homogeneous dispersion of nanocrystals in an amorphous matrix. Irradiation induces crystallization of the amorphous phase, followed by grain growth. Crystallization brings along an enhancement of hardness, while grain growth induces softening according to the Hall-Petch effect. During grain growth, the excess mechanical energy is dissipated by twinning. The main energy dissipation mechanisms available upon impact loading are lattice plasticity and localized amorphization. These mechanisms are available in the irradiated material, but not in the as-deposited films.

  17. The thermodynamic properties of hydrated -Al2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Elinor; Huang, Baiyu; Parker, Stewart F.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Ross, Dr. Nancy; Woodfield, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report a combined calorimetric and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) study of hydrated -Al2O3 ( -alumina) nanoparticles. These complementary techniques have enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of this technological and industrially important metal oxide to be achieved. The isobaric heat capacity (Cp) data presented herein provide further critical insights into the much-debated chemical composition of -alumina nanoparticles. Furthermore, the isochoric heat capacity (Cv) of the surface water, which is so essential to the stability of all metal-oxides at the nanoscale, has been extracted from the high-resolution INS data and differs significantly from that of ice Ih due to the dominating influence of strong surface-water interactions. This study also encompassed the analysis of four -alumina samples with differing pore diameters [4.5 (1), 13.8 (2), 17.9 (3), and 27.2 nm (4)], and the results obtained allow us to unambiguously conclude that the water content and pore size have no influence on the thermodynamic behaviour of hydrated -alumina nanoparticles.

  18. Unraveling the Origin of Structural Disorder in High Temperature Transition Al2O3: Structure of θ-Al2O3

    SciTech Connect

    Kovarik, Libor; Bowden, Mark E.; Shi, Dachuan; Washton, Nancy M.; Anderson, Amity; Hu, Jian Z.; Lee, Jaekyoung; Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-09-22

    The crystallography of transition Al2O3 has been extensively studied in the past due to the advantageous properties of the oxide in catalytic and a range of other technological applications. However, existing crystallographic models are insufficient to describe the structure of many important Al2O3 polymorphs due to their highly disordered nature. In this work, we investigate structure and disorder in high-temperature treated transition Al2O3, and provide a structural description for θ-Al2O3 by using a suite of complementary imaging, spectroscopy and quantum calculation techniques. Contrary to current understanding, our high-resolution imaging shows that θ-Al2O3 is a disordered composite phase of at least two different end members. By correlating imaging and spectroscopy results with DFT calculations, we propose a model that describes θ-Al2O3 as a disordered intergrowth of two crystallographic variants at the unit cell level. One variant is based on β-Ga2O3, and the other on a monoclinic phase that is closely-related to δ-Al2O3. The overall findings and interpretations afford new insight into the origin of poor crystallinity in transition Al2O3, and also provide new perspectives on structural complexity that can emerge from intergrowth of closely related structural polymorphs.

  19. Non-volatile Al2O3 Memory using Nanoscale Al-rich Al2O3 Thin Film as a Charge Storage Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Shunji; Saito, Kunio; Shimada, Masaru

    2006-04-01

    This article describes the fabrication process and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a new non-volatile Al2O3 memory with nanoscale thin film deposited by electron-cyclotron-resonance sputtering. Al-rich Al2O3 shows characteristics somewhere between Al and Al2O3 in the refractive index and wet etching rate. C-V characteristics of Al-rich Al2O3 memory show a large hysteresis window due to the Al-rich structure, while there is no hysteresis window in the case of stoichiometric Al2O3. This memory is expected to stay non-volatile for several years or more because the capacitance value after writing and erasing operation remained almost unchanged after 4 h at T=85 °C. Also, another new memory structure comprising SiO2/Al2O3 and the Al-rich Al2O3 structure is proposed, which features increased mobility due to the reduction of electron scattering at the Si/Al2O3 interface.

  20. Hydrogen induced passivation of Si interfaces by Al2O3 films and SiO2/Al2O3 stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingemans, G.; Beyer, W.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2010-10-01

    The role of hydrogen in Si surface passivation is experimentally identified for Al2O3 (capping) films synthesized by atomic layer deposition. By using stacks of SiO2 and deuterated Al2O3, we demonstrate that hydrogen is transported from Al2O3 to the underlying SiO2 already at relatively low annealing temperatures of 400 °C. This leads to a high level of chemical passivation of the interface. Moreover, the thermal stability of the passivation up to 800 °C was significantly improved by applying a thin Al2O3 capping film on the SiO2. The hydrogen released from the Al2O3 film favorably influences the passivation of Si interface defects.

  1. Trapped charge densities in Al2O3-based silicon surface passivation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Paul M.; Simon, Daniel K.; Mikolajick, Thomas; Dirnstorfer, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    In Al2O3-based passivation layers, the formation of fixed charges and trap sites can be strongly influenced by small modifications in the stack layout. Fixed and trapped charge densities are characterized with capacitance voltage profiling and trap spectroscopy by charge injection and sensing, respectively. Al2O3 layers are grown by atomic layer deposition with very thin (˜1 nm) SiO2 or HfO2 interlayers or interface layers. In SiO2/Al2O3 and HfO2/Al2O3 stacks, both fixed charges and trap sites are reduced by at least a factor of 5 compared with the value measured in pure Al2O3. In Al2O3/SiO2/Al2O3 or Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 stacks, very high total charge densities of up to 9 × 1012 cm-2 are achieved. These charge densities are described as functions of electrical stress voltage, time, and the Al2O3 layer thickness between silicon and the HfO2 or the SiO2 interlayer. Despite the strong variation of trap sites, all stacks reach very good effective carrier lifetimes of up to 8 and 20 ms on p- and n-type silicon substrates, respectively. Controlling the trap sites in Al2O3 layers opens the possibility to engineer the field-effect passivation in the solar cells.

  2. Modulus, strength and thermal exposure studies of FP-Al2O3/aluminum and FP-Al2O3/magnesium composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical properties of FP-Al2O3 fiber reinforced composites prepared by liquid infiltration techniques are improved. A strengthening addition, magnesium, was incorporated with the aluminum-lithium matrix alloy usually selected for these composites because of its good wetting characteristics. This ternary composite, FP-Al2O3/Al-(2-3)Li-(3-5)Mg, showed improved transverse strength compared with FP-Al2O3/Al-(2-3)Li composites. The lower axial strengths found for the FP-Al2O3/Al-(2-3)Li-(3-5)Mg composites were attributed to fabrication related defects. Another technique was the use of Ti/B coated FP-Al2O3 fibers in the composites. This coating is readily wet by molten aluminum and permitted the use of more conventional aluminum alloys in the composites. However, the anticipated improvements in the axial and transverse strengths were not obtained due to poor bonding between the fiber coating and the matrix. A third approach studied to improve the strengths of FP-Al2O3 reinforced composites was the use of magnesium alloys as matrix materials. While these alloys wet fibers satisfactorily, the result indicated that the magnesium alloy composites used offered no axial strength or modulus advantage over FP-Al2O3/Al-(2-3)Li composites.

  3. The MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system - Free energy of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite. [in earth mantle formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    The model of fictive ideal components is used to determine Gibbs free energies of formation of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite from the experimental data on coexisting garnet and orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene and spinel in the temperature range 1200-1600 K. It is noted that Al2O3 forms an ideal solution with MgSiO3. These thermochemical data are found to be consistent with the Al2O3 isopleths that could be drawn using most recent experimental data and with the reversed experimental data on the garnet-spinel field boundary.

  4. The MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system - Free energy of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite. [in earth mantle formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    The model of fictive ideal components is used to determine Gibbs free energies of formation of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite from the experimental data on coexisting garnet and orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene and spinel in the temperature range 1200-1600 K. It is noted that Al2O3 forms an ideal solution with MgSiO3. These thermochemical data are found to be consistent with the Al2O3 isopleths that could be drawn using most recent experimental data and with the reversed experimental data on the garnet-spinel field boundary.

  5. Catalytic sterilization of Escherichia coli K 12 on Ag/Al2O3 surface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meixue; Yan, Lizhu; He, Hong; Chang, Qingyun; Yu, Yunbo; Qu, Jiuhui

    2007-05-01

    Bactericidal action of Al(2)O(3), Ag/Al(2)O(3) and AgCl/Al(2)O(3) on pure culture of Escherichia coli K 12 was studied. Ag/Al(2)O(3) and AgCl/Al(2)O(3) demonstrated a stronger bactericidal activity than Al(2)O(3). The colony-forming ability of E. coli was completely lost in 0.5 min on both of Ag/Al(2)O(3) and AgCl/Al(2)O(3) at room temperature in air. The configuration of the bacteria on the catalyst surface was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the expression of the bactericidal activity on the surface of catalysts by assay with O(2)/N(2) bubbling and scavenger for ROS. Furthermore, the formation of CO(2) as an oxidation product could be detected by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and be deduced by total carbon analysis. These results strongly support that the bactericidal process on the surface of Ag/Al(2)O(3) and AgCl/Al(2)O(3) was caused by the catalytic oxidation.

  6. Stability of Al2O3 and Al2O3/a-SiNx:H stacks for surface passivation of crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingemans, G.; Engelhart, P.; Seguin, R.; Einsele, F.; Hoex, B.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2009-12-01

    The thermal and ultraviolet (UV) stability of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation provided by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 was compared with results for thermal SiO2. For Al2O3 and Al2O3/a-SiNx:H stacks on 2 Ω cm n-type c-Si, ultralow surface recombination velocities of Seff<3 cm/s were obtained and the passivation proved sufficiently stable (Seff<14 cm/s) against a high temperature "firing" process (>800 °C) used for screen printed c-Si solar cells. Effusion measurements revealed the loss of hydrogen and oxygen during firing through the detection of H2 and H2O. Al2O3 also demonstrated UV stability with the surface passivation improving during UV irradiation.

  7. Preparation of γ-Al2O3 films by laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Ito, Akihiko; Goto, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    γ- and α-Al2O3 films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using CO2, Nd:YAG, and InGaAs lasers to investigate the effects of varying the laser wavelength and deposition conditions on the phase composition and microstructure. The CO2 laser was found to mostly produce α-Al2O3 films, whereas the Nd:YAG and InGaAs lasers produced γ-Al2O3 films when used at a high total pressure. γ-Al2O3 films had a cauliflower-like structure, while the α-Al2O3 films had a dense and columnar structure. Of the three lasers, it was the Nd:YAG laser that interacted most with intermediate gas species. This promoted γ-Al2O3 nucleation in the gas phase at high total pressure, which explains the cauliflower-like structure of nanoparticles observed.

  8. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Behavior of Antifriction and Wear Resistance of Al2O3/Al2O3 Ceramic Friction Pairs Under Oil Lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X. Y.; Qiao, Y. L.; Zang, Y.; Cui, Q. S.

    The behavior of antifriction and wear resistance of Al2O3/Al2O3 ceramic friction pairs lubricated by four different lubrication oils under ultrasonic vibration was studied. The surface morphologies of wear scare was analyzed by metallographic microscope. The effect mechanism of ultrasonic vibration on frictional pairs under different lubrication oils was discussed. The studied results showed that, ultrasonic vibration would improve the behavior of antifriction and wear resistance of the Al2O3/Al2O3 ceramic friction pairs under various lubrication oils.The improving would be dramaticer when the viscosity of lubrication oil was low. Ultrasonic vibration decreased the friction coefficient and wear volume 12.9% and 38.7% respectively, when the lubrication oil was 6#,the viscosity of which is 39.77 mm2/s. When the lubrication oil was 150BS, the viscosity of which is 549.69 mm2/s, ultrasonic vibration made friction coefficient and wear volume decreased 4.6% and 11.6% respectively.The effect of ultrasonic vibration on the behavior of antifriction and wear resistance of Al2O3/Al2O3 ceramic friction pairs was determined by the formation and the destruction of oil film on the friction surface and the upward floatage created by ultrasonic vibration.

  9. Static compression of Al2O3 to 1.2 Mbars /120 GPa/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, M. C.; Ruoff, A. L.

    1979-01-01

    Pressures up to 120 GPa were generated when a diamond indentor of radius 10.0 micrometers was pressed against a very thin sample of Al2O3 on a diamond flat. The thin film of Al2O3 was prepared by sputtering of aluminum in an oxygen atmosphere. From the measurement of the electrical resistance of Al2O3 as a function of pressure it was found that Al2O3 remains an insulator at the highest pressure studied, namely, 120 GPa.

  10. Oxidation precursor dependence of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films in a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 surface passivation stacks.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuren; Zhou, Chunlan; Jia, Endong; Wang, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain a good passivation of a silicon surface, more and more stack passivation schemes have been used in high-efficiency silicon solar cell fabrication. In this work, we prepared a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks on KOH solution-polished n-type solar grade mono-silicon(100) wafers. For the Al2O3 film deposition, both thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) were used. Interface trap density spectra were obtained for Si passivation with a-Si films and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks by a non-contact corona C-V technique. After the fabrication of a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks, the minimum interface trap density was reduced from original 3 × 10(12) to 1 × 10(12) cm(-2) eV(-1), the surface total charge density increased by nearly one order of magnitude for PE-ALD samples and about 0.4 × 10(12) cm(-2) for a T-ALD sample, and the carrier lifetimes increased by a factor of three (from about 10 μs to about 30 μs). Combining these results with an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we discussed the influence of an oxidation precursor for ALD Al2O3 deposition on Al2O3 single layers and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stack surface passivation from field-effect passivation and chemical passivation perspectives. In addition, the influence of the stack fabrication process on the a-Si film structure was also discussed in this study.

  11. Dynamics of Na + in a single crystal of Naβ″Al 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjat, N.; Lucazeau, G.; Bates, J.; Dianoux, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    A single crystal of Naβ″ Al 2O 3 has been used to measure quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectra at 227 and 377°C. Fitted data are presented with a new model and the results are compared to those obtained with NaβAl 2O 3.

  12. Synthesis of Al2O3-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Thermomagnetic Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    ARL-TN-0720 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Synthesis of Al2O3-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Thermomagnetic Processing...Laboratory Synthesis of Al2O3-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Thermomagnetic Processing by Victoria L Blair Weapons and Materials Research...

  13. Room-temperature aqueous plasma electrolyzing Al2O3 nano-coating on carbon fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Meng, Yang; Shen, Yonghua; Chen, Weiwei; Cheng, Huanwu; Wang, Lu

    2017-10-01

    A novel room-temperature aqueous plasma electrolysis technique has been developed in order to prepared Al2O3 nano-coating on each fiber within a carbon fiber bundle. The microstructure and formation mechanism of the Al2O3 nano-coating were systematically investigated. The oxidation resistance and tensile strength of the Al2O3-coated carbon fiber was measured at elevated temperatures. It showed that the dense Al2O3 nano-coating was relatively uniformly deposited with 80-120 nm in thickness. The Al2O3 nano-coating effectively protected the carbon fiber, evidenced by the slower oxidation rate and significant increase of the burn-out temperature from 800 °C to 950 °C. Although the bare carbon fiber remained ∼25 wt.% after oxidation at 700 °C for 20 min, a full destruction was observed, evidenced by the ∼0 GPa of the tensile strength, compared to ∼1.3 GPa of the Al2O3-coated carbon fiber due to the effective protection from the Al2O3 nano-coating. The formation mechanism of the Al2O3 nano-coating on carbon fiber was schematically established mainly based on the physic-chemical effect in the cathodic plasma arc zone.

  14. Sonochemical asymmetric hydrogenation of isophorone on proline modified Pd/Al2O3 catalysts.

    PubMed

    Mhadgut, Shilpa C; Bucsi, Imre; Török, Marianna; Török, Béla

    2004-04-21

    The sonochemical asymmetric hydrogenation of isophorone (3,3,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexenone) by proline-modified Pd/Al2O3 catalysts is described; presonication of a commercial Pd/Al2O3-proline catalytic system resulted in highly enhanced enantioselectivities (up to 85% ee).

  15. Metastability in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    DOE PAGES

    Wilkerson, Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Hemrick, James G.

    2014-07-22

    Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( γ-Al2O3) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between MgAl2O4 and α-Al2O3. The solvus line between MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 has been defined at 79.6 wt% Al2O3 at 1500°C, 83.0 wt% Al2O3 at 1600°C, and 86.5 wt% Al2O3 at 1700°C. A metastable region has been defined at temperatures up to 1700°C which could have significant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on final chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an infinite solid solution with Al2O3 at elevatedmore » temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975°C and a chemistry of 96 wt% Al2O3 rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidification.« less

  16. Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

  17. Formation of gamma'-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+Al2O3) equals gamma'(+Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ Al2O3) = gamma'(+ Al2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3Al phase field.

  18. Effect of Al2O3 Concentration on Density and Structure of (CaO-SiO2)-xAl2O3 Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajavaram, Ramaraghavulu; Kim, Hyelim; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Cho, Won-Seung; Lee, Chi-Hwan; Lee, Joonho

    2017-03-01

    The effect of Al2O3 concentration on the density and structure of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 slag was investigated at multiple Al2O3 mole percentages and at a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio of 1. The experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 2154 K to 2423 K (1881 °C to 2150 °C) using the aerodynamic levitation technique. In order to understand the relationship between density and structure, structural analysis of the silicate melts was carried out using Raman spectroscopy. The density of each slag sample investigated in this study decreased linearly with increasing temperature. When the Al2O3 content was less than 15 mole pct, density decreased with increasing Al2O3 content due to the coupling of Si (Al), whereas above 20 mole pct density of the slag increased due to the role of Al3+ ion as a network modifier.

  19. Influence of Al2O3 sol concentration on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu-Al2O3 composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojin; Yang, Zhendi; Tang, Ying; Gao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Copper (Cu) is widely used as electrical conducting and contacting material. However, Cu is soft and does not have good mechanical properties. In order to improve the hardness and wear resistance of Cu, sol-enhanced Cu-Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings were electroplated by adding a transparent Al oxide (Al2O3) sol into the traditional electroplating Cu solution. It was found that the microstructure and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite coatings were largely influenced by the Al2O3 sol concentration. The results show that the Al2O3 nanoparticle reinforced the composite coatings, resulting in significantly improved hardness and wear resistance in comparison with the pure Cu coatings. The coating prepared at the sol concentration of 3.93 mol/L had the best microhardness and wear resistance. The microhardness has been improved by 20% from 145.5 HV (Vickers hardness number) of pure Cu coating to 173.3 HV of Cu-Al2O3 composite coatings. The wear resistance was also improved by 84%, with the wear volume loss dropped from 3.2 × 10-3 mm3 of Cu coating to 0.52 × 10-3 mm3 of composite coatings. Adding excessive sol to the electrolyte deteriorated the properties.

  20. Effect of Al2O3 Concentration on Density and Structure of (CaO-SiO2)-xAl2O3 Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajavaram, Ramaraghavulu; Kim, Hyelim; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Cho, Won-Seung; Lee, Chi-Hwan; Lee, Joonho

    2017-06-01

    The effect of Al2O3 concentration on the density and structure of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 slag was investigated at multiple Al2O3 mole percentages and at a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio of 1. The experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 2154 K to 2423 K (1881 °C to 2150 °C) using the aerodynamic levitation technique. In order to understand the relationship between density and structure, structural analysis of the silicate melts was carried out using Raman spectroscopy. The density of each slag sample investigated in this study decreased linearly with increasing temperature. When the Al2O3 content was less than 15 mole pct, density decreased with increasing Al2O3 content due to the coupling of Si (Al), whereas above 20 mole pct density of the slag increased due to the role of Al3+ ion as a network modifier.

  1. Comparison of ALD and IBS Al2O3 films for high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Jensen, Lars; Becker, Jürgen; Wurz, Marc Christopher; Ma, Ping; Ristau, Detlev

    2016-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been widely studied in Micro-electronics due to its self-terminating property. ALD also grows film coatings with precise thickness and nodular-free structure, which are desirable properties for high power coatings. The depositing process was studied to produce uniform, stable and economic Al2O3 single layers. The layer properties relevant to high power laser industry were studied and compared with IBS Al2O3 single layers. ALD Al2O3 showed a stable growth of 0.104 nm/cycle, band gap energy of 6.5 eV and tensile stress of about 480 MPa. It also showed a low absorption at wavelength 1064 nm within several ppm, and LIDT above 30 J/cm2. These properties are superior to the reference IBS Al2O3 single layers and indicate a high versatility of ALD Al2O3 for high power coatings.

  2. Thermal Properties in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Dr. Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Compositional effects on the thermal diffusivity in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 system were studied. The lowest thermal diffusivity, 0.0258 +/-5% cm/s, was measured between 79.8 and 83.9 wt% Al2O3 quenched from various temperatures between 1500 and 1700C. All of the chemistries in this range extend past the solvus, but still form a singe super-saturated spinel solid solution, regardless of quenching tempeature. A super-saturated metastable solid solution region was observed at 1500, 1600, and 1700C extending to 83.9, 85.2, and 87.1 wt% Al2O3, respectively. Beyond 83.9% Al2O3 a significant increase in thermal diffusivity, 11.7%, was observed and its attributed to precipiation of Al2O3 through spinodal decomposition.

  3. Characterization and prevention of humidity related degradation of atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückerl, Andreas; Zeisel, Roland; Mandl, Martin; Costina, Ioan; Schroeder, Thomas; Zoellner, Marvin H.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide (ALD-Al2O3) is a dielectric material, which is widely used in organic light emitting diodes in order to prevent their organic layers from humidity related degradation. Unfortunately, there are strong hints that in some cases, ALD-Al2O3 itself is suffering from humidity related degradation. Especially, high temperature and high humidity seem to enhance ALD-Al2O3 degradation strongly. For this reason, the degradation behavior of ALD-Al2O3 films at high temperature and high humidity was investigated in detail and a way to prevent it from degradation was searched. The degradation behavior is analyzed in the first part of this paper. Using infrared absorbance measurements and X-ray diffraction, boehmite (γ-AlOOH) was identified as a degradation product. In the second part of the paper, it is shown that ALD-Al2O3 films can be effectively protected from degradation using a silicon oxide capping. The deposition of very small amounts of silicon in a molecular beam epitaxy system and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of the chemical bonding between the silicon and the ALD-Al2O3 surface led to the conclusion that a silicon termination of the ALD-Al2O3 surface (Al*-O-SiOx) is able to stop humidity related degradation of the underlying ALD-Al2O3 films. The third part of the paper shows that the protection mechanism of the silicon termination is probably due to the strong tendency of silicic acid to resilificate exposed ALD-Al2O3 surfaces. The protective effect of a simple silicon source on an ALD-Al2O3 surface is shown exemplary and the related chemical reactions are presented.

  4. Pinhole Effect on the Melting Behavior of Ag@Al2O3 SERS Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lingwei; Huang, Yu; Hou, Mengjing; Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-03-01

    High-temperature surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing is significant for practical detections, and pinhole-containing (PC) metal@oxide structures possessing both enhanced thermal stability and superior SERS sensitivity are served as promising SERS sensors at extreme sensing conditions. Through tuning the Al2O3 precursors' exposure time during atomic layer deposition (ALD), Al2O3 shells with different amount of pinholes were covered over Ag nanorods (Ag NRs). By virtue of these unique PC Ag@Al2O3 nanostructures, herein we provide an excellent platform to investigate the relationship between the pinhole rate of Al2O3 shells and the melting behavior, high-temperature SERS performances of these core-shell nanostructures. Pinhole effect on the melting procedures of PC Ag@Al2O3 substrates was characterized in situ via their reflectivity variations during heating, and the specific melting point was quantitatively estimated. It is found that the melting point of PC Ag@Al2O3 raised along with the decrement of pinhole rate, and substrates with less pinholes exhibited better thermal stability but sacrificed SERS efficiency. This work achieved highly reliable and precise control of the pinholes over Al2O3 shells, offering sensitive SERS substrates with intensified thermal stability and superior SERS performances at extreme sensing conditions.

  5. Al2O3 on Black Phosphorus by Atomic Layer Deposition: An in Situ Interface Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; McDonnell, Stephen; Qin, Xiaoye; Azcatl, Angelica; Cheng, Lanxia; Addou, Rafik; Kim, Jiyoung; Ye, Peide D; Wallace, Robert M

    2015-06-17

    In situ "half cycle" atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 was carried out on black phosphorus ("black-P") surfaces with modified phosphorus oxide concentrations. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is employed to investigate the interfacial chemistry and the nucleation of the Al2O3 on black-P surfaces. This work suggests that exposing a sample that is initially free of phosphorus oxide to the ALD precursors does not result in detectable oxidation. However, when the phosphorus oxide is formed on the surface prior to deposition, the black-P can react with both the surface adventitious oxygen contamination and the H2O precursor at a deposition temperature of 200 °C. As a result, the concentration of the phosphorus oxide increases after both annealing and the atomic layer deposition process. The nucleation rate of Al2O3 on black-P is correlated with the amount of oxygen on samples prior to the deposition. The growth of Al2O3 follows a "substrate inhibited growth" behavior where an incubation period is required. Ex situ atomic force microscopy is also used to investigate the deposited Al2O3 morphologies on black-P where the Al2O3 tends to form islands on the exfoliated black-P samples. Therefore, surface functionalization may be needed to get a conformal coverage of Al2O3 on the phosphorus oxide free samples.

  6. Pinhole Effect on the Melting Behavior of Ag@Al2O3 SERS Substrates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lingwei; Huang, Yu; Hou, Mengjing; Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-12-01

    High-temperature surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing is significant for practical detections, and pinhole-containing (PC) metal@oxide structures possessing both enhanced thermal stability and superior SERS sensitivity are served as promising SERS sensors at extreme sensing conditions. Through tuning the Al2O3 precursors' exposure time during atomic layer deposition (ALD), Al2O3 shells with different amount of pinholes were covered over Ag nanorods (Ag NRs). By virtue of these unique PC Ag@Al2O3 nanostructures, herein we provide an excellent platform to investigate the relationship between the pinhole rate of Al2O3 shells and the melting behavior, high-temperature SERS performances of these core-shell nanostructures. Pinhole effect on the melting procedures of PC Ag@Al2O3 substrates was characterized in situ via their reflectivity variations during heating, and the specific melting point was quantitatively estimated. It is found that the melting point of PC Ag@Al2O3 raised along with the decrement of pinhole rate, and substrates with less pinholes exhibited better thermal stability but sacrificed SERS efficiency. This work achieved highly reliable and precise control of the pinholes over Al2O3 shells, offering sensitive SERS substrates with intensified thermal stability and superior SERS performances at extreme sensing conditions.

  7. Pt-Al2O3 nanocoatings for high temperature concentrated solar thermal power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuru, Zebib. Y.; Arendse, C. J.; Nemutudi, R.; Nemraoui, O.; Maaza, M.

    2012-05-01

    Nano-phased structures based on metal-dielectric composites, also called cermets (ceramic-metal), are considered among the most effective spectral selective solar absorbers. For high temperature applications (stable up to 650 °C) noble metal nanoparticles and refractory oxide host matrices are ideal as per their high temperature chemical inertness and stability: Pt/Al2O3 cermet nano-composites are a representative family. This contribution reports on the optical properties of Pt/Al2O3 cermet nano-composites deposited in a multilayered tandem structure. The radio-frequency sputtering optimized Pt/Al2O3 solar absorbers consist of stainless steel substrate/ Mo coating layer/ Pt-Al2O3/ protective Al2O3 layer and stainless steel substrate/ Mo coating layer /Pt-Al2O3 for different composition and thickness of the Pt-Al2O3 cermet coatings. The microstructure, morphology, theoretical modeling and optical properties of the coatings were analyzed by the x-ray diffraction, atomic force, microscopy, effective medium approximation and UV-vis specular and diffuse reflectance.

  8. Dependence of Protein Adsorption on Wetting Behavior of UHMWPE-HA-Al2O3-CNT Hybrid Biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ankur; Tripathi, Garima; Basu, Bikramjit; Balani, Kantesh

    2012-04-01

    Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is used as an articulating surface in total hip and knee joint replacement. In order to enhance long-term durability/wear resistance properties, UHMWPE-based polymer-ceramic hybrid composites are being developed. Surface properties such as wettability and protein adsorption alter with reinforcement or with change in surface chemistry. From this perspective, the wettability and protein adsorption behavior of compression-molded UHMWPE-hydroxyapatite (HA)-aluminum oxide (Al2O3)-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites were analyzed in conjunction with surface roughness. The combined effect of Al2O3 and CNT shows enhancement of the contact angle by ~37° compared with the surface of the UHMWPE matrix reinforced with HA. In reference to unreinforced UHMWPE, protein adsorption density also increased by ~230% for 2 wt.%HA-5 wt.%Al2O3-2 wt.%CNT addition to UHMWPE. An important conclusion is that the polar and dispersion components of the surface free energy play a significant role in wetting and protein adsorption than do the total free energy or chemistry of the surface. The results of this study have major implications for the biocompatibility of these newly developed biocomposites.

  9. Thermoluminescence studies of γ-irradiated Al2O3:Ce3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Satyanarayana; Nagabhushana, K. R.; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-01

    Pure and Ce3+ doped Al2O3 phosphors were synthesized by solution combustion method. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and its shows α-phase of Al2O3. Crystallite size was estimated by Williamson-Hall (W-H) method and found to be 49, 59 and 84 nm for pure, 0.1 mol% and 1 mol% Ce3+ doped Al2O3 respectively. Trace elemental analysis of undoped Al2O3 shows impurities viz. Fe, Cr, Mn, Mg, Ti, etc. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Al2O3:Ce3+ shows emission at 367 nm and excitation peak at 273 nm, which are corresponding to 5D → 4F and 4F → 5D transitions respectively. PL intensity decreases with concentration up to 0.4 mol%, beyond this mol% PL intensity increases with doping concentration up to 2 mol%. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies of γ-rayed pure and Ce3+ doped Al2O3 have been studied. Two well resolved TL glow peaks at 457.5 K and 622 K were observed in pure Al2O3. Additional glow peak at 566 K was observed in Al2O3:Ce3+. Maximum TL intensity was observed for Al2O3:Ce3+ (0.1 mol%) beyond this TL intensity decreases with increasing Ce3+ concentration. Computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) method was used to resolve the multiple peaks and to calculate TL kinetic parameters. Thermoluminescence emission (TLE) spectra of pure Al2O3 glow peaks (457.5 K and 622 K) shows sharp emission at 694 nm and two small humps at 672 nm and 709 nm. The sharp peak at 696 nm corresponds to Cr3+ impurity of 2Eg → 4A2g transition of R lines and 713 nm hump is undoubtedly belongs to Cr3+ emission of near neighbor pairs. The emission at 672 nm is characteristic of Mn4+ impurity ions of 2E → 4A2 transition. TLE of Al2O3:Ce3+ (0.1 mol%) shows additional broad emission at 412 nm corresponds to F-centers. Linearity is observed in the dose range 20-500 Gy in Al2O3:Ce3+ (1 mol%).

  10. Influence of Al2O3 layer thickness on high-temperature stability of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, C. K.; Yan, J. Y.; Dong, L.; Li, D. J.

    2013-11-01

    TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers which have constant TiAlN layer thickness (10 nm) and various Al2O3 layer thicknesses ranging from 0.5 nm to 4.5 nm were synthesized on alumina substrate by magnetron sputtering. The effects of annealing on the mechanical and structural properties of the multilayers were investigated using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray reflection (XRR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Nanoindenter. It was found that the hardness for the multilayers with Al2O3 layer thickness from 0.5 nm to 4.5 nm was much higher than TiAlN or Al2O3 monolayer and their hardness values were over 36 GPa. The annealed multilayers displayed high-temperature stable hardness and elastic modulus. The hardness increases from 36 GPa of as-deposited to 39 GPa of annealed multilayer at 700 °C in the case of lO=1.2 nm. It also indicates the highest elastic modulus of 560 GPa after 700 °C annealing. The multilayers had polycrystallines of TiAlN(1 1 1) and TiAlN(2 2 2) textures. Compared with as-deposited multilayers, the annealed multilayers exhibited unchanged textures. The interface and layered structure also showed good high-temperature stability.

  11. Data of ALD Al2O3 rear surface passivation, Al2O3 PERC cell performance, and cell efficiency loss mechanisms of Al2O3 PERC cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibing; Lv, Jun; Bao, Yameng; Xuan, Rongwei; Sun, Shenghua; Sneck, Sami; Li, Shuo; Modanese, Chiara; Savin, Hele; Wang, Aihua; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-04-01

    This data article is related to the recently published article '20.8% industrial PERC solar cell: ALD Al2O3 rear surface passivation, efficiency loss mechanisms analysis and roadmap to 24%' (Huang et al., 2017) [1]. This paper is about passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) structures and it describes the quality of the Al2O3 rear-surface passivation layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), in relation to the processing parameters (e.g. pre-clean treatment, deposition temperature, growth per cycle, and film thickness) and to the cell efficiency loss mechanisms. This dataset is made public in order to contribute to the limited available public data on industrial PERC cells, to be used by other researchers.

  12. Optical properties of the Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszałek, Konstanty; Winkowski, Paweł; Jaglarz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of bilayer and trilayer Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings are presented in this paper. The oxide films were deposited on a heated quartz glass by e-gun evaporation in a vacuum of 5 × 10-3 [Pa] in the presence of oxygen. Depositions were performed at three different temperatures of the substrates: 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C. The coatings were deposited onto optical quartz glass (Corning HPFS). The thickness and deposition rate were controlled with Inficon XTC/2 thickness measuring system. Deposition rate was equal to 0.6 nm/s for Al2O3, 0.6 nm - 0.8 nm/s for HfO2 and 0.6 nm/s for SiO2. Simulations leading to optimization of the thin film thickness and the experimental results of optical measurements, which were carried out during and after the deposition process, have been presented. The optical thickness values, obtained from the measurements performed during the deposition process were as follows: 78 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 and 78 nm/156 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2. The results were then checked by ellipsometric technique. Reflectance of the films depended on the substrate temperature during the deposition process. Starting from 240 nm to the beginning of visible region, the average reflectance of the trilayer system was below 1 % and for the bilayer, minima of the reflectance were equal to 1.6 %, 1.15 % and 0.8 % for deposition temperatures of 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C, respectively.

  13. Oxidation of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of Al2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic NiAl. The isothermal oxidation of an Al2O3/NiAl composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the Al2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.

  14. Potential of HfN, ZrN, and TiH as hot carrier absorber and Al2O3/Ge quantum well/Al2O3 and Al2O3/PbS quantum dots/Al2O3 as energy selective contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Chung, Simon; Liao, Yuanxun; Wang, Pei; Cao, Wenkai; Wen, Xiaoming; Gupta, Neeti; Conibeer, Gavin

    2017-08-01

    The hot carrier (HC) solar cell is one of the most promising advanced photovoltaic concepts. It aims to minimise two major losses in single junction solar cells due to sub-band gap loss and thermalisation of above band gap photons by using a small bandgap absorber, and, importantly, collecting the photo-generated carriers before they thermalise. In this paper we will present recent development of the two critical components of the HC solar cell, i.e., the absorber and energy selective contacts (ESCs). For absorber, fabrication and carrier cooling rates in potential bulk materials — hafnium nitride, zirconium nitride, and titanium hydride are presented. Results of ESCs employing double barrier resonant tunneling structures Al2O3/Ge quantum well (QW)/Al2O3 and Al2O3/PbS quantum dots (QDs)/Al2O3 are also presented. These results are expected to guide further development of practical HC solar cell devices.

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al2O3 / A336 Compsite by Low Pressure Infiltratrion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    clear and bonds directly with matrix and fiber. It is confirmed by the presence of the γ-Al2O3, MgO from diffraction peaks in the XRD pattern (Fig 4...and EDS (Fig. 3(b),(c)). It suggests that γ-Al2O3, MgO can be produced as results of the interfacial reaction between the Al liquid and the SiO2...results of the reaction between the α-Al2O3 and the MgO , i.e. α-Al2O3+ MgO →MgAl2O4, It was noticed that MgAl2O4 improve wettability, but decrease

  16. Oxidation of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of Al2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic NiAl. The isothermal oxidation of an Al2O3/NiAl composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the Al2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.

  17. Production of hydrogen by autothermal reforming of propane over Ni/delta-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Ri; Lee, Kwi Yeon; Park, Nam Cook; Shin, Jae Soon; Moon, Dong Ju; Lee, Byung Gwon; Kim, Young Chul

    2006-11-01

    The performance of Ni/delta-Al2O3 catalyst in propane autothermal reforming (ATR) for hydrogen production was investigated in the present study. The catalysts were characterized using XRD, TEM, and SEM. The activity of the Ni/delta-Al2O3 catalyst manufactured by the water-alcohol method was better than those of the catalysts manufactured by the impregnation and chemical reduction methods. The Ni/delta-Al2O3 catalysts were modified by the addition of promoters such as Mg, La, Ce, and Co, in order to improve their stability and yield. Hydrogen production was the largest for the Ni-Co-CeO2/Al2O3, catalyst.

  18. Effects of annealing on properties of Al2O3 monolayer film at 355 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Feifei; Wang, Hu; Xing, Huanbin; Zheng, Ruxi; Zhang, Weili; Yi, Kui

    2015-07-01

    Al2O3 monolayer films were deposited on fused silica substrate and K9 glass substrate by electron-beam deposition. Annealing as a general post-treatment was used to enhance the quality of the Al2O3 coatings. The optical properties of the films were analyzed from the transmission spectra of the samples. The composition of the samples before and after annealing were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). According to the analysis of the results, it can be found that the oxidation degree of the coatings increases after annealing in O2 inside coating chamber. The laser-induced damage thresholds of the Al2O3 films can be increased after the annealing process. Finally, the damage morphologies of the Al2O3 coatings were analyzed.

  19. Luminescent properties of Al2O3:Ce single crystalline films under synchrotron radiation excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Zorenko, T.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Voznyak, T.; Fabisiak, K.; Zhusupkalieva, G.; Fedorov, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper is dedicated to study the luminescent and scintillation properties of the Al2O3:Ce single crystalline films (SCF) grown by LPE method onto saphire substrates from PbO based flux. The structural quality of SCF samples was investigated by XRD method. For characterization of luminescent properties of Al2O3:Ce SCFs the cathodoluminescence spectra, scintillation light yield (LY) and decay kinetics under excitation by α-particles of Pu239 source were used. We have found that the scintillation LY of Al2O3:Ce SCF samples is relatively large and can reach up to 50% of the value realized in the reference YAG:Ce SCF. Using the synchrotron radiation excitation in the 3.7-25 eV range at 10 K we have also determined the basic parameters of the Ce3+ luminescence in Al2O3 host.

  20. Border trap reduction in Al2O3/InGaAs gate stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kechao; Winter, Roy; Zhang, Liangliang; Droopad, Ravi; Eizenberg, Moshe; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature on the border trap density (Nbt) of Al2O3/InGaAs gate stacks is investigated quantitatively, and we demonstrate that lowering the trimethylaluminum (TMA)/water vapor ALD temperature from 270 °C to 120 °C significantly reduces Nbt. The reduction of Nbt coincides with increased hydrogen incorporation in low temperature ALD-grown Al2O3 films during post-gate metal forming gas annealing. It is also found that large-dose (˜6000 L) exposure of the In0.53Ga0.47As (100) surface to TMA immediately after thermal desorption of a protective As2 capping layer is an important step to guarantee the uniformity and reproducibility of high quality Al2O3/InGaAs samples made at low ALD temperatures.

  1. Controlled synthesis of α-Al2O3 via the hydrothermal-pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao; Wu, Kunyao; Cao, Jing; Wang, Yongfeng

    2017-06-01

    Taking aluminum sulfate and urea as the raw materials produce α-Al2O3 by employing the hydrothermal-pyrolysis method. The study analyzes the characterization of the products by XRD and SEM, The results indicate as follows: after 6 hours’ hydrothermal reaction in the 120°C water, with the aluminum sulfate and urea as the raw materials, spherical α-Al2O3 can be obtained through calcination at 1200°C.

  2. Temperature dependence of the dielectric response of anodized Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2003-03-01

    The temperature dependence of capacitance, CM, and conductance, GM, of Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors with Cu, Ag, and Au electrodes has been measured between 100 and 340 K at seven frequencies between 10 kHz and 1 MHz. Al2O3 films between 15 and 64 nm thick were formed by anodizing evaporated Al films in borate-glycol or borate-H2O electrolyte. The interface capacitance at the Al2O3-metal interface, CI, which is in series with the capacitance CD due to the Al2O3 dielectric, is determined from plots of 1/CM versus insulator thickness. CI is not fixed for a given metal-insulator interface but depends on the vacuum system used to deposit the metal electrode. CI is nearly temperature independent. When CI is taken into account the dielectric constant of Al2O3 determined from capacitance measurements is ˜8.3 at 295 K. The dielectric constant does not depend on anodizing electrolyte, insulator thickness, metal electrode, deposition conditions for the metal electrode or measurement frequency. By contrast, GM of Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors depends on both the deposition conditions of the metal and on the metal. For Al-Al2O3-Cu capacitors, GM is larger for capacitors with large values of 1/CI that result when Cu is evaporated in an oil-pumped vacuum system. For Al-Al2O3-Ag capacitors, GM does not depend on the Ag deposition conditions.

  3. Tb3+ ion doping into Al2O3: Solubility limit and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Yuya; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-11-01

    Tb3+-activated Al2O3 phosphors with a molar ratio of \\text{Al}:\\text{Tb} = (1 - x):x are synthesized by metal organic decomposition (x = 0-0.15) and subsequent calcination at T c = 200-1200 °C for 1 h in air. The material properties of the synthesized phosphors are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) analyses, PL excitation spectroscopy, and luminescence lifetime measurements. At x = 0.015, the metastable phase of γ-Al2O3 is obtained by calcination at T c ˜ 300-1050 °C and a mixture of γ, θ, and α phases at T c ˜ 1050-1150 °C. The high-temperature stable phase of α-Al2O3 is obtained only at T c ≥ 1150 °C. Below T c ˜ 300 °C, the XRD data suggest the formation of boehmite (AlOOH). The solubility limit of Tb3+ in α-Al2O3 is also clearly determined to be x ˜ 0.015 (1.5%). The PL decay time of the Tb3+ green emission in α-Al2O3 is ˜1.1 ms for x < 0.015 and slowly decreases with further increase in x (Tb3+). The schematic energy-level diagram of Tb3+ in α-Al2O3 is proposed for a better understanding of the present phosphor system. Finally, the temperature dependence of the PL intensity is examined between T = 20 and 450 K, yielding quenching energies of E q ˜ 0.28 eV (α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3).

  4. Effects of Al2O3 capping layers on the thermal properties of thin black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kuilong; Ang, Kah-Wee; Lv, Youming; Liu, Xinke

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the thermal properties of thin black phosphorus (BP) with Al2O3 capping layer using the temperature-dependent and polarized-laser power-dependent Raman spectroscopy. Compared to the BP samples without Al2O3 capping layer, the Al2O3 passivation layer significantly improves the thermal stability of BP by reducing the thermal coefficients of the Ag1, B2g, and Ag2 Raman modes from -0.0082, -0.0142, and -0.0145 cm-1/K to -0.0046, -0.0074, and -0.0088 cm-1/K, respectively, which are attributed to the compressive strain and strong Al-P and O-P bonds. Meanwhile, the thermal conductivity reaches to about 45.4 and 54.4 W/mK along the armchair and zigzag directions, greatly larger than those of the BP films without Al2O3 24.1 and 39.0 W/mK, respectively, owing to the large thermal conductivity of Al2O3 and the interface charges between Al2O3 and BP. Overall, this work will contribute to improve the BP-based device performances and extend the BP applications profoundly.

  5. Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3-Al2O3 system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku

    2008-12-09

    We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO(3)-Al(2)O(3) system by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh(2)O(3)(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving Al(2)O(3) tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO(3) but the effect is not significant ( approximately -0.2 GPa/mol% Al(2)O(3)); (ii) Al(2)O(3) produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (approximately 1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (x(Al2O3) approximately 6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D'' seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (approximately 4 GPa) for the basaltic Al-rich composition (x(Al2O3) approximately 20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh(2)O(3)(II) with increasing the Al concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations.

  6. Ion conduction and relaxation in PEO-LiTFSI-Al2O3 polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2015-05-01

    Ion conduction and relaxation in PEO-LiTFSI-Al2O3 polymer nanocomposite electrolytes have been studied for different concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetric studies show that the maximum amorphous phase of PEO is observed for PEO-LiTFSI embedded with 5 wt. % Al2O3. The maximum ionic conductivity ˜3.3 × 10-4 S cm-1 has been obtained for this composition. The transmission electron microscopic image shows a distribution of Al2O3 nanoparticles in all compositions with size of <50 nm. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity follows Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher nature, indicating a strong coupling between ionic and polymer chain segmental motions. The scaling of the ac conductivity implies that relaxation dynamics follows a common mechanism for different temperatures and Al2O3 concentrations. The imaginary modulus spectra are asymmetric and skewed toward the high frequency sides of the maxima and analyzed using Havriliak-Negami formalism. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time obtained from modulus spectra also exhibits Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher nature. The values of the stretched exponent obtained from Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts fit to the modulus data are fairly low, suggesting highly non-exponential relaxation for all concentrations of Al2O3 in these electrolytes.

  7. Image reconstruction algorithm for optically stimulated luminescence 2D dosimetry using laser-scanned Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg films.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M F; Schnell, E; Ahmad, S; Yukihara, E G

    2016-10-21

    The objective of this work was to develop an image reconstruction algorithm for 2D dosimetry using Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) films imaged using a laser scanning system. The algorithm takes into account parameters associated with detector properties and the readout system. Pieces of Al2O3:C films (~8 mm  ×  8 mm  ×  125 µm) were irradiated and used to simulate dose distributions with extreme dose gradients (zero and non-zero dose regions). The OSLD film pieces were scanned using a custom-built laser-scanning OSL reader and the data obtained were used to develop and demonstrate a dose reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm includes corrections for: (a) galvo hysteresis, (b) photomultiplier tube (PMT) linearity, (c) phosphorescence, (d) 'pixel bleeding' caused by the 35 ms luminescence lifetime of F-centers in Al2O3, (e) geometrical distortion inherent to Galvo scanning system, and (f) position dependence of the light collection efficiency. The algorithm was also applied to 6.0 cm  ×  6.0 cm  ×  125 μm or 10.0 cm  ×  10.0 cm  ×  125 µm Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg films exposed to megavoltage x-rays (6 MV) and (12)C beams (430 MeV u(-1)). The results obtained using pieces of irradiated films show the ability of the image reconstruction algorithm to correct for pixel bleeding even in the presence of extremely sharp dose gradients. Corrections for geometric distortion and position dependence of light collection efficiency were shown to minimize characteristic limitations of this system design. We also exemplify the application of the algorithm to more clinically relevant 6 MV x-ray beam and a (12)C pencil beam, demonstrating the potential for small field dosimetry. The image reconstruction algorithm described here provides the foundation for laser-scanned OSL applied to 2D dosimetry.

  8. Image reconstruction algorithm for optically stimulated luminescence 2D dosimetry using laser-scanned Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Schnell, E.; Ahmad, S.; Yukihara, E. G.

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an image reconstruction algorithm for 2D dosimetry using Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) films imaged using a laser scanning system. The algorithm takes into account parameters associated with detector properties and the readout system. Pieces of Al2O3:C films (~8 mm  ×  8 mm  ×  125 µm) were irradiated and used to simulate dose distributions with extreme dose gradients (zero and non-zero dose regions). The OSLD film pieces were scanned using a custom-built laser-scanning OSL reader and the data obtained were used to develop and demonstrate a dose reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm includes corrections for: (a) galvo hysteresis, (b) photomultiplier tube (PMT) linearity, (c) phosphorescence, (d) ‘pixel bleeding’ caused by the 35 ms luminescence lifetime of F-centers in Al2O3, (e) geometrical distortion inherent to Galvo scanning system, and (f) position dependence of the light collection efficiency. The algorithm was also applied to 6.0 cm  ×  6.0 cm  ×  125 μm or 10.0 cm  ×  10.0 cm  ×  125 µm Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg films exposed to megavoltage x-rays (6 MV) and 12C beams (430 MeV u-1). The results obtained using pieces of irradiated films show the ability of the image reconstruction algorithm to correct for pixel bleeding even in the presence of extremely sharp dose gradients. Corrections for geometric distortion and position dependence of light collection efficiency were shown to minimize characteristic limitations of this system design. We also exemplify the application of the algorithm to more clinically relevant 6 MV x-ray beam and a 12C pencil beam, demonstrating the potential for small field dosimetry. The image reconstruction algorithm described here provides the foundation for laser-scanned OSL applied to 2D dosimetry.

  9. Interaction of Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles with Escherichia coli and their cell envelope biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M A; Khan, H M; Khan, A A; Cameotra, S S; Saquib, Q; Musarrat, J

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2 O3 NPs) against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and their interaction with cell envelope biomolecules. Al2 O3 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Antibacterial activity and interaction of Al2 O3 NPs with E. coli and its surface biomolecules were assessed by spectrophotometry, SEM, HR-TEM and attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). Of the 80 isolates tested, about 64 (80%) were found to be extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) positive and 16 (20%) were non-ESBL producers. Al2 O3 NPs at 1000 μg ml(-1) significantly inhibited the bacterial growth. SEM and HR-TEM analyses revealed the attachment of NPs to the surface of cell membrane and also their presence inside the cells due to formation of irregular-shaped pits and perforation on the surfaces of bacterial cells. The intracellular Al2 O3 NPs might have interacted with cellular biomolecules and caused adverse effects eventually triggering the cell death. ATR-FTIR studies suggested the interaction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and L-α-Phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (PE) with Al2 O3 NPs. Infrared (IR) spectral changes revealed that the LPS could bind to Al2 O3 NPs through hydrogen binding and ligand exchange. The Al2 O3 NPs-induced structural changes in phospholipids may lead to the loss of amphiphilic properties, destruction of the membrane and cell leaking. The penetration and accumulation of NPs inside the bacterial cell cause pit formation, perforation and disorganization and thus drastically disturb its proper function. The cell surface biomolecular changes revealed by ATR-FTIR spectra provide a better understanding of the cytotoxicity of Al2 O3 NPs. Al2 O3 NPs may serve as broad-spectrum bactericidal agents to control the emergent

  10. Super Smooth Modification of Al2O3 Ceramic Substrate by High Temperature Glaze of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihua; Zhen, Shanxue; Yang, Lijun; Lou, Feizhi; Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Chuanren

    2011-01-01

    The rough surface of ceramic substrate is an obstacle for the scale down of line-width for thin film passive integrated devices (PID). In this paper, a modification method for Al2O3 ceramic substrate with super smooth in surface was proposed. Coating a layer of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) glass was performed to flat the rough surface of alumina substrate by sol-gel method. It was found that addition of 0.06% V2O5 can inhibit the recrystallization of the glaze. The root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the glazed substrates reached a surprising flatness as small as 0.5 nm, and its melting temperature is higher than 1300 °C. This substrate with super flatness and high temperature endurance may be promising for high performance thin film devices.

  11. Residual Stress in Brazing of Submicron Al2O3 to WC-Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunder, T.; Piquerez, A.; Bach, M.; Mille, P.

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the residual stresses induced by brazing and grinding submicron Al2O3, using different methods. Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry analysis (EDX) of 72Ag-Cu filler and filler/WC-Co interface showed evidence of atomic diffusion and possible formation of titanium oxide layers between the joint and the bonding materials. An analytical model supported by the finite element method (FEM) based on strain determination due to the difference in variation of thermal expansion was used to assess the stress distribution at the coupling interface and in bulk materials. The model took into account the evolution of the Young's modulus and of the thermal expansion with temperature. The model could be used to follow strain and stress evolutions of the bonded materials during the cooling cycle. The maximum stress rose above -300 MPa at the center of the 100 × 100 × 3 mm ceramic plates. The residual stresses on the external surface of ceramic were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and indentation fracture method (IFM). After brazing and grinding the plate, the principal stresses were 128.1 and 94.9 MPa, and the shear stress was -20.1 MPa. Microscopic examination revealed grain pull-out promoted by the global residual stresses induced by the brazing and grinding processes. The surface stresses evaluated by the different methods were reasonably correlated.

  12. Al2 O3 Underlayer Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Hultqvist, Adam; Zhang, Tian; Jiang, Liangcong; Ruan, Changqing; Yang, Li; Cheng, Yibing; Edoff, Marika; Johansson, Erik M J

    2017-10-09

    Perovskite solar cells, as an emergent technology for solar energy conversion, have attracted much attention in the solar cell community by demonstrating impressive enhancement in power conversion efficiencies. However, the high temperature and manually processed TiO2 underlayer prepared by spray pyrolysis significantly limit the large-scale application and device reproducibility of perovskite solar cells. In this study, lowtemperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used to prepare a compact Al2 O3 underlayer for perovskite solar cells. The thickness of the Al2 O3 layer can be controlled well by adjusting the deposition cycles during the ALD process. An optimal Al2 O3 layer effectively blocks electron recombination at the perovskite/fluorine-doped tin oxide interface and sufficiently transports electrons through tunneling. Perovskite solar cells fabricated with an Al2 O3 layer demonstrated a highest efficiency of 16.2 % for the sample with 50 ALD cycles (ca. 5 nm), which is a significant improvement over underlayer-free PSCs, which have a maximum efficiency of 11.0 %. Detailed characterization confirms that the thickness of the Al2 O3 underlayer significantly influences the charge transfer resistance and electron recombination processes in the devices. Furthermore, this work shows the feasibility of using a high band-gap semiconductor such as Al2 O3 as the underlayer in perovskite solar cells and opens up pathways to use ALD Al2 O3 underlayers for flexible solar cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Al2O3/SUS304 Brazing via AgCuTi-W Composite as Active Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Cherng-Yuh; Zhuang, Xie-Zongyang; Pan, Cheng-Tang

    2014-03-01

    Alumina ceramic (α-Al2O3) was brazed to stainless steel (SUS304) using an Ag-Cu-Ti + W composite filler and a traditional active brazing filler alloy (CuSil-ABA). Then, the effects of the presence of W particles and of the brazing parameters on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the brazed joints were investigated. The maximum tensile strength of the joints obtained using Ag-Cu-Ti + W composite filler was 13.2 MPa, which is similar to that obtained using CuSil-ABA filler (13.5 MPa). When the joint was brazed at 930 °C for 30 min, the tensile strengths decreased for both kinds of fillers, although the strength was slightly higher for the Ag-Cu-Ti + W composite filler than for the Ag-Cu-Ti filler. The interfacial microstructure results show that the Ti reacts with W to form a Ti-W-O compound in the brazing alloy. When there are more W particles in the brazing alloy, the thickness of the Ti X O Y reaction layer near the alumina ceramic decreases. Moreover, W particles added to the brazing alloy can reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion of the brazing alloy, which results in lower residual stress between the Al2O3 and SUS304 in the brazing joints and thus yields higher tensile strengths as compared to those obtained using the CuSil-ABA brazing alloy.

  14. The chemisorption of H2O, HCOOH and CH3COOH on thin amorphous films of Al2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. F.; Weinberg, W. H.; Mosesman, M.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the irreversible chemisorption of water, formic acid and acetic acid on a thin amorphous aluminum oxide film, using inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. All of the tunnel junctions employed were Al-Al2O3-Pb junctions with the adsorbate on the Al2O3 surface between the Al2O3 and the Pb electrode. The results obtained include the finding that all Al2O3 surfaces prepared by oxidation of Al have free CH groups present on them.

  15. The chemisorption of H2O, HCOOH and CH3COOH on thin amorphous films of Al2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. F.; Weinberg, W. H.; Mosesman, M.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the irreversible chemisorption of water, formic acid and acetic acid on a thin amorphous aluminum oxide film, using inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. All of the tunnel junctions employed were Al-Al2O3-Pb junctions with the adsorbate on the Al2O3 surface between the Al2O3 and the Pb electrode. The results obtained include the finding that all Al2O3 surfaces prepared by oxidation of Al have free CH groups present on them.

  16. A study on Si / Al 2 O 3 paramagnetic point defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnhold-Pospischil, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Hofmann, M.; Weber, S.; Jakes, P.; Eichel, R.-A.; Granwehr, J.

    2016-11-01

    In this contribution, negative charges and electronic traps related to the Si / Al 2 O 3 interface were measured and related to paramagnetic point defects and molecular vibrations. To this end, contactless capacitance voltage measurements, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and infrared spectroscopy were carried out, and their results were compared. A change in the negative charge density and electron trap density at the Si / Al 2 O 3 interface was achieved by adding a thermally grown SiO 2 layer with varying thicknesses and conducting an additional temperature treatment. Using EPR, five paramagnetic moments were detected in Si / ( SiO 2 ) / Al 2 O 3 samples with g values of g 1 = 2.0081 ± 0.0002 , g 2 = 2.0054 ± 0.0002 , g 3 = 2.0003 ± 0.0002 , g 4 = 2.0026 ± 0.0002 , and g 5 = 2.0029 ± 0.0002 . Variation of the Al 2 O 3 layer thickness shows that paramagnetic species associated with g1, g2, and g3 are located at the Si / Al 2 O 3 interface, and those with g4 and g5 are located within the bulk Al 2 O 3 . Furthermore, g1, g2, and g3 were shown to originate from oxygen plasma exposure during Al 2 O 3 deposition. Comparing the g values and their location within the Si / Al 2 O 3 system, g1 and g3 can be attributed to P b 0 centers, g3 to Si dangling bonds (Si-dbs), and g4 and g5 to rotating methyl radicals. All paramagnetic moments observed in this contribution disappear after a 5-min temperature treatment at 450 ° C . The deposition of an additional thermal SiO 2 layer between the Si and the Al 2 O 3 decreases the negative fixed charge density and defect density by about one order of magnitude. In this contribution, these changes can be correlated with a decrease in amplitude of the Si-db signal. P b 0 and the methyl radical signals were less affected by this additional SiO 2 layer. Based on these observations, microscopic models for the negative fixed charge density ( Q tot ) and the interface trap density ( D it ) and the connection between these

  17. The impact of ultrathin Al2O3 films on the electrical response of p-Ge/Al2O3/HfO2/Au MOS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botzakaki, M. A.; Skoulatakis, G.; Kennou, S.; Ladas, S.; Tsamis, C.; Georga, S. N.; Krontiras, C. A.

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that the most critical issue in Ge CMOS technology is the successful growth of high-k gate dielectrics on Ge substrates. The high interface quality of Ge/high-k dielectric is connected with advanced electrical responses of Ge based MOS devices. Following this trend, atomic layer deposition deposited ultrathin Al2O3 and HfO2 films were grown on p-Ge. Al2O3 acts as a passivation layer between p-Ge and high-k HfO2 films. An extensive set of p-Ge/Al2O3/HfO2 structures were fabricated with Al2O3 thickness ranging from 0.5 nm to 1.5 nm and HfO2 thickness varying from 2.0 nm to 3.0 nm. All structures were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and AFM. XPS analysis revealed the stoichiometric growth of both films in the absence of Ge sub-oxides between p-Ge and Al2O3 films. AFM analysis revealed the growth of smooth and cohesive films, which exhibited minimal roughness (~0.2 nm) comparable to that of clean bare p-Ge surfaces. The electrical response of all structures was analyzed by C-V, G-V, C-f, G-f and J-V characteristics, from 80 K to 300 K. It is found that the incorporation of ultrathin Al2O3 passivation layers between p-Ge and HfO2 films leads to superior electrical responses of the structures. All structures exhibit well defined C-V curves with parasitic effects, gradually diminishing and becoming absent below 170 K. D it values were calculated at each temperature, using both Hill-Coleman and Conductance methods. Structures of p-Ge/0.5 nm Al2O3/2.0 nm HfO2/Au, with an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) equal to 1.3 nm, exhibit D it values as low as ~7.4  ×  1010 eV-1 cm-2. To our knowledge, these values are among the lowest reported. J-V measurements reveal leakage currents in the order of 10-1 A cm-2, which are comparable to previously published results for structures with the same EOT. A complete mapping of the energy distribution of D its into the energy bandgap of p-Ge, from the valence band

  18. Synthesis, biocompatibility and mechanical properties of ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramics composites.

    PubMed

    Nevarez-Rascon, Alfredo; González-Lopez, Santiago; Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Nevarez-Rascon, Martina Margarita; Orrantia-Borunda, Erasmo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated cell viability, microhardness and flexural strength of two ceramic composites systems (ZA and AZ), pure alumina and zirconia. There were prepared homogeneous mixtures of 78wt%Al2O3+20wt%3Y-TZP+2wt%Al2O3w (AZ) and 80wt%3YTZP+18wt%Al2O3+2wt%Al2O3w (ZA), as well as 3Y-TZP (Z), pure Al2O3 (A) and commercial monolithic 3Y-TZP (Zc). Also mouse fibroblast cells 3T3-L1 and a MTT test was carried out at 24, 48 and 72 h. The surfaces were observed with SEM and the microhardness and three-point flexural strength values were estimated. The absolute microhardness values were: A>AZ>Z>Zc>ZA. Flexural strength of Zc, Z, and ZA were around double than AZ and A. All groups showed high biocompatibility trough cell viability values at 24, 48 and 72 h. Factors like grain shape, grain size and homogeneous or heterogeneous grain distributions may play an important role in physical, mechanical and biological properties of the ceramic composites.

  19. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Polypropylene/Nano α-Al2O3 Composites

    PubMed Central

    Mirjalili, F.; Chuah, L.; Salahi, E.

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite containing polypropylene (PP) and nano α-Al2O3 particles was prepared using a Haake internal mixer. Mechanical tests, such as tensile and flexural tests, showed that mechanical properties of the composite were enhanced by addition of nano α-Al2O3 particles and dispersant agent to the polymer. Tensile strength was approximately ∼16% higher than pure PP by increasing the nano α-Al2O3 loading from 1 to 4 wt% into the PP matrix. The results of flexural analysis indicated that the maximum values of flexural strength and flexural modulus for nanocomposite without dispersant were 50.5 and 1954 MPa and for nanocomposite with dispersant were 55.88 MPa and 2818 MPa, respectively. However, higher concentration of nano α-Al2O3 loading resulted in reduction of those mechanical properties that could be due to agglomeration of nano α-Al2O3 particles. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic observations of the nanocomposites also showed that fracture surface became rougher by increasing the content of filler loading from 1 to 4% wt. PMID:24688421

  20. (100) facets of γ-Al2O3: the active surfaces for alcohol dehydration reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Rousseau, Roger J.; Szanyi, Janos

    2011-05-01

    Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol, and methanol dehydration reaction were studied on γ-Al2O3 in order to identify the catalytic active sites for alcohol dehydration reactions. Two high temperature (> 473 K) desorption features were observed following ethanol adsorption. Samples calcined at T≤473 K displayed a desorption feature in the 523-533 K temperature range, while those calcined at T ≥ 673 K showed a single desorption feature at 498 K. The switch from the high to low temperature ethanol desorption correlated well with the dehydroxylation of the (100) facets of γ-Al2O3 that was predicted at 550 K DFT calculations. Theoretical DFT simulations of the mechanism of dehydration. on clean and hydroxylated γ-Al2O3(100) surfaces, find that a concerted elimination of ethylene from an ethanol molecule chemisorbed at an Al3+ pentacoordinated site is the rate limiting step for catalytic cycle on both surfaces. Furthermore, titration of the pentacoordinate Al3+ sites on the (100) facets of γ-Al2O3 by BaO completely turned off the methanol dehydration reaction activity. These results unambiguously demonstrate that only the (100) facets on γ-Al2O3 are the catalytic active surfaces for alcohol dehydration.

  1. Directionally solidified Al2O3/GAP eutectic ceramics by micro-pulling-down method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xue; Su, Haijun; Guo, Fengwei; Tan, Xi; Cao, Lamei

    2016-11-01

    We reported a novel route to prepare directionally solidified (DS) Al2O3/GAP eutectic ceramics by micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. The eutectic crystallizations, microstructure characters and evolutions, and their mechanical properties were investigated in detail. The results showed that the Al2O3/GAP eutectic composites can be successfully fabricated through μ-PD method, possessed smooth surface, full density and large crystal size (the maximal size: φ90 mm × 20 mm). At the process of Diameter, the as-solidified Al2O3/GAP eutectic presented a combination of "Chinese script" and elongated colony microstructure with complex regular structure. Inside the colonies, the rod-type or lamellar-type eutectic microstructures with ultra-fine GAP surrounded by the Al2O3 matrix were observed. At an appropriate solidificational rate, the binary eutectic exhibited a typical DS irregular eutectic structure of "chinese script" consisting of interpenetrating network of α-Al2O3 and GAP phases without any other phases. Therefore, the interphase spacing was refined to 1-2 µm and the irregular microstructure led to an outstanding vickers hardness of 17.04 GPa and fracture toughness of 6.3 MPa × m1/2 at room temperature.

  2. Raman spectroscopic study of Ni/Al 2O 3 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminzadeh, A.; Sarikhani-fard, H.

    1999-07-01

    In this article a preliminary Raman spectroscopic study of Ni/Al 2O 3 catalyst of the type used for the steam reformation of methane is reported. With several prepared samples of this catalyst and using FT-Raman and conventional dispersive Raman technique, it is shown how Raman spectroscopy can be used to monitor the exact conditions during the preparation of the catalyst. Raman data shows that despite a strong fluorescence background, some useful information can be obtained. According to these data, when the calcination temperature is raised above 1000°C, the gamma alumina ( γ-Al 2O 3) is converted to alpha alumina ( α-Al 2O 3) as it is expected. It further shows that Ni is not present as NiO: it is probably embedded in the crystal structure of γ-Al 2O 3 as NiAl 2O 4 (the spinel structure) or constituted as a solid solution with Al 2O 3.

  3. Photochemistry of the α-Al2O3-PETN interface

    DOE PAGES

    Tsyshevsky, Roman V.; Zverev, Anton; Mitrofanov, Anatoly; ...

    2016-02-29

    Optical absorption measurements are combined with electronic structure calculations to explore photochemistry of an α-Al2O3-PETN interface formed by a nitroester (pentaerythritol tetranitrate, PETN, C5H8N4O12) and a wide band gap aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3) substrate. The first principles modeling is used to deconstruct and interpret the α-Al2O3-PETN absorption spectrum that has distinct peaks attributed to surface F0-centers and surfacePETN transitions. We predict the low energy α-Al2O3 F0-centerPETN transition, producing the excited triplet state, and α-Al2O3 F-0-centerPETN charge transfer, generating the PETN anion radical. This implies that irradiation by commonly used lasers can easily initiate photodecomposition of both excited and charged PETN atmore » the interface. As a result, the feasible mechanism of the photodecomposition is proposed.« less

  4. Interface of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 on H-terminated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, K. Y.; Speck, F.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller, Th.; Ley, L.; Oswald, M.; Hansch, W.

    2006-07-01

    Al2O3 films 1 to 20 nm thick were deposited as alternative high- gate dielectric on hydrogen-terminated silicon by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and characterized by Synchrotron X-ray Photoelectron Spec-troscopy (SXPS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy and admittance measure-ments. The SXPS results indicate that about 60% of the original Si-H surface bonds are preserved at the Al2O3/Si interface and this is confirmed by monitoring the Si-H stretching modes by FTIR spectroscopy in the Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) mode both before and after ALD of Al2O3. The remaining 40% of Si-H bonds are replaced by Si-O bonds as verified by SXPS. In addition, a fraction of a monolayer of SiO2 forms on top of the Al2O3 dielectric during deposition. The presence of OH-groups at a level of 3% of the total oxygen content was detected throughout the Al2O3 layer through a chemically shifted O 1s component in SXPS. Admittance measurements give a dielectric constant of 9.12, but a relatively high density of interface traps between 1011 and 1012 cm-2 eV-1.

  5. Mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene/nano α-Al2O3 composites.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, F; Chuah, L; Salahi, E

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite containing polypropylene (PP) and nano α-Al2O3 particles was prepared using a Haake internal mixer. Mechanical tests, such as tensile and flexural tests, showed that mechanical properties of the composite were enhanced by addition of nano α-Al2O3 particles and dispersant agent to the polymer. Tensile strength was approximately ∼ 16% higher than pure PP by increasing the nano α-Al2O3 loading from 1 to 4 wt% into the PP matrix. The results of flexural analysis indicated that the maximum values of flexural strength and flexural modulus for nanocomposite without dispersant were 50.5 and 1954 MPa and for nanocomposite with dispersant were 55.88 MPa and 2818 MPa, respectively. However, higher concentration of nano α-Al2O3 loading resulted in reduction of those mechanical properties that could be due to agglomeration of nano α-Al2O3 particles. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic observations of the nanocomposites also showed that fracture surface became rougher by increasing the content of filler loading from 1 to 4% wt.

  6. In situ Formed α-Al2O3 Nanocrystals Repaired the Preexisting Microcracks in Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3 Coating via Stress-Induced Phase Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Feng, Jingwei; Rong, Jian; Liu, Chenguang; Tao, Shunyan; Ding, Chuanxian

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the phase composition and generation mechanism of the nanocrystals located in the microcracks of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coating were reevaluated. The Al2O3 coatings were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. We supply the detailed explanations to support the new viewpoint that in situ formation of α-Al2O3 nanocrystals in the preexisting microcracks of the as-sprayed Al2O3 coating may be due to the stress-induced phase transformation. Owing to the partially coherent relationship, the phase interfaces between the α-Al2O3 nanocrystals with the preferred orientation and the γ-Al2O3 matrix may possess better bonding strength. The α-Al2O3 nanocrystals could repair the microcracks in the coating, which further strengthens grain boundaries. Grain boundary strengthening is beneficial to the coating fracture toughness enhancement.

  7. Electrowetting properties of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 decorated silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, K.; Rajavel, K.; Cameron, D. C.; Mangalaraj, D.; Rajendrakumar, R. T.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports the electrowetting properties of liquid droplet on superhydrophobic silicon nanowires with Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 as dielectric layer. Silicon wafer were etched by metal assisted wet chemical etching with silver as catalyst. ALD Al2O3 films of 10nm thickness were conformally deposited over silicon nanowires. Al2O3 dielectric film coated silicon nanowires was chemically modified with Trichloro (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl) silane to make it superhydrophobic(SHP). The contact angle was measured and all the samples exhibited superhydrophobic nature with maximum contact angles of 163° and a minimum contact angle hysteresis of 6°. Electrowetting induced a maximum reversible decrease of the contact angle of 20°at 150V in air.

  8. Anchorage of γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    DOE PAGES

    Rodríguez-Pulido, A.; Martínez-Gutiérrez, H.; Calderon-Polania, G. A.; ...

    2016-06-07

    Nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNx-MWNTs) have been decorated with γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles by a novel method. This process involved a wet chemical approach in conjunction with thermal treatment. During the particle anchoring process, individual CNx-MWNT nanotubes agglomerated into bundles, resulting in arrays of aligned CNx-MWNT coated with γ-Al2O3. Extensive characterization of the resulting γ-Al2O3/CNx-MWNT bundles was performed using a range of electron microscopy imaging and microanalytical techniques. In conclusion, a possible mechanism explaining the nanobundle alignment is described, and possible applications of these materials for the fabrication of ceramic composites using CNx-MWNTs are briefly discussed.

  9. Growth, Quantitative Growth Analysis, and Applications of Graphene on γ-Al2O3 catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaehyun; Lee, Joohwi; Choi, Jung-Hae; Hwang, Do Kyung; Song, Yong-Won

    2015-01-01

    The possibilities offered by catalytic γ-Al2O3 substrates are explored, and the mechanism governing graphene formation thereon is elucidated using both numerical simulations and experiments. The growth scheme offers metal-free synthesis at low temperature, grain-size customization, large-area uniformity of electrical properties, single-step preparation of graphene/dielectric structures, and readily detachable graphene. We quantify based on thermodynamic principles the activation energies associated with graphene nucleation/growth on γ-Al2O3, verifying the low physical and chemical barriers. Importantly, we derive a universal equation governing the adsorption-based synthesis of graphene over a wide range of temperatures in both catalytic and spontaneous growth regimes. Experimental results support the equation, highlighting the catalytic function of γ-Al2O3 at low temperatures. The synthesized graphene is manually incorporated as a ‘graphene sticker’ into an ultrafast mode-locked laser. PMID:26137994

  10. Electrical Double Layer Capacitance in a Graphene-embedded Al2O3 Gate Dielectric.

    PubMed

    Ki Min, Bok; Kim, Seong K; Jun Kim, Seong; Ho Kim, Sung; Kang, Min-A; Park, Chong-Yun; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok

    2015-11-04

    Graphene heterostructures are of considerable interest as a new class of electronic devices with exceptional performance in a broad range of applications has been realized. Here, we propose a graphene-embedded Al2O3 gate dielectric with a relatively high dielectric constant of 15.5, which is about 2 times that of Al2O3, having a low leakage current with insertion of tri-layer graphene. In this system, the enhanced capacitance of the hybrid structure can be understood by the formation of a space charge layer at the graphene/Al2O3 interface. The electrical properties of the interface can be further explained by the electrical double layer (EDL) model dominated by the diffuse layer.

  11. Electrical Double Layer Capacitance in a Graphene-embedded Al2O3 Gate Dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Ki Min, Bok; Kim, Seong K.; Jun Kim, Seong; Ho Kim, Sung; Kang, Min-A; Park, Chong-Yun; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Graphene heterostructures are of considerable interest as a new class of electronic devices with exceptional performance in a broad range of applications has been realized. Here, we propose a graphene-embedded Al2O3 gate dielectric with a relatively high dielectric constant of 15.5, which is about 2 times that of Al2O3, having a low leakage current with insertion of tri-layer graphene. In this system, the enhanced capacitance of the hybrid structure can be understood by the formation of a space charge layer at the graphene/Al2O3 interface. The electrical properties of the interface can be further explained by the electrical double layer (EDL) model dominated by the diffuse layer. PMID:26530817

  12. Glycerol Steam Reforming Over Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 Catalyst: Effect of Cerium.

    PubMed

    Go, Gwang-Sub; Go, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Hong-Joo; Moon, Dong-Ju; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Young-Chul

    2016-02-01

    In this work, hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming was studied using Ni-metal oxide catalysts. Ni-based catalyst becomes deactivated during steam reforming reactions because of coke deposits and sintering. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reduce carbon deposits and sintering on the catalyst surface by adding a promoter. Ni-metal oxide catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared via impregnation method, and the calcined catalyst was reduced under H2 flow for 2 h prior to the reaction. The characteristics of the catalysts were examined by XRD, TPR, TGA, and SEM. The Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst, which contained less than 2 wt% Ce, showed the highest hydrogen selectivity and glycerol conversion. Further analysis of the catalysts revealed that the Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst required a lower reduction temperature and produced minimum carbon deposit.

  13. Electrical conductivity studies on CuBr containing Al2O3 particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubec, P. M.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The conductivity of CuBr was studied and the role of a second phase, Al2O3, dispersed in CuBr was tested. CuBr melts at 493 C and exhibits three phases in the solid state. CuBr is a good ionic conductor with a transport number for copper ions of virtually unity with weighed proportions of the appropriate chemicals used. The CuBr materials were heated above melting point of CuBr, and the samples were sandwiched between copper electrodes. The ac conductivity, was determined at 1 kHz between 25 and 440 C depending on the sample. It was shown that at low temperatures, the conductivity for CuBr (Al2O3) increased by as much as 100, whereas in the beta phase the conductivity of CuBr containing Al2O3 decreased. The electrical conductivity studies are in agreement with earlier data.

  14. Process Capability Analysis of Vacuum Moulding for Development of Al-Al2O3 MMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate process capability of vacuum moulding (VM) for development of Al-Al2O3 metal matrix composite (MMC). Starting from the identification of component, prototypes were prepared (with three different input parameters namely: vacuum pressure; component volume and sand grit size to give output in form of dimensional accuracy). Measurements on the coordinate measuring machine helped in calculating the dimensional tolerances of the Al-Al2O3 MMC prepared. Some important mechanical properties were also compared to verify the suitability of the components. Final components produced are acceptable as per ISO standard UNI EN 20286-I (1995). The results of study suggest that VM process lies in ±4.5 sigma (σ) limit as regard to dimensional accuracy of Al-Al2O3 MMC is concerned. This process ensures rapid production of pre-series technological prototypes and proof of concept at less production cost and time.

  15. Ionic conductivity and thermoelectric power of pure and Al2O3-dispersed AgI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahi, K.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Ionic and electronic conductivities, and thermoelectric power have been measured for AgI and AgI containing a dispersion of submicron size Al2O3 particles. While the dispersion of Al2O3 enhances the ionic conductivity significantly, it does not affect the electronic properties of the matrix. The enhancement is a strong function of the size and concentration of the dispersoid. Various models have been tested to account for the enhanced conduction. However, the complex behavior of the present results points out the need for more sophisticated theoretical models. Ionic conduction and thermoelectric power data suggest that the dispersed Al2O3 generates an excess of cation vacancies and thereby enhances the conductivity and suppresses the thermoelectric power of the matrix. The individual heats of transport of cation interstitials and vacancies have been estimated and compared to their respective migration energies.

  16. Diffusion Brazing of Al6061/15 Vol. Pct Al2O3p Using a Cu-Sn Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Kavian O.; Khan, Tahir I.; Oliver, Gossett D.

    2013-06-01

    Diffusion brazing of Al-6061 alloy containing 15 vol. pct Al2O3 particles was attempted using Cu-Sn interlayer. Joint formation was attributed to the solid-state interdiffusion of Cu and Sn followed by eutectic formation and subsequent isothermal solidification. Examination of the joint region using scanning electron microprobe analyzer (EPMA), wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of intermetallic phases such as Al7Cu3Mg3, Mg2Cu6Al5, Cu3Sn, and Mg2Sn. The results indicated an increase in joint strength with increasing bonding time giving the highest joint shear strength of 94 MPa at a bonding duration of 3 hours.

  17. Mechanism for converting Al2O3-containing borate glass to hydroxyapatite in aqueous phosphate solution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Wang, Deping

    2009-05-01

    The effect of replacing varying amounts (0-2.5 mol.%) of B2O3 with Al2O3 in a borate glass on (1) the conversion of the glass to HA in an aqueous phosphate solution and (2) the compressive strength of the as-formed HA product was investigated. Samples of each glass (10 x 10 x 8 mm) were placed in 0.25 M K2HPO4 solution at 60 degrees C, and the conversion kinetics to HA were determined from the weight loss of the glass and the pH of the solution. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. While the conversion rate of the glass to HA decreased considerably with increasing Al2O3 content, the microstructure of the HA product became denser and the compressive strength of the HA product increased. The addition of SiO2 to the Al2O3-containing borate glass reversed the deterioration of the conversion rate, and produced a further improvement in the strength of the HA product. The compressive strength of the HA formed from the borate glass with 2.5 mol.% Al2O3 and 5 mol.% SiO2 was 11.1 +/- 0.2 MPa, which is equal to the highest strengths reported for trabecular bone. The results indicated that simultaneous additions of Al2O3 and SiO2 could be used to control the bioactivity of the borate glass and to enhance the mechanical strength of the HA product. Furthermore, the HA product formed from the glass containing both SiO2 and Al2O3 could be applied to bone repair.

  18. Rapid fabrication of Al2O3 encapsulations for organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamran; Ali, Junaid; Mehdi, Syed Murtuza; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; An, Young Jin

    2015-10-01

    Organic electronics have earned great reputation in electronic industry yet they suffer technical challenges such as short lifetimes and low reliability because of their susceptibility to water vapor and oxygen which causes their fast degradation. This paper report on the rapid fabrication of Al2O3 encapsulations through a unique roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition technology (R2R-AALD) for the life time enhancement of organic poly (4-vinylphenol) (PVP) memristor devices. The devices were then categorized into two sets. One was processed with R2R-AALD Al2O3 encapsulations at 50 °C and the other one was kept as un-encapsulated. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results revealed that pin holes and other irregularities in PVP films with average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 9.66 nm have been effectively covered by Al2O3 encapsulation having Ra of 0.92 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS spectrum for PVP film showed peaks of C 1s and O 1s at the binding energies of 285 eV and 531 eV, respectively. The respective appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74 eV, 119 eV, and 531 eV, confirms the fabrication of Al2O3 films. Electrical current-voltage (I-V) measurements confirmed that the Al2O3 encapsulation has a huge influence on the performance, robustness and life time of memristor devices. The Al2O3 encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks whereas the un-encapsulated devices could only last for one week. The performance of encapsulated device had been promising after being subjected to bending test for 100 cycles and the variations in its stability were of minor concern confirming the mechanical robustness and flexibility of the devices.

  19. Reactive Plasma Nitriding of AL2O3 Powder in Thermal Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    Among advanced ceramics, aluminum nitride (AlN) had attracted much attention in the field of electrical and structural applications due to its outstanding properties. However, it is difficult to fabricate AlN coating by conventional thermal spray processes directly. Due to the thermal decomposition of feedstock AlN powder during spraying without a stable melting phase (which is required for deposition in thermal spray). Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) has been considered as a promising technology for in-situ formation of AlN thermally sprayed coatings. In this study the possibility of fabrication of AlN coating by reactive plasma nitriding of alumina (Al2O3) powder using N2/H2 plasma was investigated. It was possible to fabricate a cubic-AlN (c-AlN) based coating and the fabricated coating consists of c-AlN, α-Al2O3, Al5O6N and γ-Al2O3. It was difficult to understand the nitriding process from the fabricated coatings. Therefore, the Al2O3 powders were sprayed and collected in water. The microstructure observation of the collected powder and its cross section indicate that the reaction started from the surface. Thus, the sprayed particles were melted and reacted in high temperature reactive plasma and formed aluminum oxynitride which has cubic structure and easily nitride to c-AlN. During the coatings process the particles collide, flatten, and rapidly solidified on a substrate surface. The rapid solidification on the substrate surface due to the high quenching rate of the plasma flame prevents AlN crystal growth to form the hexagonal phase. Therefore, it was possible to fabricate c-AlN/Al2O3 based coatings through reactive plasma nitriding reaction of Al2O3 powder in thermal spray.

  20. Effect of AL2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles on aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosteva, I.; Morgalev, Yu; Morgaleva, T.; Morgalev, S.

    2015-11-01

    Environmental toxicity of aqueous disperse systems of nanoparticles of binary compounds of titanium dioxides (with particle size Δ50=5 nm, Δ50=50 nm, Δ50=90 nm), aluminum oxide alpha-forms (Δ50=7 nm and Δ50=70 nm) and macro forms (TiO2 Δ50=350 nm, Al2O3 A50=4000 nm) were studied using biological testing methods. The bioassay was performed using a set of test organisms representing the major trophic levels. We found the dependence of the toxic effect concentration degree of nTiO2 and nAl2O3 on the fluorescence of the bacterial biosensor "Ekolyum", the chemotactic response of ciliates Paramecium caudatum, the growth of unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer and mortality of entomostracans Daphnia magna Straus. We revealed the selective dependence of nTiO2 and nAl2O3 toxicity on the size, concentration and chemical nature of nanoparticles. The minimal concentration causing an organism's response on nTiO2 and nAl2O3 effect depends on the type of the test- organism and the test reaction under study. We specified L(E)C50 and acute toxicity categories for all the studied nanoparticles. We determined that nTiO2 (Δ50=5 nm) belong to the category «Acute toxicity 1», nTiO2 (A50=90 nm) and nAl2O3 (Δ50=70 nm) - to the category «Acute toxicity 2», nAl2O3 (Δ50=7 nm) - to the category «Acute toxicity 3». No acute toxicity was registered for nTiO2 (Δ50=50 nm) and macro form TiO2.

  1. Study of LDPE/Al2O3 composite material as substrate for microstrip antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmah, Debashis; Bhattacharyya, N. S.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Gogoi, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE)/Alumina (Al2O3) composite systems have been studied as an alternate substrate for microstrip patch antennas (MPA). Morphological, thermal and microwave characterizations of the composites are carried out for different volume fractions of Al2O3 in the LDPE matrix. The size and the distribution of alumina particles are quite uniform in the composite. Enhancement of thermal and microwave properties of the composite over the parent polymer is observed. Simple rectangular MPA in X-band is fabricated on the composite material to verify its applicability as substrates for MPA. A return loss of ~ -26dB is observed at the design frequency.

  2. Study of the KNO3-Al2O3 system by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, A. M.; Gafurov, M. M.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    The structural and the thermodynamic properties of potassium nitrate KNO3 and its composites with nanosized aluminum oxide Al2O3 have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. It has been found that an amorphous phase forms in composites (1- x)KNO3- x Al2O3. The thermal effect corresponding to this phase has been observed at 316°C. It has been found that the phase transition heats of potassium nitrate decreased as the aluminum oxide fraction increased.

  3. High Temperature Aerogels in the Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Aranda, Denisse V.; Gallagher, Meghan E.

    2008-01-01

    Al2O3-SiO2 aerogels are of interest as constituents of thermal insulation systems for use at high temperatures. Al2O3 and mullite aerogels are expected to crystallize at higher temperatures than their SiO2 counterparts, hence avoiding the shrinkages that accompany the formation of lower temperature SiO2 phases and preserving pore structures into higher temperature regimes. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of processing parameters on shrinkage, gel structure (including surface area, pore size and distribution) and pyrolysis behavior.

  4. Surface passivation of gallium nitride by ultrathin RF-magnetron sputtered Al2O3 gate.

    PubMed

    Quah, Hock Jin; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2013-08-14

    An ultrathin RF-magnetron sputtered Al2O3 gate on GaN subjected to postdeposition annealing at 800 °C in O2 ambient was systematically investigated. A cross-sectional energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy revealed formation of crystalline Al2O3 gate, which was supported by X-ray diffraction analysis. Various current conduction mechanisms contributing to leakage current of the investigated sample were discussed and correlated with metal-oxide-semiconductor characteristics of this sample.

  5. Epitaxial Graphene Surface Preparation for Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    j dielectrics such as Al2O3 , HfO2, Ta2O5, and TiO2 , are important for the realization of graphene-based top-gated electronic devices including field... ALD pulse sequencing of NO2-trimethylaluminum (TMA); 16 oxidation of electron beam evaporated metallic Al, Hf, Ti, Ta;17,18 and spin- coating of a... ALD of Al2O3 films in promoting uni- form, high quality oxide deposition. Initial treatments resulted in partial coverage, while the optimized treatment

  6. A comparison of the doppler-broadened positron annihilation spectra of neutron irradiated Al 2O 3 and MgAl 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. L.; Schaffer, J. P.; Cocks, F. H.; Clinard, F. W.; Hurley, G. F.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation damage studies of oxides and ceramics have become of increasing importance due to the projected use of these materials in thermonuclear fusion reactors as electronic insulators and first wall materials. In addition these materials are important in RAD waste disposal. As part of a study of the defect structure in radiation damaged ceramics Doppler-broadened positron annihilation spectra have been obtained for a series of single crystal sapphire (α-Al 2O 3) and polycrystal (1:1) and (1:2) magnesium aluminate spinel (MgO·Al 2O 3 and MgO-2Al 2O 3) samples. These samples were irradiated in EBR-II to a fluence of 3 × 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at 740°C, and 2 × 10 26 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at ~ 550°C respectively. Positron annihilation spectra lineshapes for the irradiated, annealed, and as-received samples of both materials were compared using S parameter analysis. These calculations were made on deconvoluted gamma ray spectra that were free of any instrumental broadening effects. In this way, absolute S parameter changes could be calculated. The observed changes in the S parameter are consistent with independent volume swelling measurements for both the α-A1 2O 3 and the (1:2) MgAl 2O 4 samples. However, the change in S parameter measured for the (1:1) spinel is contrary to the measured volume change. This apparent anomaly indicates a predominence of interstitial as opposed to vacancy type defects in this material.

  7. Atomic layer deposition of highly-doped Er:Al2O3 and Tm:Al2O3 for silicon-based waveguide amplifiers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roenn, John; Karvonen, Lasse; Pyymäki-Perros, Alexander; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Lipsanen, Harri; Säynätjoki, Antti; Sun, Zhipei

    2016-05-01

    Recently, rare-earth doped waveguide amplifiers (REDWAs) have drawn significant attention as a promising solution to on-chip amplification of light in silicon photonics and integrated optics by virtue of their high excited state lifetime (up to 10 ms) and broad emission spectrum (up to 200 nm) at infrared wavelengths. In the family of rare-earths, at least erbium, holmium, thulium, neodymium and ytterbium have been demonstrated to be good candidates for amplifier operation at moderate concentrations (< 0.1 %). However, efficient amplifier operation in REDWAs is a very challenging task because high concentration of ions (<0.1%) is required in order to produce reasonable amplification over short device length. Inevitably, high concentration of ions leads to energy-transfer between neighboring ions, which results as decreased gain and increased noise in the amplifier system. It has been shown that these energy-transfer mechanisms in highly-doped gain media are inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance between the ions. Therefore, novel fabrication techniques with the ability to control the distribution of the rare-earth ions within the gain medium are urgently needed in order to fabricate REDWAs with high efficiency and low noise. Here, we show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an excellent technique to fabricate highly-doped (<1%) RE:Al2O3 gain materials by using its nanoscale engineering ability to delicately control the incorporation of RE ions during the deposition. In our experiment, we fabricated Er:Al2O3 and Tm:Al2O3 thin films with ALD by varying the concentration of RE ions from 1% to 7%. By measuring the photoluminescence response of the fabricated samples, we demonstrate that it is possible to incorporate up to 5% of either Er- or Tm-ions in Al2O3 host before severe quenching occurs. We believe that this technique can be extended to other RE ions as well. Therefore, our results show the exceptionality of ALD as a deposition technique for

  8. Hydrothermal extraction and gasification of low rank coal with catalyst Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachruzzaki, Handayani, Ismi; Mursito, Anggoro Tri

    2017-01-01

    Increasing coal quality is very important in order to utilize low-rank coal. This research is attempted to increase the quality of low-rank coal using hydrothermal process with hot compressed water (HCW) at 200 °C and 3 MPa. The product from this process were solid residue and liquid filtrate with organic component. Product from gasification of the filtrate was synthetic gas. The result showed that higher water flow rate could increase organic component in the filtrate. When a catalyst was used, the extraction process was faster, the organic component in the filtrate was increased while its content was decreased in the residue. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that coal extraction using HCW was more effective with catalyst Pd/Al2O3. Increasing the process temperature will increase the amounts CO and H2 gas. In this research, highest net heating value at 800°C using K2CO3 solution and Pd/Al2O3 catalyst was 17,774.36 kJ/kg. The highest cold gas efficiency was 91.29% and the best carbon conversion was 34.78%.

  9. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Microhardness of Nanostructural Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, M.; Tyurin, Yu.; Vasilik, N.; Kolisnichenko, O.; Prozorova, M.; Arseenko, M.; Sirota, V.; Pavlenko, I.

    2014-10-01

    Nanostructural Al2O3 coatings were formed on a steel substrate surface using a multichamber detonation sprayer. The Al2O3 coatings were characterized by a dense microstructure with porosity below 1% and hardness of 1300 ± 25 HV0.3. The transition layer between the coating and substrate was up to 15 μm thick, containing Fe-Al-type intermetallic compounds (FeAl3, Fe2Al5). Postdeposition heat treatment of the samples at 850 °C for 3 h was carried out in air and argon environments. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and microhardness of the Al2O3 coatings was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, x-ray phase analysis, and Vickers hardness testing. A positive impact of postcoating heat treatment on the coating microstructure and microhardness was observed. Heat treatment resulted in an increase in the coating hardness from 1300, to 1350 ± 25 HV0.3 and 1600 ± 25 HV0.3 after annealing in air and argon, respectively. Heat treatment in argon led to a more significant increase in the α-Al2O3 phase from 47 to 81%.

  10. Distinctive electrical properties in sandwich-structured Al2O3/low density polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Si-Jiao; Zha, Jun-Wei; Li, Wei-Kang; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2016-02-01

    The sandwich-structured Al2O3/low density polyethylene (Al2O3/LDPE) nanocomposite dielectrics consisting of layer-by-layer with different concentration Al2O3 loading were prepared by melt-blending and following hot pressing method. The space charge distribution from pulsed electro-acoustic method and breakdown strength of the nanocomposites were investigated. Compared with the single-layer Al2O3/LDPE nanocomposites, the sandwich-structured nanocomposites remarkably suppressed the space charge accumulation and presented higher breakdown strength. The charges in the sandwich-structured nanocomposites decayed much faster than that in the single-layer nanocomposites, which was attributed to an effective electric field caused by the formation of the interfacial space charges. The energy depth of shallow and deep traps was estimated as 0.73 eV and 1.17 eV in the sandwich-structured nanocomposites, respectively, according to the thermal excitation theoretical model we proposed. This work provides an attractive strategy of design and fabrication of polymer nanocomposites with excellent space charge suppression.

  11. Uniform Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 on Graphene by Reversible Hydrogen Plasma Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A novel method to form ultrathin, uniform Al2O3 layers on graphene using reversible hydrogen plasma functionalization followed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented. ALD on pristine graphene is known to be a challenge due to the absence of dangling bonds, leading to nonuniform film coverage. We show that hydrogen plasma functionalization of graphene leads to uniform ALD of closed Al2O3 films down to 8 nm in thickness. Hall measurements and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the hydrogen plasma functionalization is reversible upon Al2O3 ALD and subsequent annealing at 400 °C and in this way does not deteriorate the graphene’s charge carrier mobility. This is in contrast with oxygen plasma functionalization, which can lead to a uniform 5 nm thick closed film, but which is not reversible and leads to a reduction of the charge carrier mobility. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations attribute the uniform growth on both H2 and O2 plasma functionalized graphene to the enhanced adsorption of trimethylaluminum (TMA) on these surfaces. A DFT analysis of the possible reaction pathways for TMA precursor adsorption on hydrogenated graphene predicts a binding mechanism that cleans off the hydrogen functionalities from the surface, which explains the observed reversibility of the hydrogen plasma functionalization upon Al2O3 ALD. PMID:28405059

  12. Crack-resistant Al2O3–SiO2 glasses

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A.; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining “hard” and “crack-resistant” glasses have always been of great important in glass science and glass technology. However, in most commercial glasses both properties are not compatible. In this work, colorless and transparent xAl2O3–(100–x)SiO2 glasses (30 ≤ x ≤ 60) were fabricated by the aerodynamic levitation technique. The elastic moduli and Vickers hardness monotonically increased with an increase in the atomic packing density as the Al2O3 content increased. Although a higher atomic packing density generally enhances crack formation in conventional oxide glasses, the indentation cracking resistance increased by approximately seven times with an increase in atomic packing density in binary Al2O3–SiO2 glasses. In particular, the composition of 60Al2O3•40SiO2 glass, which is identical to that of mullite, has extraordinary high cracking resistance with high elastic moduli and Vickers hardness. The results indicate that there exist aluminosilicate compositions that can produce hard and damage-tolerant glasses. PMID:27053006

  13. Electrochemical Impedance Studies on Tribocorrosion Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Chu, Zhenhua; Chen, Xueguang; Dong, Yanchun; Yang, Yong; Li, Yingzhen; Yan, Dianran

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the tribocorrosion of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings in simulated seawater was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique, complemented by scanning electron microscopy to observe the morphology of the tribocorrosion attack. Base on EIS of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings undergoing long-time immersion in simulated seawater, the corrosion process of Al2O3 coatings can be divided into the earlier stage of immersion (up to 20 h) and the later stage (beyond 20 h). Then, the wear tests were carried out on the surface of Al2O3 coating undergoing different times of immersion to investigate the influence of wear on corrosion at different stages. The coexistence of wear and corrosion condition had been created by a boron nitride grinding head rotating on the surface of coatings corroded in simulated seawater. The measured EIS and the values of the fitting circuit elements showed that wear accelerated corrosion at the later stage, meanwhile, corrosion accelerated wear with the immersion time increasing.

  14. Al2O3 half-wave films for long-life CW lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.; Ettenberg, M.; Lockwood, H. F.; Kressel, H.

    1977-01-01

    Long-term operating-life data are reported for (AlGa)As CW laser diodes. The use of half-wave Al2O3 facet coatings is shown to eliminate facet erosion, allowing stable diode operation at constant current for periods in excess of 10,000 h.

  15. Transport mechanisms of leakage current in Al2O3/InAlAs MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chengji; Lu, Hongliang; Zhang, Yimen; Zhang, Yuming; Guan, He; Wu, Lifan; Lu, Bin; Liu, Chen

    2016-09-01

    An Al2O3 layer is inserted between the InAlAs layer and the metal gate in InAs/AlSb HEMTs to suppress the leakage current. The transport mechanisms of leakage current in Al2O3/InAlAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors at both positive and negative biases at different temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 70 °C are investigated. For positive bias, the leakage current is dominated by Schottky emission. Based on the fitted straight lines, the relative dielectric constant of Al2O3 and the barrier height between Al2O3 and InAlAs are extracted. However, for negative bias, the leakage current is dominated by Frenkel-Poole (F-P) emission and the depth of the trap energy level from the conduction band (ϕt) is extracted. Furthermore, authors explain the reason why the dominating mechanisms at positive and negative biases are different.

  16. Crystallization kinetics of BaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Hyatt, Mark J.

    1988-01-01

    Barium aluminosilicate glasses are being investigated as matrix materials in high-temperature ceramic composites for structural applications. Kinetics of crystallization of two refractory glass compositions in the barium aluminosilicate system were studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From variable heating rate DTA, the crystallization activation energies for glass compositions (wt percent) 10BaO-38Al2O3-51SiO2-1MoO3 (glass A) and 39BaO-25Al2O3-35SiO2-1MoO3 (glass B) were determined to be 553 and 558 kJ/mol, respectively. On thermal treatment, the crystalline phases in glasses A and B were identified as mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and hexacelsian (BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2), respectively. Hexacelsian is a high-temperature polymorph which is metastable below 1590 C. It undergoes structural transformation into the orthorhombic form at approximately 300 C accompanied by a large volume change which is undesirable for structural applications. A process needs to be developed where stable monoclinic celsian, rather than hexacelsian, precipitates out as the crystal phase in glass B.

  17. Crack-resistant Al2O3–SiO2 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A.; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Obtaining “hard” and “crack-resistant” glasses have always been of great important in glass science and glass technology. However, in most commercial glasses both properties are not compatible. In this work, colorless and transparent xAl2O3–(100–x)SiO2 glasses (30 ≤ x ≤ 60) were fabricated by the aerodynamic levitation technique. The elastic moduli and Vickers hardness monotonically increased with an increase in the atomic packing density as the Al2O3 content increased. Although a higher atomic packing density generally enhances crack formation in conventional oxide glasses, the indentation cracking resistance increased by approximately seven times with an increase in atomic packing density in binary Al2O3–SiO2 glasses. In particular, the composition of 60Al2O3•40SiO2 glass, which is identical to that of mullite, has extraordinary high cracking resistance with high elastic moduli and Vickers hardness. The results indicate that there exist aluminosilicate compositions that can produce hard and damage-tolerant glasses.

  18. MALEIC ANHYDRIDE HYDROGENATION OF PD/AL2O3 CATALYST UNDER SUPERCRITICAL CO2 MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogenation of maleic anhydride (MA) to either y-butyrolactone of succinic anhydride over simple Pd/Al2O3 impregnated catalyst in supercritical CO2 medium has been studied at different temperatures and pressures. A comparison of the supercritical CO2 medium reaction with the c...

  19. Heat transfer of Al2O3 nanofluids in microchannel heat sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, A. A.; Sadikin, A.; Ibrahim, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    Microchannel heat sink creates an innovative cooling technology to remove large amount of heat from small area. Recently, nanotechnology gain interest to explore the microchannel cooling benefits of nanofluids as working fluid. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of heat transfer to Al2O3 nanofluids after used as working fluid in the microchannel. In this study, the microchannel was design in square shape with a cross section of 0.5×0.5 mm2 and made by copper. The experiment was conducted in laminar flow with Reynolds number ranging approximately from 633 to 1172. The present study was focused on heat transfer of Al2O3 nanofluids in microchannel heat sink at concentration of 1.0 wt. % and 2.5 wt. % dispersed in water. The heat was produced at bottom of the heat sink is 325 W. The computational simulation method was carried out to validate the experimental results. It was observed that the heat transfer rate is higher when using Al2O3 nanofluids compared to water. However, according to X-ray diffraction method (XRD), it is found that the structure of Al2O3 particles tends to more integrity and the crystallite size grows up after increased the temperature in the microchannel.

  20. Preparation and catalytic behavior of CeO2 nanoparticles on Al2O3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Takashi; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Ozawa, Masakuni

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we examined the preparation, morphology, and catalytic behavior of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on Al2O3(0001) crystal substrates. A CeO2 NP layer was prepared by the dipping method using a CeO2 nanocrystal colloid solution. Even after heat treatment at 1000 °C, the CeO2 NP layer maintained the granular morphology of CeO2 with a grain diameter of less than 40 nm. CeO2 NPs on an Al2O3 crystal showed higher oxidation activity for gaseous hydrogen at moderate temperatures and enhanced oxygen release properties of CeO2, compared with CeO2 powder. This was due to the highly dispersed CeO2 NPs and the interaction between CeO2 NPs and Al2O3; this clarified the importance of the Al2O3 support for the CeO2 catalyst.

  1. Complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds over Ce/Cu/gamma-AL2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, S C; Shim, W G

    2008-05-01

    The effect of cerium (Ce) addition into Cu (5, 10 or 15 wt%)/gamma-Al2O3 catalysts on the catalyst properties and catalytic activity was investigated for the complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). X-ray diffraction (XRD), the Brunauer Emmett Teller method (BET), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) by H2, and N2O pulse titration were used to characterize a series of supported copper catalysts modified with cerium. Cerium was observed to be an inhibitor for 5 wt% and promoter for 10 or 15 wt% Cu/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. The results of TPR, average crystallite size and dispersion indicated that even though Ce loadings on 10 and 15 wt% Cu/gamma-Al2O3 caused a reduction in BET surface area of the catalysts, the loaded amounts of Ce enhanced the catalytic activity through the formation of highly dispersed copper clusters. Kinetic parameters were developed for individual benzene, toluene and o-xylene (BTX) for 5 wt% Ce/10 wt% Cu/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst at temperatures ranging from 210 to 240 degrees C. The Mars and Van Krevelen model was found to be an adequate description of the catalytic oxidation of BTX for this study. The activity sequence with respect to the BTX molecules was found to be benzene > toluene > o-xylene under the surface-reaction-controlled region.

  2. Reduction of nitrotoluenes in supercritical isopropanol over Al2O3 in a flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivcev, V. P.; Korchagina, D. V.; Volcho, K. P.; Salakhutdinov, N. F.; Anikeev, V. I.

    2015-02-01

    The reduction of o-, m-, and p-nitrotoluenes in supercritical isopropanol over Al2O3 in a flow reactor is studied. It is shown that corresponding toluidines are major reaction products. Aromatic ring alkoxylation and N-alkylation products make a considerable contribution to the composition of reaction mixtures.

  3. The Effects of High Al2O3 on the Metallurgical Properties of Sinter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wen-tao; Zuo, Hai-bin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Zhang, Tao

    Sintering-pot tests and metallurgical performances of sinter with 4 kind of different Al2O3 contents are experimented in this paper. Results show: when the Al2O3 contents increase from 2.0% to 3.5%, acicular calcium ferrites in mine phase will be gradually replaced by plate-like iron calcium. The increase of Al2O3 contents will lead to the addition of liquid viscosity and the reduction of permeability of sinter bed. Sintering time will be prolonged. The rate of yield is stable basically but production is low; besides, the increase of liquid viscosity will decrease of drum strength. The change of permeability of the material layer will make RDI+3.15 decrease first and then increase when Al2O3 contents changed from 2.0% to 3.5%. RI of sinter shows a contrary trend because many open voids are formed by deterioration of liquidity first and then pores closed.

  4. Plasma etching behavior of Y2O3 ceramics: Comparative study with Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu-Chao; Zhao, Lei; Luo, Jin; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Yokota, Hiroki; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Li, Jing-Feng

    2016-03-01

    The plasma etching behavior of Y2O3 coating was investigated and compared with that of Al2O3 coating under various conditions, including chemical etching, mixing etching and physical etching. The etching rate of Al2O3 coating declined with decreasing CF4 content under mixing etching, while that of Y2O3 coating first increased and then decreased. In addition, the Y2O3 coating demonstrated higher erosion-resistance than Al2O3 coating after exposing to fluorocarbon plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the formations of YF3 and AlF3 on the Y2O3 and Al2O3 coatings, respectively, which acted as the protective layer to prevent the surface from further erosion with fluorocarbon plasma. It was revealed that the etching behavior of Y2O3 depended not only on the surface fluorination but also on the removal of fluoride layer. To analyze the effect of porosity, Y2O3 bulk samples with high density were prepared by spark plasma sintering, and they demonstrated higher erosion-resistances compared with Y2O3 coating.

  5. Self limiting atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on perovskite surfaces: a reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Devika; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Sarkar, Shaibal K.

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of self-saturated atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on an organolead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) surface through a well known trimethylaluminium (TMA)-water (H2O) chemistry is studied. Though the sequential dosages of reactants form films on the perovskite surfaces, a self saturated growth is never observed. Self-saturation leads to the degradation of the material. Both experimental and density functional theory calculations are carried out for complete understanding of the growth mechanism of self-limiting Al2O3 on the perovskite surface.The feasibility of self-saturated atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on an organolead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) surface through a well known trimethylaluminium (TMA)-water (H2O) chemistry is studied. Though the sequential dosages of reactants form films on the perovskite surfaces, a self saturated growth is never observed. Self-saturation leads to the degradation of the material. Both experimental and density functional theory calculations are carried out for complete understanding of the growth mechanism of self-limiting Al2O3 on the perovskite surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional QCM results, FTIR spectra and DFT results. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06974b

  6. Copper pillar and memory characteristics using Al2O3 switching material for 3D architecture.

    PubMed

    Maikap, Siddheswar; Panja, Rajeswar; Jana, Debanjan

    2014-01-01

    A novel idea by using copper (Cu) pillar is proposed in this study, which can replace the through-silicon-vias (TSV) technique in future three-dimensional (3D) architecture. The Cu pillar formation under external bias in an Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN structure is simple and low cost. The Cu pillar is formed in the Al2O3 film under a small operation voltage of <5 V and a high-current-carrying conductor of >70 mA is obtained. More than 100 devices have shown tight distribution of the Cu pillars in Al2O3 film for high current compliance (CC) of 70 mA. Robust read pulse endurances of >10(6) cycles are observed with read voltages of -1, 1, and 4 V. However, read endurance is failed with read voltages of -1.5, -2, and -4 V. By decreasing negative read voltage, the read endurance is getting worst, which is owing to ruptured Cu pillar. Surface roughness and TiO x N y on TiN bottom electrode are observed by atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN memory device shows good bipolar resistive switching behavior at a CC of 500 μA under small operating voltage of ±1 V and good data retention characteristics of >10(3) s with acceptable resistance ratio of >10 is also obtained. This suggests that high-current operation will help to form Cu pillar and lower-current operation will have bipolar resistive switching memory. Therefore, this new Cu/Al2O3/TiN structure will be benefited for 3D architecture in the future.

  7. Copper pillar and memory characteristics using Al2O3 switching material for 3D architecture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel idea by using copper (Cu) pillar is proposed in this study, which can replace the through-silicon-vias (TSV) technique in future three-dimensional (3D) architecture. The Cu pillar formation under external bias in an Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN structure is simple and low cost. The Cu pillar is formed in the Al2O3 film under a small operation voltage of <5 V and a high-current-carrying conductor of >70 mA is obtained. More than 100 devices have shown tight distribution of the Cu pillars in Al2O3 film for high current compliance (CC) of 70 mA. Robust read pulse endurances of >106 cycles are observed with read voltages of −1, 1, and 4 V. However, read endurance is failed with read voltages of −1.5, −2, and −4 V. By decreasing negative read voltage, the read endurance is getting worst, which is owing to ruptured Cu pillar. Surface roughness and TiO x N y on TiN bottom electrode are observed by atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN memory device shows good bipolar resistive switching behavior at a CC of 500 μA under small operating voltage of ±1 V and good data retention characteristics of >103 s with acceptable resistance ratio of >10 is also obtained. This suggests that high-current operation will help to form Cu pillar and lower-current operation will have bipolar resistive switching memory. Therefore, this new Cu/Al2O3/TiN structure will be benefited for 3D architecture in the future. PMID:25136279

  8. Structural optical correlated properties of SnO2/Al2O3 core@ shell heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiba, Zein K.; Imam, N. G.; Bakr Mohamed, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Nano size polycrystalline samples of the core@shell heterostructure of SnO2 @ xAl2O3 (x = 0, 25, 50, 75 wt.%) were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The resulting samples were characterized with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns manifest diffraction peaks of SnO2 as main phase with weak peaks corresponding to Al2O3 phase. The formation of core@ shell structure is confirmed by TEM images and Rietveld quantitative phase analysis which revealed that small part of Al2O3 is incorporated into the SnO2 lattice while the main part (shell) remains as a separate phase segregated on the grain boundary surface of SnO2 (core). It is found that the grain size of the mixed oxides SnO2 @ xAl2O3 is below 10 nm while for pure SnO2 it is over 41 nm, indicating that alumina can effectively prevent SnO2 from further growing up in the process of calcination. This is confirmed by the large increase in the specific surface area for mixed oxide samples. The PL emission showed great dependence on the structure properties analyzed by XRD and FTIR. The PL results recommend Al2O3@SnO2 core@shell heterostructure to be a promising short-wavelength luminescent optoelectronic devices for blue, UV, and laser light-emitting diodes.

  9. In vitro testing of Al(2)O(3)-Nb composite for femoral head applications in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, M N; Huang, T; Bal, B S; Li, Y

    2010-02-01

    Alumina (Al(2)O(3)) bearings in total hip arthroplasty lead to low wear rates, but catastrophic failure of Al(2)O(3) femoral heads, while rare, remains a concern. In the present work, a composite of Al(2)O(3) and niobium (Nb) was tested in vitro for potential use as an alternative femoral head material in vivo. Dense composite laminates of Al(2)O(3) and Nb were fabricated by hot pressing, and their microstructure and mechanical properties were evaluated. The flexural strength of Al(2)O(3)-Nb laminates in four-point loading was 720+/-40MPa, compared with a value of 460+/-110MPa for Al(2)O(3). Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed a well-bonded interface between the Al(2)O(3) and Nb without measurable formation of an interfacial reaction phase. The interfacial shear strength between Al(2)O(3) and Nb, measured by a double-notched specimen test, was 290+/-15MPa. The feasibility of fabricating prototype femoral heads (32mm in diameter), consisting of an Al(2)O(3) surface layer (2-3mm thick) and a Nb core, by hot pressing was shown. The composite femoral head combined the low wear of an Al(2)O(3) articulating surface with the safety of a ductile metal femoral head.

  10. Effect of addition of Si on thermal and electrical properties of Al-Si-Al2O3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, R.; Jiang, J. X.; Wu, C.; Jiang, X. S.

    2017-06-01

    Al-5wt.%Si-Al2O3, Al-10wt.%Si-Al2O3, Al-20wt.%Si-Al2O3 composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy and in-situ reactive synthesis technology. The impact of the addition of Si on the thermal and electrical properties was tested and analysed for vary in silicon content in Al-Si-Al2O3 composites. Results show that both thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity decreased as silicon content increased because Si and Al2O3 dispersed in the Al matrix uniformly to suppress the high thermal expansion of Al to a large extent as well as the interfacial thermal resistance which led to the decline in thermal conductivity. Electrical resistivity increased when silicon content was increased because low thermal expansion coefficient particles of Si and Al2O3 severely damaged the continuity of the Al matrix which hindered movement of electron in the matrix.

  11. Monitoring the ecotoxicity of γ-Al2O3 and Ni/γ-Al2O3 nanomaterials by means of a battery of bioassays.

    PubMed

    Svartz, Gabriela; Papa, Mariana; Gosatti, Marina; Jordán, Marianela; Soldati, Analia; Samter, Paula; Guraya, María M; Pérez Coll, Cristina; Perez Catán, Soledad

    2017-10-01

    The increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) to a variety of new technologies has become a matter of concern due to the potential toxicity of these materials. Many questions about the fate of NPs in the environment and the subsequent impact on ecosystems need to be answered. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ecotoxicity of two alumina-based nanoceramics, γ-Al2O3 (NC) and Ni/ γ-Al2O3 (NiNC) by means of three different standardized tests: Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), bioassay with luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox), and bioassay on amphibian larvae (Rhinella arenarum) (AMPHITOX). BOD5 values of a very biodegradable mixture (glucose/glutamic acid) decreased with the addition of NiNC(43.8%) and NC (31.6%) with respect to control samples (52.9%). Microtox test results indicated that NiNC presents higher toxicity than NC, with EC50s values of 16.1% and 29.9% respectively; a reduced toxicity was observed, however, in presence of organic matter, thus obtaining EC50s of 37.8% and 19.4%. The results of AMPHITOX test showed a significant increase in the toxicity of both substances over time, the NiNC toxicity being greater than that of NC. The values of 96h-LC50 and 504h-LC50 determined for NiNC were 1.58 and 0.83mg/L, respectively, and 14.5 and 10.5mg/L for NC samples. Amphibian larvae exhibited collapsed cavities, edema, axial flexures, and behavioral alterations as hyperkinesia and reduced movements. These results evidence the vulnerability of wildlife to xenobiotics and the need to develop specific standardized ecotoxicity tests in order to help environmental sustainability and natural species conservation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Electrical Discharge Machining of Al/7.5% Al2O3 MMCs Using Rotary Tool and Al2O3 Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshmand, Saeed; Masoudi, Behnam; Monfared, Vahid

    Nowadays, composites are used in different parts of industries and it is one of the most important subjects. The most widely used reinforcements in metal matrix composites are Al2O3 and SiC fibers and particles which may be used in cutting-edge functional and structural applications of aerospace, defense, and automobile industries. Depending on the type of powder used, composite materials are difficult to machine by conventional cutting tools and methods. The most appropriate way for machining of these composites is electro discharge. For the reason of improving the surface quality, tool wear rate and material removal rate and reducing the cracks on the surface, Al2O3 powder was used. In this study, the effect of input parameters of EDM such as voltage, pulse current, pulse on-time and pulse off-time on output parameters like material removal rate, tool wear rate and surface roughness in both conditions of the rotary tool with powder mixed dielectric EDM and the stationary tool excluding powder mixed dielectric were investigated. The critical parameters were identified by variance analysis, while the optimum machining parameter settings were achieved via Taguchi method. Results show that using of powder mixed dielectric and rotary tool reduce the tool wear rate, surface roughness and the cracks on the surface significantly. It is found also that using of powder mixed dielectric and rotary tool improve the material removal rate due to improved flushing action and sparking efficiency. The analysis of variance showed that the pulse current and pulse on-time affected highly the MRR, TWR, surface roughness and surface cracks.

  13. Effect of catalyst preparation conditions on the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene over Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Lin, Shiow-Shyung; Liu, Tuan-Chi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of preparation conditions on the catalytic properties of the Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. The work included catalyst preparations and reactions. In the preparations, cobalt-impregnated Mo/gamma-Al2O3 (designated as IcIM) was found to have a promoting effect on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. Activity and stability of IcIM was higher than that of Mo/gamma-Al2O3. Conversely, when cobalt was added onto Mo/gamma-Al2O3 by the mechanical mixing method, no promoting effect was observed. Mo/gamma-Al2O3 was also prepared using the two different methods (incipient impregnation or mechanical mixing). The differently prepared Mo/gamma-Al203 resulted in no obvious difference in activity of IcIM. It was further found that Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3 activity initially increased appreciably with Mo content and leveled off at Mo contents above 9 wt.%. The catalyst exhibited a maximum activity at Co/Mo ratio 0.3. The order in which metal species were added had a great influence on the activity of the Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. Higher activity was obtained when Co was added into Mo/gamma-Al2O3 as opposed to Mo added into Co/gamma-Al2O3.

  14. Effect of Nano-Al2O3 on the Toxicity and Oxidative Stress of Copper towards Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Suyang; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    Nano-Al2O3 has been widely used in various industries; unfortunately, it can be released into the aquatic environment. Although nano-Al2O3 is believed to be of low toxicity, it can interact with other pollutants in water, such as heavy metals. However, the interactions between nano-Al2O3 and heavy metals as well as the effect of nano-Al2O3 on the toxicity of the metals have been rarely investigated. The current study investigated copper toxicity in the presence of nano-Al2O3 towards Scenedesmus obliquus. Superoxide dismutase activity and concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde in cells were determined in order to quantify oxidative stress in this study. Results showed that the presence of nano-Al2O3 reduced the toxicity of Cu towards S. obliquus. The existence of nano-Al2O3 decreased the growth inhibition of S. obliquus. The accumulation of copper and the level of oxidative stress in algae were reduced in the presence of nano-Al2O3. Furthermore, lower copper accumulation was the main factor that mitigated copper toxicity with the addition of nano-Al2O3. The decreased copper uptake could be attributed to the adsorption of copper onto nanoparticles and the subsequent decrease of available copper in water. PMID:27294942

  15. Influence of Content of Al2O3 on Structure and Properties of Nanocomposite Nb-B-Al-O films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Dong, Lei; Dong, Lei; Yu, Jiangang; Pan, Yupeng; Wan, Rongxin; Gu, Hanqing; Li, Dejun

    2015-12-01

    Nb-B-Al-O nanocomposite films with different power of Al2O3 were successfully deposited on the Si substrate via multi-target magnetron co-sputtering method. The influences of Al2O3's content on structure and properties of obtained nanocomposite films through controlling Al2O3's power were investigated. Increasing the power of Al2O3 can influence the bombarding energy and cause the momentum transfer of NbB2. This can lead to the decreasing content of Al2O3. Furthermore, the whole films showed monocrystalline NbB2's (100) phase, and Al2O3 shaded from amorphous to weak cubic-crystalline when decreasing content of Al2O3. This structure and content changes were proof by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When NbB2 grains were far from each other in lower power of Al2O3, the whole films showed a typical nanocomposite microstructure with crystalline NbB2 grains embedded in a matrix of an amorphous Al2O3 phase. Continuing increasing the power of Al2O3, the less content of Al2O3 tended to cause crystalline of cubic-Al2O3 between the close distances of different crystalline NbB2 grains. The appearance of cubic-crystallization Al2O3 can help to raise the nanocomposite films' mechanical properties to some extent. The maximum hardness and elastic modulus were up to 21.60 and 332.78 GPa, which were higher than the NbB2 and amorphous Al2O3 monolithic films. Furthermore, this structure change made the chemistry bond of O atom change from the existence of O-Nb, O-B, and O-Al bonds to single O-Al bond and increased the specific value of Al and O. It also influenced the hardness in higher temperature, which made the hardness variation of different Al2O3 content reduced. These results revealed that it can enhance the films' oxidation resistance properties and keep the mechanical properties at high temperature. The study highlighted the importance of controlling the Al2O3's content to prepare

  16. Millimeter distance effects of surface plasmon polaritons in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal diodes is a soft dielectric breakdown that changes the high resistance of as-prepared diodes to a low resistance state. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-metal diodes with anodic Al2O3 results in voltage-controlled negative resistance in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, electroluminescence (EL), and electron emission into vacuum (EM). EL is due to electrons injected at the Al-Al2O3 interface combining with radiative defects in Al2O3. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic waves that can be excited by photons or electrons. SPPs are confined to a metal-dielectric interface, cause large electric fields in the metal and dielectric, and have ranges of micrometers. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EL, and EM of a group of electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 nm and 20 nm, group A, was measured between 200 K and 300 K. After a sequence of temperature measurements, the Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, the Al-Al2O3 regions between diodes, and portions of the Ag on the glass region that provides contacts to the diodes are darkened. The range of darkening is >7 mm in a diode with 12 nm of Al2O3 and 2.0-3.5 mm in diodes with Al2O3 thicknesses between 14 nm and 20 nm. Darkening is attributed to the occurrence of SPPs generated by EL photons at the Ag-Al2O3 and Al-Al2O3 interfaces. The results are compared to a second group of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with identical Al2O3 thicknesses, group B, that were prepared in the same way as the diodes of group A except for a difference in the deposition of Al films for the two groups. Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes of group B exhibit enhanced EL, which is attributed to spontaneous emission of recombination centers in Al2O3 being enhanced by large electromagnetic fields that are due to SPPs that are generated by EL photons.

  17. Measurements of Specific Heat and Density of Al2O3 Nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajjha, Ravikanth S.; Das, Debendra K.

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents measurements of specific heat and density of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles suspended in 60:40 (by mass) ethylene glycol and water mixture (EG/W). These property values are necessary to determine the fluid dynamic and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids. These properties have been measured over a range of temperatures for nanoparticle volumetric concentrations of 0 to 10%. From the experimental results, empirical correlations have been developed as a function of temperature and particle volume concentration. These correlations will be valuable in studying the heat transfer performance and the pumping power requirement of Al2O3 nanofluid in various applications such as industrial heat exchangers, building heating and automotive cooling.

  18. Mechanism of huge void generation in laser-melted Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Takuya; Tatami, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    The sealing of sintered ceramics with metal often results in the formation of huge voids that reduce the strength of the final structure. This study therefore investigates the mechanism of void formation during Nb-sealing of an Al2O3 capillary using Nd:YAG laser irradiation. It is found that during the initial stages of cooling the outer surface of the Al2O3 capillary solidifies rapidly, but the Nb wire used as the heat source remains at a higher temperature for longer. This causes any gases emitted from the sealing section at the time of melting to be constrained within the capillary, which eventually leads to the formation of huge voids.

  19. Diffusion processes in Al2O3 scales - Void growth, grain growth, and scale growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Gibala, R.

    1983-01-01

    The internal microstructure and growth kinetics of Al2O3 scales on Ni-15Cr-13Al (wt percent) are investigated by TEM and analyzed in relation to models of diffusivity. Polished arc-melted specimens were oxidized in 1-atm air at 1100 C for 0.1, 1.0, and 20 hours and ion-thinned for TEM at 100 kV. The frequency distribution of void size and grain size is determined for different oxidation times and scale depths. The kinetics of microvoid growth and of grain and scale growth are plotted and related via simplified models to lattice and grain-boundary oxygen diffusivity, respectively. Good agreement is found between model predictions and data obtained by Oishi and Kingery (1960) on oxygen diffusion in bulk Al2O3. The further implications and limitations of these findings are discssed.

  20. Adherent Al2O3 scales produced on undoped NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Repeated oxidation and polishing of high purity Ni-15Cr-13Al has dramatically changed its cyclic oxidation behavior from nonadherent to adherent. No apparent change in scale phase, morphology or interface structure occurred during this transition, dismissing any mechanism based on pegging, vacancy sink, or growth stress. The principle change that did occur was a reduction in the sulfur content from 10 ppmw to 3 ppmw after 25 cycles at 1120 C. These observations are used to support the model of Al2O3 scale adherence put forth by Smeggil et al. which claims that Al2O3 scale spallation occurs due to sulfur segregation and bond deterioration at the oxide-metal interface.

  1. Protective Al2O3 scale formation on NbAl3-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Hebsur, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of NbAl3 with additions of Cr and Y was studied to determine the mechanisms of the beneficial effects of these elements upon oxidation. Cr additions to the binary NbAl3 alloy of up to 6.8 at. percent reduced the scale growth rates and promoted alpha-Al2O3 formation over much longer times relative to binary NbAl3. A major effect of Cr is to form a layer of AlNbCr at the metal/scale interface, which is inherently more oxidation-resistant than the matrix alloy in the long term. Yttrium additions to a Cr-containing alloy improved the scale growth rate and adherence and changed the scale microstructure to mimic that of a typical protective Al2O3 scale.

  2. Luminescence study of nanosized Al2O3:Tb3+ obtained by gas-dispersed synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovskaya, I. V.; Poletaev, N. I.; Khlebnikova, M. E.; Zatovsky, I. V.; Bychkov, K. L.; Efryushina, N. P.; Khomenko, O. V.; Dotsenko, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    Terbium-doped Al2O3 samples were obtained by gas-dispersed synthesis. It was shown that the resulting powders, with particle sizes of 10-70 nm, consist of a mixture of transition aluminas, among which the δ *-polymorph is dominant. The luminescence properties of Al2O3:Tb3+ have been studied upon excitation in the UV-visible range of the spectrum. It was found that Tb3+ ions cause several groups of inhomogeneously broadened emission bands in the range of 470-640 nm, which are characteristic for disordered materials. In addition, the emission spectra contain a broad band at about 450 nm and several narrower ones in the 680-720 nm region. These features are attributed to surface defects and impurity Cr3+ ions occupying Al3+ octahedral positions, respectively.

  3. Oxygen defects in amorphous Al2O3: A hybrid functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhendong; Ambrosio, Francesco; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    The electronic properties of the oxygen vacancy and interstitial in amorphous Al2O3 are studied via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and hybrid functional calculations. Our results indicate that these defects do not occur in amorphous Al2O3, due to structural rearrangements which assimilate the defect structure and cause a delocalization of the associated defect levels. The imbalance of oxygen leads to a nonstoichiometric compound in which the oxygen occurs in the form of O2- ions. Intrinsic oxygen defects are found to be unable to trap excess electrons. For low Fermi energies, the formation of peroxy linkages is found to be favored leading to the capture of holes. The relative +2/0 defect levels occur at 2.5 eV from the valence band.

  4. Pressure sintering of Si3N4-Al2O3 /Sialon/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. C.; Sanders, W. A.; Fiyalko Luttner, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Essentially pore-free Sialon bodies were obtained by pressure sintering for three blends (mol ratios of 4:1, 2:3, and 3:2) of Si3N4 and Al2O3 powders under the conditions of 27.6 MN/sq m and a temperature of 1700 C for 2 h. These dense bodies consist mainly of a Sialon solid solution with a minor amount of a particular second phase. The higher the Al2O3 content (20 to 60 mol% range) in Sialon, the higher the densification rate. Fully dense bodies can be obtained at temperatures as low as 1500 C at 27.6 MN/sq m for 2 h with no second phase detectable by X-ray diffraction. A 100% dense body can be obtained by heating at 1700 C at 27.6 MN/sq m without a holding time.

  5. Space-charge-controlled field emission model of current conduction through Al2O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    This study proposes a model for current conduction in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, assuming the presence of two sheets of charge in the insulator, and derives analytical formulae of field emission (FE) currents under both negative and positive bias. Since it is affected by the space charge in the insulator, this particular FE differs from the conventional FE and is accordingly named the space-charge-controlled (SCC) FE. The gate insulator of this study was a stack of atomic-layer-deposition Al2O3 and underlying chemical SiO2 formed on Si substrates. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics simulated using the SCC-FE formulae quantitatively reproduced the experimental results obtained by measuring Au- and Al-gated Al2O3/SiO2 MIS capacitors under both biases. The two sheets of charge in the Al2O3 films were estimated to be positive and located at a depth of greater than 4 nm from the Al2O3/SiO2 interface and less than 2 nm from the gate. The density of the former is approximately 1 × 1013 cm-2 in units of electronic charge, regardless of the type of capacitor. The latter forms a sheet of dipoles together with image charges in the gate and hence causes potential jumps of 0.4 V and 1.1 V in the Au- and Al-gated capacitors, respectively. Within a margin of error, this sheet of dipoles is ideally located at the gate/Al2O3 interface and effectively reduces the work function of the gate by the magnitude of the potential jumps mentioned above. These facts indicate that the currents in the Al2O3/SiO2 MIS capacitors are enhanced as compared to those in ideal capacitors and that the currents in the Al-gated capacitors under negative bias (electron emission from the gate) are more markedly enhanced than those in the Au-gated capacitors. The larger number of gate-side dipoles in the Al-gated capacitors is possibly caused by the reaction between the Al and Al2O3, and therefore gate materials that do not react with underlying gate insulators should be chosen

  6. Effect of sulfur removal on Al2O3 scale adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of removing sulfur impurity on the adhesion of Al2O3 scale to NiCrAl was investigated in four experiments. It was found that removing sulfur to concentration less than 1 ppm per weight is sufficient to produce a very significant degree of alpha-Al2O3 scale adhesion to undoped NiCrAl alloys. Results of experiments show that repeated oxidation, and polishing after each oxidation cycle, of pure NiCrAl alloy lowered sulfur content from 10 to 2 ppm by weight (presumably by removing the segregated interfacial layer after each cycle); thinner samples became adherent after fewer oxidation-polishing cycles because of more limited supply of sulfur. It was found that spalling in subsequent cyclic oxidation tests was a direct function of the initial sulfur content. The transition between the adherent and nonadherent behavior was modeled in terms of sulfur flux, sulfur content, and sulfur segregation.

  7. High brightness, narrow-band, Ti:Al2O3 oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. J. W.; Kangas, K. W.; Fisher, C. H.

    The injection-seeding of a short (about 30 cm) Ti:Al2O3 power oscillator with the output from a short-pulse, narrow-band, tunable, Ti:Al2O3 oscillator is reported. The frequency-doubled output from a Continuum YG681C Nd:YAG laser was used as the common pump source for both the seed laser and power oscillator. Good injection-seeding was observed with more than 20 ns delay; less delay than this resulted in poorer seeding. Minimizing the seed laser turn on time allowed harder pumping of the power oscillator, hence higher output energy, while maining good seeding. The spectral output from the power oscillator was analyzed using both an etalon and a 1-m MacPherson spectrometer. The seeded power oscillator is shown to closely replicate the seed laser output, operating on 2 or 3 longitudinal modes.

  8. Anormalous Optical Absorption in Porous Al_2O3 Host Matrix---Nano-Oxide Particle Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lide; Zhang, Biao; Mo, Chimei

    1996-03-01

    Porous Al_2O3 host matrix---nano-γ-Fe_2O3 particle composites (porous nanocomposite) were prepared by pyrolysis of Fe(NO_3)_39H_2O in porous nano- Al_2O3 matrix at 250^0C. Comparing with simple nanocomposites formed by mixing nano-γ-Fe_2O3 and compacting at room temperature, followed by annealing at 250^0C, the following anomalous optical behaviors were observed: for porous nanocomposite containing 5% Fe_2O_3, the aborption edge shifts obviously from 827nm to 543nm, and with increasing dopping amount of Fe_2O3 from 5% to 70%, blue shift phenomina decreases. Namely, the absorption edge moves from 543nm to 710nm. The mechanism of shift of the absorption edge is discussed.

  9. Interdiffusion in the MgO-Al2O3 spinel with or without some dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Debroy, T.; Seetharaman, S.

    1996-08-01

    With a view to seek an improved understanding of the DIMOX process, interdiffusion of polycrystalline MgO and Al2O3 in the temperature range 1473 to 1873 K was studied by diffusion couple experiments. The interdiffusivities in the spinel layer were calculated as functions of composition and temperature. The spinel portion of the phase diagram in the system MgO-Al2O3 was determined from carefully measured compositions at the phase boundaries, and the low temperature spinel region of the phase diagram was confirmed from the present results. For Zn2+ as dopant in alumina, the growth rate of spinel thickness seems to increase when compared with that of the diffusion couples without dopant. The samples containing Si4+ as dopant reveal the formation of a glass phase, and the effect of Si4+ on the diffusion process appears to be negligible.

  10. Gapped Dirac cone in silicene and germanene on Al2O3(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingxing; Weinert, Michael

    Developing guidelines to find promising substrates that can stabilize the monolayer honeycomb structures of silicene and germanene while simultaneously preserving the Dirac-electron-driven properties is of practical importance for applications. From first-principles calculations, we find that silicene on Al-terminated Al2O3(0001) retains the main structural profile of the ideal low-buckled silicene with a binding energy comparable to that of silicene on Ag(111). Unfolded k-projected bands reveal that a gapped Dirac cone is formed at the K point. The underlying mechanism is that the substrate has a large energy gap and the workfunctions are such that there is little direct bonding of between the silicene Dirac states and the substrate, which further guides us to find gapped Dirac states in germanene on Al2O3(0001).

  11. Visible luminescence of Al2O3 nanoparticles embedded in silica glass host matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mir, L.; Amlouk, A.; Barthou, C.

    2006-11-01

    This paper deals with the sol gel elaboration and defects photoluminescence (PL) examination of Al2O3 nanocrystallites (size ˜30 nm) confined in glass based on silica aerogel. Aluminium oxide aerogels were synthesized using esterification reaction for hydrolysis of the precursor and supercritical conditions of ethyl alcohol for drying. The obtained nanopowder was incorporated in SiO2 host matrix. After heating under natural atmosphere at 1150 °C for 2 h, the composite Al2O3/SiO2 (AS) exhibited a strong PL bands at 400 600 and 700 900 nm in 78 300 K temperature range. PL excitation (PLE) measurements show different origins of the emission. It was suggested that OH-related radiative centres and non-bridging oxygen hole centres (NBOHCs) were responsible for the bands at 400 600 and 700 900 nm, respectively.

  12. Modification of Fluorinated Al2O3 Surface by Irradiating H2 and O2 Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Kazuhiro; Usami, Kenji; Takada, Noriharu; Sasaki, Koichi

    2009-12-01

    We irradiated H2 and O2 plasmas onto fluorinated Al2O3, which was prepared by exposing a virgin Al2O3 sample to an SF6/O2 plasma. The effects of the H2 plasma irradiation were the reduction of the AlOxFy (x + y = 1.5) and AlFx (x < 3) bonding components and the realization of smooth sample surface. It was observed that the irradiation of the H2 plasma induced Al-OH bonding. The Al-OH bonding was removed by the sequential irradiation of the O2 plasma after the H2 plasma irradiation. The O2 plasma irradiation also resulted in peroxidation and an increase in surface roughness.

  13. Theory of the clean and hydrogenated Al2O3(0001)-(1×1) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felice, Rosa Di; Northrup, John E.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of a first principles investigation of the equilibrium properties of c-plane α-Al2O3 surfaces. The stable structure for the 1×1 clean surface is Al terminated with a stoichiometric composition, while other terminations are unstable independent of surface preparation conditions. We discuss the implications of our results in the frame of possible extended reconstructions. For 1 monolayer of H coverage, we find that the preferred structure has OH dimers both perpendicular and nearly parallel to the surface. H-terminated surfaces may form in suitable preparation conditions. We discuss our results in terms of water adsorption and atomic layer epitaxy of α-Al2O3(0001).

  14. Effect of hydrogen on Al2O3/Cu interfacial structure and adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Scheffler, Matthias

    2002-08-01

    We have carried out an ab initio investigation of the effect of hydrogen on the Al2O3/Cu interface. H on the Al2O3 surface can play a bridging role in the formation of the interface. The interfacial OH bond is stable in the presence of two atomic layers of Cu. In contrast, an Al monolayer would dissociate the surface OH bond. For thicker Cu, one-third of a monolayer of H remains stable in the interface, lowering the work of separation by 2.3 J/m2. The interfacial work of separation remains larger than that of bulk Cu, however. These results are consistent with available experimental data.

  15. Geant4 calculations for space radiation shielding material Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capali, Veli; Acar Yesil, Tolga; Kaya, Gokhan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Yavuz, Mustafa; Tilki, Tahir

    2015-07-01

    Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 is the most widely used material in the engineering applications. It is significant aluminium metal, because of its hardness and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point. This material has several engineering applications in diverse fields such as, ballistic armour systems, wear components, electrical and electronic substrates, automotive parts, components for electric industry and aero-engine. As well, it is used as a dosimeter for radiation protection and therapy applications for its optically stimulated luminescence properties. In this study, stopping powers and penetrating distances have been calculated for the alpha, proton, electron and gamma particles in space radiation shielding material Al2O3 for incident energies 1 keV - 1 GeV using GEANT4 calculation code.

  16. Mechanical properties of Al2O3 inverse opals by means of nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, J. J.; Coll, A.; Bermejo, S.; Jiménez-Piqué, E.; Alcubilla, R.; Castañer, L.; Llanes, L.

    2016-11-01

    In order to understand the mechanical behaviour of Al2O3 inverse opals, nanoindentation techniques have been implemented in material layers with three different microstructures, in terms of hollow or polystyrene spheres, with Al2O3 shells of distinct wall thickness. Different indenter tip geometries as well as contact loading conditions have been used, in order to induce different stress field and fracture events to the layers. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam have been employed to understand accommodation of plastic deformation induced during the indentation process. Results show that materials with polystyrene spheres exhibit higher hardness and modulus under sharp indentation, and cracking resistance under spherical indentation. Furthermore, deformation is discerned to be mainly governed by the rotation of the microspheres. In the case of the inverse opals made of hollow spheres, the main deformation mechanisms activated under indentation are the rearrangement and densification of them.

  17. Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in a polycrystalline α-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asatryan, H. R.; Zakharchenya, R. I.; Kutsenko, A. B.; Babunts, R. A.; Baranov, P. G.

    2007-06-01

    The EPR spectra of rare-earth Er3+ ions in a polycrystalline corundum α-Al2O3 synthesized by the sol-gel technology were revealed. It is shown that the EPR spectra belong to the Er3+ ions in the ground state corresponding to the lower Stark sublevel of the 4 I 15/2 term and can be described by the spin Hamiltonian of axial symmetry with an effective spin S = 1/2 and the g tensor with components g ‖ = 12.176 and g ⊥ = 4.14. The average value of the g tensor ( = 6.82) corresponds to the Γ7 state in a cubic field. Erbium is assumed to substitute for aluminum in the Al2O3 corundum crystal. The local symmetry C 3 of the Al3+ ion remains despite the pronounced expansion of the lattice around the Er3+ ion.

  18. Versatile sputtering technology for Al2O3 gate insulators on graphene.

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Miriam; Woszczyna, Mirosław; Müller, André; Wundrack, Stefan; Dziomba, Thorsten; Weimann, Thomas; Ahlers, Franz J

    2012-04-01

    We report a novel, sputtering-based fabrication method of Al2O3 gate insulators on graphene. Electrical performance of dual-gated mono- and bilayer exfoliated graphene devices is presented. Sputtered Al2O3 layers possess comparable quality to oxides obtained by atomic layer deposition with respect to a high relative dielectric constant of about 8, as well as low-hysteresis performance and high breakdown voltage. We observe a moderate carrier mobility of about 1000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in monolayer graphene and 350 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in bilayer graphene, respectively. The mobility decrease can be attributed to the resonant scattering on atomic-scale defects, likely originating from the Al precursor layer evaporated prior to sputtering.

  19. Tribological properties of Ag/Ti films on Al2O3 ceramic substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Pepper, Stephen V.; Honecy, Frank S.

    1991-01-01

    Ag solid lubricant films, with a thin Ti interlayer for enhanced adhesion, were sputter deposited on Al2O3 substrate disks to reduce friction and wear. The dual Ag/Ti films were tested at room temperature in a pin-on-disk tribometer sliding against bare, uncoated Al2O3 pins under a 4.9 N load at a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. The Ag/Ti films reduced the friction coefficient by 50 percent to about 0.41 compared to unlubricated baseline specimens. Pin wear was reduced by a factor of 140 and disk wear was reduced by a factor of 2.5 compared to the baseline. These films retain their good tribological properties including adhesion after heat treatments at 850 C and thus may be able to lubricate over a wide temperature range. This lubrication technique is applicable to space lubrication, advanced heat engines, and advanced transportation systems.

  20. Fabrication of SiC/Al2O3 CMCs & their physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Santhosh; Devaiah, M.; Rajasekharan, T.

    2012-06-01

    SiC particulate reinforced Al2O3 matrix composites were fabricated using Directed Metal Oxidation (DIMOX) process. Continuous oxidation of an Al-8.5Si-1.5Mg-9Zn alloy in presence SiC perform with suitable dopants has led to the formation of the Al2O3 matrix. Ceramic composites with SiC volume fraction in the range of 0.35 - 0.43 were evaluated for effective co-efficient of linear thermal expansion (CTE) and elastic properties. The composites with high volume fraction of SiC showed a minimum dilatation with temperature (5.0 × 10-6 /K) and also enhancement in elastic properties (E: 262 GPa; G: 87 GPa; K: 189 GPa). Also, the elastic properties of the ceramic composites increased with SiC volume fraction.

  1. Frustration of Negative Capacitance in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayer Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Min Hyuk; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Han Joon; Jeon, Woojin; Moon, Taehwan; Do Kim, Keum; Jeong, Doo Seok; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of capacitance by negative capacitance (NC) effect in a dielectric/ferroelectric (DE/FE) stacked film is gaining a greater interest. While the previous theory on NC effect was based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory, this work adopted a modified formalism to incorporate the depolarization effect to describe the energy of the general DE/FE system. The model predicted that the SrTiO3/BaTiO3 system will show a capacitance boost effect. It was also predicted that the 5 nm-thick Al2O3/150 nm-thick BaTiO3 system shows the capacitance boost effect with no FE-like hysteresis behavior, which was inconsistent with the experimental results; the amorphous-Al2O3/epitaxial-BaTiO3 system showed a typical FE-like hysteresis loop in the polarization – voltage test. This was due to the involvement of the trapped charges at the DE/FE interface, originating from the very high field across the thin Al2O3 layer when the BaTiO3 layer played a role as the NC layer. Therefore, the NC effect in the Al2O3/BaTiO3 system was frustrated by the involvement of reversible interface charge; the highly stored charge by the NC effect of the BaTiO3 during the charging period could not be retrieved during the discharging process because integral part of the polarization charge was retained within the system as a remanent polarization.

  2. X-ray imaging using the thermoluminescent properties of commercial Al2O3 ceramic plates.

    PubMed

    Shinsho, Kiyomitsu; Kawaji, Yasuyuki; Yanagisawa, Shin; Otsubo, Keisuke; Koba, Yusuke; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Matsumoto, Kazuki; Ushiba, Hiroaki

    2016-05-01

    This research demonstrated that commercially available alumina is well-suited for use in large area X-ray detectors. We discovered a new radiation imaging device that has a high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, large imaging area, repeatable results, and low operating costs. The high thermoluminescent (TL) properties of Al2O3 ceramic plates make them useful for X-ray imaging devices.

  3. Frustration of Negative Capacitance in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayer Structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Min Hyuk; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Han Joon; Jeon, Woojin; Moon, Taehwan; Kim, Keum Do; Jeong, Doo Seok; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-08

    Enhancement of capacitance by negative capacitance (NC) effect in a dielectric/ferroelectric (DE/FE) stacked film is gaining a greater interest. While the previous theory on NC effect was based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory, this work adopted a modified formalism to incorporate the depolarization effect to describe the energy of the general DE/FE system. The model predicted that the SrTiO3/BaTiO3 system will show a capacitance boost effect. It was also predicted that the 5 nm-thick Al2O3/150 nm-thick BaTiO3 system shows the capacitance boost effect with no FE-like hysteresis behavior, which was inconsistent with the experimental results; the amorphous-Al2O3/epitaxial-BaTiO3 system showed a typical FE-like hysteresis loop in the polarization - voltage test. This was due to the involvement of the trapped charges at the DE/FE interface, originating from the very high field across the thin Al2O3 layer when the BaTiO3 layer played a role as the NC layer. Therefore, the NC effect in the Al2O3/BaTiO3 system was frustrated by the involvement of reversible interface charge; the highly stored charge by the NC effect of the BaTiO3 during the charging period could not be retrieved during the discharging process because integral part of the polarization charge was retained within the system as a remanent polarization.

  4. Theoretical insight into Cobalt subnano-clusters adsorption on α-Al2O3 (0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fen-e.; Ren, Jun; Wang, Qiang; Li, Debao; Hou, Bo; Jia, Litao; Cao, Duanlin

    2017-02-01

    The investigation on the structural stability, nucleation, growth and interaction of cobalt cluster Con(n=2-7) on the α-Al2O3(0001) surface by using density functional theory methods has been reported. Energetically, the most favorable adsorption sites were identified and the strongest adsorption energy cluster is the tetrahedral Co4 cluster. On the other hand, the nucleation of Con(n=2-7) clusters on the surface is exothermic and thermodynamically favorable. Moreover, even-odd alternation was found with respect to clusters nucleation as a function of the number of cobalt atoms (for n=1-7). Meanwhile, the Con clusters can be adsorbed on the surface stably owing to the charge transfer from Co atoms to Al and O atoms of the Al2O3 substrate. In addition, we establish the crucial importance of monomer, dimer and trimer diffusion on the surface. The diffusion of the monomer cobalt from Al(3) to O(5) or O(5) to Al(4) site is quite easy on the Al2O3(0001) surface, whereas the diffusion of the Co2 dimer is thermodynamically unfavorable by compared with that of the Co adatom and Co3 trimer.

  5. Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on NF3-pre-treated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junige, Marcel; Oddoy, Tim; Yakimova, Rositsa; Darakchieva, Vanya; Wenger, Christian; Lupina, Grzegorz; Kitzmann, Julia; Albert, Matthias; Bartha, Johann W.

    2015-06-01

    Graphene has been considered for a variety of applications including novel nanoelectronic device concepts. However, the deposition of ultra-thin high-k dielectrics on top of graphene has still been challenging due to graphene's lack of dangling bonds. The formation of large islands and leaky films has been observed resulting from a much delayed growth initiation. In order to address this issue, we tested a pre-treatment with NF3 instead of XeF2 on CVD graphene as well as epitaxial graphene monolayers prior to the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of Al2O3. All experiments were conducted in vacuo; i. e. the pristine graphene samples were exposed to NF3 in the same reactor immediately before applying 30 (TMA-H2O) ALD cycles and the samples were transferred between the ALD reactor and a surface analysis unit under high vacuum conditions. The ALD growth initiation was observed by in-situ real-time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (irtSE) with a sampling rate above 1 Hz. The total amount of Al2O3 material deposited by the applied 30 ALD cycles was cross-checked by in-vacuo X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The Al2O3 morphology was determined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The presence of graphene and its defect status was examined by in-vacuo XPS and Raman Spectroscopy before and after the coating procedure, respectively.

  6. Removal of alachlor from water by catalyzed ozonation on Cu/Al2O3 honeycomb

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The herbicide alachlor (2-chloro-2′6′-diethyl-N-methoxymethylacetanilide) has been known as a probable human carcinogen, and the MCL (minimum contamination level) for drinking water has been set at 2 μg L-1. Therefore, the advanced methods for effectively removing it from water are a matter of interest. Catalyzed ozonation is a promising method for refractory organics degradation. Cu/Al2O3 catalyzed ozonation for degrading an endocrine disruptor (alachlor) in water was investigated. Results Experimental results showed that the ozonation of alachlor can be effectively catalyzed and enhanced by Cu/Al2O3-honeycomb. The main intermediate products formed (aliphatic carboxylic acids) were mineralized to a large extent in the catalytic process. Conclusions This study has shown that Cu/Al2O3-honeycomb is a feasible and efficient catalyst in the ozonation of alachlor in water. Less intermediate oxidation product was produced in the catalytic process than in the uncatalytic one. Furthermore, the mineralization of alachlor could be enhanced by increasing the pH of the reaction solution. PMID:23977841

  7. Room Temperature Radiolytic Synthesized Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a 60Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation. PMID:23109893

  8. Insight into the effects of different ageing protocols on Rh/Al2O3 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Baohuai; Ran, Rui; Cao, Yidan; Wu, Xiaodong; Weng, Duan; Fan, Jun; Wu, Xueyuan

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a catalyst of Rh loaded on Al2O3 was prepared by impregnating method with rhodium nitrate aqueous solution as the Rh precursor. The catalyst was aged under different protocols (lean, rich, inert and cyclic) to obtain several aged samples. All the Rh/Al2O3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, CO-chemisorption, H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that a specific ageing treatment could strongly affect the catalytic activity. The N2 aged and the H2 aged samples had a better catalytic activity for CO + NO reaction than the fresh sample while the air aged and the cyclic aged samples exhibited much worse activity. More surface Rh content and better reducibility were obtained in the N2 and the H2 aged samples and the Rh particles existed with an appropriate size, which were all favorable to the catalytic reaction. However, the air and the cyclic ageing protocols induced a strong interaction between Rh species and the Al2O3 support, which resulted in a severe sintering of particles of Rh species and the loss of active sites. The structure evolution scheme of the catalysts aged in different protocols was also established in this paper.

  9. Simulation of pressure-induced phase transition in liquid and amorphous Al2 O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Vo Van; Oh, Suhk Kun

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the pressure-induced structural transformation in liquid and amorphous Al2O3 by the molecular dynamics (MD) method. Simulations were done in the basic cube under periodic boundary conditions containing 3000 ions with Born-Mayer type pair potentials. The structure of the amorphous Al2O3 model with real density at ambient pressure is in good agreement with Lamparter’s experiment. In order to study the amorphous-amorphous phase transition, 23 models of amorphous alumina at the temperature of 350K and at densities ranging from 2.83to5.0gcm-3 had been built. The microstructure of the Al2O3 systems had been analyzed through pair radial distribution functions, coordination number distributions, interatomic distances, and bond-angle distributions. Here we found clear evidence of a structural transition in amorphous alumina from a tetrahedral to an octahedral network upon compression. According to our results, this transformation occurred at densities ranging from 3.6to4.05gcm-3 . We also presented the amorphous-amorphous phase transition from an octahedral to a tetrahedral network structure upon decompression at densities ranging from 5.00to2.83gcm-3 . Also, the same study was carried out for the liquid state of the system at the temperature of 3500K , and the liquid-liquid phase transition had been discussed.

  10. Exploring metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of Si-alloyed Al2O3 dielectrics using disilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Keller, Stacia; Koksaldi, Onur S.; Gupta, Chirag; DenBaars, Steven P.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2017-04-01

    The alloying of Al2O3 films with Si is a promising route to improve gate dielectric properties in Si- and wide-bandgap- based MOS devices. Here we present a comprehensive investigation of alloyed film growth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using trimethylaluminum, disilane, and oxygen precursors over a variety of temperature and flow conditions. Binary growth rates of Al2O3 and SiO2 were evaluated to explain the aggregate growth kinetics of Si-alloyed Al2O3 films, and refractive indices were used to monitor Si incorporation efficiencies. The temperature dependence of the reaction rate of disilane with oxygen was found to be similar to that of trimethylaluminum and oxygen, leading to well-behaved deposition behavior in the kinetic and mass-transport controlled growth regimes. Compositional predictability and stability was achieved over a wider growth space with disilane-based growths as compared to previous work, which used silane as the Si precursor instead. In situ (Al,Si)O/n-GaN MOS gate stacks were grown and showed increasing reduction of net positive fixed charges with higher Si composition.

  11. A short-time fading study of Al2O3:C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, L. F.; Vanhavere, F.; Silva, E. H.; Deene, Y. De

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the short-time fading from Al2O3:C by measuring optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals (Total OSL: TOSL, and Peak OSL: POSL) from droplets and Luxel™ pellets. The influence of various bleaching regimes (blue, green and white) and light power is compared. The fading effect is the decay of the OSL signal in the dark at room temperature. Al2O3:C detectors were submitted to various bleaching regimes, irradiated with a reference dose and read out after different time spans. Investigations were carried out using 2 mm size droplet detectors, made of thin Al2O3:C powder mixed with a photocured polymer. Tests were compared to Luxel™-type detectors (Landauer Inc.). Short-time post-irradiation fading is present in OSL results (TOSL and POSL) droplets for time spans up to 200 s. The effect of short-time fading can be lowered/removed when treating the detectors with high-power and/or long time bleaching regimes; this result was observed in both TOSL and POSL from droplets and Luxel™.

  12. Investigation of Al2O3-MWCNTs hybrid dispersion in water and their thermal characterization.

    PubMed

    Nine, M J; Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Kim, Jun-Hyo; Chung, Han-Shik; Jeong, Hyo-Min

    2012-06-01

    Synthesis of water based Al2O3-MWCNTs hybrid nanofluids have been investigated and characterized. Al2O3-MWCNTs nanoparticles in weight proportion of 97.5:2.5 to 90:10 have been studied over 1% to 6% weight concentration. Dispersion quality of nanofluids is assured by additional synthesis process like acids treatment and grinding of MWCNTs by planetary ball mill. The effects of ground and non-ground MWCNTs over dispersion quality and thermal conductivity have been investigated. Sedimentation effect of hybrid nanofluids with time length has been studied by sample visualization and TEM micrographs. The augmentative absorbance and thermal conductivity of hybrid nanofluids have been compared with pure Al2O3/water nanofluids. The overall result shows that the enhancement in normalized thermal conductivity of hybrid nanofluids is still not so sharp though the absorbance and other qualities show much better comparing mono type nanofluids. Hybrid nanofluids with spherical particles show a smaller increase in thermal conductivity comparing cylindrical shape particles.

  13. The electrical conductivity of Al2O3 under shock-compression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanyu; Tse, John S.; Nellis, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Sapphire (Al2O3) crystals are used below 100 GPa as anvils and windows in dynamic-compression experiments because of their transparency and high density. Above 100 GPa shock pressures, sapphire becomes opaque and electrically conducting because of shock-induced defects. Such effects prevent temperature and dc conductivity measurements of materials compressed quasi-isentropically. Opacities and electrical conductivities at ~100 GPa are non-equilibrium, rather than thermodynamic parameters. We have performed electronic structure calculations as a guide in predicting and interpreting shock experiments and possibly to discover a window up to ~200 GPa. Our calculations indicate shocked sapphire does not metallize by band overlap at ~300 GPa, as suggested previously by measured non-equilibrium data. Shock-compressed Al2O3 melts to a metallic liquid at ~500 GPa and 10,000 K and its conductivity increases rapidly to ~2000 Ω−1cm−1 at ~900 GPa. At these high shock temperatures and pressures sapphire is in thermal equilibrium. Calculated conductivity of Al2O3 is similar to those measured for metallic fluid H, N, O, Rb, and Cs. Despite different materials, pressures and temperatures, and compression techniques, both experimental and theoretical, conductivities of all these poor metals reach a common end state typical of strong-scattering disordered materials. PMID:26239369

  14. Effect of adsorbed films on friction of Al2O3-metal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetic friction of polycrystalline Al2O3 sliding on Cu, Ni, and Fe in ultrahigh vacuum was studied as a function of the surface chemistry of the metal. Clean metal surfaces were exposed to O2, Cl2, C2H4, and C2H3Cl, and the change in friction due to the adsorbed species was observed. Auger electron spectroscopy assessed the elemental composition of the metal surface. It was found that the systems exposed to Cl2 exhibited low friction, interpreted as the van der Waals force between the Al2O3 and metal chloride. The generation of metal oxide by oxygen exposures resulted in an increase in friction, interpreted as due to strong interfacial bonds established by reaction of metal oxide with Al2O3 to form the complex oxide (spinel). The only effect of C2H4 was to increase the friction of the Fe system, but C2H3Cl exposures decreases friction in both Ni and Fe systems, indicating the dominance of the chlorine over the ethylene complex on the surface

  15. Enhanced thermal stability of carbon nanotubes by plasma surface modification in Al2O3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hoonsung; Shi, Donglu; Guo, Yan; Lian, Jie; Ren, Zhifeng; Poudel, Bed; Song, Yi; Abot, Jandro L.; Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Wang, Lumin; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2008-10-01

    A plasma polymerization method was employed to deposit an ultrathin pyrrole film of 3 nm onto the surfaces of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and Al2O3 nanoparticles for developing high-strength nanocomposites. The surfaces of plasma coated SWCNTs and Al2O3 nanoparticles were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. After sintering the SWCNTs-Al2O3 composites at different temperatures (maximum of 1200 °C), the thermal stability of plasma-coated SWCNTs was significantly increased, compared to their uncoated counterparts. After hot-press sintering, the SWCNTs without plasma coating were essentially decomposed into amorphous clusters in the composites, leading to degraded mechanical properties. However, under the same sintering conditions, the plasma surface modified SWCNTs were well preserved and distributed in the composite matrices. The effects of plasma surface coating on the thermal stability of SWCNTs and mechanical behavior of the nanocomposites are discussed.

  16. Paramagnetic Spins on -Al2O3 with Varied Surface Termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Keith; Lee, Donghwa; Adelstein, Nicole; Dubois, Jonathan; Lordi, Vincenzo

    Superconducting qubits (SQs) are promising building blocks for a quantum computer, however, coherence in SQs is reduced by unintended coupling to magnetic noise sources. The microscopic origins of the magnetic noise have not been satisfactorily characterized. Building on previous computational studies of magnetic spins induced by molecules adsorbed on bare Al terminated Al2O3, we present a density functional theory investigation of magnetic noise associated with other Al2O3 surfaces likely to be encountered in experiment. We calculate the exchange interaction between native defects and adsorbed molecules, as well as the magnetic states energy splitting and anisotropy, on fully hydroxylated Al2O3, with and without a water over-layer. We also present simulated x-ray adsorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra of these systems with the aim of aiding experimental surface characterization. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Al2O3 Nanoparticle Addition to Commercial Magnesium Alloys: Multiple Beneficial Effects

    PubMed Central

    Paramsothy, Muralidharan; Chan, Jimmy; Kwok, Richard; Gupta, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects of Al2O3 nanoparticle addition to cast magnesium based systems (followed by extrusion) were investigated, constituting either: (a) enhanced strength; or (b) simultaneously enhanced strength and ductility of the corresponding magnesium alloys. AZ31 and ZK60A nanocomposites containing Al2O3 nanoparticle reinforcement were each fabricated using solidification processing followed by hot extrusion. Compared to monolithic AZ31 (tension levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited higher yield strength (0.2% tensile yield strength (TYS)), ultimate strength (UTS), failure strain and work of fracture (WOF) (+19%, +21%, +113% and +162%, respectively). Compared to monolithic AZ31 (compression levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited higher yield strength (0.2% compressive yield strength (CYS)) and ultimate strength (UCS), lower failure strain and higher WOF (+5%, +5%, −4% and +11%, respectively). Compared to monolithic ZK60A (tension levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited lower 0.2% TYS and higher UTS, failure strain and WOF (−4%, +13%, +170% and +200%, respectively). Compared to monolithic ZK60A (compression levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited lower 0.2% CYS and higher UCS, failure strain and WOF (−10%, +7%, +15% and +26%, respectively). The capability of Al2O3 nanoparticles to enhance the properties of cast magnesium alloys in a way never seen before with micron length scale reinforcements is clearly demonstrated.

  18. Tribological Behavior of A356/Al2O3 Surface Nanocomposite Prepared by Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Y.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M. H.

    2014-04-01

    Surface A356 aluminum alloy matrix composites containing micro and nanosized Al2O3 are prepared by a new approach utilizing high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying and friction stir processing (FSP). Optical and scanning electron microscopy, microhardness, and wear tests were used to characterize the surface composites. Results indicated that, the presence of Al2O3 in matrix can improve the mechanical properties of specimens. The microhardness of surface composites containing micro and nanosized Al2O3 were 89.8 ± 2.6 HV and 109.7 ± 2.5 HV, respectively, which were higher than those for the as-received (79.6 ± 1.1 HV) and the FSPed A356-T6 with no alumina powder (66.8 ± 0.9 HV). Surface composites revealed low friction coefficients and wear rates, which were significantly lower than those obtained for substrate. The wear mass losses of the as-received, the FSPed, and surface micro and nanocomposite specimens after 500-m sliding distance were 50.5, 55.6, 31, and 17.2 mg, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy tests revealed different wear mechanisms on the surface of the wear test specimens.

  19. Electrical characteristics of SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong; Yao, Manwen; Chen, Jianwen; Xu, Kaien; Yao, Xi

    2016-07-01

    The electrical characteristics of SrTiO3/Al2O3 (160 nm up/90 nm down) laminated film capacitors using the sol-gel process have been investigated. SrTiO3 is a promising and extensively studied high-K dielectric material, but its leakage current property is poor. SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated films can effectively suppress the demerits of pure SrTiO3 films under low electric field, but the leakage current value reaches to 0.1 A/cm2 at higher electric field (>160 MV/m). In this study, a new approach was applied to reduce the leakage current and improve the dielectric strength of SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated films. Compared to laminated films with Au top electrodes, dielectric strength of laminated films with Al top electrodes improves from 205 MV/m to 322 MV/m, simultaneously the leakage current maintains the same order of magnitude (10-4 A/cm2) until the breakdown occurs. The above electrical characteristics are attributed to the anodic oxidation reaction in origin, which can repair the defects of laminated films at higher electric field. The anodic oxidation reactions have been confirmed by the corresponding XPS measurement and the cross sectional HRTEM analysis. This work provides a new approach to fabricate dielectrics with high dielectric strength and low leakage current.

  20. HDPE-Al2O3-HAp composites for biomedical applications: processing and characterizations.

    PubMed

    Nath, Shekhar; Bodhak, Subhadip; Basu, Bikramjit

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate how the stiffness, hardness, as well as the biocompatibility property, of bioinert high-density polyethylene (HDPE) can be significantly improved by the combined addition of both bioinert and bioactive ceramic fillers. For this purpose, different volume fractions of hydroxyapatite and alumina, limited to a total of 40 vol %, have been incorporated in HDPE matrix. All the hybrid composites and monolithic HDPE were developed under optimized hot pressing condition (130 degrees C, 0.5 h, 92 MPa pressure). The results of the mechanical property characterization reveal that higher elastic modulus (6.2 GPa) and improved hardness (226.5 MPa) could be obtained in the developed HDPE-20 vol %-HAp-20 vol % Al(2)O(3) composite. Under the selected fretting conditions against various counterbody materials (steel, Al(2)O(3), and ZrO(2)), an extremely low COF of (0.07-0.11) and higher wear resistance (order of 10(-6) mm(3)/Nm) are obtained with the HDPE/20 vol % HAp/20 vol % Al(2)O(3) composite in both air and simulated body fluid environment. Importantly, in-vitro cell culture study using L929 fibroblast cells confirms favorable cell adhesion properties in the developed hybrid composite. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Impact of Al2O3 on the aggregation and deposition of graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xuemei; Li, Jiaxing; Tan, Xiaoli; Shi, Weiqun; Chen, Changlun; Shao, Dadong; Wen, Tao; Wang, Longfei; Zhao, Guixia; Sheng, Guoping; Wang, Xiangke

    2014-05-20

    To assess the environmental behavior and impact of graphene oxide (GO) on living organisms more accurately, the aggregation of GO and its deposition on Al2O3 particles were systematically investigated using batch experiments across a wide range of solution chemistries. The results indicated that the aggregation of GO and its deposition on Al2O3 depended on the solution pH and the types and concentrations of electrolytes. MgCl2 and CaCl2 destabilized GO because of their effective charge screening and neutralization, and the presence of NaH2PO4 and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) improved the stability of GO with the increase in pH values as a result of electrostatic interactions and steric repulsion. Specifically, the dissolution of Al2O3 contributed to GO aggregation at relatively low pH or high pH values. Results from this study provide critical information for predicting the fate of GO in aquatic-terrestrial transition zones, where aluminum (hydro)oxides are present.

  2. Solid state reduction of chromium (VI) pollution for Al2O3-Cr metal ceramics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hekai; Fang, Minghao; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yangai; Tang, Hao; Min, Xin; Wu, Xiaowen

    2016-04-01

    Reduction of chromium (VI) from Na2CrO4 through aluminothermic reaction and fabrication of metal-ceramic materials from the reduction products have been investigated in this study. Na2CrO4 could be successfully reduced into micrometer-sized Cr particles in a flowing Ar atmosphere in presence of Al powder. The conversion ratio of Na2CrO4 to metallic Cr attained 96.16% efficiency. Al2O3-Cr metal-ceramic with different Cr content (5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt%, 20 wt%) were further prepared from the reduction product Al2O3-Cr composite powder, and aluminum oxide nanopowder via pressure-less sintering. The phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of metal-ceramic composites were characterized to ensure the potential of the Al2O3-Cr composite powder to form ceramic materials. The highest relative density and bending strength can reach 93.4% and 205 MP, respectively. The results indicated that aluminothermic reduction of chromium (VI) for metal-ceramics application is a potential approach to remove chromium (VI) pollutant from the environment.

  3. Microstructure and High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of ZrO2-Al2O3-SiC Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Ping; Ouyang, Jia-Hu; Wang, Yu-Jin; Liu, Zhan-Guo; Wang, Ya-Ming

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramics incorporated with and without β-SiC were prepared by hot pressing. ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramic powder used in this study is a mixture of 71 vol.% YSZ (3 mol.% Y2O3 partially stabilized zirconia) and 29 vol.% α-Al2O3. β-SiC powders with different volume fractions are added into the ZrO2-Al2O3 powder to form the composite powder. The microstructure and high-temperature mechanical properties of ZrO2-Al2O3-SiC ceramics were investigated by tailoring the compositions and sintering parameters to optimize the strengthening mechanisms. For a comparative study, the TZ3Y20A powder was also hot-pressed under identical sintering condition to form dense bulk ceramic. ZrO2-Al2O3-SiC ceramics consist mainly of t-ZrO2, α-Al2O3, and β-SiC phases. SiC particles in the ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramic restrain the grain growth of the oxide matrix. The incorporation of SiC into ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramic enhances high-temperature flexural strength at 1273 K. ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramic incorporated with 15 vol.% SiC has a flexural strength of 518 MPa at 1273 K, much higher than that (201 MPa) of unmodified ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramic.

  4. On the thermal buckling of simply supported rectangular plates made of a sigmoid functionally graded Al/Al2O3 based material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmane, H. A.; Bedia, E. A. A.; Bouazza, M.; Tounsi, A.; Fekrar, A.

    2016-03-01

    We study the thermal buckling of a simply supported sigmoid functionally graded (SFGM) rectangular plate using first-order shear deformation theory. The S-FGM system consists of ceramic (Al2O3) and metal (Al) phases varying across the plate thickness according to a law described by two power-law functions. The effective properties of the composite are determined by the rule of mixtures, whose implementation is simpler than that of methods of micromechanics. The thermal heating is characterized by a uniform, linear, or sinusoidal temperature distribution across the plate thickness. The effects of the plate aspect ratio, the relative thickness, the gradient index, and the transverse shear on the buckling temperature difference are studied.

  5. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Fe and Au Ion-Implanted Al2O3 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Ryosuke; Sakamoto, Isao; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Nomura, Kiyoshi; Honda, Shigeo; Ishida, Tomoya; Iio, Satoshi; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Toriyama, Tamotsu

    2011-01-01

    Au ion implantation in Fe ion-implanted Al2O3 (Fe/Al2O3) has been performed in order to tailor the structural, magnetic and optical properties of Fe granules in Al2O3 matrix. After Au ion implantation, Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements indicate the decrease and the redistribution of retained Fe atoms with the inclusion of Au atoms, and the patterns of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show the formation of Au granules in the Fe/Al2O3. Besides, the magnetization curves of the Fe/Al2O3 after Au ion implantation show still the superparamagnetic characteristics and the decrease of saturation magnetization, and the optical absorption measurements indicate the formation of Au granules in the Fe/Al2O3 in accordance with the XRD result. In addition, we investigated a behavior of Fe granules in Al2O3 matrix by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), which indicates the decrease of superparamagnetic state as a function of Au ion dose. As a result, it is suggested that Au ion implantation has potentialities to tailor the physical properties of Fe granules in Al2O3 matrix.

  6. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of Al2O3-WC nanocomposite ceramic spectrally selective solar absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang-Hu; Wang, Cheng-Bing; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Geng, Qing-Fen; Theiss, Wolfgang; Liu, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Traditional metal-dielectric composite coating has found important application in spectrally selective solar absorbers. However, fine metal particles can easily diffuse, congregate, or be oxidized at high temperature, which causes deterioration in the optical properties. In this work, we report a new spectrally selective solar absorber coating, composed of low Al2O3 ceramic volume fraction (Al2O3(L)-WC) layer, high Al2O3 ceramic volume fraction (Al2O3(H)-WC layer) and Al2O3 antireflection layer. The features of our work are: 1) compared with the metal-dielectric composites concept, Al2O3-WC nanocomposite ceramic successfully achieves the all-ceramic concept, which exhibits a high solar absorptance of 0.94 and a low thermal emittance of 0.08, 2) Al2O3 and WC act as filler material and host material, respectively, which are different from traditional concept, 3) Al2O3-WC nanocomposite ceramic solar absorber coating exhibits good thermal stability at 600 °C. In addition, the solar absorber coating is successfully modelled by a commercial optical simulation programme, the result of which agrees with the experimental results.

  7. Coherent 3D nanostructure of γ-Al2O3: Simulation of whole X-ray powder diffraction pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakharukova, V. P.; Yatsenko, D. A.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Shalygin, A. S.; Martyanov, O. N.; Tsybulya, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    The structure and nanostructure features of nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 obtained by dehydration of boehmite with anisotropic platelet-shaped particles were investigated. The original models of 3D coherent nanostructure of γ-Al2O3 were constructed. The models of nanostructured γ-Al2O3 particles were first confirmed by a direct simulation of powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns using the Debye Scattering Equation (DSE) with assistance of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study. The average crystal structure of γ-Al2O3 was shown to be tetragonally distorted. The experimental results revealed that thin γ-Al2O3 platelets were heterogeneous on a nanometer scale and nanometer-sized building blocks were separated by partially coherent interfaces. The XRD simulation results showed that a specific packing of the primary crystalline blocks in the nanostructured γ-Al2O3 particles with formation of planar defects on {001}, {100}, and {101} planes nicely accounted for pronounced diffuse scattering, anisotropic peak broadening and peak shifts in the experimental XRD pattern. The identified planar defects in cation sublattice seem to be described as filling cation non-spinel sites in existing crystallographic models of γ-Al2O3 structure. The overall findings provided an insight into the complex nanostructure, which is intrinsic to the metastable γ-Al2O3 oxide.

  8. Electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole-Al2O3 composite coating on 316 stainless steel for corrosion protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qun; Li, Chuanxian; Huang, Tingting; Yang, Fei

    2017-03-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy)-Al2O3 composite coating was electrochemically deposited on 316 stainless steel (316 SS) by cyclic voltammetry technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to understand the morphology and composition of the PPy-Al2O3 coated SS. The corrosion protection ability of the PPy-Al2O3 coating was studied using open circuit potential (Eocp)-time measurements, polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) after the electrodes had been immersed in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution as the corrosive media. The results showed that PPy-Al2O3 composite coatings have a homogeneous and smooth surface without detectable cracks. Anodic polarization analysis revealed that the hybrid films provided an exceptional barrier and corrosion protection in comparison with PPy coating. The EIS studies indicated that the charge transfer resistance increases with the presence of PPy-Al2O3. PPy-Al2O3 composite coating provides better corrosion protection and can be considered as a coating material to protect 316SS. With increase in Al2O3/Py mole ratio, PPy-Al2O3 coatings tend to exhibit a better corrosion resistance ability.

  9. First-principles study of interfacial interaction between carbon nanotube and Al2O3(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aditya, Irfan Dwi; Matsunaka, Daisuke; Shibutani, Yoji; Yamamoto, Go

    2017-01-01

    In this study, using first-principles calculations, we investigated the interfacial nature between single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and clean Al2O3(0001) surfaces. The calculation results showed that the adhesive energy of CNTs and clean Al2O3(0001) depends on the diameter of CNTs. The structures of the CNTs adsorbed on Al-terminated Al2O3(0001) do not drastically change from those before adsorbing. C atoms of CNTs interacted with the topmost Al atom of Al2O3(0001) by forming covalent bonding. In the case of the O-terminated Al2O3(0001), small-diameter CNTs have strong interaction, which comes from the opening of CNTs catalytically induced by the O-terminated surface and the subsequent formation of mixed covalent-ionic bonding between C and O atoms. This strong interfacial interaction also leads to significant charge transfer from the CNTs to the O-terminated Al2O3(0001). The strong interfacial interaction of small diameter CNTs with the O-terminated Al2O3(0001) would be a possible mechanism for the successful Al2O3 composite reinforced with CNTs.

  10. Characterization of Al2O3 in High-Strength Mo Alloy Sheets by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yucheng; Gao, Yimin; Wei, Shizhong; Hu, Yajie

    2016-02-01

    A novel type of alumina (Al2O3)-doped molybdenum (Mo) alloy sheet was prepared by a hydrothermal method and a subsequent powder metallurgy process. Then the characterization of α-Al2O3 was investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as the research focus. The tensile strength of the Al2O3-doped Mo sheet is 43-85% higher than that of the pure Mo sheet, a very obvious reinforcement effect. The sub-micron and nanometer-scale Al2O3 particles can increase the recrystallization temperature by hindering grain boundary migration and improve the tensile strength by effectively blocking the motion of the dislocations. The Al2O3 particles have a good bond with the Mo matrix and there exists an amorphous transition layer at the interface between Al2O3 particles and the Mo matrix in the as-rolled sheet. The sub-structure of α-Al2O3 is characterized by a number of nanograins in the $\\left[ {2\\bar{2}1} \\right]$ direction. Lastly, a new computer-based method for indexing diffraction patterns of the hexagonal system is introduced, with 16 types of diffraction patterns of α-Al2O3 indexed.

  11. Fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened bond coats with low Al2O3 content [Fabrication of ODS bond coats with low Al2O3 content

    DOE PAGES

    Bergholz, Jan; Pint, Bruce A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; ...

    2017-03-23

    Here, nanoscale oxide dispersions have long been used to increase the oxidation and wear resistance of alloys used as bond coatings in thermal barrier coatings. Their manufacturing via mechanical alloying is often accompanied by difficulties regarding their particle size, homogeneous distribution of the oxide dispersions inside the powder, involving considerable costs, due to cold welding of the powder during milling. A significant improvement in this process can be achieved by the use of process control agent (PCA) to achieve the critical balance between cold welding and fracturing, thereby enhancing the process efficiency. In this investigation, the influence of the organicmore » additive stearic acid on the manufacturing process of Al2O3-doped CoNiCrAlY powder was investigated. Powders were fabricated via mechanical alloying at different milling times and PCA concentrations. The results showed a decrease in particle size, without hindering the homogeneous incorporation of the oxide dispersions. Two powders manufactured with 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% PCA were deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. Results showed that a higher content of elongated particles in the powder with the higher PCA content led to increased surface roughness, porosity and decreased coating thickness, with areas without embedded oxide particles.« less

  12. Al2O3 on WSe2 by ozone based atomic layer deposition: Nucleation and interface study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azcatl, Angelica; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J.; Wallace, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the atomic layer deposition process using ozone and trimethylaluminum (TMA) for the deposition of Al2O3 films on WSe2 was investigated. It was found that the ozone-based atomic layer deposition enhanced the nucleation of Al2O3 in comparison to the water/TMA process. In addition, the chemistry at the Al2O3/WSe2 interface and the surface morphology of the Al2O3 films exhibited a dependence on the deposition temperature. A non-covalent functionalizing effect of ozone on WSe2 at low deposition temperatures 30 °C was identified which prevented the formation of pinholes in the Al2O3 films. These findings aim to provide an approach to obtain high-quality gate dielectrics on WSe2 for two-dimensional transistor applications.

  13. Au/n-InP Schottky diodes using an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hogyoung; Kim, Min Soo; Yoon, Seung Yu; Choi, Byung Joon

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effect of an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition on the electrical properties of Au Schottky contacts to n-type InP. Considering barrier inhomogeneity, modified Richardson plots yielded a Richardson constant of 8.4 and 7.5 Acm-2K-2, respectively, for the sample with and without the Al2O3 interlayer (theoretical value of 9.4 Acm-2K-2 for n-type InP). The dominant reverse current flow for the sample with an Al2O3 interlayer was found to be Poole-Frenkel emission. From capacitance-voltage measurements, it was observed that the capacitance for the sample without the Al2O3 interlayer was frequency dependent. Sputter-induced defects as well as structural defects were passivated effectively with an Al2O3 interlayer.

  14. Research on microcracks avoidance in processing of α-Al2O3 by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Wei; Zhao, Quan-Zhong

    2013-07-01

    The optical crystal α-Al2O3 has been widely used as the matrix of ruby and blue sapphire for its wide transparency, high thermal conductivity, big scale and low cost. α-Al2O3 is so hard that cutter is easily abraded. Micromachining of α-Al2O3 by ultrashort pulsed laser is superior to the traditional mechanical approach as its non-contact and cold machining features. However, unexpected cracks on the surface of α-Al2O3 are observed after femtosecond laser machining. In order to hinder the crack source from stretching, we optimize the laser parameters accompanied with annealing. The crack-free machining can be achieved. Three-dimensional α-Al2O3 microstructures free from fracture, such as cylinder, barrel and sphere are demonstrated.

  15. NMR Spectroscopy of the Hydrated Layer of Composite Particles Based on Nanosized Al2O3 and Vitreous Humor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turov, V. V.; Gerashchenko, I. I.; Markina, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    The hydrated layer of composite particles prepared using Al2O3 and cattle vitreous humor was investigated using NMR spectroscopy. It was found that water bound to Al2O3 nanoparticles was present in the form of clusters with different degrees of association and energies of interaction with the surface. Water bound to the surface of the Al2O3/vitreous humor composite became more uniform upon immobilization of vitreous humor components on the surface of the Al2O3. With this, the clusters of adsorbed water had characteristics that were close to those found in air and weakly polar CHCl3 media. Addition of polar CH3CN led to the formation of very small water clusters. PMR spectra of the surface of the Al2O3/vitreous humor composite in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid differentiated four types of hydrated structures that differed in the degree of water association.

  16. Behavior of Al2O3 and SiO2 with heating in a Cl2 + CO stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetinin, L. K.

    1984-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the chlorination of alpha-Al2O3, gamma-Al2O3 and amorphous SiO2 in a Cl + CO stream, for the preparation of AlCl3 and SiCl4. The chlorination starting temperatures were 235 deg for Al2O3 and 680 deg for SiO2. The chlorination of alpha- and gamma-Al2O3 takes place via the formation of AlOCl as an intermediate product, and its subsequent dissociation at 480 to 560 deg, according to 3AlOCl yields AlCl3 + Al2O3. The chlorination activation energies are given for the three oxides.

  17. Improved memory characteristics of charge trap memory by employing double layered ZrO2 nanocrystals and inserted Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z. J.; Li, R.; Zhang, X. W.; Hu, D.; Zhao, Y. G.

    2016-07-01

    The charge trap memory capacitors incorporating a stacked charge trapping layer consisting of double layered ZrO2 nanocrystals (NCs) and inserted Al2O3 have been fabricated and investigated. It is observed that the memory capacitor with stacked trapping layer exhibits a hysteresis window as large as 14.3 V for ±10 V sweeping gate voltage range, faster program/erase speed, improved endurance performance, and good data retention characteristics with smaller extrapolated ten years charge loss at room temperature and 125 °C compared to single layered NCs. The special energy band alignment and the introduced additional traps of double layered ZrO2 NCs and inserted Al2O3 change the trapping and loss behavior of charges, and jointly contribute to the remarkable memory characteristics. Therefore, the memory capacitor with a stacked charge trapping layer is a promising candidate in future nonvolatile charge trap memory device design and application.

  18. Removal of nitrate and phosphate using chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite nanofibrous adsorbent: Comparison with chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 beads.

    PubMed

    Bozorgpour, Farahnaz; Ramandi, Hossein Fasih; Jafari, Pooya; Samadi, Saman; Yazd, Shabnam Sharif; Aliabadi, Majid

    2016-12-01

    In the present study the chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite nanofibrous adsorbent was prepared by electrospinning process and its application for the removal of nitrate and phosphate were compared with chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite bead adsorbent. The influence of Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite content, pH, contact time, nitrate and phosphate initial concentrations and temperature on the nitrate and phosphate sorption using synthesized bead and nanofibrous adsorbents was investigated in a single system. The reusability of chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite beads and nanofibers after five sorption-desorption cycles were carried out. The Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the interaction effects of adsorbent dosage, nitrate and phosphate initial concentrations on the nitrate and phosphate removal efficiency. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and known Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were used to describe the kinetic and equilibrium data of nitrate and phosphate sorption using chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite beads and nanofibers. The influence of other anions including chloride, fluoride and sulphate on the sorption efficiency of nitrate and phosphate was examined. The obtained results revealed the higher potential of chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite nanofibers for nitrate and phosphate compared with chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite beads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aggregation and Colloidal Stability of Commercially Available Al2O3 Nanoparticles in Aqueous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mui, Julie; Ngo, Jennifer; Kim, Bojeong

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation and colloidal stability of three, commercially-available, gamma-aluminum oxide nanoparticles (γ-Al2O3 NPs) (nominally 5, 10, and 20–30 nm) were systematically examined as a function of pH, ionic strength, humic acid (HA) or clay minerals (e.g., montmorillonite) concentration using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. NPs possess pH-dependent surface charges, with a point of zero charge (PZC) of pH 7.5 to 8. When pH < PZC, γ-Al2O3 NPs are colloidally stable up to 100 mM NaCl and 30 mM CaCl2. However, significant aggregation of NPs is pronounced in both electrolytes at high ionic strength. In mixed systems, both HA and montmorillonite enhance NP colloidal stability through electrostatic interactions and steric hindrance when pH ≤ PZC, whereas their surface interactions are quite limited when pH > PZC. Even when pH approximates PZC, NPs became stable at a HA concentration of 1 mg·L−1. The magnitude of interactions and dominant sites of interaction (basal planes versus edge sites) are significantly dependent on pH because both NPs and montmorillonite have pH-dependent (conditional) surface charges. Thus, solution pH, ionic strength, and the presence of natural colloids greatly modify the surface conditions of commercial γ-Al2O3 NPs, affecting aggregation and colloidal stability significantly in the aqueous environment. PMID:28335218

  20. Particulate strengthened Ni Al2O3 microcomposite HARMs for harsh-environmental micromechanical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Kelly, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    The LIGA micromachining process can be used to fabricate high-aspect-ratio microstructures (HARMs), usually from electroplated nickel (Ni). In recent years, there has been a growing demand for applications involving HARMs subjected to harsh environments such as high temperatures, high pressures, constant erosion and friction. Numerous mechanical characterizations and tests revealed that LIGA-fabricated Ni devices might not meet the criteria required in these applications due to their insufficient mechanical and tribological properties under service conditions. By incorporating particulates into the electroplated Ni HARMs, LIGA-compatible particulate strengthened metal matrix composite microstructures result with substantially higher strength and wear resistance. In this paper, nickel-alumina (Ni-Al2O3) composite microstructures were electrodeposited into x-ray-patterned high-aspect-ratio polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) cavities from Ni sulfamate electrolytes containing submicron Al2O3 particles. The resulting microstructures were characterized with the use of a scanning electron microscope, a energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer, a wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer, a transmission electron microscope and a microhardness tester. It was found that the electrolytes containing surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) alone led to particle agglomeration in deposited microstructures, while homogenous composites were obtained from a bath containing SDS, saccharin and coumarin. Bath agitation has little effect on the particle dispersion under the conditions studied. A hypothesis in view of alumina solid/electrolyte interaction was proposed to better understand the evolution of the agglomerates. It suggests an approach to manipulate the composite material properties by optimizing surfactants to control the balance between the attractive van der Waals force and repulsive force of like-charged particles. Examinations showed that the hardness of the composites was

  1. Theoretical modeling of charge trapping in crystalline and amorphous Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, Oliver A.; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2017-08-01

    The characteristics of intrinsic electron and hole trapping in crystalline and amorphous Al2O3 have been studied using density functional theory (DFT). Special attention was paid to enforcing the piece-wise linearity of the total energy with respect to electron number through the use of a range separated, hybrid functional PBE0-TC-LRC (Guidon et al 2009 J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5 3010) in order to accurately model the behaviour of localized states. The tuned functional is shown to reproduce the geometric and electronic structures of the perfect crystal as well as the spectroscopic characteristics of MgAl hole centre in corundum α-Al2O3. An ensemble of ten amorphous Al2O3 structures was generated using classical molecular dynamics and a melt and quench method and their structural characteristics compared with the experimental data. The electronic structure of amorphous systems was characterized using the inverse participation ratio method. Electrons and holes were then introduced into both crystalline and amorphous alumina structures and their properties calculated. Holes are shown to trap spontaneously in both crystalline and amorphous alumina. In the crystalline phase they localize on single O ion with the trapping energy of 0.38 eV. In amorphous phase, holes localize on two nearest neighbour oxygen sites with an average trapping energy of 1.26 eV, with hole trapping sites separated on average by about 8.0 Å. No electron trapping is observed in the material. Our results suggest that trapping of positive charge can be much more severe and stable in amorphous alumina rather than in crystalline samples.

  2. A novel Al 2O 3 fluorescent nuclear track detector for heavy charged particles and neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, G. M.; Akselrod, M. S.; Benton, E. R.; Yasuda, N.

    2006-06-01

    A novel Al2O3 fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD), recently developed by Landauer, Inc., has demonstrated sensitivity and functionality superior to that of existing nuclear track detectors. The FNTD is based on single crystals of aluminum oxide doped with carbon and magnesium, and having aggregate oxygen vacancy defects (Al2O3:C,Mg). Radiation-induced color centers in the new material have an absorption band at 620 nm and produce fluorescence at 750 nm with a high quantum yield and a short, 75 ± 5 ns, fluorescence lifetime. Non-destructive readout of the detector is performed using a confocal fluorescence microscope. Scanning of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of fluorescence intensity along the track of a heavy charged particle (HCP) permits reconstruction of particle trajectories through the crystal and the LET can be determined as a function of distance along the trajectory based on the fluorescence intensity. Major advantages of Al2O3:C,Mg FNTD over conventionally processed CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector include superior spatial resolution, a wider range of LET sensitivity, no need for post-irradiation chemical processing of the detector and the capability to anneal and reuse the detector. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated that the material possesses a low-LET threshold of <1 keV/μm, does not saturate at LET in water as high as 1800 keV/μm, and is capable of irradiation to fluences in excess of 106 cm-2 without saturation (track overlap).

  3. Graphene-Al2O3-silicon heterojunction solar cells on flexible silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jaehyun; Chou, Harry; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-04-01

    The quest of obtaining sustainable, clean energy is an ongoing challenge. While silicon-based solar cells have widespread acceptance in practical commercialization, continuous research is important to expand applicability beyond fixed-point generation to other environments while also improving power conversion efficiency (PCE), stability, and cost. In this work, graphene-on-silicon Schottky junction and graphene-insulator-silicon (GIS) solar cells are demonstrated on flexible, thin foils, which utilize the electrical conductivity and optical transparency of graphene as the top transparent contact. Multi-layer graphene was grown by chemical vapor deposition on Cu-Ni foils, followed by p-type doping with Au nanoparticles and encapsulated in poly(methyl methacrylate), which showed high stability with minimal performance degradation over more than one month under ambient conditions. Bendable silicon film substrates were fabricated by a kerf-less exfoliation process based on spalling, where the silicon film thickness could be controlled from 8 to 35 μm based on the process recipe. This method allows for re-exfoliation from the parent Si wafer and incorporates the process for forming the backside metal contact of the solar cell. GIS cells were made with a thin insulating Al2O3 atomic layer deposited film, where the thin Al2O3 film acts as a tunneling barrier for holes, while simultaneously passivating the silicon surface, increasing the minority carrier lifetime from 2 to 27 μs. By controlling the Al2O3 thickness, an optimized cell with 7.4% power conversion efficiency (PCE) on a 35 μm thick silicon absorber was fabricated.

  4. The FTIR studies of gels and thin films of Al2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 systems.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Anna; Długoń, Elżbieta

    2012-04-01

    In this work, samples in form of bulk ones and thin films were obtained using the sol-gel method. The bulk samples were heated at different temperatures (500 °C, 850 °C and 1100 °C) corresponding to the annealing process of coatings, deposited on different substrates by dipping and pulling out samples from the proper sol with the stable speed. Thin films of both Al2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 systems were deposited on carbon, steel and titanium substrates in two different ways: as single layers obtained from Al2O3 sol, TiO2 sol and Al2O3 sol or deposited as mixed coatings from Al2O3-TiO2 sol as well as Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 one. All bulk samples were studied by the FTIR spectroscopy and the X-ray diffractometry while thin films were also investigated by the electron microscopy. In the IR spectra of Al2O3-TiO2 samples, as well as gels and coatings, bands due to the vibrations of AlO bonds of the octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated aluminum were observed. The IR spectra of samples of Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 system differ from that of Al2O3-TiO2 ones in presence of bands assigned to the SiO bond vibrations and in positions of bands due to AlO bond vibrations. In all spectra of bulk samples and coatings, the positions of TiO bond vibrations were ascribed basing on the IR spectra of the pure anatase and rutile.

  5. Head-up display using an inclined Al2O3 column array.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wen-Hao; Lee, Chao-Te; Kei, Chi-Chung; Liao, Bo-Huei; Chiang, Donyau; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2014-02-01

    An orderly inclined Al2O3 column array was fabricated by atomic layer deposition and sequential electron beam evaporation using a hollow nanosphere template. The transmittance spectra at various angles of incidence were obtained through the use of a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 900 UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer. The inclined column array could display the image information through a scattering mechanism and was transparent at high viewing angles along the deposition plane. This characteristic of the inclined column array gives it potential for applications in head-up displays in the automotive industry.

  6. Ultrasonic Al2O3 Ceramic Thermometry in High-Temperature Oxidation Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanlong; Gao, Yubin; Xiao, Zhaoqian; Wang, Gao; Tian, Miao; Liang, Haijian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an ultrasonic temperature measurement system was designed with Al2O3 high-temperature ceramic as an acoustic waveguide sensor and preliminarily tested in a high-temperature oxidation environment. The test results indicated that the system can indeed work stably in high-temperature environments. The relationship between the temperature and delay time of 26 °C–1600 °C ceramic materials was also determined in order to fully elucidate the high-temperature oxidation of the proposed waveguide sensor and to lay a foundation for the further application of this system in temperatures as high as 2000 °C. PMID:27845726

  7. Viscosity affected by nanoparticle aggregation in Al2O3-water nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Duan, Fei; Kwek, Dingtian; Crivoi, Alexandru

    2011-03-22

    An investigation on viscosity was conducted 2 weeks after the Al2O3-water nanofluids having dispersants were prepared at the volume concentration of 1-5%. The shear stress was observed with a non-Newtonian behavior. On further ultrasonic agitation treatment, the nanofluids resumed as a Newtonian fluids. The relative viscosity increases as the volume concentrations increases. At 5% volume concentration, an increment was about 60% in the re-ultrasonication nanofluids in comparison with the base fluid. The microstructure analysis indicates that a higher nanoparticle aggregation had been observed in the nanofluids before re-ultrasonication.

  8. Superconductivity of Al/Al2O3 interface formed under shock-wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhray, D. V.; Avdonin, V. V.; Palnichenko, A. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.

    2015-11-01

    A mixture of powdered Al and Al2O3 has been subjected to a shock-wave pressure of ≈ 170 kbar, followed by vacuum-encapsulating and quenching of the product to liquid nitrogen. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples have revealed metastable superconductivity with Tc ≈ 37 K, characterized by glassy dynamics of the shielding currents below Tc. Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed between metallic Al and its oxide due to the shock-wave treatment.

  9. Dynamic simulation of pressure-driven phase transformations in crystalline Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Sandro; Madden, Paul A.; Wilson, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The pressure-driven phase behavior of crystalline Al2O3 is studied using molecular dynamics with an interaction model derived directly from ab initio calculations. The application and removal of pressure results in two phase transformations to and from the Rh2O3-II and, at higher pressure, an orthoperovskite phase, respectively. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the orthoperovskite phase is compatible with the experimental data and its stability can be rationalized in terms of changes in the ion coordination environments and corundum grain boundaries. Implications for pressure measurements using Ruby fluorescence lines are discussed.

  10. NOx Uptake Mechanism on Pt/BaO/Al2O3 Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Szailer, Tamas; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2006-11-01

    The NOx adsorption mechanism on Pt/BaO/Al2O3 catalysts was investigated by performing NOx storage/reduction cycles, NO2 adsorption and NO + O2 adsorption on 2%Pt/(x)BaO/Al2O3 (x = 2, 8 and 20 wt%) catalysts. NOx uptake profiles on 2%Pt/20%BaO/Al2O3 at 523 K show complete uptake behavior for almost 5 min, and then the NOx level starts gradually increasing with time and it reaches 75% of the inlet NOx concentration after 30 min time-on-stream. Although this catalyst shows fairly high NOx conversion at 523 K, only ~ 2.4 wt% out of 20 wt% BaO is converted to Ba(NO3)2. Adsorption studies by using NO2 and NO + O2 suggest two different NOx adsorption mechanisms. The NO2 uptake profile on 2%Pt/20%BaO/Al2O3 shows the absence of a complete NOx uptake period at the beginning of adsorption and the overall NOx uptake is controlled by the gas-solid equilibrium between NO2 and BaO/Ba(NO3)2 phase. When we use NO + O2, complete initial NOx uptake occurs and the time it takes to convert ~ 4 % of BaO to Ba(NO3)2 is independent of the NO concentration. These NOx uptake characteristics suggest that the NO + O2 reaction on the surface of Pt particles produces NO2 that is subsequently transferred to the neighboring BaO phase by spill over. At the beginning of the NOx uptake, this spill-over process is very fast and so it is able to provide complete NOx storage. However, the NOx uptake by this mechanism slows down as BaO in the vicinity of Pt particles are converted to Ba(NO3)2. The formation of Ba(NO3)2 around the Pt particles results in the development of a diffusion barrier for NO2, and increases the probability of NO2 desorption and consequently, the beginning of NOx slip. As NOx uptake by NO2 spill-over mechanism slows down due to the diffusion barrier formation, the rate and extent of NO2 uptake are determined by the diffusion rate of nitrate ions into the BaO bulk, which, in turn, is determined by the gas phase NO2 concentration.

  11. Atomistic simulation of the pressure-temperature-volume diagram in α-Al 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, R.; Blanco, M. A.; Martín Pendás, A.; Francisco, E.; Recio, J. M.

    1996-04-01

    We report the results of a theoretical investigation that explores for the first time temperature effects on the pressure-volume relationship in corundum. The ionic interactions within the α-Al 2O 3 crystal are modelized using the electron gas formalism along with electronic wavefunctions that are allowed to relax with crystal strains. A non-empirical Debye model is applied to account for the thermal contributions. Our study reveals that the crystal responds isotropically under both high-temperature and high-pressure conditions. Good agreement with hydrostatic and quasi-hydrostatic experimental data is achieved.

  12. Hydrogen and Carbon Effects on Al2O3 Surface Phases and Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John

    2005-03-01

    Effects of H and C impurities on α-Al2O3 (0001) surface stability and metal wetting behavior are determined from first principles[1]. The ab initio surface phase diagram for H and C on the alumina surface reveals six distinct surface phases. These different surface phases exhibit a variety of adhesion strengths with Cu and Co, and correspondingly different wetting behaviors. These results are consistent with the varied wetting characteristics observed experimentally. [1] Xiao-Gang Wang and John R. Smith, Phys. Rev. B70, Rapid communications, 081401 (2004).

  13. Thermal conductivity measurements of PTFE and Al2O3 ceramic at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobizhev, Alexey; Reiten, Jared; Singh, Vivek; Kolomensky, Yury G.

    2017-07-01

    The design of low temperature bolometric detectors for rare event searches necessitates careful selection and characterization of structural materials based on their thermal properties. We measure the thermal conductivities of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Al2O3 ceramic (alumina) in the temperature ranges of 0.17-0.43 K and 0.1-1.3 K, respectively. For the former, we observe a quadratic temperature dependence across the entire measured range. For the latter, we see a cubic dependence on temperature above 0.3 K, with a linear contribution below that temperature. This paper presents our measurement techniques, results, and theoretical discussions.

  14. Ultra-low thermal conductivity in W/Al2O3 nanolaminates.

    PubMed

    Costescu, R M; Cahill, D G; Fabreguette, F H; Sechrist, Z A; George, S M

    2004-02-13

    Atomic layer deposition and magnetron sputter deposition were used to synthesize thin-film multilayers of W/Al(2)O(3). With individual layers only a few nanometers thick, the high interface density produced a strong impediment to heat transfer, giving rise to a thermal conductivity of approximately 0.6 watts per meter per kelvin. This result suggests that high densities of interfaces between dissimilar materials may provide a route for the production of thermal barriers with ultra-low thermal conductivity.

  15. Nitridation of Al2O3 surfaces: chemical and structural change triggered by oxygen desorption.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Toru; Saito, Yasutaka; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori

    2013-01-11

    We present theoretical investigations that clarify elemental nitridation processes of corundum Al2O3(0001) and (1102) surfaces. The calculations within the density functional theory framework reveal that the structures with substitutional N atoms beneath the surface are stabilized under nitridation conditions. We also find that the desorption of O atoms at the topmost layer induces outward diffusion of O atoms as well as inward diffusion of N atoms, leading to the transformation into AlN films. The kinetic Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with density functional theory results indeed observe a dependence of these chemical and structural changes on temperature and pressure.

  16. Understanding the clean interface between covalent Si and ionic Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Xiang, H J; Da Silva, Juarez L F; Branz, Howard M; Wei, Su-Huai

    2009-09-11

    The atomic and electronic structures of the (001)-Si/(001)-gamma-Al(2)O(3) heterointerface are investigated by first principles total energy calculations combined with a newly developed "modified basin-hopping" method. It is found that all interface Si atoms are fourfold coordinated due to the formation of Si-O and unexpected covalent Si-Al bonds in the new abrupt interface model. And the interface has perfect electronic properties in that the unpassivated interface has a large LDA band gap and no gap levels. These results show that it is possible to have clean semiconductor-oxide interfaces.

  17. Sulfation and Desulfation Behavior of Pt-BaO/MgO-Al2O3 NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soyeon; Kim, Do Heui

    2016-05-01

    The comparative study between Pt-BaO/Al2O3 and Pt-BaO/MgO-Al2O3 gives the information about the effect of MgO addition to Al2O3 support on the sulfation and desulfation behavior of Pt-BaO/MgO-Al2O3 NOx storage reduction catalyst. The sulfated two samples were analyzed by using element analysis (EA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), H2 temperature programmed reaction (H2 TPRX) and NOx uptake measurement. The amount of sulfur uptake on 2 wt% Pt-20 wt% BaO/Al2O3 and 2 wt% Pt-20 wt% BaO/MgO-Al2O3 are almost identical as 0.45 and 0.40 of S/Ba, respectively, which yields the drastic decrease in NOx uptake for both sulfated samples. However, after desulfa- tion with H2 at 600 degrees C, the residual sulfur amount on MgO-Al2O3 supported catalyst is three times larger than that on Al2O3 supported one, indicating that sulfur species formed on the former are more stable than those on the latter. It is also well corresponding to the H2 TPRX results where the main H2S peak from MgO-Al2O3 supported sample is observed at higher temperature than Al2O3 supported one, resulting in the lower NOx uptake activity of former sample than the latter one. Meanwhile, after desulfation of MgO-Al2O3 supported sample at 700 degrees C and 800 degrees C, the activity is recovered more significantly due to the removal of the large amount of sulfur while Al2O3 supported one decreases monotonically due to the sintering of Pt crystallite and the formation of BaAl2O4 phase. It is summarized that MgO-Al2O3 supported catalyst enhances the thermal stability of the catalyst, however, forms the stable sulfate species, which needs to be improved to develop the more sulfur resistant NSR catalyst system.

  18. Anisotropic temperature-dependent thermal conductivity by an Al2O3 interlayer in Al2O3/ZnO superlattice films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won-Yong; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Tae-Hyun; Park, No-Won; Kim, Gil-Sung; Park, Jin-Seong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2017-03-01

    The thermal conductivity of superlattice films is generally anisotropic and should be studied separately in the in-plane and cross-plane directions of the films. However, previous works have mostly focused on the cross-plane thermal conductivity because the electrons and phonons in the cross-plane direction of superlattice films may result in much stronger interface scattering than that in the in-plane direction. Nevertheless, it is highly desirable to perform systematic studies on the effect of interface formation in semiconducting superlattice films on both in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities. In this study, we determine both the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of Al2O3 (AO)/ZnO superlattice films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on SiO2/Si substrates in the temperature range of 50-300 K by the four-point-probe 3-ω method. Our experimental results indicate that the formation of an atomic AO layer (0.82 nm) significantly contributes to the decrease of the cross-plane thermal conductivity of the AO/ZnO superlattice films compared with that of AO/ZnO thin films. The cross-plane thermal conductivity (0.26-0.63 W m-1 K-1 of the AO/ZnO superlattice films (with an AO layer of ˜0.82 nm thickness) is approximately ˜150%-370% less than the in-plane thermal conductivity (0.96-1.19 W m-1 K-1) of the corresponding film, implying significant anisotropy. This indicates that the suppression of the cross-plane thermal conductivity is mainly attributed to the superlattice, rather than the nanograin columnar structure in the films. In addition, we theoretically analyzed strong anisotropic behavior of the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the AO/ZnO superlattice films in terms of temperature dependence.

  19. Anisotropic temperature-dependent thermal conductivity by an Al2O3 interlayer in Al2O3/ZnO superlattice films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Yong; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Tae-Hyun; Park, No-Won; Kim, Gil-Sung; Park, Jin-Seong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2017-03-10

    The thermal conductivity of superlattice films is generally anisotropic and should be studied separately in the in-plane and cross-plane directions of the films. However, previous works have mostly focused on the cross-plane thermal conductivity because the electrons and phonons in the cross-plane direction of superlattice films may result in much stronger interface scattering than that in the in-plane direction. Nevertheless, it is highly desirable to perform systematic studies on the effect of interface formation in semiconducting superlattice films on both in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities. In this study, we determine both the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of Al2O3 (AO)/ZnO superlattice films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on SiO2/Si substrates in the temperature range of 50-300 K by the four-point-probe 3-ω method. Our experimental results indicate that the formation of an atomic AO layer (0.82 nm) significantly contributes to the decrease of the cross-plane thermal conductivity of the AO/ZnO superlattice films compared with that of AO/ZnO thin films. The cross-plane thermal conductivity (0.26-0.63 W m(-1) K(-1) of the AO/ZnO superlattice films (with an AO layer of ∼0.82 nm thickness) is approximately ∼150%-370% less than the in-plane thermal conductivity (0.96-1.19 W m(-1) K(-1)) of the corresponding film, implying significant anisotropy. This indicates that the suppression of the cross-plane thermal conductivity is mainly attributed to the superlattice, rather than the nanograin columnar structure in the films. In addition, we theoretically analyzed strong anisotropic behavior of the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the AO/ZnO superlattice films in terms of temperature dependence.

  20. Enhanced photoluminescence of corrugated Al2O3 film assisted by colloidal CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhongchen; Hao, Licai; Zhang, Zhengping; Huang, Zhaoling; Qin, Shuijie

    2017-05-01

    We present the enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of a corrugated Al2O3 film enabled by colloidal CdSe quantum dots. The colloidal CdSe quantum dots are fabricated directly on a corrugated Al2O3 substrate using an electrochemical deposition (ECD) method in a microfluidic system. The photoluminescence is excited by using a 150 nm diameter ultraviolet laser spot of a scanning near-field optical microscope. Owing to the electron transfer from the conduction band of the CdSe quantum dots to that of Al2O3, the enhanced photoluminescence effect is observed, which results from the increase in the recombination rate of electrons and holes on the Al2O3 surface and the reduction in the fluorescence of the CdSe quantum dots. A periodically-fluctuating fluorescent spectrum was exhibited because of the periodical wire-like corrugated Al2O3 surface serving as an optical grating. The spectral topographic map around the fluorescence peak from the Al2O3 areas covered with CdSe quantum dots was unique and attributed to the uniform deposition of CdSe QDs on the corrugated Al2O3 surface. We believe that the microfluidic ECD system and the surface enhanced fluorescence method described in this paper have potential applications in forming uniform optoelectronic films of colloidal quantum dots with controllable QD spacing and in boosting the fluorescent efficiency of weak PL devices.

  1. Enhanced Dielectric Properties and High-Temperature Microwave Absorption Performance of Zn-Doped Al2O3 Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Luo, Fa; Wei, Ping; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei

    2015-07-01

    To improve the dielectric and microwave absorption properties of Al2O3 ceramic, Zn-doped Al2O3 ceramic was prepared by conventional ceramic processing. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that Zn atoms successfully entered the Al2O3 ceramic lattice and occupied Al sites. The complex permittivity increased with increasing Zn concentration, which is mainly attributed to the increase in charged vacancy defects and densification of the Al2O3 ceramic. In addition, the temperature-dependent complex permittivity of 3% Zn-doped Al2O3 ceramic was determined in the temperature range from 298 K to 873 K. Both the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity increased monotonically with increasing temperature, which can be ascribed to the shortened relaxation time and increasing electrical conductivity. The increased complex permittivity leads to a great improvement in microwave absorption. In particular, when the temperature is up to 873 K, the 3% Zn-doped Al2O3 ceramic exhibited the best absorption performance with a maximum peak (-12.1 dB) and broad effective absorption bandwidth (reflection loss less than -10 dB from 9.3 GHz to 12.3 GHz). These results reveal that Zn-doped Al2O3 ceramic is a promising candidate for use as a kind of high-temperature microwave absorption material.

  2. Enhanced photoluminescence of corrugated Al2O3 film assisted by colloidal CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhongchen; Hao, Licai; Zhang, Zhengping; Huang, Zhaoling; Qin, Shuijie

    2017-05-19

    We present the enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of a corrugated Al2O3 film enabled by colloidal CdSe quantum dots. The colloidal CdSe quantum dots are fabricated directly on a corrugated Al2O3 substrate using an electrochemical deposition (ECD) method in a microfluidic system. The photoluminescence is excited by using a 150 nm diameter ultraviolet laser spot of a scanning near-field optical microscope. Owing to the electron transfer from the conduction band of the CdSe quantum dots to that of Al2O3, the enhanced photoluminescence effect is observed, which results from the increase in the recombination rate of electrons and holes on the Al2O3 surface and the reduction in the fluorescence of the CdSe quantum dots. A periodically-fluctuating fluorescent spectrum was exhibited because of the periodical wire-like corrugated Al2O3 surface serving as an optical grating. The spectral topographic map around the fluorescence peak from the Al2O3 areas covered with CdSe quantum dots was unique and attributed to the uniform deposition of CdSe QDs on the corrugated Al2O3 surface. We believe that the microfluidic ECD system and the surface enhanced fluorescence method described in this paper have potential applications in forming uniform optoelectronic films of colloidal quantum dots with controllable QD spacing and in boosting the fluorescent efficiency of weak PL devices.

  3. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy studies of low-temperature γ-Al2O3 phases synthesized from different precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronskiy, Mark; Rastorguev, Alexander; Zhuzhgov, Aleksey; Kostyukov, Anton; Krivoruchko, Oleg; Snytnikov, Valeriy

    2016-03-01

    Spectroscopic features of the local structure of high purity (with the content of impurities <10-3 wt.%) spinel-like γ- and γ∗-Al2O3 phases differing in the unit cell parameters were studied. Samples of these phases were synthesized from crystalline boehmite and nanodispersed pseudoboehmite, respectively. For each of the phases, photoluminescence of transition metal ions and oxygen vacancies - F- and F2-centers - was detected, and Raman scattering spectra were recorded. The photoluminescence study of γ∗-Al2O3 revealed octahedrally coordinated ions Mn4+. Values of the crystal field strength and Racah parameters for Mn4+ ions in γ∗-Al2O3 were determined. Manifestation of PL of Mn4+ ions in γ∗-Al2O3 and its absence in γ-Al2O3 can serve as the indicator for distinguishing between these phases. It was found that γ- and γ∗-Al2O3 samples have individual Raman spectra. The revealed spectroscopic features in the local structure of γ- and γ∗-Al2O3 phases confirm the differences between these spinel-like structures.

  4. Characteristics of nanocomposite ZrO2/Al2O3 films deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun Jin; Lim, Jung Wook; Kim, Hyun-Tak

    2007-11-01

    Nanocomposite ZrO2/Al2O3 (ZAO) films were deposited on Si by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition and the film characteristics including interfacial oxide formation, dielectric constant (k), and electrical breakdown strength were investigated without post-annealing process. In both the mixed and nano-laminated ZAO films, the thickness of the interfacial oxide layer (T(IL)) was considerably reduced compared to ZrO2 and Al2O3 films. The T(IL) was 0.8 nm in nano-composite films prepared at a mixing ratio (ZrO2:Al2O3) of 1:1. The breakdown strength and the leakage current level were greatly improved by adding Al2O3 as little as 7.9% compared to that of ZrO2 and were enhanced more with increasing content of Al2O3. The k of ZrO2 and mixed ZAO (Al2O3 7.9%) films were 20.0 and 16.5, respectively. These results indicate that the addition of Al2O3 to ZrO2 greatly improves the electrical properties with less cost of k compared to the addition of SiO2.

  5. The modulation structure induced changes in mechanical properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, J. Y.; Li, D. J.; Dong, L.; Gao, C. K.; Wang, N.; Deng, X. Y.; Gu, H. Q.; Wan, R. X.; Sun, X.

    2013-07-01

    TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers which had different separate layer thickness of TiAlN or Al2O3 were synthesized by sputtering Ti3Al and Al2O3 targets with N2 and Ar gases. The influence of modulation periods and modulation ratios on structure and properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, surface profiler, and nanoindenter. Compared to TiAlN layer with only (2 0 0) preferred orientation, TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers were crystallized with orientations in the TiAlN (1 1 1), TiAlN (2 2 2) and AlN (1 0 0). Besides, weak Al2O3 (0 2 2) orientation is observed, when modulation period is 8.9 nm. The maximum hardness about 36.6 GPa was obtained at modulation period of 10.4 nm and modulation ratio of 10:1. The hardness and the toughness of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers increase as individual TiAlN layer thickness increases.

  6. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids were observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. The voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxidemetal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidation of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al, Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al, Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationship between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  7. Cyclic Oxidation of FeCrAlY/Al2O3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Draper, Susan L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Three-ply FeCrAlY/Al2O3 composites and FeCrAlY matrix-only samples were cyclically oxidized at 1000 C and 1100 C for up to 1000 1-hr cycles. Fiber ends were exposed at the ends of the composite samples. Following cyclic oxidation, cracks running parallel to and perpendicular to the fibers were observed on the large surface of the composite. In addition, there was evidence of increased scale damage and spallation around the exposed fiber ends, particularly around the middle ply fibers. This damage was more pronounced at the higher temperature. The exposed fiber ends showed cracking between fibers in the outer plies, occasionally with Fe and Cr-rich oxides growing out of the cracks. Large gaps developed at the fiber/matrix interface around many of the fibers, especially those in the outer plies. Oxygen penetrated many of these gaps resulting in significant oxide formation at the fiber/matrix interface far within the composite sample. Around several fibers, the matrix was also internally oxidized showing Al2O3 precipitates in a radial band around the fibers. The results show that these composites have poor cyclic oxidation resistance due to the CTE mismatch and inadequate fiber/matrix bond strength at temperatures of 1000 C and above.

  8. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids have been observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. It was postulated that the voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxide-metal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidations of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al,Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al,Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationships between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  9. Cooling Rate Effects on Dynamics in Supercooled Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Vo Van; Oh, Suhk Kun

    The cooling rate effects in supercooled Al2O3 have been investigated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) method. Simulations were done in the basic cube under periodic boundary conditions containing 3000 ions with Born-Mayer type pair potentials. The temperature of the system was decreased linearly in time as T(t)=T0-γt, where γ is the cooling rate. The cooling rate dependence of density, thermal expansion coefficient and enthalpy of the system was found. Structure of amorphous Al2O3 model at the temperature of 0 K was in good agreement with Lamparter's experimental data. The cooling rate dependence of the dynamical heterogeneities in supercooled states has been studied through the comparison of the partial radial distribution functions (PRDFs) for the 10% most mobile or immobile particles with the corresponding mean PRDFs in the models. Also, cooling rate effects on the cluster size distributions of the most mobile or immobile particles have been obtained. Calculations show that the cooling rate effects on the dynamical heterogeneities are pronounced. Finally, the evolution of structural defects and cluster size distributions of the most mobile or immobile particles in the system upon cooling has been studied and presented.

  10. Separation of Fine Al2O3 Inclusion from Liquid Steel with Super Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Gao, Jintao; Wang, Zhe; Guo, Zhancheng

    2017-04-01

    An innovative approach of super gravity was proposed to separate fine Al2O3 inclusions from liquid steel in this study. To investigate the removal behaviors of inclusions, the effects of different gravity coefficients and time on separating the inclusions were studied. The results show that a large amount of Al2O3 inclusions gathered at the top of the sample obtained by super gravity, whereas there were almost no inclusions appearing at the bottom. The volume fraction and number density of inclusions presented a gradient distribution along the direction of the super gravity, which became steeper with increasing gravity coefficient and separating time. As a result of the collision between inclusions, a large amount of inclusions aggregated and grew during the moving process, which further decreased the removal time. The experimental required removal time of inclusions is close to the theoretical values calculated by Stokes law under gravity coefficient G ≤ 80, t ≤ 15 minutes, and the small deviation may be because the inclusion particles are not truly spherical. Under the condition of gravity coefficient G = 80, t = 15 minutes, the total oxygen content at the bottom of the sample (position of 5 cm) is only 8.4 ppm, and the removal rate is up to 95.6 pct compared with that under normal gravity.

  11. Enhanced fibroblast cell adhesion on Al/Al2O3 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, O. C.; Sander, M.; Miró, M. M.; Lee, J.; Akkan, C. K.; Smail, H.; Ott, A.; Veith, M.

    2011-02-01

    Biological cells stick together via transmembrane proteins, which are linked to receptor molecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This specific biochemical adhesion plays a leading role in many cellular processes, among them cell differentiation, morphogenesis, and wound healing. Various medical applications require endogen cells to bind to an exogene substrate as in the case of an implant. Coatings with proteins that naturally belong to the ECM are known to enhance the cell adhesion. However, the choice of inorganic materials, which promote cell adhesion, is limited. Here, we report on a new engineered surface composed of Al/Al2O3 bi-phasic nanowires (NWs), which promotes the adhesion of fibroblast cells. Fibroblasts grow well on this inorganic layer and keep proliferating. Using the cell monolayer rheology (CMR) technique, we show that the adhesion of fibroblasts on Al/Al2O3 NWs is comparable to fibronectin coated surfaces. To our knowledge, this is one of the strongest cell adhesions on an inorganic surface, which has been reported on so far, since it compares to bio-organic layers such as fibronectin.

  12. Surface Formation of Single Silicon Wafer Polished with Nano-sized Al2O3 Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu-li; Zuo, Dun-wen; Zhu, Yong-wei; Wang, Min

    2007-12-01

    Ice polishing single silicon wafers with nano-sized Al2O3 abrasives can be known as ice fixed abrasives chemical mechanical polishing (IFA-CMP). TAn abrasive slurry was made of nano-sized Al2O3 particles dispersed in de-ionized water with a surfactant and the slurry was frozen to form an ice polishing pad. Then polishing tests of blanket silicon wafers with the above ice polishing pad were carried out. The morphologies and surface roughness of the polished silicon wafers were observed and examined on an atomic force microscope. The subsurface damage was assessed by means of cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The surface chemical constituents of the polished silicon wafers were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to gain insight into the chemical mechanisms in the process. Scratch resistance of the single silicon wafer was measured by nanoscratching using a nanoindenter to explore the mechanical removal mechanism. The results show that a super smooth surface with an average roughness of 0.367 nm is obtained within 1000 nm × 1000 nm and there is a perfect silicon diamond structure without any microcracks in the subsurface. The removal of material is dominated by the coactions of ductile regime machining and chemical corrosion. In the end, a model of material removal of IFA-CMP is built.

  13. Containerless solidification of undercooled SrO-Al2O3 binary melts.

    PubMed

    Kato, Katsuyoshi; Masuno, Atsunobu; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-07

    The solidification of the SrO-Al2O3 binary system was investigated under containerless conditions using an aerodynamic levitation furnace. Glass formation was observed in compositions with 35-45 mol% SrO and 55-75 mol% SrO. Cooling curves were obtained at a constant cooling rate in the range of 1-1000 °C s(-1). The crystallization temperature was apparently independent of the cooling rate and far below the melting point when the sample was fully crystallized, whereas it decreased when the sample was partially crystallized. The difference between the crystallization temperature and the melting point under containerless conditions is considered a good measure of the glass-forming ability when there is not much difference in the critical cooling rates between the melt compositions. Furthermore, the homogeneous nucleation theory suggests that the apparent time-independent crystallization temperature is attributed to the high glass-forming ability of the SrO-Al2O3 binary system. The results suggest that the experimentally obtained continuous cooling transformation diagrams under containerless conditions provide new insights regarding solidification from an undercooled melt.

  14. Sulfuric acid baking and leaching of spent Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-In; Park, Kyung-Ho; Mishra, Devabrata

    2009-07-30

    Dissolution of metals from a pre-oxidized refinery plant spent Co-Mo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst have been tried through low temperature (200-450 degrees C) sulfuric acid baking followed by mild leaching process. Direct sulfuric acid leaching of the same sample, resulted poor Al and Mo recoveries, whereas leaching after sulfuric acid baking significantly improved the recoveries of above two metals. The pre-oxidized spent catalyst, obtained from a Korean refinery plant found to contain 40% Al, 9.92% Mo, 2.28% Co, 2.5% C and trace amount of other elements such as Fe, Ni, S and P. XRD results indicated the host matrix to be poorly crystalline gamma- Al(2)O(3). The effect of various baking parameters such as catalyst-to-acid ratio, baking temperature and baking time on percentage dissolutions of metals has been studied. It was observed that, metals dissolution increases with increase in the baking temperature up to 300 degrees C, then decreases with further increase in the baking temperature. Under optimum baking condition more than 90% Co and Mo, and 93% Al could be dissolved from the spent catalyst with the following leaching condition: H(2)SO(4)=2% (v/v), temperature=95 degrees C, time=60 min and Pulp density=5%.

  15. ZrO2-Al2O3 Laminated Ceramics and Their Tribological Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zehua; Ding, Peidao; Tan, Shouhong; Lan, Junsi

    ZrO2-Al2O3 laminated ceramics of 3 layers were prepared by dry-pressing and pressureless sintering, and their mechanical properties and toughening mechanisms were studied. Furthermore, their tribological behaviors and wear mechanisms under dry friction and water lubrication conditions were also investigated, and compared with those of monolayer ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramics under the same conditions. The results show that the bending strength, fracture toughness and hardness of the laminated ceramics are all better than those of the monolayer ceramics, moreover the friction factor and wear rate of the laminated ceramics are clearly lower than those of the monolayer ceramics. The excellent mechanical properties of the laminated ceramics, especially toughness, result mainly from effects of residual stress in the specially-designed layer, interface structure and phase transformation together. Good tribological properties of the laminated ceramics are supposed due to the high toughness and low shearing stress in the wear surface. The friction and wear of the composites are effectively decreased by water lubrication because of the transformation of the main wear mechanisms from abrasive and adhesive wear under dry friction to tribo-chemical and fatigue wear under water lubrication.

  16. Crystalline gamma-Al2O3 physical vapour deposition-coating for steel thixoforging tools.

    PubMed

    Bobzin, K; Hirt, G; Bagcivan, N; Khizhnyakova, L; Ewering, M

    2011-10-01

    The process of thixoforming, which has been part of many researches during the last decades, combines the advantages of forging and casting for the shaping of metallic components. But due to the high temperatures of semi-solid steel alloys high demands on the tools are requested. To resists the thermal and mechanical loads (wear, friction, thermal and thermomechanical fatigue) protecting thin films are necessary. In this regard crystalline gamma-Al2O3 deposited via Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) is a promising candidate: It exhibits high thermal stability, high oxidation resistance and high hot hardness. In the present work the application of a (Ti, Al)N/gamma-Al2O3 coating deposited by means of Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating in an industrial coating unit is presented. The coating was analysed by means of Rockwell test, nanoindentation, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The coated tool was tested in thixoforging experiments with steel grade X210CrW12 (AlSI D6). The surface of the coated dies was examined with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) after 22, 42, 90 and 170 forging cycles.

  17. Electrodeposition of Ni-Al2O3 nano composite coating and evaluation of wear characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavendra, C. R.; Basavarajappa, S.; Sogalad, Irappa

    2016-09-01

    Electrodeposition is one of the most technologically feasible and economically superior technique for producing metallic coating. The advancement in the application of nano particles has grabbed the attention in all fields of engineering. In this present study an attempt has been made on the nano particle composite coating on aluminium substrate by electrodeposition process. The aluminium surface requires a specific pre-treatment for better adherence of coating. In light of this a thin zinc layer is coated on the aluminium substrate by electroless process. This layer offers protection against oxidation thus prevents the formation of a native oxide layer. In this work Ni-Al2O3 composite coating were successfully coated by varying the process parameters such as bath temperature, current density and particle loading. The experimentation was performed using central composite design based 20 trials of experiments. The effect of process parameters on surface morphology and wear behavior was studied. The results shown a better wear resistance of Ni-Al2O3 composite electrodeposited coating compared to Ni coating. The particle loading and interaction effect of current density with temperature has greater significant effect on wear rate followed by the bath temperature. The decrease in wear rate was observed with the increased current density and temperature.

  18. Revisiting the Al/Al2O3 Interface: Coherent Interfaces and Misfit Accommodation

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Thijsse, Barend J.; Hoagland, Richard G.; ...

    2014-03-27

    We report the coherent and semi-coherent Al/α-Al2O3 interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations with a mixed, metallic-ionic atomistic model. For the coherent interfaces, both Al-terminated and O-terminated nonstoichiometric interfaces have been studied and their relative stability has been established. To understand the misfit accommodation at the semi-coherent interface, a 1-dimensional (1D) misfit dislocation model and a 2-dimensional (2D) dislocation network model have been studied. For the latter case, our analysis reveals an interface dislocation structure with a network of three sets of parallel dislocations, each with pure-edge character, giving rise to a pattern of coherent and stacking-fault-like regions at the interface.more » Structural relaxation at elevated temperatures leads to a further change of the dislocation pattern, which can be understood in terms of a competition between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation interaction energy at the interface. In conclusion, our results are expected to serve as an input for the subsequent dislocation dynamics models to understand and predict the macroscopic mechanical behavior of Al/α-Al2O3 composite heterostructures.« less

  19. Revisiting the Al/Al2O3 Interface: Coherent Interfaces and Misfit Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Thijsse, Barend J.; Hoagland, Richard G.; Lazić, Ivan; Valone, Steven M.; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    We study the coherent and semi-coherent Al/α-Al2O3 interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations with a mixed, metallic-ionic atomistic model. For the coherent interfaces, both Al-terminated and O-terminated nonstoichiometric interfaces have been studied and their relative stability has been established. To understand the misfit accommodation at the semi-coherent interface, a 1-dimensional (1D) misfit dislocation model and a 2-dimensional (2D) dislocation network model have been studied. For the latter case, our analysis reveals an interface dislocation structure with a network of three sets of parallel dislocations, each with pure-edge character, giving rise to a pattern of coherent and stacking-fault-like regions at the interface. Structural relaxation at elevated temperatures leads to a further change of the dislocation pattern, which can be understood in terms of a competition between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation interaction energy at the interface. Our results are expected to serve as an input for the subsequent dislocation dynamics models to understand and predict the macroscopic mechanical behavior of Al/α-Al2O3 composite heterostructures. PMID:24670940

  20. Al2O3 fiber strength degradation in metal and intermetallic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Locci, I. E.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanisms for fiber damage in single crystal Al2O3 fiber-reinforced composites were investigated. Both fiber fragmentation and fiber strength degradation were observed in composites with a variety of matrix compositions. Four mechanisms that may be contributing to the fiber strength loss have been proposed and include matrix reaction, reaction with binders, residual stress-induced damage, and pressure from hot pressing. The effect of matrix reaction was separated from the other three effects by sputter-coating the matrices on cleaned fibers and annealing with a temperature profile that simulates processing conditions. These experiments revealed that Y and Cr in FeCrAlY base alloys and Zr in NiAl alloys reacted with the fiber, and grooves and adherent particles were formed on the fiber surface which were responsible for the strength loss. The effects of the matrix reaction appeared to dominate over the other possible mechanisms, although evidence for reaction with binders was also found. Ridges on the fiber surface, which reflected the grain boundaries of the matrix, were also observed. In order for single-crystal Al2O3 to be used as a fiber in MMC's and IMC's, a matrix or protective coating which minimizes matrix reaction during processing will be necessary. Of the matrices investigated, the Thermo-span(sup TM) alloy was the least damaging to fiber properties.

  1. Tribological performance of Graphene/Carbon nanotube hybrid reinforced Al2O3 composites

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Bahareh; Xu, Fang; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Hou, Xianghui; Xia, Yongde; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2015-01-01

    Tribological performance of the hot-pressed pure Al2O3 and its composites containing various hybrid contents of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated under different loading conditions using the ball-on-disc method. Benchmarked against the pure Al2O3, the composite reinforced with a 0.5 wt% GNP exhibited a 23% reduction in the friction coefficient along with a promising 70% wear rate reduction, and a hybrid reinforcement consisting of 0.3 wt.% GNPs + 1 wt.% CNTs resulted in even better performance, with a 86% reduction in the wear rate. The extent of damage to the reinforcement phases caused during wear was studied using Raman spectroscopy. The wear mechanisms for the composites were analysed based on the mechanical properties, brittleness index and microstructural characterizations. The excellent coordination between GNPs and CNTs contributed to the excellent wear resistance property in the hybrid GNT-reinforced composites. GNPs played the important role in the formation of a tribofilm on the worn surface by exfoliation; whereas CNTs contributed to the improvement in fracture toughness and prevented the grains from being pulled out during the tribological test. PMID:26100097

  2. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids have been observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. It was postulated that the voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxide-metal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidations of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al,Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al,Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationships between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  3. Density Measurements of Low Silica CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhmood, Luckman; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2010-08-01

    Density measurements of a low-silica CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system were carried out using the Archimedes principle. A Pt 30 pct Rh bob and wire arrangement was used for this purpose. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained from the model developed in the current group as well as with other results reported earlier. The density for the CaO-SiO2 and the CaO-Al2O3 binary slag systems also was estimated from the ternary values. The extrapolation of density values for high-silica systems also showed good agreement with previous works. An estimation for the density value of CaO was made from the current experimental data. The density decrease at high temperatures was interpreted based on the silicate structure. As the mole percent of SiO2 was below the 33 pct required for the orthosilicate composition, discrete {text{SiO}}4^{4 - } tetrahedral units in the silicate melt would exist along with O2- ions. The change in melt expansivity may be attributed to the ionic expansions in the order of {text{Al}}^{ 3+ } - {text{O}}^{ 2- } < {text{Ca}}^{ 2+ } - {text{O}}^{ 2- } < {text{Ca}}^{ 2+ } - {text{O}}^{ - } Structural changes in the ternary slag also could be correlated to a drastic change in the value of enthalpy of mixing.

  4. Cold-Sprayed Ni-Al2O3 Coatings for Applications in Power Generation Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevillano, F.; Poza, P.; Múnez, C. J.; Vezzù, S.; Rech, S.; Trentin, A.

    2013-06-01

    Cermets coatings are extensively used in energy applications both because of their high wear resistance as required, for example, in components like gas turbine sealants, and because of their specific functionality as required in solar absorbers. So far, high-temperature thermal spraying and physical vapor deposition have traditionally been used to deposit this kind of coatings. In this study, Ni-Al2O3 coatings have been deposited using a Kinetic®3000 cold-spray system starting from Ni and Al2O3 powders blend; five blends have been prepared setting the alumina content in the feedstock to 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90 wt.%. The embedded alumina ranges between a few percent weight up to 16 and 31 wt.%, while the microhardness shows a deep increase from 175 Vickers in the case of pure Ni coatings up to 338 Vickers. The spray and coating growth mechanism have been discussed, with special attention to the fragmentation of the ceramic particles during the impact. Finally, the coating behavior at high temperature was analyzed by oxidation tests performed in air at 520 °C emphasizing a good oxidation resistance that could represent a very promising basis for application in power generation systems.

  5. Tribological performance of Graphene/Carbon nanotube hybrid reinforced Al2O3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, Bahareh; Xu, Fang; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Hou, Xianghui; Xia, Yongde; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2015-06-01

    Tribological performance of the hot-pressed pure Al2O3 and its composites containing various hybrid contents of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated under different loading conditions using the ball-on-disc method. Benchmarked against the pure Al2O3, the composite reinforced with a 0.5 wt% GNP exhibited a 23% reduction in the friction coefficient along with a promising 70% wear rate reduction, and a hybrid reinforcement consisting of 0.3 wt.% GNPs + 1 wt.% CNTs resulted in even better performance, with a 86% reduction in the wear rate. The extent of damage to the reinforcement phases caused during wear was studied using Raman spectroscopy. The wear mechanisms for the composites were analysed based on the mechanical properties, brittleness index and microstructural characterizations. The excellent coordination between GNPs and CNTs contributed to the excellent wear resistance property in the hybrid GNT-reinforced composites. GNPs played the important role in the formation of a tribofilm on the worn surface by exfoliation; whereas CNTs contributed to the improvement in fracture toughness and prevented the grains from being pulled out during the tribological test.

  6. Investigation of the characteristics and corrosion resistance of Al 2O 3/TiN coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noli, F.; Misaelides, P.; Hatzidimitriou, A.; Pavlidou, E.; Pogrebnjak, A. D.

    2006-09-01

    Al 2O 3 /TiN double and Al 2O 3/Cr/TiN triple coatings were produced on stainless steel substrates using plasma-detonation techniques. Investigation of the microstructure and characteristics of the coatings after the preparation was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The corrosion resistance of the coatings was studied in several electrolytic solutions (0.5 M H 2SO 4, 1 M HCl, 0.75 M NaCl) using electrochemical techniques (open circuit potential, cyclovoltammetry and potentiodynamic polarization). The obtained results showed, in most of the cases, an improvement of the corrosion resistance, except in NaCl solutions. The effect of the controlled thickness of TiN and Cr layers as well as the additional treatment with a high-current electron beam was also investigated. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied for the characterization of the samples before and after the corrosion experiments.

  7. Plasma-Assisted ALD of an Al2O3 Permeation Barrier Layer on Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wenwen; Li, Xingcun; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Zhengduo

    2012-02-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is used in the preparation of organic/inorganic layers, which requires uniform surfaces with their thickness down to several nanometers. For film with such thickness, the growth mode defined as the arrangement of clusters on the surface during the growth is of significance. In this work, Al2O3 thin film was deposited on various interfacial species of pre-treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET, 12 μm) by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD), where trimethyl aluminium was used as the Al precursor and O2 as the oxygen source. The interfacial species, -NH3, -OH, and -COOH as well as SiCHO (derived from monomer of HMDSO plasma), were grafted previously by plasma and chemical treatments. The growth mode of PA-ALD Al2O3 was then investigated in detail by combining results from in-situ diagnosis of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and ex-situ characterization of as-deposited layers from the morphologies scanned by atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, the oxygen transmission rates (OTR) of the original and treated plastic films were measured. The possible reasons for the dependence of the OTR values on the surface species were explored.

  8. Separation of Fine Al2O3 Inclusion from Liquid Steel with Super Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Gao, Jintao; Wang, Zhe; Guo, Zhancheng

    2017-01-01

    An innovative approach of super gravity was proposed to separate fine Al2O3 inclusions from liquid steel in this study. To investigate the removal behaviors of inclusions, the effects of different gravity coefficients and time on separating the inclusions were studied. The results show that a large amount of Al2O3 inclusions gathered at the top of the sample obtained by super gravity, whereas there were almost no inclusions appearing at the bottom. The volume fraction and number density of inclusions presented a gradient distribution along the direction of the super gravity, which became steeper with increasing gravity coefficient and separating time. As a result of the collision between inclusions, a large amount of inclusions aggregated and grew during the moving process, which further decreased the removal time. The experimental required removal time of inclusions is close to the theoretical values calculated by Stokes law under gravity coefficient G ≤ 80, t ≤ 15 minutes, and the small deviation may be because the inclusion particles are not truly spherical. Under the condition of gravity coefficient G = 80, t = 15 minutes, the total oxygen content at the bottom of the sample (position of 5 cm) is only 8.4 ppm, and the removal rate is up to 95.6 pct compared with that under normal gravity.

  9. DNA Sensing using Nano-crystalline Surface Enhanced Al2O3 Nanopore Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, B. M.; Shah, A.B.; Zuo, J.M.; Bashir, R.

    2013-01-01

    A new solid-state, Al2O3 nanopore sensor with enhanced surface properties for the real-time detection and analysis of individual DNA molecules is reported. Nanopore formation using electron beam based decomposition transformed the local nanostructure and morphology of the pore from an amorphous, stoichiometric structure (O to Al ratio of 1.5) to a hetero-phase crystalline network, deficient in O (O to Al ratio of ~0.6). Direct metallization of the pore region was observed during irradiation, thereby permitting the potential fabrication of nano-scale metallic contacts in the pore region with potential application to nanopore-based DNA sequencing. Dose dependent phase transformations to purely γ and/or α-phase nanocrystallites were also observed during pore formation allowing for surface charge engineering at the nanopore/fluid interface. DNA transport studies revealed an order of magnitude reduction in translocation velocities relative to alternate solid-state architectures, accredited to high surface charge density and the nucleation of charged nanocrystalline domains. The unique surface properties of Al2O3 nanopore sensors makes them ideal for the detection and analysis of ssDNA, dsDNA, RNA secondary structures and small proteins. These nano-scale sensors may also serve as a useful tool in studying the mechanisms driving biological processes including DNA-protein interactions and enzyme activity at the single molecule level. PMID:23335871

  10. Photocatalysis of Thin Films of TiO2 on Al2O3 Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbay, David; Luttrell, Timothy; Batzill, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has grown to be one of the most promising photocatalysts in recent years because of extensive applications in renewable and clean energy. The rise in demand for these new energies has driven an increase in research on metal oxides and their properties. Our interest in growing the rutile structure of TiO2 stems from its lower excitation energy (3.0 eV) when compared to anatase (3.2 eV), which indicates it has better activity in the visible portion of the spectrum. It has been shown that sapphire (Al2O3) substrates are conducive to epitaxial rutile growth. In this study, we measured the photocatalytic activity of thin films of TiO2 on r-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) substrates. We used PLD and MBE to grow the films, which were characterized using XPS and AFM. Photoactivity was measured via the decomposition of methyl orange on the film's surface using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The decomposition of this organic compound is driven by oxidation-reduction reactions on the surface of the TiO2 film. From this, we calculated the charge carrier diffusion length and compared it to that of anatase. Funding provided by NSF Grant DMR-1004873

  11. Effect of interface geometry on electron tunnelling in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koberidze, M.; Feshchenko, A. V.; Puska, M. J.; Nieminen, R. M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate how different interface geometries of an Al/Al2O3 junction, a common component of modern tunnel devices, affect electron transport through the tunnel barrier. We study six distinct Al/Al2O3 interfaces which differ in stacking sequences of the metal and the oxide surface atoms and the oxide termination. To construct model potential barrier profiles for each examined geometry, we rely on first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for the barrier heights and the shapes of the interface regions as well as on experimental data for the barrier widths. We show that even tiny variations in the atomic arrangement at the interface cause significant changes in the tunnel barrier parameters and, consequently, in electron transport properties. Especially, we find that variations in the crucial barrier heights and widths can be as large as 2 eV and 5 Å, respectively. Finally, to gain information about the average properties of the measured junction, we fit the conductance calculated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation to the experimental data and interpret the fit parameters with the help of the DFT results.

  12. Activation energy of negative fixed charges in thermal ALD Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnhold-Pospischil, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Richter, A.; Hofmann, M.

    2016-08-01

    A study of the thermally activated negative fixed charges Qtot and the interface trap densities Dit at the interface between Si and thermal atomic-layer-deposited amorphous Al2O3 layers is presented. The thermal activation of Qtot and Dit was conducted at annealing temperatures between 220 °C and 500 °C for durations between 3 s and 38 h. The temperature-induced differences in Qtot and Dit were measured using the characterization method called corona oxide characterization of semiconductors. Their time dependency were fitted using stretched exponential functions, yielding activation energies of EA = (2.2 ± 0.2) eV and EA = (2.3 ± 0.7) eV for Qtot and Dit, respectively. For annealing temperatures from 350 °C to 500 °C, the changes in Qtot and Dit were similar for both p- and n-type doped Si samples. In contrast, at 220 °C the charging process was enhanced for p-type samples. Based on the observations described in this contribution, a charging model leading to Qtot based on an electron hopping process between the silicon and Al2O3 through defects is proposed.

  13. Growth and characterization of Al2O3 films on fluorine functionalized epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Zachary R.; Jernigan, Glenn G.; Wheeler, Virginia D.; Hernández, Sandra C.; Eddy, Charles R.; Mowll, Tyler R.; Ong, Eng Wen; Ventrice, Carl A.; Geisler, Heike; Pletikosic, Ivo; Yang, Hongbo; Valla, Tonica

    2016-08-01

    Intelligent engineering of graphene-based electronic devices on SiC(0001) requires a better understanding of processes used to deposit gate-dielectric materials on graphene. Recently, Al2O3 dielectrics have been shown to form conformal, pinhole-free thin films by functionalizing the top surface of the graphene with fluorine prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) of the Al2O3 using a trimethylaluminum (TMA) precursor. In this work, the functionalization and ALD-precursor adsorption processes have been studied with angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that the functionalization process has a negligible effect on the electronic structure of the graphene, and that it results in a twofold increase in the adsorption of the ALD-precursor. In situ TMA-dosing and XPS studies were also performed on three different Si(100) substrates that were terminated with H, OH, or dangling Si-bonds. This dosing experiment revealed that OH is required for TMA adsorption. Based on those data along with supportive in situ measurements that showed F-functionalization increases the amount of oxygen (in the form of adsorbed H2O) on the surface of the graphene, a model for TMA-adsorption on graphene is proposed that is based on a reaction of a TMA molecule with OH.

  14. Texture Analyses of Ti/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Produced Using Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei-Zarghani, Aziz; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid; Gerlich, Adrian P.

    2016-11-01

    The texture evolution of Ti/Al2O3 nanocomposite fabricated using friction stir processing (FSP) was investigated at both macroscopic and microscopic levels employing X-ray diffraction and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. The developed textures were compared with ideal shear textures of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure, revealing that the fabricated nanocomposite is dominated by the P 1 hcp (fiber { 10bar{1}1} < 1bar{2}10rangle (and relatively weak B (fiber { 10bar{1}1} < bar{1}bar{1}23rangle ) textures. The analyses of macro- and microtextures showed that the presence of nanosized Al2O3 particles activated the pyramidal { 10bar{1}1} < bar{1}bar{1}23rangle slip system in addition to dominant { 10bar{1}0} < 1bar{2}10rangle prism, basal { {0002} }< 1bar{2}10rangle, and pyramidal { 10bar{1}1} < 1bar{2}10rangle slip systems which normally govern plastic deformation during FSP of commercially pure titanium alloy. Moreover, the presence of nanoparticles promoted the occurrence of continuous dynamic recrystallization as well as increasing the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries within the developed microstructure.

  15. The effect of particle size on the electrical conductivity of CuCl (Al2O3) composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, M. R.-W.; Shahi, K.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The conductivity of CuCl containing Al2O3 of 0.06, 0.3, 1, 3, 8, and 15 micron sized particles was measured between 25 and 390 C. Conductivity was enhanced for the 0.06 and 0.3 sized Al2O3 particles for temperatures below approximately 250 C. The maximum enhancement occurred at 10 m/o of 0.06 micron Al2O3 at 25 C. Uncertain degrees of agglomeration as well as the grain size of the matrix were found to be significant.

  16. Photochromism of vacancy-related defects in thermochemically reduced α-Al2O3:Mg single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, R.; Tardío, M.; González, R.; Chen, Y.; Kokta, M. R.

    2005-02-01

    Oxygen vacancies and their aggregates are produced much more readily in Mg-doped α-Al2O3 than in undoped α-Al2O3 single crystals during thermochemical reduction at high temperatures. A reversible photochromic effect was discovered in Mg-doped Al2O3 crystals containing large concentrations of oxygen divacancies. Alternate excitation with 5.0 and 3.69 eV light results in brown or yellowish-green coloration, respectively. The yellowish-green coloration can also be restored by thermal anneals at temperatures of about 750 K.

  17. The effect of particle size on the electrical conductivity of CuCl (Al2O3) composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, M. R.-W.; Shahi, K.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The conductivity of CuCl containing Al2O3 of 0.06, 0.3, 1, 3, 8, and 15 micron sized particles was measured between 25 and 390 C. Conductivity was enhanced for the 0.06 and 0.3 sized Al2O3 particles for temperatures below approximately 250 C. The maximum enhancement occurred at 10 m/o of 0.06 micron Al2O3 at 25 C. Uncertain degrees of agglomeration as well as the grain size of the matrix were found to be significant.

  18. Effect of Al2O3 on the Viscosity and Structure of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-FetO Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanjun; Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-04-01

    The present paper provided a fundamental investigation on the effect of Al2O3 on the viscosity and structure of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-FetO slags for the purpose of efficiently recycling the valuable elements from the steelmaking slags. The results show that the viscosity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO slags slightly increases with increasing Al2O3 content. The degree of the polymerization (DOP) of quenched slags, determined from Raman spectra and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance, is also found to increase with increasing Al2O3 content. It can be deduced that the increasing DOP can promote the formation of gehlenite phase (Ca2Al2SiO7), thus facilitating the formation of higher phosphorous (or vanadium) contained solid solution ( n'Ca2SiO4·Ca3((P or V)O4)2). As Al2O3 content increases up to a specific value, the charge compensating ions which present near [AlO4]-tetrahedra and [FeO4]-tetrahedra are not fully supplied due to the scarcity of Ca2+. In this case, the existing Fe3+ in the melt cannot completely form [FeO4]-tetrahedra and part of Fe3+ would form [FeO6]-octahedra to substitute Ca2+ to modify the slags.

  19. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0

  20. Natural convection of Al2O3-water nanofluid in a wavy enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mitchell; Mozumder, Aloke K.; Mahmud, Shohel; Das, Prodip K.

    2017-06-01

    Natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow inside enclosures filled with fluids, such as air, water or oil, have been extensively analysed for thermal enhancement and optimisation due to their applications in many engineering problems, including solar collectors, electronic cooling, lubrication technologies, food processing and nuclear reactors. In comparison, little effort has been given to the problem of natural convection inside enclosures filled with nanofluids, while the addition of nanoparticles into a fluid base to alter thermal properties can be a feasible solution for many heat transfer problems. In this study, the problem of natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow inside a wavy enclosure filled with Al2O3-water nanofluid is investigated numerically using ANSYS-FLUENT. The effects of surface waviness and aspect ratio of the wavy enclosure on the heat transfer and fluid flow are analysed for various concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles in water. Flow fields and temperature fields are investigated and heat transfer rate is examined for different values of Rayleigh number. Results show that heat transfer within the enclosure can be enhanced by increasing surface waviness, aspect ratio or nanoparticles volume fraction. Changes in surface waviness have little effect on the heat transfer rate at low Rayleigh numbers, but when Ra ≥ 105 heat transfer increases with the increase of surface waviness from zero to higher values. Increasing the aspect ratio causes an increase in heat transfer rate, as the Rayleigh number increases the effect of changing aspect ratio is more apparent with the greatest heat transfer enhancement seen at higher Rayleigh numbers. Nanoparticles volume fraction has a little effect on the average Nusselt number at lower Rayleigh numbers when Ra ≥ 105 average Nusselt number increases with the increase of volume fraction. These findings provide insight into the heat transfer effects of using Al2O3-water nanofluid as a heat

  1. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P.; Archanjo, Bráulio S.; Schmidt, João E.; Baptista, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm. PMID:26395513

  2. Effect of Al2O3 on dielectric behavior of LiClO4/PVA polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Jagadish; Bhajantri, R. F.; Sheela, T.; Hebbar, Vidyashree

    2017-05-01

    The dielectric properties of lithium per chlorate (LiClO4)/polyvinylalcohol (PVA) solid polymer electrolyte dispersed with alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles have been investigated in this work. Free standing films of Al2O3/LiClO4/PVA were prepared using solution casting method. FTIR results confirm the successful dispersion of Al2O3 in LiClO4/PVA polymer matrix. The variation in dielectric constant follows Non-Debye type behavior. The interfacial polarization phenomenon is the main reason for lower frequency regime variation in dielectric properties. The inertial properties of the dipoles play vital role in higher frequency regime. The composites with 5wt% Al2O3doped LiClO4/PVA show highest conductivity, can be used as an electrolyte with certain attainable modifications.

  3. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P; Archanjo, Bráulio S; Schmidt, João E; Baptista, Daniel L

    2015-09-23

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm.

  4. Effects of Ce on catalytic combustion of methane over Pd-Pt/Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing; Wang, Fan; Zhu, Tianle; He, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Activity and stability of 1%Pd-0.2%Pt/Al2O3 and 1%Pd-0.2%Pt/0.6%Ce/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by impregnation method for catalytic combustion of methane in air were investigated. The catalysts before and after reaction were characterized by BET, CO chemisorption, XRD and XP S techniques. Results showed that the presence of Ce significantly increased the activity and thermal stability of the Pd-Pt/Al2O3 catalyst towards methane combustion, which could be attributed to more highly-dispersed active PdO particles over the Pd-Pt/Ce/Al2O3 catalyst surface as well as the retarded sintering of PdO and the maintained oxidized state of surface Pd during the combustion process in the presence of Ce.

  5. Synthesis of CoFe/Al2O3 composite nanoparticles as the impedance matching layer of wideband multilayer absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, L.; Gong, Y. X.; Jiang, J. T.; Xu, C. Y.; Shao, W. Z.; Liu, P.; Tang, J.

    2011-04-01

    CoFe/Al2O3 composite nanoparticles were successfully prepared by hydrogen-thermally reducing cobalt aluminum ferrite. Compared with CoFe alloy nanoparticles, the permeability of CoFe/Al2O3 composite nanoparticles was remarkably enhanced and an improved impedance characteristic was achieved due to the introduction of insulated Al2O3. A multilayer absorber with CoFe/Al2O3 composite nanoparticles as the impedance matching layer and CoFe nanoflake as the dissipation layer was designed by using genetic algorithm, in which an ultrawide operation frequency bandwidth over 2.5-18 GHz was obtained. The microwave absorption performance in both normal and oblique incident case was evaluated by using electromagnetic simulator. The backward radar cross-section (RCS) was decreased at least 10 dB over a wide frequency range by covering the multilayer absorber on the surface of perfect electrical conductive plate.

  6. Effects of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on the carrier lifetime of Al2O3 passivation stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kuk-Hyun; Cho, Young Joon; Chang, Hyo Sik; Kim, Kyung-Joong; Song, Hee Eun

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effect on the minority carrier lifetime of atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al2O3 passivation by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiON layer in Si/Al2O3/SiON-passivated structure. The lifetime variation of the Al2O3/SiON stack layer was found to depend on both the plasma power and the deposition temperature during the PECVD SiON process and to show better thermal stability than the Al2O3/SiNx:H stack under the same deposition conditions. The lifetime after a high-temperature firing process was improved dramatically at the PECVD deposition temperature of 200 °C. Our results provide a significant clue to reason for the improvement of the passivation performance for passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) silicon solar cells.

  7. Epitaxial growth and electrochemical transfer of graphene on Ir(111)/α-Al2O3(0001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Shinji; Saito, Yuta; Kodama, Hideyuki; Sawabe, Atsuhito

    2016-07-01

    Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene on Iridium (Ir) layers epitaxially deposited on α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates was investigated. The X-ray diffraction, Raman and reflection high energy electron diffraction characterizations revealed that graphene films were epitaxially grown on Ir(111) layers, and the in-plane epitaxial relationship between graphene, Ir(111), and α-Al2O3(0001) was graphene ⟨ 1 1 ¯ 00 ⟩//Ir⟨ 11 2 ¯ ⟩//α-Al2O3⟨ 11 2 ¯ 0 ⟩. The graphene on Ir(111) was electrochemically transferred onto SiO2/Si substrates. We also demonstrated the reuse of the Ir(111)/α-Al2O3(0001) substrates in multiple growth and transfer cycles.

  8. Thermal expansion and elastic anisotropy in single crystal Al2O3 and SiC reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Li, Zhuang; Bradt, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    In single crystal form, SiC and Al2O3 are attractive reinforcing components for high temperature composites. In this study, the axial coefficients of thermal expansion and single crystal elastic constants of SiC and Al2O3 were used to determine their coefficients of thermal expansion and Young's moduli as a function of crystallographic orientation and temperature. SiC and Al2O3 exhibit a strong variation of Young's modulus with orientation; however, their moduli and anisotropies are weak functions of temperature below 1000 C. The coefficients of thermal expansion exhibit significant temperature dependence, and that of the non-cubic Al2O3 is also a function of crystallographic orientation.

  9. Critical tensile and compressive strains for cracking of Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Shih-Hui; Bertrand, Jacob A.; George, Steven M.

    2011-04-01

    Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a model ALD system and Al2O3 ALD films are excellent gas diffusion barrier on polymers. However, little is known about the response of Al2O3 ALD films to strain and the potential film cracking that would restrict the utility of gas diffusion barrier films. To understand the mechanical limitations of Al2O3 ALD films, the critical strains at which the Al2O3 ALD films will crack were determined for both tensile and compressive strains. The tensile strain measurements were obtained using a fluorescent tagging technique to image the cracks. The results showed that the critical tensile strain is higher for thinner thicknesses of the Al2O3 ALD film on heat-stabilized polyethylene naphthalate (HSPEN) substrates. A low critical tensile strain of 0.52% was measured for a film thickness of 80 nm. The critical tensile strain increased to 2.4% at a film thickness of 5 nm. In accordance with fracture mechanics modeling, the critical tensile strains and the saturation crack densities scaled as (1/h)1/2 where h is the Al2O3 ALD film thickness. The fracture toughness for cracking, KIC, of the Al2O3 ALD film was also determined to be KIC = 2.30 MPa m1/2. Thinner Al2O3 ALD film thicknesses also had higher critical strains for cracking from compressive strains. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed that Al2O3 ALD films with thicknesses of 30-50 nm on Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) substrates cracked at a critical compressive strain of ˜1.0%. The critical compressive strain increased to ˜2.0% at a film thickness of ˜20 nm. A comparison of the critical tensile strains on HSPEN substrates and critical compressive strains on Teflon FEP substrates revealed some similarities. The critical strain was ˜1.0% for film thicknesses of 30-50 nm for both tensile and compressive strains. The critical compressive strain then increased more rapidly than the critical tensile strain for thinner films with thicknesses

  10. Quartz crystal microbalance studies of Al2O3 atomic layer deposition using trimethylaluminum and water at 125 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Wind, R A; George, S M

    2010-01-28

    Al(2)O(3) atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth with Al(CH(3))(3) (trimethylaluminum (TMA)) and H(2)O as the reactants was examined at the relatively low temperature of 125 degrees C using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The total Al(2)O(3) ALD mass gain per cycle (MGPC) and MGPCs during the individual TMA and H(2)O reactions were measured versus TMA and H(2)O exposures. The Al(2)O(3) MGPC increased with increasing H(2)O and TMA exposures at fixed TMA and H(2)O exposures, respectively. However, the TMA and H(2)O reactions were not completely self-limiting. The slower surface reaction kinetics at lower temperature may require very long exposures for the reactions to reach completion. The Al(2)O(3) MGPCs increased quickly versus H(2)O exposure and slowly reached limiting values that were only weakly dependent on the TMA doses. Small TMA exposures were also sufficient for the Al(2)O(3) MGPCs to reach different limiting values for different H(2)O doses. The TMA MGPCs increased for higher TMA exposures at all H(2)O exposures. In contrast, the H(2)O MGPCs decreased for higher TMA exposures at all H(2)O exposures. This decrease may occur from more dehydroxylation at larger hydroxyl coverages after the H(2)O exposures. The hydroxyl coverage after the H(2)O exposure was dependent only on the H(2)O exposure. The Al(2)O(3) MGPC was also linearly dependent on the hydroxyl coverage after the H(2)O dose. Both the observed hydroxyl coverage versus H(2)O exposure and the Al(2)O(3) ALD growth versus H(2)O and TMA exposures were fit using modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm expressions where the pressures are replaced with exposures. These results should be useful for understanding low-temperature Al(2)O(3) ALD, which is important for coating organic, polymeric, and biological substrates.

  11. Al2O3 e-Beam Evaporated onto Silicon (100)/SiO2, by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Madaan, Nitesh; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Jensen, David S.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Samha, Hussein; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25

    We report the XPS characterization of a thin film of Al2O3 (35 nm) deposited via e-beam evaporation onto silicon (100). The film was characterized with monochromatic Al Ka radiation. An XPS survey scan, an Al 2p narrow scan, and the valence band spectrum were collected. The Al2O3 thin film is used as a diffusion barrier layer for templated carbon nanotube (CNT) growth in the preparation of microfabricated thin layer chromatography plates.

  12. Consolidation of Al2O3 Nano-Ceramic Powders for High Power Micro-Wave Window

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-19

    Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin-dong Yuseong-gu Daejeon, 305-353, Korea 1. INTRODUCTION In material aspect, the sapphire...Al2O3) is very attractive material for window in the high power application. However, the fabrication and following process is very difficult and...much expansive. In addition, the intrinsic defects like F, F+ center in single crystalline Al2O3 act as heat generation sites during passing the high

  13. Effect of Al2O3 on the friction performance of P/M composite materials for friction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivǎnuş, R. C.; ǎnuş, D., IV; Cǎlmuc, F.

    2010-06-01

    Bronze bearings are one of most used friction materials. In those applications where higher mechanical properties are needed, iron base bearings can be an alternative to bronze base materials, or other alloying elements added to bronze. The paper presents the results obtained in metal matrix composites field with friction characteristics, for automotive brakes, by P/M. The scope of these researches was the improvement of wear resistance and friction properties of metal matrix composites. Friction-wear properties of the Al2O3 reinforced samples were measured and compared with those of plain bronze based ones. For this purpose, density, hardness, friction coefficient wear behaviour of the samples were tested.Microstructures of samples before and after sintering and worn surfaces were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the wear types were determined. The optimum friction-wear behaviour was obtained in the sample compacted at 500 MPa and sintered at 820°C. Density of the final samples decreased with increasing the amount of reinforcing elements (Al2O3) before presintering. However after sintering, there is no change in density of the samples including reinforcing elements (Al2O3). With increasing friction surface temperature, a reduction in the friction coefficient of the samples was observed. However, the highest reductions in the friction coefficients were observed in the as-received samples containing 0,5% reinforced Al2O3. The SEM images of the sample indicated that while bronze-based break lining material without Al2O3 showed abrasive wear behaviour, increasing the amount of Al2O3 resulted in a change of abrasive to adhesive wear mechanism. With increasing the amount of reinforcing Al2O3, wear resistance of the samples was increased. However samples reinforced with 5% and 6% Al2O3 showed the best results.

  14. On the Control of the Fixed Charge Densities in Al2O3-Based Silicon Surface Passivation Schemes.

    PubMed

    Simon, Daniel K; Jordan, Paul M; Mikolajick, Thomas; Dirnstorfer, Ingo

    2015-12-30

    A controlled field-effect passivation by a well-defined density of fixed charges is crucial for modern solar cell surface passivation schemes. Al2O3 nanolayers grown by atomic layer deposition contain negative fixed charges. Electrical measurements on slant-etched layers reveal that these charges are located within a 1 nm distance to the interface with the Si substrate. When inserting additional interface layers, the fixed charge density can be continuously adjusted from 3.5 × 10(12) cm(-2) (negative polarity) to 0.0 and up to 4.0 × 10(12) cm(-2) (positive polarity). A HfO2 interface layer of one or more monolayers reduces the negative fixed charges in Al2O3 to zero. The role of HfO2 is described as an inert spacer controlling the distance between Al2O3 and the Si substrate. It is suggested that this spacer alters the nonstoichiometric initial Al2O3 growth regime, which is responsible for the charge formation. On the basis of this charge-free HfO2/Al2O3 stack, negative or positive fixed charges can be formed by introducing additional thin Al2O3 or SiO2 layers between the Si substrate and this HfO2/Al2O3 capping layer. All stacks provide very good passivation of the silicon surface. The measured effective carrier lifetimes are between 1 and 30 ms. This charge control in Al2O3 nanolayers allows the construction of zero-fixed-charge passivation layers as well as layers with tailored fixed charge densities for future solar cell concepts and other field-effect based devices.

  15. Structural and optical characteristics of Ce, Nd, Gd, and Dy-doped Al2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varpe, Ashwini S.; Deshpande, Mrinalini D.

    2017-07-01

    We present the optical properties of rare earth (RE)-doped Al_2O_3 thin films and discuss their possible use in applications like gate dielectric material and in coating industry. Aluminum oxide films doped with RE elements such as Ce, Nd, Gd, and Dy are synthesized on glass substrate using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique at 400°C. The concentration of rare earth element is varied from 0.5 to 5 mol% in 0.1 M solution of Al2O3. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the thin films deposited with and without rare earth doping have an amorphous structure. Further, the optical properties of RE-doped Al2O3 thin films are studied by using UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurement. The band gap is found to be 4.06 eV for Al2O3 thin film. A small blue shift is seen in the optical spectra of RE-doped samples as compared to undoped Al2O3 film. Dielectric constant of alumina thin film increases with doping of Gd and Dy while it decreases with Ce and Nd doping. Concentration quenching effects are observed in the photoluminescence spectra of Ce, Nd, Gd, and Dy-doped Al_2O_3 films. Among all these RE-doped Al2O3 thin films, Gd and Dy-doped Al2O3 films exhibit a potential for the construction of dielectric gate in transistors or as a coating material in the semiconductor industry.

  16. Molecular dynamics study of aging effects in supercooled Al2 O3.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Vo Van; Oh, Suhk Kun

    2004-12-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations we investigated the effect of aging on static and dynamic properties of supercooled Al2 O3 models at the temperatures of 2100 K and 5600 K . Simulations were done in the basic cube under periodic boundary conditions containing 3000 ions with Born-Mayer type pair potentials. We obtain the changes as a function of time for the total energy and density of the system. The aging time dependence of partial radial distribution functions (PRDFs), coordination number distributions and bond-angle distributions has been studied. We compare the PRDFs for the 10% most mobile Al or O atoms with the corresponding mean PRDFs. We find the effect of aging on the dynamical heterogeneities in the system. Al and O atoms show similar dynamical heterogeneities but with a differing rate of changes during aging. Furthermore, we also find significant aging effects in mean-squared atomic displacement and diffusion constant.

  17. 12CaO-7Al2O3 Electride Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Lauren P. (Inventor); Williams, John D. (Inventor); Martinez, Rafael A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The use of the electride form of 12CaO-7Al2O3, or C12A7, as a low work function electron emitter in a hollow cathode discharge apparatus is described. No heater is required to initiate operation of the present cathode, as is necessary for traditional hollow cathode devices. Because C12A7 has a fully oxidized lattice structure, exposure to oxygen does not degrade the electride. The electride was surrounded by a graphite liner since it was found that the C12A7 electride converts to it's eutectic (CA+C3A) form when heated (through natural hollow cathode operation) in a metal tube.

  18. Acoustic phonon dynamics in strained cubic and hexagonal GaN/Al2O3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesion, P. D., Jr.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Mauriz, P. W.; Freire, V. N.

    2006-06-01

    We study the acoustic-phonon spectra in periodic and quasiperiodic (Fibonacci type) superlattices made up from III V nitride materials (GaN) intercalated by sapphire (Al2O3). Due to the misalignments between the sapphire and the GaN layers that can lead to threading dislocation densities as high as 108-1010 cm-1, and a significant lattice mismatch (~14%), the phonon dynamics is described beyond the continuum elastic model using coupled elastic and electromagnetic equations, stressing the importance of the piezoelectric polarization field in a strained condition. We use a transfer-matrix treatment to simplify the algebra, which would be otherwise quite complicated, allowing a neat analytical expressions for the phonon dispersion relation. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of the localization and magnitude of the allowed band widths in the phonon's spectra, as well as their scale law and the parametric spectrum of singularities f(α), are presented and discussed.

  19. Selective Laser Sintering of Nano Al2O3 Infused Polyamide

    PubMed Central

    Warnakula, Anthony; Singamneni, Sarat

    2017-01-01

    Nano Al2O3 polyamide composites are evaluated for processing by selective laser sintering. A thermal characterization of the polymer composite powders allowed us to establish the possible initial settings. Initial experiments are conducted to identify the most suitable combinations of process parameters. Based on the results of the initial trials, more promising ranges of different process parameters could be identified. The post sintering characterization showed evidence of sufficient inter-particle sintering and intra-layer coalescence. While the inter-particle coalescence gradually improved, the porosity levels slightly decreased with increasing laser power. The nano-filler particles tend to agglomerate around the beads along the solid tracks, possibly due to Van der Walls forces. The tensile stress results showed an almost linear increase with increasing nano-filler content. PMID:28773220

  20. Dynamics of Photocarriers in Crystalline α-Al_2O3 and MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Jie; Wang, Feng; Bonn, Mishca; Heinz, Tony F.

    2003-03-01

    The lifetime of mobile carriers in crystalline insulators is often very short because of the presence of traps, as well as exciton localization effects. Consequently direct measurement of the lifetime are challenging. Here we report application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy together with ultrafast optical excitation [1] to probe photo-generated carriers in crystalline α-Al_2O3 (sapphire) and MgO. In high purity samples, carrier lifetimes ˜ 100 ps are observed. Sapphire shows a single exponential behavior, while bi-exponential decay is seen in MgO. We analyze these results, and their temperature dependence, in terms of a model based on trap states. 1. E Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T.F. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 340 (2001)

  1. XPS and NMR analysis on 12CaO•7Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, R. K.; Feng, S.; Tao, H. Z.

    2017-01-01

    12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7) glass was prepared by the melt quenching method. The glass transition temperature (T g) and the crystallization temperature (T c) of C12A7 glass are about 1050 K and 1194 K, respectively, measured by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The structure of C12A7 glass was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR). Analysis shows that Al coordination number is about four in C12A7 glass, in which AlO4 tetrahedrons and bridging oxygens (BO) constitute the glass network. Ca2+ produces a few of non-bridging oxygens (NBO), which become neighbours of Al.

  2. Preparation of crystal-controlled Y-TZP/Al2O3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, L.

    2012-12-01

    ZrO2-Y2O3-Al2O3 nanocrystalline powders with different grain sizes have been synthesized using a chemical coprecipitation method. Nano-powders were compacted uniaxially and densified in a vacuum hot-pressing furnace. Density, pore size distribution, grain size and composition of the composites were determined by various techniques, including BET gas absorption, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It has been shown that the porosity, grain and pore size of the ceramics can be controlled by the initial powder size and sintering temperature. Fully densified ceramics with narrow grain size distribution in the range of 100 ˜ 500 nm could be obtained.

  3. Fundamental Influence of C on Adhesion of the Al2O3/Al Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Evans, Anthony

    2002-12-01

    Our first-principles computations indicate that the clean Al2O3/Al interface is relatively weak—weaker than bulk Al. Fracture experiments reveal that the interface is relatively strong with observed failure in bulk Al, however. This paradox is resolved via doping effects of the common impurity C. We have found that only 1/3 of a monolayer of carbon segregated to the interface can increase the work of separation by a factor of 3. The resulting strong interface is consistent with fracture experiments. It arises due to void formation in the interface, which provides low-strain sites for the carbon to segregate to. The degree of void formation is consistent with the relatively high heat of oxide formation of Al.

  4. Angle-Dependent Microresonator ESR Characterization of Locally Doped Gd3 + :Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisby, I. S.; de Graaf, S. E.; Gwilliam, R.; Adamyan, A.; Kubatkin, S. E.; Meeson, P. J.; Tzalenchuk, A. Ya.; Lindström, T.

    2016-08-01

    Interfacing rare-earth-doped crystals with superconducting circuit architectures provides an attractive platform for quantum memory and transducer devices. Here, we present the detailed characterization of such a hybrid system: a locally implanted rare-earth Gd3 + in Al2O3 spin system coupled to a superconducting microresonator. We investigate the properties of the implanted spin system through angular-dependent microresonator electron spin resonance (micro-ESR) spectroscopy. We find, despite the high-energy near-surface implantation, the resulting micro-ESR spectra to be in excellent agreement with the modeled Hamiltonian, supporting the integration of dopant ions into their relevant lattice sites while maintaining crystalline symmetries. Furthermore, we observe clear contributions from individual microwave field components of our microresonator, emphasizing the need for controllable local implantation.

  5. Study of Blue Photoluminescence in Titanium Doped Al2O3 Single-Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daimon, T.; Naruse, H.; Watanabe, H.; Oda, H.; Yamanaka, A.

    2011-05-01

    Optical properties have been investigated in titanium doped sapphire, prepared under oxidized condition. Charge-transfer transitions to 3d states of tetravalent Ti4+ from 2p ones of O2- are found to be located below the fundamental absorption edge of Al2O3. The photo-excitation for this band leads to the intense blue emission, the spectrum of which is quite different from the luminescence of the d-d transitions in trivalent Ti3+. The UV-irradiation also leads to an absorption peak below the charge-transfer band, resulted from that the photo-excited electrons in part form color centers. The post-annealing at higher temperatures above 300°C completely destroys the color centers. The blue photoluminescence is found to be greatly suppressed by the UV-irradiation and is recovered by the post-annealing. This fact indicates that the color centers prevent the blue emission.

  6. Memristive behavior of Al2O3 film with bottom electrode surface modified by Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shu-Chao; Dong, Rui-Xin; Yan, Xun-Ling

    2014-09-01

    The memristive behavior of Al2O3-based device is significantly improved by introducing Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Inserting Ag NPs can effectively reduce the switching voltages, increase the resistance ratio (about 104) and enhance the sweep endurance (300 cycles). In particular, the stable switching properties are obtained by inserting an Ag NPs layer with an average diameter of 14 nm on the surface of bottom electrode, and the devices show a long retention time (more than 106 s) compared with the devices without Ag NPs. The switching mechanism is related to the oxygen-vacancy-based conducting filaments and the interfacial effect. The local enhancement and nonuniform distribution of electric field have the benefits to promote, induce and modulate the growth of conducting filaments, such as shape, location and orientation, which are responsible for the improvement performance of the devices.

  7. Memristive behavior of Al2O3 film with bottom electrode surface modified by Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shu-Chao; Dong, Rui-Xin; Yan, Xun-Ling

    2015-02-01

    The memristive behavior of Al2O3-based device is significantly improved by introducing Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Inserting Ag NPs can effectively reduce the switching voltages, increase the resistance ratio (about 104) and enhance the sweep endurance (300 cycles). In particular, the stable switching properties are obtained by inserting an Ag NPs layer with an average diameter of 14 nm on the surface of bottom electrode, and the devices show a long retention time (more than 106 s) compared with the devices without Ag NPs. The switching mechanism is related to the oxygen-vacancy-based conducting filaments and the interfacial effect. The local enhancement and nonuniform distribution of electric field have the benefits to promote, induce and modulate the growth of conducting filaments, such as shape, location and orientation, which are responsible for the improvement performance of the devices.

  8. Process Optimization for Suppressing Cracks in Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Al2O3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, F. Y.; Wu, D. J.; Yan, S.; Ma, G. Y.; Zhang, B.

    2017-03-01

    Direct additive manufacturing of ceramics (DAMC) without binders is a promising technique for rapidly fabricating high-purity components with good performance. Nevertheless, cracks are easily generated during fabrication as a result of the high intrinsic brittleness of ceramics and the great temperature gradients. Therefore, optimizing the DAMC process is a challenge. In this study, direct fabrication of Al2O3 single-bead wall structures are conducted with a laser engineered net shaping (LENS) system. A new process optimization method for suppressing cracks is proposed based on analytical models, and then the influence of process parameters on crack number is discussed experimentally. The results indicate that the crack number decreases obviously with the increase of scanning speed. Single-bead wall specimens without cracks are successfully fabricated by the optimized process.

  9. Investigation of etching techniques for superconductive Nb/Al-Al2O3/Nb fabrication processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberger, A. W.; Lea, D. M.; Lloyd, F. L.

    1993-01-01

    Wet etching, CF4 and SF6 reactive ion etching (RIE), RIE/wet hybrid etching, Cl-based RIE, ion milling, and liftoff techniques have been investigated for use in superconductive Nb/Al-Al2O3/Nb fabrication processes. High-quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junctions have been fabricated using a variety of these etching methods; however, each technique offers distinct tradeoffs for a given process an wafer design. In particular, it was shown that SF6 provides an excellent RIE chemistry for low-voltage anisotropic etching of Nb with high selectivity to Al. The SF6 tool has greatly improved the trilevel resist junction insulation process. Excellent repeatability, selectivity with respect to quartz, and submicron resolution make Cl2 + BCl3 + CHCl3 RIE a very attractive process for trilayer patterning.

  10. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, J.; Katkevics, J.; Erts, D.; Viksna, A.

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH3COONa, K2SO4, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  11. CoFe2/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructures by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Grocke, Garrett; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Wang, Xinjun; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Nianxiang; Howe, Brandon; Chen, Xing

    2016-05-01

    Multiferroic materials and applications allow electric bias control of magnetism or magnetic bias control of polarization, enabling fast, compact, energy-efficient devices in RF/microwave communication systems such as filters, shifters, and antennas; electronics devices such as inductors and capacitors; and other magnetic material related applications including sensors and memories. In this manuscript, we utilize atomic layer deposition technology to grow magnetic CoFe metallic thin films onto PMNPT, with a ˜110 Oe electric field induced ferromagnetic resonance field shift in the CoFe/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructure. Our work demonstrates an atomic layer deposition fabricated multiferroic heterostructure with significant tunability and shows that the unique thin film growth mechanism will benefit integrated multiferroic application in near future.

  12. Oxygen diffusion in alpha-Al2O3. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Halloran, J. W.; Cooper, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen self diffusion coefficients were determined in single crystal alpha-Al2O3 using the gas exchange technique. The samples were semi-infinite slabs cut from five different boules with varying background impurities. The diffusion direction was parallel to the c-axis. The tracer profiles were determined by two techniques, single spectrum proton activation and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The SIMS proved to be a more useful tool. The determined diffusion coefficients, which were insensitive to impurity levels and oxygen partial pressure, could be described by D = .00151 exp (-572kJ/RT) sq m/s. The insensitivities are discussed in terms of point defect clustering. Two independent models are consistent with the findings, the first considers the clusters as immobile point defect traps which buffer changes in the defect chemistry. The second considers clusters to be mobile and oxygen diffusion to be intrinsic behavior, the mechanism for oxygen transport involving neutral clusters of Schottky quintuplets.

  13. Microstructure of the α-Al2O3(112bar0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Th.; Birkner, A.; Witte, G.; Wöll, Ch.

    2002-03-01

    The microstructure of the α-Al2O3(112bar0) surface has been investigated by means of He-atom scattering (HAS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), atomic force microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Heating the samples at 1600 K in air results in atomically smooth surfaces which are, however, covered by a carbon layer. No diffraction pattern could be obtained for these contaminated surfaces. Additional cleaning by sputtering and annealing under UHV conditions yielded highly ordered surfaces characterized by a well defined (1×1) diffraction pattern in HAS and LEED. Annealing above 1400 K caused a structural transition to a (12×4) phase, which is characterized by an ordered arrangement of oxygen vacancies. At room temperature the surface was found to be unreactive with regard to molecular and, surprisingly, atomic hydrogen.

  14. Synthesis and characterisation of YSZ-Al2O3 nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Santoyo-Salazar, J; González, G; Schabes-Retchkiman, P S; Ascencio, J A; Tartaj-Salvador, J; Chávez-Carvayar, J A

    2006-07-01

    In this work a co-precipitation route was used to synthesise two yttria-stabilised-zirconia (YSZ) phases with different concentrations of alumina (Al2O3). A tetragonal, with 3 mol% yttria, and a cubic, with 8 mol% yttria, phases were added with alumina in different weight proportions, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, and 60/40, respectively. After synthesised, products were sintered in a range 800-1100 degrees C for different intervals of time. Compounds were characterised by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Rietveld refinements, using FULPROF-Suite software, were carried out to obtain the cell parameters and structural characterisation of products.

  15. Wear Resistance of Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced with Al2O3 Particles After Multiple Remelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasik, Adam; Pietrzak, Krystyna; Makowska, Katarzyna; Sobczak, Jerzy; Rudnik, Dariusz; Wojciechowski, Andrzej

    2016-08-01

    Based on previous results, the commercial composites of A359 (AlSi9Mg) alloy reinforced with 22 vol.% Al2O3 particles were submitted to multiple remelting by means of gravity casting and squeeze-casting procedures. The studies were focused on tribological tests, x-ray phase analyses, and microstructural examinations. More promising results were obtained for squeeze-casting method mainly because of the reduction of the negative microstructural effects such as shrinkage porosity or other microstructural defects and discontinuities. The results showed that direct remelting may be treated as economically well-founded and alternative way compared to other recycling processes. It was underlined that the multiple remelting method must be analyzed for any material separately.

  16. Impedance analysis of Al2O3/H-terminated diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Meiyong; Liu, Jiangwei; Sang, Liwen; Coathup, David; Li, Jiangling; Imura, Masataka; Koide, Yasuo; Ye, Haitao

    2015-02-01

    Impedance spectroscopy (IS) analysis is carried out to investigate the electrical properties of the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure fabricated on hydrogen-terminated single crystal diamond. The low-temperature atomic layer deposition Al2O3 is employed as the insulator in the MOS structure. By numerically analysing the impedance of the MOS structure at various biases, the equivalent circuit of the diamond MOS structure is derived, which is composed of two parallel capacitive and resistance pairs, in series connection with both resistance and inductance. The two capacitive components are resulted from the insulator, the hydrogenated-diamond surface, and their interface. The physical parameters such as the insulator capacitance are obtained, circumventing the series resistance and inductance effect. By comparing the IS and capacitance-voltage measurements, the frequency dispersion of the capacitance-voltage characteristic is discussed.

  17. Influence of the Al2O3 partial-monolayer number on the crystallization mechanism of TiO2 in ALD TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates and its impact on the material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testoni, G. E.; Chiappim, W.; Pessoa, R. S.; Fraga, M. A.; Miyakawa, W.; Sakane, K. K.; Galvão, N. K. A. M.; Vieira, L.; Maciel, H. S.

    2016-09-01

    TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates are being investigated to obtain unique materials with chemical, physical, optical, electrical and mechanical properties for a broad range of applications that include electronic and energy storage devices. Here, we discuss the properties of TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminate structures constructed on silicon (1 0 0) and glass substrates using atomic layer deposition (ALD) by alternatively depositing a TiO2 sublayer and Al2O3 partial-monolayer using TTIP-H2O and TMA-H2O precursors, respectively. The Al2O3 is formed by a single TMA-H2O cycle, so it is a partial-monolayer because of steric hindrance of the precursors, while the TiO2 sublayer is formed by several TTIP-H2O cycles. Overall, each nanolaminate incorporates a certain number of Al2O3 partial-monolayers with this number varying from 10-90 in the TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminate grown during 2700 total reaction cycles of TiO2 at a temperature of 250 °C. The fundamental properties of the TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates, namely film thickness, chemical composition, microstructure and morphology were examined in order to better understand the influence of the number of Al2O3 partial-monolayers on the crystallization mechanism of TiO2. In addition, some optical, electrical and mechanical properties were determined and correlated with fundamental characteristics. The results show clearly the effect of Al2O3 partial-monolayers as an internal barrier, which promotes structural inhomogeneity in the film and influences the fundamental properties of the nanolaminate. These properties are correlated with gas phase analysis that evidenced the poisoning effect of trimethylaluminum (TMA) pulse during the TiO2 layer growth, perturbing the growth per cycle and consequently the overall film thickness. It was shown that the changes in the fundamental properties of TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates had little influence on optical properties such as band gap and transmittance. However, in contrast, electrical properties as resistivity

  18. Microwave dielectric properties of CaCu3Ti4O12-Al2O3 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohd Fariz Ab; Abu, Mohamad Johari; Karim, Saniah Ab; Zaman, Rosyaini Afindi; Ain, Mohd Fadzil; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin; Mohamed, Julie Juliewatty

    2016-07-01

    (1-x)CaCu3Ti4O12 + (x)Al2O3 composite (0 ≤ x ≤0.25) was prepared via conventional solid-state reaction method. The fabrication of sample was started with synthesizing stoichiometric CCTO from CaCO3, CuO and TiO2 powders, then wet-mixed in deionized water for 24 h. The process was continued with calcined CCTO powder at 900 °C for 12 h before sintered at 1040 °C for 10 h. Next, the calcined CCTO powder with different amount of Al2O3 were mixed for 24 h, then palletized and sintered at 1040 °C for 10. X-ray diffraction analysis on the sintered samples showed that CCTO powder was in a single phase, meanwhile the trace of secondary peaks which belong to CaAl2O4 and Corundum (Al2O3) could be observed in the other samples Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the grain size of the sample is firstly increased with addition of Al2O3 (x = 0.01), then become smaller with the x > 0.01. Microwave dielectric properties showed that the addition of Al2O3 (x = 0.01) was remarkably reduced the dielectric loss while slightly increased the dielectric permittivity. However, further addition of Al2O3 was reduced both dielectric loss and permittivity at least for an order of magnitude.

  19. Size-dependent sorption of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and orthophosphate on nano-γ-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yupeng; Koopal, Luuk K; Li, Wei; Zheng, Anmin; Yang, Jun; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2015-08-01

    The effects of particle size (5, 35 and 70nm) on the sorption of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP) and inorganic phosphate (KH2PO4, Pi) on γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles were investigated using batch sorption experiments, zeta potential measurements and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The results show that the maximum sorption densities (μmolm(-2)) for IHP and Pi increase with decreasing γ-Al2O3 particle size. The sorption affinity of γ-Al2O3 for IHP and Pi generally increases with decreasing particle size, and the sorption affinity for IHP is approximately one order of magnitude greater than that for Pi. In our experimental time scale, surface complexation is the main mechanism for IHP and Pi sorption on large size γ-Al2O3. While an additional surface precipitation mechanism, indicated by solid-state (31)P and (27)Al NMR data, is partly responsible for the greater sorption density on very small size γ-Al2O3. Compared with Pi, the effect of particle size on the sorption of IHP is more pronounced. The results suggest a size-dependent surface reactivity of Al2O3 nanoparticles with Pi/IHP. The underlying mechanism will also be relevant for other small nanosize (hydr)oxide particles and is important for our understanding of the role of small nanoparticles in controlling the mobility and fate of organic and inorganic phosphates in the environment.

  20. Mechanical properties and deformation mechanism of Al2O3 determined from in situ transmission electron microscopy compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kai-Peng; Stachiv, Ivo; Fang, Te-Hua

    2017-07-01

    The mechanical properties and deformation mechanism of alumina (Al2O3) ceramic nanopillars and microstructures have been studied using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) compression and nanoindentation experiments. It has been found that the Young’s modulus of Al2O3 nanopillars significantly increases with a decrease of its thickness; it ranges from 54.8 GPa for the nanopillar of radius 175 nm to 347.5 GPa for the one of radius of 75 nm. The hardness of Al2O3 microstructures estimated by the nanoindentation is between 3.19 to 20.60 GPa. The Raman spectra of Al2O3 substrate has a production peak (577.3 cm-1) between 418.3 and 645.2 (cm-1) peaks. The strain hardening behavior of Al2O3 microstructures has been observed and the impact of size on the compressive and bending behavior of Al2O3 micro-pillared structures is also examined and explained.

  1. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of core-shell nano-TiO2 @ α-Al2O3 microspheres.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mao-Xiang; Han, Chong; Wang, Zhou; Shen, Xiang-Qian

    2014-09-01

    Core-shell nano-TiO2@a-Al2O3 microspheres of 5-20 μm were prepared by the heterogeneous precipitation method combined with the hydro-thermal and calcination process using α-Al2O3 microspheres as substrate. Their morphologies, microstructure and crystalline phase were characterized by SEM and XRD respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange. The as-prepared 10 wt.% nano-TiO2@α -Al2O3 microspheres possess α core-shell structure with a monolayer of nano-TiO2 particles less than 30 nm on the surface of α-Al2O3 microspheres. Their photocatalytic properties are largely influenced by the calcination temperature and the sample calcined at 800 degrees C for 2 h has the best photocatalytic activity. This high photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the synergetic effects of the unique structure of nano-TiO2 @α-Al2O3 microspheres, quantum size effect, composition of crystalline phase and crystallinity of nano-TiO2. These nano-TiO2@α-Al2O3 microspheres may be conveniently separable and useful in practical treatment of organic waste waters due to the large particle size and high photocatalytic properties.

  2. Methionine bound to Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalysts studied by solid-state (13)C NMR.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert L; Schwartz, Thomas J; Dumesic, James A; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    The chemisorption and breakdown of methionine (Met) adsorbed on Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were investigated by solid-state NMR. (13)C-enriched Met (ca. 0.4mg) impregnated onto γ-Al2O3 or Pd/γ-Al2O3 gives NMR spectra with characteristic features of binding to γ-Al2O3, to Pd nanoparticles, and oxidative or reductive breakdown of Met. The SCH3 groups of Met showed characteristic changes in chemical shift on γ-Al2O3 (13ppm) vs. Pd (19ppm), providing strong evidence for preferential binding to Pd, while the NC carbon generates a small resonance at 96ppm assigned to a distinct nonprotonated species bound to O or Pd. Additionally, NMR shows that the SCH3 groups of Met are mobile on γ-Al2O3 but immobilized by binding to Pd particles; on small Pd particles (ca. 4nm), the NCH groups undergo large-amplitude motions. In a reducing environment, Met breaks down by C-S bond cleavage followed by formation of C2-C4 organic acids. The SCH3 signal shifts to 22ppm, which is likely the signature of the principal species responsible for strong catalyst inhibition. These experiments demonstrate that solid-state magic-angle spinning NMR of (13)C-enriched Met can be a sensitive probe to investigate catalyst surfaces and characterize catalyst inhibition both before reaction and postmortem.

  3. Structural and phase transition of α-Al2O3 powders obtained by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharthasaradhi, R.; Nehru, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium oxide has been synthesized by co-precipitation technique at different annealing temperature. Powder XRD confirms the formation of α-Al2O3 with rhombohedral crystal structure having lattice constant a = 4.76 Å and b = 12.99 Å by the Scherer formula, the average crystallite size is estimated to be 66 nm. The scanning electron microscope results expose the fact that the α-Al2O3 nanomaterials are seemingly porous in nature and highly agglomerated. Chemical composition of aluminium oxide is confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The molecular functional group is confirmed by FTIR. Optical absorption of α-Al2O3 has been studied in the UV-vis region and its direct band gap is estimated to be 5.97 eV. This study involves the structural and phase transition of Al2O3 and also indicates that α-Al2O3 has considerable properties, deserving further investigation for the energetic materials with excellent properties for the possibility of using thin-layer α-Al2O3 as a thermo luminescence material.

  4. Electroless Ni-P-PTFE-Al2O3 Dispersion Nanocomposite Coating for Corrosion and Wear Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Singh, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to produce a coating having good corrosion and wear resistance alongside hardness but lesser friction coefficient, Ni-P-PTFE-Al2O3 (NiPPA) dispersion coating was developed. This was achieved by introducing nanosized polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and alumina (Al2O3) in the Ni-P matrix deposited on mild steel substrate. The coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of x-ray, and x-ray diffractrometry. Microhardness and wear resistance of the coating was measured using Vicker's hardness tester and Pin-on-Disc method, respectively. The corrosion behavior was measured using electrochemical polarization and immersion tests with and without exposure in 3.5% NaCl solution. It is observed that codeposition of Al2O3 and PTFE particles with Ni-P coating results in comparatively smooth surface with nodular grains. The NiPPA coating was observed to have moderate hardness between electroless Ni-P-PTFE and Ni-P-Al2O3 coating and good wear resistance with lubricating effect. Addition of both PTFE and Al2O3 is observed to enhance corrosion resistance of the Ni-P coating. However, improvement in corrosion resistance is more due to addition of Al2O3 than PTFE. Continuous exposure for 10-20 days in corrosive solution is found to deteriorate corrosion protection properties of the coating.

  5. Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3–Al2O3 system

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku

    2008-01-01

    We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO3–Al2O3 system by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh2O3(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving Al2O3 tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO3 but the effect is not significant (≈-0.2 GPa/mol% Al2O3); (ii) Al2O3 produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (≈1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (xAl2O3 ≈6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D″ seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (≈4 GPa) for the basaltic Al-rich composition (xAl2O3 ≈20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh2O3(II) with increasing the Al concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations. PMID:19036928

  6. Effect of Surface Treatment on Shear Bond Strength between Resin Cement and Ce-TZP/Al2O3

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jee-Hwan; Shim, June-Sung; Roh, Byoung-Duck

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Although several studies evaluating the mechanical properties of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 have been published, to date, no study has been published investigating the bonding protocol between Ce-TZP/Al2O3 and resin cement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength to air-abraded Ce-TZP/Al2O3 when primers and two different cement types were used. Materials and Methods. Two types of zirconia (Y-TZP and Ce-TZP/Al2O3) specimens were further divided into four subgroups according to primer application and the cement used. Shear bond strength was measured after water storage for 3 days or 5,000 times thermocycling for artificial aging. Results. The Y-TZP block showed significantly higher shear bond strength than the Ce-TZP/Al2O3 block generally. Primer application promoted high bond strength and less effect on bond strength reduction after thermocycling, regardless of the type of cement, zirconia block, or aging time. Conclusions. Depending on the type of the primer or resin cement used after air-abrasion, different wettability of the zirconia surface can be observed. Application of primer affected the values of shear bond strength after the thermocycling procedure. In the case of using the same bonding protocol, Y-TZP could obtain significantly higher bond strength compared with Ce-TZP/Al2O3. PMID:27382569

  7. Substrate-induced band structure and electronic properties in graphene/Al2O3(0001) interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyasov, V. V.; Ershov, I. V.; Ilyasov, A. V.; Popova, I. G.; Nguyen, Chuong V.

    2015-02-01

    Band structure investigation results of two-dimensional (2D) graphene (SLG) on Al2O3(0001) using the density functional theory (DFT) method as a possible element base for spintronics are presented. Regularities of a band structure change in the order three-dimensional (3D) Al2O3 → 2D Al2O3(0001) → 2D SLG/Al2O3(0001) as well as features of a chemical bond between SLG and sapphire on the basis of DFT calculations have been studied. Analysis of the band structure and interatomic spacing in the interface for both models allows speaking about physical SLG adsorption on the (0001)-surface sapphire constrained by aluminum atoms. Energy distribution features of surface states in 2D SLG/Al2O3(0001) interface are discussed. Analysis of effective atomic charge in the interface revealed surface charge fluctuations on the substrate in the presence of SLG, which can be explained by a decrease of the energy of occupied subsurface Al2O3 states relatively to the Fermi level.

  8. The improvement of the mechanical properties of PMMA denture base by Al2O3 particles with nitrile rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhareb, Ahmed Omran; Akil, Hazizan Md; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin

    2017-07-01

    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is mostly used for fabrication of denture base by heat-curing technique. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Al2O3 filler as toughening particles together with nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) particles as impact modifier were used to reinforce PMMA denture base materials on the impact strength (IS) and fracture toughness (KIC). PMMA powder was mixed with liquid methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking agent. The powder components are PMMA, benzoyl peroxide, NBR (5, 7.5 and 10 wt%), and Al2O3 filler (5 wt%) treated by silane. The liquid components are 90% of methyl methacrylate and 10 % ethylene glycol dimethacryate. FTIR analyses confirmed that the Al2O3 filler was successfully treated with silane as coupling agent. The morphology of fracture surfaces was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results shown that IS and KIC improved significantly when using treated the Al2O3 filler. IS has increased to 56% (8.26 KJ/m2) and 73% (2.77 MPa.m1/2) for KIC when treated Al2O3 filler compared to unreinforced PMMA matrix. Statistical analyses of data results were significantly improved (P<0.05) when using 7.5 wt% NBR with treated Al2O3 filler compared to other the compositions.

  9. Effect of Surface Treatment on Shear Bond Strength between Resin Cement and Ce-TZP/Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jee-Hwan; Shim, June-Sung; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Yooseok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Although several studies evaluating the mechanical properties of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 have been published, to date, no study has been published investigating the bonding protocol between Ce-TZP/Al2O3 and resin cement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength to air-abraded Ce-TZP/Al2O3 when primers and two different cement types were used. Materials and Methods. Two types of zirconia (Y-TZP and Ce-TZP/Al2O3) specimens were further divided into four subgroups according to primer application and the cement used. Shear bond strength was measured after water storage for 3 days or 5,000 times thermocycling for artificial aging. Results. The Y-TZP block showed significantly higher shear bond strength than the Ce-TZP/Al2O3 block generally. Primer application promoted high bond strength and less effect on bond strength reduction after thermocycling, regardless of the type of cement, zirconia block, or aging time. Conclusions. Depending on the type of the primer or resin cement used after air-abrasion, different wettability of the zirconia surface can be observed. Application of primer affected the values of shear bond strength after the thermocycling procedure. In the case of using the same bonding protocol, Y-TZP could obtain significantly higher bond strength compared with Ce-TZP/Al2O3.

  10. Electrical characteristics of multilayered HfO2-Al2O3 charge trapping stacks deposited by ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spassov, D.; Paskaleva, A.; Guziewicz, E.; Luka, G.; AKrajewski, T.; Kopalko, K.; Wierzbicka, A.; Blagoev, B.

    2016-10-01

    Electrical and charge trapping properties of atomic layer deposited HfO2-Al2O3 multilayer stacks with two different Al2O3 sublayer thicknesses were investigated regarding their implementation in charge trapping non-volatile memories. The effect of post deposition annealing in oxygen at 600°C is also studied. The decreasing Al2O3 thickness increases the stack's dielectric constant and the density of the initial positive oxide charge. The initial oxide charge increases after annealing to ∼6×1012 cm-2 and changes its sign to negative for the stacks with thicker Al2O3. The annealing enhances the dielectric constant of the stacks and reduces their thickness preserving the amorphous status. Nevertheless the annealing is not beneficial for the stacks with thicker Al2O3 as it considerably increases leakage currents. Conduction mechanisms in stacks were considered in terms of hopping conduction at low electric fields, and Fowler- Nordheim tunnelling, Schottky emission and Poole-Frenkel effect at higher ones. Maximum memory windows of about 12 and 16V were obtained for the as-grown structures with higher and lower Al2O3 content, respectively. In latter case additional improvement (the memory window increase up to 23V) is achieved by the annealing.

  11. Formation of Al2O3-graphite core shells versus growth time by using thermal chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-duk; Park, Chinho

    2016-09-01

    Al2O3-graphite core shells were synthesized on Al2O3 nanopowders by using a thermal chemical vapor deposition technique with C2H2, H2, and Ar gases, and the effects of the growth time on the formation of the core shells were investigated. The crystalline quality of the Al2O3-graphite core shells increased with increasing growth time. The C-Al chemical bonding at 283 eV was confirmed by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thus the thin Al layers on Al2O3 cores, which formed through a reduction process, played an important role in the fabrication of the graphene shells. The characteristics of an electrode composed of Al2O3-graphite core-shell ink on a glass substrate were investigated. This study demonstrated a very effective and simple method for the synthesis of Al2O3-graphite core shells, and the technique developed in this study may be applicable to the synthesis of various metal-graphite core shells.

  12. Latent tracks and associated strain in Al2O3 irradiated with swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, J. H.; Rymzhanov, R. A.; Skuratov, V. A.; Volkov, A. E.; Kirilkin, N. S.

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of latent ion tracks induced by high energy heavy ions in Al2O3 was investigated using a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), exit wave reconstruction, geometric phase analysis and numerical simulations. Single crystal α-Al2O3 crystals were irradiated with 167 MeV Xe ions along the c-axis to fluences between 1 × 1010 and 1 × 1013 cm-2. Planar TEM lamella were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) and geometrical phase analysis was performed on the phase image of the reconstructed complex electron wave at the specimen exit surface in order to estimate the latent strain around individual track cores. In addition to the experimental data, the material excitation in a SHI track was numerically simulated by combining Monte-Carlo code, describing the excitation of the electronic subsystem, with classical molecular dynamics of the lattice atoms. Experimental and simulation data both showed that the relaxation of the excess lattice energy results in the formation of a cylinder-like disordered region of about 4 nm in diameter consisting of an underdense core surrounded by an overdense shell. Modeling of the passage of a second ion in the vicinity of this disordered region revealed that this damaged area can be restored to a near damage free state. The estimation of a maximal effective distance of recrystallization between the ion trajectories yields values of about 6-6.5 nm which are of the same order of magnitude as those estimated from the saturation density of latent ion tracks detected by TEM.

  13. EXAFS Characterization of Dendrimer-Derived Pt/γ-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, A.; Alexeev, O. S.; Williams, C. T.; Ploehn, H. J.; Amiridis, M. D.

    2007-02-01

    The various steps involved in the preparation of a Pt/γ-Al2O3 material using hydroxyl-terminated generation four (G4OH) PAMAM dendrimers as templates were monitored by EXAFS. The results indicate that Cl ligands in the Pt precursors (H2PtCl6 and K2PtCl4) were partially replaced by aquo ligands upon hydrolysis to form [PtCl3(H2O)3]+ and [PtCl2(H2O)2] species. After interaction of such species with G4OH, Cl ligands from the first coordination shell of Pt were further replaced by nitrogen atoms from the dendrimer interior, indicating the complexation of Pt with the dendrimer. This process was accompanied by a transfer of the electron density from the dendrimer to Pt, indicating that the former plays the role of a ligand. Following treatment of the H2PtCl6/G4OH and K2PtCl4/G4OH composites with NaBH4, no substantial changes were detecteded in the electronic or coordination environment of Pt, and no formation of metal nanoparticles was observed. However, when the reduction treatment was performed with H2, the formation of extremely small Pt clusters incorporating no more than 4 Pt atoms was observed. These Pt species remained strongly bonded to the dendrimer and their nuclearity depends on the length of the H2 treatment. Formation of Pt nanoparticles with an average diameter of approximately 10 Å was finally observed after the deposition of H2PtCl6/G4OH on γ-Al2O3 and drying, suggesting that their formation may be related to the collapse of the dendrimer structure. The Pt nanoparticles formed appear to have high mobility, since subsequent thermal treatment in O2/H2 led to further sintering.

  14. Antibacterial potential of Al2O3 nanoparticles against multidrug resistance strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from skin exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Khan, Haris M.; Khan, Aijaz A.; Pal, Ruchita; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    To date very little studies are available in the literature on the interaction of Al2O3 nanoparticles with multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Considering the paucity of earlier reports the objective of present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Al2O3 NPs (<50 nm) against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci by various methods. Al2O3 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The MIC was found to be in the range of 1,700-3,400 μg/ml. Almost no growth was observed at 2,000 μg/ml for up to 10 h. SEM micrograph revealed that the treated cells were significantly damaged, showed indentation on cell surface and clusters of NPs on bacterial cell wall. HR-TEM micrograph shows disruption and disorganization of cell membrane and cell wall. The cell membrane was extensively damaged and, most probably, the intracellular content has leaked out. Al2O3 NPs not only adhered at the surface of cell membrane, but also penetrated inside the bacterial cells, cause formation of irregular-shaped pits and perforation on their surfaces and may also interact with the cellular macromolecules causing adverse effect including cell death. The data presented here are novel in that Al2O3 NPs are effective bactericidal agents regardless of the drug resistance mechanisms that confer importance to these bacteria as an emergent pathogen. Therefore, in depth studies regarding the interaction of Al2O3 NPs with cells, tissues, and organs as well as the optimum dose required to produce therapeutic effects need to be ascertained before we can expect a more meaningful role of the Al2O3 NPs in medical application.

  15. Kinetics for Steam and CO2 Reforming of Methane Over Ni/La/Al2O3 Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Hee; Choi, Bong Kwan; Park, Yoon Hwa; Moon, Dong Ju; Park, Nam Cook; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-07-01

    Kinetic studies of mixed (steam and dry) reforming of methane on Ni/La/Al2O3 and Ni/La-Co (1, 3 wt%)/Al2O3 catalysts were performed in an atmospheric fixed-bed reactor. Kinetic parameters for the mixed reforming over these catalysts were obtained under reaction conditions free from heat and mass transfer limitations. Variables for the mixed reforming were the reaction temperature and partial pressure of reactants. The fitting of the experimental data for the rate of methane conversion, rCH4, using the power law rate equation rCH4 = k(PrCH4)α(PCO2)β(PH2O)γ showed that the reaction orders α, β, and γ are steady and obtained values equal to α = 1, β = 0, and γ = 0. In other words, among CH4, CO2, H2O, and H2, only CH4 reaction orders were not zero and they were affected by the promoters. The apparent activation energy on catalysts Ni/La/Al2O3, Ni/La-Co (1)/Al2O3 and Ni/La-Co (3)/Al2O3 is 85.2, 93.8, and 99.4 kJ/mol, respectively. The addition of Co to Ni/La/Al2O3 was increased the apparent activation energy of the mixed reforming reaction. And the Ni/La-Co (3 wt%)/Al2O3 catalyst showed the highest reforming activity and apparent activation energy. The Co promoters can increase the apparent activation energy of mixed reforming of methane.

  16. Preparation of nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/polyethylene separator crosslinked by electron beam irradiation for lithium secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Yoon-Mook; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Although micro-porous membranes made of polyethylene (PE) offer excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability, they exhibit large thermal shrinkage at high temperature, which causes a short circuit between positive and negative electrodes in cases of unusual heat generation. We tried to develop a new technology to reduce the thermal shrinkage of PE separators by introducing γ-Al2O3 particles treated with coupling agent on PE separators. Nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators were prepared by the dip coating of polyethylene(PE) separators in γ-Al2O3/poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/crosslinker (1,3,5-trially-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1 H,3 H,5 H)-trione (TTT) solution with humidity control followed by electron beam irradiation. γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT (95/5/2)-coated PE separator showed the highest electrolyte uptake (157%) and ionic conductivity (1.3 mS/cm). On the basis of the thermal shrinkage test, the nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators containing TTT irradiated by electron beam exhibited a higher thermal resistance. Moreover, a linear sweep voltammetry test showed that the irradiated nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators have electrochemical stabilities of up to 5.0 V. In a battery performance test, the coin cell assembled with γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT-coated PE separator showed excellent discharge cycle performance.

  17. Al2O3/ZrO2 (Y2O3) Prepared by Combustion Synthesis Under High Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long; Zhao, Zhongmin; Song, Yigang; Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Hongbo

    By introducing ZrO2 (4Y) powder into the thermit, Al2O3/ZrO2 (4Y) composite ceramics of different composition and microstructures were prepared through combustion synthesis under high gravity, and the correlations of composition, microstructures and mechanical properties of composite ceramics were investigated. The results of XRD, SEM and EDS showed that Al2O3/33%ZrO2 (4Y) were composed of random-orientated rod-shaped colonies consisting of a triangular dispersion of orderly submicron-nanometer t-ZrO2 fibers, surrounded by inter-colony regions consisting of spherically-shaped micronmeter t-ZrO2 grains; meanwhile, Al2O3/45%ZrO2 (4Y) were comprised of spherically-shaped micron-meter t-ZrO2 grains. Similar to the international directionally solidified Al2O3/ZrO2 (Y2O3), the EDS results also indicated that there are no impurities, amorphous phases and grain boundaries but clean phase interfaces in two ceramic composites. Compared to the international directionally solidified Al2O3/ZrO2 (Y2O3), the increase in hardness and flexural strength of Al2O3/33%ZrO2 (4Y) in the experiment was due to small-size defect and high fracture toughness induced by compressive residual stress effect and transformation toughening mechanisms; meanwhile, high flexural strength of Al2O3/45%ZrO2 (4Y) was considered to be a result of the fine spherically-shaped t-ZrO2 grains separated from the melt under high gravity, and high fracture toughness induced by transformation toughening and micro-crack toughening mechanisms.

  18. Thermal stability of surface and interface structure of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 on H-terminated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, K. Y.; Speck, F.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller, Th.; Ley, L.

    2007-11-01

    Using the atomic layer deposition technique, 1.2nm Al2O3 films were deposited as high-k gate dielectric layer on hydrogen-terminated silicon and annealed in vacuum and pure hydrogen in order to elucidate the effects of growth and annealing on the structure of film, interface, and surface. As analytical tools, high resolution core level spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation as variable photon source and Fourier Transform Infrared absorption spectroscopy in the attenuated total refraction mode were employed. For Al2O3 on H-terminated Si(111) and (100) surfaces the Si-H bonds are preserved at the interface, while Si-O-Al bonds provide the atomically abrupt interface between Al2O3 and Si. The chemical and structural integrity of the interface is maintained upon annealing except for a gradual loss of Si-H bonds. Growth of a SiO2 layer is observed after annealing, that is unambiguously located at the Al2O3 surface and not at the interface. Stress-induced emission of Si atoms from the interface is identified as the source of SiO2 based on a substantial broadening of the Si 2p core lines. A thermally induced reaction between Si and Al2O3 to form volatile SiO and Al2O is suggested to be responsible for the significant thickness reduction of Al2O3 that accompanies annealing at temperatures of 750°C. Conclusions for the likely effects of forming gas anneals on Al2O3/Si are drawn from this work.

  19. Influence of Al2O3 barrier on the interfacial electronic structure of Au/Ti/n-GaAs structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Abdulkerim; Efeoglu, Hasan; Turut, Abdulmecit

    2017-06-01

    The Au/Ti/n-GaAs structures with and without Al2O3 interfacial layer have been fabricated. The Al2O3 interfacial layer has been formed on the GaAs substrate by atomic layer deposition. The effects of the interfacial layer on the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the devices have been investigated in the temperature range of 60-300 K. It has been seen that the carrier concentration from C-V characteristics for the MIS (metal/insulating layer/semiconductor) diode with Al2O3 interfacial layer has a higher value than that for the reference diode without the Al2O3 interfacial layer (MS). Such a difference in the doping concentration has been attributed not to doping variation in the semiconductor bulk but to the presence of the Al2O3 interfacial layer because both diodes have been made on the pieces cut from the same n-type GaAs wafer. The temperature-dependent I-V characteristics of the MIS diode do not obey the thermionic emission current theory because of the presence of the Al2O3 layer. An electron tunneling factor, aδ {(χ )}1/2, value of 20.64 has been found from the I-V-T data of the MIS diode. An average value of 0.627 eV for the mean tunneling barrier height, χ, presented by the Al2O3 layer has been obtained.

  20. Analysis of the co-deposition of Al2O3 particles with nickel by an electrolytic route: The influence of organic additives presence and Al2O3 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temam, H. B.; Temam, E. G.

    2016-04-01

    Alloy coatings were prepared by co-deposition of Al2O3 particles in Ni matrix on carbon steel substrate from nickel chloride bath in which metallic powders were held in suspension. The influence of metal powder amount in the bath on chemical composition, morphology, thickness, microhardness and corrosion behavior of obtained coatings, has been investigated. It was shown that the presence of Al2O3 particles in deposit greatly improves the hardness and the wear resistance of alloy coatings. Characterization by microanalysis (EDX) of the various deposits elaborated confirms that the rate of particles incorporated increases as the concentration of solid particles increasing. The results showed that the presence of organic additives in Ni-Al2O3 electrolyte deposition led to an increase in the hardness and corrosion resistance of the deposits.

  1. Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

  2. Microstructure Investigation of Cu-Ni Base Al2O3 Nanocomposites: From Nanoparticles Synthesis to Consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. I.; Suguihiro, N. M.; Brocchi, E. A.; Navarro, R.; Solorzano, I. G.

    2017-05-01

    Different compositions of Cu-Ni/Al2O3 nanocomposites were prepared by a chemical-based synthesis of co-formed oxides (CuO-NiO-Al2O3) nanoparticles followed by selective hydrogen reduction of the Cu and Ni oxides and finally by consolidation into pellets. The synthesized composites with both phases (metallic and oxide) containing nanoparticles in the 5 to 60 nm range have been systematically produced. Micro- and nanoscale characterization techniques were extensively employed in all stages of the process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses have shown a heterogeneous distribution of chemical elements resulting in the formation of Cu- and Ni-rich nanoparticles containing Al2O3 phase in a controlled low volume fraction, which later mostly dispersed between the metallic particle and, to a lesser extent, within metallic particles. After consolidation, under uniaxial pressure followed by sintering, the compacted nanocomposite observed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed that the Al2O3 have been more homogeneously distributed as such: the majority of it at the newly formed grain boundaries of the consolidated pellet and a small part of it within the metallic Cu-Ni matrix. Microhardness measurements demonstrate that dispersion of Al2O3 was successfully achieved as reinforcement phase, yielding up to 100 pct increase in hardness.

  3. W:Al2O3 nanocomposite thin films with tunable optical properties prepared by atomic layer deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Babar, Shaista; Mane, Anil U.; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; ...

    2016-06-17

    Here, a systematic alteration in the optical properties of W:Al2O3 nanocomposite films is demonstrated by precisely varying the W cycle percentage (W%) from 0 to 100% in Al2O3 during atomic layer deposition. The direct and indirect band energies of the nanocomposite materials decrease from 5.2 to 4.2 eV and from 3.3 to 1.8 eV, respectively, by increasing the W% from 10 to 40. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that, for W% < 50, W is present in both metallic and suboxide states, whereas, for W% ≥ 50, only metallic W is seen. This transition from dielectric to metallic character at W%more » ~ 50 is accompanied by an increase in the electrical and thermal conductivity and the disappearance of a clear band gap in the absorption spectrum. The density of the films increases monotonically from 3.1 g/cm3 for pure Al2O3 to 17.1 g/cm3 for pure W, whereas the surface roughness is greatest for the W% = 50 films. The W:Al2O3 nanocomposite films are thermally stable and show little change in optical properties upon annealing in air at 500 °C. These W:Al2O3 nanocomposite films show promise as selective solar absorption coatings for concentrated solar power applications.« less

  4. Ultrathin ALD-Al2O3 layers for Ge(001) gate stacks: Local composition evolution and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Shankar; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2011-11-01

    Correlations among physical and electrical properties of atomic layer deposited (ALD)-Al2O3 on H2O-prepulsed Ge(100) have been investigated to evaluate Al2O3 as an ultrathin interface passivation layer for higher-k/Al2O3/Ge gate stacks. In situ XPS in the ALD environment provides insights into the local composition evolution during the initial stages of ALD, evidencing (a) an incubation regime that may limit the minimum achievable capacitance equivalent thickness (CET) of these gate stacks, and (b) residual hydroxyl incorporation in the film consistent with the observed dielectric constant ˜7.2. Thickness scaling of the CET is consistent with a nearly abrupt interface as measured by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES). SRPES studies also reveal that forming gas anneal provides passivation through monolayer-level formation of stoichiometric GeO2, suggesting a complex chemical interaction involving residual -OH groups in the as-grown ALD-Al2O3. Valence and conduction band offsets of prepulsed ALD-Al2O3 with respect to Ge are calculated to be 3.3 ± 0.1 and 2.6 ± 0.3 eV, indicating that these layers offer an effective barrier to hole and electron injection.

  5. Enhancement of resistive switching properties in nitride based CBRAM device by inserting an Al2O3 thin layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dayanand; Aluguri, Rakesh; Chand, Umesh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2017-05-01

    In this letter, we propose a method to enhance resistive switching properties in SiCN-based conductive-bridge resistive switching memory (CBRAM) devices by inserting a thin Al2O3 layer between the SiCN resistive switching layer and the TiN bottom electrode. Compared with the Cu/Ta/SiCN/TiN single-layer device, the Cu/Ta/SiCN/Al2O3/TiN double layer device exhibits uniform resistive switching, long stable endurance cycles (>1.6 × 104), and stable retention (104 s) at 125 °C. These substantial improvements in the resistive switching properties are attributed to the location of the formation and rupture of conductive filaments that can be precisely controlled in the device after introducing the Al2O3 layer. Moreover, a multilevel resistive switching characteristic is observed in the Cu/Ta/SiCN/Al2O3/TiN double layer CBRAM device. The distinct six-level resistance states are obtained in double layer devices by varying the compliance current. The highly stable retention characteristics (>104) of the Cu/Ta/SiCN/Al2O3/TiN double layer device with multilevel resistance states are also demonstrated.

  6. Turbulent heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of dilute water based Al2O3-Cu hybrid nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Suresh, S; Venkitaraj, K P; Hameed, M Shahul; Sarangan, J

    2014-03-01

    A study on fully developed turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated circular tube is presented in this paper. For this, Al2O3-Cu nanocomposite powder was synthesized in a thermo chemical route using hydrogen reduction technique and dispersed the hybrid nano powder in deionised water to form a stable hybrid nanofluid of 0.1% volume concentration. The prepared powder was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to confirm the chemical composition, determine the particle size and study the surface morphology. Stability of the nanofluid was ensured by pH and zeta potential measurements. The average heat transfer enhancement for Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is 8.02% when compared to pure water. The experimental results also showed that 0.1% Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluids have slightly higher friction factor compared to 0.1% Al2O3/water nanofluid. The empirical correlations proposed for Nusselt number and friction factor were well agreed with the experimental data.

  7. Tensile Strength and Microstructure of Al2O3-ZrO2 Hypo-Eutectic Fibers Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali

    2001-01-01

    Oxide eutectics offer high-temperature strength retention and creep resistance in oxidizing environments. Al2O3-ZrO2 eutectic strengths have been studied since the 1970's. Directionally solidified oxide eutectics exhibit improved resistance to slow crack growth and excellent strength retention at high temperatures up to 1400 C. Materials studied typically contain Y2O3 to metastably retain the high-temperature cubic and tetragonal polymorphs at room temperature. Al2O3-ZrO2 is of fundamental interest for creep studies because it combines a creep-resistant material, Al2O3, with a very low creep resistance material, ZrO2. Results on mechanical properties and microstructures of these materials will be used to define compositions for creep testing in future work. Substantial variations from the eutectic alumina to zirconia ratio can be tolerated without a loss in room-temperature strength. The effect of increasing Y2O3 addition on the room-temperature tensile strength of an Al2O3-ZrO2 material containing excess Al2O3 was examined at the NASA Glenn Research Center, where the materials were grown using Glenn's world-class laser growth facilities.

  8. Transport and aggregation of Al2O3 nanoparticles through saturated limestone under high ionic strength conditions: measurements and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Ali Esfandyari; Junin, Radzuan; Ghadikolaei, Farshad Daraei; Piroozian, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) are being utilized in a broad range of applications; thus, noticeable quantities of these particles are being released into the environment. Issues of how and where these particles distribute into the subsurface remain major challenges. In this study, mechanisms governing the transport and aggregation of Al2O3-NPs (Alpha-40 nm) through saturated limestone porous media under different ionic strength conditions were evaluated. For this aim, 50 mg of Al2O3-NPs was dispersed in 1 L of different electrolyte solutions including NaCl and CaCl2. Ionic strength range was selected from deionized water up to 500 mM. Breakthrough curves in the column effluent were measured by UV-VIS spectrometry. It was found that the presence of NaCl and CaCl2 in the suspensions led to formation of ion bridges among NPs. Thus, the stability of Al2O3-NPs significantly declined and NPs started to flocculate and form bigger clusters. Furthermore, ionic strength caused considerable delay in NPs breakthrough in the effluents and reduction of NPs recovery. CaCl2 compared to NaCl was found more effective in instability and deposition of Al2O3-NPs. In addition, the obtained results from transport experiments were checked against classical filtration and Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theories. The results were found to be in agreement with named theories.

  9. Methanobactin-Mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Supported over Al2O3 toward an Efficient Catalyst for Glucose Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Jia-Ying; Lin, Kai; Wang, Yan; Xia, Chun-Gu

    2014-01-01

    Methanobactin (Mb) is a copper-binding peptide that appears to function as an agent for copper sequestration and uptake in methanotrophs. Mb can also bind and reduce Au(III) to Au(0). In this paper, Au/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by a novel incipient wetness-Mb-mediated bioreduction method were used for glucose oxidation. The catalysts were characterized, and the analysis revealed that very small gold nanoparticles with a particle size <4 nm were prepared by the incipient wetness-Mb-mediated bioreduction method, even at 1.0% Au loading (w/w). The influence of Au loading, calcination temperature and calcination time on the specific activity of Au/Al2O3 catalysts was systematically investigated. Experimental results showed that decomposing the Mb molecules properly by calcinations can enhance the specific activity of Au/Al2O3 catalysts, though they acted as reductant and protective agents during the catalyst preparation. Au/Al2O3 catalysts synthesized by the method exhibited optimum specific activity under operational synthesis conditions of Au loading of 1.0 wt % and calcined at 450 °C for 2 h. The catalysts were reused eight times, without a significant decrease in specific activity. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at the preparation of Au/Al2O3 catalysts by Mb-mediated in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles. PMID:25429424

  10. Microstructure Investigation of Cu-Ni Base Al2O3 Nanocomposites: From Nanoparticles Synthesis to Consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. I.; Suguihiro, N. M.; Brocchi, E. A.; Navarro, R.; Solorzano, I. G.

    2017-02-01

    Different compositions of Cu-Ni/Al2O3 nanocomposites were prepared by a chemical-based synthesis of co-formed oxides (CuO-NiO-Al2O3) nanoparticles followed by selective hydrogen reduction of the Cu and Ni oxides and finally by consolidation into pellets. The synthesized composites with both phases (metallic and oxide) containing nanoparticles in the 5 to 60 nm range have been systematically produced. Micro- and nanoscale characterization techniques were extensively employed in all stages of the process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses have shown a heterogeneous distribution of chemical elements resulting in the formation of Cu- and Ni-rich nanoparticles containing Al2O3 phase in a controlled low volume fraction, which later mostly dispersed between the metallic particle and, to a lesser extent, within metallic particles. After consolidation, under uniaxial pressure followed by sintering, the compacted nanocomposite observed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed that the Al2O3 have been more homogeneously distributed as such: the majority of it at the newly formed grain boundaries of the consolidated pellet and a small part of it within the metallic Cu-Ni matrix. Microhardness measurements demonstrate that dispersion of Al2O3 was successfully achieved as reinforcement phase, yielding up to 100 pct increase in hardness.

  11. Diffusion of oxygen in amorphous Al2O3, Ta2O5, and Nb2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, R.; Toda, T.; Tsukui, S.; Tane, M.; Ishimaru, M.; Suzuki, T.; Nakajima, H.

    2014-07-01

    The self-diffusivity of oxygen in amorphous Al2O3 (a-Al2O3), a-Ta2O5, and a-Nb2O5 was investigated along with structural analysis in terms of pair distribution function (PDF). The low activation energy, ˜1.2 eV, for diffusion in the oxides suggests a single atomic jump of oxygen ions mediated via vacancy-like defects. However, the pre-exponential factor for a-Ta2O5 and a-Nb2O5 with lower bond energy was two orders of magnitude larger than that for a-Al2O3 with higher bond energy. PDF analyses revealed that the short-range configuration in a-Ta2O5 and a-Nb2O5 was more broadly distributed than that in a-Al2O3. Due to the larger variety of atomic configurations of a-Ta2O5 and a-Nb2O5, these oxides have a higher activation entropy for diffusion than a-Al2O3. The entropy term for diffusion associated with short-range structures was shown to be a dominant factor for diffusion in amorphous oxides.

  12. Assimilation Behavior of Calcium Ferrite and Calcium Diferrite with Sintered Al2O3 and MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hongming; Wu, Xuejian; Chun, Tiejun; Di, Zhanxia; Yu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the assimilation behaviors between calcium ferrite (CF), calcium diferrite (CF2) and sintered Al2O3, and MgO were explored by an improved sessile drop technique, and the interfacial microstructure was discussed. The results indicated that the apparent contact angles of CF slag on Al2O3 and MgO substrate were 15.7 and 5.5 deg, and the apparent contact angles of CF2 slag on Al2O3 and MgO substrate were 17.9 and 7.2 deg, respectively. Namely, CF and CF2 slag were wetting well with Al2O3 and MgO substrate. The dissolution of Al2O3 substrate into the CF and CF2 slag was found to be the driving force of the wetting process. For the CF-MgO and CF2-MgO substrate systems, CaO contrarily distributed with MgO after wetting. For the CF-MgO system, after wetting, the slag was composed of CF and C2F, and most of the Fe2O3 permeated into substrate and formed two permeating layers.

  13. Stability of two orientations of MoS2 on α-Al2O3(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jippo, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Sato, Shintaro; Ohfuchi, Mari

    2017-10-01

    We have studied the morphology of MoS2 on α-Al2O3(0001) using first-principles calculations. We found that the binding energy between MoS2 and the OH-terminated α-Al2O3(0001) surface is weaker than that for the Al-terminated surface. The band gap reduction of MoS2 is also smaller on the OH-terminated surface than on the Al-terminated surface. The strong chemical interaction between MoS2 and α-Al2O3(0001) seems to result in the larger binding energy and the larger band gap reduction on the Al-terminated surface. Despite the different binding characteristics between the OH- and Al-terminated surfaces, the total energy difference between the two orientations of the MoS2 monolayer related by a 60° rotation is quite small for both surfaces, indicating that the two orientations of MoS2 exist with almost the same amount on the α-Al2O3(0001) regardless of the termination. This result suggests that it is essentially difficult to obtain large-scale MoS2 with a single domain on the α-Al2O3(0001) by chemical vapor deposition.

  14. Theoretical study on (Al2O3)n (n = 1-10 and 30) fullerenes and H2 adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiao; Lu, Wen-Cai; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Li, Ze-Sheng; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2008-04-07

    The structures and stabilities of (Al2O3)n (n = 1-10 and 30) clusters were studied by means of first principles calculations. The calculated results reveal that the global minima of small (Al2O3)n (n = 1-5) clusters are cage structures with high symmetries, in which Al and O atoms are three- and two-coordinated, respectively, and are linked to neighbors via single bonds. Beyond (Al2O3)5, we calculated both cage and cage-dimer structures for (Al2O3)n (n = 6-10), and the results show that, at this size range, cage-dimer structures are more stable than cage structures. Furthermore, an onion-like motif for (Al2O3)10 was studied, and it is interesting to find that, at this size, the onion structure is more favorable than cage and cage-dimer structures. For large clusters, a shell structure of Al60O90 is suggested. Electronic properties and calculations on hydrogen adsorption of these aluminum oxide structures are reported, and we discuss their possible use as hydrogen storage materials.

  15. Temperature-dependent elastic stiffness constants of α- and θ-Al2O3 from first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shun-Li; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yi; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2010-09-22

    Temperature-dependent elastic stiffness constants (c(ij)s), including both the isothermal and isoentropic ones, have been predicted for rhombohedral α-Al(2)O(3) and monoclinic θ-Al(2)O(3) in terms of a quasistatic approach, i.e., a combination of volume-dependent c(ij)s determined by a first-principles strain versus stress method and direction-dependent thermal expansions obtained by first-principles phonon calculations. A good agreement is observed between the predictions and the available experiments for α-Al(2)O(3), especially for the off-diagonal elastic constants. In addition, the temperature-dependent c(ij)s predicted herein, in particular the ones for metastable θ-Al(2)O(3), enable the stress analysis at elevated temperatures in thermally grown oxides containing α- and θ-Al(2)O(3), which are crucial to understand the failure of thermal barrier coatings in gas-turbine engines.

  16. Development of Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst for reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction.

    PubMed

    Kharaji, Abolfazl Gharibi; Shariati, Ahmad; Ostadi, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, Mo/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared using impregnation method. Then it was promoted with Ni ions to produce Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst. The structures of the catalysts were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), CO chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. Catalytic performances of the two catalysts were investigated in a fixed-bed reactor for RWGS reaction. The results indicated that addition of nickel promoter to Mo/Al2O3 catalyst enhances its activity. It is reasonable for the electron deficient state of the Ni species and existence of NiMoO4 phase to possess high activity in RWGS reaction. Stability test of Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst was carried out in a fixed bed reactor and a high CO2 conversion for 60 h time on stream was demonstrated. This study introduces a new catalyst, Ni-Mo/Al2O3, with high activity and stability for RWGS reaction.

  17. XAFS analysis for quantification of the gallium coordinations in Al2O3-supported Ga2O3 photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akatsuka, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yamamoto, N.; Yamamoto, M.; Ogawa, S.; Yagi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Ga2O3 loaded Al2O3 samples (Ga2O3/Al2O3) were prepared to change coordination structures around Ga atoms. Ga K-edge XANES spectra of the Ga2O3/Al2O3 samples showed two peaks assigned to Ga atoms having tetrahedral coordination structure (Ga(t)) and octahedral one (Ga(o)). Curve-fitting analysis of XANES spectra was carried out with a set of pseudo- Voight and arctangent functions, and the fractions of Ga(t) and Ga(o) were quantitatively estimated from the ratio of the peak areas. EXAFS curve-fitting analysis also evaluated the fractions of Ga(t) and Ga(o) and they were in good agreement with those obtained by XANES analysis. It was revealed that the fraction of Ga(t) increased with the decrease in the loading amount of Ga2O3 due to the interaction of Ga species with Al2O3. The fractions of Ga(t) and Ga(o) might relate to the photocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction with H2O over the Ga2O3/Al2O3 samples.

  18. Preparation and characterization of the electrodeposited Cr-Al 2 O 3 /SiC composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jifeng; Suo, Jinping

    2011-09-01

    To increase the SiC content in Cr-based coatings, Cr-Al 2O 3/SiC composite coatings were plated in Cr(VI) baths which contained Al 2O 3-coated SiC powders. The Al 2O 3-coated SiC composite particles were synthesized by calcining the precursor prepared by heterogeneous deposition method. The transmission electron microscopy analysis of the particles showed that the nano-SiC particle was packaged by alumina. The zeta potential of the particles collected from the bath was up to +23 mV, a favorable condition for the co-deposition of the particles and chromium. Pulse current was used during the electrodeposition. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) indicated that the coating was compact and combined well with the substrate. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of Cr-Al 2O 3/SiC coatings demonstrated that the concentration of SiC in the coating reached about 2.5 wt.%. The corrosion behavior of the composite coating was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The data obtained suggested that the Al 2O 3/SiC particles significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the composite coating in 0.05 M HCl solution.

  19. Effect of Al2O3 encapsulation on multilayer MoSe2 thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Yeoul Kim, Seong; Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Woong

    2017-03-01

    We report the effect of Al2O3 encapsulation on the device performance of multilayer MoSe2 thin-film transistors based on statistical investigation of 29 devices with a SiO2 bottom-gate dielectric. On average, Al2O3 encapsulation by atomic layer deposition increased the field-effect mobility from 10.1 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 to 14.8 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, decreased the on/off-current ratio from 8.5  ×  105 to 2.3  ×  105 and negatively shifted the threshold voltage from  ‑1.1 V to  ‑8.1 V. Calculation based on the Y-function method indicated that the enhancement of intrinsic carrier mobility occurred independently of the reduction of contact resistance after Al2O3 encapsulation. Furthermore, contrary to previous reports in the literature, we observe a negligible effect of thermal annealing on contact resistance and carrier mobility during the atomic layer deposition of Al2O3. These results demonstrate that Al2O3 encapsulation is a useful method for improving the carrier mobility of multilayer MoSe2 transistors, providing important implications on the application of MoSe2 and other 2D materials into high-performance transistors.

  20. Passivation Effect of Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Film on HgCdTe Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Sun, Chang-Hong; Chen, Yi-Yu; Zhang, Tian-Ning; Chen, Xin; Lin, Chun; Ding, Ring-Jun; He, Li

    2016-09-01

    The passivation effect of atomic layer deposition of (ALD) Al2O3 film on a HgCdTe infrared detector was investigated in this work. The passivation effect of Al2O3 film was evaluated by measuring the minority carrier lifetime, capacitance versus voltage ( C- V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices, and resistance versus voltage ( R- V) characteristics of variable-area photodiodes. The minority carrier lifetime, C- V characteristics, and R- V characteristics of HgCdTe devices passivated by ALD Al2O3 film was comparable to those of HgCdTe devices passivated by e-beam evaporation of ZnS/CdTe film. However, the baking stability of devices passivated by Al2O3 film is inferior to that of devices passivated by ZnS/CdTe film. In future work, by optimizing the ALD Al2O3 film growing process and annealing conditions, it may be feasible to achieve both excellent electrical properties and good baking stability.

  1. Enhancement of the photoluminescence in Er-doped Al2O3 fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönn, John; Karvonen, Lasse; Pyymäki-Perros, Alexander; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Lipsanen, Harri; Säynätjoki, Antti; Sun, Zhipei

    2016-02-01

    We show the enhancement of the photoluminescence at λ = 1:5 μm in highly-doped (> 1021 cm-3) Er-Al2O3 samples by controlling the vertical distance between the Er-ions using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Er2O3 and Al2O3 were deposited on top of silicon in an alternating fashion with ALD. Five Er2O3-Al2O3 samples were fabricated by keeping the amount of Er2O3 constant but changing the thickness of the Al2O3-layers between the Er2O3-layers. The PL spectra of the samples reveal that the PL signal enhances up to 90% when the vertical distance (the number of Al2O3-layers) between the Er-ions increases. The PL enhancement can be related to the reduction of up-conversion signal at 532 and 650 nm in the Er-ions. Our results demonstrate that ALD is an excellent technique to fabricate and to optimize Er-doped materials due to its unique depositions properties.

  2. Methanobactin-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles supported over Al2O3 toward an efficient catalyst for glucose oxidation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jia-Ying; Lin, Kai; Wang, Yan; Xia, Chun-Gu

    2014-11-25

    Methanobactin (Mb) is a copper-binding peptide that appears to function as an agent for copper sequestration and uptake in methanotrophs. Mb can also bind and reduce Au(III) to Au(0). In this paper, Au/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by a novel incipient wetness-Mb-mediated bioreduction method were used for glucose oxidation. The catalysts were characterized, and the analysis revealed that very small gold nanoparticles with a particle size <4 nm were prepared by the incipient wetness-Mb-mediated bioreduction method, even at 1.0% Au loading (w/w). The influence of Au loading, calcination temperature and calcination time on the specific activity of Au/Al2O3 catalysts was systematically investigated. Experimental results showed that decomposing the Mb molecules properly by calcinations can enhance the specific activity of Au/Al2O3 catalysts, though they acted as reductant and protective agents during the catalyst preparation. Au/Al2O3 catalysts synthesized by the method exhibited optimum specific activity under operational synthesis conditions of Au loading of 1.0 wt % and calcined at 450 °C for 2 h. The catalysts were reused eight times, without a significant decrease in specific activity. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at the preparation of Au/Al2O3 catalysts by Mb-mediated in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

  3. Numerical investigation of Al2O3/water nanofluid laminar convective heat transfer through triangular ducts.

    PubMed

    Zeinali Heris, Saeed; Noie, Seyyed Hossein; Talaii, Elham; Sargolzaei, Javad

    2011-02-28

    In this article, laminar flow-forced convective heat transfer of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a triangular duct under constant wall temperature condition is investigated numerically. In this investigation, the effects of parameters, such as nanoparticles diameter, concentration, and Reynolds number on the enhancement of nanofluids heat transfer is studied. Besides, the comparison between nanofluid and pure fluid heat transfer is achieved in this article. Sometimes, because of pressure drop limitations, the need for non-circular ducts arises in many heat transfer applications. The low heat transfer rate of non-circular ducts is one the limitations of these systems, and utilization of nanofluid instead of pure fluid because of its potential to increase heat transfer of system can compensate this problem. In this article, for considering the presence of nanoparticl: es, the dispersion model is used. Numerical results represent an enhancement of heat transfer of fluid associated with changing to the suspension of nanometer-sized particles in the triangular duct. The results of the present model indicate that the nanofluid Nusselt number increases with increasing concentration of nanoparticles and decreasing diameter. Also, the enhancement of the fluid heat transfer becomes better at high Re in laminar flow with the addition of nanoparticles.

  4. Numerical investigation of Al2O3/water nanofluid laminar convective heat transfer through triangular ducts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this article, laminar flow-forced convective heat transfer of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a triangular duct under constant wall temperature condition is investigated numerically. In this investigation, the effects of parameters, such as nanoparticles diameter, concentration, and Reynolds number on the enhancement of nanofluids heat transfer is studied. Besides, the comparison between nanofluid and pure fluid heat transfer is achieved in this article. Sometimes, because of pressure drop limitations, the need for non-circular ducts arises in many heat transfer applications. The low heat transfer rate of non-circular ducts is one the limitations of these systems, and utilization of nanofluid instead of pure fluid because of its potential to increase heat transfer of system can compensate this problem. In this article, for considering the presence of nanoparticl: es, the dispersion model is used. Numerical results represent an enhancement of heat transfer of fluid associated with changing to the suspension of nanometer-sized particles in the triangular duct. The results of the present model indicate that the nanofluid Nusselt number increases with increasing concentration of nanoparticles and decreasing diameter. Also, the enhancement of the fluid heat transfer becomes better at high Re in laminar flow with the addition of nanoparticles. PMID:21711694

  5. Interface considerations in Al2O3/NiAl composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1993-01-01

    The fiber-matrix interface requirements in an Al2O3/NiAl composite were examined from theoretical considerations. Several factors that influence the interface bonding requirements were analyzed. These include: (1) residual stresses due to fiber-matrix coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch; (2) matrix cracking stress at room temperature; (3) fracture toughness at room temperature; (4) load transfer from the matrix to the fiber and ultimate tensile strength at the use temperature; and (5) creep resistance at high temperature. A relatively weak fiber-matrix bond, with an interfacial shear strength of approximately 15-20 MPa, might be sufficient for attaining the desired mechanical properties in the fiber direction at the use temperature. A weak fiber-matrix bond is also beneficial for increasing the fracture toughness of the composite at room temperature. In contrast, a strong fiber-matrix bond is required to withstand some of the residual stresses resulting from the fiber-matrix CTE mismatch, which are not likely to be reduced significantly by interface coatings. A relatively strong bond is also beneficial in increasing the matrix cracking stress at room temperature. Various interface coating options to accommodate the conflicting bonding requirements were reviewed. One viable coating option is to incorporate a thick, ductile interface layer well bonded to both the fiber and the matrix.

  6. The Influence of impact on Composite Armour System Kevlar-29/polyester-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhan, A. A.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Mohd Rafie, A. S.; Zahari, R.

    2012-09-01

    An experimental investigation of high velocity impact responses of composite laminated plates using a helium gas gun has been presented in this paper. The aim of this study was to develop the novel composite structure that meets the specific requirements of ballistic resistance which used for body protections, vehicles and other applications. Thus the high velocity impact tests were performed on composite Kevlar-29 fiber/polyester resin with alumina powder (Al2O3). The impact test was conducted by using a cylindrical steel projectile of 7.62mm diameter at a velocity range of 160-400 m/s. The results (shown in this work) are in terms of varying plate thickness and the amount of energy absorbed by the laminated plates meanwhile we obtained that the 12mm thickness of composite plate suitable for impact loading up to 200m/s impact velocity. Therefore this composite structure (it is used to reduce the amount of Kevlar) considered most economical armoure products. We used the ANSYS AUTODYN 3D- v.12 software for our simulations. The results have been obtained a4.1% maximum errors with experimental work of energy absorption.

  7. A study of electron momentum density distribution in Al2O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, V.; Kumar, R.; Mishra, M. C.; Sharma, G.; Sharma, B. K.

    2011-08-01

    A study of electron momentum density distribution in α-Al2O3 ceramic using Compton spectroscopy is presented in this work. Measurements have been carried out using 59.54 keV gamma-rays emanating from an Am241 source. Calculations have been performed on the basis of the ab-initio linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method embodied in the CRYSTAL code. The correlation scheme proposed by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof was adopted. The exchange was treated following the Becke scheme. The Hartree-Fock and hybrid schemes were also applied to the compound. All the schemes yielded results that are in good agreement with the measurements. The agreement with experiment is, however, better with the hybrid B3LYP (Lee-Yang-Parr) scheme. Ionic model calculations for a number of configurations of (Al+x)2(O-2x/3)3 (2.75<=x<=3 in steps of 0.125) were also performed utilizing free atom profiles. The ionic model suggests transfer of 2.875 electrons from the valence sp state of Al to the p state of O.

  8. Heat transfer performance of Al2O3/water nanofluids in a mini channel heat sink.

    PubMed

    Dominic, A; Sarangan, J; Suresh, S; Sai, Monica

    2014-03-01

    The high density heat removal in electronic packaging is a challenging task of modern days. Finding compact, energy efficient and cost effective methods of heat removal is being the interest of researchers. In the present work, mini channel with forced convective heat transfer in simultaneously developing regime is investigated as the heat transfer coefficient is inversely proportional to hydraulic diameter. Mini channel heat sink is made from the aluminium plate of 30 mm square with 8 mm thickness. It has 15 mini channel of 0.9 mm width, 1.3 mm height and 0.9 mm of pitch. DI water and water based 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of Al2O3/water nanofluids are used as coolant. The flow rates of the coolants are maintained in such a way that it is simultaneously developing. Reynolds number is varied from 400 to 1600 and heat input is varied from 40 W to 70 W. The results showed that heat transfer coefficient is more than the heat transfer coefficient of fully developed flow. Also the heat transfer is more for nanofluids compared to DI water.

  9. Growth of Polarity-Controlled ZnO Films on (0001) Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. S.; Chang, J. H.; Minegishi, T.; Lee, H. J.; Park, S. H.; Im, I. H.; Hanada, T.; Hong, S. K.; Cho, M. W.; Yao, T.

    2008-05-01

    The polarity control of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy (P-MBE) was achieved by using a novel CrN buffer layer. Zn-polar ZnO films were obtained by using a Zn-terminated CrN buffer layer, while O-polar ZnO films were achieved by using a Cr2O3 layer formed by O-plasma exposure of a CrN layer. The mechanism of polarity control was proposed. Optical and structural quality of ZnO films was characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Low-temperature PL spectra of Zn-polar and O-polar samples show dominant bound exciton (I8) and strong free exciton emissions. Finally, one-dimensional periodic structures consisting of Zn-polar and O-polar ZnO films were simultaneously grown on the same substrate. The periodic inversion of polarity was confirmed in terms of growth rate, surface morphology, and piezo response microscopy (PRM) measurement.

  10. Thermal conductivity and viscosity measurements of ethylene glycol-based Al2O3 nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The dispersion and stability of nanofluids obtained by dispersing Al2O3 nanoparticles in ethylene glycol have been analyzed at several concentrations up to 25% in mass fraction. The thermal conductivity and viscosity were experimentally determined at temperatures ranging from 283.15 K to 323.15 K using an apparatus based on the hot-wire method and a rotational viscometer, respectively. It has been found that both thermal conductivity and viscosity increase with the concentration of nanoparticles, whereas when the temperature increases the viscosity diminishes and the thermal conductivity rises. Measured enhancements on thermal conductivity (up to 19%) compare well with literature values when available. New viscosity experimental data yield values more than twice larger than the base fluid. The influence of particle size on viscosity has been also studied, finding large differences that must be taken into account for any practical application. These experimental results were compared with some theoretical models, as those of Maxwell-Hamilton and Crosser for thermal conductivity and Krieger and Dougherty for viscosity. PMID:21711737

  11. Porous Alumina Template by Selective Dissolution of Ni from Sintered Al2O3-Ni Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M.; Moon, A. P.; Mondal, K.

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, porous alumina template was fabricated by selective dissolution of Ni from the pressureless sintered Al2O3-Ni. Alumina and Ni powders of 99.9% purity were subjected to ball milling (200 rpm, 1 h, 10:1 ball-to-powder weight ratio) in order to get homogeneous mechanical mixture. The milled powder was compacted using hydraulic press under the uniaxial pressure of 400 MPa for 1 min, and the pressureless sintering was carried out in reducing atmosphere (H2) at 1400 °C. Ni was then selectively and completely dissolved from the 1-mm-thick sintered disk of diameter 16 mm in 1 M HCl + 3 wt.% FeCl3 solution to get the porous template of alumina. The porous alumina template was found to have sufficient compressive strength. BET, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy studies along with energy dispersive spectroscopy were performed to study microstructural evolutions, bonding characteristics, and distributions of Ni before and after the dissolution of the sintered composite.

  12. Athermal fading of luminescence in Al2 O3 ceramic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Ian; Kouroukla, Eftychia; Bailiff, Ian K.

    2015-03-01

    Retrospective dosimetry aims to reconstruct ionising radiation dose to populations following a radiological incident using materials not designed for that purpose. Sintered alumina ceramic can function as a dosimeter with its luminescence properties and related trapped charge storage mechanism. Its widespread use as a substrate in surface mount devices and incorporation in devices such as mobile phones make it a ubiquitous potential dosimeter. We investigated the optically (OSL) and thermally (TL) stimulated luminescence properties of sintered alumina substrates. In contrast to their single crystal analogue developed for personal dosimetry, Al2O3:C, the substrates exhibit a significant loss of trapped charge (fading) within hours following irradiation at RT that seriously limits their utility for dosimetry over an extended timescale. The fading rates of OSL and TL signals of 0402 resistors were analysed under various storage conditions (time and temperature), complemented by a study of their microstructure. The results support a model of athermal loss of trapped charge due to electron tunnelling from trapping states; this contrasting behaviour is attributed to a physical modification of the trap environment arising from the manufacturing process.

  13. Formation, growth and dissociation of He bubbles in Al 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huis, M. A.; van Veen, A.; Labohm, F.; Fedorov, A. V.; Schut, H.; Kooi, B. J.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2004-02-01

    The formation and dissociation of helium bubbles and helium desorption are investigated in sapphire Al 2O 3(0 0 0 1) implanted with 30 keV He ions to four different doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 × 10 16 ions cm -2. The samples were annealed isochronally up to 1850 K in steps of 100 K. The techniques of Doppler broadening positron beam analysis (PBA) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) were used to investigate defect evolution and helium retention, respectively, during the annealing procedure. It was observed that the maximum bubble volume is found after 1250 K annealing, after which a process of bubble shrinkage sets in. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) was performed on the sample that was implanted with the highest-dose (2.0 × 10 16 He ions cm -2) after annealing at 1250 K. It was found that the bubbles are shaped as discs lying parallel with the surface and that the average bubble size is 5.5 nm. In all samples, helium is released mainly at a temperature of 1750 K. The desorption curves were analyzed by means of a permeation model. The activation energy for permeation was found as 4.0 eV.

  14. Internal photoemission in Ag-Al2O3-Al junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guedes, J. M. P.; Slayman, C. W.; Gustafson, T. K.; Jain, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The magnitude of the photon-induced current in Ag-Al2O3-Al metal-oxide-metal junctions has been studied as a function of photon energy and angle of incident radiation. Photocurrents were theoretically analyzed on the basis of a modified vacuum photoemission model (Jain, 1975; Slayman et al., to be published). Optical constants previously reported in the literature (Irani et al., 1971; Ehnrereich et al., 1963) were used to calculate the true spatial generation rate in Ag and Al as a function of the angle, polarization of incident radiation, and film thickness. Results were found to be in very good agreement with experimentally determined values for a tunable dye laser with a KDP doubling crystal pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a LiIO3 doubling crystal. The system provided risetimes of 50 ns or less and peak powers of 10 W. Under short circuit conditions, the photoresponse to incident power was linear up to available power densities of 10 kW/sq cm. Quantum efficiencies of about 0.1% at zero-bias, near 3.8 eV under P polarization, were typically observed.

  15. Dynamic Friction Performance of a Pneumatic Cylinder with Al2O3 Film on Cylinder Surface.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-11-01

    A friction force system is proposed for accurately measuring friction force and motion properties produced by reciprocating motion of piston in a pneumatic cylinder. In this study, the proposed system is used to measure the effects of lubricating greases of different viscosities on the friction properties of pneumatic cylinder, and improvement of stick-slip motion for the cylinder bore by anodizing processes. A servo motor-driven ball screw is used to drive the pneumatic cylinder to be tested and to measure the change in friction force of the pneumatic cylinder. Experimental results show, that under similar test conditions, the lubricating grease with viscosity VG100 is best suited for measuring reciprocating motion of the piston of pneumatic cylinder. The wear experiment showed that, in the Al2O3 film obtained at a preset voltage 40 V in the anodic process, the friction coefficient and hardness decreased by 55% and increased by 274% respectively, thus achieving a good tribology and wear resistance. Additionally, the amplitude variation in the friction force of the pneumatic cylinder wall that received the anodizing treatment was substantially reduced. Additionally, the stick-slip motion of the pneumatic cylinder during low-speed motion was substantially improved.

  16. Thermal conductivity and viscosity measurements of ethylene glycol-based Al2O3 nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastoriza-Gallego, María José; Lugo, Luis; Legido, José Luis; Piñeiro, Manuel M.

    2011-12-01

    The dispersion and stability of nanofluids obtained by dispersing Al2O3 nanoparticles in ethylene glycol have been analyzed at several concentrations up to 25% in mass fraction. The thermal conductivity and viscosity were experimentally determined at temperatures ranging from 283.15 K to 323.15 K using an apparatus based on the hot-wire method and a rotational viscometer, respectively. It has been found that both thermal conductivity and viscosity increase with the concentration of nanoparticles, whereas when the temperature increases the viscosity diminishes and the thermal conductivity rises. Measured enhancements on thermal conductivity (up to 19%) compare well with literature values when available. New viscosity experimental data yield values more than twice larger than the base fluid. The influence of particle size on viscosity has been also studied, finding large differences that must be taken into account for any practical application. These experimental results were compared with some theoretical models, as those of Maxwell-Hamilton and Crosser for thermal conductivity and Krieger and Dougherty for viscosity.

  17. Wet foams hydrophobized by amphiphiles to give Al2O3 porous ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Ashish; Park, Jung Gyu; Kim, Ik Jin

    2012-05-01

    Wet chemical method to prepare ceramic foams with antecedent stability using inorganic particles (Al2O3,SiO2 etc.) which are in situ hydrophobized upon adsorption of short-chain amphiphilic molecules in the wet state and heightened mechanical property in the sintered state was developed. These wet foams are stable over several days and show no bubble coarsening nor drainage or creaming. This long-term stability is achieved through the irreversible adsorption of partially hydrophobized colloidal particles to the air-water interface using short-chain amphiphiles to in situ modify the wetting behavior of the particle surface based on the observations of Pickering emulsions. As a result, the suspension is foamed homogeneously throughout its entire volume and porous bulk materials can be produced upon drying and sintering. Wet foams featuring average bubble sizes between 30 and 300μm and sintered foams with porosity from 50 to 85% were obtained by adjusting the amphiphile - particle concentration, and additives in the initial suspension. Cells were mostly closed with an average size of approximately 150 μm. Single cells were separated by walls with minimum thicknesses of 1-3 μm.

  18. Development of lasers optimized for pumping Ti:Al2O3 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rines, Glen A.; Schwarz, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory demonstrations that were completed included: (1) an all-solid-state, broadly tunable, single-frequency, Ti:Al2O3 master oscillator, and (2) a technique for obtaining 'long' (nominally 100- to 200-ns FWHM) laser pulses from a Q-switched, Nd oscillator at energy levels commensurate with straightforward amplification to the joule level. A diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YLF laser with intracavity SHG was designed, constructed, and evaluated. With this laser greater than 0.9 W of CW, output power at 523.5 nm with 10 W of diode-laser pump power delivered to the Nd:YLF crystal was obtained. With this laser as a pump source, for the first time, to our knowledge, an all solid-state, single frequency, Ti:Al203 laser with sufficient output power to injection seed a high-energy oscillator over a 20-nm bandwidth was demonstrated. The pulsed laser work succeeded in demonstrating pulse-stretching in a Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillator. Pulse energies greater than 50-mJ were obtained in pulses with 100- to 200-ns pulsewidths (FWHM).

  19. New battery strategies with a polymer/Al2O3 separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyusung; Cho, Joon Hee; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Song, Jie; Peng, Jing; Gobet, Mallory; Greenbaum, Steven; Ellison, Christopher J.; Goodenough, John B.

    2014-10-01

    A low-cost, thin, flexible, and mechanically robust alkali-ion electrolyte separator is shown to allow fabrication of a safe rechargeable alkali-ion battery with alternative cathode strategies. A Na-ion battery with an insertion host as cathode and a Li-ion battery with a redox flow-through cathode are demonstrated to cycle without significant fade. The separator membrane is a composite of Al2O3 particles and cross-linked ethylene-oxide chains; it can be fabricated at low cost into a large-area thin membrane that blocks dendrites from an alkali-metal anode. To block a soluble ferrocene redox molecule from crossing from the cathode side to the anode in a Li-ion battery with a redox-flow cathode, a thin mixed Li+/electronic-conducting film has been added to the cathode side of the composite separator. An osmosis issue was minimized by balancing concentrations of solutes on the two sides of the separator where the cathode side contains a soluble redox molecule.

  20. Structural, elastic, vibrational and electronic properties of amorphous Al2O3 from ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2011-12-14

    First-principles molecular dynamics calculations of the structural, elastic, vibrational and electronic properties of amorphous Al(2)O(3), in a system consisting of a supercell of 80 atoms, are reported. A detailed analysis of the interatomic correlations allows us to conclude that the short-range order is mainly composed of AlO(4) tetrahedra, but, in contrast with previous results, also an important number of AlO(6) octahedra and AlO(5) units are present. The vibrational density of states presents two frequency bands, related to bond-bending and bond-stretching modes. It also shows other recognizable features present in similar amorphous oxides. We also present the calculation of elastic properties (bulk modulus and shear modulus). The calculated electronic structure of the material, including total and partial electronic density of states, charge distribution, electron localization function and the ionicity for each species, gives evidence of correlation between the ionicity and the coordination for each Al atom. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  1. Regimes of leakage current in ALD-processed Al2O3 thin-film layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, Holger; Reinker, Johannes; Bülow, Tim; Nanova, Diana; Johannes, Hans-Hermann; Kowalsky, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    A recently known phenomenon of thin oxide layers with thicknesses below approximately 40 nm is the increase in their breakdown electric field, called disruptive strength, towards lower thicknesses. This offers the possibility of examining the current-electric field characteristics at higher electric field strengths without an early electric breakdown. In this paper, we report on the identification of a current regime of trap-free square law and the buildup of an S-shaped current-electric field characteristic curve. This observation for atomic layer deposition (ALD)-processed Al2O3 layers has not been mentioned in the literature so far. Additionally, a modern model of space charge limited current is used to fit the S-shaped characteristic and extract the associated parameters, such as mobility, density of states, and the energy band gap between the conduction band and the trap state. In this context, the Poole-Frenkel effect is neglected in the model to fit our measurements towards the current increase after the trap filled limit.

  2. Conduction mechanisms in thin atomic layer deposited Al2O3 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, Holger; Montzka, Sebastian; Reinker, Johannes; Hirschberg, Felix; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Johannes, Hans-Hermann

    2013-11-01

    Thin Al2O3 layers of 2-135 nm thickness deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition at 80 °C were characterized regarding the current limiting mechanisms by increasing voltage ramp stress. By analyzing the j(U)-characteristics regarding ohmic injection, space charge limited current (SCLC), Schottky-emission, Fowler-Nordheim-tunneling, and Poole-Frenkel-emission, the limiting mechanisms were identified. This was performed by rearranging and plotting the data in a linear scale, such as Schottky-plot, Poole-Frenkel-plot, and Fowler-Nordheim-plot. Linear regression then was applied to the data to extract the values of relative permittivity from Schottky-plot slope and Poole-Frenkel-plot slope. From Fowler-Nordheim-plot slope, the Fowler-Nordheim-energy-barrier was extracted. Example measurements in addition to a statistical overview of the results of all investigated samples are provided. Linear regression was applied to the region of the data that matches the realistic values most. It is concluded that ohmic injection and therefore SCLC only occurs at thicknesses below 12 nm and that the Poole-Frenkel-effect is no significant current limiting process. The extracted Fowler-Nordheim-barriers vary in the range of up to approximately 4 eV but do not show a specific trend. It is discussed whether the negative slope in the Fowler-Nordheim-plot could in some cases be a misinterpreted trap filled limit in the case of space charge limited current.

  3. Mixed Matrix Carbon Molecular Sieve and Alumina (CMS-Al2O3) Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yingjun; Wang, David K.; Birkett, Greg; Martens, Wayde; Duke, Mikel C.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2016-07-01

    This work shows mixed matrix inorganic membranes prepared by the vacuum-assisted impregnation method, where phenolic resin precursors filled the pore of α-alumina substrates. Upon carbonisation, the phenolic resin decomposed into several fragments derived from the backbone of the resin matrix. The final stages of decomposition (>650 °C) led to a formation of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) structures, reaching the lowest average pore sizes of ~5 Å at carbonisation temperatures of 700 °C. The combination of vacuum-assisted impregnation and carbonisation led to the formation of mixed matrix of CMS and α-alumina particles (CMS-Al2O3) in a single membrane. These membranes were tested for pervaporative desalination and gave very high water fluxes of up to 25 kg m‑2 h‑1 for seawater (NaCl 3.5 wt%) at 75 °C. Salt rejection was also very high varying between 93–99% depending on temperature and feed salt concentration. Interestingly, the water fluxes remained almost constant and were not affected as feed salt concentration increased from 0.3, 1 and 3.5 wt%.

  4. Improving protein resistance of α-Al 2O 3 membranes by modification with POEGMA brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huating; Jing, Wenheng; Xing, Weihong; Fan, Yiqun

    2011-11-01

    A kind of protein-resistant ceramic membrane is prepared by grafting poly(oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA) brushes onto the surfaces and pore walls of α-Al2O3 membrane (AM) by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Contact-angle, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were measured to confirm that the surfaces and pore walls of the ceramic porous membranes have been modified by the brushes with this method successfully. The protein interaction behavior with the POEGMA modified membranes (AM-POEGMA) was studied by the model protein of bovine serum albumin (BSA). A protein-resistant mechanism of AM-POEGMA was proposed to describe an interesting phenomenon discovered in the filtration experiment, in which the initial flux filtrating BSA solution is higher than the pure water flux. The fouling of AM-POEGMA was easier to remove than AM for the action of POEGMA brushes, indicated that the ceramic porous membranes modified with POEGMA brushes exhibit excellent protein resistance.

  5. Supermagnetism in discontinuous CoFe/Al2O3 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedanta, Subhankar; Kleemann, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    An ensemble of nanoparticles in which the interparticle magnetic interactions are sufficiently weak shows superparamagnetic (SPM) behavior as described by the Néel-Brown model. On the contrary, when inter-particle interactions are non-negligible, the system eventually shows collective behavior, which overcomes the individual anisotropy properties of the particles. At sufficiently strong interactions a magnetic nanoparticle ensemble can show superspin glass (SSG) properties similar to those of atomic spin glass systems in bulk. With further increase in concentration, but still below physical percolation, sufficiently strong interactions can be experienced to form a superferromagnetic (SFM) state. SFM domains in a non-percolated nanoparticle assembly are expected to be similar to conventional FM domains in a continuous film, with the decisive difference that the atomic spins are replaced by the superspins of the single-domain nanoparticles. In this article, we show that by varying the nominal thickness tn of the magnetic component in granular multilayers [Co80Fe20(tn)/Al2O3(3nm)]10 different types of "supermagnetism", such as superparamagnetism, superspin glass and superferromagnetism can be observed.

  6. Al2O3/GdAlO3 fiber for dental porcelain reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Igor S; Luz, Luciana A; Yoshimura, Humberto N; Cesar, Paulo F; Hernandes, Antonio C

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the addition of continuous or milled GdAlO3/Al2O3 fibers to a dental porcelain increases its mechanical properties. Porcelain bars without reinforcement (control) were compared to those reinforced with long fibers (30 vol%). Also, disk specimens reinforced with milled fibers were produced by adding 0 (control), 5 or 10 vol% of particles. The reinforcement with continuous fibers resulted in significant increase in the uniaxial flexural strength from 91.5 to 217.4 MPa. The addition of varied amounts of milled fibers to the porcelain did not significantly affect its biaxial flexural strength compared to the control group. SEM analysis showed that the interface between the continuous fiber and the porcelain was free of defects. On the other hand, it was possible to note the presence of cracks surrounding the milled fiber/porcelain interface. In conclusion, the reinforcement of the porcelain with continuous fibers resulted in an efficient mechanism to increase its mechanical properties; however the addition of milled fibers had no significant effect on the material because the porcelain was not able to wet the ceramic particles during the firing cycle.

  7. Epitaxial graphene surface preparation for atomic layer deposition of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, N. Y.; Wheeler, V. D.; Hite, J. K.; Jernigan, G. G.; Tedesco, J. L.; Nepal, Neeraj; Eddy, C. R.; Gaskill, D. K.

    2011-06-01

    Atomic layer deposition was employed to deposit relatively thick (˜30 nm) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) using trimethylaluminum and triply-distilled H2O precursors onto epitaxial graphene grown on the Si-face of silicon carbide. Ex situ surface conditioning by a simple wet chemistry treatment was used to render the otherwise chemically inert graphene surface more amenable to dielectric deposition. The obtained films show excellent morphology and uniformity over large (˜64 mm2) areas (i.e., the entire sample area), as determined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a nearly stoichiometric film with reduced impurity content. Moreover, from capacitance-voltage measurements a dielectric constant of ˜7.6 was extracted and a positive Dirac voltage shift of ˜1.0 V was observed. The graphene mobility, as determined by van der Pauw Hall measurements, was not affected by the sequence of surface pretreatment and dielectric deposition.

  8. Fabrication of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Bond Coats with Low Al2O3 Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergholz, Jan; Pint, Bruce A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Nanoscale oxide dispersions have long been used to increase the oxidation and wear resistance of alloys used as bond coatings in thermal barrier coatings. Their manufacturing via mechanical alloying is often accompanied by difficulties regarding their particle size, homogeneous distribution of the oxide dispersions inside the powder, involving considerable costs, due to cold welding of the powder during milling. A significant improvement in this process can be achieved by the use of process control agent (PCA) to achieve the critical balance between cold welding and fracturing, thereby enhancing the process efficiency. In this investigation, the influence of the organic additive stearic acid on the manufacturing process of Al2O3-doped CoNiCrAlY powder was investigated. Powders were fabricated via mechanical alloying at different milling times and PCA concentrations. The results showed a decrease in particle size, without hindering the homogeneous incorporation of the oxide dispersions. Two powders manufactured with 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% PCA were deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. Results showed that a higher content of elongated particles in the powder with the higher PCA content led to increased surface roughness, porosity and decreased coating thickness, with areas without embedded oxide particles.

  9. Growth of pentacene on α -Al2O3 (0001) studied by in situ optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Fu, X.; Hohage, M.; Zeppenfeld, P.; Sun, L. D.

    2017-09-01

    The growth of pentacene thin films on a sapphire α -Al2O3 (0001) surface was investigated in situ using differential reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Two different film structures are observed depending on the substrate temperature. If pentacene is deposited at room temperature, a wetting layer consisting of flat-lying molecules is formed after which upright-standing molecular layers with a herringbone structure start to grow. At low substrate temperature of 100 K, the long molecular axis of the pentacene molecules remains parallel to the surface plane throughout the entire growth regime up to rather large thicknesses. Heating thin films deposited at 100 K to room temperature causes the pentacene molecules beyond the wetting layer to stand up and assemble into a herringbone structure. Another interesting observation is the dewetting of the first flat-lying monolayer upon exposure to air, leading to the condensation of islands consisting of upright-standing molecules. Our results emphasize the interplay between growth kinetics and thermodynamics and its influence on the molecular orientation in organic thin films.

  10. Mixed Matrix Carbon Molecular Sieve and Alumina (CMS-Al2O3) Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yingjun; Wang, David K.; Birkett, Greg; Martens, Wayde; Duke, Mikel C.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2016-01-01

    This work shows mixed matrix inorganic membranes prepared by the vacuum-assisted impregnation method, where phenolic resin precursors filled the pore of α-alumina substrates. Upon carbonisation, the phenolic resin decomposed into several fragments derived from the backbone of the resin matrix. The final stages of decomposition (>650 °C) led to a formation of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) structures, reaching the lowest average pore sizes of ~5 Å at carbonisation temperatures of 700 °C. The combination of vacuum-assisted impregnation and carbonisation led to the formation of mixed matrix of CMS and α-alumina particles (CMS-Al2O3) in a single membrane. These membranes were tested for pervaporative desalination and gave very high water fluxes of up to 25 kg m−2 h−1 for seawater (NaCl 3.5 wt%) at 75 °C. Salt rejection was also very high varying between 93–99% depending on temperature and feed salt concentration. Interestingly, the water fluxes remained almost constant and were not affected as feed salt concentration increased from 0.3, 1 and 3.5 wt%. PMID:27469389

  11. Molten Al and (0001) α-Al2O3 Single Crystal: Interface Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-santillan, Joaquin

    2016-10-01

    The roughness on the " c"-plane (0001) sapphire single crystal reduces wetting of molten aluminum under Ar gas (99.999 pct) and PO2 10-15 Pa from 1073 K to 1473 K (800 °C to 1200 °C). The contact angle effect was partially understood by the roughness factor, R; however, the interfacial phenomenon involving this effect is yet a topic to study as it also depends, between other things, on the shape of droplet and the relationship to its substrate. The theory explains that the surface tension of liquid aluminum obtained by the sessile drop test can be determined just when a substrate is polished or free of any surface imperfection. However, roughness of sapphire (0001) surface promotes an apparent surface tension that exhibits different trends of wetting to that proposed in previous studies. This property adds to the interfacial wetting phenomena obtained from the Al-Al2O3 couple system and provides answers for contact angle trends toward a much more stable interface, which when coupled with thermodynamic conditions may help in the manufacturing, deterioration, and reliability of the system.

  12. Enhanced TC in granular and thin film Al-Al2O3 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. S.; Greene, R. L.

    It is known since the 1970s that the superconducting transition temperature of granular aluminum films can be as high as two to three times the transition temperature of bulk aluminum, depending on the grain size and how strongly the nanometer size grains are connected1,2. As the strength of the grain connectivity becomes increasingly weak, the enhanced TC is suppressed. The mechanism behind this enhancement is still under debate. Recently, work on larger aluminum nanoparticles (18nm) embedded in an insulating Al2O3 matrix showed an onset of the superconducting transition as high as three times that of bulk aluminum3. In this situation, the Al grains are electrically disconnected and in a regime far removed from that of the granular films. Here we compare the two situations through electronic and thermal measurements in order to help elucidate the mechanism behind the enhancements. 1S. Pracht, et al., arXiv:1508.04270v1 [cond-mat.supr-con] (2015). 2G. Deutscher, New Superconductors From Granular to High TC, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2006, p. 72-74. 3V. N. Smolyaninova, et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 15777 (2015). Funding by NSF DMR # 1410665.

  13. Laminar convective heat transfer characteristic of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a circular microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinavee, K.; Gogoi, T. K.; Pandey, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, laminar convective heat transfer characteristics Al2O3/water nanofluid in a circular microchannel is investigated using a two-phase (discrete phase) model. The computational fluid dynamic code FLUENT (ANSYS) is employed to solve the coupled momentum and energy equations with the boundary conditions of uniform wall heat flux and velocity at channel inlet. Detail analysis is done showing variation of wall temperature, fluid bulk mean temperature, heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, shear stress, friction, pressure drop, entropy generation etc. along the microchannel at two particle volume concentrations (1% and 4%) of the nanofluid. Comparison of results is provided between base and nanofluid and also for two cases, one with constant property and the other with variable temperature thermal conductivity and viscosity. Results show that heat transfer is enhanced in case of the nanofluid with low entropy generation and the heat transfer parameters increase with increase in nanoparticle volume concentration and Reynolds number. However, use of nanofluid also causes increase in pressure drop and shear stress. A comparison of the constant and variable property model showed that heat transfer is further enhanced; entropy, shear stress and pressure drop further decrease when temperature dependent properties of the nanofluid are considered instead of constant properties.

  14. HCOOH hydrogenation over lanthanide-oxide-promoted Rh/Al 2O 3 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, J. J.; Carrizosa, I.; Odriozola, J. A.

    1993-08-01

    In this report, data corresponding to the hydrogenation of HCOOH adsorbed over a series of lanthanide-oxide-promoted Rh/Al 2O 3 catalysts are presented (Ln xO y, Ln=La, Ce, Sm, Yb, Lu). By comparison to thermal decomposition, it can be observed that the supports are unable to carry out the hydrogenation. Under these conditions, adsorbed formate decomposes through a dehydration mechanism as observed for an inert atmosphere. When rhodium is added to the samples and in the presence of hydrogen, adsorbed formate is eliminated from the surface at a lower temperature and a higher rate than the thermal decomposition. Adsorbed formate hydrogenation produces methane and water in the range 470-510 K, depending on the support employed. The presence of a small amount of gaseous HCOOH during methane production points to a mechanism in which adsorbed formate is converted into formic acid on the support. Its transformation into formic acid allows the adsorbate to reach the metal more easily where it immediately decomposes. The products of this decomposition are further hydrogenated into water and methane. Lewis acidity of the catalyst surface and metal dispersion are essential factors for formic-acid development and both are strongly modified by the presence of lanthanide oxides.

  15. Fuel purpose hydrotreating of sunflower oil on CoMo/Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Krár, Márton; Kovács, Sándor; Kalló, Dénes; Hancsók, Jeno

    2010-12-01

    The importance of the economical production and usage of new generation biofuels, the so-called bio gas oil (paraffins from triglycerides) and the results of the investigation for their productability on the CoMo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, which was activated by reduction, are presented. The conversion of triglycerides, the yield of total organic fractions and the target product, furthermore the type and ratio of deoxygenation reactions were determined as a function of process parameters. The advantageous process parameters were found (380 degrees C, 40-60 bar, 500-600 Nm(3)/m(3) H(2)/sunflower oil ratio, 1.0 h(-1)), where the conversion of triglycerides was 100% and the yield of the target fraction [high paraffin containing (>99%) gas oil boiling range product] was relatively high (73.7-73.9%). The deoxygenation of triglycerides the reduction as well as the decarboxylation/decarbonylation reactions took place. The yield of the target fractions did not achieve the theoretical values (81.4-86.5%). That is why it is necessary to separate the target fraction and recirculate the heavy fraction.

  16. Microscopic Sources of Paramagnetic Noise on α-Al2O3 Substrates for Superconducting Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Jonathan; Lee, Donghwa; Lordi, Vince

    2014-03-01

    Superconducting qubits (SQs) represent a promising route to achieving a scalable quantum computer. However, the coupling between electro-dynamic qubits and (as yet largely unidentified) ambient parasitic noise sources has so far limited the functionality of current SQs by limiting coherence times of the quantum states below a practical threshold for measurement and manipulation. Further improvement can be enabled by a detailed understanding of the various noise sources afflicting SQs. In this work, first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations are employed to identify the microscopic origins of magnetic noise sources in SQs on an α-Al2O3 substrate. The results indicate that it is unlikely that the existence of intrinsic point defects and defect complexes in the substrate are responsible for low frequency noise in these systems. Rather, a comprehensive analysis of extrinsic defects shows that surface aluminum ions interacting with ambient molecules will form a bath of magnetic moments that can couple to the SQ paramagnetically. The microscopic origin of this magnetic noise source is discussed and strategies for ameliorating the effects of these magnetic defects are proposed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 / Al2O3 films for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triani, Gerry; Evans, Peter J.; Mitchell, David R. G.; Attard, Darren J.; Finnie, Kim S.; James, Michael; Hanley, Tracey; Latella, Bruno; Prince, Kathryn E.; Bartlett, John

    2005-09-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an important technology for depositing functional coatings on accessible, reactive surfaces with precise control of thickness and nanostructure. Unlike conventional chemical vapour deposition, where growth rate is dependent on reactant flux, ALD employs sequential surface chemical reactions to saturate a surface with a (sub-) monolayer of reactive compounds such as metal alkoxides or covalent halides, followed by reaction with a second compound such as water to deposit coatings layer-by-layer. A judicious choice of reactants and processing conditions ensures that the reactions are self-limiting, resulting in controlled film growth with excellent conformality to the substrate. This paper investigates the deposition and characterisation of multi-layer TiO2 /Al2O3 films on a range of substrates, including silicon <100>, soda glass and polycarbonate, using titanium tetrachloride/water and trimethylaluminium/water as precursor couples. Structure-property correlations were established using a suite of analytical tools, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The evolution of nanostructure and composition of multi-layer high/low refractive index stacks are discussed as a function of deposition parameters.

  18. Mixed Matrix Carbon Molecular Sieve and Alumina (CMS-Al2O3) Membranes.

    PubMed

    Song, Yingjun; Wang, David K; Birkett, Greg; Martens, Wayde; Duke, Mikel C; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C

    2016-07-29

    This work shows mixed matrix inorganic membranes prepared by the vacuum-assisted impregnation method, where phenolic resin precursors filled the pore of α-alumina substrates. Upon carbonisation, the phenolic resin decomposed into several fragments derived from the backbone of the resin matrix. The final stages of decomposition (>650 °C) led to a formation of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) structures, reaching the lowest average pore sizes of ~5 Å at carbonisation temperatures of 700 °C. The combination of vacuum-assisted impregnation and carbonisation led to the formation of mixed matrix of CMS and α-alumina particles (CMS-Al2O3) in a single membrane. These membranes were tested for pervaporative desalination and gave very high water fluxes of up to 25 kg m(-2) h(-1) for seawater (NaCl 3.5 wt%) at 75 °C. Salt rejection was also very high varying between 93-99% depending on temperature and feed salt concentration. Interestingly, the water fluxes remained almost constant and were not affected as feed salt concentration increased from 0.3, 1 and 3.5 wt%.

  19. Surface reactions of dimethyl ether on γ-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, G. N.; Volnina, E. A.; Kipnis, M. A.; Rodionov, A. S.; Samokhin, P. V.; Lin, G. I.

    2016-02-01

    The surface reactions of dimethyl ether (DME) on industrial alumina (γ-Al2O3) were studied by chromatographic analysis of the products at the outlet of the flow reactor and (independently) by diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy. The major products of the reactions at 250°C were found to be methanol formed in the reaction of DME with hydroxyl groups (the 3720 and 3674 cm-1 bands in the diffuse reflectance spectrum) and various methoxy groups (the 1121, 1070, 695, and 670 cm-1 bands in the differential spectra). The presence of molecularly adsorbed methanol was confirmed by experiments with methanol fed in a high-temperature IR cell. The interaction of the resulting methanol molecule with the hydroxyl group led to the formation of a water molecule in the gas phase and a methoxy group on the oxide surface. Strong adsorption of molecular DME was revealed, which was favored by an increase in the temperature of the preliminary calcination of oxide from 250 to 450-500°C; treatment of alumina with water vapor after its preliminary contact with DME led to a recovery of the hydroxyl coating and a replacement of molecularly adsorbed DME with hydroxyl. The thermal effect recorded in a flow reactor was positive during the adsorption of DME and negative during the desorption of weakly bonded DME. Schemes of formation of methoxy groups in the interaction of DME and methanol with surface hydroxyls were suggested.

  20. ENERGY CONVERSION FOR THE TRANSITION FROM Al TO γ-Al2O3 NANOPARTICLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shulin; Li, Shengjuan; Xu, Bo; Jian, Dunliang; Zhu, Yufang

    2013-07-01

    We have successfully converted large volume Al particles into γ-Al2O3 nanostructures by vibration milling at room temperature and successive treatment. We show that there exist special relationships among stacking fault energy (SFE), strain energy (SRE), and surface energy (SE) of the materials, including interdependence, intercompetition, and interconversion during the phase transition. SFE and SRE perform the same changing tendency, while SE just does the opposite. However, it is not the particle size but the energy state that determines the reactivity of the materials. And it is the SE that can directly determine the physical chemical reaction and the conversion into the end product rather than SFE and SRE. When SE goes up, the material reactivity and the product yield will be enhanced; and when SE goes down, the reaction and the product yield will decay. However, the state of SE depends closely on the change tendency of the SFE and SRE. That is, when SFE and SRE goes up, SE will goes down; if SFE and SRE goes down, SE will goes up. It seems that energy conservation law may be followed in a sense in the particle system if the external input keeps constant. The work may be significant for energy conversion in nano-scale and mechanosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles.

  1. Porous α-Al2O3 thermal barrier coatings with dispersed Pt particles prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; He, Ye-dong; Deng, Shun-jie; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Porous α-Al2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) containing dispersed Pt particles were prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED). The influence of the Pt particles on the microstructure of the coatings and the CPED process were studied. The prepared coatings were mainly composed of α-Al2O3. The average thickness of the coatings was approximately 100 μm. Such single-layer TBCs exhibited not only excellent high-temperature cyclic oxidation and spallation resistance, but also good thermal insulation properties. Porous α-Al2O3 TBCs inhibit further oxidation of alloy substrates because of their extremely low oxygen diffusion rate, provide good thermal insulation because of their porous structure, and exhibit excellent mechanical properties because of the toughening effect of the Pt particles and because of stress relaxation induced by deformation of the porous structure.

  2. Effect of Al2O3 Buffer Layers on the Properties of Sputtered VO2 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dainan; Wen, Tianlong; Xiong, Ying; Qiu, Donghong; Wen, Qiye

    2017-07-01

    VO2 thin films were grown on silicon substrates using Al2O3 thin films as the buffer layers. Compared with direct deposition on silicon, VO2 thin films deposited on Al2O3 buffer layers experience a significant improvement in their microstructures and physical properties. By optimizing the growth conditions, the resistance of VO2 thin films can change by four orders of magnitude with a reduced thermal hysteresis of 4 °C at the phase transition temperature. The electrically driven phase transformation was measured in Pt/Si/Al2O3/VO2/Au heterostructures. The introduction of a buffer layer reduces the leakage current and Joule heating during electrically driven phase transitions. The C- V measurement result indicates that the phase transformation of VO2 thin films can be induced by an electrical field.

  3. Hypereutectic Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2 In Situ Composite Prepared by Horizontal Laser Zone Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2 eutectic in situ composite has now been considered as the new generation of high-temperature structural material due to its excellent performance even close to its melting point. In this work, hypereutectic Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2 in situ composite is manufactured by the horizontal laser zone melting technique. The relationship between the solidification microstructure and the solidification parameters is studied. The minimum lamellar spacing is as finer as 0.20 μm when the laser scanning rate is 800 μm/s. Compared with eutectic Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2, hypereutectic exhibits more regular and finer microstructure at the similar conditions. Meanwhile, it is found that the lamellar spacing remains almost as constant at a certain high solidification velocity. The maximum hardness and fracture toughness are 15.9 GPa and 4.2 MPa · m1/2, respectively.

  4. What determines the interfacial configuration of Nb/Al2O3 and Nb/MgO interface

    PubMed Central

    Du, J. L.; Fang, Y.; Fu, E. G.; Ding, X.; Yu, K. Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Wang, Y. Q.; Baldwin, J. K.; Wang, P. P.; Bai, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Nb films are deposited on single crystal Al2O3 (110) and MgO(111) substrates by e-beam evaporation technique. Structure of Nb films and orientation relationships (ORs) of Nb/Al2O3 and Nb/MgO interface are studied and compared by the combination of experiments and simulations. The experiments show that the Nb films obtain strong (110) texture, and the Nb film on Al2O3(110) substrate shows a higher crystalline quality than that on MgO(111) substrate. First principle calculations show that both the lattice mismatch and the strength of interface bonding play major roles in determining the crystalline perfection of Nb films and ORs between Nb films and single crystal ceramic substrates. The fundamental mechanisms for forming the interfacial configuration in terms of the lattice mismatch and the strength of interface bonding are discussed. PMID:27698458

  5. Combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composite materials - The TiC-Al2O3-Al system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, H. J.; Moore, John J.; Wirth, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion synthesis was applied for producing ceramic-metal composites with reduced levels of porosity, by allowing an excess amount of liquid metal, generated by the exothermic reaction during synthesis, to infiltrate the pores. It is shown that this method, when applied to TiC-Al2O3 system, led to a decreased level of porosity in the resulting TiC-Al2O3-Al product, as compared with that of TiC-Al2O3 system. This in situ procedure is more efficient than the two-stage conventional processes (i.e., sintering followed by liquid metal infiltration), although there are limitations with respect to total penetration of the liquid metal and maintaining a stable propagation of the combustion reaction.

  6. Use of Al 2O 3 as inter-poly dielectric in a production proven 130 nm embedded Flash technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakoschke, R.; Pescini, L.; Power, J. R.; van der Zanden, K.; Andersen, E.-O.; Gong, Y.; Allinger, R.

    2008-04-01

    We have successfully integrated 2 Mb arrays with SiO 2/Al 2O 3 stacks as inter-poly dielectric (IPD) fabricated in a proven 130 nm embedded Flash technology. Gate stack write/erase high voltages (HV) can be reduced by 3 V. Write/erase distributions show evidence of bit pinning which can be explained by barrier lowering along Al 2O 3 grain boundaries. Reliability assessment of the 2 Mb array reveals promising data retention and cycle endurance, indicating the absence of charge trapping in the high- k IPD. Despite several integration issues, these results demonstrate the high potential of Al 2O 3 IPDs in embedded Flash technologies.

  7. Tensile Properties of Nano AL2O3 Particulate-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites by Mechanical Alloying and Hot Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdinia, M.; Jenabali Jahromi, S. A.

    The powder of the micro Al and variant volume fractions of nano Al2O3 were milled by a high energy planetary ball-mill. By milling, a homogenous distribution of nano Al2O3 particles in the metal matrix were developed. Then the milled powder was cold compressed and sintered at 545°C for one hr. The mold and the sintered sample hold in a furnace until the temperature reached 545°C. Then the hot 27mm diameter sample was extruded to 6mm diameter. From the extruded specimens, tensile, hardness and microstructure of the prepared specimens were determined. By these tests the effect of milling time, the percent of nano-particles and the microstructure were evaluated. The hardness and tensile behaviors of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with nano Al2O3 particulate have been found to increase remarkably with the volume fraction of the reinforcement.

  8. Combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composite materials - The TiC-Al2O3-Al system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, H. J.; Moore, John J.; Wirth, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion synthesis was applied for producing ceramic-metal composites with reduced levels of porosity, by allowing an excess amount of liquid metal, generated by the exothermic reaction during synthesis, to infiltrate the pores. It is shown that this method, when applied to TiC-Al2O3 system, led to a decreased level of porosity in the resulting TiC-Al2O3-Al product, as compared with that of TiC-Al2O3 system. This in situ procedure is more efficient than the two-stage conventional processes (i.e., sintering followed by liquid metal infiltration), although there are limitations with respect to total penetration of the liquid metal and maintaining a stable propagation of the combustion reaction.

  9. CO2 gas detection properties of a TIO2/Al2O3 heterostructure under UV light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaduman, Irmak; Demir, Mehmet; Yıldız, Dilber Esra; Acar, Selim

    2015-05-01

    Al/TiO2/p-Si and Al/TİO2/Al2O3/p-Si samples were prepared using the atomic layer deposition method (ALD) and their gas sensing properties were investigated. The electrical properties of the samples were studied using a two probe method in the temperature range 25-230 °C and at room temperature UV conditions. The TiO2/Al2O3 heterojunction sample exhibited an excellent gas sensing response to CO2 gas at room temperature and improved the effect of UV light irradiation. The results showed that heterostructures helped to improve the gas sensor properties, affected the sensing at room temperature and thus guided the design of photocatalysts. The TiO2/Al2O3 heterojunction prepared using this method can be used as a material for semiconductor gas sensors detecting poisonous gases like CO2 at room temperature with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  10. Effect of calcination time on NiAl-Al2O3 using gel combustion synthesis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afandi, N. F.; Manap, A.; Yusof, S. N. A.; Salim, M. A.; Azim, M. Al.; Othman, S. Z.; Pauzi, N. I. M.; Omar, Nooririnah; Misran, H.

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of calcination time on phase and microstructural characteristics of intermetallic matric composite (IMC), NiAl-Al2O3 powder. This powder was synthesized using gel combustion method with octyl alcohol as fuel. Upon completion of the combustion process, the loose powder was calcined at 1050°C for 1, 2 and 4 hours and characterized using XRD, FESEM and TEM. The crystallite size was calculated to be in the range of 29-30 nm. It was found that NiAl-Al2O3 exhibits high crystalline structure after calcination for 4 hours. Furthermore, longer calcination time also cause growth of the particle size. Findings indicate that high crystalline nanostructured NiAl-Al2O3 powder consisting of submicron particles can be successfully produced using gel combustion synthesis with longer calcination time.

  11. Direct Growth of Al2O3 on Black Phosphorus by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B. B.; Zheng, H. M.; Ding, Y. Q.; Liu, W. J.; Lu, H. L.; Zhou, P.; Chen, L.; Sun, Q. Q.; Ding, S. J.; Zhang, David W.

    2017-04-01

    Growing high-quality and uniform dielectric on black phosphorus is challenging since it is easy to react with O2 or H2O in ambient. In this work, we have directly grown Al2O3 on BP using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The surface roughness of BP with covered Al2O3 film can reduce significantly, which is due to the removal of oxidized bubble in BP surface by oxygen plasma. It was also found there is an interfacial layer of PO x in between amorphous Al2O3 film and crystallized BP, which is verified by both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. By increasing temperature, the PO x can be converted into fully oxidized P2O5.

  12. Experimental and theoretical studies of surface nitrate species on Ag/Al2O3 using DRIFTS and DFT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuli; He, Hong; Gao, Hongwei; Yu, Yunbo

    2008-12-15

    Surface nitrate (NO3(-)) species on the Ag/Al2O3 play an important role in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx. In this study, the formation and configuration of surface nitrate NO3(-)(ads) species on Ag/Al2O3 and Al2O3 in the oxidation of NO have been studied using in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Different nitrates species (bridging, bidentate and monodentate) were observed by in situ DRIFTS and validated by DFT calculations results. Attention was especially focused on the proposal of two different bidentate nitrates species (a normal bidentate and an isolated bidentate). In addition, the thermal stability of different surface nitrate species was discussed based on the adsorption energies calculations, DRIFTS, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) results. It was suggested that the decomposition and desorption of the surface nitrate species could be controlled by kinetics.

  13. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy study of ultrathin Al2O3-TiO2 dielectric stack on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zuoguang; Cui, Sharon; Kornblum, Lior; Eizenberg, Moshe; Chang, Ming-Feng; Ma, T. P.

    2010-11-01

    We report the properties of an ultrathin Al2O3-TiO2 dielectric stack with the equivalent-oxide thickness =1.0 nm. The stack exhibits nondiscernable interfacial layer on Si, and absence of serious Al2O3-TiO2 intermixing. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) has been used to provide a wealth of information concerning the phonons, bonding vibration modes, and traps in the Al2O3-TiO2 gate dielectric stack as well as its interfaces in a metal-oxide-Si structure. The IETS spectra before and after forming gas annealing suggest that the reduction of traps is related to the formation of Si-H bonds at the oxide-Si interface.

  14. Preparation and Micro Mechanical Properties of Nano-Al2O3 Particles Strengthened Ni-based Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongmei; Shi, Peijing; Yu, Helong; Xu, Binshi

    Ni-based composite solution containing nano-Al2O3 particles was prepared by high-energy mechanical and chemical processes. The microstructure and nano-particle content of nano-Al2O3/Ni composite coatings were determined by SEM, EDS and TEM. The micro mechanical properties were tested by nano-indentation technique, and the strengthening mechanism was analyzed. The results show that 85 percent of particles in the solution are dispersed in size of nano meter, nano-particles co-deposited in the coating increases by a factor of 53 percent and the structure of the composite coating is more compact and uniform than that of Ni coating. Nano-Al2O3/Ni coatings exhibit excellent micro mechanical properties, the nanohardness and Young's modulus are 7.04 GPa and 225 GPa respectively, which are attributed to finer crystals strengthening, dispersion strengthening and high- density dislocations strengthening.

  15. Passivation of type II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors with atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salihoglu, Omer; Muti, Abdullah; Kutluer, Kutlu; Tansel, Tunay; Turan, Rasit; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2012-06-01

    We have achieved significant improvement in the electrical performance of the InAs/GaSb midwave infrared photodetector (MWIR) by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminium oxide (Al2O3) as a passivation layer. Plasma free and low operation temperature with uniform coating of ALD technique leads to a conformal and defect free coverage on the side walls. This conformal coverage of rough surfaces also satisfies dangling bonds more efficiently while eliminating metal oxides in a self cleaning process of the Al2O3 layer. Al2O3 passivated and unpassivated diodes were compared for their electrical and optical performances. For passivated diodes the dark current density was improved by an order of magnitude at 77 K. The zero bias responsivity and detectivity was 1.33 A/W and 1.9 x 1013 Jones, respectively at 4 μm and 77 K. Quantum efficiency (QE) was determined as %41 for these detectors.

  16. Influence of calcination temperature on the surface area of submicron-sized Al2O3 electrospun fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyeon Ung; Ramsier, Rex D.; Chase, George G.

    2016-03-01

    Submicron-sized Al2O3 fibers were formed by calcination of electrospun aluminum acetate/PVP composite fibers. At 650 °C, the fibers were amorphous. As the calcination temperature increased to 750 °C, the fibers transitioned from amorphous to 49 % crystalline gamma phase Al2O3. The crystallinity further increased with calcination temperature to 80 % gamma Al2O3 at 950 °C, but decreased above 950 °C as the crystal structure began to change to alpha phase. The fiber diameters tended to decrease as calcination temperature increased to 950 °C but increased as the alpha phase was formed at temperatures above 950 °C. Surface areas as measured by BET decreased as gamma phase crystallinity increased. Further decrease in surface area as the gamma phase crystal structure transitioned to alpha phase indicated changing internal pore structures of the fibers.

  17. What determines the interfacial configuration of Nb/Al2O3 and Nb/MgO interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J. L.; Fang, Y.; Fu, E. G.; Ding, X.; Yu, K. Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Wang, Y. Q.; Baldwin, J. K.; Wang, P. P.; Bai, Q.

    2016-10-01

    Nb films are deposited on single crystal Al2O3 (110) and MgO(111) substrates by e-beam evaporation technique. Structure of Nb films and orientation relationships (ORs) of Nb/Al2O3 and Nb/MgO interface are studied and compared by the combination of experiments and simulations. The experiments show that the Nb films obtain strong (110) texture, and the Nb film on Al2O3(110) substrate shows a higher crystalline quality than that on MgO(111) substrate. First principle calculations show that both the lattice mismatch and the strength of interface bonding play major roles in determining the crystalline perfection of Nb films and ORs between Nb films and single crystal ceramic substrates. The fundamental mechanisms for forming the interfacial configuration in terms of the lattice mismatch and the strength of interface bonding are discussed.

  18. Direct spectroscopic evidence for isolated silanols in SiOx/Al2O3 and their formation mechanism

    DOE PAGES

    Mouat, Aidan R.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek; ...

    2017-02-27

    Here, the preparation and unambiguous characterization of isolated Brønsted-acidic silanol species on silica–alumina catalysts presents a key challenge in the rational design of solid acid catalysts. In this report, atomic layer deposition (ALD) and liquid-phase preparation (chemical liquid deposition, CLD) are used to install the SiOx sites on Al2O3 catalysts using the same Si source (tetraethylorthosilicate, TEOS). The ALD-derived and CLD-derived SiOx sites are probed with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced 29Si–29Si double-quantum/single-quantum (DQ/SQ) correlation NMR spectroscopy. The investigation reveals conclusively that the SiOx/Al2O3 material prepared by ALD and CLD, followed by calcination under an O2 stream, contains fully spatially isolatedmore » Si species, in contrast with those resulting from the calcination under static air, which is widely accepted as a postgrafting treatment for CLD. Insight into the formation mechanism of these sites is obtained via in situ monitoring of the TEOS + γ-Al2O3 reaction in an environmental diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) cell. Upon calcination, the DRIFTS spectra of SiOx/Al2O3 reveal a signature unambiguously assignable to isolated Brønsted-acidic silanol species. Surprisingly, the results of this study indicate that the method of preparing SiOx/Al2O3 catalysts is less important to the final structure of the silanol sites than the post-treatment conditions. This finding should greatly simplify the methods for synthesizing site-isolated, Brønsted-acidic SiOx/Al2O3 catalysts.« less

  19. Study on catalytic incineration of methane using Cr2O3/gamma-Al2O3 as the catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Huei; Lin, Shiow-Shyung

    2004-01-01

    A fixed bed reactor was employed to investigate the catalytic incineration of CH4 by various supported transition metal oxide catalysts, with a view of finding the optimal one. Results indicated that the active species, the support, the metal content, the weight hourly space velocity (WHSV), and the inlet CH4 concentration were all important factors affecting CH4 oxidation. Cr2O3/gamma-Al2O3 was found to be the most active catalyst among the seven gamma-Al2O3-supported metal oxide catalysts tested. With Cr2O3 as the active species, gamma-Al2O3 was the most suitable of six supports tested. Furthermore, the optimal Cr content of Cr2O3/ gamma-Al2O3 was 9 wt.%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that it was formation of CrO3 crystals that caused a decline in catalyst activity at Cr content above 9wt.%. Using the optimal Cr2O3/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst, CH4 was completely oxidized at about 390 degrees C. much lower than the temperature required by noble metal catalysts for the same outcome. The stability of Cr2O3/gamma-Al2O3 was good and was not affected by the reaction temperature, demonstrated by a nearly constant conversion rate of CH4 of 57% at 350 degrees C and 97% at 380 degrees C during a 20 h on-stream test. However, WHSV and inlet concentration of CH4 did affect CH4 conversion noticeably. For complete oxidation of CH4, the reaction temperature required increased with WHSV and inlet CH4 concentration.

  20. Effects of Al2O3 Nanopowders on the Wear Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Y.; Öksüz, K. Emre

    2014-01-01

    TiNi shape memory alloy and its composite using δ-Al2O3 nanosize particles were prepared by the powder metallurgy method, and some mechanical properties like hardness, wear, and corrosion behavior were investigated. The experimental results exhibited that the lower wear rate was obtained for the nano-Al2O3-reinforced Ti alloy composite due to increased hardness, but the wear rate increased considerably with increasing the load over 25 N for Ti alloy. However, the best corrosion resistance was obtained for the base alloy, which is very important for implant applications.

  1. Effect of Y2O3 and Al2O3 on the oxidation resistance of Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hench, L. L.; Vaidyanathan, P. N.; Dutta, S.

    1982-01-01

    Oxidation of cold-pressed and sintered Si3N4 containing 15 wt% Y2O3 and 2, 4, 6, and 8% Al2O3 is observed at temperatures as low as 1000 C with IR reflection spectroscopy. Concentrations of Al2O3 in excess of 4% greatly retard the rate of oxidation and alter the mechanism of surface attack by promoting formation of a glassy layer on the surface containing mixed oxynitride bonds. The glassy layer retards heterogeneous attack and reduces the effect of an oxidation transition temperature between 1000 and 1100 C for these materials.

  2. Effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles in plasticized PMMA-LiClO4 based solid polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, P.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-05-01

    We have studied the broadband complex conductivity spectra covering a 0.01 Hz-3 GHz frequency range for plasticized PMMA-LiClO4 based solid polymer electrolyte embedded with Al2O3 nanoparticle. We have analyzed the conductivity spectra using the random free-energy barrier model (RBM) coupled with electrode polarization contribution in the low frequency region and at high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity obtained from the analysis has been analyzed using Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation. The maximum ionic conductivity ˜ 1.93×10-4 S/cm has been obtained for 1 wt% Al2O3 nanoparticle.

  3. Elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of ceramic lead zirconate titanate/α-Al2O3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybyanets, A. N.; Konstantinov, G. M.; Naumenko, A. A.; Shvetsova, N. A.; Makar'ev, D. I.; Lugovaya, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    The technology of producing ceramic lead zirconate titanate/α-Al2O3 composites has been developed. Elements of piezoactive composites containing from 0 to 60 vol % α-Al2O3 have been prepared. The elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric parameters of the synthesized ceramic composites have been measured, and their microstructure has been studied. It has been found that the concentration dependences of the elastic and piezoelectric properties exhibit anomalies. The obtained data have been interpreted based on the percolation theory and the concept of microstructural constructing polycrystalline composition materials.

  4. Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 on GaSb Using In Situ Hydrogen Plasma Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-03

    buffered oxide etch, and top-side Ohmic substrate contacts were made by Pd/Pt/Au (120/100/1000 Å) e-beam evapora- tion. Capacitance-voltage (C-V...plasma surface treatments for improving the electrical properties of GaSb/Al2O3 interfaces. Prior to atomic layer deposition of an Al2O3 dielectric, p ...particularly well-suited for high-speed, low power applications.1–4 While both n- and p -channel devi- ces have been demonstrated,3–9 antimonide-based MOS

  5. A study on kinetics of Al2O3 inclusion absorbed by mold slag used for non-manganese steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiyang; Zhou, Weican; Chen, Mindong

    2017-01-01

    Dissolution kinetics of alumina into a new type CaO-Al2O3 mold slag was investigated by employing the rotating cylinder method. The results shows that the alumina dissolution was controlled by the mass transfer in the molten slag; the diffusion coefficient D=4.2×10-5mm2/s under 1400°C the activation energy of dissolution process was 213.8 Kj/mo1, this energy was higher than that of traditional mold slag; the ability of the new mold slag to absorb Al2O3 was weaker than that of traditional mold slag.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Biodegradable Ultrasonicated Films made from Chitosan/al2o3 Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, B.; Jothirajan, M. A.; Umapathy, S.; Amala, Viji

    Chitosan is a biopolymer which is biodegradable, biocompatible, non toxic and cationic in nature. Due to these interesting properties, it finds advanced applications in sensors, drug delivery vehicle and gene therapy etc., In this present work, the biocompatible Al2O3 Nano particles were embedded into Chitosan Polymer matrix by ultrasonication route. XRD and FTIR studies confirm the presence of Al2O3 nanoparticle in the Chitosan polymer matrix. The morphological, optical, electrical properties of the polymer nano composite films are carried out by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV- Vis, LCR and Impedance studies.

  7. Kinetics of NiO and NiCl2 Hydrogen Reduction as Precursors and Properties of Produced Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-Pd/Al2O3 Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Sokić, Miroslav; Kamberović, Željko; Nikolić, Vesna; Marković, Branislav; Korać, Marija; Anđić, Zoran; Gavrilovski, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The objects of this investigation were the comparative kinetic analysis of the NiO and NiCl2 reduction by hydrogen during an induction period and elimination of the calcination during the synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 catalysts. The effect of temperature and time on NiO and NiCl2 reduction degrees was studied. Avrami I equation was selected as the most favorable kinetic model and used to determine activation energy of the NiO and NiCl2 reduction for the investigated temperature range (623–923 K) and time intervals (1–5 minutes). The investigation enabled reaching conclusions about the reaction ability and rate of the reduction processes. Afterward, Ni/Al2O3 catalysts were obtained by using oxide and chloride precursor for Ni. The catalysts were supported on alumina-based foam and prepared via aerosol route. Properties of the samples before and after low-temperature hydrogen reduction (633 K) were compared. Obtained results indicated that the synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 catalysts can be more efficient if chloride precursor for Ni is directly reduced by hydrogen during the synthesis process, without the calcination step. In addition, Ni-Pd/Al2O3 catalysts with different metal content were prepared by using chloride precursors. Lower reduction temperature was utilized and the chlorides were almost completely reduced at 533 K. PMID:25789335

  8. Slurry Erosion Performance of High-Velocity Flame-Sprayed Ni-20Al2O3 and Ni-10Al2O3-10TiO2 Coatings Under Accelerated Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Bhandari, Sanjeev; Goyal, Atul

    2017-07-01

    The slurry erosion wear behavior of Ni-20Al2O3 and Ni-10Al2O3-10TiO2 coatings, deposited by high-velocity flame-sprayed technique, has been evaluated in the present investigation. A series of slurry erosion tests were conducted on the deposited surfaces, using an indigenously developed slurry erosion test rig under varying environmental conditions. The effect of identifying operational parameters like rotational speed, average particle size of erodent and erodent concentration on erosion behavior was also evaluated. Surface roughness tester, scanning electron microscope and XRD apparatus were utilized as surface characterization tools, whereas Vickers's microhardness tester and bond strength tester were employed for mechanical analysis. The SEM observations of eroded specimens were observed to be lying in close proximity to the reported experimental results. Irrespective of the test conditions, Ni-10Al2O3-10TiO2 coating showed better results of slurry erosion performance in comparison with Ni-20Al2O3 coating. Further, each operational test parameter revealed a proportional effect on the erosion rate of both the coatings.

  9. Effects of Al2O3 and CaO/SiO2 Ratio on Phase Equilbria in the ZnO-"FeO"-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2 System in Equilibrium with Metallic Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Baojun; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2011-02-01

    The phase equilibria and liquidus temperatures in the ZnO-"FeO"-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2 system in equilibrium with metallic iron have been determined experimentally in the temperature range 1383 K to 1573 K (1150 °C to 1300 °C). The experimental conditions were selected to characterize lead blast furnace and imperial smelting furnace slags. The results are presented in a form of pseudoternary sections ZnO-"FeO"-(Al2O3 + CaO + SiO2) with fixed CaO/SiO2 and (CaO + SiO2)/Al2O3 ratios. It was found that wustite and spinel are the major primary phases in the composition range investigated. Effects of Al2O3 concentration as well as the CaO/SiO2 ratio on the primary phase field, the liquidus temperature, and the partitioning of ZnO between liquid and solid phases have been discussed for zinc-containing slags.

  10. Slurry Erosion Performance of High-Velocity Flame-Sprayed Ni-20Al2O3 and Ni-10Al2O3-10TiO2 Coatings Under Accelerated Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Bhandari, Sanjeev; Goyal, Atul

    2017-08-01

    The slurry erosion wear behavior of Ni-20Al2O3 and Ni-10Al2O3-10TiO2 coatings, deposited by high-velocity flame-sprayed technique, has been evaluated in the present investigation. A series of slurry erosion tests were conducted on the deposited surfaces, using an indigenously developed slurry erosion test rig under varying environmental conditions. The effect of identifying operational parameters like rotational speed, average particle size of erodent and erodent concentration on erosion behavior was also evaluated. Surface roughness tester, scanning electron microscope and XRD apparatus were utilized as surface characterization tools, whereas Vickers's microhardness tester and bond strength tester were employed for mechanical analysis. The SEM observations of eroded specimens were observed to be lying in close proximity to the reported experimental results. Irrespective of the test conditions, Ni-10Al2O3-10TiO2 coating showed better results of slurry erosion performance in comparison with Ni-20Al2O3 coating. Further, each operational test parameter revealed a proportional effect on the erosion rate of both the coatings.

  11. Toughness enhancement in graphene nanoplatelet/SiC reinforced Al2O3 ceramic hybrid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Islam, Mohammad; Subhani, Tayyab; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2016-10-01

    This paper elucidates the effect of silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiCNP) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), on their own and together, on the densification behavior and fracture toughness of alumina (Al2O3) ceramic matrix. This was investigated by using the high-frequency induction heat sintering (HFIHS) process. While the addition of each nanostructure caused varying degrees of grain refinement and enhancement of mechanical properties, the incorporation of as little as 0.5 wt.% GNPs along with 5.0 wt.% SiCNP promoted uniform dispersion of the latter due to the lateral surface area of the graphene nanosheets with their two-dimensional morphology. There was an associated reduction in grain size from 1500 to 300 nm upon the addition of both types of nanoscale reinforcements. Extensive electron microscopy of the as-produced nanocomposites indicated the presence of SiCNP within, as well as at, the grain boundary areas whereas the 2D GNPs anchored between neighboring grains. Fractography of the samples revealed a transition from a mixed intergranular/transgranular mode for SiCNP or GNP-reinforced nanocomposites to transgranular fracture mode for the hybrid nanocomposites with improvements in fracture toughness and microhardness by 160 and 27%, respectively, largely due to the synergic role of the nanostructured reinforcements and their distinctly different toughening mechanisms. A new toughening model is proposed for the hybrid nanocomposites by taking into consideration crack deflection and pull-out effects due to SiCNP and the atomic level slip-stick driven GNPs inter-layer slithering. It was found that the addition of GNPs facilitates SiCNP dispersion that subsequently develops dense, fine-grained microstructures after a short-cycle, pressure-assisted consolidation process.

  12. Kinetic studies of CO2 methanation over a Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hubble, R A; Lim, J Y; Dennis, J S

    2016-10-20

    The production of methane by reacting CO2 with H2 (CO2 methanation) has the potential for producing synthetic natural gas, which could be exported using the existing infrastructure for the distribution of natural gas. The methanation of CO2 was investigated over a wide range of partial pressures of products and reactants using (i) a gradientless, spinning-basket reactor operated in batch mode and (ii) a laboratory-scale packed bed reactor operated continuously. The rate and selectivity of CO2 methanation, using a 12 wt% Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, were explored at temperatures 445-497 K and pressures up to 20 bar. Research with the batch reactor showed that the rate increased with increasing partial pressures of H2 and CO2 when the partial pressures of these reactants were low; however, the rate of reaction was found to be insensitive to changes in the partial pressures of H2 and CO2 when their partial pressures were high. A convenient method of determining the effect of H2O on the rate of reaction was also developed using the batch reactor and the inhibitory effect of H2O on CO2 methanation was quantified. The kinetic measurements were compared with a mathematical model of the reactor, in which different kinetic expressions were explored. The kinetics of the reaction were found to be consistent with a mechanism in which adsorbed CO2 dissociated to adsorbed CO and O on the surface of the catalyst with the rate-limiting step being the subsequent dissociation of adsorbed CO. The ability of the kinetic expressions to predict the results from the continuous, packed-bed reactor was explored, with some discrepancies discussed.

  13. Functionalized pink Al2O3:Mn pigments applied in prosthetic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Cruzeiro, Mário Thadeo R; Moraes, Fernando A; Kaizer, Marina R; Moreira, Mário Lúcio; Zhang, Yu; Moraes, Rafael R; Cava, Sergio S

    2017-04-03

    The color of dental poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is conventionally rendered by organic and inorganic pigments, which are usually not bonded to the polymer network. Functionalized ceramic pigments can be used to color PMMA, allowing improved chemical interaction with the resin matrix. The purpose of this in vitro study was to synthesize, functionalize, and characterize pink manganese-doped alumina ceramic pigments. The hypothesis tested was that functionalized ceramic pigments would render pink coloration to a translucent PMMA without jeopardizing its mechanical properties. Pink alumina powders doped with 1 or 2 mol% of manganese (Al2O3:Mn) were prepared by means of a polymeric precursor method. Pigment (Pig.) particles were functionalized with a silica coating method followed by silanation before preparation of PMMA-based composite resins (5 wt% pigment). The color of composite resins (Pig.1% and Pig.2%) and PMMA controls (Pink and translucent [Trans]) was evaluated (CIELab color coordinates), and their mechanical properties were tested (3-point bending). The microstructure of the pigment particles showed approximately 55-nm nanocrystals of manganese-doped α-alumina clustered into irregular porous particles up to 60 μm. The composite resins and pink PMMA showed similar color parameters (CIE a* pink=20.1, Pig.1%=14.6, Pig.2%=16.0, Trans=0.19, P<.001; CIE b* Pink=17.0, Pig.1%=18.6, Pig.2%=19.0, Trans=2.52, P<.001). No statistical differences were observed in mechanical properties among groups (σf pink=98.4, Pig.1%=98.1, Pig.2%=98.8, trans=89.1, P=.136). The addition of the functionalized pink ceramic pigments to a translucent PMMA yielded similar coloration to that of the regular pink PMMA used in dentistry and did not jeopardize its mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stacked Graphene-Al2O3 Nanopore Sensors for Sensitive Detection of DNA and DNA-Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Bala Murali; Estrada, David; Banerjee, Shouvik; Jin, Xiaozhong; Dorgan, Vincent E.; Bae, Myung-Ho; Aluru, Narayana R.; Pop, Eric; Bashir, Rashid

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of a multilayered graphene-Al2O3 nanopore platform for the sensitive detection of DNA and DNA-protein complexes. Graphene-Al2O3 nanolaminate membranes are formed by sequentially depositing layers of graphene and Al2O3 with nanopores being formed in these membranes using an electron-beam sculpting process. The resulting nanopores are highly robust, exhibit low electrical noise (significantly lower than nanopores in pure graphene), are highly sensitive to electrolyte pH at low KCl concentrations (attributed to the high buffer capacity of Al2O3) and permit the electrical biasing of the embedded graphene electrode, thereby allowing for three terminal nanopore measurements. In proof-of-principle biomolecule sensing experiments, the folded and unfolded transport of single DNA molecules and RecA coated DNA complexes could be discerned with high temporal resolution. The process described here also enables nanopore integration with new graphene based structures, including nanoribbons and nanogaps, for single molecule DNA sequencing and medical diagnostic applications. PMID:22165962

  15. Enhanced lithium battery with polyethylene oxide-based electrolyte containing silane-Al2 O3 ceramic filler.

    PubMed

    Zewde, Berhanu W; Admassie, Shimelis; Zimmermann, Jutta; Isfort, Christian Schulze; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-08-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte prepared by using a solvent-free, scalable technique is reported. The membrane is formed by low-energy ball milling followed by hot-pressing of dry powdered polyethylene oxide polymer, LiCF3 SO3 salt, and silane-treated Al2 O3 (Al2 O3 -ST) ceramic filler. The effects of the ceramic fillers on the properties of the ionically conducting solid electrolyte membrane are characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, XRD, differential scanning calorimeter, SEM, and galvanostatic cycling in lithium cells with a LiFePO4 cathode. We demonstrate that the membrane containing Al2 O3 -ST ceramic filler performs well in terms of ionic conductivity, thermal properties, and lithium transference number. Furthermore, we show that the lithium cells, which use the new electrolyte together with the LiFePO4 electrode, operate within 65 and 90 °C with high efficiency and long cycle life. Hence, the Al2 O3 -ST ceramic can be efficiently used as a ceramic filler to enhance the performance of solid polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Performance characterization of CNTs and γ-Al2O3 supported cobalt catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sardar; Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts were prepared via a wet impregnation method. Different physicochemical properties of the samples were revealed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and carbon dioxide desorption (CO2-desorption). Fischer-Tropsch reaction (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 220°C and 1 atm, with H2/ CO = 2v / v and space velocity, SV of 12L/g.h for 5 h. Various characterization techniques revealed that there was a stronger interaction between Co and Al2O3 support compared to that of CNTs support. CNTs support increased the reducibility and decreased Co particle size. A significant increase in % CO conversion and FTS reaction rate was observed over CNTs support compared to that of Co / Al2O3. Co/CNTs resulted in higher C5+ hydrocarbons selectivity compared to that of Co / Al2O3 catalyst. CNTs are a better support for Co compared to Al2O3.

  17. Preparation and characterization of Al2O3 coating by MOD method on CLF-1 RAFM steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yang, J. J.; Feng, Y. J.; Li, F. Z.; Liao, J. L.; Yang, Y. Y.; Feng, K. M.; Liu, N.

    2017-04-01

    Metal organic decomposition (MOD) method was proposed to prepare Al2O3 TPB coatings on CLF-1 RAFM steel. A comprehensive characterization of SEM, XPS, and XRD demonstrated the formation of Al2O3 coatings. The effect of the preparation parameters, including annealing temperature Ta, withdrawal speed Vw and immersion time ti on the microstructure and properties of the coatings was investigated. It showed that amorphous aluminum oxide coating began to transform to γ-Al2O3 at temperature of Ta = 600 °C. The Al2O3 coating with Ta = 700 °C and Tb = 500 °C performed the best crystallization feature. The hardness of the coatings gradually increased with increasing Vw, while the corrosion resistance exhibited a reverse trend. Meanwhile, the nanohardness and corrosion resistance of the coating with ti = 300 s was improved as compared to the coating with ti = 0 s. Moreover, the effect of particle size and substrate oxidation on the mechanical property and corrosion resistance of the coatings was discussed.

  18. Al 2O 3 supported Ru catalysts prepared by thermolysis of Ru 3(CO) 12 for catalytic wet air oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chaoying; Zhao, Peiqing; Chen, Gexin; Hu, Bin

    2011-06-01

    Low loading catalysts Ru/γ-Al 2O 3 and Ru-Ce/γ-Al 2O 3 were prepared by thermolysis of Ru 3(CO) 12 on γ-Al 2O 3. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, XRD and SEM. Two new Ru species (Ru A and Ru B) were detected during the Ru 3(CO) 12 decomposition process due to chemical interaction with the active OH groups on the surface of Al 2O 3 support, and the reduction of them can lead to more dispersed metallic phases. The sample was completely decomposed at 673 K in H 2, and RuO 2 was formed with minor amounts of Ru 0. When the temperature was increased to 773 K to heat the sample, the ratio of Ru 0 to RuO 2 increased. However, after the addition of CeO 2, only RuO 2 was detected on surface. The catalysts exhibited high activities in Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) of different organic compounds at high concentration such as isopropyl alcohol, phenol, acetic acids and N,N-dimethylformamide, which is attributed to the better dispersion of Ru particles and the addition of CeO 2 further enhanced number of effectively active sites on the cluster-derived catalyst surface.

  19. Nanoporous Gold Nanoparticles and Au/Al2O3 Hybrid Nanoparticles with Large Tunability of Plasmonic Properties.

    PubMed

    Rao, Wenye; Wang, Dong; Kups, Thomas; Baradács, Eszter; Parditka, Bence; Erdélyi, Zoltán; Schaaf, Peter

    2017-02-22

    Nanoporous gold nanoparticles (NPG-NPs) with controlled particle size and pore size are fabricated via a combination of solid-state dewetting and a subsequent dealloying process. Because of the combined effects of size and porosity, the NPG-NPs exhibit greater plasmonic tunability and significantly higher local field enhancement as compared to solid NPs. The effects of the nanoscale porosity and pore size on the optical extinction are investigated for the NPG-NPs with different particle sizes experimentally and theoretically. The influences of both porosity and pore size on the plasmonic properties are very complicated and clearly different for small particles with dominated dipole mode and large particles with dominated quadrupole mode. Au/Al2O3 hybrid porous NPs with controlled porosity and composition ratio are fabricated through plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 into the porous structure. In the Au/Al2O3 hybrid porous NPs, both Au and Al2O3 components are bicontinuously percolated over the entire structure. A further red shift of the plasmon peak is observed in the hybrid NPs due to the change of the environmental refractive index. The high tunability of the plasmonic resonances in the NPG-NPs and the hybrid porous NPs can be very useful for many applications in sensing biological and organic molecules.

  20. Cooperative upconversion as the gain-limiting factor in Er doped miniature Al2O3 optical waveguide amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kik, P. G.; Polman, A.

    2003-05-01

    Erbium doped Al2O3 waveguide amplifiers were fabricated using two different doping methods, namely Er ion implantation into sputter deposited Al2O3, and co-sputtering from an Er2O3/Al2O3 target. Although the Er concentration in both materials is almost identical (0.28 and 0.31 at. %), the amplifiers show a completely different behavior. Upon pumping with 1.48 μm, the co-sputtered waveguide shows a strong green luminescence from the 4S3/2 level, indicating efficient cooperative upconversion in this material. This is confirmed by pump power dependent measurements of the optical transmission at 1.53 μm and the spontaneous emission at 1.53 and 0.98 μm. All measurements can be accurately modeled using a set of rate equations that include first order and second order cooperative upconversion. The first order cooperative upconversion coefficient C24 is found to be 3.5×10-16 cm3 s-1 in the co-sputtered material, two orders of magnitude higher than the value obtained in Er implanted Al2O3 of 4.1×10-18 cm3 s-1. It is concluded that the co-sputtering process results in a strongly inhomogeneous atomic scale spatial distribution of the Er ions. As a result, the co-sputtered waveguides do not show optical gain, while the implanted waveguides do.

  1. Atomic-Scale Structure of Al2O3-ZrO2 Mixed Oxides Prepared by Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xiuchun; Dubiel, M.; Hofmeister, H.; Riehemann, W.

    2007-02-02

    By means of x-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, the phase composition and atomic structure of laser evaporated ZrO2 and ZrO2-Al2O3 nanopowders have been studied. The results indicate that pure ZrO2 exists in the form of tetragonal structure, Al2O3 doped ZrO2 nanoparticles, however, have cubic structure. Compared to bulk tetragonal ZrO2, pure tetragonal ZrO2 nanoparticles have a shorter Zr-O- and Zr-Zr shell, indicating that the lattice contracts with decreasing particle size. For Al2O3 doped ZrO2 solid solution, the distances of first Zr-O and Zr-Zr (Al) coordination decrease with increasing solid solubility. The disorder degree of the ZrO2 lattice increases with increasing solid solubility. The coevaporated ZrO2-Al2O3 is quickly solidified into amorphous phase when it is ablated in a higher pressure. The amorphous phase contains Zr-O-Zr (Al) clusters and has shorter Zr-O distance and tower Zr-O coordination number.

  2. Radiation-induced synthesis of α-Al 2O 3 supported nickel clusters: Characterization and catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keghouche, N.; Chettibi, S.; Latrèche, F.; Bettahar, M. M.; Belloni, J.; Marignier, J. L.

    2005-10-01

    A series of Ni aggregates supported on α-Al 2O 3 at different nickel contents are prepared by ionic exchange of Ni 2+ followed by γ-irradiation under inert atmosphere. Characterization techniques are used at each step to select the elaboration conditions optimized for their use as catalysts. X-ray diffraction demonstrates the presence, after the Ni 2+ adsorption step, of the phases (NiO) 2(Al 2O 3) 9 and (NiO)(Al 2O 3) 16 that are favourable to further performances of the catalyst. After radiolysis, the phases of the oxide NiO and the metal Ni are observed. The relative amount of the Ni metal phase increases with the initial Ni 2+ content. The nickel clusters (prepared from the complex [Ni(NH 3) 6] 2+), imaged by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)/EDS, are highly dispersed. The H 2 adsorption and thermodesorption study by chemisorption and H 2-TPD indicates that the sites of the catalyst are occupied by hydrogen generated during irradiation. After H 2 treatment at 350 °C, it shows high hydrogen adsorption/desorption capacity. When tested in the steam-reforming methane reaction (CH 4+H 2O→CO+3H 2), the radiolytic Ni/ α-Al 2O 3 samples exhibit quite promising catalytic properties, namely a high activity and a remarkably high selectivity in CO even at moderate temperature (80% at 550 °C with a conversion of 60%).

  3. Effects of Bilayer Thickness on the Morphological, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Al2O3/ZnO Nanolaminates.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Hai; Zhai, Chen-Hui; Zhou, Wen-Chao; Huang, Qing-Hua; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Hua; Chen, Lei; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Rong-Jun

    2017-10-11

    This report mainly focuses on the investigation of morphological, optical, and electrical properties of Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates regulated by varying bilayer thicknesses. The growth mechanism of nanolaminates based on atomic layer deposition and Al penetration into ZnO layer are proposed. The surface roughness of Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates can be controlled due to the smooth effect of interposed Al2O3 layers. The thickness, optical constants, and bandgap information of nanolaminates have been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurement. The band gap and absorption edge have a blue shift with decreasing the bilayer thickness on account of the Burstein-Moss effect, the quantum confinement effect and the characteristic evolution of nanolaminates. Also, the carrier concentrations and resistivities are found to be modified considerably among various bilayer thicknesses. The modulations of these properties are vital for Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates to be used as transparent conductor and high resistance layer in optoelectronic applications.

  4. Controlled Gas Molecules Doping of Monolayer MoS2 via Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3 Films.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanzheng; Li, Xinshu; Chen, Heyu; Shi, Jia; Shang, Qiuyu; Zhang, Shuai; Qiu, Xiaohui; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Haiyang; Liu, Weizhen; Liu, Xinfeng; Liu, Yichun

    2017-08-23

    MoS2 as atomically thin semiconductor is highly sensitive to ambient atmosphere (e.g., oxygen, moisture, etc.) in optical and electrical properties. Here we report a controlled gas molecules doping of monolayer MoS2 via atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 films. The deposited Al2O3 films, in the shape of nanospheres, can effectively control the contact areas between ambient atmosphere and MoS2 that allows precise modulation of gas molecules doping. By analyzing photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of MoS2 with different thickness of Al2O3, the doped carrier concentration is estimated at ∼2.7 × 10(13) cm(-2) based on the mass action model. Moreover, time-dependent PL measurements indicate an incremental stability of single layer MoS2 as the thicknesses of Al2O3 capping layer increase. Effective control of gas molecules doping in monolayer MoS2 provides us a valuable insight into the applications of MoS2 based optical and electrical devices.

  5. Corrosion and wear properties of Zn–Ni and Zn–Ni–Al2O3 multilayer electrodeposited coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shourgeshty, M.; Aliofkhazraei, M.; Karimzadeh, A.; Poursalehi, R.

    2017-09-01

    Zn–Ni and Zn–Ni–Al2O3 multilayer coatings with 32, 128, and 512 layers were electroplated on a low carbon steel substrate by pulse electrodeposition under alternative changes in the duty cycle between 20% and 90% and a constant frequency of 250 Hz. Corrosion behavior was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and wear behavior of the coatings was evaluated by a pin on disk test. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of coatings was improved by increasing the number of layers (the decrease in layer thickness) as well as the presence of alumina nanoparticles. The lowest corrosion current density corresponds to Zn–Ni–Al2O3 with 512 layers equal to 3.74 µA cm‑2. Increasing the number of layers in the same total thickness and the presence of alumina nanoparticles within the coating also leads to the improvement in wear resistance of the samples. The coefficient of friction decreased with increasing number of layers and the lowest coefficient of friction (0.517) corresponds to Zn–Ni–Al2O3 coating with 512 layers. Wear mechanism of Zn–Ni coatings with a different number of layers is adhesive while in the Zn–Ni–Al2O3 coatings wear mechanism is a combination of adhesive and abrasive wear, where by increasing the number of the layers to 512 abrasive wear mechanism becomes dominant.

  6. Sulfonic acid functionalized nano γ-Al2O3 catalyzed per-O-acetylated of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liqiang; Yin, Zhikui

    2013-01-10

    A simple and clean synthesis of per-O-acetylation carbohydrate derivatives has been accomplished by treatment of sugars with a stoichiometric quantity of acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions in the presence of sulfonic acid functionalized nano γ-Al(2)O(3) as an efficient and environmentally benign catalyst.

  7. Application of Al2O3:C+fibre dosimeters for 290 MeV/n carbon therapeustic beam dosimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, L. F.; Vanhavere, F.; Kodaira, S.; Kitamura, H.; Verellen, D.; De Deene, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The capability of radioluminescence (RL) dosimeters composed of carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) detectors+optical fibre has been verified for absorbed dose-rate measurements during carbon radiotherapy. The RL signals from two separate Al2O3:C detectors (single crystal 'CG' and droplet 'P1') have been systematically measured and compared along the Bragg-curve and Spread-Out Bragg-Peak of 290 MeV/n carbon beams in the water. The absorbed dose response was assessed for the range of 0.5-10 Gy. For doses up to 6 Gy, we observed a linear response for both types of detectors, while for higher doses CG presented a more prominent supraliearity than P1. The RL response for low-LET protons in the entrance from the curve was found to closely resemble that observed for a clinical 6 MV X-ray beam, while it was found that P1 has a better agreement with the reference data from standard ionization chamber than CG. We observed a significant decrease in luminescence efficiency with LET in the Bragg peak region. The Al2O3:C RL luminescence efficiency differs from Al2O3:C OSL results, which implies that the signal can be corrected for LET dependency to match the correct SOBP and Bragg Peak.

  8. Atomistic mechanisms of copper filament formation and composition in Al2O3-based conductive bridge random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nail, C.; Blaise, P.; Molas, G.; Bernard, M.; Roule, A.; Toffoli, A.; Perniola, L.; Vallée, C.

    2017-07-01

    Conductive filament formation and composition in Oxide-based Conductive Bridge Random Access Memory (CBRAM) are investigated. To this end, Al2O3/Cu-based CBRAM is electrically characterized and studied. Current-voltage characteristics exhibit different forming behaviors depending on device polarization exposing the charged species involved during the forming process. In order to get more insights at the microscopic level, ion diffusion is investigated in depth by first-principles calculations. We study different point defects in Al2O3 which can come either from the post-process of the material itself or after top electrode deposition or during device operation. Since the role of Oxygen Vacancies (VO) and Copper (Cu) ions is core to the switching mechanism, ab initio calculations focus on their displacements. For different charge states in Al2O3, we extract the thermodynamic and activation energies of Cu, Te, Al, and O related point defects. The results reveal that Cu is not the only ion diffusing in the Al2O3-based CBRAM switching mechanism while Te ions appear unfavorable. A Cu/VO based hybrid filament model is proposed, and the impact of Aluminum Vacancies (VAl) on the forming process is demonstrated.

  9. Thermo-mechanical and Microstructural Characterization of Geopolymers with α-Al2O3 Particle Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. S.; Jia, D. C.; He, P. G.; Wang, M. R.

    2009-10-01

    Geopolymers with different content of α-Al2O3 particle filler were prepared. The thermo-mechanical and microstructural characterization of the obtained geopolymers were systematically studied by flexural strength and thermal shrinkage measurements, TG-DTA (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), XRD (X-ray diffractometry), and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). The results show that the addition of α-Al2O3 particle filler not only increases the onset crystalline temperature but also reduces the crystalline velocity of the geopolymers. The thermal shrinkage of the geopolymers increases with increasing heat treatment temperatures due to the water loss and densification. The flexural strength of the geopolymers increases with the increase of heat treatment temperatures from RT to 1200 °C, and shows a sharp increase in the range from 600 °C to 800 °C due to crystallization and solidification. The increase in content of α-Al2O3 particle filler can clearly reduce the thermal shrinkage and maintain a higher porosity at high temperatures. However, it has no distinct influence on the flexural strength after heat treatment. This is mainly attributed to the higher thermal resistance and strength of α-Al2O3.

  10. Investigation of neutron converters for production of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) neutron dosimeters using Al 2O 3:C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittani, J. C. R.; da Silva, A. A. R.; Vanhavere, F.; Akselrod, M. S.; Yukihara, E. G.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of neutron dosimeters in powder and in the form of pellets prepared with a mixture of Al 2O 3:C and neutron converters. The neutron converters investigated were high density polyethylene (HDPE), lithium fluoride (LiF), lithium fluoride 95% enriched with 6Li ( 6LiF), lithium carbonate 95% enriched with 6Li ( 6Li 2CO 3), boric acid enriched with 99% of 10B (H310BO) and gadolinium oxide (Gd 2O 3). The proportion of Al 2O 3:C and neutron converter in the mixture was varied to optimize the total OSL signal and neutron sensitivity. The neutron sensitivity and dose-response were determined for the OSL dosimeters using a bare 252Cf source and compared to the response of Harshaw TLD-600 and TLD-700 dosimeters ( 6LiF:Mg,Ti and 7LiF:Mg,Ti). The results demonstrate the possibility of developing an OSL dosimeter made of Al 2O 3:C powder and neutron converter with a neutron sensitivity (defined as the ratio between the 60Co equivalent gamma dose and the reference neutron absorbed dose) and neutron-gamma discrimination comparable to the TLD-600/TLD-700 combination. It was shown that the shape of the OSL decay curves varied with the type of the neutron converter, demonstrating the influence of the energy deposition mechanism and ionization density on the OSL process in Al 2O 3:C.