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Sample records for al2o3 fgm joints

  1. The Influence of Al2O3 Powder Morphology on the Properties of Cu-Al2O3 Composites Designed for Functionally Graded Materials (FGM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strojny-Nędza, Agata; Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Węglewski, Witold

    2016-08-01

    In order to meet the requirements of an increased efficiency applying to modern devices and in more general terms science and technology, it is necessary to develop new materials. Combining various types of materials (such as metals and ceramics) and developing composite materials seem to be suitable solutions. One of the most interesting materials includes Cu-Al2O3 composite and gradient materials (FGMs). Due to their potential properties, copper-alumina composites could be used in aerospace industry as rocket thrusters and components in aircraft engines. The main challenge posed by copper matrix composites reinforced by aluminum oxide particles is obtaining the uniform structure with no residual porosity (existing within the area of the ceramic phase). In the present paper, Cu-Al2O3 composites (also in a gradient form) with 1, 3, and 5 vol.% of aluminum oxide were fabricated by the hot pressing and spark plasma sintering methods. Two forms of aluminum oxide (αAl2O3 powder and electrocorundum) were used as a reinforcement. Microstructural investigations revealed that near fully dense materials with low porosity and a clear interface between the metal matrix and ceramics were obtained in the case of the SPS method. In this paper, the properties (mechanical, thermal, and tribological) of composite materials were also collected and compared. Technological tests were preceded by finite element method analyses of thermal stresses generated in the gradient structure, and additionally, the role of porosity in the formation process of composite properties was modeled. Based on the said modeling, technological conditions for obtaining FGMs were proposed.

  2. Interface behavior of Al2O3/Ti joints produced by liquid state bonding.

    PubMed

    Lemus-Ruiz, J; Guevara-Laureano, A O; Zarate-Medina, J; Arellano-Lara, A; Ceja-Cárdenas, L

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study brazing of Al2O3 to Ti with biocompatibility properties, using a Au-foil as joining element. Al2O3 was produced by sintering of powder at 1550°C. Al2O3 samples were coated with a 2 and 4μm thick of Mo layer and then stacked with Ti. Al2O3-Mo/Au/Ti combinations were joined at 1100°C in vacuum. Successful joining of Mo-Al2O3 to Ti was observed. Interface shows the formation of a homogeneous diffusion zone. Mo diffused inside Au forming a concentration line. Ti3Au and TiAu phases were observed.

  3. A nanoplate-like α-Al2O3 out-layered Al2O3-ZrO2 coating fabricated by micro-arc oxidation for hip joint prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Wenting; Han, Yong; Tang, Wu

    2016-01-01

    A nanoplate-like α-Al2O3 out-layered Al2O3-ZrO2 coating was fabricated on Zr substrate by micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The structure, formation mechanism, anti-wear property and aging behavior of the coating were explored. The obtained results show that the coating is composed of Al2O3 and ZrO2; the amount and crystallinity of Al2O3 increase gradually from inner layer to the coating surface; monoclinic ZrO2 (m-ZrO2) and tetragonal ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) are both present in the coating, and the ratio of t-ZrO2/m-ZrO2 increases with closing to the coating surface by a "constraint" mechanism of Al2O3; the coating surface mainly consists of nanoplate-like α-Al2O3, and a small amount of nanocrystallized m- and t-ZrO2. The superimposition of α-Al2O3 growth unit on {0 0 0 1} face should be prohibited by PO43- during the MAO process, resulting in the formation of nanoplate-like α-Al2O3 on the coating surface. Compared with pure Zr, the coating shows noticeable improvement in wear-resistance. For aging behavior, although more t-ZrO2 in the coating is transformed to m-ZrO2 with increasing aging time, wear loss increases slightly. It indicates that the nanoplate-like α-Al2O3 out-layered Al2O3-ZrO2 is a potential coating for articular head replacement.

  4. Wear studies on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 and 8mole% of Yttrium-stabilized ZrO2 composite coating on biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy for orthopedic joint application.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Perumal; Manivasagam, Geetha; Rajamanickam, Asokamani; Natarajan, Alagumurthi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the wear characteristics of the composite ceramic coating made with Al2O3-40wt%8YSZ on the biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (grade 5) used for total joint prosthetic components, with the aim of improving their tribological behavior. The coatings were deposited using a plasma spraying technique, and optimization of plasma parameters was performed using response surface methodology to obtain dense coating. The tribological behaviors of the coated and uncoated substrates were evaluated using a ball-on-plate sliding wear tester at 37°C in simulated body-fluid conditions. The microstructure of both the titanium alloy and coated specimen were examined using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The hardness of the plasma-sprayed alumina-zirconia composite coatings was 2.5 times higher than that of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, while the wear rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was 253 times higher than that of the composite-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The superior wear resistance of the alumina-zirconia coated alloy is attributed to its enhanced hardness and intersplat bonding strength. Wear-track examination showed that the predominant wear mechanism of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was abrasive and adhesive wear, whereas, in the case of alumina-zirconia composite coated alloy, the wear was dominated by microchipping and microcracking.

  5. Wear studies on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 and 8mole% of Yttrium-stabilized ZrO2 composite coating on biomedical Ti-6Al-4V alloy for orthopedic joint application

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, Perumal; Manivasagam, Geetha; Rajamanickam, Asokamani; Natarajan, Alagumurthi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the wear characteristics of the composite ceramic coating made with Al2O3-40wt%8YSZ on the biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (grade 5) used for total joint prosthetic components, with the aim of improving their tribological behavior. The coatings were deposited using a plasma spraying technique, and optimization of plasma parameters was performed using response surface methodology to obtain dense coating. The tribological behaviors of the coated and uncoated substrates were evaluated using a ball-on-plate sliding wear tester at 37°C in simulated body-fluid conditions. The microstructure of both the titanium alloy and coated specimen were examined using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The hardness of the plasma-sprayed alumina–zirconia composite coatings was 2.5 times higher than that of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, while the wear rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was 253 times higher than that of the composite-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The superior wear resistance of the alumina–zirconia coated alloy is attributed to its enhanced hardness and intersplat bonding strength. Wear-track examination showed that the predominant wear mechanism of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was abrasive and adhesive wear, whereas, in the case of alumina–zirconia composite coated alloy, the wear was dominated by microchipping and microcracking. PMID:26491323

  6. High Temperature Mechanical Characterization and Analysis of Al2O3 /Al2O3 Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen ply unidirectional zirconia coated single crystal Al2O3 fiber reinforced polycrystalline Al2O3 was tested in uniaxial tension at temperatures to 1400 C in air. Fiber volume fractions ranged from 26 to 31%. The matrix has primarily open porosity of approximately 40%. Theories for predicting the Young's modulus, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate strength were applied and evaluated for suitability in predicting the mechanical behavior of Al2O3/Al2O3 composites. The composite exhibited pseudo tough behavior (increased area under the stress/strain curve relative to monolithic alumina) from 22 to 1400 C. The rule-of-mixtures provides a good estimate of the Young's modulus of the composite using the constituent properties from room temperature to approximately 1200 C for short term static tensile tests in air. The ACK theory provides the best approximation of the first matrix cracking stress while accounting for residual stresses at room temperature. Difficulties in determining the fiber/matrix interfacial shear stress at high temperatures prevented the accurate prediction of the first matrix cracking stress above room temperature. The theory of Cao and Thouless, based on Weibull statistics, gave the best prediction for the composite ultimate tensile strength.

  7. Fabrication of Al2O3-W Functionally Graded Materials by Slipcasting Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Tomoyuki; Sukenaga, Sohei; Saito, Noritaka; Kagata, Hajime; Nakashima, Kunihiko

    2011-10-01

    We have successfully fabricated a functionally graded material (FGM) from tungsten and alumina powders by a slip-casting method. This FGM has applications as a sealing and conducting component for high-intensity discharge lamps (HiDLs) that have a translucent alumina envelope. Two types of W powder, with different oxidizing properties, were used as the raw powders for the Al2O3-W FGM. "Oxidized W" was prepared by heat-treatment at 200 °C for 180 min in air. Alumina and each of the W powders were mixed in ultrapure water by ultrasonic stirring. The slurry was then cast into a cylindrical acrylic mold, which had a base of porous alumina, under controlled pressure. The green compacts were subsequently dried, and then sintered using a vacuum furnace at 1600 °C for a fixed time. The microstructures of the FGMs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the polished section. The Al2O3-W FGM with the "oxidized W" powder resulted in a microscopic compositional gradient. However, the FGM with "as-received W" showed no compositional gradient. This result was mainly attributed to the difference between the ζ-potentials of the W powders with the different oxidizing conditions; basically "oxidized W" powder tends to disperse because of the larger ζ-potential of the oxide layer coated on the W powder core.

  8. Characterization of SDC-Al2O3 solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, S.; Raju, K. C. James; Reddy, C. Vishnuvardhan

    2012-06-01

    SDC20-Al2O3 materials were synthesized through the sol-gel method. Dense SDC20-Al2O3 ceramics were obtained through sintering the pellets at 1300°C. SDC20-Al2O3 materials were characterized by XRD, SEM and impedance spectroscopy. XRD measurements indicate that synthesized materials crystallized in cubic structure. Average crystallite size of the samples was in the range 11-12 nm. The relative density of SDC20-Al2O3 samples was over 95% of the theoretical density. Addition of Al2O3 promotes densification. Surface morphology was analyzed using SEM. The two-probe a.c. impedance spectroscopy was used to study the total ionic conductivity of doped and co-doped ceria in the temperature range 350-700°C. The SDC20-Al2O3 composition showed improved total ionic conductivity and minimum activation energy.

  9. Silicon solar cells with Al2O3 antireflection coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzański, Leszek; Szindler, Marek; Drygała, Aleksandra; Szindler, Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents the possibility of using Al2O3 antireflection coatings deposited by atomic layer deposition ALD. The ALD method is based on alternate pulsing of the precursor gases and vapors onto the substrate surface and then chemisorption or surface reaction of the precursors. The reactor is purged with an inert gas between the precursor pulses. The Al2O3 thin film in structure of the finished solar cells can play the role of both antireflection and passivation layer which will simplify the process. For this research 50×50 mm monocrystalline silicon solar cells with one bus bar have been used. The metallic contacts were prepared by screen printing method and Al2O3 antireflection coating by ALD method. Results and their analysis allow to conclude that the Al2O3 antireflection coating deposited by ALD has a significant impact on the optoelectronic properties of the silicon solar cell. For about 80 nm of Al2O3 the best results were obtained in the wavelength range of 400 to 800 nm reducing the reflection to less than 1%. The difference in the solar cells efficiency between with and without antireflection coating was 5.28%. The LBIC scan measurements may indicate a positive influence of the thin film Al2O3 on the bulk passivation of the silicon.

  10. Synthesis and thermal characterization of Al2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismardi, A.; Rosadi, O. M.; Kirom, M. R.; Syarif, D. G.

    2016-11-01

    Al2O3 nanoparticle has been successfully synthesized using sol gel method from AlCl3. The obtained nanoparticles was then characterized for grain size measurement, the size of nanoparticles was 6 nm by using surface area meter (SAM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity property of the product was then checked with XRD spectroscopy, the result shows that the diffraction peaks were match with the 10-0425 JCPDS database. Thermal property of the Al2O3 nanoparticles was then studied by mixing it with engine base fluid as nanofluid. The usage of nanofluid was expected to be heat absorber and woulo increase cooling process in cooling machine. The results showed that cooling time increases when the concentration of nanofluid was increased. Finally, it is concluded that thermal property of Al2O3 was studied and applicable to be mixed with engine coolant of cooler machine to reduce cooling time process.

  11. Structural study of radiolytic catalysts Ni-Ce/Al2O3 and Ni-Pt/Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seridi, F.; Chettibi, S.; Keghouche, N.; Beaunier, P.; Belloni, J.

    2017-01-01

    Ni-Ce and Ni-Pt bimetallic catalysts supported over α-Al2O3 are synthesized by using co-impregnation method, and then reduced, each via radiolytic process or thermal H2-treatment. For Ni-Ce/Al2O3, the structural study reveals that Ce is alloyed with Ni as Ce2Ni7 nanoparticles in the radiation-reduced catalysts, while it segregates to the surface in the form of CeO2 in the H2-reduced catalysts. For Ni-Pt/Al2O3 radiolytic catalysts, Ni, Pt, NiPt and Ni3Pt nanoparticles, which size is 3.5 nm, are observed. When the radiation-reduced samples are tested in the benzene hydrogenation, they both display high conversion rate. However, the Ni-Pt/Al2O3 is more efficient than Ni-Ce/Al2O3. The performance of the catalysts is correlated with the high dispersion of the metal and the presence of intermetallic Ni-Pt and Ni-Ce phases. It is compared to that of other radiolytic monometallic/oxide catalysts of the literature.

  12. CVD Fiber Coatings for Al2O3/NiAl Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Daniel E.

    1995-01-01

    While sapphire-fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide (Al2O3/NiAl) composites are an attractive candidate for high-temperature structures, the significant difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the NiAl matrix and the sapphire fiber creates substantial residual stresses in the composite. This study seeks to produce two fiber-coating systems with the potential to reduce the residual stresses in the sapphire/NiAl composite system. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to produce both the compensating and compliant-fiber coatings for use in sapphire/NiAl composites. A special reactor was designed and built to produce the FGM and to handle the toxic nickel precursors. This process was successfully used to produce 500-foot lengths of fiber with coating thicknesses of approximately 3 microns, 5 microns, and 10 microns.

  13. Transparent and flexible capacitors based on nanolaminate Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhen; Wu, Hao; Chen, Chao; Wang, Ti; Yue, Jin; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Transparent and flexible capacitors based on nanolaminate Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 dielectrics have been fabricated on indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene naphthalate substrates by atomic layer deposition. A capacitance density of 7.8 fF/μm(2) at 10 KHz was obtained, corresponding to a dielectric constant of 26.3. Moreover, a low leakage current density of 3.9 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at 1 V has been realized. Bending test shows that the capacitors have better performances in concave conditions than in convex conditions. The capacitors exhibit an average optical transmittance of about 70% in visible range and thus open the door for applications in transparent and flexible integrated circuits.

  14. Al2O3-based nanofluids: a review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ultrahigh performance cooling is one of the important needs of many industries. However, low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in developing energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required for cooling purposes. Nanofluids are engineered by suspending nanoparticles with average sizes below 100 nm in heat transfer fluids such as water, oil, diesel, ethylene glycol, etc. Innovative heat transfer fluids are produced by suspending metallic or nonmetallic nanometer-sized solid particles. Experiments have shown that nanofluids have substantial higher thermal conductivities compared to the base fluids. These suspended nanoparticles can change the transport and thermal properties of the base fluid. As can be seen from the literature, extensive research has been carried out in alumina-water and CuO-water systems besides few reports in Cu-water-, TiO2-, zirconia-, diamond-, SiC-, Fe3O4-, Ag-, Au-, and CNT-based systems. The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in research on the stability of nanofluids, enhancement of thermal conductivities, viscosity, and heat transfer characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)-based nanofluids. The Al2O3 nanoparticles varied in the range of 13 to 302 nm to prepare nanofluids, and the observed enhancement in the thermal conductivity is 2% to 36%. PMID:21762528

  15. Al2O3-based nanofluids: a review.

    PubMed

    Sridhara, Veeranna; Satapathy, Lakshmi Narayan

    2011-07-16

    Ultrahigh performance cooling is one of the important needs of many industries. However, low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in developing energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required for cooling purposes. Nanofluids are engineered by suspending nanoparticles with average sizes below 100 nm in heat transfer fluids such as water, oil, diesel, ethylene glycol, etc. Innovative heat transfer fluids are produced by suspending metallic or nonmetallic nanometer-sized solid particles. Experiments have shown that nanofluids have substantial higher thermal conductivities compared to the base fluids. These suspended nanoparticles can change the transport and thermal properties of the base fluid. As can be seen from the literature, extensive research has been carried out in alumina-water and CuO-water systems besides few reports in Cu-water-, TiO2-, zirconia-, diamond-, SiC-, Fe3O4-, Ag-, Au-, and CNT-based systems. The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in research on the stability of nanofluids, enhancement of thermal conductivities, viscosity, and heat transfer characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)-based nanofluids. The Al2O3 nanoparticles varied in the range of 13 to 302 nm to prepare nanofluids, and the observed enhancement in the thermal conductivity is 2% to 36%.

  16. Impurity Enhancement of Al_2O_3/Al Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Zhang, Wenqing; Evans, Anthony

    2003-03-01

    Our first-principles computations indicate that the clean Al_2O_3/Al interface is relatively weak - weaker than bulk Al. Fracture experiments reveal that the interface is relatively strong with observed failure in bulk Al, however. This paradox is resolved via doping effects of the common impurity C. We have found that only 1/3 of a monolayer of carbon segregated to the interface can increase the work of separation by a factor of 3. The resulting strong interface is consistent with fracture experiments. It arises due to void formation in the interface, which provides low-strain sites for the carbon to segregate to. The degree of void formation is consistent with the relatively high heat of oxide formation of Al.

  17. Study of ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2 and Al2O3/ZrO2/Al2O3 stack structures deposited by sol-gel method on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, P.; Harizanova, A.; Ivanova, T.; Dimitrova, T.

    2010-02-01

    Based on our previous experience with pseudobinary alloys of (Al2O3)x(ZrO2)1-x as high-k materials and passivating coatings for solar cells, stack systems of ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2and Al2O3/ZrO2/Al2O3, deposited by simple and low cost sol-gel technology have been studied. The thin films of ZrO2 and Al2O3 were sequentially obtained on Si substrates including spin coating deposition from stable solutions. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) was used to compare the morphology of the nanolaminates. The layers were optically characterized by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The electrical measurements were carried out on metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. Their leakage current and relative permittivity were determined.

  18. Antimicrobial effect of Al2O3, Ag and Al2O3/Ag thin films on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, O.; Stoyanova, D.; Ivanova, I.; Todorova, S.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of Al2O3, Ag and Al2O3/Ag thin films on bacterial growth of Gramnegative bacteria Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli is studied. The nanostructured thin films are deposited on glass substrates without intentional heating through r.f. magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere of Al2O3 and Ag targets or through sequential sputtering of Al2O3 and Ag targets, respectively. The individual Ag thin films (thickness 8 nm) have a weak bacteriostatic effect on Escherichia coli expressed as an extended adaptive phase of the bacteria up to 5 hours from the beginning of the experiment, but the final effect is only 10 times lower bacterial density than in the control. The individual Al2O3 film (20 nm) has no antibacterial effect against two strains E. coli - industrial and pathogenic. The Al2O3/Ag bilayer films (Al2O3 20 nm/Ag 8 nm) have strong bactericidal effect on Pseudomonas putida and demonstrate an effective time of disinfection for 2 hours. The individual films Al2O3 and Ag have not pronounced antibacterial effect on Pseudomonas putida. A synergistic effect of Al2O3/Ag bilayer films in formation of oxidative species on the surface in contact with the bacterial suspension could be a reason for their antimicrobial effect on E. coli and P. putida.

  19. Characteristics of ethylene glycol-Al2O3 nanofluids prepared by utilizing Al2O3 nanoparticles synthesized from local bauxite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarif, D. G.

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles of Al2O3 have been synthesized from local bauxite mineral, and ethylene glycol (EG)-Al2O3 nanofluids have been prepared. Powder Al(OOH) was extracted from local bauxite using bayer process, and heated at 600°C for 3 hours to get Al2O3 nanoparticles. XRD analyses showed that the Al2O3 nanoparticles crystallizes in γ-Al2O3 with crystallite size of 4.12 nm. The specific surface area of the ACO3 nanoparticles was 296.72 m2/gr. Viscosity of the EG-Al2O3 nanofluids was temperature dependent, and decreased with increasing temperature. The viscosity of the nanofluids increased with the concentration of the Al2O3 nanoparticles. Meanwhile, Critical Heat Flux (CHF) enhancement of the nanofluids increased with the concentration of the Al2O3 nanoparticles. The largest CHF enhancement was 54% at Al2O3 concentration of 0.095 vol %.

  20. Al2O3 passivation effect in HfO2·Al2O3 laminate structures grown on InP substrates.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hang-Kyu; Kang, Yu-Seon; Kim, Dae-Kyoung; Baik, Min; Song, Jin Dong; An, Youngseo; Kim, Hyoungsub; Cho, Mann-Ho

    2017-04-07

    The passivation effect of an Al2O3 layer on electrical properties were investigated in HfO2--Al2O3 laminate structures grown on InP substrate by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The chemical state using HR-XPS showed that interfacial reactions were dependent on the presence of the Al2O3 passivation layer and its sequence in the HfO2--Al2O3 laminate structures. The Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 structure showed the best electrical characteristics, due to the interfacial reaction, compared with those of different stacking structures. The top Al2O3 layer suppressed the interdiffusion of oxidizing species into the HfO2 films, while the bottom Al2O3 layer blocked the outdiffusion of In and P atoms. As a result, the formation of In-O bonds was effectively suppressed in the Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3/InP structure than that of HfO2-on-InP system. Moreover, conductance data revealed that the Al2O3/ layer on InP reduces the midgap traps to 2.6 × 10(12) eV(-1)cm(-2) (compared with that of HfO2/InP = 5.4 × 10(12) eV(-1)cm(-2)). The suppression of gap states caused by the outdiffusion of In atoms significantly controls the degradation of capacitors caused by leakage current through the stacked oxide layers.

  1. Non-volatile Al2O3 Memory using Nanoscale Al-rich Al2O3 Thin Film as a Charge Storage Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Shunji; Saito, Kunio; Shimada, Masaru

    2006-04-01

    This article describes the fabrication process and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a new non-volatile Al2O3 memory with nanoscale thin film deposited by electron-cyclotron-resonance sputtering. Al-rich Al2O3 shows characteristics somewhere between Al and Al2O3 in the refractive index and wet etching rate. C-V characteristics of Al-rich Al2O3 memory show a large hysteresis window due to the Al-rich structure, while there is no hysteresis window in the case of stoichiometric Al2O3. This memory is expected to stay non-volatile for several years or more because the capacitance value after writing and erasing operation remained almost unchanged after 4 h at T=85 °C. Also, another new memory structure comprising SiO2/Al2O3 and the Al-rich Al2O3 structure is proposed, which features increased mobility due to the reduction of electron scattering at the Si/Al2O3 interface.

  2. Microstructural development of protective Al2O3 scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of Al2O3 scales grown as protective coatings on NiCrAl alloys used in jet engines are described. The alloys were pure or doped with 0.3 percent Zr or Y and oxidized in 1 atm air at 1100 C for 0.1, 1 or 20.0 hr. The scales were then examined under a microscope. Transient epitaxial scales, formed during the 0.1 hr treatment and containing Ni, Cr and Al, consisted of a mosaic of subgrains and precipitates of different phases. The Y and Zr dopants had no effect on the nucleation site locations. The appearance of intergranular porosity at 0.1 hr was exacerbated after the 1 hr treatment. A bimodal void distribution appeared after 20 hr, when no porosity was evident. The detection of local areas of preferred orientation is taken as a spur to further studies of scale growth to gain control of the grain size or even to produce single crystal scales.

  3. Radiation endurance in Al2O3 nanoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Ferré, F.; Mairov, A.; Ceseracciu, L.; Serruys, Y.; Trocellier, P.; Baumier, C.; Kaïtasov, O.; Brescia, R.; Gastaldi, D.; Vena, P.; Beghi, M. G.; Beck, L.; Sridharan, K.; di Fonzo, F.

    2016-09-01

    The lack of suitable materials solutions stands as a major challenge for the development of advanced nuclear systems. Most issues are related to the simultaneous action of high temperatures, corrosive environments and radiation damage. Oxide nanoceramics are a promising class of materials which may benefit from the radiation tolerance of nanomaterials and the chemical compatibility of ceramics with many highly corrosive environments. Here, using thin films as a model system, we provide new insights into the radiation tolerance of oxide nanoceramics exposed to increasing damage levels at 600 °C –namely 20, 40 and 150 displacements per atom. Specifically, we investigate the evolution of the structural features, the mechanical properties, and the response to impact loading of Al2O3 thin films. Initially, the thin films contain a homogeneous dispersion of nanocrystals in an amorphous matrix. Irradiation induces crystallization of the amorphous phase, followed by grain growth. Crystallization brings along an enhancement of hardness, while grain growth induces softening according to the Hall-Petch effect. During grain growth, the excess mechanical energy is dissipated by twinning. The main energy dissipation mechanisms available upon impact loading are lattice plasticity and localized amorphization. These mechanisms are available in the irradiated material, but not in the as-deposited films.

  4. Al-Al2O3-Pd junction hydrogen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, K.; Takinami, N.; Chiba, Y.; Ohshima, S.; Kambe, S.

    1994-07-01

    Al-Al2O3-Pd MIM (metal insulator metal) junctions fabricated on a glass substrate were tested as hydrogen sensors. The I-V (current versus voltage) characteristics of the junctions were measured at room temperature in a vacuum of 10-5 Torr and in H2 gas of 10-2-100 Torr. A significant increase in the current was observed upon introduction of H2 gas. This phenomenon is believed to occur due to the work function lowering of the hydrogen-absorbed Pd top electrode. The rise time was on the order of minutes, while the recovery time when hydrogen was purged was more than 20 h. However, when the junction was placed in an oxidizing ambient such as air, the recovery time was drastically reduced to the order of minutes, indicating that the device is operative as a hydrogen sensor in the atmospheric ambient. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption behavior of the Pd film was also investigated using a Pd coated quartz microbalance, and the results explained the current response of the Pd MIM junction to hydrogen in the presence of oxygen.

  5. The thermodynamic properties of hydrated -Al2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Elinor; Huang, Baiyu; Parker, Stewart F.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Ross, Dr. Nancy; Woodfield, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report a combined calorimetric and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) study of hydrated -Al2O3 ( -alumina) nanoparticles. These complementary techniques have enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of this technological and industrially important metal oxide to be achieved. The isobaric heat capacity (Cp) data presented herein provide further critical insights into the much-debated chemical composition of -alumina nanoparticles. Furthermore, the isochoric heat capacity (Cv) of the surface water, which is so essential to the stability of all metal-oxides at the nanoscale, has been extracted from the high-resolution INS data and differs significantly from that of ice Ih due to the dominating influence of strong surface-water interactions. This study also encompassed the analysis of four -alumina samples with differing pore diameters [4.5 (1), 13.8 (2), 17.9 (3), and 27.2 nm (4)], and the results obtained allow us to unambiguously conclude that the water content and pore size have no influence on the thermodynamic behaviour of hydrated -alumina nanoparticles.

  6. Radiation endurance in Al2O3 nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    García Ferré, F.; Mairov, A.; Ceseracciu, L.; Serruys, Y.; Trocellier, P.; Baumier, C.; Kaïtasov, O.; Brescia, R.; Gastaldi, D.; Vena, P.; Beghi, M. G.; Beck, L.; Sridharan, K.; Di Fonzo, F.

    2016-01-01

    The lack of suitable materials solutions stands as a major challenge for the development of advanced nuclear systems. Most issues are related to the simultaneous action of high temperatures, corrosive environments and radiation damage. Oxide nanoceramics are a promising class of materials which may benefit from the radiation tolerance of nanomaterials and the chemical compatibility of ceramics with many highly corrosive environments. Here, using thin films as a model system, we provide new insights into the radiation tolerance of oxide nanoceramics exposed to increasing damage levels at 600 °C –namely 20, 40 and 150 displacements per atom. Specifically, we investigate the evolution of the structural features, the mechanical properties, and the response to impact loading of Al2O3 thin films. Initially, the thin films contain a homogeneous dispersion of nanocrystals in an amorphous matrix. Irradiation induces crystallization of the amorphous phase, followed by grain growth. Crystallization brings along an enhancement of hardness, while grain growth induces softening according to the Hall-Petch effect. During grain growth, the excess mechanical energy is dissipated by twinning. The main energy dissipation mechanisms available upon impact loading are lattice plasticity and localized amorphization. These mechanisms are available in the irradiated material, but not in the as-deposited films. PMID:27653832

  7. Hydrogen induced passivation of Si interfaces by Al2O3 films and SiO2/Al2O3 stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingemans, G.; Beyer, W.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2010-10-01

    The role of hydrogen in Si surface passivation is experimentally identified for Al2O3 (capping) films synthesized by atomic layer deposition. By using stacks of SiO2 and deuterated Al2O3, we demonstrate that hydrogen is transported from Al2O3 to the underlying SiO2 already at relatively low annealing temperatures of 400 °C. This leads to a high level of chemical passivation of the interface. Moreover, the thermal stability of the passivation up to 800 °C was significantly improved by applying a thin Al2O3 capping film on the SiO2. The hydrogen released from the Al2O3 film favorably influences the passivation of Si interface defects.

  8. Trapped charge densities in Al2O3-based silicon surface passivation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Paul M.; Simon, Daniel K.; Mikolajick, Thomas; Dirnstorfer, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    In Al2O3-based passivation layers, the formation of fixed charges and trap sites can be strongly influenced by small modifications in the stack layout. Fixed and trapped charge densities are characterized with capacitance voltage profiling and trap spectroscopy by charge injection and sensing, respectively. Al2O3 layers are grown by atomic layer deposition with very thin (˜1 nm) SiO2 or HfO2 interlayers or interface layers. In SiO2/Al2O3 and HfO2/Al2O3 stacks, both fixed charges and trap sites are reduced by at least a factor of 5 compared with the value measured in pure Al2O3. In Al2O3/SiO2/Al2O3 or Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 stacks, very high total charge densities of up to 9 × 1012 cm-2 are achieved. These charge densities are described as functions of electrical stress voltage, time, and the Al2O3 layer thickness between silicon and the HfO2 or the SiO2 interlayer. Despite the strong variation of trap sites, all stacks reach very good effective carrier lifetimes of up to 8 and 20 ms on p- and n-type silicon substrates, respectively. Controlling the trap sites in Al2O3 layers opens the possibility to engineer the field-effect passivation in the solar cells.

  9. The MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system - Free energy of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite. [in earth mantle formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    The model of fictive ideal components is used to determine Gibbs free energies of formation of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite from the experimental data on coexisting garnet and orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene and spinel in the temperature range 1200-1600 K. It is noted that Al2O3 forms an ideal solution with MgSiO3. These thermochemical data are found to be consistent with the Al2O3 isopleths that could be drawn using most recent experimental data and with the reversed experimental data on the garnet-spinel field boundary.

  10. Catalytic sterilization of Escherichia coli K 12 on Ag/Al2O3 surface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meixue; Yan, Lizhu; He, Hong; Chang, Qingyun; Yu, Yunbo; Qu, Jiuhui

    2007-05-01

    Bactericidal action of Al(2)O(3), Ag/Al(2)O(3) and AgCl/Al(2)O(3) on pure culture of Escherichia coli K 12 was studied. Ag/Al(2)O(3) and AgCl/Al(2)O(3) demonstrated a stronger bactericidal activity than Al(2)O(3). The colony-forming ability of E. coli was completely lost in 0.5 min on both of Ag/Al(2)O(3) and AgCl/Al(2)O(3) at room temperature in air. The configuration of the bacteria on the catalyst surface was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the expression of the bactericidal activity on the surface of catalysts by assay with O(2)/N(2) bubbling and scavenger for ROS. Furthermore, the formation of CO(2) as an oxidation product could be detected by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and be deduced by total carbon analysis. These results strongly support that the bactericidal process on the surface of Ag/Al(2)O(3) and AgCl/Al(2)O(3) was caused by the catalytic oxidation.

  11. Stability of Al2O3 and Al2O3/a-SiNx:H stacks for surface passivation of crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingemans, G.; Engelhart, P.; Seguin, R.; Einsele, F.; Hoex, B.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2009-12-01

    The thermal and ultraviolet (UV) stability of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation provided by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 was compared with results for thermal SiO2. For Al2O3 and Al2O3/a-SiNx:H stacks on 2 Ω cm n-type c-Si, ultralow surface recombination velocities of Seff<3 cm/s were obtained and the passivation proved sufficiently stable (Seff<14 cm/s) against a high temperature "firing" process (>800 °C) used for screen printed c-Si solar cells. Effusion measurements revealed the loss of hydrogen and oxygen during firing through the detection of H2 and H2O. Al2O3 also demonstrated UV stability with the surface passivation improving during UV irradiation.

  12. Preparation of γ-Al2O3 films by laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Ito, Akihiko; Goto, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    γ- and α-Al2O3 films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using CO2, Nd:YAG, and InGaAs lasers to investigate the effects of varying the laser wavelength and deposition conditions on the phase composition and microstructure. The CO2 laser was found to mostly produce α-Al2O3 films, whereas the Nd:YAG and InGaAs lasers produced γ-Al2O3 films when used at a high total pressure. γ-Al2O3 films had a cauliflower-like structure, while the α-Al2O3 films had a dense and columnar structure. Of the three lasers, it was the Nd:YAG laser that interacted most with intermediate gas species. This promoted γ-Al2O3 nucleation in the gas phase at high total pressure, which explains the cauliflower-like structure of nanoparticles observed.

  13. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Behavior of Antifriction and Wear Resistance of Al2O3/Al2O3 Ceramic Friction Pairs Under Oil Lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X. Y.; Qiao, Y. L.; Zang, Y.; Cui, Q. S.

    The behavior of antifriction and wear resistance of Al2O3/Al2O3 ceramic friction pairs lubricated by four different lubrication oils under ultrasonic vibration was studied. The surface morphologies of wear scare was analyzed by metallographic microscope. The effect mechanism of ultrasonic vibration on frictional pairs under different lubrication oils was discussed. The studied results showed that, ultrasonic vibration would improve the behavior of antifriction and wear resistance of the Al2O3/Al2O3 ceramic friction pairs under various lubrication oils.The improving would be dramaticer when the viscosity of lubrication oil was low. Ultrasonic vibration decreased the friction coefficient and wear volume 12.9% and 38.7% respectively, when the lubrication oil was 6#,the viscosity of which is 39.77 mm2/s. When the lubrication oil was 150BS, the viscosity of which is 549.69 mm2/s, ultrasonic vibration made friction coefficient and wear volume decreased 4.6% and 11.6% respectively.The effect of ultrasonic vibration on the behavior of antifriction and wear resistance of Al2O3/Al2O3 ceramic friction pairs was determined by the formation and the destruction of oil film on the friction surface and the upward floatage created by ultrasonic vibration.

  14. Sonochemical asymmetric hydrogenation of isophorone on proline modified Pd/Al2O3 catalysts.

    PubMed

    Mhadgut, Shilpa C; Bucsi, Imre; Török, Marianna; Török, Béla

    2004-04-21

    The sonochemical asymmetric hydrogenation of isophorone (3,3,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexenone) by proline-modified Pd/Al2O3 catalysts is described; presonication of a commercial Pd/Al2O3-proline catalytic system resulted in highly enhanced enantioselectivities (up to 85% ee).

  15. Metastability in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    DOE PAGES

    Wilkerson, Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Hemrick, James G.

    2014-07-22

    Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( γ-Al2O3) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between MgAl2O4 and α-Al2O3. The solvus line between MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 has been defined at 79.6 wt% Al2O3 at 1500°C, 83.0 wt% Al2O3 at 1600°C, and 86.5 wt% Al2O3 at 1700°C. A metastable region has been defined at temperatures up to 1700°C which could have significant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on final chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an infinite solid solution with Al2O3 at elevatedmore » temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975°C and a chemistry of 96 wt% Al2O3 rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidification.« less

  16. Influence of Al2O3 sol concentration on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu-Al2O3 composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojin; Yang, Zhendi; Tang, Ying; Gao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Copper (Cu) is widely used as electrical conducting and contacting material. However, Cu is soft and does not have good mechanical properties. In order to improve the hardness and wear resistance of Cu, sol-enhanced Cu-Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings were electroplated by adding a transparent Al oxide (Al2O3) sol into the traditional electroplating Cu solution. It was found that the microstructure and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite coatings were largely influenced by the Al2O3 sol concentration. The results show that the Al2O3 nanoparticle reinforced the composite coatings, resulting in significantly improved hardness and wear resistance in comparison with the pure Cu coatings. The coating prepared at the sol concentration of 3.93 mol/L had the best microhardness and wear resistance. The microhardness has been improved by 20% from 145.5 HV (Vickers hardness number) of pure Cu coating to 173.3 HV of Cu-Al2O3 composite coatings. The wear resistance was also improved by 84%, with the wear volume loss dropped from 3.2 × 10-3 mm3 of Cu coating to 0.52 × 10-3 mm3 of composite coatings. Adding excessive sol to the electrolyte deteriorated the properties.

  17. Effect of Al2O3 Concentration on Density and Structure of (CaO-SiO2)-xAl2O3 Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajavaram, Ramaraghavulu; Kim, Hyelim; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Cho, Won-Seung; Lee, Chi-Hwan; Lee, Joonho

    2017-03-01

    The effect of Al2O3 concentration on the density and structure of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 slag was investigated at multiple Al2O3 mole percentages and at a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio of 1. The experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 2154 K to 2423 K (1881 °C to 2150 °C) using the aerodynamic levitation technique. In order to understand the relationship between density and structure, structural analysis of the silicate melts was carried out using Raman spectroscopy. The density of each slag sample investigated in this study decreased linearly with increasing temperature. When the Al2O3 content was less than 15 mole pct, density decreased with increasing Al2O3 content due to the coupling of Si (Al), whereas above 20 mole pct density of the slag increased due to the role of Al3+ ion as a network modifier.

  18. Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

  19. Formation of gamma'-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+Al2O3) equals gamma'(+Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ Al2O3) = gamma'(+ Al2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3Al phase field.

  20. Comparison of ALD and IBS Al2O3 films for high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Jensen, Lars; Becker, Jürgen; Wurz, Marc Christopher; Ma, Ping; Ristau, Detlev

    2016-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been widely studied in Micro-electronics due to its self-terminating property. ALD also grows film coatings with precise thickness and nodular-free structure, which are desirable properties for high power coatings. The depositing process was studied to produce uniform, stable and economic Al2O3 single layers. The layer properties relevant to high power laser industry were studied and compared with IBS Al2O3 single layers. ALD Al2O3 showed a stable growth of 0.104 nm/cycle, band gap energy of 6.5 eV and tensile stress of about 480 MPa. It also showed a low absorption at wavelength 1064 nm within several ppm, and LIDT above 30 J/cm2. These properties are superior to the reference IBS Al2O3 single layers and indicate a high versatility of ALD Al2O3 for high power coatings.

  1. Characterization and prevention of humidity related degradation of atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückerl, Andreas; Zeisel, Roland; Mandl, Martin; Costina, Ioan; Schroeder, Thomas; Zoellner, Marvin H.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide (ALD-Al2O3) is a dielectric material, which is widely used in organic light emitting diodes in order to prevent their organic layers from humidity related degradation. Unfortunately, there are strong hints that in some cases, ALD-Al2O3 itself is suffering from humidity related degradation. Especially, high temperature and high humidity seem to enhance ALD-Al2O3 degradation strongly. For this reason, the degradation behavior of ALD-Al2O3 films at high temperature and high humidity was investigated in detail and a way to prevent it from degradation was searched. The degradation behavior is analyzed in the first part of this paper. Using infrared absorbance measurements and X-ray diffraction, boehmite (γ-AlOOH) was identified as a degradation product. In the second part of the paper, it is shown that ALD-Al2O3 films can be effectively protected from degradation using a silicon oxide capping. The deposition of very small amounts of silicon in a molecular beam epitaxy system and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of the chemical bonding between the silicon and the ALD-Al2O3 surface led to the conclusion that a silicon termination of the ALD-Al2O3 surface (Al*-O-SiOx) is able to stop humidity related degradation of the underlying ALD-Al2O3 films. The third part of the paper shows that the protection mechanism of the silicon termination is probably due to the strong tendency of silicic acid to resilificate exposed ALD-Al2O3 surfaces. The protective effect of a simple silicon source on an ALD-Al2O3 surface is shown exemplary and the related chemical reactions are presented.

  2. Protection of Polymer from Atomic-Oxygen Erosion using Al2O3 Atomic Layer Deposition Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    coatings other than Al2O3 . Multilayer ALD films of Al2O3 / TiO2 or Al2O3 / ZnO could protect against both O atoms and... Al2O3 growth. The steady-state Al2O3 ALD growth rate after nucleation is ∼1.2 Å per AB cycle [19,26]. The polyimide substrates were coated with Al2O3 ALD ...apparatus is shown in Fig. 1. This apparatus has Fig. 2. Mass change of polyimide substrates coated with varying numbers of Al2O3 ALD AB cycles

  3. Pinhole Effect on the Melting Behavior of Ag@Al2O3 SERS Substrates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lingwei; Huang, Yu; Hou, Mengjing; Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-12-01

    High-temperature surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing is significant for practical detections, and pinhole-containing (PC) metal@oxide structures possessing both enhanced thermal stability and superior SERS sensitivity are served as promising SERS sensors at extreme sensing conditions. Through tuning the Al2O3 precursors' exposure time during atomic layer deposition (ALD), Al2O3 shells with different amount of pinholes were covered over Ag nanorods (Ag NRs). By virtue of these unique PC Ag@Al2O3 nanostructures, herein we provide an excellent platform to investigate the relationship between the pinhole rate of Al2O3 shells and the melting behavior, high-temperature SERS performances of these core-shell nanostructures. Pinhole effect on the melting procedures of PC Ag@Al2O3 substrates was characterized in situ via their reflectivity variations during heating, and the specific melting point was quantitatively estimated. It is found that the melting point of PC Ag@Al2O3 raised along with the decrement of pinhole rate, and substrates with less pinholes exhibited better thermal stability but sacrificed SERS efficiency. This work achieved highly reliable and precise control of the pinholes over Al2O3 shells, offering sensitive SERS substrates with intensified thermal stability and superior SERS performances at extreme sensing conditions.

  4. Al2O3 on Black Phosphorus by Atomic Layer Deposition: An in Situ Interface Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; McDonnell, Stephen; Qin, Xiaoye; Azcatl, Angelica; Cheng, Lanxia; Addou, Rafik; Kim, Jiyoung; Ye, Peide D; Wallace, Robert M

    2015-06-17

    In situ "half cycle" atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 was carried out on black phosphorus ("black-P") surfaces with modified phosphorus oxide concentrations. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is employed to investigate the interfacial chemistry and the nucleation of the Al2O3 on black-P surfaces. This work suggests that exposing a sample that is initially free of phosphorus oxide to the ALD precursors does not result in detectable oxidation. However, when the phosphorus oxide is formed on the surface prior to deposition, the black-P can react with both the surface adventitious oxygen contamination and the H2O precursor at a deposition temperature of 200 °C. As a result, the concentration of the phosphorus oxide increases after both annealing and the atomic layer deposition process. The nucleation rate of Al2O3 on black-P is correlated with the amount of oxygen on samples prior to the deposition. The growth of Al2O3 follows a "substrate inhibited growth" behavior where an incubation period is required. Ex situ atomic force microscopy is also used to investigate the deposited Al2O3 morphologies on black-P where the Al2O3 tends to form islands on the exfoliated black-P samples. Therefore, surface functionalization may be needed to get a conformal coverage of Al2O3 on the phosphorus oxide free samples.

  5. Pinhole Effect on the Melting Behavior of Ag@Al2O3 SERS Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lingwei; Huang, Yu; Hou, Mengjing; Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-03-01

    High-temperature surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing is significant for practical detections, and pinhole-containing (PC) metal@oxide structures possessing both enhanced thermal stability and superior SERS sensitivity are served as promising SERS sensors at extreme sensing conditions. Through tuning the Al2O3 precursors' exposure time during atomic layer deposition (ALD), Al2O3 shells with different amount of pinholes were covered over Ag nanorods (Ag NRs). By virtue of these unique PC Ag@Al2O3 nanostructures, herein we provide an excellent platform to investigate the relationship between the pinhole rate of Al2O3 shells and the melting behavior, high-temperature SERS performances of these core-shell nanostructures. Pinhole effect on the melting procedures of PC Ag@Al2O3 substrates was characterized in situ via their reflectivity variations during heating, and the specific melting point was quantitatively estimated. It is found that the melting point of PC Ag@Al2O3 raised along with the decrement of pinhole rate, and substrates with less pinholes exhibited better thermal stability but sacrificed SERS efficiency. This work achieved highly reliable and precise control of the pinholes over Al2O3 shells, offering sensitive SERS substrates with intensified thermal stability and superior SERS performances at extreme sensing conditions.

  6. Dependence of Protein Adsorption on Wetting Behavior of UHMWPE-HA-Al2O3-CNT Hybrid Biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ankur; Tripathi, Garima; Basu, Bikramjit; Balani, Kantesh

    2012-04-01

    Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is used as an articulating surface in total hip and knee joint replacement. In order to enhance long-term durability/wear resistance properties, UHMWPE-based polymer-ceramic hybrid composites are being developed. Surface properties such as wettability and protein adsorption alter with reinforcement or with change in surface chemistry. From this perspective, the wettability and protein adsorption behavior of compression-molded UHMWPE-hydroxyapatite (HA)-aluminum oxide (Al2O3)-carbon nanotube (CNT) composites were analyzed in conjunction with surface roughness. The combined effect of Al2O3 and CNT shows enhancement of the contact angle by ~37° compared with the surface of the UHMWPE matrix reinforced with HA. In reference to unreinforced UHMWPE, protein adsorption density also increased by ~230% for 2 wt.%HA-5 wt.%Al2O3-2 wt.%CNT addition to UHMWPE. An important conclusion is that the polar and dispersion components of the surface free energy play a significant role in wetting and protein adsorption than do the total free energy or chemistry of the surface. The results of this study have major implications for the biocompatibility of these newly developed biocomposites.

  7. Thermoluminescence studies of γ-irradiated Al2O3:Ce3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Satyanarayana; Nagabhushana, K. R.; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-01

    Pure and Ce3+ doped Al2O3 phosphors were synthesized by solution combustion method. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and its shows α-phase of Al2O3. Crystallite size was estimated by Williamson-Hall (W-H) method and found to be 49, 59 and 84 nm for pure, 0.1 mol% and 1 mol% Ce3+ doped Al2O3 respectively. Trace elemental analysis of undoped Al2O3 shows impurities viz. Fe, Cr, Mn, Mg, Ti, etc. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Al2O3:Ce3+ shows emission at 367 nm and excitation peak at 273 nm, which are corresponding to 5D → 4F and 4F → 5D transitions respectively. PL intensity decreases with concentration up to 0.4 mol%, beyond this mol% PL intensity increases with doping concentration up to 2 mol%. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies of γ-rayed pure and Ce3+ doped Al2O3 have been studied. Two well resolved TL glow peaks at 457.5 K and 622 K were observed in pure Al2O3. Additional glow peak at 566 K was observed in Al2O3:Ce3+. Maximum TL intensity was observed for Al2O3:Ce3+ (0.1 mol%) beyond this TL intensity decreases with increasing Ce3+ concentration. Computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) method was used to resolve the multiple peaks and to calculate TL kinetic parameters. Thermoluminescence emission (TLE) spectra of pure Al2O3 glow peaks (457.5 K and 622 K) shows sharp emission at 694 nm and two small humps at 672 nm and 709 nm. The sharp peak at 696 nm corresponds to Cr3+ impurity of 2Eg → 4A2g transition of R lines and 713 nm hump is undoubtedly belongs to Cr3+ emission of near neighbor pairs. The emission at 672 nm is characteristic of Mn4+ impurity ions of 2E → 4A2 transition. TLE of Al2O3:Ce3+ (0.1 mol%) shows additional broad emission at 412 nm corresponds to F-centers. Linearity is observed in the dose range 20-500 Gy in Al2O3:Ce3+ (1 mol%).

  8. Data of ALD Al2O3 rear surface passivation, Al2O3 PERC cell performance, and cell efficiency loss mechanisms of Al2O3 PERC cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibing; Lv, Jun; Bao, Yameng; Xuan, Rongwei; Sun, Shenghua; Sneck, Sami; Li, Shuo; Modanese, Chiara; Savin, Hele; Wang, Aihua; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-04-01

    This data article is related to the recently published article '20.8% industrial PERC solar cell: ALD Al2O3 rear surface passivation, efficiency loss mechanisms analysis and roadmap to 24%' (Huang et al., 2017) [1]. This paper is about passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) structures and it describes the quality of the Al2O3 rear-surface passivation layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), in relation to the processing parameters (e.g. pre-clean treatment, deposition temperature, growth per cycle, and film thickness) and to the cell efficiency loss mechanisms. This dataset is made public in order to contribute to the limited available public data on industrial PERC cells, to be used by other researchers.

  9. Optical properties of the Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszałek, Konstanty; Winkowski, Paweł; Jaglarz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of bilayer and trilayer Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings are presented in this paper. The oxide films were deposited on a heated quartz glass by e-gun evaporation in a vacuum of 5 × 10-3 [Pa] in the presence of oxygen. Depositions were performed at three different temperatures of the substrates: 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C. The coatings were deposited onto optical quartz glass (Corning HPFS). The thickness and deposition rate were controlled with Inficon XTC/2 thickness measuring system. Deposition rate was equal to 0.6 nm/s for Al2O3, 0.6 nm - 0.8 nm/s for HfO2 and 0.6 nm/s for SiO2. Simulations leading to optimization of the thin film thickness and the experimental results of optical measurements, which were carried out during and after the deposition process, have been presented. The optical thickness values, obtained from the measurements performed during the deposition process were as follows: 78 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 and 78 nm/156 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2. The results were then checked by ellipsometric technique. Reflectance of the films depended on the substrate temperature during the deposition process. Starting from 240 nm to the beginning of visible region, the average reflectance of the trilayer system was below 1 % and for the bilayer, minima of the reflectance were equal to 1.6 %, 1.15 % and 0.8 % for deposition temperatures of 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C, respectively.

  10. Effects of annealing on properties of Al2O3 monolayer film at 355 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Feifei; Wang, Hu; Xing, Huanbin; Zheng, Ruxi; Zhang, Weili; Yi, Kui

    2015-07-01

    Al2O3 monolayer films were deposited on fused silica substrate and K9 glass substrate by electron-beam deposition. Annealing as a general post-treatment was used to enhance the quality of the Al2O3 coatings. The optical properties of the films were analyzed from the transmission spectra of the samples. The composition of the samples before and after annealing were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). According to the analysis of the results, it can be found that the oxidation degree of the coatings increases after annealing in O2 inside coating chamber. The laser-induced damage thresholds of the Al2O3 films can be increased after the annealing process. Finally, the damage morphologies of the Al2O3 coatings were analyzed.

  11. Production of hydrogen by autothermal reforming of propane over Ni/delta-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Ri; Lee, Kwi Yeon; Park, Nam Cook; Shin, Jae Soon; Moon, Dong Ju; Lee, Byung Gwon; Kim, Young Chul

    2006-11-01

    The performance of Ni/delta-Al2O3 catalyst in propane autothermal reforming (ATR) for hydrogen production was investigated in the present study. The catalysts were characterized using XRD, TEM, and SEM. The activity of the Ni/delta-Al2O3 catalyst manufactured by the water-alcohol method was better than those of the catalysts manufactured by the impregnation and chemical reduction methods. The Ni/delta-Al2O3 catalysts were modified by the addition of promoters such as Mg, La, Ce, and Co, in order to improve their stability and yield. Hydrogen production was the largest for the Ni-Co-CeO2/Al2O3, catalyst.

  12. Oxidation of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of Al2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic NiAl. The isothermal oxidation of an Al2O3/NiAl composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the Al2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.

  13. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al2O3 / A336 Compsite by Low Pressure Infiltratrion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    clear and bonds directly with matrix and fiber. It is confirmed by the presence of the γ-Al2O3, MgO from diffraction peaks in the XRD pattern (Fig 4...and EDS (Fig. 3(b),(c)). It suggests that γ-Al2O3, MgO can be produced as results of the interfacial reaction between the Al liquid and the SiO2...results of the reaction between the α-Al2O3 and the MgO , i.e. α-Al2O3+ MgO →MgAl2O4, It was noticed that MgAl2O4 improve wettability, but decrease

  14. Luminescent properties of Al2O3:Ce single crystalline films under synchrotron radiation excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Zorenko, T.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Voznyak, T.; Fabisiak, K.; Zhusupkalieva, G.; Fedorov, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper is dedicated to study the luminescent and scintillation properties of the Al2O3:Ce single crystalline films (SCF) grown by LPE method onto saphire substrates from PbO based flux. The structural quality of SCF samples was investigated by XRD method. For characterization of luminescent properties of Al2O3:Ce SCFs the cathodoluminescence spectra, scintillation light yield (LY) and decay kinetics under excitation by α-particles of Pu239 source were used. We have found that the scintillation LY of Al2O3:Ce SCF samples is relatively large and can reach up to 50% of the value realized in the reference YAG:Ce SCF. Using the synchrotron radiation excitation in the 3.7-25 eV range at 10 K we have also determined the basic parameters of the Ce3+ luminescence in Al2O3 host.

  15. Temperature dependence of the dielectric response of anodized Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2003-03-01

    The temperature dependence of capacitance, CM, and conductance, GM, of Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors with Cu, Ag, and Au electrodes has been measured between 100 and 340 K at seven frequencies between 10 kHz and 1 MHz. Al2O3 films between 15 and 64 nm thick were formed by anodizing evaporated Al films in borate-glycol or borate-H2O electrolyte. The interface capacitance at the Al2O3-metal interface, CI, which is in series with the capacitance CD due to the Al2O3 dielectric, is determined from plots of 1/CM versus insulator thickness. CI is not fixed for a given metal-insulator interface but depends on the vacuum system used to deposit the metal electrode. CI is nearly temperature independent. When CI is taken into account the dielectric constant of Al2O3 determined from capacitance measurements is ˜8.3 at 295 K. The dielectric constant does not depend on anodizing electrolyte, insulator thickness, metal electrode, deposition conditions for the metal electrode or measurement frequency. By contrast, GM of Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors depends on both the deposition conditions of the metal and on the metal. For Al-Al2O3-Cu capacitors, GM is larger for capacitors with large values of 1/CI that result when Cu is evaporated in an oil-pumped vacuum system. For Al-Al2O3-Ag capacitors, GM does not depend on the Ag deposition conditions.

  16. Al/Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) and Macrocomposites for Armor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    ceramics (high hardness, high stiffness, low thermal expansion). In this study , Al/Al2O3 MMCs with alumina particle contents ranging from 12% to 46% were...expansion). In this study , Al/Al2O3 MMCs with alumina particle contents ranging from 12% to 46% were fabricated by different processing approaches...the different MMCs. The matrix alloy, alumina volume fraction, densities, mechanical properties , and thermal properties are summarized in Table 2

  17. Tb3+ ion doping into Al2O3: Solubility limit and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Yuya; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-11-01

    Tb3+-activated Al2O3 phosphors with a molar ratio of \\text{Al}:\\text{Tb} = (1 - x):x are synthesized by metal organic decomposition (x = 0-0.15) and subsequent calcination at T c = 200-1200 °C for 1 h in air. The material properties of the synthesized phosphors are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) analyses, PL excitation spectroscopy, and luminescence lifetime measurements. At x = 0.015, the metastable phase of γ-Al2O3 is obtained by calcination at T c ˜ 300-1050 °C and a mixture of γ, θ, and α phases at T c ˜ 1050-1150 °C. The high-temperature stable phase of α-Al2O3 is obtained only at T c ≥ 1150 °C. Below T c ˜ 300 °C, the XRD data suggest the formation of boehmite (AlOOH). The solubility limit of Tb3+ in α-Al2O3 is also clearly determined to be x ˜ 0.015 (1.5%). The PL decay time of the Tb3+ green emission in α-Al2O3 is ˜1.1 ms for x < 0.015 and slowly decreases with further increase in x (Tb3+). The schematic energy-level diagram of Tb3+ in α-Al2O3 is proposed for a better understanding of the present phosphor system. Finally, the temperature dependence of the PL intensity is examined between T = 20 and 450 K, yielding quenching energies of E q ˜ 0.28 eV (α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3).

  18. Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3-Al2O3 system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku

    2008-12-09

    We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO(3)-Al(2)O(3) system by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh(2)O(3)(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving Al(2)O(3) tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO(3) but the effect is not significant ( approximately -0.2 GPa/mol% Al(2)O(3)); (ii) Al(2)O(3) produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (approximately 1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (x(Al2O3) approximately 6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D'' seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (approximately 4 GPa) for the basaltic Al-rich composition (x(Al2O3) approximately 20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh(2)O(3)(II) with increasing the Al concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations.

  19. Image reconstruction algorithm for optically stimulated luminescence 2D dosimetry using laser-scanned Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Schnell, E.; Ahmad, S.; Yukihara, E. G.

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an image reconstruction algorithm for 2D dosimetry using Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) films imaged using a laser scanning system. The algorithm takes into account parameters associated with detector properties and the readout system. Pieces of Al2O3:C films (~8 mm  ×  8 mm  ×  125 µm) were irradiated and used to simulate dose distributions with extreme dose gradients (zero and non-zero dose regions). The OSLD film pieces were scanned using a custom-built laser-scanning OSL reader and the data obtained were used to develop and demonstrate a dose reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm includes corrections for: (a) galvo hysteresis, (b) photomultiplier tube (PMT) linearity, (c) phosphorescence, (d) ‘pixel bleeding’ caused by the 35 ms luminescence lifetime of F-centers in Al2O3, (e) geometrical distortion inherent to Galvo scanning system, and (f) position dependence of the light collection efficiency. The algorithm was also applied to 6.0 cm  ×  6.0 cm  ×  125 μm or 10.0 cm  ×  10.0 cm  ×  125 µm Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg films exposed to megavoltage x-rays (6 MV) and 12C beams (430 MeV u-1). The results obtained using pieces of irradiated films show the ability of the image reconstruction algorithm to correct for pixel bleeding even in the presence of extremely sharp dose gradients. Corrections for geometric distortion and position dependence of light collection efficiency were shown to minimize characteristic limitations of this system design. We also exemplify the application of the algorithm to more clinically relevant 6 MV x-ray beam and a 12C pencil beam, demonstrating the potential for small field dosimetry. The image reconstruction algorithm described here provides the foundation for laser-scanned OSL applied to 2D dosimetry.

  20. Image reconstruction algorithm for optically stimulated luminescence 2D dosimetry using laser-scanned Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg films.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M F; Schnell, E; Ahmad, S; Yukihara, E G

    2016-10-21

    The objective of this work was to develop an image reconstruction algorithm for 2D dosimetry using Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) films imaged using a laser scanning system. The algorithm takes into account parameters associated with detector properties and the readout system. Pieces of Al2O3:C films (~8 mm  ×  8 mm  ×  125 µm) were irradiated and used to simulate dose distributions with extreme dose gradients (zero and non-zero dose regions). The OSLD film pieces were scanned using a custom-built laser-scanning OSL reader and the data obtained were used to develop and demonstrate a dose reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm includes corrections for: (a) galvo hysteresis, (b) photomultiplier tube (PMT) linearity, (c) phosphorescence, (d) 'pixel bleeding' caused by the 35 ms luminescence lifetime of F-centers in Al2O3, (e) geometrical distortion inherent to Galvo scanning system, and (f) position dependence of the light collection efficiency. The algorithm was also applied to 6.0 cm  ×  6.0 cm  ×  125 μm or 10.0 cm  ×  10.0 cm  ×  125 µm Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg films exposed to megavoltage x-rays (6 MV) and (12)C beams (430 MeV u(-1)). The results obtained using pieces of irradiated films show the ability of the image reconstruction algorithm to correct for pixel bleeding even in the presence of extremely sharp dose gradients. Corrections for geometric distortion and position dependence of light collection efficiency were shown to minimize characteristic limitations of this system design. We also exemplify the application of the algorithm to more clinically relevant 6 MV x-ray beam and a (12)C pencil beam, demonstrating the potential for small field dosimetry. The image reconstruction algorithm described here provides the foundation for laser-scanned OSL applied to 2D dosimetry.

  1. Residual Stress in Brazing of Submicron Al2O3 to WC-Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunder, T.; Piquerez, A.; Bach, M.; Mille, P.

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the residual stresses induced by brazing and grinding submicron Al2O3, using different methods. Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry analysis (EDX) of 72Ag-Cu filler and filler/WC-Co interface showed evidence of atomic diffusion and possible formation of titanium oxide layers between the joint and the bonding materials. An analytical model supported by the finite element method (FEM) based on strain determination due to the difference in variation of thermal expansion was used to assess the stress distribution at the coupling interface and in bulk materials. The model took into account the evolution of the Young's modulus and of the thermal expansion with temperature. The model could be used to follow strain and stress evolutions of the bonded materials during the cooling cycle. The maximum stress rose above -300 MPa at the center of the 100 × 100 × 3 mm ceramic plates. The residual stresses on the external surface of ceramic were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and indentation fracture method (IFM). After brazing and grinding the plate, the principal stresses were 128.1 and 94.9 MPa, and the shear stress was -20.1 MPa. Microscopic examination revealed grain pull-out promoted by the global residual stresses induced by the brazing and grinding processes. The surface stresses evaluated by the different methods were reasonably correlated.

  2. Al2O3/SUS304 Brazing via AgCuTi-W Composite as Active Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Cherng-Yuh; Zhuang, Xie-Zongyang; Pan, Cheng-Tang

    2014-03-01

    Alumina ceramic (α-Al2O3) was brazed to stainless steel (SUS304) using an Ag-Cu-Ti + W composite filler and a traditional active brazing filler alloy (CuSil-ABA). Then, the effects of the presence of W particles and of the brazing parameters on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the brazed joints were investigated. The maximum tensile strength of the joints obtained using Ag-Cu-Ti + W composite filler was 13.2 MPa, which is similar to that obtained using CuSil-ABA filler (13.5 MPa). When the joint was brazed at 930 °C for 30 min, the tensile strengths decreased for both kinds of fillers, although the strength was slightly higher for the Ag-Cu-Ti + W composite filler than for the Ag-Cu-Ti filler. The interfacial microstructure results show that the Ti reacts with W to form a Ti-W-O compound in the brazing alloy. When there are more W particles in the brazing alloy, the thickness of the Ti X O Y reaction layer near the alumina ceramic decreases. Moreover, W particles added to the brazing alloy can reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion of the brazing alloy, which results in lower residual stress between the Al2O3 and SUS304 in the brazing joints and thus yields higher tensile strengths as compared to those obtained using the CuSil-ABA brazing alloy.

  3. The chemisorption of H2O, HCOOH and CH3COOH on thin amorphous films of Al2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. F.; Weinberg, W. H.; Mosesman, M.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the irreversible chemisorption of water, formic acid and acetic acid on a thin amorphous aluminum oxide film, using inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. All of the tunnel junctions employed were Al-Al2O3-Pb junctions with the adsorbate on the Al2O3 surface between the Al2O3 and the Pb electrode. The results obtained include the finding that all Al2O3 surfaces prepared by oxidation of Al have free CH groups present on them.

  4. A study on Si / Al 2 O 3 paramagnetic point defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnhold-Pospischil, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Hofmann, M.; Weber, S.; Jakes, P.; Eichel, R.-A.; Granwehr, J.

    2016-11-01

    In this contribution, negative charges and electronic traps related to the Si / Al 2 O 3 interface were measured and related to paramagnetic point defects and molecular vibrations. To this end, contactless capacitance voltage measurements, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and infrared spectroscopy were carried out, and their results were compared. A change in the negative charge density and electron trap density at the Si / Al 2 O 3 interface was achieved by adding a thermally grown SiO 2 layer with varying thicknesses and conducting an additional temperature treatment. Using EPR, five paramagnetic moments were detected in Si / ( SiO 2 ) / Al 2 O 3 samples with g values of g 1 = 2.0081 ± 0.0002 , g 2 = 2.0054 ± 0.0002 , g 3 = 2.0003 ± 0.0002 , g 4 = 2.0026 ± 0.0002 , and g 5 = 2.0029 ± 0.0002 . Variation of the Al 2 O 3 layer thickness shows that paramagnetic species associated with g1, g2, and g3 are located at the Si / Al 2 O 3 interface, and those with g4 and g5 are located within the bulk Al 2 O 3 . Furthermore, g1, g2, and g3 were shown to originate from oxygen plasma exposure during Al 2 O 3 deposition. Comparing the g values and their location within the Si / Al 2 O 3 system, g1 and g3 can be attributed to P b 0 centers, g3 to Si dangling bonds (Si-dbs), and g4 and g5 to rotating methyl radicals. All paramagnetic moments observed in this contribution disappear after a 5-min temperature treatment at 450 ° C . The deposition of an additional thermal SiO 2 layer between the Si and the Al 2 O 3 decreases the negative fixed charge density and defect density by about one order of magnitude. In this contribution, these changes can be correlated with a decrease in amplitude of the Si-db signal. P b 0 and the methyl radical signals were less affected by this additional SiO 2 layer. Based on these observations, microscopic models for the negative fixed charge density ( Q tot ) and the interface trap density ( D it ) and the connection between these

  5. The impact of ultrathin Al2O3 films on the electrical response of p-Ge/Al2O3/HfO2/Au MOS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botzakaki, M. A.; Skoulatakis, G.; Kennou, S.; Ladas, S.; Tsamis, C.; Georga, S. N.; Krontiras, C. A.

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that the most critical issue in Ge CMOS technology is the successful growth of high-k gate dielectrics on Ge substrates. The high interface quality of Ge/high-k dielectric is connected with advanced electrical responses of Ge based MOS devices. Following this trend, atomic layer deposition deposited ultrathin Al2O3 and HfO2 films were grown on p-Ge. Al2O3 acts as a passivation layer between p-Ge and high-k HfO2 films. An extensive set of p-Ge/Al2O3/HfO2 structures were fabricated with Al2O3 thickness ranging from 0.5 nm to 1.5 nm and HfO2 thickness varying from 2.0 nm to 3.0 nm. All structures were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and AFM. XPS analysis revealed the stoichiometric growth of both films in the absence of Ge sub-oxides between p-Ge and Al2O3 films. AFM analysis revealed the growth of smooth and cohesive films, which exhibited minimal roughness (~0.2 nm) comparable to that of clean bare p-Ge surfaces. The electrical response of all structures was analyzed by C-V, G-V, C-f, G-f and J-V characteristics, from 80 K to 300 K. It is found that the incorporation of ultrathin Al2O3 passivation layers between p-Ge and HfO2 films leads to superior electrical responses of the structures. All structures exhibit well defined C-V curves with parasitic effects, gradually diminishing and becoming absent below 170 K. D it values were calculated at each temperature, using both Hill-Coleman and Conductance methods. Structures of p-Ge/0.5 nm Al2O3/2.0 nm HfO2/Au, with an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) equal to 1.3 nm, exhibit D it values as low as ~7.4  ×  1010 eV-1 cm-2. To our knowledge, these values are among the lowest reported. J-V measurements reveal leakage currents in the order of 10-1 A cm-2, which are comparable to previously published results for structures with the same EOT. A complete mapping of the energy distribution of D its into the energy bandgap of p-Ge, from the valence band

  6. Mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene/nano α-Al2O3 composites.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, F; Chuah, L; Salahi, E

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite containing polypropylene (PP) and nano α-Al2O3 particles was prepared using a Haake internal mixer. Mechanical tests, such as tensile and flexural tests, showed that mechanical properties of the composite were enhanced by addition of nano α-Al2O3 particles and dispersant agent to the polymer. Tensile strength was approximately ∼ 16% higher than pure PP by increasing the nano α-Al2O3 loading from 1 to 4 wt% into the PP matrix. The results of flexural analysis indicated that the maximum values of flexural strength and flexural modulus for nanocomposite without dispersant were 50.5 and 1954 MPa and for nanocomposite with dispersant were 55.88 MPa and 2818 MPa, respectively. However, higher concentration of nano α-Al2O3 loading resulted in reduction of those mechanical properties that could be due to agglomeration of nano α-Al2O3 particles. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic observations of the nanocomposites also showed that fracture surface became rougher by increasing the content of filler loading from 1 to 4% wt.

  7. Photochemistry of the α-Al2O3-PETN interface

    DOE PAGES

    Tsyshevsky, Roman V.; Zverev, Anton; Mitrofanov, Anatoly; ...

    2016-02-29

    Optical absorption measurements are combined with electronic structure calculations to explore photochemistry of an α-Al2O3-PETN interface formed by a nitroester (pentaerythritol tetranitrate, PETN, C5H8N4O12) and a wide band gap aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3) substrate. The first principles modeling is used to deconstruct and interpret the α-Al2O3-PETN absorption spectrum that has distinct peaks attributed to surface F0-centers and surfacePETN transitions. We predict the low energy α-Al2O3 F0-centerPETN transition, producing the excited triplet state, and α-Al2O3 F-0-centerPETN charge transfer, generating the PETN anion radical. This implies that irradiation by commonly used lasers can easily initiate photodecomposition of both excited and charged PETN atmore » the interface. As a result, the feasible mechanism of the photodecomposition is proposed.« less

  8. Interface of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 on H-terminated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, K. Y.; Speck, F.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller, Th.; Ley, L.; Oswald, M.; Hansch, W.

    2006-07-01

    Al2O3 films 1 to 20 nm thick were deposited as alternative high- gate dielectric on hydrogen-terminated silicon by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and characterized by Synchrotron X-ray Photoelectron Spec-troscopy (SXPS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy and admittance measure-ments. The SXPS results indicate that about 60% of the original Si-H surface bonds are preserved at the Al2O3/Si interface and this is confirmed by monitoring the Si-H stretching modes by FTIR spectroscopy in the Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) mode both before and after ALD of Al2O3. The remaining 40% of Si-H bonds are replaced by Si-O bonds as verified by SXPS. In addition, a fraction of a monolayer of SiO2 forms on top of the Al2O3 dielectric during deposition. The presence of OH-groups at a level of 3% of the total oxygen content was detected throughout the Al2O3 layer through a chemically shifted O 1s component in SXPS. Admittance measurements give a dielectric constant of 9.12, but a relatively high density of interface traps between 1011 and 1012 cm-2 eV-1.

  9. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Polypropylene/Nano α-Al2O3 Composites

    PubMed Central

    Mirjalili, F.; Chuah, L.; Salahi, E.

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite containing polypropylene (PP) and nano α-Al2O3 particles was prepared using a Haake internal mixer. Mechanical tests, such as tensile and flexural tests, showed that mechanical properties of the composite were enhanced by addition of nano α-Al2O3 particles and dispersant agent to the polymer. Tensile strength was approximately ∼16% higher than pure PP by increasing the nano α-Al2O3 loading from 1 to 4 wt% into the PP matrix. The results of flexural analysis indicated that the maximum values of flexural strength and flexural modulus for nanocomposite without dispersant were 50.5 and 1954 MPa and for nanocomposite with dispersant were 55.88 MPa and 2818 MPa, respectively. However, higher concentration of nano α-Al2O3 loading resulted in reduction of those mechanical properties that could be due to agglomeration of nano α-Al2O3 particles. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic observations of the nanocomposites also showed that fracture surface became rougher by increasing the content of filler loading from 1 to 4% wt. PMID:24688421

  10. Raman spectroscopic study of Ni/Al 2O 3 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminzadeh, A.; Sarikhani-fard, H.

    1999-07-01

    In this article a preliminary Raman spectroscopic study of Ni/Al 2O 3 catalyst of the type used for the steam reformation of methane is reported. With several prepared samples of this catalyst and using FT-Raman and conventional dispersive Raman technique, it is shown how Raman spectroscopy can be used to monitor the exact conditions during the preparation of the catalyst. Raman data shows that despite a strong fluorescence background, some useful information can be obtained. According to these data, when the calcination temperature is raised above 1000°C, the gamma alumina ( γ-Al 2O 3) is converted to alpha alumina ( α-Al 2O 3) as it is expected. It further shows that Ni is not present as NiO: it is probably embedded in the crystal structure of γ-Al 2O 3 as NiAl 2O 4 (the spinel structure) or constituted as a solid solution with Al 2O 3.

  11. (100) facets of γ-Al2O3: the active surfaces for alcohol dehydration reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Rousseau, Roger J.; Szanyi, Janos

    2011-05-01

    Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol, and methanol dehydration reaction were studied on γ-Al2O3 in order to identify the catalytic active sites for alcohol dehydration reactions. Two high temperature (> 473 K) desorption features were observed following ethanol adsorption. Samples calcined at T≤473 K displayed a desorption feature in the 523-533 K temperature range, while those calcined at T ≥ 673 K showed a single desorption feature at 498 K. The switch from the high to low temperature ethanol desorption correlated well with the dehydroxylation of the (100) facets of γ-Al2O3 that was predicted at 550 K DFT calculations. Theoretical DFT simulations of the mechanism of dehydration. on clean and hydroxylated γ-Al2O3(100) surfaces, find that a concerted elimination of ethylene from an ethanol molecule chemisorbed at an Al3+ pentacoordinated site is the rate limiting step for catalytic cycle on both surfaces. Furthermore, titration of the pentacoordinate Al3+ sites on the (100) facets of γ-Al2O3 by BaO completely turned off the methanol dehydration reaction activity. These results unambiguously demonstrate that only the (100) facets on γ-Al2O3 are the catalytic active surfaces for alcohol dehydration.

  12. Directionally solidified Al2O3/GAP eutectic ceramics by micro-pulling-down method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xue; Su, Haijun; Guo, Fengwei; Tan, Xi; Cao, Lamei

    2016-11-01

    We reported a novel route to prepare directionally solidified (DS) Al2O3/GAP eutectic ceramics by micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. The eutectic crystallizations, microstructure characters and evolutions, and their mechanical properties were investigated in detail. The results showed that the Al2O3/GAP eutectic composites can be successfully fabricated through μ-PD method, possessed smooth surface, full density and large crystal size (the maximal size: φ90 mm × 20 mm). At the process of Diameter, the as-solidified Al2O3/GAP eutectic presented a combination of "Chinese script" and elongated colony microstructure with complex regular structure. Inside the colonies, the rod-type or lamellar-type eutectic microstructures with ultra-fine GAP surrounded by the Al2O3 matrix were observed. At an appropriate solidificational rate, the binary eutectic exhibited a typical DS irregular eutectic structure of "chinese script" consisting of interpenetrating network of α-Al2O3 and GAP phases without any other phases. Therefore, the interphase spacing was refined to 1-2 µm and the irregular microstructure led to an outstanding vickers hardness of 17.04 GPa and fracture toughness of 6.3 MPa × m1/2 at room temperature.

  13. Diffusion Brazing of Al6061/15 Vol. Pct Al2O3p Using a Cu-Sn Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Kavian O.; Khan, Tahir I.; Oliver, Gossett D.

    2013-06-01

    Diffusion brazing of Al-6061 alloy containing 15 vol. pct Al2O3 particles was attempted using Cu-Sn interlayer. Joint formation was attributed to the solid-state interdiffusion of Cu and Sn followed by eutectic formation and subsequent isothermal solidification. Examination of the joint region using scanning electron microprobe analyzer (EPMA), wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of intermetallic phases such as Al7Cu3Mg3, Mg2Cu6Al5, Cu3Sn, and Mg2Sn. The results indicated an increase in joint strength with increasing bonding time giving the highest joint shear strength of 94 MPa at a bonding duration of 3 hours.

  14. Glycerol Steam Reforming Over Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 Catalyst: Effect of Cerium.

    PubMed

    Go, Gwang-Sub; Go, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Hong-Joo; Moon, Dong-Ju; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Young-Chul

    2016-02-01

    In this work, hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming was studied using Ni-metal oxide catalysts. Ni-based catalyst becomes deactivated during steam reforming reactions because of coke deposits and sintering. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reduce carbon deposits and sintering on the catalyst surface by adding a promoter. Ni-metal oxide catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared via impregnation method, and the calcined catalyst was reduced under H2 flow for 2 h prior to the reaction. The characteristics of the catalysts were examined by XRD, TPR, TGA, and SEM. The Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst, which contained less than 2 wt% Ce, showed the highest hydrogen selectivity and glycerol conversion. Further analysis of the catalysts revealed that the Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst required a lower reduction temperature and produced minimum carbon deposit.

  15. Anchorage of γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    DOE PAGES

    Rodríguez-Pulido, A.; Martínez-Gutiérrez, H.; Calderon-Polania, G. A.; ...

    2016-06-07

    Nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNx-MWNTs) have been decorated with γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles by a novel method. This process involved a wet chemical approach in conjunction with thermal treatment. During the particle anchoring process, individual CNx-MWNT nanotubes agglomerated into bundles, resulting in arrays of aligned CNx-MWNT coated with γ-Al2O3. Extensive characterization of the resulting γ-Al2O3/CNx-MWNT bundles was performed using a range of electron microscopy imaging and microanalytical techniques. In conclusion, a possible mechanism explaining the nanobundle alignment is described, and possible applications of these materials for the fabrication of ceramic composites using CNx-MWNTs are briefly discussed.

  16. Growth, Quantitative Growth Analysis, and Applications of Graphene on γ-Al2O3 catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaehyun; Lee, Joohwi; Choi, Jung-Hae; Hwang, Do Kyung; Song, Yong-Won

    2015-01-01

    The possibilities offered by catalytic γ-Al2O3 substrates are explored, and the mechanism governing graphene formation thereon is elucidated using both numerical simulations and experiments. The growth scheme offers metal-free synthesis at low temperature, grain-size customization, large-area uniformity of electrical properties, single-step preparation of graphene/dielectric structures, and readily detachable graphene. We quantify based on thermodynamic principles the activation energies associated with graphene nucleation/growth on γ-Al2O3, verifying the low physical and chemical barriers. Importantly, we derive a universal equation governing the adsorption-based synthesis of graphene over a wide range of temperatures in both catalytic and spontaneous growth regimes. Experimental results support the equation, highlighting the catalytic function of γ-Al2O3 at low temperatures. The synthesized graphene is manually incorporated as a ‘graphene sticker’ into an ultrafast mode-locked laser. PMID:26137994

  17. Electrical Double Layer Capacitance in a Graphene-embedded Al2O3 Gate Dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Ki Min, Bok; Kim, Seong K.; Jun Kim, Seong; Ho Kim, Sung; Kang, Min-A; Park, Chong-Yun; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Graphene heterostructures are of considerable interest as a new class of electronic devices with exceptional performance in a broad range of applications has been realized. Here, we propose a graphene-embedded Al2O3 gate dielectric with a relatively high dielectric constant of 15.5, which is about 2 times that of Al2O3, having a low leakage current with insertion of tri-layer graphene. In this system, the enhanced capacitance of the hybrid structure can be understood by the formation of a space charge layer at the graphene/Al2O3 interface. The electrical properties of the interface can be further explained by the electrical double layer (EDL) model dominated by the diffuse layer. PMID:26530817

  18. Electrowetting properties of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 decorated silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, K.; Rajavel, K.; Cameron, D. C.; Mangalaraj, D.; Rajendrakumar, R. T.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports the electrowetting properties of liquid droplet on superhydrophobic silicon nanowires with Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 as dielectric layer. Silicon wafer were etched by metal assisted wet chemical etching with silver as catalyst. ALD Al2O3 films of 10nm thickness were conformally deposited over silicon nanowires. Al2O3 dielectric film coated silicon nanowires was chemically modified with Trichloro (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl) silane to make it superhydrophobic(SHP). The contact angle was measured and all the samples exhibited superhydrophobic nature with maximum contact angles of 163° and a minimum contact angle hysteresis of 6°. Electrowetting induced a maximum reversible decrease of the contact angle of 20°at 150V in air.

  19. Electrical Double Layer Capacitance in a Graphene-embedded Al2O3 Gate Dielectric.

    PubMed

    Ki Min, Bok; Kim, Seong K; Jun Kim, Seong; Ho Kim, Sung; Kang, Min-A; Park, Chong-Yun; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok

    2015-11-04

    Graphene heterostructures are of considerable interest as a new class of electronic devices with exceptional performance in a broad range of applications has been realized. Here, we propose a graphene-embedded Al2O3 gate dielectric with a relatively high dielectric constant of 15.5, which is about 2 times that of Al2O3, having a low leakage current with insertion of tri-layer graphene. In this system, the enhanced capacitance of the hybrid structure can be understood by the formation of a space charge layer at the graphene/Al2O3 interface. The electrical properties of the interface can be further explained by the electrical double layer (EDL) model dominated by the diffuse layer.

  20. Hard α-Al2O3 Film Coating on Industrial Roller Using Aerosol Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Naoki; Endo, Kazuteru; Sakamoto, Nobuo; Hirose, Shingo; Akedo, Jun

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that α-Al2O3 forms very hard, highly insulating, smooth films. There is demand for the use of such films instead of conventional hard, smooth films; For example, industrial rollers such as calendering rollers etc. are always required to have a harder and smoother surface than conventional rollers. Therefore, this work investigated the specification of α-Al2O3 films, e.g., their wear resistance and chemical stability, using various tests. This paper also discusses whether α-Al2O3 film can take the place of Cr plating film as a hard, smooth film by comparing their wear resistance and chemical stability.

  1. Process Capability Analysis of Vacuum Moulding for Development of Al-Al2O3 MMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate process capability of vacuum moulding (VM) for development of Al-Al2O3 metal matrix composite (MMC). Starting from the identification of component, prototypes were prepared (with three different input parameters namely: vacuum pressure; component volume and sand grit size to give output in form of dimensional accuracy). Measurements on the coordinate measuring machine helped in calculating the dimensional tolerances of the Al-Al2O3 MMC prepared. Some important mechanical properties were also compared to verify the suitability of the components. Final components produced are acceptable as per ISO standard UNI EN 20286-I (1995). The results of study suggest that VM process lies in ±4.5 sigma (σ) limit as regard to dimensional accuracy of Al-Al2O3 MMC is concerned. This process ensures rapid production of pre-series technological prototypes and proof of concept at less production cost and time.

  2. Ionic conductivity and thermoelectric power of pure and Al2O3-dispersed AgI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahi, K.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Ionic and electronic conductivities, and thermoelectric power have been measured for AgI and AgI containing a dispersion of submicron size Al2O3 particles. While the dispersion of Al2O3 enhances the ionic conductivity significantly, it does not affect the electronic properties of the matrix. The enhancement is a strong function of the size and concentration of the dispersoid. Various models have been tested to account for the enhanced conduction. However, the complex behavior of the present results points out the need for more sophisticated theoretical models. Ionic conduction and thermoelectric power data suggest that the dispersed Al2O3 generates an excess of cation vacancies and thereby enhances the conductivity and suppresses the thermoelectric power of the matrix. The individual heats of transport of cation interstitials and vacancies have been estimated and compared to their respective migration energies.

  3. Mechanism for converting Al2O3-containing borate glass to hydroxyapatite in aqueous phosphate solution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Wang, Deping

    2009-05-01

    The effect of replacing varying amounts (0-2.5 mol.%) of B2O3 with Al2O3 in a borate glass on (1) the conversion of the glass to HA in an aqueous phosphate solution and (2) the compressive strength of the as-formed HA product was investigated. Samples of each glass (10 x 10 x 8 mm) were placed in 0.25 M K2HPO4 solution at 60 degrees C, and the conversion kinetics to HA were determined from the weight loss of the glass and the pH of the solution. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. While the conversion rate of the glass to HA decreased considerably with increasing Al2O3 content, the microstructure of the HA product became denser and the compressive strength of the HA product increased. The addition of SiO2 to the Al2O3-containing borate glass reversed the deterioration of the conversion rate, and produced a further improvement in the strength of the HA product. The compressive strength of the HA formed from the borate glass with 2.5 mol.% Al2O3 and 5 mol.% SiO2 was 11.1 +/- 0.2 MPa, which is equal to the highest strengths reported for trabecular bone. The results indicated that simultaneous additions of Al2O3 and SiO2 could be used to control the bioactivity of the borate glass and to enhance the mechanical strength of the HA product. Furthermore, the HA product formed from the glass containing both SiO2 and Al2O3 could be applied to bone repair.

  4. Rapid fabrication of Al2O3 encapsulations for organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamran; Ali, Junaid; Mehdi, Syed Murtuza; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; An, Young Jin

    2015-10-01

    Organic electronics have earned great reputation in electronic industry yet they suffer technical challenges such as short lifetimes and low reliability because of their susceptibility to water vapor and oxygen which causes their fast degradation. This paper report on the rapid fabrication of Al2O3 encapsulations through a unique roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition technology (R2R-AALD) for the life time enhancement of organic poly (4-vinylphenol) (PVP) memristor devices. The devices were then categorized into two sets. One was processed with R2R-AALD Al2O3 encapsulations at 50 °C and the other one was kept as un-encapsulated. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results revealed that pin holes and other irregularities in PVP films with average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 9.66 nm have been effectively covered by Al2O3 encapsulation having Ra of 0.92 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS spectrum for PVP film showed peaks of C 1s and O 1s at the binding energies of 285 eV and 531 eV, respectively. The respective appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74 eV, 119 eV, and 531 eV, confirms the fabrication of Al2O3 films. Electrical current-voltage (I-V) measurements confirmed that the Al2O3 encapsulation has a huge influence on the performance, robustness and life time of memristor devices. The Al2O3 encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks whereas the un-encapsulated devices could only last for one week. The performance of encapsulated device had been promising after being subjected to bending test for 100 cycles and the variations in its stability were of minor concern confirming the mechanical robustness and flexibility of the devices.

  5. Effect of AL2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles on aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosteva, I.; Morgalev, Yu; Morgaleva, T.; Morgalev, S.

    2015-11-01

    Environmental toxicity of aqueous disperse systems of nanoparticles of binary compounds of titanium dioxides (with particle size Δ50=5 nm, Δ50=50 nm, Δ50=90 nm), aluminum oxide alpha-forms (Δ50=7 nm and Δ50=70 nm) and macro forms (TiO2 Δ50=350 nm, Al2O3 A50=4000 nm) were studied using biological testing methods. The bioassay was performed using a set of test organisms representing the major trophic levels. We found the dependence of the toxic effect concentration degree of nTiO2 and nAl2O3 on the fluorescence of the bacterial biosensor "Ekolyum", the chemotactic response of ciliates Paramecium caudatum, the growth of unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer and mortality of entomostracans Daphnia magna Straus. We revealed the selective dependence of nTiO2 and nAl2O3 toxicity on the size, concentration and chemical nature of nanoparticles. The minimal concentration causing an organism's response on nTiO2 and nAl2O3 effect depends on the type of the test- organism and the test reaction under study. We specified L(E)C50 and acute toxicity categories for all the studied nanoparticles. We determined that nTiO2 (Δ50=5 nm) belong to the category «Acute toxicity 1», nTiO2 (A50=90 nm) and nAl2O3 (Δ50=70 nm) - to the category «Acute toxicity 2», nAl2O3 (Δ50=7 nm) - to the category «Acute toxicity 3». No acute toxicity was registered for nTiO2 (Δ50=50 nm) and macro form TiO2.

  6. Study of LDPE/Al2O3 composite material as substrate for microstrip antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmah, Debashis; Bhattacharyya, N. S.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Gogoi, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE)/Alumina (Al2O3) composite systems have been studied as an alternate substrate for microstrip patch antennas (MPA). Morphological, thermal and microwave characterizations of the composites are carried out for different volume fractions of Al2O3 in the LDPE matrix. The size and the distribution of alumina particles are quite uniform in the composite. Enhancement of thermal and microwave properties of the composite over the parent polymer is observed. Simple rectangular MPA in X-band is fabricated on the composite material to verify its applicability as substrates for MPA. A return loss of ~ -26dB is observed at the design frequency.

  7. Study of the KNO3-Al2O3 system by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, A. M.; Gafurov, M. M.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    The structural and the thermodynamic properties of potassium nitrate KNO3 and its composites with nanosized aluminum oxide Al2O3 have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. It has been found that an amorphous phase forms in composites (1- x)KNO3- x Al2O3. The thermal effect corresponding to this phase has been observed at 316°C. It has been found that the phase transition heats of potassium nitrate decreased as the aluminum oxide fraction increased.

  8. High Temperature Aerogels in the Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Aranda, Denisse V.; Gallagher, Meghan E.

    2008-01-01

    Al2O3-SiO2 aerogels are of interest as constituents of thermal insulation systems for use at high temperatures. Al2O3 and mullite aerogels are expected to crystallize at higher temperatures than their SiO2 counterparts, hence avoiding the shrinkages that accompany the formation of lower temperature SiO2 phases and preserving pore structures into higher temperature regimes. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of processing parameters on shrinkage, gel structure (including surface area, pore size and distribution) and pyrolysis behavior.

  9. Epitaxial Graphene Surface Preparation for Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    j dielectrics such as Al2O3 , HfO2, Ta2O5, and TiO2 , are important for the realization of graphene-based top-gated electronic devices including field... ALD pulse sequencing of NO2-trimethylaluminum (TMA); 16 oxidation of electron beam evaporated metallic Al, Hf, Ti, Ta;17,18 and spin- coating of a... ALD of Al2O3 films in promoting uni- form, high quality oxide deposition. Initial treatments resulted in partial coverage, while the optimized treatment

  10. Surface passivation of gallium nitride by ultrathin RF-magnetron sputtered Al2O3 gate.

    PubMed

    Quah, Hock Jin; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2013-08-14

    An ultrathin RF-magnetron sputtered Al2O3 gate on GaN subjected to postdeposition annealing at 800 °C in O2 ambient was systematically investigated. A cross-sectional energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy revealed formation of crystalline Al2O3 gate, which was supported by X-ray diffraction analysis. Various current conduction mechanisms contributing to leakage current of the investigated sample were discussed and correlated with metal-oxide-semiconductor characteristics of this sample.

  11. A comparison of the doppler-broadened positron annihilation spectra of neutron irradiated Al 2O 3 and MgAl 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. L.; Schaffer, J. P.; Cocks, F. H.; Clinard, F. W.; Hurley, G. F.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation damage studies of oxides and ceramics have become of increasing importance due to the projected use of these materials in thermonuclear fusion reactors as electronic insulators and first wall materials. In addition these materials are important in RAD waste disposal. As part of a study of the defect structure in radiation damaged ceramics Doppler-broadened positron annihilation spectra have been obtained for a series of single crystal sapphire (α-Al 2O 3) and polycrystal (1:1) and (1:2) magnesium aluminate spinel (MgO·Al 2O 3 and MgO-2Al 2O 3) samples. These samples were irradiated in EBR-II to a fluence of 3 × 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at 740°C, and 2 × 10 26 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at ~ 550°C respectively. Positron annihilation spectra lineshapes for the irradiated, annealed, and as-received samples of both materials were compared using S parameter analysis. These calculations were made on deconvoluted gamma ray spectra that were free of any instrumental broadening effects. In this way, absolute S parameter changes could be calculated. The observed changes in the S parameter are consistent with independent volume swelling measurements for both the α-A1 2O 3 and the (1:2) MgAl 2O 4 samples. However, the change in S parameter measured for the (1:1) spinel is contrary to the measured volume change. This apparent anomaly indicates a predominence of interstitial as opposed to vacancy type defects in this material.

  12. Atomic layer deposition of highly-doped Er:Al2O3 and Tm:Al2O3 for silicon-based waveguide amplifiers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roenn, John; Karvonen, Lasse; Pyymäki-Perros, Alexander; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Lipsanen, Harri; Säynätjoki, Antti; Sun, Zhipei

    2016-05-01

    Recently, rare-earth doped waveguide amplifiers (REDWAs) have drawn significant attention as a promising solution to on-chip amplification of light in silicon photonics and integrated optics by virtue of their high excited state lifetime (up to 10 ms) and broad emission spectrum (up to 200 nm) at infrared wavelengths. In the family of rare-earths, at least erbium, holmium, thulium, neodymium and ytterbium have been demonstrated to be good candidates for amplifier operation at moderate concentrations (< 0.1 %). However, efficient amplifier operation in REDWAs is a very challenging task because high concentration of ions (<0.1%) is required in order to produce reasonable amplification over short device length. Inevitably, high concentration of ions leads to energy-transfer between neighboring ions, which results as decreased gain and increased noise in the amplifier system. It has been shown that these energy-transfer mechanisms in highly-doped gain media are inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance between the ions. Therefore, novel fabrication techniques with the ability to control the distribution of the rare-earth ions within the gain medium are urgently needed in order to fabricate REDWAs with high efficiency and low noise. Here, we show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an excellent technique to fabricate highly-doped (<1%) RE:Al2O3 gain materials by using its nanoscale engineering ability to delicately control the incorporation of RE ions during the deposition. In our experiment, we fabricated Er:Al2O3 and Tm:Al2O3 thin films with ALD by varying the concentration of RE ions from 1% to 7%. By measuring the photoluminescence response of the fabricated samples, we demonstrate that it is possible to incorporate up to 5% of either Er- or Tm-ions in Al2O3 host before severe quenching occurs. We believe that this technique can be extended to other RE ions as well. Therefore, our results show the exceptionality of ALD as a deposition technique for

  13. Crystallization kinetics of BaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Hyatt, Mark J.

    1988-01-01

    Barium aluminosilicate glasses are being investigated as matrix materials in high-temperature ceramic composites for structural applications. Kinetics of crystallization of two refractory glass compositions in the barium aluminosilicate system were studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From variable heating rate DTA, the crystallization activation energies for glass compositions (wt percent) 10BaO-38Al2O3-51SiO2-1MoO3 (glass A) and 39BaO-25Al2O3-35SiO2-1MoO3 (glass B) were determined to be 553 and 558 kJ/mol, respectively. On thermal treatment, the crystalline phases in glasses A and B were identified as mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and hexacelsian (BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2), respectively. Hexacelsian is a high-temperature polymorph which is metastable below 1590 C. It undergoes structural transformation into the orthorhombic form at approximately 300 C accompanied by a large volume change which is undesirable for structural applications. A process needs to be developed where stable monoclinic celsian, rather than hexacelsian, precipitates out as the crystal phase in glass B.

  14. Synthesis of MgO nanoparticle loaded mesoporous Al2O3 and its defluoridation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayananda, Desagani; Sarva, Venkateswara R.; Prasad, Sivankutty V.; Arunachalam, Jayaraman; Parameswaran, Padmanabhan; Ghosh, Narendra N.

    2015-02-01

    MgO nanoparticle loaded mesoporous alumina has been synthesized using a simple aqueous solution based cost effective method for removal of fluoride from water. Wide angle powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption desorption analysis, transmission electron microscopy techniques and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesized adsorbents. Synthesized adsorbents possess high surface area with mesoporous structure. The adsorbents have been thoroughly investigated for the adsorption of F- using batch adsorption method. MgO nanoparticle loading on mesoporous Al2O3 enhances the F- adsorption capacity of Al2O3 from 56% to 90% (initial F- concentration = 10 mg L-1). Kinetic study revealed that adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second order model, suggesting the chemisorption mechanism. The F- adsorption isotherm data was explained by both Langmuir and Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity of 40MgO@Al2O3 was 37.35 mg g-1. It was also observed that, when the solutions having F- concentration of 5 mg L-1 and 10 mg L-1 was treated with 40MgO@Al2O3, the F- concentration in treated water became <1 mg L-1, which is well below the recommendation of WHO.

  15. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Microhardness of Nanostructural Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, M.; Tyurin, Yu.; Vasilik, N.; Kolisnichenko, O.; Prozorova, M.; Arseenko, M.; Sirota, V.; Pavlenko, I.

    2014-10-01

    Nanostructural Al2O3 coatings were formed on a steel substrate surface using a multichamber detonation sprayer. The Al2O3 coatings were characterized by a dense microstructure with porosity below 1% and hardness of 1300 ± 25 HV0.3. The transition layer between the coating and substrate was up to 15 μm thick, containing Fe-Al-type intermetallic compounds (FeAl3, Fe2Al5). Postdeposition heat treatment of the samples at 850 °C for 3 h was carried out in air and argon environments. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and microhardness of the Al2O3 coatings was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, x-ray phase analysis, and Vickers hardness testing. A positive impact of postcoating heat treatment on the coating microstructure and microhardness was observed. Heat treatment resulted in an increase in the coating hardness from 1300, to 1350 ± 25 HV0.3 and 1600 ± 25 HV0.3 after annealing in air and argon, respectively. Heat treatment in argon led to a more significant increase in the α-Al2O3 phase from 47 to 81%.

  16. Crack-resistant Al2O3–SiO2 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A.; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Obtaining “hard” and “crack-resistant” glasses have always been of great important in glass science and glass technology. However, in most commercial glasses both properties are not compatible. In this work, colorless and transparent xAl2O3–(100–x)SiO2 glasses (30 ≤ x ≤ 60) were fabricated by the aerodynamic levitation technique. The elastic moduli and Vickers hardness monotonically increased with an increase in the atomic packing density as the Al2O3 content increased. Although a higher atomic packing density generally enhances crack formation in conventional oxide glasses, the indentation cracking resistance increased by approximately seven times with an increase in atomic packing density in binary Al2O3–SiO2 glasses. In particular, the composition of 60Al2O3•40SiO2 glass, which is identical to that of mullite, has extraordinary high cracking resistance with high elastic moduli and Vickers hardness. The results indicate that there exist aluminosilicate compositions that can produce hard and damage-tolerant glasses.

  17. Reduction of nitrotoluenes in supercritical isopropanol over Al2O3 in a flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivcev, V. P.; Korchagina, D. V.; Volcho, K. P.; Salakhutdinov, N. F.; Anikeev, V. I.

    2015-02-01

    The reduction of o-, m-, and p-nitrotoluenes in supercritical isopropanol over Al2O3 in a flow reactor is studied. It is shown that corresponding toluidines are major reaction products. Aromatic ring alkoxylation and N-alkylation products make a considerable contribution to the composition of reaction mixtures.

  18. Uniform Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 on Graphene by Reversible Hydrogen Plasma Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A novel method to form ultrathin, uniform Al2O3 layers on graphene using reversible hydrogen plasma functionalization followed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented. ALD on pristine graphene is known to be a challenge due to the absence of dangling bonds, leading to nonuniform film coverage. We show that hydrogen plasma functionalization of graphene leads to uniform ALD of closed Al2O3 films down to 8 nm in thickness. Hall measurements and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the hydrogen plasma functionalization is reversible upon Al2O3 ALD and subsequent annealing at 400 °C and in this way does not deteriorate the graphene’s charge carrier mobility. This is in contrast with oxygen plasma functionalization, which can lead to a uniform 5 nm thick closed film, but which is not reversible and leads to a reduction of the charge carrier mobility. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations attribute the uniform growth on both H2 and O2 plasma functionalized graphene to the enhanced adsorption of trimethylaluminum (TMA) on these surfaces. A DFT analysis of the possible reaction pathways for TMA precursor adsorption on hydrogenated graphene predicts a binding mechanism that cleans off the hydrogen functionalities from the surface, which explains the observed reversibility of the hydrogen plasma functionalization upon Al2O3 ALD.

  19. Complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds over Ce/Cu/gamma-AL2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, S C; Shim, W G

    2008-05-01

    The effect of cerium (Ce) addition into Cu (5, 10 or 15 wt%)/gamma-Al2O3 catalysts on the catalyst properties and catalytic activity was investigated for the complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). X-ray diffraction (XRD), the Brunauer Emmett Teller method (BET), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) by H2, and N2O pulse titration were used to characterize a series of supported copper catalysts modified with cerium. Cerium was observed to be an inhibitor for 5 wt% and promoter for 10 or 15 wt% Cu/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. The results of TPR, average crystallite size and dispersion indicated that even though Ce loadings on 10 and 15 wt% Cu/gamma-Al2O3 caused a reduction in BET surface area of the catalysts, the loaded amounts of Ce enhanced the catalytic activity through the formation of highly dispersed copper clusters. Kinetic parameters were developed for individual benzene, toluene and o-xylene (BTX) for 5 wt% Ce/10 wt% Cu/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst at temperatures ranging from 210 to 240 degrees C. The Mars and Van Krevelen model was found to be an adequate description of the catalytic oxidation of BTX for this study. The activity sequence with respect to the BTX molecules was found to be benzene > toluene > o-xylene under the surface-reaction-controlled region.

  20. Preparation and catalytic behavior of CeO2 nanoparticles on Al2O3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Takashi; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Ozawa, Masakuni

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we examined the preparation, morphology, and catalytic behavior of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on Al2O3(0001) crystal substrates. A CeO2 NP layer was prepared by the dipping method using a CeO2 nanocrystal colloid solution. Even after heat treatment at 1000 °C, the CeO2 NP layer maintained the granular morphology of CeO2 with a grain diameter of less than 40 nm. CeO2 NPs on an Al2O3 crystal showed higher oxidation activity for gaseous hydrogen at moderate temperatures and enhanced oxygen release properties of CeO2, compared with CeO2 powder. This was due to the highly dispersed CeO2 NPs and the interaction between CeO2 NPs and Al2O3; this clarified the importance of the Al2O3 support for the CeO2 catalyst.

  1. Al2O3 half-wave films for long-life CW lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.; Ettenberg, M.; Lockwood, H. F.; Kressel, H.

    1977-01-01

    Long-term operating-life data are reported for (AlGa)As CW laser diodes. The use of half-wave Al2O3 facet coatings is shown to eliminate facet erosion, allowing stable diode operation at constant current for periods in excess of 10,000 h.

  2. Crack-resistant Al2O3–SiO2 glasses

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A.; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining “hard” and “crack-resistant” glasses have always been of great important in glass science and glass technology. However, in most commercial glasses both properties are not compatible. In this work, colorless and transparent xAl2O3–(100–x)SiO2 glasses (30 ≤ x ≤ 60) were fabricated by the aerodynamic levitation technique. The elastic moduli and Vickers hardness monotonically increased with an increase in the atomic packing density as the Al2O3 content increased. Although a higher atomic packing density generally enhances crack formation in conventional oxide glasses, the indentation cracking resistance increased by approximately seven times with an increase in atomic packing density in binary Al2O3–SiO2 glasses. In particular, the composition of 60Al2O3•40SiO2 glass, which is identical to that of mullite, has extraordinary high cracking resistance with high elastic moduli and Vickers hardness. The results indicate that there exist aluminosilicate compositions that can produce hard and damage-tolerant glasses. PMID:27053006

  3. Distinctive electrical properties in sandwich-structured Al2O3/low density polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Si-Jiao; Zha, Jun-Wei; Li, Wei-Kang; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2016-02-01

    The sandwich-structured Al2O3/low density polyethylene (Al2O3/LDPE) nanocomposite dielectrics consisting of layer-by-layer with different concentration Al2O3 loading were prepared by melt-blending and following hot pressing method. The space charge distribution from pulsed electro-acoustic method and breakdown strength of the nanocomposites were investigated. Compared with the single-layer Al2O3/LDPE nanocomposites, the sandwich-structured nanocomposites remarkably suppressed the space charge accumulation and presented higher breakdown strength. The charges in the sandwich-structured nanocomposites decayed much faster than that in the single-layer nanocomposites, which was attributed to an effective electric field caused by the formation of the interfacial space charges. The energy depth of shallow and deep traps was estimated as 0.73 eV and 1.17 eV in the sandwich-structured nanocomposites, respectively, according to the thermal excitation theoretical model we proposed. This work provides an attractive strategy of design and fabrication of polymer nanocomposites with excellent space charge suppression.

  4. Electrochemical Impedance Studies on Tribocorrosion Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Chu, Zhenhua; Chen, Xueguang; Dong, Yanchun; Yang, Yong; Li, Yingzhen; Yan, Dianran

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the tribocorrosion of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings in simulated seawater was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique, complemented by scanning electron microscopy to observe the morphology of the tribocorrosion attack. Base on EIS of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings undergoing long-time immersion in simulated seawater, the corrosion process of Al2O3 coatings can be divided into the earlier stage of immersion (up to 20 h) and the later stage (beyond 20 h). Then, the wear tests were carried out on the surface of Al2O3 coating undergoing different times of immersion to investigate the influence of wear on corrosion at different stages. The coexistence of wear and corrosion condition had been created by a boron nitride grinding head rotating on the surface of coatings corroded in simulated seawater. The measured EIS and the values of the fitting circuit elements showed that wear accelerated corrosion at the later stage, meanwhile, corrosion accelerated wear with the immersion time increasing.

  5. Transport mechanisms of leakage current in Al2O3/InAlAs MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chengji; Lu, Hongliang; Zhang, Yimen; Zhang, Yuming; Guan, He; Wu, Lifan; Lu, Bin; Liu, Chen

    2016-09-01

    An Al2O3 layer is inserted between the InAlAs layer and the metal gate in InAs/AlSb HEMTs to suppress the leakage current. The transport mechanisms of leakage current in Al2O3/InAlAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors at both positive and negative biases at different temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 70 °C are investigated. For positive bias, the leakage current is dominated by Schottky emission. Based on the fitted straight lines, the relative dielectric constant of Al2O3 and the barrier height between Al2O3 and InAlAs are extracted. However, for negative bias, the leakage current is dominated by Frenkel-Poole (F-P) emission and the depth of the trap energy level from the conduction band (ϕt) is extracted. Furthermore, authors explain the reason why the dominating mechanisms at positive and negative biases are different.

  6. Plasma etching behavior of Y2O3 ceramics: Comparative study with Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu-Chao; Zhao, Lei; Luo, Jin; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Yokota, Hiroki; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Li, Jing-Feng

    2016-03-01

    The plasma etching behavior of Y2O3 coating was investigated and compared with that of Al2O3 coating under various conditions, including chemical etching, mixing etching and physical etching. The etching rate of Al2O3 coating declined with decreasing CF4 content under mixing etching, while that of Y2O3 coating first increased and then decreased. In addition, the Y2O3 coating demonstrated higher erosion-resistance than Al2O3 coating after exposing to fluorocarbon plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the formations of YF3 and AlF3 on the Y2O3 and Al2O3 coatings, respectively, which acted as the protective layer to prevent the surface from further erosion with fluorocarbon plasma. It was revealed that the etching behavior of Y2O3 depended not only on the surface fluorination but also on the removal of fluoride layer. To analyze the effect of porosity, Y2O3 bulk samples with high density were prepared by spark plasma sintering, and they demonstrated higher erosion-resistances compared with Y2O3 coating.

  7. Hydrothermal extraction and gasification of low rank coal with catalyst Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachruzzaki, Handayani, Ismi; Mursito, Anggoro Tri

    2017-01-01

    Increasing coal quality is very important in order to utilize low-rank coal. This research is attempted to increase the quality of low-rank coal using hydrothermal process with hot compressed water (HCW) at 200 °C and 3 MPa. The product from this process were solid residue and liquid filtrate with organic component. Product from gasification of the filtrate was synthetic gas. The result showed that higher water flow rate could increase organic component in the filtrate. When a catalyst was used, the extraction process was faster, the organic component in the filtrate was increased while its content was decreased in the residue. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that coal extraction using HCW was more effective with catalyst Pd/Al2O3. Increasing the process temperature will increase the amounts CO and H2 gas. In this research, highest net heating value at 800°C using K2CO3 solution and Pd/Al2O3 catalyst was 17,774.36 kJ/kg. The highest cold gas efficiency was 91.29% and the best carbon conversion was 34.78%.

  8. Copper pillar and memory characteristics using Al2O3 switching material for 3D architecture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel idea by using copper (Cu) pillar is proposed in this study, which can replace the through-silicon-vias (TSV) technique in future three-dimensional (3D) architecture. The Cu pillar formation under external bias in an Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN structure is simple and low cost. The Cu pillar is formed in the Al2O3 film under a small operation voltage of <5 V and a high-current-carrying conductor of >70 mA is obtained. More than 100 devices have shown tight distribution of the Cu pillars in Al2O3 film for high current compliance (CC) of 70 mA. Robust read pulse endurances of >106 cycles are observed with read voltages of −1, 1, and 4 V. However, read endurance is failed with read voltages of −1.5, −2, and −4 V. By decreasing negative read voltage, the read endurance is getting worst, which is owing to ruptured Cu pillar. Surface roughness and TiO x N y on TiN bottom electrode are observed by atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN memory device shows good bipolar resistive switching behavior at a CC of 500 μA under small operating voltage of ±1 V and good data retention characteristics of >103 s with acceptable resistance ratio of >10 is also obtained. This suggests that high-current operation will help to form Cu pillar and lower-current operation will have bipolar resistive switching memory. Therefore, this new Cu/Al2O3/TiN structure will be benefited for 3D architecture in the future. PMID:25136279

  9. Structural optical correlated properties of SnO2/Al2O3 core@ shell heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiba, Zein K.; Imam, N. G.; Bakr Mohamed, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Nano size polycrystalline samples of the core@shell heterostructure of SnO2 @ xAl2O3 (x = 0, 25, 50, 75 wt.%) were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The resulting samples were characterized with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns manifest diffraction peaks of SnO2 as main phase with weak peaks corresponding to Al2O3 phase. The formation of core@ shell structure is confirmed by TEM images and Rietveld quantitative phase analysis which revealed that small part of Al2O3 is incorporated into the SnO2 lattice while the main part (shell) remains as a separate phase segregated on the grain boundary surface of SnO2 (core). It is found that the grain size of the mixed oxides SnO2 @ xAl2O3 is below 10 nm while for pure SnO2 it is over 41 nm, indicating that alumina can effectively prevent SnO2 from further growing up in the process of calcination. This is confirmed by the large increase in the specific surface area for mixed oxide samples. The PL emission showed great dependence on the structure properties analyzed by XRD and FTIR. The PL results recommend Al2O3@SnO2 core@shell heterostructure to be a promising short-wavelength luminescent optoelectronic devices for blue, UV, and laser light-emitting diodes.

  10. Electrical Discharge Machining of Al/7.5% Al2O3 MMCs Using Rotary Tool and Al2O3 Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshmand, Saeed; Masoudi, Behnam; Monfared, Vahid

    Nowadays, composites are used in different parts of industries and it is one of the most important subjects. The most widely used reinforcements in metal matrix composites are Al2O3 and SiC fibers and particles which may be used in cutting-edge functional and structural applications of aerospace, defense, and automobile industries. Depending on the type of powder used, composite materials are difficult to machine by conventional cutting tools and methods. The most appropriate way for machining of these composites is electro discharge. For the reason of improving the surface quality, tool wear rate and material removal rate and reducing the cracks on the surface, Al2O3 powder was used. In this study, the effect of input parameters of EDM such as voltage, pulse current, pulse on-time and pulse off-time on output parameters like material removal rate, tool wear rate and surface roughness in both conditions of the rotary tool with powder mixed dielectric EDM and the stationary tool excluding powder mixed dielectric were investigated. The critical parameters were identified by variance analysis, while the optimum machining parameter settings were achieved via Taguchi method. Results show that using of powder mixed dielectric and rotary tool reduce the tool wear rate, surface roughness and the cracks on the surface significantly. It is found also that using of powder mixed dielectric and rotary tool improve the material removal rate due to improved flushing action and sparking efficiency. The analysis of variance showed that the pulse current and pulse on-time affected highly the MRR, TWR, surface roughness and surface cracks.

  11. Effect of Nano-Al2O3 on the Toxicity and Oxidative Stress of Copper towards Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Suyang; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    Nano-Al2O3 has been widely used in various industries; unfortunately, it can be released into the aquatic environment. Although nano-Al2O3 is believed to be of low toxicity, it can interact with other pollutants in water, such as heavy metals. However, the interactions between nano-Al2O3 and heavy metals as well as the effect of nano-Al2O3 on the toxicity of the metals have been rarely investigated. The current study investigated copper toxicity in the presence of nano-Al2O3 towards Scenedesmus obliquus. Superoxide dismutase activity and concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde in cells were determined in order to quantify oxidative stress in this study. Results showed that the presence of nano-Al2O3 reduced the toxicity of Cu towards S. obliquus. The existence of nano-Al2O3 decreased the growth inhibition of S. obliquus. The accumulation of copper and the level of oxidative stress in algae were reduced in the presence of nano-Al2O3. Furthermore, lower copper accumulation was the main factor that mitigated copper toxicity with the addition of nano-Al2O3. The decreased copper uptake could be attributed to the adsorption of copper onto nanoparticles and the subsequent decrease of available copper in water. PMID:27294942

  12. Effect of catalyst preparation conditions on the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene over Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Lin, Shiow-Shyung; Liu, Tuan-Chi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of preparation conditions on the catalytic properties of the Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. The work included catalyst preparations and reactions. In the preparations, cobalt-impregnated Mo/gamma-Al2O3 (designated as IcIM) was found to have a promoting effect on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. Activity and stability of IcIM was higher than that of Mo/gamma-Al2O3. Conversely, when cobalt was added onto Mo/gamma-Al2O3 by the mechanical mixing method, no promoting effect was observed. Mo/gamma-Al2O3 was also prepared using the two different methods (incipient impregnation or mechanical mixing). The differently prepared Mo/gamma-Al203 resulted in no obvious difference in activity of IcIM. It was further found that Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3 activity initially increased appreciably with Mo content and leveled off at Mo contents above 9 wt.%. The catalyst exhibited a maximum activity at Co/Mo ratio 0.3. The order in which metal species were added had a great influence on the activity of the Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. Higher activity was obtained when Co was added into Mo/gamma-Al2O3 as opposed to Mo added into Co/gamma-Al2O3.

  13. Influence of Content of Al2O3 on Structure and Properties of Nanocomposite Nb-B-Al-O films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Dong, Lei; Dong, Lei; Yu, Jiangang; Pan, Yupeng; Wan, Rongxin; Gu, Hanqing; Li, Dejun

    2015-12-01

    Nb-B-Al-O nanocomposite films with different power of Al2O3 were successfully deposited on the Si substrate via multi-target magnetron co-sputtering method. The influences of Al2O3's content on structure and properties of obtained nanocomposite films through controlling Al2O3's power were investigated. Increasing the power of Al2O3 can influence the bombarding energy and cause the momentum transfer of NbB2. This can lead to the decreasing content of Al2O3. Furthermore, the whole films showed monocrystalline NbB2's (100) phase, and Al2O3 shaded from amorphous to weak cubic-crystalline when decreasing content of Al2O3. This structure and content changes were proof by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When NbB2 grains were far from each other in lower power of Al2O3, the whole films showed a typical nanocomposite microstructure with crystalline NbB2 grains embedded in a matrix of an amorphous Al2O3 phase. Continuing increasing the power of Al2O3, the less content of Al2O3 tended to cause crystalline of cubic-Al2O3 between the close distances of different crystalline NbB2 grains. The appearance of cubic-crystallization Al2O3 can help to raise the nanocomposite films' mechanical properties to some extent. The maximum hardness and elastic modulus were up to 21.60 and 332.78 GPa, which were higher than the NbB2 and amorphous Al2O3 monolithic films. Furthermore, this structure change made the chemistry bond of O atom change from the existence of O-Nb, O-B, and O-Al bonds to single O-Al bond and increased the specific value of Al and O. It also influenced the hardness in higher temperature, which made the hardness variation of different Al2O3 content reduced. These results revealed that it can enhance the films' oxidation resistance properties and keep the mechanical properties at high temperature. The study highlighted the importance of controlling the Al2O3's content to prepare

  14. Millimeter distance effects of surface plasmon polaritons in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal diodes is a soft dielectric breakdown that changes the high resistance of as-prepared diodes to a low resistance state. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-metal diodes with anodic Al2O3 results in voltage-controlled negative resistance in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, electroluminescence (EL), and electron emission into vacuum (EM). EL is due to electrons injected at the Al-Al2O3 interface combining with radiative defects in Al2O3. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic waves that can be excited by photons or electrons. SPPs are confined to a metal-dielectric interface, cause large electric fields in the metal and dielectric, and have ranges of micrometers. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EL, and EM of a group of electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 nm and 20 nm, group A, was measured between 200 K and 300 K. After a sequence of temperature measurements, the Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, the Al-Al2O3 regions between diodes, and portions of the Ag on the glass region that provides contacts to the diodes are darkened. The range of darkening is >7 mm in a diode with 12 nm of Al2O3 and 2.0-3.5 mm in diodes with Al2O3 thicknesses between 14 nm and 20 nm. Darkening is attributed to the occurrence of SPPs generated by EL photons at the Ag-Al2O3 and Al-Al2O3 interfaces. The results are compared to a second group of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with identical Al2O3 thicknesses, group B, that were prepared in the same way as the diodes of group A except for a difference in the deposition of Al films for the two groups. Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes of group B exhibit enhanced EL, which is attributed to spontaneous emission of recombination centers in Al2O3 being enhanced by large electromagnetic fields that are due to SPPs that are generated by EL photons.

  15. Diffusion processes in Al2O3 scales - Void growth, grain growth, and scale growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Gibala, R.

    1983-01-01

    The internal microstructure and growth kinetics of Al2O3 scales on Ni-15Cr-13Al (wt percent) are investigated by TEM and analyzed in relation to models of diffusivity. Polished arc-melted specimens were oxidized in 1-atm air at 1100 C for 0.1, 1.0, and 20 hours and ion-thinned for TEM at 100 kV. The frequency distribution of void size and grain size is determined for different oxidation times and scale depths. The kinetics of microvoid growth and of grain and scale growth are plotted and related via simplified models to lattice and grain-boundary oxygen diffusivity, respectively. Good agreement is found between model predictions and data obtained by Oishi and Kingery (1960) on oxygen diffusion in bulk Al2O3. The further implications and limitations of these findings are discssed.

  16. Adherent Al2O3 scales produced on undoped NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Repeated oxidation and polishing of high purity Ni-15Cr-13Al has dramatically changed its cyclic oxidation behavior from nonadherent to adherent. No apparent change in scale phase, morphology or interface structure occurred during this transition, dismissing any mechanism based on pegging, vacancy sink, or growth stress. The principle change that did occur was a reduction in the sulfur content from 10 ppmw to 3 ppmw after 25 cycles at 1120 C. These observations are used to support the model of Al2O3 scale adherence put forth by Smeggil et al. which claims that Al2O3 scale spallation occurs due to sulfur segregation and bond deterioration at the oxide-metal interface.

  17. Anormalous Optical Absorption in Porous Al_2O3 Host Matrix---Nano-Oxide Particle Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lide; Zhang, Biao; Mo, Chimei

    1996-03-01

    Porous Al_2O3 host matrix---nano-γ-Fe_2O3 particle composites (porous nanocomposite) were prepared by pyrolysis of Fe(NO_3)_39H_2O in porous nano- Al_2O3 matrix at 250^0C. Comparing with simple nanocomposites formed by mixing nano-γ-Fe_2O3 and compacting at room temperature, followed by annealing at 250^0C, the following anomalous optical behaviors were observed: for porous nanocomposite containing 5% Fe_2O_3, the aborption edge shifts obviously from 827nm to 543nm, and with increasing dopping amount of Fe_2O3 from 5% to 70%, blue shift phenomina decreases. Namely, the absorption edge moves from 543nm to 710nm. The mechanism of shift of the absorption edge is discussed.

  18. Fabrication of SiC/Al2O3 CMCs & their physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Santhosh; Devaiah, M.; Rajasekharan, T.

    2012-06-01

    SiC particulate reinforced Al2O3 matrix composites were fabricated using Directed Metal Oxidation (DIMOX) process. Continuous oxidation of an Al-8.5Si-1.5Mg-9Zn alloy in presence SiC perform with suitable dopants has led to the formation of the Al2O3 matrix. Ceramic composites with SiC volume fraction in the range of 0.35 - 0.43 were evaluated for effective co-efficient of linear thermal expansion (CTE) and elastic properties. The composites with high volume fraction of SiC showed a minimum dilatation with temperature (5.0 × 10-6 /K) and also enhancement in elastic properties (E: 262 GPa; G: 87 GPa; K: 189 GPa). Also, the elastic properties of the ceramic composites increased with SiC volume fraction.

  19. Interdiffusion in the MgO-Al2O3 spinel with or without some dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Debroy, T.; Seetharaman, S.

    1996-08-01

    With a view to seek an improved understanding of the DIMOX process, interdiffusion of polycrystalline MgO and Al2O3 in the temperature range 1473 to 1873 K was studied by diffusion couple experiments. The interdiffusivities in the spinel layer were calculated as functions of composition and temperature. The spinel portion of the phase diagram in the system MgO-Al2O3 was determined from carefully measured compositions at the phase boundaries, and the low temperature spinel region of the phase diagram was confirmed from the present results. For Zn2+ as dopant in alumina, the growth rate of spinel thickness seems to increase when compared with that of the diffusion couples without dopant. The samples containing Si4+ as dopant reveal the formation of a glass phase, and the effect of Si4+ on the diffusion process appears to be negligible.

  20. Mechanical properties of Al2O3 inverse opals by means of nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, J. J.; Coll, A.; Bermejo, S.; Jiménez-Piqué, E.; Alcubilla, R.; Castañer, L.; Llanes, L.

    2016-11-01

    In order to understand the mechanical behaviour of Al2O3 inverse opals, nanoindentation techniques have been implemented in material layers with three different microstructures, in terms of hollow or polystyrene spheres, with Al2O3 shells of distinct wall thickness. Different indenter tip geometries as well as contact loading conditions have been used, in order to induce different stress field and fracture events to the layers. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam have been employed to understand accommodation of plastic deformation induced during the indentation process. Results show that materials with polystyrene spheres exhibit higher hardness and modulus under sharp indentation, and cracking resistance under spherical indentation. Furthermore, deformation is discerned to be mainly governed by the rotation of the microspheres. In the case of the inverse opals made of hollow spheres, the main deformation mechanisms activated under indentation are the rearrangement and densification of them.

  1. Geant4 calculations for space radiation shielding material Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capali, Veli; Acar Yesil, Tolga; Kaya, Gokhan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Yavuz, Mustafa; Tilki, Tahir

    2015-07-01

    Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 is the most widely used material in the engineering applications. It is significant aluminium metal, because of its hardness and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point. This material has several engineering applications in diverse fields such as, ballistic armour systems, wear components, electrical and electronic substrates, automotive parts, components for electric industry and aero-engine. As well, it is used as a dosimeter for radiation protection and therapy applications for its optically stimulated luminescence properties. In this study, stopping powers and penetrating distances have been calculated for the alpha, proton, electron and gamma particles in space radiation shielding material Al2O3 for incident energies 1 keV - 1 GeV using GEANT4 calculation code.

  2. High brightness, narrow-band, Ti:Al2O3 oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. J. W.; Kangas, K. W.; Fisher, C. H.

    The injection-seeding of a short (about 30 cm) Ti:Al2O3 power oscillator with the output from a short-pulse, narrow-band, tunable, Ti:Al2O3 oscillator is reported. The frequency-doubled output from a Continuum YG681C Nd:YAG laser was used as the common pump source for both the seed laser and power oscillator. Good injection-seeding was observed with more than 20 ns delay; less delay than this resulted in poorer seeding. Minimizing the seed laser turn on time allowed harder pumping of the power oscillator, hence higher output energy, while maining good seeding. The spectral output from the power oscillator was analyzed using both an etalon and a 1-m MacPherson spectrometer. The seeded power oscillator is shown to closely replicate the seed laser output, operating on 2 or 3 longitudinal modes.

  3. Effect of sulfur removal on Al2O3 scale adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of removing sulfur impurity on the adhesion of Al2O3 scale to NiCrAl was investigated in four experiments. It was found that removing sulfur to concentration less than 1 ppm per weight is sufficient to produce a very significant degree of alpha-Al2O3 scale adhesion to undoped NiCrAl alloys. Results of experiments show that repeated oxidation, and polishing after each oxidation cycle, of pure NiCrAl alloy lowered sulfur content from 10 to 2 ppm by weight (presumably by removing the segregated interfacial layer after each cycle); thinner samples became adherent after fewer oxidation-polishing cycles because of more limited supply of sulfur. It was found that spalling in subsequent cyclic oxidation tests was a direct function of the initial sulfur content. The transition between the adherent and nonadherent behavior was modeled in terms of sulfur flux, sulfur content, and sulfur segregation.

  4. Visible luminescence of Al2O3 nanoparticles embedded in silica glass host matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mir, L.; Amlouk, A.; Barthou, C.

    2006-11-01

    This paper deals with the sol gel elaboration and defects photoluminescence (PL) examination of Al2O3 nanocrystallites (size ˜30 nm) confined in glass based on silica aerogel. Aluminium oxide aerogels were synthesized using esterification reaction for hydrolysis of the precursor and supercritical conditions of ethyl alcohol for drying. The obtained nanopowder was incorporated in SiO2 host matrix. After heating under natural atmosphere at 1150 °C for 2 h, the composite Al2O3/SiO2 (AS) exhibited a strong PL bands at 400 600 and 700 900 nm in 78 300 K temperature range. PL excitation (PLE) measurements show different origins of the emission. It was suggested that OH-related radiative centres and non-bridging oxygen hole centres (NBOHCs) were responsible for the bands at 400 600 and 700 900 nm, respectively.

  5. Modification of Fluorinated Al2O3 Surface by Irradiating H2 and O2 Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Kazuhiro; Usami, Kenji; Takada, Noriharu; Sasaki, Koichi

    2009-12-01

    We irradiated H2 and O2 plasmas onto fluorinated Al2O3, which was prepared by exposing a virgin Al2O3 sample to an SF6/O2 plasma. The effects of the H2 plasma irradiation were the reduction of the AlOxFy (x + y = 1.5) and AlFx (x < 3) bonding components and the realization of smooth sample surface. It was observed that the irradiation of the H2 plasma induced Al-OH bonding. The Al-OH bonding was removed by the sequential irradiation of the O2 plasma after the H2 plasma irradiation. The O2 plasma irradiation also resulted in peroxidation and an increase in surface roughness.

  6. Theory of the clean and hydrogenated Al2O3(0001)-(1×1) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felice, Rosa Di; Northrup, John E.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of a first principles investigation of the equilibrium properties of c-plane α-Al2O3 surfaces. The stable structure for the 1×1 clean surface is Al terminated with a stoichiometric composition, while other terminations are unstable independent of surface preparation conditions. We discuss the implications of our results in the frame of possible extended reconstructions. For 1 monolayer of H coverage, we find that the preferred structure has OH dimers both perpendicular and nearly parallel to the surface. H-terminated surfaces may form in suitable preparation conditions. We discuss our results in terms of water adsorption and atomic layer epitaxy of α-Al2O3(0001).

  7. Effect of hydrogen on Al2O3/Cu interfacial structure and adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Scheffler, Matthias

    2002-08-01

    We have carried out an ab initio investigation of the effect of hydrogen on the Al2O3/Cu interface. H on the Al2O3 surface can play a bridging role in the formation of the interface. The interfacial OH bond is stable in the presence of two atomic layers of Cu. In contrast, an Al monolayer would dissociate the surface OH bond. For thicker Cu, one-third of a monolayer of H remains stable in the interface, lowering the work of separation by 2.3 J/m2. The interfacial work of separation remains larger than that of bulk Cu, however. These results are consistent with available experimental data.

  8. Luminescence study of nanosized Al2O3:Tb3+ obtained by gas-dispersed synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovskaya, I. V.; Poletaev, N. I.; Khlebnikova, M. E.; Zatovsky, I. V.; Bychkov, K. L.; Efryushina, N. P.; Khomenko, O. V.; Dotsenko, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    Terbium-doped Al2O3 samples were obtained by gas-dispersed synthesis. It was shown that the resulting powders, with particle sizes of 10-70 nm, consist of a mixture of transition aluminas, among which the δ *-polymorph is dominant. The luminescence properties of Al2O3:Tb3+ have been studied upon excitation in the UV-visible range of the spectrum. It was found that Tb3+ ions cause several groups of inhomogeneously broadened emission bands in the range of 470-640 nm, which are characteristic for disordered materials. In addition, the emission spectra contain a broad band at about 450 nm and several narrower ones in the 680-720 nm region. These features are attributed to surface defects and impurity Cr3+ ions occupying Al3+ octahedral positions, respectively.

  9. Space-charge-controlled field emission model of current conduction through Al2O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    This study proposes a model for current conduction in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, assuming the presence of two sheets of charge in the insulator, and derives analytical formulae of field emission (FE) currents under both negative and positive bias. Since it is affected by the space charge in the insulator, this particular FE differs from the conventional FE and is accordingly named the space-charge-controlled (SCC) FE. The gate insulator of this study was a stack of atomic-layer-deposition Al2O3 and underlying chemical SiO2 formed on Si substrates. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics simulated using the SCC-FE formulae quantitatively reproduced the experimental results obtained by measuring Au- and Al-gated Al2O3/SiO2 MIS capacitors under both biases. The two sheets of charge in the Al2O3 films were estimated to be positive and located at a depth of greater than 4 nm from the Al2O3/SiO2 interface and less than 2 nm from the gate. The density of the former is approximately 1 × 1013 cm-2 in units of electronic charge, regardless of the type of capacitor. The latter forms a sheet of dipoles together with image charges in the gate and hence causes potential jumps of 0.4 V and 1.1 V in the Au- and Al-gated capacitors, respectively. Within a margin of error, this sheet of dipoles is ideally located at the gate/Al2O3 interface and effectively reduces the work function of the gate by the magnitude of the potential jumps mentioned above. These facts indicate that the currents in the Al2O3/SiO2 MIS capacitors are enhanced as compared to those in ideal capacitors and that the currents in the Al-gated capacitors under negative bias (electron emission from the gate) are more markedly enhanced than those in the Au-gated capacitors. The larger number of gate-side dipoles in the Al-gated capacitors is possibly caused by the reaction between the Al and Al2O3, and therefore gate materials that do not react with underlying gate insulators should be chosen

  10. Protective Al2O3 scale formation on NbAl3-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Hebsur, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of NbAl3 with additions of Cr and Y was studied to determine the mechanisms of the beneficial effects of these elements upon oxidation. Cr additions to the binary NbAl3 alloy of up to 6.8 at. percent reduced the scale growth rates and promoted alpha-Al2O3 formation over much longer times relative to binary NbAl3. A major effect of Cr is to form a layer of AlNbCr at the metal/scale interface, which is inherently more oxidation-resistant than the matrix alloy in the long term. Yttrium additions to a Cr-containing alloy improved the scale growth rate and adherence and changed the scale microstructure to mimic that of a typical protective Al2O3 scale.

  11. Pressure sintering of Si3N4-Al2O3 /Sialon/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. C.; Sanders, W. A.; Fiyalko Luttner, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Essentially pore-free Sialon bodies were obtained by pressure sintering for three blends (mol ratios of 4:1, 2:3, and 3:2) of Si3N4 and Al2O3 powders under the conditions of 27.6 MN/sq m and a temperature of 1700 C for 2 h. These dense bodies consist mainly of a Sialon solid solution with a minor amount of a particular second phase. The higher the Al2O3 content (20 to 60 mol% range) in Sialon, the higher the densification rate. Fully dense bodies can be obtained at temperatures as low as 1500 C at 27.6 MN/sq m for 2 h with no second phase detectable by X-ray diffraction. A 100% dense body can be obtained by heating at 1700 C at 27.6 MN/sq m without a holding time.

  12. Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in a polycrystalline α-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asatryan, H. R.; Zakharchenya, R. I.; Kutsenko, A. B.; Babunts, R. A.; Baranov, P. G.

    2007-06-01

    The EPR spectra of rare-earth Er3+ ions in a polycrystalline corundum α-Al2O3 synthesized by the sol-gel technology were revealed. It is shown that the EPR spectra belong to the Er3+ ions in the ground state corresponding to the lower Stark sublevel of the 4 I 15/2 term and can be described by the spin Hamiltonian of axial symmetry with an effective spin S = 1/2 and the g tensor with components g ‖ = 12.176 and g ⊥ = 4.14. The average value of the g tensor ( = 6.82) corresponds to the Γ7 state in a cubic field. Erbium is assumed to substitute for aluminum in the Al2O3 corundum crystal. The local symmetry C 3 of the Al3+ ion remains despite the pronounced expansion of the lattice around the Er3+ ion.

  13. Versatile sputtering technology for Al2O3 gate insulators on graphene.

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Miriam; Woszczyna, Mirosław; Müller, André; Wundrack, Stefan; Dziomba, Thorsten; Weimann, Thomas; Ahlers, Franz J

    2012-04-01

    We report a novel, sputtering-based fabrication method of Al2O3 gate insulators on graphene. Electrical performance of dual-gated mono- and bilayer exfoliated graphene devices is presented. Sputtered Al2O3 layers possess comparable quality to oxides obtained by atomic layer deposition with respect to a high relative dielectric constant of about 8, as well as low-hysteresis performance and high breakdown voltage. We observe a moderate carrier mobility of about 1000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in monolayer graphene and 350 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in bilayer graphene, respectively. The mobility decrease can be attributed to the resonant scattering on atomic-scale defects, likely originating from the Al precursor layer evaporated prior to sputtering.

  14. Frustration of Negative Capacitance in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayer Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Min Hyuk; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Han Joon; Jeon, Woojin; Moon, Taehwan; Do Kim, Keum; Jeong, Doo Seok; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of capacitance by negative capacitance (NC) effect in a dielectric/ferroelectric (DE/FE) stacked film is gaining a greater interest. While the previous theory on NC effect was based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory, this work adopted a modified formalism to incorporate the depolarization effect to describe the energy of the general DE/FE system. The model predicted that the SrTiO3/BaTiO3 system will show a capacitance boost effect. It was also predicted that the 5 nm-thick Al2O3/150 nm-thick BaTiO3 system shows the capacitance boost effect with no FE-like hysteresis behavior, which was inconsistent with the experimental results; the amorphous-Al2O3/epitaxial-BaTiO3 system showed a typical FE-like hysteresis loop in the polarization – voltage test. This was due to the involvement of the trapped charges at the DE/FE interface, originating from the very high field across the thin Al2O3 layer when the BaTiO3 layer played a role as the NC layer. Therefore, the NC effect in the Al2O3/BaTiO3 system was frustrated by the involvement of reversible interface charge; the highly stored charge by the NC effect of the BaTiO3 during the charging period could not be retrieved during the discharging process because integral part of the polarization charge was retained within the system as a remanent polarization.

  15. Frustration of Negative Capacitance in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayer Structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Min Hyuk; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Han Joon; Jeon, Woojin; Moon, Taehwan; Kim, Keum Do; Jeong, Doo Seok; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-08

    Enhancement of capacitance by negative capacitance (NC) effect in a dielectric/ferroelectric (DE/FE) stacked film is gaining a greater interest. While the previous theory on NC effect was based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory, this work adopted a modified formalism to incorporate the depolarization effect to describe the energy of the general DE/FE system. The model predicted that the SrTiO3/BaTiO3 system will show a capacitance boost effect. It was also predicted that the 5 nm-thick Al2O3/150 nm-thick BaTiO3 system shows the capacitance boost effect with no FE-like hysteresis behavior, which was inconsistent with the experimental results; the amorphous-Al2O3/epitaxial-BaTiO3 system showed a typical FE-like hysteresis loop in the polarization - voltage test. This was due to the involvement of the trapped charges at the DE/FE interface, originating from the very high field across the thin Al2O3 layer when the BaTiO3 layer played a role as the NC layer. Therefore, the NC effect in the Al2O3/BaTiO3 system was frustrated by the involvement of reversible interface charge; the highly stored charge by the NC effect of the BaTiO3 during the charging period could not be retrieved during the discharging process because integral part of the polarization charge was retained within the system as a remanent polarization.

  16. Electrical characteristics of SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong; Yao, Manwen; Chen, Jianwen; Xu, Kaien; Yao, Xi

    2016-07-01

    The electrical characteristics of SrTiO3/Al2O3 (160 nm up/90 nm down) laminated film capacitors using the sol-gel process have been investigated. SrTiO3 is a promising and extensively studied high-K dielectric material, but its leakage current property is poor. SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated films can effectively suppress the demerits of pure SrTiO3 films under low electric field, but the leakage current value reaches to 0.1 A/cm2 at higher electric field (>160 MV/m). In this study, a new approach was applied to reduce the leakage current and improve the dielectric strength of SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated films. Compared to laminated films with Au top electrodes, dielectric strength of laminated films with Al top electrodes improves from 205 MV/m to 322 MV/m, simultaneously the leakage current maintains the same order of magnitude (10-4 A/cm2) until the breakdown occurs. The above electrical characteristics are attributed to the anodic oxidation reaction in origin, which can repair the defects of laminated films at higher electric field. The anodic oxidation reactions have been confirmed by the corresponding XPS measurement and the cross sectional HRTEM analysis. This work provides a new approach to fabricate dielectrics with high dielectric strength and low leakage current.

  17. Al2O3 Nanoparticle Addition to Commercial Magnesium Alloys: Multiple Beneficial Effects

    PubMed Central

    Paramsothy, Muralidharan; Chan, Jimmy; Kwok, Richard; Gupta, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects of Al2O3 nanoparticle addition to cast magnesium based systems (followed by extrusion) were investigated, constituting either: (a) enhanced strength; or (b) simultaneously enhanced strength and ductility of the corresponding magnesium alloys. AZ31 and ZK60A nanocomposites containing Al2O3 nanoparticle reinforcement were each fabricated using solidification processing followed by hot extrusion. Compared to monolithic AZ31 (tension levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited higher yield strength (0.2% tensile yield strength (TYS)), ultimate strength (UTS), failure strain and work of fracture (WOF) (+19%, +21%, +113% and +162%, respectively). Compared to monolithic AZ31 (compression levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited higher yield strength (0.2% compressive yield strength (CYS)) and ultimate strength (UCS), lower failure strain and higher WOF (+5%, +5%, −4% and +11%, respectively). Compared to monolithic ZK60A (tension levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited lower 0.2% TYS and higher UTS, failure strain and WOF (−4%, +13%, +170% and +200%, respectively). Compared to monolithic ZK60A (compression levels), the corresponding nanocomposite exhibited lower 0.2% CYS and higher UCS, failure strain and WOF (−10%, +7%, +15% and +26%, respectively). The capability of Al2O3 nanoparticles to enhance the properties of cast magnesium alloys in a way never seen before with micron length scale reinforcements is clearly demonstrated.

  18. Exploring metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of Si-alloyed Al2O3 dielectrics using disilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Keller, Stacia; Koksaldi, Onur S.; Gupta, Chirag; DenBaars, Steven P.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2017-04-01

    The alloying of Al2O3 films with Si is a promising route to improve gate dielectric properties in Si- and wide-bandgap- based MOS devices. Here we present a comprehensive investigation of alloyed film growth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using trimethylaluminum, disilane, and oxygen precursors over a variety of temperature and flow conditions. Binary growth rates of Al2O3 and SiO2 were evaluated to explain the aggregate growth kinetics of Si-alloyed Al2O3 films, and refractive indices were used to monitor Si incorporation efficiencies. The temperature dependence of the reaction rate of disilane with oxygen was found to be similar to that of trimethylaluminum and oxygen, leading to well-behaved deposition behavior in the kinetic and mass-transport controlled growth regimes. Compositional predictability and stability was achieved over a wider growth space with disilane-based growths as compared to previous work, which used silane as the Si precursor instead. In situ (Al,Si)O/n-GaN MOS gate stacks were grown and showed increasing reduction of net positive fixed charges with higher Si composition.

  19. Tribological Behavior of A356/Al2O3 Surface Nanocomposite Prepared by Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Y.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M. H.

    2014-04-01

    Surface A356 aluminum alloy matrix composites containing micro and nanosized Al2O3 are prepared by a new approach utilizing high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying and friction stir processing (FSP). Optical and scanning electron microscopy, microhardness, and wear tests were used to characterize the surface composites. Results indicated that, the presence of Al2O3 in matrix can improve the mechanical properties of specimens. The microhardness of surface composites containing micro and nanosized Al2O3 were 89.8 ± 2.6 HV and 109.7 ± 2.5 HV, respectively, which were higher than those for the as-received (79.6 ± 1.1 HV) and the FSPed A356-T6 with no alumina powder (66.8 ± 0.9 HV). Surface composites revealed low friction coefficients and wear rates, which were significantly lower than those obtained for substrate. The wear mass losses of the as-received, the FSPed, and surface micro and nanocomposite specimens after 500-m sliding distance were 50.5, 55.6, 31, and 17.2 mg, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy tests revealed different wear mechanisms on the surface of the wear test specimens.

  20. Paramagnetic Spins on -Al2O3 with Varied Surface Termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Keith; Lee, Donghwa; Adelstein, Nicole; Dubois, Jonathan; Lordi, Vincenzo

    Superconducting qubits (SQs) are promising building blocks for a quantum computer, however, coherence in SQs is reduced by unintended coupling to magnetic noise sources. The microscopic origins of the magnetic noise have not been satisfactorily characterized. Building on previous computational studies of magnetic spins induced by molecules adsorbed on bare Al terminated Al2O3, we present a density functional theory investigation of magnetic noise associated with other Al2O3 surfaces likely to be encountered in experiment. We calculate the exchange interaction between native defects and adsorbed molecules, as well as the magnetic states energy splitting and anisotropy, on fully hydroxylated Al2O3, with and without a water over-layer. We also present simulated x-ray adsorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra of these systems with the aim of aiding experimental surface characterization. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. The electrical conductivity of Al2O3 under shock-compression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanyu; Tse, John S.; Nellis, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Sapphire (Al2O3) crystals are used below 100 GPa as anvils and windows in dynamic-compression experiments because of their transparency and high density. Above 100 GPa shock pressures, sapphire becomes opaque and electrically conducting because of shock-induced defects. Such effects prevent temperature and dc conductivity measurements of materials compressed quasi-isentropically. Opacities and electrical conductivities at ~100 GPa are non-equilibrium, rather than thermodynamic parameters. We have performed electronic structure calculations as a guide in predicting and interpreting shock experiments and possibly to discover a window up to ~200 GPa. Our calculations indicate shocked sapphire does not metallize by band overlap at ~300 GPa, as suggested previously by measured non-equilibrium data. Shock-compressed Al2O3 melts to a metallic liquid at ~500 GPa and 10,000 K and its conductivity increases rapidly to ~2000 Ω−1cm−1 at ~900 GPa. At these high shock temperatures and pressures sapphire is in thermal equilibrium. Calculated conductivity of Al2O3 is similar to those measured for metallic fluid H, N, O, Rb, and Cs. Despite different materials, pressures and temperatures, and compression techniques, both experimental and theoretical, conductivities of all these poor metals reach a common end state typical of strong-scattering disordered materials. PMID:26239369

  2. Theoretical insight into Cobalt subnano-clusters adsorption on α-Al2O3 (0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fen-e.; Ren, Jun; Wang, Qiang; Li, Debao; Hou, Bo; Jia, Litao; Cao, Duanlin

    2017-02-01

    The investigation on the structural stability, nucleation, growth and interaction of cobalt cluster Con(n=2-7) on the α-Al2O3(0001) surface by using density functional theory methods has been reported. Energetically, the most favorable adsorption sites were identified and the strongest adsorption energy cluster is the tetrahedral Co4 cluster. On the other hand, the nucleation of Con(n=2-7) clusters on the surface is exothermic and thermodynamically favorable. Moreover, even-odd alternation was found with respect to clusters nucleation as a function of the number of cobalt atoms (for n=1-7). Meanwhile, the Con clusters can be adsorbed on the surface stably owing to the charge transfer from Co atoms to Al and O atoms of the Al2O3 substrate. In addition, we establish the crucial importance of monomer, dimer and trimer diffusion on the surface. The diffusion of the monomer cobalt from Al(3) to O(5) or O(5) to Al(4) site is quite easy on the Al2O3(0001) surface, whereas the diffusion of the Co2 dimer is thermodynamically unfavorable by compared with that of the Co adatom and Co3 trimer.

  3. Effect of adsorbed films on friction of Al2O3-metal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetic friction of polycrystalline Al2O3 sliding on Cu, Ni, and Fe in ultrahigh vacuum was studied as a function of the surface chemistry of the metal. Clean metal surfaces were exposed to O2, Cl2, C2H4, and C2H3Cl, and the change in friction due to the adsorbed species was observed. Auger electron spectroscopy assessed the elemental composition of the metal surface. It was found that the systems exposed to Cl2 exhibited low friction, interpreted as the van der Waals force between the Al2O3 and metal chloride. The generation of metal oxide by oxygen exposures resulted in an increase in friction, interpreted as due to strong interfacial bonds established by reaction of metal oxide with Al2O3 to form the complex oxide (spinel). The only effect of C2H4 was to increase the friction of the Fe system, but C2H3Cl exposures decreases friction in both Ni and Fe systems, indicating the dominance of the chlorine over the ethylene complex on the surface

  4. Insight into the effects of different ageing protocols on Rh/Al2O3 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Baohuai; Ran, Rui; Cao, Yidan; Wu, Xiaodong; Weng, Duan; Fan, Jun; Wu, Xueyuan

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a catalyst of Rh loaded on Al2O3 was prepared by impregnating method with rhodium nitrate aqueous solution as the Rh precursor. The catalyst was aged under different protocols (lean, rich, inert and cyclic) to obtain several aged samples. All the Rh/Al2O3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, CO-chemisorption, H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that a specific ageing treatment could strongly affect the catalytic activity. The N2 aged and the H2 aged samples had a better catalytic activity for CO + NO reaction than the fresh sample while the air aged and the cyclic aged samples exhibited much worse activity. More surface Rh content and better reducibility were obtained in the N2 and the H2 aged samples and the Rh particles existed with an appropriate size, which were all favorable to the catalytic reaction. However, the air and the cyclic ageing protocols induced a strong interaction between Rh species and the Al2O3 support, which resulted in a severe sintering of particles of Rh species and the loss of active sites. The structure evolution scheme of the catalysts aged in different protocols was also established in this paper.

  5. Enhanced thermal stability of carbon nanotubes by plasma surface modification in Al2O3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hoonsung; Shi, Donglu; Guo, Yan; Lian, Jie; Ren, Zhifeng; Poudel, Bed; Song, Yi; Abot, Jandro L.; Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Wang, Lumin; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2008-10-01

    A plasma polymerization method was employed to deposit an ultrathin pyrrole film of 3 nm onto the surfaces of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and Al2O3 nanoparticles for developing high-strength nanocomposites. The surfaces of plasma coated SWCNTs and Al2O3 nanoparticles were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. After sintering the SWCNTs-Al2O3 composites at different temperatures (maximum of 1200 °C), the thermal stability of plasma-coated SWCNTs was significantly increased, compared to their uncoated counterparts. After hot-press sintering, the SWCNTs without plasma coating were essentially decomposed into amorphous clusters in the composites, leading to degraded mechanical properties. However, under the same sintering conditions, the plasma surface modified SWCNTs were well preserved and distributed in the composite matrices. The effects of plasma surface coating on the thermal stability of SWCNTs and mechanical behavior of the nanocomposites are discussed.

  6. Room Temperature Radiolytic Synthesized Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a 60Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation. PMID:23109893

  7. A short-time fading study of Al2O3:C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, L. F.; Vanhavere, F.; Silva, E. H.; Deene, Y. De

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the short-time fading from Al2O3:C by measuring optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals (Total OSL: TOSL, and Peak OSL: POSL) from droplets and Luxel™ pellets. The influence of various bleaching regimes (blue, green and white) and light power is compared. The fading effect is the decay of the OSL signal in the dark at room temperature. Al2O3:C detectors were submitted to various bleaching regimes, irradiated with a reference dose and read out after different time spans. Investigations were carried out using 2 mm size droplet detectors, made of thin Al2O3:C powder mixed with a photocured polymer. Tests were compared to Luxel™-type detectors (Landauer Inc.). Short-time post-irradiation fading is present in OSL results (TOSL and POSL) droplets for time spans up to 200 s. The effect of short-time fading can be lowered/removed when treating the detectors with high-power and/or long time bleaching regimes; this result was observed in both TOSL and POSL from droplets and Luxel™.

  8. Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on NF3-pre-treated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junige, Marcel; Oddoy, Tim; Yakimova, Rositsa; Darakchieva, Vanya; Wenger, Christian; Lupina, Grzegorz; Kitzmann, Julia; Albert, Matthias; Bartha, Johann W.

    2015-06-01

    Graphene has been considered for a variety of applications including novel nanoelectronic device concepts. However, the deposition of ultra-thin high-k dielectrics on top of graphene has still been challenging due to graphene's lack of dangling bonds. The formation of large islands and leaky films has been observed resulting from a much delayed growth initiation. In order to address this issue, we tested a pre-treatment with NF3 instead of XeF2 on CVD graphene as well as epitaxial graphene monolayers prior to the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of Al2O3. All experiments were conducted in vacuo; i. e. the pristine graphene samples were exposed to NF3 in the same reactor immediately before applying 30 (TMA-H2O) ALD cycles and the samples were transferred between the ALD reactor and a surface analysis unit under high vacuum conditions. The ALD growth initiation was observed by in-situ real-time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (irtSE) with a sampling rate above 1 Hz. The total amount of Al2O3 material deposited by the applied 30 ALD cycles was cross-checked by in-vacuo X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The Al2O3 morphology was determined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The presence of graphene and its defect status was examined by in-vacuo XPS and Raman Spectroscopy before and after the coating procedure, respectively.

  9. Simulation of pressure-induced phase transition in liquid and amorphous Al2 O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Vo Van; Oh, Suhk Kun

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the pressure-induced structural transformation in liquid and amorphous Al2O3 by the molecular dynamics (MD) method. Simulations were done in the basic cube under periodic boundary conditions containing 3000 ions with Born-Mayer type pair potentials. The structure of the amorphous Al2O3 model with real density at ambient pressure is in good agreement with Lamparter’s experiment. In order to study the amorphous-amorphous phase transition, 23 models of amorphous alumina at the temperature of 350K and at densities ranging from 2.83to5.0gcm-3 had been built. The microstructure of the Al2O3 systems had been analyzed through pair radial distribution functions, coordination number distributions, interatomic distances, and bond-angle distributions. Here we found clear evidence of a structural transition in amorphous alumina from a tetrahedral to an octahedral network upon compression. According to our results, this transformation occurred at densities ranging from 3.6to4.05gcm-3 . We also presented the amorphous-amorphous phase transition from an octahedral to a tetrahedral network structure upon decompression at densities ranging from 5.00to2.83gcm-3 . Also, the same study was carried out for the liquid state of the system at the temperature of 3500K , and the liquid-liquid phase transition had been discussed.

  10. Solid state reduction of chromium (VI) pollution for Al2O3-Cr metal ceramics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hekai; Fang, Minghao; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yangai; Tang, Hao; Min, Xin; Wu, Xiaowen

    2016-04-01

    Reduction of chromium (VI) from Na2CrO4 through aluminothermic reaction and fabrication of metal-ceramic materials from the reduction products have been investigated in this study. Na2CrO4 could be successfully reduced into micrometer-sized Cr particles in a flowing Ar atmosphere in presence of Al powder. The conversion ratio of Na2CrO4 to metallic Cr attained 96.16% efficiency. Al2O3-Cr metal-ceramic with different Cr content (5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt%, 20 wt%) were further prepared from the reduction product Al2O3-Cr composite powder, and aluminum oxide nanopowder via pressure-less sintering. The phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of metal-ceramic composites were characterized to ensure the potential of the Al2O3-Cr composite powder to form ceramic materials. The highest relative density and bending strength can reach 93.4% and 205 MP, respectively. The results indicated that aluminothermic reduction of chromium (VI) for metal-ceramics application is a potential approach to remove chromium (VI) pollutant from the environment.

  11. Impact of Al2O3 on the aggregation and deposition of graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xuemei; Li, Jiaxing; Tan, Xiaoli; Shi, Weiqun; Chen, Changlun; Shao, Dadong; Wen, Tao; Wang, Longfei; Zhao, Guixia; Sheng, Guoping; Wang, Xiangke

    2014-05-20

    To assess the environmental behavior and impact of graphene oxide (GO) on living organisms more accurately, the aggregation of GO and its deposition on Al2O3 particles were systematically investigated using batch experiments across a wide range of solution chemistries. The results indicated that the aggregation of GO and its deposition on Al2O3 depended on the solution pH and the types and concentrations of electrolytes. MgCl2 and CaCl2 destabilized GO because of their effective charge screening and neutralization, and the presence of NaH2PO4 and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) improved the stability of GO with the increase in pH values as a result of electrostatic interactions and steric repulsion. Specifically, the dissolution of Al2O3 contributed to GO aggregation at relatively low pH or high pH values. Results from this study provide critical information for predicting the fate of GO in aquatic-terrestrial transition zones, where aluminum (hydro)oxides are present.

  12. Microstructure and High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of ZrO2-Al2O3-SiC Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Ping; Ouyang, Jia-Hu; Wang, Yu-Jin; Liu, Zhan-Guo; Wang, Ya-Ming

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramics incorporated with and without β-SiC were prepared by hot pressing. ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramic powder used in this study is a mixture of 71 vol.% YSZ (3 mol.% Y2O3 partially stabilized zirconia) and 29 vol.% α-Al2O3. β-SiC powders with different volume fractions are added into the ZrO2-Al2O3 powder to form the composite powder. The microstructure and high-temperature mechanical properties of ZrO2-Al2O3-SiC ceramics were investigated by tailoring the compositions and sintering parameters to optimize the strengthening mechanisms. For a comparative study, the TZ3Y20A powder was also hot-pressed under identical sintering condition to form dense bulk ceramic. ZrO2-Al2O3-SiC ceramics consist mainly of t-ZrO2, α-Al2O3, and β-SiC phases. SiC particles in the ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramic restrain the grain growth of the oxide matrix. The incorporation of SiC into ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramic enhances high-temperature flexural strength at 1273 K. ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramic incorporated with 15 vol.% SiC has a flexural strength of 518 MPa at 1273 K, much higher than that (201 MPa) of unmodified ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramic.

  13. On the thermal buckling of simply supported rectangular plates made of a sigmoid functionally graded Al/Al2O3 based material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmane, H. A.; Bedia, E. A. A.; Bouazza, M.; Tounsi, A.; Fekrar, A.

    2016-03-01

    We study the thermal buckling of a simply supported sigmoid functionally graded (SFGM) rectangular plate using first-order shear deformation theory. The S-FGM system consists of ceramic (Al2O3) and metal (Al) phases varying across the plate thickness according to a law described by two power-law functions. The effective properties of the composite are determined by the rule of mixtures, whose implementation is simpler than that of methods of micromechanics. The thermal heating is characterized by a uniform, linear, or sinusoidal temperature distribution across the plate thickness. The effects of the plate aspect ratio, the relative thickness, the gradient index, and the transverse shear on the buckling temperature difference are studied.

  14. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of Al2O3-WC nanocomposite ceramic spectrally selective solar absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang-Hu; Wang, Cheng-Bing; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Geng, Qing-Fen; Theiss, Wolfgang; Liu, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Traditional metal-dielectric composite coating has found important application in spectrally selective solar absorbers. However, fine metal particles can easily diffuse, congregate, or be oxidized at high temperature, which causes deterioration in the optical properties. In this work, we report a new spectrally selective solar absorber coating, composed of low Al2O3 ceramic volume fraction (Al2O3(L)-WC) layer, high Al2O3 ceramic volume fraction (Al2O3(H)-WC layer) and Al2O3 antireflection layer. The features of our work are: 1) compared with the metal-dielectric composites concept, Al2O3-WC nanocomposite ceramic successfully achieves the all-ceramic concept, which exhibits a high solar absorptance of 0.94 and a low thermal emittance of 0.08, 2) Al2O3 and WC act as filler material and host material, respectively, which are different from traditional concept, 3) Al2O3-WC nanocomposite ceramic solar absorber coating exhibits good thermal stability at 600 °C. In addition, the solar absorber coating is successfully modelled by a commercial optical simulation programme, the result of which agrees with the experimental results.

  15. Coherent 3D nanostructure of γ-Al2O3: Simulation of whole X-ray powder diffraction pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakharukova, V. P.; Yatsenko, D. A.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Shalygin, A. S.; Martyanov, O. N.; Tsybulya, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    The structure and nanostructure features of nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 obtained by dehydration of boehmite with anisotropic platelet-shaped particles were investigated. The original models of 3D coherent nanostructure of γ-Al2O3 were constructed. The models of nanostructured γ-Al2O3 particles were first confirmed by a direct simulation of powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns using the Debye Scattering Equation (DSE) with assistance of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study. The average crystal structure of γ-Al2O3 was shown to be tetragonally distorted. The experimental results revealed that thin γ-Al2O3 platelets were heterogeneous on a nanometer scale and nanometer-sized building blocks were separated by partially coherent interfaces. The XRD simulation results showed that a specific packing of the primary crystalline blocks in the nanostructured γ-Al2O3 particles with formation of planar defects on {001}, {100}, and {101} planes nicely accounted for pronounced diffuse scattering, anisotropic peak broadening and peak shifts in the experimental XRD pattern. The identified planar defects in cation sublattice seem to be described as filling cation non-spinel sites in existing crystallographic models of γ-Al2O3 structure. The overall findings provided an insight into the complex nanostructure, which is intrinsic to the metastable γ-Al2O3 oxide.

  16. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Fe and Au Ion-Implanted Al2O3 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Ryosuke; Sakamoto, Isao; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Nomura, Kiyoshi; Honda, Shigeo; Ishida, Tomoya; Iio, Satoshi; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Toriyama, Tamotsu

    2011-01-01

    Au ion implantation in Fe ion-implanted Al2O3 (Fe/Al2O3) has been performed in order to tailor the structural, magnetic and optical properties of Fe granules in Al2O3 matrix. After Au ion implantation, Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements indicate the decrease and the redistribution of retained Fe atoms with the inclusion of Au atoms, and the patterns of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show the formation of Au granules in the Fe/Al2O3. Besides, the magnetization curves of the Fe/Al2O3 after Au ion implantation show still the superparamagnetic characteristics and the decrease of saturation magnetization, and the optical absorption measurements indicate the formation of Au granules in the Fe/Al2O3 in accordance with the XRD result. In addition, we investigated a behavior of Fe granules in Al2O3 matrix by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), which indicates the decrease of superparamagnetic state as a function of Au ion dose. As a result, it is suggested that Au ion implantation has potentialities to tailor the physical properties of Fe granules in Al2O3 matrix.

  17. Electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole-Al2O3 composite coating on 316 stainless steel for corrosion protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qun; Li, Chuanxian; Huang, Tingting; Yang, Fei

    2017-03-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy)-Al2O3 composite coating was electrochemically deposited on 316 stainless steel (316 SS) by cyclic voltammetry technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to understand the morphology and composition of the PPy-Al2O3 coated SS. The corrosion protection ability of the PPy-Al2O3 coating was studied using open circuit potential (Eocp)-time measurements, polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) after the electrodes had been immersed in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution as the corrosive media. The results showed that PPy-Al2O3 composite coatings have a homogeneous and smooth surface without detectable cracks. Anodic polarization analysis revealed that the hybrid films provided an exceptional barrier and corrosion protection in comparison with PPy coating. The EIS studies indicated that the charge transfer resistance increases with the presence of PPy-Al2O3. PPy-Al2O3 composite coating provides better corrosion protection and can be considered as a coating material to protect 316SS. With increase in Al2O3/Py mole ratio, PPy-Al2O3 coatings tend to exhibit a better corrosion resistance ability.

  18. Characterization of Al2O3 in High-Strength Mo Alloy Sheets by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yucheng; Gao, Yimin; Wei, Shizhong; Hu, Yajie

    2016-02-01

    A novel type of alumina (Al2O3)-doped molybdenum (Mo) alloy sheet was prepared by a hydrothermal method and a subsequent powder metallurgy process. Then the characterization of α-Al2O3 was investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as the research focus. The tensile strength of the Al2O3-doped Mo sheet is 43-85% higher than that of the pure Mo sheet, a very obvious reinforcement effect. The sub-micron and nanometer-scale Al2O3 particles can increase the recrystallization temperature by hindering grain boundary migration and improve the tensile strength by effectively blocking the motion of the dislocations. The Al2O3 particles have a good bond with the Mo matrix and there exists an amorphous transition layer at the interface between Al2O3 particles and the Mo matrix in the as-rolled sheet. The sub-structure of α-Al2O3 is characterized by a number of nanograins in the $\\left[ {2\\bar{2}1} \\right]$ direction. Lastly, a new computer-based method for indexing diffraction patterns of the hexagonal system is introduced, with 16 types of diffraction patterns of α-Al2O3 indexed.

  19. NMR Spectroscopy of the Hydrated Layer of Composite Particles Based on Nanosized Al2O3 and Vitreous Humor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turov, V. V.; Gerashchenko, I. I.; Markina, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    The hydrated layer of composite particles prepared using Al2O3 and cattle vitreous humor was investigated using NMR spectroscopy. It was found that water bound to Al2O3 nanoparticles was present in the form of clusters with different degrees of association and energies of interaction with the surface. Water bound to the surface of the Al2O3/vitreous humor composite became more uniform upon immobilization of vitreous humor components on the surface of the Al2O3. With this, the clusters of adsorbed water had characteristics that were close to those found in air and weakly polar CHCl3 media. Addition of polar CH3CN led to the formation of very small water clusters. PMR spectra of the surface of the Al2O3/vitreous humor composite in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid differentiated four types of hydrated structures that differed in the degree of water association.

  20. Au/n-InP Schottky diodes using an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hogyoung; Kim, Min Soo; Yoon, Seung Yu; Choi, Byung Joon

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effect of an Al2O3 interfacial layer grown by atomic layer deposition on the electrical properties of Au Schottky contacts to n-type InP. Considering barrier inhomogeneity, modified Richardson plots yielded a Richardson constant of 8.4 and 7.5 Acm-2K-2, respectively, for the sample with and without the Al2O3 interlayer (theoretical value of 9.4 Acm-2K-2 for n-type InP). The dominant reverse current flow for the sample with an Al2O3 interlayer was found to be Poole-Frenkel emission. From capacitance-voltage measurements, it was observed that the capacitance for the sample without the Al2O3 interlayer was frequency dependent. Sputter-induced defects as well as structural defects were passivated effectively with an Al2O3 interlayer.

  1. Research on microcracks avoidance in processing of α-Al2O3 by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Wei; Zhao, Quan-Zhong

    2013-07-01

    The optical crystal α-Al2O3 has been widely used as the matrix of ruby and blue sapphire for its wide transparency, high thermal conductivity, big scale and low cost. α-Al2O3 is so hard that cutter is easily abraded. Micromachining of α-Al2O3 by ultrashort pulsed laser is superior to the traditional mechanical approach as its non-contact and cold machining features. However, unexpected cracks on the surface of α-Al2O3 are observed after femtosecond laser machining. In order to hinder the crack source from stretching, we optimize the laser parameters accompanied with annealing. The crack-free machining can be achieved. Three-dimensional α-Al2O3 microstructures free from fracture, such as cylinder, barrel and sphere are demonstrated.

  2. Behavior of Al2O3 and SiO2 with heating in a Cl2 + CO stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetinin, L. K.

    1984-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the chlorination of alpha-Al2O3, gamma-Al2O3 and amorphous SiO2 in a Cl + CO stream, for the preparation of AlCl3 and SiCl4. The chlorination starting temperatures were 235 deg for Al2O3 and 680 deg for SiO2. The chlorination of alpha- and gamma-Al2O3 takes place via the formation of AlOCl as an intermediate product, and its subsequent dissociation at 480 to 560 deg, according to 3AlOCl yields AlCl3 + Al2O3. The chlorination activation energies are given for the three oxides.

  3. Improved memory characteristics of charge trap memory by employing double layered ZrO2 nanocrystals and inserted Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z. J.; Li, R.; Zhang, X. W.; Hu, D.; Zhao, Y. G.

    2016-07-01

    The charge trap memory capacitors incorporating a stacked charge trapping layer consisting of double layered ZrO2 nanocrystals (NCs) and inserted Al2O3 have been fabricated and investigated. It is observed that the memory capacitor with stacked trapping layer exhibits a hysteresis window as large as 14.3 V for ±10 V sweeping gate voltage range, faster program/erase speed, improved endurance performance, and good data retention characteristics with smaller extrapolated ten years charge loss at room temperature and 125 °C compared to single layered NCs. The special energy band alignment and the introduced additional traps of double layered ZrO2 NCs and inserted Al2O3 change the trapping and loss behavior of charges, and jointly contribute to the remarkable memory characteristics. Therefore, the memory capacitor with a stacked charge trapping layer is a promising candidate in future nonvolatile charge trap memory device design and application.

  4. Removal of nitrate and phosphate using chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite nanofibrous adsorbent: Comparison with chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 beads.

    PubMed

    Bozorgpour, Farahnaz; Ramandi, Hossein Fasih; Jafari, Pooya; Samadi, Saman; Yazd, Shabnam Sharif; Aliabadi, Majid

    2016-12-01

    In the present study the chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite nanofibrous adsorbent was prepared by electrospinning process and its application for the removal of nitrate and phosphate were compared with chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite bead adsorbent. The influence of Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite content, pH, contact time, nitrate and phosphate initial concentrations and temperature on the nitrate and phosphate sorption using synthesized bead and nanofibrous adsorbents was investigated in a single system. The reusability of chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite beads and nanofibers after five sorption-desorption cycles were carried out. The Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the interaction effects of adsorbent dosage, nitrate and phosphate initial concentrations on the nitrate and phosphate removal efficiency. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and known Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were used to describe the kinetic and equilibrium data of nitrate and phosphate sorption using chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite beads and nanofibers. The influence of other anions including chloride, fluoride and sulphate on the sorption efficiency of nitrate and phosphate was examined. The obtained results revealed the higher potential of chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite nanofibers for nitrate and phosphate compared with chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite beads.

  5. Aggregation and Colloidal Stability of Commercially Available Al2O3 Nanoparticles in Aqueous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mui, Julie; Ngo, Jennifer; Kim, Bojeong

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation and colloidal stability of three, commercially-available, gamma-aluminum oxide nanoparticles (γ-Al2O3 NPs) (nominally 5, 10, and 20–30 nm) were systematically examined as a function of pH, ionic strength, humic acid (HA) or clay minerals (e.g., montmorillonite) concentration using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. NPs possess pH-dependent surface charges, with a point of zero charge (PZC) of pH 7.5 to 8. When pH < PZC, γ-Al2O3 NPs are colloidally stable up to 100 mM NaCl and 30 mM CaCl2. However, significant aggregation of NPs is pronounced in both electrolytes at high ionic strength. In mixed systems, both HA and montmorillonite enhance NP colloidal stability through electrostatic interactions and steric hindrance when pH ≤ PZC, whereas their surface interactions are quite limited when pH > PZC. Even when pH approximates PZC, NPs became stable at a HA concentration of 1 mg·L−1. The magnitude of interactions and dominant sites of interaction (basal planes versus edge sites) are significantly dependent on pH because both NPs and montmorillonite have pH-dependent (conditional) surface charges. Thus, solution pH, ionic strength, and the presence of natural colloids greatly modify the surface conditions of commercial γ-Al2O3 NPs, affecting aggregation and colloidal stability significantly in the aqueous environment. PMID:28335218

  6. The FTIR studies of gels and thin films of Al2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 systems.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Anna; Długoń, Elżbieta

    2012-04-01

    In this work, samples in form of bulk ones and thin films were obtained using the sol-gel method. The bulk samples were heated at different temperatures (500 °C, 850 °C and 1100 °C) corresponding to the annealing process of coatings, deposited on different substrates by dipping and pulling out samples from the proper sol with the stable speed. Thin films of both Al2O3-TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 systems were deposited on carbon, steel and titanium substrates in two different ways: as single layers obtained from Al2O3 sol, TiO2 sol and Al2O3 sol or deposited as mixed coatings from Al2O3-TiO2 sol as well as Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 one. All bulk samples were studied by the FTIR spectroscopy and the X-ray diffractometry while thin films were also investigated by the electron microscopy. In the IR spectra of Al2O3-TiO2 samples, as well as gels and coatings, bands due to the vibrations of AlO bonds of the octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated aluminum were observed. The IR spectra of samples of Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 system differ from that of Al2O3-TiO2 ones in presence of bands assigned to the SiO bond vibrations and in positions of bands due to AlO bond vibrations. In all spectra of bulk samples and coatings, the positions of TiO bond vibrations were ascribed basing on the IR spectra of the pure anatase and rutile.

  7. Sulfation and Desulfation Behavior of Pt-BaO/MgO-Al2O3 NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soyeon; Kim, Do Heui

    2016-05-01

    The comparative study between Pt-BaO/Al2O3 and Pt-BaO/MgO-Al2O3 gives the information about the effect of MgO addition to Al2O3 support on the sulfation and desulfation behavior of Pt-BaO/MgO-Al2O3 NOx storage reduction catalyst. The sulfated two samples were analyzed by using element analysis (EA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), H2 temperature programmed reaction (H2 TPRX) and NOx uptake measurement. The amount of sulfur uptake on 2 wt% Pt-20 wt% BaO/Al2O3 and 2 wt% Pt-20 wt% BaO/MgO-Al2O3 are almost identical as 0.45 and 0.40 of S/Ba, respectively, which yields the drastic decrease in NOx uptake for both sulfated samples. However, after desulfa- tion with H2 at 600 degrees C, the residual sulfur amount on MgO-Al2O3 supported catalyst is three times larger than that on Al2O3 supported one, indicating that sulfur species formed on the former are more stable than those on the latter. It is also well corresponding to the H2 TPRX results where the main H2S peak from MgO-Al2O3 supported sample is observed at higher temperature than Al2O3 supported one, resulting in the lower NOx uptake activity of former sample than the latter one. Meanwhile, after desulfation of MgO-Al2O3 supported sample at 700 degrees C and 800 degrees C, the activity is recovered more significantly due to the removal of the large amount of sulfur while Al2O3 supported one decreases monotonically due to the sintering of Pt crystallite and the formation of BaAl2O4 phase. It is summarized that MgO-Al2O3 supported catalyst enhances the thermal stability of the catalyst, however, forms the stable sulfate species, which needs to be improved to develop the more sulfur resistant NSR catalyst system.

  8. Atomistic simulation of the pressure-temperature-volume diagram in α-Al 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, R.; Blanco, M. A.; Martín Pendás, A.; Francisco, E.; Recio, J. M.

    1996-04-01

    We report the results of a theoretical investigation that explores for the first time temperature effects on the pressure-volume relationship in corundum. The ionic interactions within the α-Al 2O 3 crystal are modelized using the electron gas formalism along with electronic wavefunctions that are allowed to relax with crystal strains. A non-empirical Debye model is applied to account for the thermal contributions. Our study reveals that the crystal responds isotropically under both high-temperature and high-pressure conditions. Good agreement with hydrostatic and quasi-hydrostatic experimental data is achieved.

  9. Ultrasonic Al2O3 Ceramic Thermometry in High-Temperature Oxidation Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanlong; Gao, Yubin; Xiao, Zhaoqian; Wang, Gao; Tian, Miao; Liang, Haijian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an ultrasonic temperature measurement system was designed with Al2O3 high-temperature ceramic as an acoustic waveguide sensor and preliminarily tested in a high-temperature oxidation environment. The test results indicated that the system can indeed work stably in high-temperature environments. The relationship between the temperature and delay time of 26 °C–1600 °C ceramic materials was also determined in order to fully elucidate the high-temperature oxidation of the proposed waveguide sensor and to lay a foundation for the further application of this system in temperatures as high as 2000 °C. PMID:27845726

  10. Superconductivity of Al/Al2O3 interface formed by shock-wave pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palnichenko, A. V.; Shakhrai, D. V.; Avdonin, V. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.; Khasanov, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    A mixture of Al and α -Al2O3 has been subjected to a shock-wave pressure of ≃ 170 kbar, followed by vacuum-encapsulating and quenching of the product to liquid nitrogen. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples have revealed metastable superconductivity with Tc ≈ 37 K, characterized by glassy dynamics of the shielding currents below Tc . Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed between metallic Al and its oxide due to the shock-wave treatment.

  11. Hydrogen and Carbon Effects on Al2O3 Surface Phases and Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John

    2005-03-01

    Effects of H and C impurities on α-Al2O3 (0001) surface stability and metal wetting behavior are determined from first principles[1]. The ab initio surface phase diagram for H and C on the alumina surface reveals six distinct surface phases. These different surface phases exhibit a variety of adhesion strengths with Cu and Co, and correspondingly different wetting behaviors. These results are consistent with the varied wetting characteristics observed experimentally. [1] Xiao-Gang Wang and John R. Smith, Phys. Rev. B70, Rapid communications, 081401 (2004).

  12. Superconductivity of Al/Al2O3 interface formed under shock-wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhray, D. V.; Avdonin, V. V.; Palnichenko, A. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.

    2015-11-01

    A mixture of powdered Al and Al2O3 has been subjected to a shock-wave pressure of ≈ 170 kbar, followed by vacuum-encapsulating and quenching of the product to liquid nitrogen. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples have revealed metastable superconductivity with Tc ≈ 37 K, characterized by glassy dynamics of the shielding currents below Tc. Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed between metallic Al and its oxide due to the shock-wave treatment.

  13. Understanding the clean interface between covalent Si and ionic Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Xiang, H J; Da Silva, Juarez L F; Branz, Howard M; Wei, Su-Huai

    2009-09-11

    The atomic and electronic structures of the (001)-Si/(001)-gamma-Al(2)O(3) heterointerface are investigated by first principles total energy calculations combined with a newly developed "modified basin-hopping" method. It is found that all interface Si atoms are fourfold coordinated due to the formation of Si-O and unexpected covalent Si-Al bonds in the new abrupt interface model. And the interface has perfect electronic properties in that the unpassivated interface has a large LDA band gap and no gap levels. These results show that it is possible to have clean semiconductor-oxide interfaces.

  14. Viscosity affected by nanoparticle aggregation in Al2O3-water nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Duan, Fei; Kwek, Dingtian; Crivoi, Alexandru

    2011-03-22

    An investigation on viscosity was conducted 2 weeks after the Al2O3-water nanofluids having dispersants were prepared at the volume concentration of 1-5%. The shear stress was observed with a non-Newtonian behavior. On further ultrasonic agitation treatment, the nanofluids resumed as a Newtonian fluids. The relative viscosity increases as the volume concentrations increases. At 5% volume concentration, an increment was about 60% in the re-ultrasonication nanofluids in comparison with the base fluid. The microstructure analysis indicates that a higher nanoparticle aggregation had been observed in the nanofluids before re-ultrasonication.

  15. Head-up display using an inclined Al2O3 column array.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wen-Hao; Lee, Chao-Te; Kei, Chi-Chung; Liao, Bo-Huei; Chiang, Donyau; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2014-02-01

    An orderly inclined Al2O3 column array was fabricated by atomic layer deposition and sequential electron beam evaporation using a hollow nanosphere template. The transmittance spectra at various angles of incidence were obtained through the use of a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 900 UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer. The inclined column array could display the image information through a scattering mechanism and was transparent at high viewing angles along the deposition plane. This characteristic of the inclined column array gives it potential for applications in head-up displays in the automotive industry.

  16. Ultra-low thermal conductivity in W/Al2O3 nanolaminates.

    PubMed

    Costescu, R M; Cahill, D G; Fabreguette, F H; Sechrist, Z A; George, S M

    2004-02-13

    Atomic layer deposition and magnetron sputter deposition were used to synthesize thin-film multilayers of W/Al(2)O(3). With individual layers only a few nanometers thick, the high interface density produced a strong impediment to heat transfer, giving rise to a thermal conductivity of approximately 0.6 watts per meter per kelvin. This result suggests that high densities of interfaces between dissimilar materials may provide a route for the production of thermal barriers with ultra-low thermal conductivity.

  17. Nitridation of Al2O3 surfaces: chemical and structural change triggered by oxygen desorption.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Toru; Saito, Yasutaka; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori

    2013-01-11

    We present theoretical investigations that clarify elemental nitridation processes of corundum Al2O3(0001) and (1102) surfaces. The calculations within the density functional theory framework reveal that the structures with substitutional N atoms beneath the surface are stabilized under nitridation conditions. We also find that the desorption of O atoms at the topmost layer induces outward diffusion of O atoms as well as inward diffusion of N atoms, leading to the transformation into AlN films. The kinetic Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with density functional theory results indeed observe a dependence of these chemical and structural changes on temperature and pressure.

  18. Anisotropic temperature-dependent thermal conductivity by an Al2O3 interlayer in Al2O3/ZnO superlattice films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won-Yong; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Tae-Hyun; Park, No-Won; Kim, Gil-Sung; Park, Jin-Seong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2017-03-01

    The thermal conductivity of superlattice films is generally anisotropic and should be studied separately in the in-plane and cross-plane directions of the films. However, previous works have mostly focused on the cross-plane thermal conductivity because the electrons and phonons in the cross-plane direction of superlattice films may result in much stronger interface scattering than that in the in-plane direction. Nevertheless, it is highly desirable to perform systematic studies on the effect of interface formation in semiconducting superlattice films on both in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities. In this study, we determine both the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of Al2O3 (AO)/ZnO superlattice films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on SiO2/Si substrates in the temperature range of 50–300 K by the four-point-probe 3-ω method. Our experimental results indicate that the formation of an atomic AO layer (0.82 nm) significantly contributes to the decrease of the cross-plane thermal conductivity of the AO/ZnO superlattice films compared with that of AO/ZnO thin films. The cross-plane thermal conductivity (0.26–0.63 W m‑1 K‑1 of the AO/ZnO superlattice films (with an AO layer of ∼0.82 nm thickness) is approximately ∼150%–370% less than the in-plane thermal conductivity (0.96–1.19 W m‑1 K‑1) of the corresponding film, implying significant anisotropy. This indicates that the suppression of the cross-plane thermal conductivity is mainly attributed to the superlattice, rather than the nanograin columnar structure in the films. In addition, we theoretically analyzed strong anisotropic behavior of the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the AO/ZnO superlattice films in terms of temperature dependence.

  19. Anisotropic temperature-dependent thermal conductivity by an Al2O3 interlayer in Al2O3/ZnO superlattice films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Yong; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Tae-Hyun; Park, No-Won; Kim, Gil-Sung; Park, Jin-Seong; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2017-03-10

    The thermal conductivity of superlattice films is generally anisotropic and should be studied separately in the in-plane and cross-plane directions of the films. However, previous works have mostly focused on the cross-plane thermal conductivity because the electrons and phonons in the cross-plane direction of superlattice films may result in much stronger interface scattering than that in the in-plane direction. Nevertheless, it is highly desirable to perform systematic studies on the effect of interface formation in semiconducting superlattice films on both in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities. In this study, we determine both the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of Al2O3 (AO)/ZnO superlattice films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on SiO2/Si substrates in the temperature range of 50-300 K by the four-point-probe 3-ω method. Our experimental results indicate that the formation of an atomic AO layer (0.82 nm) significantly contributes to the decrease of the cross-plane thermal conductivity of the AO/ZnO superlattice films compared with that of AO/ZnO thin films. The cross-plane thermal conductivity (0.26-0.63 W m(-1) K(-1) of the AO/ZnO superlattice films (with an AO layer of ∼0.82 nm thickness) is approximately ∼150%-370% less than the in-plane thermal conductivity (0.96-1.19 W m(-1) K(-1)) of the corresponding film, implying significant anisotropy. This indicates that the suppression of the cross-plane thermal conductivity is mainly attributed to the superlattice, rather than the nanograin columnar structure in the films. In addition, we theoretically analyzed strong anisotropic behavior of the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the AO/ZnO superlattice films in terms of temperature dependence.

  20. Characteristics of nanocomposite ZrO2/Al2O3 films deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun Jin; Lim, Jung Wook; Kim, Hyun-Tak

    2007-11-01

    Nanocomposite ZrO2/Al2O3 (ZAO) films were deposited on Si by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition and the film characteristics including interfacial oxide formation, dielectric constant (k), and electrical breakdown strength were investigated without post-annealing process. In both the mixed and nano-laminated ZAO films, the thickness of the interfacial oxide layer (T(IL)) was considerably reduced compared to ZrO2 and Al2O3 films. The T(IL) was 0.8 nm in nano-composite films prepared at a mixing ratio (ZrO2:Al2O3) of 1:1. The breakdown strength and the leakage current level were greatly improved by adding Al2O3 as little as 7.9% compared to that of ZrO2 and were enhanced more with increasing content of Al2O3. The k of ZrO2 and mixed ZAO (Al2O3 7.9%) films were 20.0 and 16.5, respectively. These results indicate that the addition of Al2O3 to ZrO2 greatly improves the electrical properties with less cost of k compared to the addition of SiO2.

  1. Enhanced Dielectric Properties and High-Temperature Microwave Absorption Performance of Zn-Doped Al2O3 Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Luo, Fa; Wei, Ping; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei

    2015-07-01

    To improve the dielectric and microwave absorption properties of Al2O3 ceramic, Zn-doped Al2O3 ceramic was prepared by conventional ceramic processing. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that Zn atoms successfully entered the Al2O3 ceramic lattice and occupied Al sites. The complex permittivity increased with increasing Zn concentration, which is mainly attributed to the increase in charged vacancy defects and densification of the Al2O3 ceramic. In addition, the temperature-dependent complex permittivity of 3% Zn-doped Al2O3 ceramic was determined in the temperature range from 298 K to 873 K. Both the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity increased monotonically with increasing temperature, which can be ascribed to the shortened relaxation time and increasing electrical conductivity. The increased complex permittivity leads to a great improvement in microwave absorption. In particular, when the temperature is up to 873 K, the 3% Zn-doped Al2O3 ceramic exhibited the best absorption performance with a maximum peak (-12.1 dB) and broad effective absorption bandwidth (reflection loss less than -10 dB from 9.3 GHz to 12.3 GHz). These results reveal that Zn-doped Al2O3 ceramic is a promising candidate for use as a kind of high-temperature microwave absorption material.

  2. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids were observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. The voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxidemetal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidation of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al, Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al, Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationship between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  3. Cyclic Oxidation of FeCrAlY/Al2O3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Draper, Susan L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Three-ply FeCrAlY/Al2O3 composites and FeCrAlY matrix-only samples were cyclically oxidized at 1000 C and 1100 C for up to 1000 1-hr cycles. Fiber ends were exposed at the ends of the composite samples. Following cyclic oxidation, cracks running parallel to and perpendicular to the fibers were observed on the large surface of the composite. In addition, there was evidence of increased scale damage and spallation around the exposed fiber ends, particularly around the middle ply fibers. This damage was more pronounced at the higher temperature. The exposed fiber ends showed cracking between fibers in the outer plies, occasionally with Fe and Cr-rich oxides growing out of the cracks. Large gaps developed at the fiber/matrix interface around many of the fibers, especially those in the outer plies. Oxygen penetrated many of these gaps resulting in significant oxide formation at the fiber/matrix interface far within the composite sample. Around several fibers, the matrix was also internally oxidized showing Al2O3 precipitates in a radial band around the fibers. The results show that these composites have poor cyclic oxidation resistance due to the CTE mismatch and inadequate fiber/matrix bond strength at temperatures of 1000 C and above.

  4. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids have been observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. It was postulated that the voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxide-metal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidations of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al,Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al,Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationships between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  5. Texture Analyses of Ti/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Produced Using Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei-Zarghani, Aziz; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid; Gerlich, Adrian P.

    2016-11-01

    The texture evolution of Ti/Al2O3 nanocomposite fabricated using friction stir processing (FSP) was investigated at both macroscopic and microscopic levels employing X-ray diffraction and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. The developed textures were compared with ideal shear textures of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure, revealing that the fabricated nanocomposite is dominated by the P 1 hcp (fiber { 10bar{1}1} < 1bar{2}10rangle (and relatively weak B (fiber { 10bar{1}1} < bar{1}bar{1}23rangle ) textures. The analyses of macro- and microtextures showed that the presence of nanosized Al2O3 particles activated the pyramidal { 10bar{1}1} < bar{1}bar{1}23rangle slip system in addition to dominant { 10bar{1}0} < 1bar{2}10rangle prism, basal { {0002} }< 1bar{2}10rangle, and pyramidal { 10bar{1}1} < 1bar{2}10rangle slip systems which normally govern plastic deformation during FSP of commercially pure titanium alloy. Moreover, the presence of nanoparticles promoted the occurrence of continuous dynamic recrystallization as well as increasing the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries within the developed microstructure.

  6. Separation of Fine Al2O3 Inclusion from Liquid Steel with Super Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Gao, Jintao; Wang, Zhe; Guo, Zhancheng

    2017-01-01

    An innovative approach of super gravity was proposed to separate fine Al2O3 inclusions from liquid steel in this study. To investigate the removal behaviors of inclusions, the effects of different gravity coefficients and time on separating the inclusions were studied. The results show that a large amount of Al2O3 inclusions gathered at the top of the sample obtained by super gravity, whereas there were almost no inclusions appearing at the bottom. The volume fraction and number density of inclusions presented a gradient distribution along the direction of the super gravity, which became steeper with increasing gravity coefficient and separating time. As a result of the collision between inclusions, a large amount of inclusions aggregated and grew during the moving process, which further decreased the removal time. The experimental required removal time of inclusions is close to the theoretical values calculated by Stokes law under gravity coefficient G ≤ 80, t ≤ 15 minutes, and the small deviation may be because the inclusion particles are not truly spherical. Under the condition of gravity coefficient G = 80, t = 15 minutes, the total oxygen content at the bottom of the sample (position of 5 cm) is only 8.4 ppm, and the removal rate is up to 95.6 pct compared with that under normal gravity.

  7. Plasma-Assisted ALD of an Al2O3 Permeation Barrier Layer on Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wenwen; Li, Xingcun; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Zhengduo

    2012-02-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is used in the preparation of organic/inorganic layers, which requires uniform surfaces with their thickness down to several nanometers. For film with such thickness, the growth mode defined as the arrangement of clusters on the surface during the growth is of significance. In this work, Al2O3 thin film was deposited on various interfacial species of pre-treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET, 12 μm) by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD), where trimethyl aluminium was used as the Al precursor and O2 as the oxygen source. The interfacial species, -NH3, -OH, and -COOH as well as SiCHO (derived from monomer of HMDSO plasma), were grafted previously by plasma and chemical treatments. The growth mode of PA-ALD Al2O3 was then investigated in detail by combining results from in-situ diagnosis of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and ex-situ characterization of as-deposited layers from the morphologies scanned by atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, the oxygen transmission rates (OTR) of the original and treated plastic films were measured. The possible reasons for the dependence of the OTR values on the surface species were explored.

  8. Cold-Sprayed Ni-Al2O3 Coatings for Applications in Power Generation Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevillano, F.; Poza, P.; Múnez, C. J.; Vezzù, S.; Rech, S.; Trentin, A.

    2013-06-01

    Cermets coatings are extensively used in energy applications both because of their high wear resistance as required, for example, in components like gas turbine sealants, and because of their specific functionality as required in solar absorbers. So far, high-temperature thermal spraying and physical vapor deposition have traditionally been used to deposit this kind of coatings. In this study, Ni-Al2O3 coatings have been deposited using a Kinetic®3000 cold-spray system starting from Ni and Al2O3 powders blend; five blends have been prepared setting the alumina content in the feedstock to 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90 wt.%. The embedded alumina ranges between a few percent weight up to 16 and 31 wt.%, while the microhardness shows a deep increase from 175 Vickers in the case of pure Ni coatings up to 338 Vickers. The spray and coating growth mechanism have been discussed, with special attention to the fragmentation of the ceramic particles during the impact. Finally, the coating behavior at high temperature was analyzed by oxidation tests performed in air at 520 °C emphasizing a good oxidation resistance that could represent a very promising basis for application in power generation systems.

  9. Crystalline gamma-Al2O3 physical vapour deposition-coating for steel thixoforging tools.

    PubMed

    Bobzin, K; Hirt, G; Bagcivan, N; Khizhnyakova, L; Ewering, M

    2011-10-01

    The process of thixoforming, which has been part of many researches during the last decades, combines the advantages of forging and casting for the shaping of metallic components. But due to the high temperatures of semi-solid steel alloys high demands on the tools are requested. To resists the thermal and mechanical loads (wear, friction, thermal and thermomechanical fatigue) protecting thin films are necessary. In this regard crystalline gamma-Al2O3 deposited via Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) is a promising candidate: It exhibits high thermal stability, high oxidation resistance and high hot hardness. In the present work the application of a (Ti, Al)N/gamma-Al2O3 coating deposited by means of Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating in an industrial coating unit is presented. The coating was analysed by means of Rockwell test, nanoindentation, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The coated tool was tested in thixoforging experiments with steel grade X210CrW12 (AlSI D6). The surface of the coated dies was examined with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) after 22, 42, 90 and 170 forging cycles.

  10. Al2O3 fiber strength degradation in metal and intermetallic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Locci, I. E.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanisms for fiber damage in single crystal Al2O3 fiber-reinforced composites were investigated. Both fiber fragmentation and fiber strength degradation were observed in composites with a variety of matrix compositions. Four mechanisms that may be contributing to the fiber strength loss have been proposed and include matrix reaction, reaction with binders, residual stress-induced damage, and pressure from hot pressing. The effect of matrix reaction was separated from the other three effects by sputter-coating the matrices on cleaned fibers and annealing with a temperature profile that simulates processing conditions. These experiments revealed that Y and Cr in FeCrAlY base alloys and Zr in NiAl alloys reacted with the fiber, and grooves and adherent particles were formed on the fiber surface which were responsible for the strength loss. The effects of the matrix reaction appeared to dominate over the other possible mechanisms, although evidence for reaction with binders was also found. Ridges on the fiber surface, which reflected the grain boundaries of the matrix, were also observed. In order for single-crystal Al2O3 to be used as a fiber in MMC's and IMC's, a matrix or protective coating which minimizes matrix reaction during processing will be necessary. Of the matrices investigated, the Thermo-span(sup TM) alloy was the least damaging to fiber properties.

  11. Tribological performance of Graphene/Carbon nanotube hybrid reinforced Al2O3 composites

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Bahareh; Xu, Fang; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Hou, Xianghui; Xia, Yongde; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2015-01-01

    Tribological performance of the hot-pressed pure Al2O3 and its composites containing various hybrid contents of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated under different loading conditions using the ball-on-disc method. Benchmarked against the pure Al2O3, the composite reinforced with a 0.5 wt% GNP exhibited a 23% reduction in the friction coefficient along with a promising 70% wear rate reduction, and a hybrid reinforcement consisting of 0.3 wt.% GNPs + 1 wt.% CNTs resulted in even better performance, with a 86% reduction in the wear rate. The extent of damage to the reinforcement phases caused during wear was studied using Raman spectroscopy. The wear mechanisms for the composites were analysed based on the mechanical properties, brittleness index and microstructural characterizations. The excellent coordination between GNPs and CNTs contributed to the excellent wear resistance property in the hybrid GNT-reinforced composites. GNPs played the important role in the formation of a tribofilm on the worn surface by exfoliation; whereas CNTs contributed to the improvement in fracture toughness and prevented the grains from being pulled out during the tribological test. PMID:26100097

  12. Separation of Fine Al2O3 Inclusion from Liquid Steel with Super Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Gao, Jintao; Wang, Zhe; Guo, Zhancheng

    2017-04-01

    An innovative approach of super gravity was proposed to separate fine Al2O3 inclusions from liquid steel in this study. To investigate the removal behaviors of inclusions, the effects of different gravity coefficients and time on separating the inclusions were studied. The results show that a large amount of Al2O3 inclusions gathered at the top of the sample obtained by super gravity, whereas there were almost no inclusions appearing at the bottom. The volume fraction and number density of inclusions presented a gradient distribution along the direction of the super gravity, which became steeper with increasing gravity coefficient and separating time. As a result of the collision between inclusions, a large amount of inclusions aggregated and grew during the moving process, which further decreased the removal time. The experimental required removal time of inclusions is close to the theoretical values calculated by Stokes law under gravity coefficient G ≤ 80, t ≤ 15 minutes, and the small deviation may be because the inclusion particles are not truly spherical. Under the condition of gravity coefficient G = 80, t = 15 minutes, the total oxygen content at the bottom of the sample (position of 5 cm) is only 8.4 ppm, and the removal rate is up to 95.6 pct compared with that under normal gravity.

  13. Surface Formation of Single Silicon Wafer Polished with Nano-sized Al2O3 Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu-li; Zuo, Dun-wen; Zhu, Yong-wei; Wang, Min

    2007-12-01

    Ice polishing single silicon wafers with nano-sized Al2O3 abrasives can be known as ice fixed abrasives chemical mechanical polishing (IFA-CMP). TAn abrasive slurry was made of nano-sized Al2O3 particles dispersed in de-ionized water with a surfactant and the slurry was frozen to form an ice polishing pad. Then polishing tests of blanket silicon wafers with the above ice polishing pad were carried out. The morphologies and surface roughness of the polished silicon wafers were observed and examined on an atomic force microscope. The subsurface damage was assessed by means of cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The surface chemical constituents of the polished silicon wafers were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to gain insight into the chemical mechanisms in the process. Scratch resistance of the single silicon wafer was measured by nanoscratching using a nanoindenter to explore the mechanical removal mechanism. The results show that a super smooth surface with an average roughness of 0.367 nm is obtained within 1000 nm × 1000 nm and there is a perfect silicon diamond structure without any microcracks in the subsurface. The removal of material is dominated by the coactions of ductile regime machining and chemical corrosion. In the end, a model of material removal of IFA-CMP is built.

  14. Sulfuric acid baking and leaching of spent Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-In; Park, Kyung-Ho; Mishra, Devabrata

    2009-07-30

    Dissolution of metals from a pre-oxidized refinery plant spent Co-Mo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst have been tried through low temperature (200-450 degrees C) sulfuric acid baking followed by mild leaching process. Direct sulfuric acid leaching of the same sample, resulted poor Al and Mo recoveries, whereas leaching after sulfuric acid baking significantly improved the recoveries of above two metals. The pre-oxidized spent catalyst, obtained from a Korean refinery plant found to contain 40% Al, 9.92% Mo, 2.28% Co, 2.5% C and trace amount of other elements such as Fe, Ni, S and P. XRD results indicated the host matrix to be poorly crystalline gamma- Al(2)O(3). The effect of various baking parameters such as catalyst-to-acid ratio, baking temperature and baking time on percentage dissolutions of metals has been studied. It was observed that, metals dissolution increases with increase in the baking temperature up to 300 degrees C, then decreases with further increase in the baking temperature. Under optimum baking condition more than 90% Co and Mo, and 93% Al could be dissolved from the spent catalyst with the following leaching condition: H(2)SO(4)=2% (v/v), temperature=95 degrees C, time=60 min and Pulp density=5%.

  15. Revisiting the Al/Al2O3 Interface: Coherent Interfaces and Misfit Accommodation

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Thijsse, Barend J.; Hoagland, Richard G.; ...

    2014-03-27

    We report the coherent and semi-coherent Al/α-Al2O3 interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations with a mixed, metallic-ionic atomistic model. For the coherent interfaces, both Al-terminated and O-terminated nonstoichiometric interfaces have been studied and their relative stability has been established. To understand the misfit accommodation at the semi-coherent interface, a 1-dimensional (1D) misfit dislocation model and a 2-dimensional (2D) dislocation network model have been studied. For the latter case, our analysis reveals an interface dislocation structure with a network of three sets of parallel dislocations, each with pure-edge character, giving rise to a pattern of coherent and stacking-fault-like regions at the interface.more » Structural relaxation at elevated temperatures leads to a further change of the dislocation pattern, which can be understood in terms of a competition between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation interaction energy at the interface. In conclusion, our results are expected to serve as an input for the subsequent dislocation dynamics models to understand and predict the macroscopic mechanical behavior of Al/α-Al2O3 composite heterostructures.« less

  16. Electrodeposition of Ni-Al2O3 nano composite coating and evaluation of wear characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavendra, C. R.; Basavarajappa, S.; Sogalad, Irappa

    2016-09-01

    Electrodeposition is one of the most technologically feasible and economically superior technique for producing metallic coating. The advancement in the application of nano particles has grabbed the attention in all fields of engineering. In this present study an attempt has been made on the nano particle composite coating on aluminium substrate by electrodeposition process. The aluminium surface requires a specific pre-treatment for better adherence of coating. In light of this a thin zinc layer is coated on the aluminium substrate by electroless process. This layer offers protection against oxidation thus prevents the formation of a native oxide layer. In this work Ni-Al2O3 composite coating were successfully coated by varying the process parameters such as bath temperature, current density and particle loading. The experimentation was performed using central composite design based 20 trials of experiments. The effect of process parameters on surface morphology and wear behavior was studied. The results shown a better wear resistance of Ni-Al2O3 composite electrodeposited coating compared to Ni coating. The particle loading and interaction effect of current density with temperature has greater significant effect on wear rate followed by the bath temperature. The decrease in wear rate was observed with the increased current density and temperature.

  17. Revisiting the Al/Al2O3 Interface: Coherent Interfaces and Misfit Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Thijsse, Barend J.; Hoagland, Richard G.; Lazić, Ivan; Valone, Steven M.; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    We study the coherent and semi-coherent Al/α-Al2O3 interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations with a mixed, metallic-ionic atomistic model. For the coherent interfaces, both Al-terminated and O-terminated nonstoichiometric interfaces have been studied and their relative stability has been established. To understand the misfit accommodation at the semi-coherent interface, a 1-dimensional (1D) misfit dislocation model and a 2-dimensional (2D) dislocation network model have been studied. For the latter case, our analysis reveals an interface dislocation structure with a network of three sets of parallel dislocations, each with pure-edge character, giving rise to a pattern of coherent and stacking-fault-like regions at the interface. Structural relaxation at elevated temperatures leads to a further change of the dislocation pattern, which can be understood in terms of a competition between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation interaction energy at the interface. Our results are expected to serve as an input for the subsequent dislocation dynamics models to understand and predict the macroscopic mechanical behavior of Al/α-Al2O3 composite heterostructures. PMID:24670940

  18. Cooling Rate Effects on Dynamics in Supercooled Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Vo Van; Oh, Suhk Kun

    The cooling rate effects in supercooled Al2O3 have been investigated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) method. Simulations were done in the basic cube under periodic boundary conditions containing 3000 ions with Born-Mayer type pair potentials. The temperature of the system was decreased linearly in time as T(t)=T0-γt, where γ is the cooling rate. The cooling rate dependence of density, thermal expansion coefficient and enthalpy of the system was found. Structure of amorphous Al2O3 model at the temperature of 0 K was in good agreement with Lamparter's experimental data. The cooling rate dependence of the dynamical heterogeneities in supercooled states has been studied through the comparison of the partial radial distribution functions (PRDFs) for the 10% most mobile or immobile particles with the corresponding mean PRDFs in the models. Also, cooling rate effects on the cluster size distributions of the most mobile or immobile particles have been obtained. Calculations show that the cooling rate effects on the dynamical heterogeneities are pronounced. Finally, the evolution of structural defects and cluster size distributions of the most mobile or immobile particles in the system upon cooling has been studied and presented.

  19. Structure and magnetism of granular Fe-Al 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Ardisson, J. D.; Viegas, A. D. C.; Schmidt, J. E.; Persiano, A. I. C.; Macedo, W. A. A.

    2001-05-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of granular Fe-Al 2O 3 nanocomposite obtained starting from sol-gel processing are presented. Samples with nominal Fe content ranging from 20% to 62% in volume were prepared. The conversion of Fe oxides into metallic Fe was obtained by calcination at 800°C followed by reduction at 600°C for 2 h in H 2 atmosphere. After reduction, our results indicated up to 78% α-Fe, preserving the mean diameter of the metallic nanoparticles between 50 and 80 nm, ˜16% Fe oxides and ˜7% interstitial Fe 2+ and substitutional Fe 3+ cations in the Al 2O 3 lattice. Vibrating sample magnetometry at 300 K resulted in coercivity between 400 and 630 Oe and saturation magnetization between 40 and 134 emu/g. From transport measurements, the highest magnetoresistance, close to 2% at room temperature, was observed for samples with 25% α-Fe and 51 vol% total Fe.

  20. DNA Sensing using Nano-crystalline Surface Enhanced Al2O3 Nanopore Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, B. M.; Shah, A.B.; Zuo, J.M.; Bashir, R.

    2013-01-01

    A new solid-state, Al2O3 nanopore sensor with enhanced surface properties for the real-time detection and analysis of individual DNA molecules is reported. Nanopore formation using electron beam based decomposition transformed the local nanostructure and morphology of the pore from an amorphous, stoichiometric structure (O to Al ratio of 1.5) to a hetero-phase crystalline network, deficient in O (O to Al ratio of ~0.6). Direct metallization of the pore region was observed during irradiation, thereby permitting the potential fabrication of nano-scale metallic contacts in the pore region with potential application to nanopore-based DNA sequencing. Dose dependent phase transformations to purely γ and/or α-phase nanocrystallites were also observed during pore formation allowing for surface charge engineering at the nanopore/fluid interface. DNA transport studies revealed an order of magnitude reduction in translocation velocities relative to alternate solid-state architectures, accredited to high surface charge density and the nucleation of charged nanocrystalline domains. The unique surface properties of Al2O3 nanopore sensors makes them ideal for the detection and analysis of ssDNA, dsDNA, RNA secondary structures and small proteins. These nano-scale sensors may also serve as a useful tool in studying the mechanisms driving biological processes including DNA-protein interactions and enzyme activity at the single molecule level. PMID:23335871

  1. Activation energy of negative fixed charges in thermal ALD Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnhold-Pospischil, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Richter, A.; Hofmann, M.

    2016-08-01

    A study of the thermally activated negative fixed charges Qtot and the interface trap densities Dit at the interface between Si and thermal atomic-layer-deposited amorphous Al2O3 layers is presented. The thermal activation of Qtot and Dit was conducted at annealing temperatures between 220 °C and 500 °C for durations between 3 s and 38 h. The temperature-induced differences in Qtot and Dit were measured using the characterization method called corona oxide characterization of semiconductors. Their time dependency were fitted using stretched exponential functions, yielding activation energies of EA = (2.2 ± 0.2) eV and EA = (2.3 ± 0.7) eV for Qtot and Dit, respectively. For annealing temperatures from 350 °C to 500 °C, the changes in Qtot and Dit were similar for both p- and n-type doped Si samples. In contrast, at 220 °C the charging process was enhanced for p-type samples. Based on the observations described in this contribution, a charging model leading to Qtot based on an electron hopping process between the silicon and Al2O3 through defects is proposed.

  2. Growth and characterization of Al2O3 films on fluorine functionalized epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Zachary R.; Jernigan, Glenn G.; Wheeler, Virginia D.; Hernández, Sandra C.; Eddy, Charles R.; Mowll, Tyler R.; Ong, Eng Wen; Ventrice, Carl A.; Geisler, Heike; Pletikosic, Ivo; Yang, Hongbo; Valla, Tonica

    2016-08-01

    Intelligent engineering of graphene-based electronic devices on SiC(0001) requires a better understanding of processes used to deposit gate-dielectric materials on graphene. Recently, Al2O3 dielectrics have been shown to form conformal, pinhole-free thin films by functionalizing the top surface of the graphene with fluorine prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) of the Al2O3 using a trimethylaluminum (TMA) precursor. In this work, the functionalization and ALD-precursor adsorption processes have been studied with angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that the functionalization process has a negligible effect on the electronic structure of the graphene, and that it results in a twofold increase in the adsorption of the ALD-precursor. In situ TMA-dosing and XPS studies were also performed on three different Si(100) substrates that were terminated with H, OH, or dangling Si-bonds. This dosing experiment revealed that OH is required for TMA adsorption. Based on those data along with supportive in situ measurements that showed F-functionalization increases the amount of oxygen (in the form of adsorbed H2O) on the surface of the graphene, a model for TMA-adsorption on graphene is proposed that is based on a reaction of a TMA molecule with OH.

  3. Effect of interface geometry on electron tunnelling in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koberidze, M.; Feshchenko, A. V.; Puska, M. J.; Nieminen, R. M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate how different interface geometries of an Al/Al2O3 junction, a common component of modern tunnel devices, affect electron transport through the tunnel barrier. We study six distinct Al/Al2O3 interfaces which differ in stacking sequences of the metal and the oxide surface atoms and the oxide termination. To construct model potential barrier profiles for each examined geometry, we rely on first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for the barrier heights and the shapes of the interface regions as well as on experimental data for the barrier widths. We show that even tiny variations in the atomic arrangement at the interface cause significant changes in the tunnel barrier parameters and, consequently, in electron transport properties. Especially, we find that variations in the crucial barrier heights and widths can be as large as 2 eV and 5 Å, respectively. Finally, to gain information about the average properties of the measured junction, we fit the conductance calculated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation to the experimental data and interpret the fit parameters with the help of the DFT results.

  4. Photochromism of vacancy-related defects in thermochemically reduced α-Al2O3:Mg single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, R.; Tardío, M.; González, R.; Chen, Y.; Kokta, M. R.

    2005-02-01

    Oxygen vacancies and their aggregates are produced much more readily in Mg-doped α-Al2O3 than in undoped α-Al2O3 single crystals during thermochemical reduction at high temperatures. A reversible photochromic effect was discovered in Mg-doped Al2O3 crystals containing large concentrations of oxygen divacancies. Alternate excitation with 5.0 and 3.69 eV light results in brown or yellowish-green coloration, respectively. The yellowish-green coloration can also be restored by thermal anneals at temperatures of about 750 K.

  5. The effect of particle size on the electrical conductivity of CuCl (Al2O3) composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, M. R.-W.; Shahi, K.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The conductivity of CuCl containing Al2O3 of 0.06, 0.3, 1, 3, 8, and 15 micron sized particles was measured between 25 and 390 C. Conductivity was enhanced for the 0.06 and 0.3 sized Al2O3 particles for temperatures below approximately 250 C. The maximum enhancement occurred at 10 m/o of 0.06 micron Al2O3 at 25 C. Uncertain degrees of agglomeration as well as the grain size of the matrix were found to be significant.

  6. Effect of Al2O3 on the Viscosity and Structure of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-FetO Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanjun; Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-04-01

    The present paper provided a fundamental investigation on the effect of Al2O3 on the viscosity and structure of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-FetO slags for the purpose of efficiently recycling the valuable elements from the steelmaking slags. The results show that the viscosity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO slags slightly increases with increasing Al2O3 content. The degree of the polymerization (DOP) of quenched slags, determined from Raman spectra and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance, is also found to increase with increasing Al2O3 content. It can be deduced that the increasing DOP can promote the formation of gehlenite phase (Ca2Al2SiO7), thus facilitating the formation of higher phosphorous (or vanadium) contained solid solution ( n'Ca2SiO4·Ca3((P or V)O4)2). As Al2O3 content increases up to a specific value, the charge compensating ions which present near [AlO4]-tetrahedra and [FeO4]-tetrahedra are not fully supplied due to the scarcity of Ca2+. In this case, the existing Fe3+ in the melt cannot completely form [FeO4]-tetrahedra and part of Fe3+ would form [FeO6]-octahedra to substitute Ca2+ to modify the slags.

  7. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0

  8. Thermal expansion and elastic anisotropy in single crystal Al2O3 and SiC reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Li, Zhuang; Bradt, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    In single crystal form, SiC and Al2O3 are attractive reinforcing components for high temperature composites. In this study, the axial coefficients of thermal expansion and single crystal elastic constants of SiC and Al2O3 were used to determine their coefficients of thermal expansion and Young's moduli as a function of crystallographic orientation and temperature. SiC and Al2O3 exhibit a strong variation of Young's modulus with orientation; however, their moduli and anisotropies are weak functions of temperature below 1000 C. The coefficients of thermal expansion exhibit significant temperature dependence, and that of the non-cubic Al2O3 is also a function of crystallographic orientation.

  9. Effects of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on the carrier lifetime of Al2O3 passivation stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kuk-Hyun; Cho, Young Joon; Chang, Hyo Sik; Kim, Kyung-Joong; Song, Hee Eun

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effect on the minority carrier lifetime of atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al2O3 passivation by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiON layer in Si/Al2O3/SiON-passivated structure. The lifetime variation of the Al2O3/SiON stack layer was found to depend on both the plasma power and the deposition temperature during the PECVD SiON process and to show better thermal stability than the Al2O3/SiNx:H stack under the same deposition conditions. The lifetime after a high-temperature firing process was improved dramatically at the PECVD deposition temperature of 200 °C. Our results provide a significant clue to reason for the improvement of the passivation performance for passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) silicon solar cells.

  10. Synthesis of CoFe/Al2O3 composite nanoparticles as the impedance matching layer of wideband multilayer absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, L.; Gong, Y. X.; Jiang, J. T.; Xu, C. Y.; Shao, W. Z.; Liu, P.; Tang, J.

    2011-04-01

    CoFe/Al2O3 composite nanoparticles were successfully prepared by hydrogen-thermally reducing cobalt aluminum ferrite. Compared with CoFe alloy nanoparticles, the permeability of CoFe/Al2O3 composite nanoparticles was remarkably enhanced and an improved impedance characteristic was achieved due to the introduction of insulated Al2O3. A multilayer absorber with CoFe/Al2O3 composite nanoparticles as the impedance matching layer and CoFe nanoflake as the dissipation layer was designed by using genetic algorithm, in which an ultrawide operation frequency bandwidth over 2.5-18 GHz was obtained. The microwave absorption performance in both normal and oblique incident case was evaluated by using electromagnetic simulator. The backward radar cross-section (RCS) was decreased at least 10 dB over a wide frequency range by covering the multilayer absorber on the surface of perfect electrical conductive plate.

  11. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P; Archanjo, Bráulio S; Schmidt, João E; Baptista, Daniel L

    2015-09-23

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm.

  12. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P.; Archanjo, Bráulio S.; Schmidt, João E.; Baptista, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm. PMID:26395513

  13. Epitaxial growth and electrochemical transfer of graphene on Ir(111)/α-Al2O3(0001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Shinji; Saito, Yuta; Kodama, Hideyuki; Sawabe, Atsuhito

    2016-07-01

    Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene on Iridium (Ir) layers epitaxially deposited on α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates was investigated. The X-ray diffraction, Raman and reflection high energy electron diffraction characterizations revealed that graphene films were epitaxially grown on Ir(111) layers, and the in-plane epitaxial relationship between graphene, Ir(111), and α-Al2O3(0001) was graphene ⟨ 1 1 ¯ 00 ⟩//Ir⟨ 11 2 ¯ ⟩//α-Al2O3⟨ 11 2 ¯ 0 ⟩. The graphene on Ir(111) was electrochemically transferred onto SiO2/Si substrates. We also demonstrated the reuse of the Ir(111)/α-Al2O3(0001) substrates in multiple growth and transfer cycles.

  14. Critical tensile and compressive strains for cracking of Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Shih-Hui; Bertrand, Jacob A.; George, Steven M.

    2011-04-01

    Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a model ALD system and Al2O3 ALD films are excellent gas diffusion barrier on polymers. However, little is known about the response of Al2O3 ALD films to strain and the potential film cracking that would restrict the utility of gas diffusion barrier films. To understand the mechanical limitations of Al2O3 ALD films, the critical strains at which the Al2O3 ALD films will crack were determined for both tensile and compressive strains. The tensile strain measurements were obtained using a fluorescent tagging technique to image the cracks. The results showed that the critical tensile strain is higher for thinner thicknesses of the Al2O3 ALD film on heat-stabilized polyethylene naphthalate (HSPEN) substrates. A low critical tensile strain of 0.52% was measured for a film thickness of 80 nm. The critical tensile strain increased to 2.4% at a film thickness of 5 nm. In accordance with fracture mechanics modeling, the critical tensile strains and the saturation crack densities scaled as (1/h)1/2 where h is the Al2O3 ALD film thickness. The fracture toughness for cracking, KIC, of the Al2O3 ALD film was also determined to be KIC = 2.30 MPa m1/2. Thinner Al2O3 ALD film thicknesses also had higher critical strains for cracking from compressive strains. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed that Al2O3 ALD films with thicknesses of 30-50 nm on Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) substrates cracked at a critical compressive strain of ˜1.0%. The critical compressive strain increased to ˜2.0% at a film thickness of ˜20 nm. A comparison of the critical tensile strains on HSPEN substrates and critical compressive strains on Teflon FEP substrates revealed some similarities. The critical strain was ˜1.0% for film thicknesses of 30-50 nm for both tensile and compressive strains. The critical compressive strain then increased more rapidly than the critical tensile strain for thinner films with thicknesses

  15. Effect of Al2O3 on the friction performance of P/M composite materials for friction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivǎnuş, R. C.; ǎnuş, D., IV; Cǎlmuc, F.

    2010-06-01

    Bronze bearings are one of most used friction materials. In those applications where higher mechanical properties are needed, iron base bearings can be an alternative to bronze base materials, or other alloying elements added to bronze. The paper presents the results obtained in metal matrix composites field with friction characteristics, for automotive brakes, by P/M. The scope of these researches was the improvement of wear resistance and friction properties of metal matrix composites. Friction-wear properties of the Al2O3 reinforced samples were measured and compared with those of plain bronze based ones. For this purpose, density, hardness, friction coefficient wear behaviour of the samples were tested.Microstructures of samples before and after sintering and worn surfaces were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the wear types were determined. The optimum friction-wear behaviour was obtained in the sample compacted at 500 MPa and sintered at 820°C. Density of the final samples decreased with increasing the amount of reinforcing elements (Al2O3) before presintering. However after sintering, there is no change in density of the samples including reinforcing elements (Al2O3). With increasing friction surface temperature, a reduction in the friction coefficient of the samples was observed. However, the highest reductions in the friction coefficients were observed in the as-received samples containing 0,5% reinforced Al2O3. The SEM images of the sample indicated that while bronze-based break lining material without Al2O3 showed abrasive wear behaviour, increasing the amount of Al2O3 resulted in a change of abrasive to adhesive wear mechanism. With increasing the amount of reinforcing Al2O3, wear resistance of the samples was increased. However samples reinforced with 5% and 6% Al2O3 showed the best results.

  16. Al2O3 e-Beam Evaporated onto Silicon (100)/SiO2, by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Madaan, Nitesh; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Jensen, David S.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Samha, Hussein; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25

    We report the XPS characterization of a thin film of Al2O3 (35 nm) deposited via e-beam evaporation onto silicon (100). The film was characterized with monochromatic Al Ka radiation. An XPS survey scan, an Al 2p narrow scan, and the valence band spectrum were collected. The Al2O3 thin film is used as a diffusion barrier layer for templated carbon nanotube (CNT) growth in the preparation of microfabricated thin layer chromatography plates.

  17. Consolidation of Al2O3 Nano-Ceramic Powders for High Power Micro-Wave Window

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-19

    Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin-dong Yuseong-gu Daejeon, 305-353, Korea 1. INTRODUCTION In material aspect, the sapphire...Al2O3) is very attractive material for window in the high power application. However, the fabrication and following process is very difficult and...much expansive. In addition, the intrinsic defects like F, F+ center in single crystalline Al2O3 act as heat generation sites during passing the high

  18. Quartz crystal microbalance studies of Al2O3 atomic layer deposition using trimethylaluminum and water at 125 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Wind, R A; George, S M

    2010-01-28

    Al(2)O(3) atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth with Al(CH(3))(3) (trimethylaluminum (TMA)) and H(2)O as the reactants was examined at the relatively low temperature of 125 degrees C using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The total Al(2)O(3) ALD mass gain per cycle (MGPC) and MGPCs during the individual TMA and H(2)O reactions were measured versus TMA and H(2)O exposures. The Al(2)O(3) MGPC increased with increasing H(2)O and TMA exposures at fixed TMA and H(2)O exposures, respectively. However, the TMA and H(2)O reactions were not completely self-limiting. The slower surface reaction kinetics at lower temperature may require very long exposures for the reactions to reach completion. The Al(2)O(3) MGPCs increased quickly versus H(2)O exposure and slowly reached limiting values that were only weakly dependent on the TMA doses. Small TMA exposures were also sufficient for the Al(2)O(3) MGPCs to reach different limiting values for different H(2)O doses. The TMA MGPCs increased for higher TMA exposures at all H(2)O exposures. In contrast, the H(2)O MGPCs decreased for higher TMA exposures at all H(2)O exposures. This decrease may occur from more dehydroxylation at larger hydroxyl coverages after the H(2)O exposures. The hydroxyl coverage after the H(2)O exposure was dependent only on the H(2)O exposure. The Al(2)O(3) MGPC was also linearly dependent on the hydroxyl coverage after the H(2)O dose. Both the observed hydroxyl coverage versus H(2)O exposure and the Al(2)O(3) ALD growth versus H(2)O and TMA exposures were fit using modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm expressions where the pressures are replaced with exposures. These results should be useful for understanding low-temperature Al(2)O(3) ALD, which is important for coating organic, polymeric, and biological substrates.

  19. Influence of the Al2O3 partial-monolayer number on the crystallization mechanism of TiO2 in ALD TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates and its impact on the material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testoni, G. E.; Chiappim, W.; Pessoa, R. S.; Fraga, M. A.; Miyakawa, W.; Sakane, K. K.; Galvão, N. K. A. M.; Vieira, L.; Maciel, H. S.

    2016-09-01

    TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates are being investigated to obtain unique materials with chemical, physical, optical, electrical and mechanical properties for a broad range of applications that include electronic and energy storage devices. Here, we discuss the properties of TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminate structures constructed on silicon (1 0 0) and glass substrates using atomic layer deposition (ALD) by alternatively depositing a TiO2 sublayer and Al2O3 partial-monolayer using TTIP-H2O and TMA-H2O precursors, respectively. The Al2O3 is formed by a single TMA-H2O cycle, so it is a partial-monolayer because of steric hindrance of the precursors, while the TiO2 sublayer is formed by several TTIP-H2O cycles. Overall, each nanolaminate incorporates a certain number of Al2O3 partial-monolayers with this number varying from 10-90 in the TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminate grown during 2700 total reaction cycles of TiO2 at a temperature of 250 °C. The fundamental properties of the TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates, namely film thickness, chemical composition, microstructure and morphology were examined in order to better understand the influence of the number of Al2O3 partial-monolayers on the crystallization mechanism of TiO2. In addition, some optical, electrical and mechanical properties were determined and correlated with fundamental characteristics. The results show clearly the effect of Al2O3 partial-monolayers as an internal barrier, which promotes structural inhomogeneity in the film and influences the fundamental properties of the nanolaminate. These properties are correlated with gas phase analysis that evidenced the poisoning effect of trimethylaluminum (TMA) pulse during the TiO2 layer growth, perturbing the growth per cycle and consequently the overall film thickness. It was shown that the changes in the fundamental properties of TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates had little influence on optical properties such as band gap and transmittance. However, in contrast, electrical properties as resistivity

  20. Memristive behavior of Al2O3 film with bottom electrode surface modified by Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shu-Chao; Dong, Rui-Xin; Yan, Xun-Ling

    2014-09-01

    The memristive behavior of Al2O3-based device is significantly improved by introducing Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Inserting Ag NPs can effectively reduce the switching voltages, increase the resistance ratio (about 104) and enhance the sweep endurance (300 cycles). In particular, the stable switching properties are obtained by inserting an Ag NPs layer with an average diameter of 14 nm on the surface of bottom electrode, and the devices show a long retention time (more than 106 s) compared with the devices without Ag NPs. The switching mechanism is related to the oxygen-vacancy-based conducting filaments and the interfacial effect. The local enhancement and nonuniform distribution of electric field have the benefits to promote, induce and modulate the growth of conducting filaments, such as shape, location and orientation, which are responsible for the improvement performance of the devices.

  1. Memristive behavior of Al2O3 film with bottom electrode surface modified by Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shu-Chao; Dong, Rui-Xin; Yan, Xun-Ling

    2015-02-01

    The memristive behavior of Al2O3-based device is significantly improved by introducing Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Inserting Ag NPs can effectively reduce the switching voltages, increase the resistance ratio (about 104) and enhance the sweep endurance (300 cycles). In particular, the stable switching properties are obtained by inserting an Ag NPs layer with an average diameter of 14 nm on the surface of bottom electrode, and the devices show a long retention time (more than 106 s) compared with the devices without Ag NPs. The switching mechanism is related to the oxygen-vacancy-based conducting filaments and the interfacial effect. The local enhancement and nonuniform distribution of electric field have the benefits to promote, induce and modulate the growth of conducting filaments, such as shape, location and orientation, which are responsible for the improvement performance of the devices.

  2. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, J.; Katkevics, J.; Erts, D.; Viksna, A.

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH3COONa, K2SO4, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  3. XPS and NMR analysis on 12CaO•7Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, R. K.; Feng, S.; Tao, H. Z.

    2017-01-01

    12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7) glass was prepared by the melt quenching method. The glass transition temperature (T g) and the crystallization temperature (T c) of C12A7 glass are about 1050 K and 1194 K, respectively, measured by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The structure of C12A7 glass was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR). Analysis shows that Al coordination number is about four in C12A7 glass, in which AlO4 tetrahedrons and bridging oxygens (BO) constitute the glass network. Ca2+ produces a few of non-bridging oxygens (NBO), which become neighbours of Al.

  4. Investigation of etching techniques for superconductive Nb/Al-Al2O3/Nb fabrication processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberger, A. W.; Lea, D. M.; Lloyd, F. L.

    1993-01-01

    Wet etching, CF4 and SF6 reactive ion etching (RIE), RIE/wet hybrid etching, Cl-based RIE, ion milling, and liftoff techniques have been investigated for use in superconductive Nb/Al-Al2O3/Nb fabrication processes. High-quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junctions have been fabricated using a variety of these etching methods; however, each technique offers distinct tradeoffs for a given process an wafer design. In particular, it was shown that SF6 provides an excellent RIE chemistry for low-voltage anisotropic etching of Nb with high selectivity to Al. The SF6 tool has greatly improved the trilevel resist junction insulation process. Excellent repeatability, selectivity with respect to quartz, and submicron resolution make Cl2 + BCl3 + CHCl3 RIE a very attractive process for trilayer patterning.

  5. Fundamental Influence of C on Adhesion of the Al2O3/Al Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Evans, Anthony

    2002-12-01

    Our first-principles computations indicate that the clean Al2O3/Al interface is relatively weak—weaker than bulk Al. Fracture experiments reveal that the interface is relatively strong with observed failure in bulk Al, however. This paradox is resolved via doping effects of the common impurity C. We have found that only 1/3 of a monolayer of carbon segregated to the interface can increase the work of separation by a factor of 3. The resulting strong interface is consistent with fracture experiments. It arises due to void formation in the interface, which provides low-strain sites for the carbon to segregate to. The degree of void formation is consistent with the relatively high heat of oxide formation of Al.

  6. CoFe2/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructures by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Grocke, Garrett; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Wang, Xinjun; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Nianxiang; Howe, Brandon; Chen, Xing

    2016-05-01

    Multiferroic materials and applications allow electric bias control of magnetism or magnetic bias control of polarization, enabling fast, compact, energy-efficient devices in RF/microwave communication systems such as filters, shifters, and antennas; electronics devices such as inductors and capacitors; and other magnetic material related applications including sensors and memories. In this manuscript, we utilize atomic layer deposition technology to grow magnetic CoFe metallic thin films onto PMNPT, with a ˜110 Oe electric field induced ferromagnetic resonance field shift in the CoFe/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructure. Our work demonstrates an atomic layer deposition fabricated multiferroic heterostructure with significant tunability and shows that the unique thin film growth mechanism will benefit integrated multiferroic application in near future.

  7. Oxygen diffusion in alpha-Al2O3. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Halloran, J. W.; Cooper, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen self diffusion coefficients were determined in single crystal alpha-Al2O3 using the gas exchange technique. The samples were semi-infinite slabs cut from five different boules with varying background impurities. The diffusion direction was parallel to the c-axis. The tracer profiles were determined by two techniques, single spectrum proton activation and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The SIMS proved to be a more useful tool. The determined diffusion coefficients, which were insensitive to impurity levels and oxygen partial pressure, could be described by D = .00151 exp (-572kJ/RT) sq m/s. The insensitivities are discussed in terms of point defect clustering. Two independent models are consistent with the findings, the first considers the clusters as immobile point defect traps which buffer changes in the defect chemistry. The second considers clusters to be mobile and oxygen diffusion to be intrinsic behavior, the mechanism for oxygen transport involving neutral clusters of Schottky quintuplets.

  8. Study of Blue Photoluminescence in Titanium Doped Al2O3 Single-Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daimon, T.; Naruse, H.; Watanabe, H.; Oda, H.; Yamanaka, A.

    2011-05-01

    Optical properties have been investigated in titanium doped sapphire, prepared under oxidized condition. Charge-transfer transitions to 3d states of tetravalent Ti4+ from 2p ones of O2- are found to be located below the fundamental absorption edge of Al2O3. The photo-excitation for this band leads to the intense blue emission, the spectrum of which is quite different from the luminescence of the d-d transitions in trivalent Ti3+. The UV-irradiation also leads to an absorption peak below the charge-transfer band, resulted from that the photo-excited electrons in part form color centers. The post-annealing at higher temperatures above 300°C completely destroys the color centers. The blue photoluminescence is found to be greatly suppressed by the UV-irradiation and is recovered by the post-annealing. This fact indicates that the color centers prevent the blue emission.

  9. Preparation of crystal-controlled Y-TZP/Al2O3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, L.

    2012-12-01

    ZrO2-Y2O3-Al2O3 nanocrystalline powders with different grain sizes have been synthesized using a chemical coprecipitation method. Nano-powders were compacted uniaxially and densified in a vacuum hot-pressing furnace. Density, pore size distribution, grain size and composition of the composites were determined by various techniques, including BET gas absorption, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It has been shown that the porosity, grain and pore size of the ceramics can be controlled by the initial powder size and sintering temperature. Fully densified ceramics with narrow grain size distribution in the range of 100 ˜ 500 nm could be obtained.

  10. Acoustic phonon dynamics in strained cubic and hexagonal GaN/Al2O3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesion, P. D., Jr.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Mauriz, P. W.; Freire, V. N.

    2006-06-01

    We study the acoustic-phonon spectra in periodic and quasiperiodic (Fibonacci type) superlattices made up from III V nitride materials (GaN) intercalated by sapphire (Al2O3). Due to the misalignments between the sapphire and the GaN layers that can lead to threading dislocation densities as high as 108-1010 cm-1, and a significant lattice mismatch (~14%), the phonon dynamics is described beyond the continuum elastic model using coupled elastic and electromagnetic equations, stressing the importance of the piezoelectric polarization field in a strained condition. We use a transfer-matrix treatment to simplify the algebra, which would be otherwise quite complicated, allowing a neat analytical expressions for the phonon dispersion relation. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of the localization and magnitude of the allowed band widths in the phonon's spectra, as well as their scale law and the parametric spectrum of singularities f(α), are presented and discussed.

  11. Process Optimization for Suppressing Cracks in Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Al2O3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, F. Y.; Wu, D. J.; Yan, S.; Ma, G. Y.; Zhang, B.

    2017-03-01

    Direct additive manufacturing of ceramics (DAMC) without binders is a promising technique for rapidly fabricating high-purity components with good performance. Nevertheless, cracks are easily generated during fabrication as a result of the high intrinsic brittleness of ceramics and the great temperature gradients. Therefore, optimizing the DAMC process is a challenge. In this study, direct fabrication of Al2O3 single-bead wall structures are conducted with a laser engineered net shaping (LENS) system. A new process optimization method for suppressing cracks is proposed based on analytical models, and then the influence of process parameters on crack number is discussed experimentally. The results indicate that the crack number decreases obviously with the increase of scanning speed. Single-bead wall specimens without cracks are successfully fabricated by the optimized process.

  12. 12CaO-7Al2O3 Electride Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Lauren P. (Inventor); Williams, John D. (Inventor); Martinez, Rafael A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The use of the electride form of 12CaO-7Al2O3, or C12A7, as a low work function electron emitter in a hollow cathode discharge apparatus is described. No heater is required to initiate operation of the present cathode, as is necessary for traditional hollow cathode devices. Because C12A7 has a fully oxidized lattice structure, exposure to oxygen does not degrade the electride. The electride was surrounded by a graphite liner since it was found that the C12A7 electride converts to it's eutectic (CA+C3A) form when heated (through natural hollow cathode operation) in a metal tube.

  13. Wear Resistance of Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced with Al2O3 Particles After Multiple Remelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasik, Adam; Pietrzak, Krystyna; Makowska, Katarzyna; Sobczak, Jerzy; Rudnik, Dariusz; Wojciechowski, Andrzej

    2016-08-01

    Based on previous results, the commercial composites of A359 (AlSi9Mg) alloy reinforced with 22 vol.% Al2O3 particles were submitted to multiple remelting by means of gravity casting and squeeze-casting procedures. The studies were focused on tribological tests, x-ray phase analyses, and microstructural examinations. More promising results were obtained for squeeze-casting method mainly because of the reduction of the negative microstructural effects such as shrinkage porosity or other microstructural defects and discontinuities. The results showed that direct remelting may be treated as economically well-founded and alternative way compared to other recycling processes. It was underlined that the multiple remelting method must be analyzed for any material separately.

  14. Synthesis and characterisation of YSZ-Al2O3 nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Santoyo-Salazar, J; González, G; Schabes-Retchkiman, P S; Ascencio, J A; Tartaj-Salvador, J; Chávez-Carvayar, J A

    2006-07-01

    In this work a co-precipitation route was used to synthesise two yttria-stabilised-zirconia (YSZ) phases with different concentrations of alumina (Al2O3). A tetragonal, with 3 mol% yttria, and a cubic, with 8 mol% yttria, phases were added with alumina in different weight proportions, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, and 60/40, respectively. After synthesised, products were sintered in a range 800-1100 degrees C for different intervals of time. Compounds were characterised by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Rietveld refinements, using FULPROF-Suite software, were carried out to obtain the cell parameters and structural characterisation of products.

  15. Effect of Surface Treatment on Shear Bond Strength between Resin Cement and Ce-TZP/Al2O3

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jee-Hwan; Shim, June-Sung; Roh, Byoung-Duck

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Although several studies evaluating the mechanical properties of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 have been published, to date, no study has been published investigating the bonding protocol between Ce-TZP/Al2O3 and resin cement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength to air-abraded Ce-TZP/Al2O3 when primers and two different cement types were used. Materials and Methods. Two types of zirconia (Y-TZP and Ce-TZP/Al2O3) specimens were further divided into four subgroups according to primer application and the cement used. Shear bond strength was measured after water storage for 3 days or 5,000 times thermocycling for artificial aging. Results. The Y-TZP block showed significantly higher shear bond strength than the Ce-TZP/Al2O3 block generally. Primer application promoted high bond strength and less effect on bond strength reduction after thermocycling, regardless of the type of cement, zirconia block, or aging time. Conclusions. Depending on the type of the primer or resin cement used after air-abrasion, different wettability of the zirconia surface can be observed. Application of primer affected the values of shear bond strength after the thermocycling procedure. In the case of using the same bonding protocol, Y-TZP could obtain significantly higher bond strength compared with Ce-TZP/Al2O3. PMID:27382569

  16. Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3–Al2O3 system

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku

    2008-01-01

    We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO3–Al2O3 system by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh2O3(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving Al2O3 tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO3 but the effect is not significant (≈-0.2 GPa/mol% Al2O3); (ii) Al2O3 produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (≈1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (xAl2O3 ≈6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D″ seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (≈4 GPa) for the basaltic Al-rich composition (xAl2O3 ≈20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh2O3(II) with increasing the Al concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations. PMID:19036928

  17. Electroless Ni-P-PTFE-Al2O3 Dispersion Nanocomposite Coating for Corrosion and Wear Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Singh, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to produce a coating having good corrosion and wear resistance alongside hardness but lesser friction coefficient, Ni-P-PTFE-Al2O3 (NiPPA) dispersion coating was developed. This was achieved by introducing nanosized polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and alumina (Al2O3) in the Ni-P matrix deposited on mild steel substrate. The coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of x-ray, and x-ray diffractrometry. Microhardness and wear resistance of the coating was measured using Vicker's hardness tester and Pin-on-Disc method, respectively. The corrosion behavior was measured using electrochemical polarization and immersion tests with and without exposure in 3.5% NaCl solution. It is observed that codeposition of Al2O3 and PTFE particles with Ni-P coating results in comparatively smooth surface with nodular grains. The NiPPA coating was observed to have moderate hardness between electroless Ni-P-PTFE and Ni-P-Al2O3 coating and good wear resistance with lubricating effect. Addition of both PTFE and Al2O3 is observed to enhance corrosion resistance of the Ni-P coating. However, improvement in corrosion resistance is more due to addition of Al2O3 than PTFE. Continuous exposure for 10-20 days in corrosive solution is found to deteriorate corrosion protection properties of the coating.

  18. Substrate-induced band structure and electronic properties in graphene/Al2O3(0001) interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyasov, V. V.; Ershov, I. V.; Ilyasov, A. V.; Popova, I. G.; Nguyen, Chuong V.

    2015-02-01

    Band structure investigation results of two-dimensional (2D) graphene (SLG) on Al2O3(0001) using the density functional theory (DFT) method as a possible element base for spintronics are presented. Regularities of a band structure change in the order three-dimensional (3D) Al2O3 → 2D Al2O3(0001) → 2D SLG/Al2O3(0001) as well as features of a chemical bond between SLG and sapphire on the basis of DFT calculations have been studied. Analysis of the band structure and interatomic spacing in the interface for both models allows speaking about physical SLG adsorption on the (0001)-surface sapphire constrained by aluminum atoms. Energy distribution features of surface states in 2D SLG/Al2O3(0001) interface are discussed. Analysis of effective atomic charge in the interface revealed surface charge fluctuations on the substrate in the presence of SLG, which can be explained by a decrease of the energy of occupied subsurface Al2O3 states relatively to the Fermi level.

  19. Electrical characteristics of multilayered HfO2-Al2O3 charge trapping stacks deposited by ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spassov, D.; Paskaleva, A.; Guziewicz, E.; Luka, G.; AKrajewski, T.; Kopalko, K.; Wierzbicka, A.; Blagoev, B.

    2016-10-01

    Electrical and charge trapping properties of atomic layer deposited HfO2-Al2O3 multilayer stacks with two different Al2O3 sublayer thicknesses were investigated regarding their implementation in charge trapping non-volatile memories. The effect of post deposition annealing in oxygen at 600°C is also studied. The decreasing Al2O3 thickness increases the stack's dielectric constant and the density of the initial positive oxide charge. The initial oxide charge increases after annealing to ∼6×1012 cm-2 and changes its sign to negative for the stacks with thicker Al2O3. The annealing enhances the dielectric constant of the stacks and reduces their thickness preserving the amorphous status. Nevertheless the annealing is not beneficial for the stacks with thicker Al2O3 as it considerably increases leakage currents. Conduction mechanisms in stacks were considered in terms of hopping conduction at low electric fields, and Fowler- Nordheim tunnelling, Schottky emission and Poole-Frenkel effect at higher ones. Maximum memory windows of about 12 and 16V were obtained for the as-grown structures with higher and lower Al2O3 content, respectively. In latter case additional improvement (the memory window increase up to 23V) is achieved by the annealing.

  20. Methionine bound to Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalysts studied by solid-state (13)C NMR.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert L; Schwartz, Thomas J; Dumesic, James A; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    The chemisorption and breakdown of methionine (Met) adsorbed on Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were investigated by solid-state NMR. (13)C-enriched Met (ca. 0.4mg) impregnated onto γ-Al2O3 or Pd/γ-Al2O3 gives NMR spectra with characteristic features of binding to γ-Al2O3, to Pd nanoparticles, and oxidative or reductive breakdown of Met. The SCH3 groups of Met showed characteristic changes in chemical shift on γ-Al2O3 (13ppm) vs. Pd (19ppm), providing strong evidence for preferential binding to Pd, while the NC carbon generates a small resonance at 96ppm assigned to a distinct nonprotonated species bound to O or Pd. Additionally, NMR shows that the SCH3 groups of Met are mobile on γ-Al2O3 but immobilized by binding to Pd particles; on small Pd particles (ca. 4nm), the NCH groups undergo large-amplitude motions. In a reducing environment, Met breaks down by C-S bond cleavage followed by formation of C2-C4 organic acids. The SCH3 signal shifts to 22ppm, which is likely the signature of the principal species responsible for strong catalyst inhibition. These experiments demonstrate that solid-state magic-angle spinning NMR of (13)C-enriched Met can be a sensitive probe to investigate catalyst surfaces and characterize catalyst inhibition both before reaction and postmortem.

  1. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of core-shell nano-TiO2 @ α-Al2O3 microspheres.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mao-Xiang; Han, Chong; Wang, Zhou; Shen, Xiang-Qian

    2014-09-01

    Core-shell nano-TiO2@a-Al2O3 microspheres of 5-20 μm were prepared by the heterogeneous precipitation method combined with the hydro-thermal and calcination process using α-Al2O3 microspheres as substrate. Their morphologies, microstructure and crystalline phase were characterized by SEM and XRD respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange. The as-prepared 10 wt.% nano-TiO2@α -Al2O3 microspheres possess α core-shell structure with a monolayer of nano-TiO2 particles less than 30 nm on the surface of α-Al2O3 microspheres. Their photocatalytic properties are largely influenced by the calcination temperature and the sample calcined at 800 degrees C for 2 h has the best photocatalytic activity. This high photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the synergetic effects of the unique structure of nano-TiO2 @α-Al2O3 microspheres, quantum size effect, composition of crystalline phase and crystallinity of nano-TiO2. These nano-TiO2@α-Al2O3 microspheres may be conveniently separable and useful in practical treatment of organic waste waters due to the large particle size and high photocatalytic properties.

  2. Structural and phase transition of α-Al2O3 powders obtained by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharthasaradhi, R.; Nehru, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium oxide has been synthesized by co-precipitation technique at different annealing temperature. Powder XRD confirms the formation of α-Al2O3 with rhombohedral crystal structure having lattice constant a = 4.76 Å and b = 12.99 Å by the Scherer formula, the average crystallite size is estimated to be 66 nm. The scanning electron microscope results expose the fact that the α-Al2O3 nanomaterials are seemingly porous in nature and highly agglomerated. Chemical composition of aluminium oxide is confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The molecular functional group is confirmed by FTIR. Optical absorption of α-Al2O3 has been studied in the UV-vis region and its direct band gap is estimated to be 5.97 eV. This study involves the structural and phase transition of Al2O3 and also indicates that α-Al2O3 has considerable properties, deserving further investigation for the energetic materials with excellent properties for the possibility of using thin-layer α-Al2O3 as a thermo luminescence material.

  3. Size-dependent sorption of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and orthophosphate on nano-γ-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yupeng; Koopal, Luuk K; Li, Wei; Zheng, Anmin; Yang, Jun; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2015-08-01

    The effects of particle size (5, 35 and 70nm) on the sorption of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP) and inorganic phosphate (KH2PO4, Pi) on γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles were investigated using batch sorption experiments, zeta potential measurements and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The results show that the maximum sorption densities (μmolm(-2)) for IHP and Pi increase with decreasing γ-Al2O3 particle size. The sorption affinity of γ-Al2O3 for IHP and Pi generally increases with decreasing particle size, and the sorption affinity for IHP is approximately one order of magnitude greater than that for Pi. In our experimental time scale, surface complexation is the main mechanism for IHP and Pi sorption on large size γ-Al2O3. While an additional surface precipitation mechanism, indicated by solid-state (31)P and (27)Al NMR data, is partly responsible for the greater sorption density on very small size γ-Al2O3. Compared with Pi, the effect of particle size on the sorption of IHP is more pronounced. The results suggest a size-dependent surface reactivity of Al2O3 nanoparticles with Pi/IHP. The underlying mechanism will also be relevant for other small nanosize (hydr)oxide particles and is important for our understanding of the role of small nanoparticles in controlling the mobility and fate of organic and inorganic phosphates in the environment.

  4. EXAFS Characterization of Dendrimer-Derived Pt/γ-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, A.; Alexeev, O. S.; Williams, C. T.; Ploehn, H. J.; Amiridis, M. D.

    2007-02-01

    The various steps involved in the preparation of a Pt/γ-Al2O3 material using hydroxyl-terminated generation four (G4OH) PAMAM dendrimers as templates were monitored by EXAFS. The results indicate that Cl ligands in the Pt precursors (H2PtCl6 and K2PtCl4) were partially replaced by aquo ligands upon hydrolysis to form [PtCl3(H2O)3]+ and [PtCl2(H2O)2] species. After interaction of such species with G4OH, Cl ligands from the first coordination shell of Pt were further replaced by nitrogen atoms from the dendrimer interior, indicating the complexation of Pt with the dendrimer. This process was accompanied by a transfer of the electron density from the dendrimer to Pt, indicating that the former plays the role of a ligand. Following treatment of the H2PtCl6/G4OH and K2PtCl4/G4OH composites with NaBH4, no substantial changes were detecteded in the electronic or coordination environment of Pt, and no formation of metal nanoparticles was observed. However, when the reduction treatment was performed with H2, the formation of extremely small Pt clusters incorporating no more than 4 Pt atoms was observed. These Pt species remained strongly bonded to the dendrimer and their nuclearity depends on the length of the H2 treatment. Formation of Pt nanoparticles with an average diameter of approximately 10 Å was finally observed after the deposition of H2PtCl6/G4OH on γ-Al2O3 and drying, suggesting that their formation may be related to the collapse of the dendrimer structure. The Pt nanoparticles formed appear to have high mobility, since subsequent thermal treatment in O2/H2 led to further sintering.

  5. Latent tracks and associated strain in Al2O3 irradiated with swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, J. H.; Rymzhanov, R. A.; Skuratov, V. A.; Volkov, A. E.; Kirilkin, N. S.

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of latent ion tracks induced by high energy heavy ions in Al2O3 was investigated using a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), exit wave reconstruction, geometric phase analysis and numerical simulations. Single crystal α-Al2O3 crystals were irradiated with 167 MeV Xe ions along the c-axis to fluences between 1 × 1010 and 1 × 1013 cm-2. Planar TEM lamella were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) and geometrical phase analysis was performed on the phase image of the reconstructed complex electron wave at the specimen exit surface in order to estimate the latent strain around individual track cores. In addition to the experimental data, the material excitation in a SHI track was numerically simulated by combining Monte-Carlo code, describing the excitation of the electronic subsystem, with classical molecular dynamics of the lattice atoms. Experimental and simulation data both showed that the relaxation of the excess lattice energy results in the formation of a cylinder-like disordered region of about 4 nm in diameter consisting of an underdense core surrounded by an overdense shell. Modeling of the passage of a second ion in the vicinity of this disordered region revealed that this damaged area can be restored to a near damage free state. The estimation of a maximal effective distance of recrystallization between the ion trajectories yields values of about 6-6.5 nm which are of the same order of magnitude as those estimated from the saturation density of latent ion tracks detected by TEM.

  6. Preparation of nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/polyethylene separator crosslinked by electron beam irradiation for lithium secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Yoon-Mook; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Although micro-porous membranes made of polyethylene (PE) offer excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability, they exhibit large thermal shrinkage at high temperature, which causes a short circuit between positive and negative electrodes in cases of unusual heat generation. We tried to develop a new technology to reduce the thermal shrinkage of PE separators by introducing γ-Al2O3 particles treated with coupling agent on PE separators. Nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators were prepared by the dip coating of polyethylene(PE) separators in γ-Al2O3/poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/crosslinker (1,3,5-trially-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1 H,3 H,5 H)-trione (TTT) solution with humidity control followed by electron beam irradiation. γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT (95/5/2)-coated PE separator showed the highest electrolyte uptake (157%) and ionic conductivity (1.3 mS/cm). On the basis of the thermal shrinkage test, the nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators containing TTT irradiated by electron beam exhibited a higher thermal resistance. Moreover, a linear sweep voltammetry test showed that the irradiated nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators have electrochemical stabilities of up to 5.0 V. In a battery performance test, the coin cell assembled with γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT-coated PE separator showed excellent discharge cycle performance.

  7. Antibacterial potential of Al2O3 nanoparticles against multidrug resistance strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from skin exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Khan, Haris M.; Khan, Aijaz A.; Pal, Ruchita; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    To date very little studies are available in the literature on the interaction of Al2O3 nanoparticles with multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Considering the paucity of earlier reports the objective of present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Al2O3 NPs (<50 nm) against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci by various methods. Al2O3 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The MIC was found to be in the range of 1,700-3,400 μg/ml. Almost no growth was observed at 2,000 μg/ml for up to 10 h. SEM micrograph revealed that the treated cells were significantly damaged, showed indentation on cell surface and clusters of NPs on bacterial cell wall. HR-TEM micrograph shows disruption and disorganization of cell membrane and cell wall. The cell membrane was extensively damaged and, most probably, the intracellular content has leaked out. Al2O3 NPs not only adhered at the surface of cell membrane, but also penetrated inside the bacterial cells, cause formation of irregular-shaped pits and perforation on their surfaces and may also interact with the cellular macromolecules causing adverse effect including cell death. The data presented here are novel in that Al2O3 NPs are effective bactericidal agents regardless of the drug resistance mechanisms that confer importance to these bacteria as an emergent pathogen. Therefore, in depth studies regarding the interaction of Al2O3 NPs with cells, tissues, and organs as well as the optimum dose required to produce therapeutic effects need to be ascertained before we can expect a more meaningful role of the Al2O3 NPs in medical application.

  8. Thermal stability of surface and interface structure of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 on H-terminated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, K. Y.; Speck, F.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller, Th.; Ley, L.

    2007-11-01

    Using the atomic layer deposition technique, 1.2nm Al2O3 films were deposited as high-k gate dielectric layer on hydrogen-terminated silicon and annealed in vacuum and pure hydrogen in order to elucidate the effects of growth and annealing on the structure of film, interface, and surface. As analytical tools, high resolution core level spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation as variable photon source and Fourier Transform Infrared absorption spectroscopy in the attenuated total refraction mode were employed. For Al2O3 on H-terminated Si(111) and (100) surfaces the Si-H bonds are preserved at the interface, while Si-O-Al bonds provide the atomically abrupt interface between Al2O3 and Si. The chemical and structural integrity of the interface is maintained upon annealing except for a gradual loss of Si-H bonds. Growth of a SiO2 layer is observed after annealing, that is unambiguously located at the Al2O3 surface and not at the interface. Stress-induced emission of Si atoms from the interface is identified as the source of SiO2 based on a substantial broadening of the Si 2p core lines. A thermally induced reaction between Si and Al2O3 to form volatile SiO and Al2O is suggested to be responsible for the significant thickness reduction of Al2O3 that accompanies annealing at temperatures of 750°C. Conclusions for the likely effects of forming gas anneals on Al2O3/Si are drawn from this work.

  9. Kinetics for Steam and CO2 Reforming of Methane Over Ni/La/Al2O3 Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Hee; Choi, Bong Kwan; Park, Yoon Hwa; Moon, Dong Ju; Park, Nam Cook; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-07-01

    Kinetic studies of mixed (steam and dry) reforming of methane on Ni/La/Al2O3 and Ni/La-Co (1, 3 wt%)/Al2O3 catalysts were performed in an atmospheric fixed-bed reactor. Kinetic parameters for the mixed reforming over these catalysts were obtained under reaction conditions free from heat and mass transfer limitations. Variables for the mixed reforming were the reaction temperature and partial pressure of reactants. The fitting of the experimental data for the rate of methane conversion, rCH4, using the power law rate equation rCH4 = k(PrCH4)α(PCO2)β(PH2O)γ showed that the reaction orders α, β, and γ are steady and obtained values equal to α = 1, β = 0, and γ = 0. In other words, among CH4, CO2, H2O, and H2, only CH4 reaction orders were not zero and they were affected by the promoters. The apparent activation energy on catalysts Ni/La/Al2O3, Ni/La-Co (1)/Al2O3 and Ni/La-Co (3)/Al2O3 is 85.2, 93.8, and 99.4 kJ/mol, respectively. The addition of Co to Ni/La/Al2O3 was increased the apparent activation energy of the mixed reforming reaction. And the Ni/La-Co (3 wt%)/Al2O3 catalyst showed the highest reforming activity and apparent activation energy. The Co promoters can increase the apparent activation energy of mixed reforming of methane.

  10. Ultrahigh-pressure acoustic wave velocities of SiO2-Al2O3 glasses up to 200 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Itaru; Murakami, Motohiko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Ohtani, Eiji

    2016-12-01

    Extensive experimental studies on the structure and density of silicate glasses as laboratory analogs of natural silicate melts have attempted to address the nature of dense silicate melts that may be present at the base of the mantle. Previous ultrahigh-pressure experiments, however, have been performed on simple systems such as SiO2 or MgSiO3, and experiments in more complex system have been conducted under relatively low-pressure conditions below 60 GPa. The effect of other metal cations on structural changes that occur in dense silicate glasses under ultrahigh pressures has been poorly understood. Here, we used a Brillouin scattering spectroscopic method up to pressures of 196.9 GPa to conduct in situ high-pressure acoustic wave velocity measurements of SiO2-Al2O3 glasses in order to understand the effect of Al2O3 on pressure-induced structural changes in the glasses as analogs of aluminosilicate melts. From 10 to 40 GPa, the transverse acoustic wave velocity ( V S ) of Al2O3-rich glass (SiO2 + 20.5 mol% Al2O3) was greater than that of Al2O3-poor glass (SiO2 + 3.9 mol% Al2O3). This result suggests that SiO2-Al2O3 glasses with higher proportions of Al ions with large oxygen coordination numbers (5 and 6) become elastically stiffer up to 40 GPa, depending on the Al2O3 content, but then soften above 40 GPa. At pressures from 40 to ~100 GPa, the increase in V S with increasing pressure became less steep than below 40 GPa. Above ~100 GPa, there were abrupt increases in the P-V S gradients ( dV S /dP) at 130 GPa in Al2O3-poor glass and at 116 GPa in Al2O3-rich glass. These changes resemble previous experimental results on SiO2 glass and MgSiO3 glass. Given that changes of dV S / dP have commonly been related to changes in the Si-O coordination states in the glasses, our results, therefore, may indicate a drastic structural transformation in SiO2-Al2O3 glasses above 116 GPa, possibly associated with an average Si-O coordination number change to higher than 6. Compared

  11. Analysis of the co-deposition of Al2O3 particles with nickel by an electrolytic route: The influence of organic additives presence and Al2O3 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temam, H. B.; Temam, E. G.

    2016-04-01

    Alloy coatings were prepared by co-deposition of Al2O3 particles in Ni matrix on carbon steel substrate from nickel chloride bath in which metallic powders were held in suspension. The influence of metal powder amount in the bath on chemical composition, morphology, thickness, microhardness and corrosion behavior of obtained coatings, has been investigated. It was shown that the presence of Al2O3 particles in deposit greatly improves the hardness and the wear resistance of alloy coatings. Characterization by microanalysis (EDX) of the various deposits elaborated confirms that the rate of particles incorporated increases as the concentration of solid particles increasing. The results showed that the presence of organic additives in Ni-Al2O3 electrolyte deposition led to an increase in the hardness and corrosion resistance of the deposits.

  12. Effect of Al2O3 encapsulation on multilayer MoSe2 thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Yeoul Kim, Seong; Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Woong

    2017-03-01

    We report the effect of Al2O3 encapsulation on the device performance of multilayer MoSe2 thin-film transistors based on statistical investigation of 29 devices with a SiO2 bottom-gate dielectric. On average, Al2O3 encapsulation by atomic layer deposition increased the field-effect mobility from 10.1 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 to 14.8 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, decreased the on/off-current ratio from 8.5  ×  105 to 2.3  ×  105 and negatively shifted the threshold voltage from  ‑1.1 V to  ‑8.1 V. Calculation based on the Y-function method indicated that the enhancement of intrinsic carrier mobility occurred independently of the reduction of contact resistance after Al2O3 encapsulation. Furthermore, contrary to previous reports in the literature, we observe a negligible effect of thermal annealing on contact resistance and carrier mobility during the atomic layer deposition of Al2O3. These results demonstrate that Al2O3 encapsulation is a useful method for improving the carrier mobility of multilayer MoSe2 transistors, providing important implications on the application of MoSe2 and other 2D materials into high-performance transistors.

  13. Temperature-dependent elastic stiffness constants of α- and θ-Al2O3 from first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shun-Li; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yi; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2010-09-22

    Temperature-dependent elastic stiffness constants (c(ij)s), including both the isothermal and isoentropic ones, have been predicted for rhombohedral α-Al(2)O(3) and monoclinic θ-Al(2)O(3) in terms of a quasistatic approach, i.e., a combination of volume-dependent c(ij)s determined by a first-principles strain versus stress method and direction-dependent thermal expansions obtained by first-principles phonon calculations. A good agreement is observed between the predictions and the available experiments for α-Al(2)O(3), especially for the off-diagonal elastic constants. In addition, the temperature-dependent c(ij)s predicted herein, in particular the ones for metastable θ-Al(2)O(3), enable the stress analysis at elevated temperatures in thermally grown oxides containing α- and θ-Al(2)O(3), which are crucial to understand the failure of thermal barrier coatings in gas-turbine engines.

  14. Development of Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst for reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction.

    PubMed

    Kharaji, Abolfazl Gharibi; Shariati, Ahmad; Ostadi, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, Mo/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared using impregnation method. Then it was promoted with Ni ions to produce Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst. The structures of the catalysts were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), CO chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. Catalytic performances of the two catalysts were investigated in a fixed-bed reactor for RWGS reaction. The results indicated that addition of nickel promoter to Mo/Al2O3 catalyst enhances its activity. It is reasonable for the electron deficient state of the Ni species and existence of NiMoO4 phase to possess high activity in RWGS reaction. Stability test of Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst was carried out in a fixed bed reactor and a high CO2 conversion for 60 h time on stream was demonstrated. This study introduces a new catalyst, Ni-Mo/Al2O3, with high activity and stability for RWGS reaction.

  15. Theoretical study on (Al2O3)n (n = 1-10 and 30) fullerenes and H2 adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiao; Lu, Wen-Cai; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Li, Ze-Sheng; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2008-04-07

    The structures and stabilities of (Al2O3)n (n = 1-10 and 30) clusters were studied by means of first principles calculations. The calculated results reveal that the global minima of small (Al2O3)n (n = 1-5) clusters are cage structures with high symmetries, in which Al and O atoms are three- and two-coordinated, respectively, and are linked to neighbors via single bonds. Beyond (Al2O3)5, we calculated both cage and cage-dimer structures for (Al2O3)n (n = 6-10), and the results show that, at this size range, cage-dimer structures are more stable than cage structures. Furthermore, an onion-like motif for (Al2O3)10 was studied, and it is interesting to find that, at this size, the onion structure is more favorable than cage and cage-dimer structures. For large clusters, a shell structure of Al60O90 is suggested. Electronic properties and calculations on hydrogen adsorption of these aluminum oxide structures are reported, and we discuss their possible use as hydrogen storage materials.

  16. Assimilation Behavior of Calcium Ferrite and Calcium Diferrite with Sintered Al2O3 and MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hongming; Wu, Xuejian; Chun, Tiejun; Di, Zhanxia; Yu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the assimilation behaviors between calcium ferrite (CF), calcium diferrite (CF2) and sintered Al2O3, and MgO were explored by an improved sessile drop technique, and the interfacial microstructure was discussed. The results indicated that the apparent contact angles of CF slag on Al2O3 and MgO substrate were 15.7 and 5.5 deg, and the apparent contact angles of CF2 slag on Al2O3 and MgO substrate were 17.9 and 7.2 deg, respectively. Namely, CF and CF2 slag were wetting well with Al2O3 and MgO substrate. The dissolution of Al2O3 substrate into the CF and CF2 slag was found to be the driving force of the wetting process. For the CF-MgO and CF2-MgO substrate systems, CaO contrarily distributed with MgO after wetting. For the CF-MgO system, after wetting, the slag was composed of CF and C2F, and most of the Fe2O3 permeated into substrate and formed two permeating layers.

  17. Methanobactin-Mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Supported over Al2O3 toward an Efficient Catalyst for Glucose Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Jia-Ying; Lin, Kai; Wang, Yan; Xia, Chun-Gu

    2014-01-01

    Methanobactin (Mb) is a copper-binding peptide that appears to function as an agent for copper sequestration and uptake in methanotrophs. Mb can also bind and reduce Au(III) to Au(0). In this paper, Au/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by a novel incipient wetness-Mb-mediated bioreduction method were used for glucose oxidation. The catalysts were characterized, and the analysis revealed that very small gold nanoparticles with a particle size <4 nm were prepared by the incipient wetness-Mb-mediated bioreduction method, even at 1.0% Au loading (w/w). The influence of Au loading, calcination temperature and calcination time on the specific activity of Au/Al2O3 catalysts was systematically investigated. Experimental results showed that decomposing the Mb molecules properly by calcinations can enhance the specific activity of Au/Al2O3 catalysts, though they acted as reductant and protective agents during the catalyst preparation. Au/Al2O3 catalysts synthesized by the method exhibited optimum specific activity under operational synthesis conditions of Au loading of 1.0 wt % and calcined at 450 °C for 2 h. The catalysts were reused eight times, without a significant decrease in specific activity. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at the preparation of Au/Al2O3 catalysts by Mb-mediated in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles. PMID:25429424

  18. Diffusion of oxygen in amorphous Al2O3, Ta2O5, and Nb2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, R.; Toda, T.; Tsukui, S.; Tane, M.; Ishimaru, M.; Suzuki, T.; Nakajima, H.

    2014-07-01

    The self-diffusivity of oxygen in amorphous Al2O3 (a-Al2O3), a-Ta2O5, and a-Nb2O5 was investigated along with structural analysis in terms of pair distribution function (PDF). The low activation energy, ˜1.2 eV, for diffusion in the oxides suggests a single atomic jump of oxygen ions mediated via vacancy-like defects. However, the pre-exponential factor for a-Ta2O5 and a-Nb2O5 with lower bond energy was two orders of magnitude larger than that for a-Al2O3 with higher bond energy. PDF analyses revealed that the short-range configuration in a-Ta2O5 and a-Nb2O5 was more broadly distributed than that in a-Al2O3. Due to the larger variety of atomic configurations of a-Ta2O5 and a-Nb2O5, these oxides have a higher activation entropy for diffusion than a-Al2O3. The entropy term for diffusion associated with short-range structures was shown to be a dominant factor for diffusion in amorphous oxides.

  19. Microstructure Investigation of Cu-Ni Base Al2O3 Nanocomposites: From Nanoparticles Synthesis to Consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. I.; Suguihiro, N. M.; Brocchi, E. A.; Navarro, R.; Solorzano, I. G.

    2017-02-01

    Different compositions of Cu-Ni/Al2O3 nanocomposites were prepared by a chemical-based synthesis of co-formed oxides (CuO-NiO-Al2O3) nanoparticles followed by selective hydrogen reduction of the Cu and Ni oxides and finally by consolidation into pellets. The synthesized composites with both phases (metallic and oxide) containing nanoparticles in the 5 to 60 nm range have been systematically produced. Micro- and nanoscale characterization techniques were extensively employed in all stages of the process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses have shown a heterogeneous distribution of chemical elements resulting in the formation of Cu- and Ni-rich nanoparticles containing Al2O3 phase in a controlled low volume fraction, which later mostly dispersed between the metallic particle and, to a lesser extent, within metallic particles. After consolidation, under uniaxial pressure followed by sintering, the compacted nanocomposite observed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed that the Al2O3 have been more homogeneously distributed as such: the majority of it at the newly formed grain boundaries of the consolidated pellet and a small part of it within the metallic Cu-Ni matrix. Microhardness measurements demonstrate that dispersion of Al2O3 was successfully achieved as reinforcement phase, yielding up to 100 pct increase in hardness.

  20. Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

  1. W:Al2O3 nanocomposite thin films with tunable optical properties prepared by atomic layer deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Babar, Shaista; Mane, Anil U.; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; ...

    2016-06-17

    Here, a systematic alteration in the optical properties of W:Al2O3 nanocomposite films is demonstrated by precisely varying the W cycle percentage (W%) from 0 to 100% in Al2O3 during atomic layer deposition. The direct and indirect band energies of the nanocomposite materials decrease from 5.2 to 4.2 eV and from 3.3 to 1.8 eV, respectively, by increasing the W% from 10 to 40. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that, for W% < 50, W is present in both metallic and suboxide states, whereas, for W% ≥ 50, only metallic W is seen. This transition from dielectric to metallic character at W%more » ~ 50 is accompanied by an increase in the electrical and thermal conductivity and the disappearance of a clear band gap in the absorption spectrum. The density of the films increases monotonically from 3.1 g/cm3 for pure Al2O3 to 17.1 g/cm3 for pure W, whereas the surface roughness is greatest for the W% = 50 films. The W:Al2O3 nanocomposite films are thermally stable and show little change in optical properties upon annealing in air at 500 °C. These W:Al2O3 nanocomposite films show promise as selective solar absorption coatings for concentrated solar power applications.« less

  2. Passivation Effect of Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Film on HgCdTe Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Sun, Chang-Hong; Chen, Yi-Yu; Zhang, Tian-Ning; Chen, Xin; Lin, Chun; Ding, Ring-Jun; He, Li

    2016-09-01

    The passivation effect of atomic layer deposition of (ALD) Al2O3 film on a HgCdTe infrared detector was investigated in this work. The passivation effect of Al2O3 film was evaluated by measuring the minority carrier lifetime, capacitance versus voltage ( C- V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices, and resistance versus voltage ( R- V) characteristics of variable-area photodiodes. The minority carrier lifetime, C- V characteristics, and R- V characteristics of HgCdTe devices passivated by ALD Al2O3 film was comparable to those of HgCdTe devices passivated by e-beam evaporation of ZnS/CdTe film. However, the baking stability of devices passivated by Al2O3 film is inferior to that of devices passivated by ZnS/CdTe film. In future work, by optimizing the ALD Al2O3 film growing process and annealing conditions, it may be feasible to achieve both excellent electrical properties and good baking stability.

  3. Enhancement of the photoluminescence in Er-doped Al2O3 fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönn, John; Karvonen, Lasse; Pyymäki-Perros, Alexander; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Lipsanen, Harri; Säynätjoki, Antti; Sun, Zhipei

    2016-02-01

    We show the enhancement of the photoluminescence at λ = 1:5 μm in highly-doped (> 1021 cm-3) Er-Al2O3 samples by controlling the vertical distance between the Er-ions using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Er2O3 and Al2O3 were deposited on top of silicon in an alternating fashion with ALD. Five Er2O3-Al2O3 samples were fabricated by keeping the amount of Er2O3 constant but changing the thickness of the Al2O3-layers between the Er2O3-layers. The PL spectra of the samples reveal that the PL signal enhances up to 90% when the vertical distance (the number of Al2O3-layers) between the Er-ions increases. The PL enhancement can be related to the reduction of up-conversion signal at 532 and 650 nm in the Er-ions. Our results demonstrate that ALD is an excellent technique to fabricate and to optimize Er-doped materials due to its unique depositions properties.

  4. ENERGY CONVERSION FOR THE TRANSITION FROM Al TO γ-Al2O3 NANOPARTICLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shulin; Li, Shengjuan; Xu, Bo; Jian, Dunliang; Zhu, Yufang

    2013-07-01

    We have successfully converted large volume Al particles into γ-Al2O3 nanostructures by vibration milling at room temperature and successive treatment. We show that there exist special relationships among stacking fault energy (SFE), strain energy (SRE), and surface energy (SE) of the materials, including interdependence, intercompetition, and interconversion during the phase transition. SFE and SRE perform the same changing tendency, while SE just does the opposite. However, it is not the particle size but the energy state that determines the reactivity of the materials. And it is the SE that can directly determine the physical chemical reaction and the conversion into the end product rather than SFE and SRE. When SE goes up, the material reactivity and the product yield will be enhanced; and when SE goes down, the reaction and the product yield will decay. However, the state of SE depends closely on the change tendency of the SFE and SRE. That is, when SFE and SRE goes up, SE will goes down; if SFE and SRE goes down, SE will goes up. It seems that energy conservation law may be followed in a sense in the particle system if the external input keeps constant. The work may be significant for energy conversion in nano-scale and mechanosynthesis of oxide nanoparticles.

  5. Improving protein resistance of α-Al 2O 3 membranes by modification with POEGMA brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huating; Jing, Wenheng; Xing, Weihong; Fan, Yiqun

    2011-11-01

    A kind of protein-resistant ceramic membrane is prepared by grafting poly(oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA) brushes onto the surfaces and pore walls of α-Al2O3 membrane (AM) by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Contact-angle, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were measured to confirm that the surfaces and pore walls of the ceramic porous membranes have been modified by the brushes with this method successfully. The protein interaction behavior with the POEGMA modified membranes (AM-POEGMA) was studied by the model protein of bovine serum albumin (BSA). A protein-resistant mechanism of AM-POEGMA was proposed to describe an interesting phenomenon discovered in the filtration experiment, in which the initial flux filtrating BSA solution is higher than the pure water flux. The fouling of AM-POEGMA was easier to remove than AM for the action of POEGMA brushes, indicated that the ceramic porous membranes modified with POEGMA brushes exhibit excellent protein resistance.

  6. HCOOH hydrogenation over lanthanide-oxide-promoted Rh/Al 2O 3 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, J. J.; Carrizosa, I.; Odriozola, J. A.

    1993-08-01

    In this report, data corresponding to the hydrogenation of HCOOH adsorbed over a series of lanthanide-oxide-promoted Rh/Al 2O 3 catalysts are presented (Ln xO y, Ln=La, Ce, Sm, Yb, Lu). By comparison to thermal decomposition, it can be observed that the supports are unable to carry out the hydrogenation. Under these conditions, adsorbed formate decomposes through a dehydration mechanism as observed for an inert atmosphere. When rhodium is added to the samples and in the presence of hydrogen, adsorbed formate is eliminated from the surface at a lower temperature and a higher rate than the thermal decomposition. Adsorbed formate hydrogenation produces methane and water in the range 470-510 K, depending on the support employed. The presence of a small amount of gaseous HCOOH during methane production points to a mechanism in which adsorbed formate is converted into formic acid on the support. Its transformation into formic acid allows the adsorbate to reach the metal more easily where it immediately decomposes. The products of this decomposition are further hydrogenated into water and methane. Lewis acidity of the catalyst surface and metal dispersion are essential factors for formic-acid development and both are strongly modified by the presence of lanthanide oxides.

  7. Enhanced TC in granular and thin film Al-Al2O3 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. S.; Greene, R. L.

    It is known since the 1970s that the superconducting transition temperature of granular aluminum films can be as high as two to three times the transition temperature of bulk aluminum, depending on the grain size and how strongly the nanometer size grains are connected1,2. As the strength of the grain connectivity becomes increasingly weak, the enhanced TC is suppressed. The mechanism behind this enhancement is still under debate. Recently, work on larger aluminum nanoparticles (18nm) embedded in an insulating Al2O3 matrix showed an onset of the superconducting transition as high as three times that of bulk aluminum3. In this situation, the Al grains are electrically disconnected and in a regime far removed from that of the granular films. Here we compare the two situations through electronic and thermal measurements in order to help elucidate the mechanism behind the enhancements. 1S. Pracht, et al., arXiv:1508.04270v1 [cond-mat.supr-con] (2015). 2G. Deutscher, New Superconductors From Granular to High TC, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2006, p. 72-74. 3V. N. Smolyaninova, et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 15777 (2015). Funding by NSF DMR # 1410665.

  8. Laminar convective heat transfer characteristic of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a circular microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinavee, K.; Gogoi, T. K.; Pandey, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, laminar convective heat transfer characteristics Al2O3/water nanofluid in a circular microchannel is investigated using a two-phase (discrete phase) model. The computational fluid dynamic code FLUENT (ANSYS) is employed to solve the coupled momentum and energy equations with the boundary conditions of uniform wall heat flux and velocity at channel inlet. Detail analysis is done showing variation of wall temperature, fluid bulk mean temperature, heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, shear stress, friction, pressure drop, entropy generation etc. along the microchannel at two particle volume concentrations (1% and 4%) of the nanofluid. Comparison of results is provided between base and nanofluid and also for two cases, one with constant property and the other with variable temperature thermal conductivity and viscosity. Results show that heat transfer is enhanced in case of the nanofluid with low entropy generation and the heat transfer parameters increase with increase in nanoparticle volume concentration and Reynolds number. However, use of nanofluid also causes increase in pressure drop and shear stress. A comparison of the constant and variable property model showed that heat transfer is further enhanced; entropy, shear stress and pressure drop further decrease when temperature dependent properties of the nanofluid are considered instead of constant properties.

  9. Numerical investigation of Al2O3/water nanofluid laminar convective heat transfer through triangular ducts.

    PubMed

    Zeinali Heris, Saeed; Noie, Seyyed Hossein; Talaii, Elham; Sargolzaei, Javad

    2011-02-28

    In this article, laminar flow-forced convective heat transfer of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a triangular duct under constant wall temperature condition is investigated numerically. In this investigation, the effects of parameters, such as nanoparticles diameter, concentration, and Reynolds number on the enhancement of nanofluids heat transfer is studied. Besides, the comparison between nanofluid and pure fluid heat transfer is achieved in this article. Sometimes, because of pressure drop limitations, the need for non-circular ducts arises in many heat transfer applications. The low heat transfer rate of non-circular ducts is one the limitations of these systems, and utilization of nanofluid instead of pure fluid because of its potential to increase heat transfer of system can compensate this problem. In this article, for considering the presence of nanoparticl: es, the dispersion model is used. Numerical results represent an enhancement of heat transfer of fluid associated with changing to the suspension of nanometer-sized particles in the triangular duct. The results of the present model indicate that the nanofluid Nusselt number increases with increasing concentration of nanoparticles and decreasing diameter. Also, the enhancement of the fluid heat transfer becomes better at high Re in laminar flow with the addition of nanoparticles.

  10. Numerical investigation of Al2O3/water nanofluid laminar convective heat transfer through triangular ducts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this article, laminar flow-forced convective heat transfer of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a triangular duct under constant wall temperature condition is investigated numerically. In this investigation, the effects of parameters, such as nanoparticles diameter, concentration, and Reynolds number on the enhancement of nanofluids heat transfer is studied. Besides, the comparison between nanofluid and pure fluid heat transfer is achieved in this article. Sometimes, because of pressure drop limitations, the need for non-circular ducts arises in many heat transfer applications. The low heat transfer rate of non-circular ducts is one the limitations of these systems, and utilization of nanofluid instead of pure fluid because of its potential to increase heat transfer of system can compensate this problem. In this article, for considering the presence of nanoparticl: es, the dispersion model is used. Numerical results represent an enhancement of heat transfer of fluid associated with changing to the suspension of nanometer-sized particles in the triangular duct. The results of the present model indicate that the nanofluid Nusselt number increases with increasing concentration of nanoparticles and decreasing diameter. Also, the enhancement of the fluid heat transfer becomes better at high Re in laminar flow with the addition of nanoparticles. PMID:21711694

  11. Molten Al and (0001) α-Al2O3 Single Crystal: Interface Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-santillan, Joaquin

    2016-10-01

    The roughness on the " c"-plane (0001) sapphire single crystal reduces wetting of molten aluminum under Ar gas (99.999 pct) and PO2 10-15 Pa from 1073 K to 1473 K (800 °C to 1200 °C). The contact angle effect was partially understood by the roughness factor, R; however, the interfacial phenomenon involving this effect is yet a topic to study as it also depends, between other things, on the shape of droplet and the relationship to its substrate. The theory explains that the surface tension of liquid aluminum obtained by the sessile drop test can be determined just when a substrate is polished or free of any surface imperfection. However, roughness of sapphire (0001) surface promotes an apparent surface tension that exhibits different trends of wetting to that proposed in previous studies. This property adds to the interfacial wetting phenomena obtained from the Al-Al2O3 couple system and provides answers for contact angle trends toward a much more stable interface, which when coupled with thermodynamic conditions may help in the manufacturing, deterioration, and reliability of the system.

  12. Structural, elastic, vibrational and electronic properties of amorphous Al2O3 from ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2011-12-14

    First-principles molecular dynamics calculations of the structural, elastic, vibrational and electronic properties of amorphous Al(2)O(3), in a system consisting of a supercell of 80 atoms, are reported. A detailed analysis of the interatomic correlations allows us to conclude that the short-range order is mainly composed of AlO(4) tetrahedra, but, in contrast with previous results, also an important number of AlO(6) octahedra and AlO(5) units are present. The vibrational density of states presents two frequency bands, related to bond-bending and bond-stretching modes. It also shows other recognizable features present in similar amorphous oxides. We also present the calculation of elastic properties (bulk modulus and shear modulus). The calculated electronic structure of the material, including total and partial electronic density of states, charge distribution, electron localization function and the ionicity for each species, gives evidence of correlation between the ionicity and the coordination for each Al atom.

  13. Fuel purpose hydrotreating of sunflower oil on CoMo/Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Krár, Márton; Kovács, Sándor; Kalló, Dénes; Hancsók, Jeno

    2010-12-01

    The importance of the economical production and usage of new generation biofuels, the so-called bio gas oil (paraffins from triglycerides) and the results of the investigation for their productability on the CoMo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, which was activated by reduction, are presented. The conversion of triglycerides, the yield of total organic fractions and the target product, furthermore the type and ratio of deoxygenation reactions were determined as a function of process parameters. The advantageous process parameters were found (380 degrees C, 40-60 bar, 500-600 Nm(3)/m(3) H(2)/sunflower oil ratio, 1.0 h(-1)), where the conversion of triglycerides was 100% and the yield of the target fraction [high paraffin containing (>99%) gas oil boiling range product] was relatively high (73.7-73.9%). The deoxygenation of triglycerides the reduction as well as the decarboxylation/decarbonylation reactions took place. The yield of the target fractions did not achieve the theoretical values (81.4-86.5%). That is why it is necessary to separate the target fraction and recirculate the heavy fraction.

  14. New battery strategies with a polymer/Al2O3 separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyusung; Cho, Joon Hee; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Song, Jie; Peng, Jing; Gobet, Mallory; Greenbaum, Steven; Ellison, Christopher J.; Goodenough, John B.

    2014-10-01

    A low-cost, thin, flexible, and mechanically robust alkali-ion electrolyte separator is shown to allow fabrication of a safe rechargeable alkali-ion battery with alternative cathode strategies. A Na-ion battery with an insertion host as cathode and a Li-ion battery with a redox flow-through cathode are demonstrated to cycle without significant fade. The separator membrane is a composite of Al2O3 particles and cross-linked ethylene-oxide chains; it can be fabricated at low cost into a large-area thin membrane that blocks dendrites from an alkali-metal anode. To block a soluble ferrocene redox molecule from crossing from the cathode side to the anode in a Li-ion battery with a redox-flow cathode, a thin mixed Li+/electronic-conducting film has been added to the cathode side of the composite separator. An osmosis issue was minimized by balancing concentrations of solutes on the two sides of the separator where the cathode side contains a soluble redox molecule.

  15. Wet foams hydrophobized by amphiphiles to give Al2O3 porous ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Ashish; Park, Jung Gyu; Kim, Ik Jin

    2012-05-01

    Wet chemical method to prepare ceramic foams with antecedent stability using inorganic particles (Al2O3,SiO2 etc.) which are in situ hydrophobized upon adsorption of short-chain amphiphilic molecules in the wet state and heightened mechanical property in the sintered state was developed. These wet foams are stable over several days and show no bubble coarsening nor drainage or creaming. This long-term stability is achieved through the irreversible adsorption of partially hydrophobized colloidal particles to the air-water interface using short-chain amphiphiles to in situ modify the wetting behavior of the particle surface based on the observations of Pickering emulsions. As a result, the suspension is foamed homogeneously throughout its entire volume and porous bulk materials can be produced upon drying and sintering. Wet foams featuring average bubble sizes between 30 and 300μm and sintered foams with porosity from 50 to 85% were obtained by adjusting the amphiphile - particle concentration, and additives in the initial suspension. Cells were mostly closed with an average size of approximately 150 μm. Single cells were separated by walls with minimum thicknesses of 1-3 μm.

  16. Regimes of leakage current in ALD-processed Al2O3 thin-film layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, Holger; Reinker, Johannes; Bülow, Tim; Nanova, Diana; Johannes, Hans-Hermann; Kowalsky, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    A recently known phenomenon of thin oxide layers with thicknesses below approximately 40 nm is the increase in their breakdown electric field, called disruptive strength, towards lower thicknesses. This offers the possibility of examining the current-electric field characteristics at higher electric field strengths without an early electric breakdown. In this paper, we report on the identification of a current regime of trap-free square law and the buildup of an S-shaped current-electric field characteristic curve. This observation for atomic layer deposition (ALD)-processed Al2O3 layers has not been mentioned in the literature so far. Additionally, a modern model of space charge limited current is used to fit the S-shaped characteristic and extract the associated parameters, such as mobility, density of states, and the energy band gap between the conduction band and the trap state. In this context, the Poole-Frenkel effect is neglected in the model to fit our measurements towards the current increase after the trap filled limit.

  17. Conduction mechanisms in thin atomic layer deposited Al2O3 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, Holger; Montzka, Sebastian; Reinker, Johannes; Hirschberg, Felix; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Johannes, Hans-Hermann

    2013-11-01

    Thin Al2O3 layers of 2-135 nm thickness deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition at 80 °C were characterized regarding the current limiting mechanisms by increasing voltage ramp stress. By analyzing the j(U)-characteristics regarding ohmic injection, space charge limited current (SCLC), Schottky-emission, Fowler-Nordheim-tunneling, and Poole-Frenkel-emission, the limiting mechanisms were identified. This was performed by rearranging and plotting the data in a linear scale, such as Schottky-plot, Poole-Frenkel-plot, and Fowler-Nordheim-plot. Linear regression then was applied to the data to extract the values of relative permittivity from Schottky-plot slope and Poole-Frenkel-plot slope. From Fowler-Nordheim-plot slope, the Fowler-Nordheim-energy-barrier was extracted. Example measurements in addition to a statistical overview of the results of all investigated samples are provided. Linear regression was applied to the region of the data that matches the realistic values most. It is concluded that ohmic injection and therefore SCLC only occurs at thicknesses below 12 nm and that the Poole-Frenkel-effect is no significant current limiting process. The extracted Fowler-Nordheim-barriers vary in the range of up to approximately 4 eV but do not show a specific trend. It is discussed whether the negative slope in the Fowler-Nordheim-plot could in some cases be a misinterpreted trap filled limit in the case of space charge limited current.

  18. Internal photoemission in Ag-Al2O3-Al junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guedes, J. M. P.; Slayman, C. W.; Gustafson, T. K.; Jain, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The magnitude of the photon-induced current in Ag-Al2O3-Al metal-oxide-metal junctions has been studied as a function of photon energy and angle of incident radiation. Photocurrents were theoretically analyzed on the basis of a modified vacuum photoemission model (Jain, 1975; Slayman et al., to be published). Optical constants previously reported in the literature (Irani et al., 1971; Ehnrereich et al., 1963) were used to calculate the true spatial generation rate in Ag and Al as a function of the angle, polarization of incident radiation, and film thickness. Results were found to be in very good agreement with experimentally determined values for a tunable dye laser with a KDP doubling crystal pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a LiIO3 doubling crystal. The system provided risetimes of 50 ns or less and peak powers of 10 W. Under short circuit conditions, the photoresponse to incident power was linear up to available power densities of 10 kW/sq cm. Quantum efficiencies of about 0.1% at zero-bias, near 3.8 eV under P polarization, were typically observed.

  19. Formation, growth and dissociation of He bubbles in Al 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huis, M. A.; van Veen, A.; Labohm, F.; Fedorov, A. V.; Schut, H.; Kooi, B. J.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2004-02-01

    The formation and dissociation of helium bubbles and helium desorption are investigated in sapphire Al 2O 3(0 0 0 1) implanted with 30 keV He ions to four different doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 × 10 16 ions cm -2. The samples were annealed isochronally up to 1850 K in steps of 100 K. The techniques of Doppler broadening positron beam analysis (PBA) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) were used to investigate defect evolution and helium retention, respectively, during the annealing procedure. It was observed that the maximum bubble volume is found after 1250 K annealing, after which a process of bubble shrinkage sets in. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) was performed on the sample that was implanted with the highest-dose (2.0 × 10 16 He ions cm -2) after annealing at 1250 K. It was found that the bubbles are shaped as discs lying parallel with the surface and that the average bubble size is 5.5 nm. In all samples, helium is released mainly at a temperature of 1750 K. The desorption curves were analyzed by means of a permeation model. The activation energy for permeation was found as 4.0 eV.

  20. Mixed Matrix Carbon Molecular Sieve and Alumina (CMS-Al2O3) Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yingjun; Wang, David K.; Birkett, Greg; Martens, Wayde; Duke, Mikel C.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2016-01-01

    This work shows mixed matrix inorganic membranes prepared by the vacuum-assisted impregnation method, where phenolic resin precursors filled the pore of α-alumina substrates. Upon carbonisation, the phenolic resin decomposed into several fragments derived from the backbone of the resin matrix. The final stages of decomposition (>650 °C) led to a formation of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) structures, reaching the lowest average pore sizes of ~5 Å at carbonisation temperatures of 700 °C. The combination of vacuum-assisted impregnation and carbonisation led to the formation of mixed matrix of CMS and α-alumina particles (CMS-Al2O3) in a single membrane. These membranes were tested for pervaporative desalination and gave very high water fluxes of up to 25 kg m−2 h−1 for seawater (NaCl 3.5 wt%) at 75 °C. Salt rejection was also very high varying between 93–99% depending on temperature and feed salt concentration. Interestingly, the water fluxes remained almost constant and were not affected as feed salt concentration increased from 0.3, 1 and 3.5 wt%. PMID:27469389

  1. Thermal conductivity and viscosity measurements of ethylene glycol-based Al2O3 nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The dispersion and stability of nanofluids obtained by dispersing Al2O3 nanoparticles in ethylene glycol have been analyzed at several concentrations up to 25% in mass fraction. The thermal conductivity and viscosity were experimentally determined at temperatures ranging from 283.15 K to 323.15 K using an apparatus based on the hot-wire method and a rotational viscometer, respectively. It has been found that both thermal conductivity and viscosity increase with the concentration of nanoparticles, whereas when the temperature increases the viscosity diminishes and the thermal conductivity rises. Measured enhancements on thermal conductivity (up to 19%) compare well with literature values when available. New viscosity experimental data yield values more than twice larger than the base fluid. The influence of particle size on viscosity has been also studied, finding large differences that must be taken into account for any practical application. These experimental results were compared with some theoretical models, as those of Maxwell-Hamilton and Crosser for thermal conductivity and Krieger and Dougherty for viscosity. PMID:21711737

  2. Surface reactions of dimethyl ether on γ-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, G. N.; Volnina, E. A.; Kipnis, M. A.; Rodionov, A. S.; Samokhin, P. V.; Lin, G. I.

    2016-02-01

    The surface reactions of dimethyl ether (DME) on industrial alumina (γ-Al2O3) were studied by chromatographic analysis of the products at the outlet of the flow reactor and (independently) by diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy. The major products of the reactions at 250°C were found to be methanol formed in the reaction of DME with hydroxyl groups (the 3720 and 3674 cm-1 bands in the diffuse reflectance spectrum) and various methoxy groups (the 1121, 1070, 695, and 670 cm-1 bands in the differential spectra). The presence of molecularly adsorbed methanol was confirmed by experiments with methanol fed in a high-temperature IR cell. The interaction of the resulting methanol molecule with the hydroxyl group led to the formation of a water molecule in the gas phase and a methoxy group on the oxide surface. Strong adsorption of molecular DME was revealed, which was favored by an increase in the temperature of the preliminary calcination of oxide from 250 to 450-500°C; treatment of alumina with water vapor after its preliminary contact with DME led to a recovery of the hydroxyl coating and a replacement of molecularly adsorbed DME with hydroxyl. The thermal effect recorded in a flow reactor was positive during the adsorption of DME and negative during the desorption of weakly bonded DME. Schemes of formation of methoxy groups in the interaction of DME and methanol with surface hydroxyls were suggested.

  3. Dynamic Friction Performance of a Pneumatic Cylinder with Al2O3 Film on Cylinder Surface.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-11-01

    A friction force system is proposed for accurately measuring friction force and motion properties produced by reciprocating motion of piston in a pneumatic cylinder. In this study, the proposed system is used to measure the effects of lubricating greases of different viscosities on the friction properties of pneumatic cylinder, and improvement of stick-slip motion for the cylinder bore by anodizing processes. A servo motor-driven ball screw is used to drive the pneumatic cylinder to be tested and to measure the change in friction force of the pneumatic cylinder. Experimental results show, that under similar test conditions, the lubricating grease with viscosity VG100 is best suited for measuring reciprocating motion of the piston of pneumatic cylinder. The wear experiment showed that, in the Al2O3 film obtained at a preset voltage 40 V in the anodic process, the friction coefficient and hardness decreased by 55% and increased by 274% respectively, thus achieving a good tribology and wear resistance. Additionally, the amplitude variation in the friction force of the pneumatic cylinder wall that received the anodizing treatment was substantially reduced. Additionally, the stick-slip motion of the pneumatic cylinder during low-speed motion was substantially improved.

  4. Interface considerations in Al2O3/NiAl composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1993-01-01

    The fiber-matrix interface requirements in an Al2O3/NiAl composite were examined from theoretical considerations. Several factors that influence the interface bonding requirements were analyzed. These include: (1) residual stresses due to fiber-matrix coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch; (2) matrix cracking stress at room temperature; (3) fracture toughness at room temperature; (4) load transfer from the matrix to the fiber and ultimate tensile strength at the use temperature; and (5) creep resistance at high temperature. A relatively weak fiber-matrix bond, with an interfacial shear strength of approximately 15-20 MPa, might be sufficient for attaining the desired mechanical properties in the fiber direction at the use temperature. A weak fiber-matrix bond is also beneficial for increasing the fracture toughness of the composite at room temperature. In contrast, a strong fiber-matrix bond is required to withstand some of the residual stresses resulting from the fiber-matrix CTE mismatch, which are not likely to be reduced significantly by interface coatings. A relatively strong bond is also beneficial in increasing the matrix cracking stress at room temperature. Various interface coating options to accommodate the conflicting bonding requirements were reviewed. One viable coating option is to incorporate a thick, ductile interface layer well bonded to both the fiber and the matrix.

  5. Development of lasers optimized for pumping Ti:Al2O3 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rines, Glen A.; Schwarz, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory demonstrations that were completed included: (1) an all-solid-state, broadly tunable, single-frequency, Ti:Al2O3 master oscillator, and (2) a technique for obtaining 'long' (nominally 100- to 200-ns FWHM) laser pulses from a Q-switched, Nd oscillator at energy levels commensurate with straightforward amplification to the joule level. A diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YLF laser with intracavity SHG was designed, constructed, and evaluated. With this laser greater than 0.9 W of CW, output power at 523.5 nm with 10 W of diode-laser pump power delivered to the Nd:YLF crystal was obtained. With this laser as a pump source, for the first time, to our knowledge, an all solid-state, single frequency, Ti:Al203 laser with sufficient output power to injection seed a high-energy oscillator over a 20-nm bandwidth was demonstrated. The pulsed laser work succeeded in demonstrating pulse-stretching in a Q-switched Nd:YAG oscillator. Pulse energies greater than 50-mJ were obtained in pulses with 100- to 200-ns pulsewidths (FWHM).

  6. Athermal fading of luminescence in Al2 O3 ceramic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Ian; Kouroukla, Eftychia; Bailiff, Ian K.

    2015-03-01

    Retrospective dosimetry aims to reconstruct ionising radiation dose to populations following a radiological incident using materials not designed for that purpose. Sintered alumina ceramic can function as a dosimeter with its luminescence properties and related trapped charge storage mechanism. Its widespread use as a substrate in surface mount devices and incorporation in devices such as mobile phones make it a ubiquitous potential dosimeter. We investigated the optically (OSL) and thermally (TL) stimulated luminescence properties of sintered alumina substrates. In contrast to their single crystal analogue developed for personal dosimetry, Al2O3:C, the substrates exhibit a significant loss of trapped charge (fading) within hours following irradiation at RT that seriously limits their utility for dosimetry over an extended timescale. The fading rates of OSL and TL signals of 0402 resistors were analysed under various storage conditions (time and temperature), complemented by a study of their microstructure. The results support a model of athermal loss of trapped charge due to electron tunnelling from trapping states; this contrasting behaviour is attributed to a physical modification of the trap environment arising from the manufacturing process.

  7. Supermagnetism in discontinuous CoFe/Al2O3 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedanta, Subhankar; Kleemann, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    An ensemble of nanoparticles in which the interparticle magnetic interactions are sufficiently weak shows superparamagnetic (SPM) behavior as described by the Néel-Brown model. On the contrary, when inter-particle interactions are non-negligible, the system eventually shows collective behavior, which overcomes the individual anisotropy properties of the particles. At sufficiently strong interactions a magnetic nanoparticle ensemble can show superspin glass (SSG) properties similar to those of atomic spin glass systems in bulk. With further increase in concentration, but still below physical percolation, sufficiently strong interactions can be experienced to form a superferromagnetic (SFM) state. SFM domains in a non-percolated nanoparticle assembly are expected to be similar to conventional FM domains in a continuous film, with the decisive difference that the atomic spins are replaced by the superspins of the single-domain nanoparticles. In this article, we show that by varying the nominal thickness tn of the magnetic component in granular multilayers [Co80Fe20(tn)/Al2O3(3nm)]10 different types of "supermagnetism", such as superparamagnetism, superspin glass and superferromagnetism can be observed.

  8. Al2O3/GdAlO3 fiber for dental porcelain reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Igor S; Luz, Luciana A; Yoshimura, Humberto N; Cesar, Paulo F; Hernandes, Antonio C

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the addition of continuous or milled GdAlO3/Al2O3 fibers to a dental porcelain increases its mechanical properties. Porcelain bars without reinforcement (control) were compared to those reinforced with long fibers (30 vol%). Also, disk specimens reinforced with milled fibers were produced by adding 0 (control), 5 or 10 vol% of particles. The reinforcement with continuous fibers resulted in significant increase in the uniaxial flexural strength from 91.5 to 217.4 MPa. The addition of varied amounts of milled fibers to the porcelain did not significantly affect its biaxial flexural strength compared to the control group. SEM analysis showed that the interface between the continuous fiber and the porcelain was free of defects. On the other hand, it was possible to note the presence of cracks surrounding the milled fiber/porcelain interface. In conclusion, the reinforcement of the porcelain with continuous fibers resulted in an efficient mechanism to increase its mechanical properties; however the addition of milled fibers had no significant effect on the material because the porcelain was not able to wet the ceramic particles during the firing cycle.

  9. Mixed Matrix Carbon Molecular Sieve and Alumina (CMS-Al2O3) Membranes.

    PubMed

    Song, Yingjun; Wang, David K; Birkett, Greg; Martens, Wayde; Duke, Mikel C; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C

    2016-07-29

    This work shows mixed matrix inorganic membranes prepared by the vacuum-assisted impregnation method, where phenolic resin precursors filled the pore of α-alumina substrates. Upon carbonisation, the phenolic resin decomposed into several fragments derived from the backbone of the resin matrix. The final stages of decomposition (>650 °C) led to a formation of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) structures, reaching the lowest average pore sizes of ~5 Å at carbonisation temperatures of 700 °C. The combination of vacuum-assisted impregnation and carbonisation led to the formation of mixed matrix of CMS and α-alumina particles (CMS-Al2O3) in a single membrane. These membranes were tested for pervaporative desalination and gave very high water fluxes of up to 25 kg m(-2) h(-1) for seawater (NaCl 3.5 wt%) at 75 °C. Salt rejection was also very high varying between 93-99% depending on temperature and feed salt concentration. Interestingly, the water fluxes remained almost constant and were not affected as feed salt concentration increased from 0.3, 1 and 3.5 wt%.

  10. Mixed Matrix Carbon Molecular Sieve and Alumina (CMS-Al2O3) Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yingjun; Wang, David K.; Birkett, Greg; Martens, Wayde; Duke, Mikel C.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2016-07-01

    This work shows mixed matrix inorganic membranes prepared by the vacuum-assisted impregnation method, where phenolic resin precursors filled the pore of α-alumina substrates. Upon carbonisation, the phenolic resin decomposed into several fragments derived from the backbone of the resin matrix. The final stages of decomposition (>650 °C) led to a formation of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) structures, reaching the lowest average pore sizes of ~5 Å at carbonisation temperatures of 700 °C. The combination of vacuum-assisted impregnation and carbonisation led to the formation of mixed matrix of CMS and α-alumina particles (CMS-Al2O3) in a single membrane. These membranes were tested for pervaporative desalination and gave very high water fluxes of up to 25 kg m‑2 h‑1 for seawater (NaCl 3.5 wt%) at 75 °C. Salt rejection was also very high varying between 93–99% depending on temperature and feed salt concentration. Interestingly, the water fluxes remained almost constant and were not affected as feed salt concentration increased from 0.3, 1 and 3.5 wt%.

  11. The Influence of impact on Composite Armour System Kevlar-29/polyester-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhan, A. A.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Mohd Rafie, A. S.; Zahari, R.

    2012-09-01

    An experimental investigation of high velocity impact responses of composite laminated plates using a helium gas gun has been presented in this paper. The aim of this study was to develop the novel composite structure that meets the specific requirements of ballistic resistance which used for body protections, vehicles and other applications. Thus the high velocity impact tests were performed on composite Kevlar-29 fiber/polyester resin with alumina powder (Al2O3). The impact test was conducted by using a cylindrical steel projectile of 7.62mm diameter at a velocity range of 160-400 m/s. The results (shown in this work) are in terms of varying plate thickness and the amount of energy absorbed by the laminated plates meanwhile we obtained that the 12mm thickness of composite plate suitable for impact loading up to 200m/s impact velocity. Therefore this composite structure (it is used to reduce the amount of Kevlar) considered most economical armoure products. We used the ANSYS AUTODYN 3D- v.12 software for our simulations. The results have been obtained a4.1% maximum errors with experimental work of energy absorption.

  12. Growth of Polarity-Controlled ZnO Films on (0001) Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. S.; Chang, J. H.; Minegishi, T.; Lee, H. J.; Park, S. H.; Im, I. H.; Hanada, T.; Hong, S. K.; Cho, M. W.; Yao, T.

    2008-05-01

    The polarity control of ZnO films grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy (P-MBE) was achieved by using a novel CrN buffer layer. Zn-polar ZnO films were obtained by using a Zn-terminated CrN buffer layer, while O-polar ZnO films were achieved by using a Cr2O3 layer formed by O-plasma exposure of a CrN layer. The mechanism of polarity control was proposed. Optical and structural quality of ZnO films was characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Low-temperature PL spectra of Zn-polar and O-polar samples show dominant bound exciton (I8) and strong free exciton emissions. Finally, one-dimensional periodic structures consisting of Zn-polar and O-polar ZnO films were simultaneously grown on the same substrate. The periodic inversion of polarity was confirmed in terms of growth rate, surface morphology, and piezo response microscopy (PRM) measurement.

  13. Heat transfer performance of Al2O3/water nanofluids in a mini channel heat sink.

    PubMed

    Dominic, A; Sarangan, J; Suresh, S; Sai, Monica

    2014-03-01

    The high density heat removal in electronic packaging is a challenging task of modern days. Finding compact, energy efficient and cost effective methods of heat removal is being the interest of researchers. In the present work, mini channel with forced convective heat transfer in simultaneously developing regime is investigated as the heat transfer coefficient is inversely proportional to hydraulic diameter. Mini channel heat sink is made from the aluminium plate of 30 mm square with 8 mm thickness. It has 15 mini channel of 0.9 mm width, 1.3 mm height and 0.9 mm of pitch. DI water and water based 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of Al2O3/water nanofluids are used as coolant. The flow rates of the coolants are maintained in such a way that it is simultaneously developing. Reynolds number is varied from 400 to 1600 and heat input is varied from 40 W to 70 W. The results showed that heat transfer coefficient is more than the heat transfer coefficient of fully developed flow. Also the heat transfer is more for nanofluids compared to DI water.

  14. Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 / Al2O3 films for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triani, Gerry; Evans, Peter J.; Mitchell, David R. G.; Attard, Darren J.; Finnie, Kim S.; James, Michael; Hanley, Tracey; Latella, Bruno; Prince, Kathryn E.; Bartlett, John

    2005-09-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an important technology for depositing functional coatings on accessible, reactive surfaces with precise control of thickness and nanostructure. Unlike conventional chemical vapour deposition, where growth rate is dependent on reactant flux, ALD employs sequential surface chemical reactions to saturate a surface with a (sub-) monolayer of reactive compounds such as metal alkoxides or covalent halides, followed by reaction with a second compound such as water to deposit coatings layer-by-layer. A judicious choice of reactants and processing conditions ensures that the reactions are self-limiting, resulting in controlled film growth with excellent conformality to the substrate. This paper investigates the deposition and characterisation of multi-layer TiO2 /Al2O3 films on a range of substrates, including silicon <100>, soda glass and polycarbonate, using titanium tetrachloride/water and trimethylaluminium/water as precursor couples. Structure-property correlations were established using a suite of analytical tools, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The evolution of nanostructure and composition of multi-layer high/low refractive index stacks are discussed as a function of deposition parameters.

  15. Tensile Properties of Nano AL2O3 Particulate-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites by Mechanical Alloying and Hot Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdinia, M.; Jenabali Jahromi, S. A.

    The powder of the micro Al and variant volume fractions of nano Al2O3 were milled by a high energy planetary ball-mill. By milling, a homogenous distribution of nano Al2O3 particles in the metal matrix were developed. Then the milled powder was cold compressed and sintered at 545°C for one hr. The mold and the sintered sample hold in a furnace until the temperature reached 545°C. Then the hot 27mm diameter sample was extruded to 6mm diameter. From the extruded specimens, tensile, hardness and microstructure of the prepared specimens were determined. By these tests the effect of milling time, the percent of nano-particles and the microstructure were evaluated. The hardness and tensile behaviors of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with nano Al2O3 particulate have been found to increase remarkably with the volume fraction of the reinforcement.

  16. Hypereutectic Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2 In Situ Composite Prepared by Horizontal Laser Zone Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2 eutectic in situ composite has now been considered as the new generation of high-temperature structural material due to its excellent performance even close to its melting point. In this work, hypereutectic Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2 in situ composite is manufactured by the horizontal laser zone melting technique. The relationship between the solidification microstructure and the solidification parameters is studied. The minimum lamellar spacing is as finer as 0.20 μm when the laser scanning rate is 800 μm/s. Compared with eutectic Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2, hypereutectic exhibits more regular and finer microstructure at the similar conditions. Meanwhile, it is found that the lamellar spacing remains almost as constant at a certain high solidification velocity. The maximum hardness and fracture toughness are 15.9 GPa and 4.2 MPa · m1/2, respectively.

  17. Use of Al 2O 3 as inter-poly dielectric in a production proven 130 nm embedded Flash technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakoschke, R.; Pescini, L.; Power, J. R.; van der Zanden, K.; Andersen, E.-O.; Gong, Y.; Allinger, R.

    2008-04-01

    We have successfully integrated 2 Mb arrays with SiO 2/Al 2O 3 stacks as inter-poly dielectric (IPD) fabricated in a proven 130 nm embedded Flash technology. Gate stack write/erase high voltages (HV) can be reduced by 3 V. Write/erase distributions show evidence of bit pinning which can be explained by barrier lowering along Al 2O 3 grain boundaries. Reliability assessment of the 2 Mb array reveals promising data retention and cycle endurance, indicating the absence of charge trapping in the high- k IPD. Despite several integration issues, these results demonstrate the high potential of Al 2O 3 IPDs in embedded Flash technologies.

  18. CO2 gas detection properties of a TIO2/Al2O3 heterostructure under UV light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaduman, Irmak; Demir, Mehmet; Yıldız, Dilber Esra; Acar, Selim

    2015-05-01

    Al/TiO2/p-Si and Al/TİO2/Al2O3/p-Si samples were prepared using the atomic layer deposition method (ALD) and their gas sensing properties were investigated. The electrical properties of the samples were studied using a two probe method in the temperature range 25-230 °C and at room temperature UV conditions. The TiO2/Al2O3 heterojunction sample exhibited an excellent gas sensing response to CO2 gas at room temperature and improved the effect of UV light irradiation. The results showed that heterostructures helped to improve the gas sensor properties, affected the sensing at room temperature and thus guided the design of photocatalysts. The TiO2/Al2O3 heterojunction prepared using this method can be used as a material for semiconductor gas sensors detecting poisonous gases like CO2 at room temperature with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  19. What determines the interfacial configuration of Nb/Al2O3 and Nb/MgO interface

    PubMed Central

    Du, J. L.; Fang, Y.; Fu, E. G.; Ding, X.; Yu, K. Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Wang, Y. Q.; Baldwin, J. K.; Wang, P. P.; Bai, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Nb films are deposited on single crystal Al2O3 (110) and MgO(111) substrates by e-beam evaporation technique. Structure of Nb films and orientation relationships (ORs) of Nb/Al2O3 and Nb/MgO interface are studied and compared by the combination of experiments and simulations. The experiments show that the Nb films obtain strong (110) texture, and the Nb film on Al2O3(110) substrate shows a higher crystalline quality than that on MgO(111) substrate. First principle calculations show that both the lattice mismatch and the strength of interface bonding play major roles in determining the crystalline perfection of Nb films and ORs between Nb films and single crystal ceramic substrates. The fundamental mechanisms for forming the interfacial configuration in terms of the lattice mismatch and the strength of interface bonding are discussed. PMID:27698458

  20. Experimental and theoretical studies of surface nitrate species on Ag/Al2O3 using DRIFTS and DFT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuli; He, Hong; Gao, Hongwei; Yu, Yunbo

    2008-12-15

    Surface nitrate (NO3(-)) species on the Ag/Al2O3 play an important role in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx. In this study, the formation and configuration of surface nitrate NO3(-)(ads) species on Ag/Al2O3 and Al2O3 in the oxidation of NO have been studied using in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Different nitrates species (bridging, bidentate and monodentate) were observed by in situ DRIFTS and validated by DFT calculations results. Attention was especially focused on the proposal of two different bidentate nitrates species (a normal bidentate and an isolated bidentate). In addition, the thermal stability of different surface nitrate species was discussed based on the adsorption energies calculations, DRIFTS, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) results. It was suggested that the decomposition and desorption of the surface nitrate species could be controlled by kinetics.

  1. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy study of ultrathin Al2O3-TiO2 dielectric stack on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zuoguang; Cui, Sharon; Kornblum, Lior; Eizenberg, Moshe; Chang, Ming-Feng; Ma, T. P.

    2010-11-01

    We report the properties of an ultrathin Al2O3-TiO2 dielectric stack with the equivalent-oxide thickness =1.0 nm. The stack exhibits nondiscernable interfacial layer on Si, and absence of serious Al2O3-TiO2 intermixing. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) has been used to provide a wealth of information concerning the phonons, bonding vibration modes, and traps in the Al2O3-TiO2 gate dielectric stack as well as its interfaces in a metal-oxide-Si structure. The IETS spectra before and after forming gas annealing suggest that the reduction of traps is related to the formation of Si-H bonds at the oxide-Si interface.

  2. Combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composite materials - The TiC-Al2O3-Al system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, H. J.; Moore, John J.; Wirth, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion synthesis was applied for producing ceramic-metal composites with reduced levels of porosity, by allowing an excess amount of liquid metal, generated by the exothermic reaction during synthesis, to infiltrate the pores. It is shown that this method, when applied to TiC-Al2O3 system, led to a decreased level of porosity in the resulting TiC-Al2O3-Al product, as compared with that of TiC-Al2O3 system. This in situ procedure is more efficient than the two-stage conventional processes (i.e., sintering followed by liquid metal infiltration), although there are limitations with respect to total penetration of the liquid metal and maintaining a stable propagation of the combustion reaction.

  3. Effect of calcination time on NiAl-Al2O3 using gel combustion synthesis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afandi, N. F.; Manap, A.; Yusof, S. N. A.; Salim, M. A.; Azim, M. Al.; Othman, S. Z.; Pauzi, N. I. M.; Omar, Nooririnah; Misran, H.

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of calcination time on phase and microstructural characteristics of intermetallic matric composite (IMC), NiAl-Al2O3 powder. This powder was synthesized using gel combustion method with octyl alcohol as fuel. Upon completion of the combustion process, the loose powder was calcined at 1050°C for 1, 2 and 4 hours and characterized using XRD, FESEM and TEM. The crystallite size was calculated to be in the range of 29-30 nm. It was found that NiAl-Al2O3 exhibits high crystalline structure after calcination for 4 hours. Furthermore, longer calcination time also cause growth of the particle size. Findings indicate that high crystalline nanostructured NiAl-Al2O3 powder consisting of submicron particles can be successfully produced using gel combustion synthesis with longer calcination time.

  4. Porous α-Al2O3 thermal barrier coatings with dispersed Pt particles prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; He, Ye-dong; Deng, Shun-jie; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Porous α-Al2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) containing dispersed Pt particles were prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED). The influence of the Pt particles on the microstructure of the coatings and the CPED process were studied. The prepared coatings were mainly composed of α-Al2O3. The average thickness of the coatings was approximately 100 μm. Such single-layer TBCs exhibited not only excellent high-temperature cyclic oxidation and spallation resistance, but also good thermal insulation properties. Porous α-Al2O3 TBCs inhibit further oxidation of alloy substrates because of their extremely low oxygen diffusion rate, provide good thermal insulation because of their porous structure, and exhibit excellent mechanical properties because of the toughening effect of the Pt particles and because of stress relaxation induced by deformation of the porous structure.

  5. Influence of calcination temperature on the surface area of submicron-sized Al2O3 electrospun fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyeon Ung; Ramsier, Rex D.; Chase, George G.

    2016-03-01

    Submicron-sized Al2O3 fibers were formed by calcination of electrospun aluminum acetate/PVP composite fibers. At 650 °C, the fibers were amorphous. As the calcination temperature increased to 750 °C, the fibers transitioned from amorphous to 49 % crystalline gamma phase Al2O3. The crystallinity further increased with calcination temperature to 80 % gamma Al2O3 at 950 °C, but decreased above 950 °C as the crystal structure began to change to alpha phase. The fiber diameters tended to decrease as calcination temperature increased to 950 °C but increased as the alpha phase was formed at temperatures above 950 °C. Surface areas as measured by BET decreased as gamma phase crystallinity increased. Further decrease in surface area as the gamma phase crystal structure transitioned to alpha phase indicated changing internal pore structures of the fibers.

  6. Passivation of type II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors with atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salihoglu, Omer; Muti, Abdullah; Kutluer, Kutlu; Tansel, Tunay; Turan, Rasit; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2012-06-01

    We have achieved significant improvement in the electrical performance of the InAs/GaSb midwave infrared photodetector (MWIR) by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminium oxide (Al2O3) as a passivation layer. Plasma free and low operation temperature with uniform coating of ALD technique leads to a conformal and defect free coverage on the side walls. This conformal coverage of rough surfaces also satisfies dangling bonds more efficiently while eliminating metal oxides in a self cleaning process of the Al2O3 layer. Al2O3 passivated and unpassivated diodes were compared for their electrical and optical performances. For passivated diodes the dark current density was improved by an order of magnitude at 77 K. The zero bias responsivity and detectivity was 1.33 A/W and 1.9 x 1013 Jones, respectively at 4 μm and 77 K. Quantum efficiency (QE) was determined as %41 for these detectors.

  7. Study on catalytic incineration of methane using Cr2O3/gamma-Al2O3 as the catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Huei; Lin, Shiow-Shyung

    2004-01-01

    A fixed bed reactor was employed to investigate the catalytic incineration of CH4 by various supported transition metal oxide catalysts, with a view of finding the optimal one. Results indicated that the active species, the support, the metal content, the weight hourly space velocity (WHSV), and the inlet CH4 concentration were all important factors affecting CH4 oxidation. Cr2O3/gamma-Al2O3 was found to be the most active catalyst among the seven gamma-Al2O3-supported metal oxide catalysts tested. With Cr2O3 as the active species, gamma-Al2O3 was the most suitable of six supports tested. Furthermore, the optimal Cr content of Cr2O3/ gamma-Al2O3 was 9 wt.%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that it was formation of CrO3 crystals that caused a decline in catalyst activity at Cr content above 9wt.%. Using the optimal Cr2O3/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst, CH4 was completely oxidized at about 390 degrees C. much lower than the temperature required by noble metal catalysts for the same outcome. The stability of Cr2O3/gamma-Al2O3 was good and was not affected by the reaction temperature, demonstrated by a nearly constant conversion rate of CH4 of 57% at 350 degrees C and 97% at 380 degrees C during a 20 h on-stream test. However, WHSV and inlet concentration of CH4 did affect CH4 conversion noticeably. For complete oxidation of CH4, the reaction temperature required increased with WHSV and inlet CH4 concentration.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Biodegradable Ultrasonicated Films made from Chitosan/al2o3 Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, B.; Jothirajan, M. A.; Umapathy, S.; Amala, Viji

    Chitosan is a biopolymer which is biodegradable, biocompatible, non toxic and cationic in nature. Due to these interesting properties, it finds advanced applications in sensors, drug delivery vehicle and gene therapy etc., In this present work, the biocompatible Al2O3 Nano particles were embedded into Chitosan Polymer matrix by ultrasonication route. XRD and FTIR studies confirm the presence of Al2O3 nanoparticle in the Chitosan polymer matrix. The morphological, optical, electrical properties of the polymer nano composite films are carried out by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV- Vis, LCR and Impedance studies.

  9. Elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of ceramic lead zirconate titanate/α-Al2O3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybyanets, A. N.; Konstantinov, G. M.; Naumenko, A. A.; Shvetsova, N. A.; Makar'ev, D. I.; Lugovaya, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    The technology of producing ceramic lead zirconate titanate/α-Al2O3 composites has been developed. Elements of piezoactive composites containing from 0 to 60 vol % α-Al2O3 have been prepared. The elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric parameters of the synthesized ceramic composites have been measured, and their microstructure has been studied. It has been found that the concentration dependences of the elastic and piezoelectric properties exhibit anomalies. The obtained data have been interpreted based on the percolation theory and the concept of microstructural constructing polycrystalline composition materials.

  10. A study on kinetics of Al2O3 inclusion absorbed by mold slag used for non-manganese steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiyang; Zhou, Weican; Chen, Mindong

    2017-01-01

    Dissolution kinetics of alumina into a new type CaO-Al2O3 mold slag was investigated by employing the rotating cylinder method. The results shows that the alumina dissolution was controlled by the mass transfer in the molten slag; the diffusion coefficient D=4.2×10-5mm2/s under 1400°C the activation energy of dissolution process was 213.8 Kj/mo1, this energy was higher than that of traditional mold slag; the ability of the new mold slag to absorb Al2O3 was weaker than that of traditional mold slag.

  11. Kinetics of NiO and NiCl2 Hydrogen Reduction as Precursors and Properties of Produced Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-Pd/Al2O3 Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Sokić, Miroslav; Kamberović, Željko; Nikolić, Vesna; Marković, Branislav; Korać, Marija; Anđić, Zoran; Gavrilovski, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The objects of this investigation were the comparative kinetic analysis of the NiO and NiCl2 reduction by hydrogen during an induction period and elimination of the calcination during the synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 catalysts. The effect of temperature and time on NiO and NiCl2 reduction degrees was studied. Avrami I equation was selected as the most favorable kinetic model and used to determine activation energy of the NiO and NiCl2 reduction for the investigated temperature range (623–923 K) and time intervals (1–5 minutes). The investigation enabled reaching conclusions about the reaction ability and rate of the reduction processes. Afterward, Ni/Al2O3 catalysts were obtained by using oxide and chloride precursor for Ni. The catalysts were supported on alumina-based foam and prepared via aerosol route. Properties of the samples before and after low-temperature hydrogen reduction (633 K) were compared. Obtained results indicated that the synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 catalysts can be more efficient if chloride precursor for Ni is directly reduced by hydrogen during the synthesis process, without the calcination step. In addition, Ni-Pd/Al2O3 catalysts with different metal content were prepared by using chloride precursors. Lower reduction temperature was utilized and the chlorides were almost completely reduced at 533 K. PMID:25789335

  12. Kinetic studies of CO2 methanation over a Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hubble, R A; Lim, J Y; Dennis, J S

    2016-10-20

    The production of methane by reacting CO2 with H2 (CO2 methanation) has the potential for producing synthetic natural gas, which could be exported using the existing infrastructure for the distribution of natural gas. The methanation of CO2 was investigated over a wide range of partial pressures of products and reactants using (i) a gradientless, spinning-basket reactor operated in batch mode and (ii) a laboratory-scale packed bed reactor operated continuously. The rate and selectivity of CO2 methanation, using a 12 wt% Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, were explored at temperatures 445-497 K and pressures up to 20 bar. Research with the batch reactor showed that the rate increased with increasing partial pressures of H2 and CO2 when the partial pressures of these reactants were low; however, the rate of reaction was found to be insensitive to changes in the partial pressures of H2 and CO2 when their partial pressures were high. A convenient method of determining the effect of H2O on the rate of reaction was also developed using the batch reactor and the inhibitory effect of H2O on CO2 methanation was quantified. The kinetic measurements were compared with a mathematical model of the reactor, in which different kinetic expressions were explored. The kinetics of the reaction were found to be consistent with a mechanism in which adsorbed CO2 dissociated to adsorbed CO and O on the surface of the catalyst with the rate-limiting step being the subsequent dissociation of adsorbed CO. The ability of the kinetic expressions to predict the results from the continuous, packed-bed reactor was explored, with some discrepancies discussed.

  13. Toughness enhancement in graphene nanoplatelet/SiC reinforced Al2O3 ceramic hybrid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Islam, Mohammad; Subhani, Tayyab; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2016-10-01

    This paper elucidates the effect of silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiCNP) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), on their own and together, on the densification behavior and fracture toughness of alumina (Al2O3) ceramic matrix. This was investigated by using the high-frequency induction heat sintering (HFIHS) process. While the addition of each nanostructure caused varying degrees of grain refinement and enhancement of mechanical properties, the incorporation of as little as 0.5 wt.% GNPs along with 5.0 wt.% SiCNP promoted uniform dispersion of the latter due to the lateral surface area of the graphene nanosheets with their two-dimensional morphology. There was an associated reduction in grain size from 1500 to 300 nm upon the addition of both types of nanoscale reinforcements. Extensive electron microscopy of the as-produced nanocomposites indicated the presence of SiCNP within, as well as at, the grain boundary areas whereas the 2D GNPs anchored between neighboring grains. Fractography of the samples revealed a transition from a mixed intergranular/transgranular mode for SiCNP or GNP-reinforced nanocomposites to transgranular fracture mode for the hybrid nanocomposites with improvements in fracture toughness and microhardness by 160 and 27%, respectively, largely due to the synergic role of the nanostructured reinforcements and their distinctly different toughening mechanisms. A new toughening model is proposed for the hybrid nanocomposites by taking into consideration crack deflection and pull-out effects due to SiCNP and the atomic level slip-stick driven GNPs inter-layer slithering. It was found that the addition of GNPs facilitates SiCNP dispersion that subsequently develops dense, fine-grained microstructures after a short-cycle, pressure-assisted consolidation process.

  14. High-density ordered Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl arrays in applications of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mengyang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Liwei; Zhou, Qingwei; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Junming

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a high-performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on high-density ordered Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl arrays. By ion beam etching (IBE) the anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) and subsequent Ag coating, ordered Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl arrays were created on the Si substrate. Unlike the ‘hot spots’ generated between adjacent metallic nanostructures, the Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl introduced ‘hot spots’ on the metal boundary of its hemispherical cavity. Based on the analysis of SERS signals, the optimized SERS substrate of Ag@Al2O3 nanobowl arrays had both high sensitivity and large-area uniformity. A detection limit as low as 10-10 M was obtained using chemisorbed p-thiocresol (p-Tc) molecules, and the SERS signal was highly reproducible with a small standard deviation. The method opens up a new way to create highly sensitive SERS sensors with high-density ‘hot spots’, and it could play an important role in device design and corresponding biological and food safety monitoring applications.

  15. Al 2O 3 supported Ru catalysts prepared by thermolysis of Ru 3(CO) 12 for catalytic wet air oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chaoying; Zhao, Peiqing; Chen, Gexin; Hu, Bin

    2011-06-01

    Low loading catalysts Ru/γ-Al 2O 3 and Ru-Ce/γ-Al 2O 3 were prepared by thermolysis of Ru 3(CO) 12 on γ-Al 2O 3. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, XRD and SEM. Two new Ru species (Ru A and Ru B) were detected during the Ru 3(CO) 12 decomposition process due to chemical interaction with the active OH groups on the surface of Al 2O 3 support, and the reduction of them can lead to more dispersed metallic phases. The sample was completely decomposed at 673 K in H 2, and RuO 2 was formed with minor amounts of Ru 0. When the temperature was increased to 773 K to heat the sample, the ratio of Ru 0 to RuO 2 increased. However, after the addition of CeO 2, only RuO 2 was detected on surface. The catalysts exhibited high activities in Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) of different organic compounds at high concentration such as isopropyl alcohol, phenol, acetic acids and N,N-dimethylformamide, which is attributed to the better dispersion of Ru particles and the addition of CeO 2 further enhanced number of effectively active sites on the cluster-derived catalyst surface.

  16. Preparation and characterization of Al2O3 coating by MOD method on CLF-1 RAFM steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yang, J. J.; Feng, Y. J.; Li, F. Z.; Liao, J. L.; Yang, Y. Y.; Feng, K. M.; Liu, N.

    2017-04-01

    Metal organic decomposition (MOD) method was proposed to prepare Al2O3 TPB coatings on CLF-1 RAFM steel. A comprehensive characterization of SEM, XPS, and XRD demonstrated the formation of Al2O3 coatings. The effect of the preparation parameters, including annealing temperature Ta, withdrawal speed Vw and immersion time ti on the microstructure and properties of the coatings was investigated. It showed that amorphous aluminum oxide coating began to transform to γ-Al2O3 at temperature of Ta = 600 °C. The Al2O3 coating with Ta = 700 °C and Tb = 500 °C performed the best crystallization feature. The hardness of the coatings gradually increased with increasing Vw, while the corrosion resistance exhibited a reverse trend. Meanwhile, the nanohardness and corrosion resistance of the coating with ti = 300 s was improved as compared to the coating with ti = 0 s. Moreover, the effect of particle size and substrate oxidation on the mechanical property and corrosion resistance of the coatings was discussed.

  17. Structural characterization and catalytic activity of Pt dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles supported over Al2O3 for SCR of NOx.

    PubMed

    Bae, HyunSook; Rao, Komateedi N; Ha, HeonPhil

    2011-07-01

    Pt/Al2O3 and Pt-Mg/Al2O3 nano composites were successfully prepared by dendrimer templated synthesis route. The obtained dendritic nanoparticles were dispersed in alumina support and they were evaluated for SCR of NOx using methane as reductant. Thermal analysis results of uncalcined samples revealed that the oxygen can accelerate the rate of dendrimer shell decomposition. X-ray diffractograms of 500 degrees C calcined samples disclosed the amorphous nature of materials, whereas 1000 degrees C air calcined samples showed enhanced crystallinity as well as diffraction pattern corresponding to Pt and PtO. HRTEM images of Pt40-G4OH dendritic nanoparticles showed uniform particulate distribution with average particle size of 2.4 nm. The STEM results of 0.5 Pt/Al2O3 sample calcined at 500 degrees C exhibited a wide range of particles between 2 and 20 nm. This indicates the huge segregation of platinum metal particles during impregnation and subsequent calcination. Among the synthesized materials 0.5 wt% Pt/Al2O3 sample showed excellent conversion and selectivity for SCR of NOx.

  18. Optical properties and tunable laser action of Verneuil-grown single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncorge, R.; Boulon, G.; Vivien, D.; Lejus, A. M.; Collongues, R.

    1988-06-01

    Using the Verneuil technique, the authors have grown large single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+ having concentrations up to 0.15 percent. Laser action was observed in this material, tunable over the range 700-810 nm. Losses in the 800-nm region are less than 0.03/cm (below the detection limit in the measurements).

  19. Enhanced permeability, selectivity, and antifouling ability of CNTs/Al2O3 membrane under electrochemical assistance.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinfei; Zhao, Huimin; Liu, Yanming; Quan, Xie; Yu, Hongtao; Chen, Shuo

    2015-02-17

    Membrane filtration provides effective solutions for removing contaminants, but achieving high permeability, good selectivity, and antifouling ability remains a great challenge for existing membrane filtration technologies. In this work, membrane filtration coupled with electrochemistry has been developed to enhance the filtration performance of a CNTs/Al2O3 membrane. The as-prepared CNTs/Al2O3 membrane, obtained by coating interconnected CNTs on an Al2O3 substrate, presented good pore-size tunability, mechanical stability, and electroconductivity. For the removal of a target (silica spheres as a probe) with a size comparable to the membrane pore size, the removal efficiency and flux at +1.5 V were 1.1 and 1.5 times higher, respectively, than those without electrochemical assistance. Moreover, the membrane also exhibited a greatly enhanced removal efficiency for contaminants smaller than the membrane pores, providing enhancements of 4 orders of magnitude and a factor of 5.7 for latex particles and phenol, respectively. These results indicated that both the permeability and the selectivity of CNTs/Al2O3 membranes can be significantly improved by electrochemical assistance, which was further confirmed by the removal of natural organic matter (NOM). The permeate flux and NOM removal efficiency at +1.5 V were about 1.6 and 3.0 times higher, respectively, than those without electrochemical assistance. In addition, the lost flux of the fouled membrane was almost completely recovered by an electrochemically assisted backwashing process.

  20. Enhanced carrier mobility of multilayer MoS2 thin-film transistors by Al2O3 encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Yeoul; Park, Seonyoung; Choi, Woong

    2016-10-01

    We report the effect of Al2O3 encapsulation on the carrier mobility and contact resistance of multilayer MoS2 thin-film transistors by statistically investigating 70 devices with SiO2 bottom-gate dielectric. After Al2O3 encapsulation by atomic layer deposition, calculation based on Y-function method indicates that the enhancement of carrier mobility from 24.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 to 41.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 occurs independently from the reduction of contact resistance from 276 kΩ.μm to 118 kΩ.μm. Furthermore, contrary to the previous literature, we observe a negligible effect of thermal annealing on contact resistance and carrier mobility during the atomic layer deposition of Al2O3. These results demonstrate that Al2O3 encapsulation is a useful method of improving the carrier mobility of multilayer MoS2 transistors, providing important implications on the application of MoS2 and other two-dimensional materials into high-performance transistors.

  1. Performance characterization of CNTs and γ-Al2O3 supported cobalt catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sardar; Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts were prepared via a wet impregnation method. Different physicochemical properties of the samples were revealed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and carbon dioxide desorption (CO2-desorption). Fischer-Tropsch reaction (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 220°C and 1 atm, with H2/ CO = 2v / v and space velocity, SV of 12L/g.h for 5 h. Various characterization techniques revealed that there was a stronger interaction between Co and Al2O3 support compared to that of CNTs support. CNTs support increased the reducibility and decreased Co particle size. A significant increase in % CO conversion and FTS reaction rate was observed over CNTs support compared to that of Co / Al2O3. Co/CNTs resulted in higher C5+ hydrocarbons selectivity compared to that of Co / Al2O3 catalyst. CNTs are a better support for Co compared to Al2O3.

  2. Towards advanced structural analysis of iron oxide clusters on the surface of γ-Al2O3 using EXAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubnov, Alexey; Roppertz, Andreas; Kundrat, Matthew D.; Mangold, Stefan; Reznik, Boris; Jacob, Christoph R.; Kureti, Sven; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2016-11-01

    Iron oxide centres are structurally investigated in 0.1% Fe/γ-Al2O3, which is known as highly active catalyst, for instance in the oxidation of CO. The sample was characterised by using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in terms of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These analyses evidenced high dispersion of the iron oxide entities without significant presence of bulk-like aggregates associated with the low Fe content of the catalyst. A library of structural models of Al2O3-supported surface Fe was created as input for EXAFS fitting. Additionally, several model structures of Fe substituting Al ions in bulk γ-Al2O3 were created with optimised geometry based on density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. From EXAFS refinement of the best 8 out of 24 models, it was found that the trivalent Fe ions are coordinated by 4-5 oxygen atoms and are located on octahedral lattice sites of the exposed surfaces of γ-Al2O3. These iron oxide species exist mainly as a mixture of monomeric and binuclear species and due to the low concentration represent suitable model systems as alternative to single crystal systems for structure-function relationships.

  3. Catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury over the modified catalyst Mn/alpha-Al2O3 at lower temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Yan, Naiqiang; Qu, Zan; Qiao, Shaohua; Yang, Shijian; Guo, Yongfu; Liu, Ping; Jia, Jinping

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the removal of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from coal-fired flue gas, catalytic oxidation of Hg(0) with manganese oxides supported on inert alumina (alpha-Al2O3) was investigated at lower temperatures (373-473 K). To improve the catalytic activity and the sulfur-tolerance of the catalysts at lower temperatures, several metal elements were employed as dopants to modify the catalyst of Mn/alpha-Al2O3. The best performance among the tested elements was achieved with molybdenum (Mo) as the dopant in the catalysts. It can work even better than the noble metal catalyst Pd/alpha-Al2O3. Additionally, the Mo doped catalyst displayed excellent sulfur-tolerance performance at lower temperatures, and the catalytic oxidation efficiency for Mo(0.03)-Mn/alpha-Al2O3 was over 95% in the presence of 500 ppm SO2 versus only about 48% for the unmodified catalyst. The apparent catalytic reaction rate constant increased by approximately 5.5 times at 423 K. In addition, the possible mechanisms involved in Hg(0) oxidation and the reaction with the Mo modified catalyst have been discussed.

  4. Thermo-mechanical and Microstructural Characterization of Geopolymers with α-Al2O3 Particle Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. S.; Jia, D. C.; He, P. G.; Wang, M. R.

    2009-10-01

    Geopolymers with different content of α-Al2O3 particle filler were prepared. The thermo-mechanical and microstructural characterization of the obtained geopolymers were systematically studied by flexural strength and thermal shrinkage measurements, TG-DTA (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), XRD (X-ray diffractometry), and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). The results show that the addition of α-Al2O3 particle filler not only increases the onset crystalline temperature but also reduces the crystalline velocity of the geopolymers. The thermal shrinkage of the geopolymers increases with increasing heat treatment temperatures due to the water loss and densification. The flexural strength of the geopolymers increases with the increase of heat treatment temperatures from RT to 1200 °C, and shows a sharp increase in the range from 600 °C to 800 °C due to crystallization and solidification. The increase in content of α-Al2O3 particle filler can clearly reduce the thermal shrinkage and maintain a higher porosity at high temperatures. However, it has no distinct influence on the flexural strength after heat treatment. This is mainly attributed to the higher thermal resistance and strength of α-Al2O3.

  5. Investigation of neutron converters for production of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) neutron dosimeters using Al 2O 3:C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittani, J. C. R.; da Silva, A. A. R.; Vanhavere, F.; Akselrod, M. S.; Yukihara, E. G.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of neutron dosimeters in powder and in the form of pellets prepared with a mixture of Al 2O 3:C and neutron converters. The neutron converters investigated were high density polyethylene (HDPE), lithium fluoride (LiF), lithium fluoride 95% enriched with 6Li ( 6LiF), lithium carbonate 95% enriched with 6Li ( 6Li 2CO 3), boric acid enriched with 99% of 10B (H310BO) and gadolinium oxide (Gd 2O 3). The proportion of Al 2O 3:C and neutron converter in the mixture was varied to optimize the total OSL signal and neutron sensitivity. The neutron sensitivity and dose-response were determined for the OSL dosimeters using a bare 252Cf source and compared to the response of Harshaw TLD-600 and TLD-700 dosimeters ( 6LiF:Mg,Ti and 7LiF:Mg,Ti). The results demonstrate the possibility of developing an OSL dosimeter made of Al 2O 3:C powder and neutron converter with a neutron sensitivity (defined as the ratio between the 60Co equivalent gamma dose and the reference neutron absorbed dose) and neutron-gamma discrimination comparable to the TLD-600/TLD-700 combination. It was shown that the shape of the OSL decay curves varied with the type of the neutron converter, demonstrating the influence of the energy deposition mechanism and ionization density on the OSL process in Al 2O 3:C.

  6. Epoxidation of alkenes through oxygen activation over a bifunctional CuO/Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Nicola; Ravasio, Nicoletta; Zaccheria, Federica; Psaro, Rinaldo; Evangelisti, Claudio

    2013-03-07

    The epoxidation of alkenes was carried out over a CuO/Al(2)O(3) catalyst using cumene as an oxygen carrier, through a one-pot reaction, giving high conversion and selectivity with different substrates. Trans-β-methylstyrene gave the corresponding epoxide in 95% yield after 3 h.

  7. Radiation-induced synthesis of α-Al 2O 3 supported nickel clusters: Characterization and catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keghouche, N.; Chettibi, S.; Latrèche, F.; Bettahar, M. M.; Belloni, J.; Marignier, J. L.

    2005-10-01

    A series of Ni aggregates supported on α-Al 2O 3 at different nickel contents are prepared by ionic exchange of Ni 2+ followed by γ-irradiation under inert atmosphere. Characterization techniques are used at each step to select the elaboration conditions optimized for their use as catalysts. X-ray diffraction demonstrates the presence, after the Ni 2+ adsorption step, of the phases (NiO) 2(Al 2O 3) 9 and (NiO)(Al 2O 3) 16 that are favourable to further performances of the catalyst. After radiolysis, the phases of the oxide NiO and the metal Ni are observed. The relative amount of the Ni metal phase increases with the initial Ni 2+ content. The nickel clusters (prepared from the complex [Ni(NH 3) 6] 2+), imaged by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)/EDS, are highly dispersed. The H 2 adsorption and thermodesorption study by chemisorption and H 2-TPD indicates that the sites of the catalyst are occupied by hydrogen generated during irradiation. After H 2 treatment at 350 °C, it shows high hydrogen adsorption/desorption capacity. When tested in the steam-reforming methane reaction (CH 4+H 2O→CO+3H 2), the radiolytic Ni/ α-Al 2O 3 samples exhibit quite promising catalytic properties, namely a high activity and a remarkably high selectivity in CO even at moderate temperature (80% at 550 °C with a conversion of 60%).

  8. Atomic to Nanoscale Investigation of Functionalities of Al2O3 Coating Layer on Cathode for Enhanced Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Amine, Khalil; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2016-01-06

    Surface coating of cathode has been identified as an effective approach for enhancing the capacity retention of layered structure cathode. However, the underlying operating mechanism of such a thin layer of coating, in terms of surface chemical functionality and capacity retention, remains unclear. In this work, we use aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and high efficient spectroscopy to probe the delicate functioning mechanism of Al2O3 coating layer on Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 cathode. We discovered that in terms of surface chemical function, the Al2O3 coating suppresses the side reaction between cathode and the electrolyte upon the battery cycling. At the same time, the Al2O3 coating layer also eliminates the chemical reduction of Mn from the cathode particle surface, therefore avoiding the dissolution of the reduced Mn into the electrolyte. In terms of structural stability, we found that the Al2O3 coating layer can mitigate the layer to spinel phase transformation, which otherwise will initiate from the particle surface and propagate towards the interior of the particle with the progression of the battery cycling. The atomic to nanoscale effects of the coating layer observed here provide insight for optimized design of coating layer on cathode to enhance the battery properties.

  9. Stacked Graphene-Al2O3 Nanopore Sensors for Sensitive Detection of DNA and DNA-Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Bala Murali; Estrada, David; Banerjee, Shouvik; Jin, Xiaozhong; Dorgan, Vincent E.; Bae, Myung-Ho; Aluru, Narayana R.; Pop, Eric; Bashir, Rashid

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of a multilayered graphene-Al2O3 nanopore platform for the sensitive detection of DNA and DNA-protein complexes. Graphene-Al2O3 nanolaminate membranes are formed by sequentially depositing layers of graphene and Al2O3 with nanopores being formed in these membranes using an electron-beam sculpting process. The resulting nanopores are highly robust, exhibit low electrical noise (significantly lower than nanopores in pure graphene), are highly sensitive to electrolyte pH at low KCl concentrations (attributed to the high buffer capacity of Al2O3) and permit the electrical biasing of the embedded graphene electrode, thereby allowing for three terminal nanopore measurements. In proof-of-principle biomolecule sensing experiments, the folded and unfolded transport of single DNA molecules and RecA coated DNA complexes could be discerned with high temporal resolution. The process described here also enables nanopore integration with new graphene based structures, including nanoribbons and nanogaps, for single molecule DNA sequencing and medical diagnostic applications. PMID:22165962

  10. Enhanced lithium battery with polyethylene oxide-based electrolyte containing silane-Al2 O3 ceramic filler.

    PubMed

    Zewde, Berhanu W; Admassie, Shimelis; Zimmermann, Jutta; Isfort, Christian Schulze; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-08-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte prepared by using a solvent-free, scalable technique is reported. The membrane is formed by low-energy ball milling followed by hot-pressing of dry powdered polyethylene oxide polymer, LiCF3 SO3 salt, and silane-treated Al2 O3 (Al2 O3 -ST) ceramic filler. The effects of the ceramic fillers on the properties of the ionically conducting solid electrolyte membrane are characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, XRD, differential scanning calorimeter, SEM, and galvanostatic cycling in lithium cells with a LiFePO4 cathode. We demonstrate that the membrane containing Al2 O3 -ST ceramic filler performs well in terms of ionic conductivity, thermal properties, and lithium transference number. Furthermore, we show that the lithium cells, which use the new electrolyte together with the LiFePO4 electrode, operate within 65 and 90 °C with high efficiency and long cycle life. Hence, the Al2 O3 -ST ceramic can be efficiently used as a ceramic filler to enhance the performance of solid polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries.

  11. Effect of phase interaction on catalytic CO oxidation over the SnO2/Al2O3 model catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Shujing; Bai, Xueqin; Li, Jing; Liu, Cheng; Ding, Tong; Tian, Ye; Liu, Chang; Xian, Hui; Mi, Wenbo; Li, Xingang

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the catalytic CO oxidation over the SnO2/Al2O3 model catalysts. Our results show that interaction between the Al2O3 and SnO2 phases results in the significantly improved catalytic activity because of the formation of the oxygen vacancies. The oxygen storage capacity of the SnO2/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by the physically mixed method is nearly two times higher than that of the SnO2, which probably results from the change of electron concentration on the interface of the SnO2 and Al2O3 phases. Introducing water vapor to the feeding gas would a little decrease the activity of the catalysts, but the reaction rate could completely recover after removal of water vapor. The kinetics results suggest that the surface Sn4+ cations are effective CO adsorptive sites, and the surface adsorbed oxygen plays an important role upon CO oxidation. The reaction pathways upon the SnO2-based catalysts for CO oxidation follow the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  12. Sulfonic acid functionalized nano γ-Al2O3 catalyzed per-O-acetylated of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liqiang; Yin, Zhikui

    2013-01-10

    A simple and clean synthesis of per-O-acetylation carbohydrate derivatives has been accomplished by treatment of sugars with a stoichiometric quantity of acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions in the presence of sulfonic acid functionalized nano γ-Al(2)O(3) as an efficient and environmentally benign catalyst.

  13. Atomic-Scale Structure of Al2O3-ZrO2 Mixed Oxides Prepared by Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xiuchun; Dubiel, M.; Hofmeister, H.; Riehemann, W.

    2007-02-02

    By means of x-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, the phase composition and atomic structure of laser evaporated ZrO2 and ZrO2-Al2O3 nanopowders have been studied. The results indicate that pure ZrO2 exists in the form of tetragonal structure, Al2O3 doped ZrO2 nanoparticles, however, have cubic structure. Compared to bulk tetragonal ZrO2, pure tetragonal ZrO2 nanoparticles have a shorter Zr-O- and Zr-Zr shell, indicating that the lattice contracts with decreasing particle size. For Al2O3 doped ZrO2 solid solution, the distances of first Zr-O and Zr-Zr (Al) coordination decrease with increasing solid solubility. The disorder degree of the ZrO2 lattice increases with increasing solid solubility. The coevaporated ZrO2-Al2O3 is quickly solidified into amorphous phase when it is ablated in a higher pressure. The amorphous phase contains Zr-O-Zr (Al) clusters and has shorter Zr-O distance and tower Zr-O coordination number.

  14. Cooperative upconversion as the gain-limiting factor in Er doped miniature Al2O3 optical waveguide amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kik, P. G.; Polman, A.

    2003-05-01

    Erbium doped Al2O3 waveguide amplifiers were fabricated using two different doping methods, namely Er ion implantation into sputter deposited Al2O3, and co-sputtering from an Er2O3/Al2O3 target. Although the Er concentration in both materials is almost identical (0.28 and 0.31 at. %), the amplifiers show a completely different behavior. Upon pumping with 1.48 μm, the co-sputtered waveguide shows a strong green luminescence from the 4S3/2 level, indicating efficient cooperative upconversion in this material. This is confirmed by pump power dependent measurements of the optical transmission at 1.53 μm and the spontaneous emission at 1.53 and 0.98 μm. All measurements can be accurately modeled using a set of rate equations that include first order and second order cooperative upconversion. The first order cooperative upconversion coefficient C24 is found to be 3.5×10-16 cm3 s-1 in the co-sputtered material, two orders of magnitude higher than the value obtained in Er implanted Al2O3 of 4.1×10-18 cm3 s-1. It is concluded that the co-sputtering process results in a strongly inhomogeneous atomic scale spatial distribution of the Er ions. As a result, the co-sputtered waveguides do not show optical gain, while the implanted waveguides do.

  15. Nanoporous Gold Nanoparticles and Au/Al2O3 Hybrid Nanoparticles with Large Tunability of Plasmonic Properties.

    PubMed

    Rao, Wenye; Wang, Dong; Kups, Thomas; Baradács, Eszter; Parditka, Bence; Erdélyi, Zoltán; Schaaf, Peter

    2017-02-22

    Nanoporous gold nanoparticles (NPG-NPs) with controlled particle size and pore size are fabricated via a combination of solid-state dewetting and a subsequent dealloying process. Because of the combined effects of size and porosity, the NPG-NPs exhibit greater plasmonic tunability and significantly higher local field enhancement as compared to solid NPs. The effects of the nanoscale porosity and pore size on the optical extinction are investigated for the NPG-NPs with different particle sizes experimentally and theoretically. The influences of both porosity and pore size on the plasmonic properties are very complicated and clearly different for small particles with dominated dipole mode and large particles with dominated quadrupole mode. Au/Al2O3 hybrid porous NPs with controlled porosity and composition ratio are fabricated through plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 into the porous structure. In the Au/Al2O3 hybrid porous NPs, both Au and Al2O3 components are bicontinuously percolated over the entire structure. A further red shift of the plasmon peak is observed in the hybrid NPs due to the change of the environmental refractive index. The high tunability of the plasmonic resonances in the NPG-NPs and the hybrid porous NPs can be very useful for many applications in sensing biological and organic molecules.

  16. Retardation mechanism of ultrathin Al2O3 interlayer on Y2O3 passivated gallium nitride surface.

    PubMed

    Quah, Hock Jin; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2014-05-28

    A systematic investigation was carried out by incorporating an ultrathin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as an interlayer between yttrium oxide (Y2O3) passivation layer and GaN substrate. The sandwiched samples were then subjected to postdeposition annealing in oxygen ambient from 400 to 800 °C. The Al2O3 interlayer was discovered to play a significant role in slowing down inward diffusion of oxygen through the Y2O3 passivation layer as well as in impeding outward diffusion of Ga(3+) and N(3-) from the decomposed GaN surface. These beneficial effects have suppressed subsequent formation of interfacial layer. A mechanism in association with the function of Al2O3 as an interlayer was suggested and discussed. The mechanism was explicitly described on the basis of the obtained results from X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, and electron energy loss spectroscopy line scan. A correlation between the proposed mechanism and metal-oxide-semiconductor characteristics of Y2O3/Al2O3/GaN structure has been proposed.

  17. Boat-like Au nanoparticles embedded mesoporous γ-Al2O3 films: an efficient SERS substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandapat, Anirban; Pramanik, Sourav; Bysakh, Sandip; De, Goutam

    2013-07-01

    Boat-like Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized within the mesoporous γ-Al2O3 films. First, mesoporous γ-Al2O3 film was prepared using aluminum alkoxide derived boehmite sol in the presence of CTAB as structure directing agent. The film was heat-treated at 500 °C to obtain γ-Al2O3 film with an average pore diameter of 4.3 nm. HAuCl4 solution was then soaked into the porous film followed by heat-treatment at 500 °C to generate Au NPs. The blue-colored films so obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, FESEM, and TEM studies. FESEM and TEM studies reveal the formation boat-like Au NPs in γ-Al2O3 film matrix. Cross-sectional FESEM shows the thickness of the films to be 2.2 μm. These nanocomposite films were used as a unique surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for easy detection of low concentration (10-8 M) analyte (methylene blue) molecule. Boat-like shape of Au NPs have several edges and junctions that contain high density of hotspots to exhibit very high SERS signals. Due to such shape of Au NPs, the films also show strong absorption in the visible-NIR region that would extend the use of the films in heat-absorbing and biomedical applications.

  18. High-κ Al2O3 material in low temperature wafer-level bonding for 3D integration application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Tu, L. C.; Tan, C. S.

    2014-03-01

    This work systematically investigated a high-κ Al2O3 material for low temperature wafer-level bonding for potential applications in 3D microsystems. A clean Si wafer with an Al2O3 layer thickness of 50 nm was applied as our experimental approach. Bonding was initiated in a clean room ambient after surface activation, followed by annealing under inert ambient conditions at 300 °C for 3 h. The investigation consisted of three parts: a mechanical support study using the four-point bending method, hermeticity measurements using the helium bomb test, and thermal conductivity analysis for potential heterogeneous bonding. Compared with samples bonded using a conventional oxide bonding material (SiO2), a higher interfacial adhesion energy (˜11.93 J/m2) and a lower helium leak rate (˜6.84 × 10-10 atm.cm3/sec) were detected for samples bonded using Al2O3. More importantly, due to the excellent thermal conductivity performance of Al2O3, this technology can be used in heterogeneous direct bonding, which has potential applications for enhancing the performance of Si photonic integrated devices.

  19. Hydrogen purification for fuel cell using CuO/CeO 2-Al 2O 3 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, Cristhiane Guimarães; Profeti, Luciene Paula Roberto; Assaf, Elisabete Moreira; Assaf, José Mansur

    CuO/CeO 2, CuO/Al 2O 3 and CuO/CeO 2-Al 2O 3 catalysts, with CuO loading varying from 1 to 5 wt.%, were prepared by the citrate method and applied to the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in a reaction medium containing large amounts of hydrogen (PROX-CO). The compounds were characterized ex situ by X-ray diffraction, specific surface area measurements, temperature-programmed reduction and temperature-programmed reduction of oxidized surfaces; XANES-PROX in situ experiments were also carried out to study the copper oxidation state under PROX-CO conditions. These analyses showed that in the reaction medium the Cu 0 is present as dispersed particles. On the ceria, these metallic particles are smaller and more finely dispersed, resulting in a stronger metal-support interaction than in CuO/Al 2O 3 or CuO/CeO 2-Al 2O 3 catalysts, providing higher PROX-CO activity and better selectivity in the conversion of CO to CO 2 despite the greater BET area presented by samples supported on alumina. It is also shown that the lower CuO content, the higher metal dispersion and consequently the catalytic activity. The redox properties of the ceria support also contributed to catalytic performance.

  20. Nucleation and growth mechanisms of Al2O3 atomic layerdeposition on synthetic polycrystalline MoS2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Chiappe, D; Meersschaut, J; Conard, T; Franquet, A; Nuytten, T; Mannarino, M; Radu, I; Vandervorst, W; Delabie, A

    2017-02-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are of great interest for applications in nano-electronic devices. Their incorporation requires the deposition of nm-thin and continuous high-k dielectric layers on the 2D TMDs. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-k dielectric layers is well established on Si surfaces: the importance of a high nucleation density for rapid layer closure is well known and the nucleation mechanisms have been thoroughly investigated. In contrast, the nucleation of ALD on 2D TMD surfaces is less well understood and a quantitative analysis of the deposition process is lacking. Therefore, in this work, we investigate the growth of Al2O3 (using Al(CH3)3/H2O ALD) on MoS2 whereby we attempt to provide a complete insight into the use of several complementary characterization techniques, including X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. To reveal the inherent reactivity of MoS2, we exclude the impact of surface contamination from a transfer process by direct Al2O3 deposition on synthetic MoS2 layers obtained by a high temperature sulfurization process. It is shown that Al2O3 ALD on the MoS2 surface is strongly inhibited at temperatures between 125°C and 300°C, with no growth occurring on MoS2 crystal basal planes and selective nucleation only at line defects or grain boundaries at MoS2 top surface. During further deposition, the as-formed Al2O3 nano-ribbons grow in both vertical and lateral directions. Eventually, a continuous Al2O3 film is obtained by lateral growth over the MoS2 crystal basal plane, with the point of layer closure determined by the grain size at the MoS2 top surface and the lateral growth rate. The created Al2O3/MoS2 interface consists mainly of van der Waals interactions. The nucleation is improved by contributions of reversible adsorption on the MoS2 basal planes by using low

  1. Nucleation and growth mechanisms of Al2O3 atomic layer deposition on synthetic polycrystalline MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Chiappe, D.; Meersschaut, J.; Conard, T.; Franquet, A.; Nuytten, T.; Mannarino, M.; Radu, I.; Vandervorst, W.; Delabie, A.

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are of great interest for applications in nano-electronic devices. Their incorporation requires the deposition of nm-thin and continuous high-k dielectric layers on the 2D TMDs. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-k dielectric layers is well established on Si surfaces: the importance of a high nucleation density for rapid layer closure is well known and the nucleation mechanisms have been thoroughly investigated. In contrast, the nucleation of ALD on 2D TMD surfaces is less well understood and a quantitative analysis of the deposition process is lacking. Therefore, in this work, we investigate the growth of Al2O3 (using Al(CH3)3/H2O ALD) on MoS2 whereby we attempt to provide a complete insight into the use of several complementary characterization techniques, including X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. To reveal the inherent reactivity of MoS2, we exclude the impact of surface contamination from a transfer process by direct Al2O3 deposition on synthetic MoS2 layers obtained by a high temperature sulfurization process. It is shown that Al2O3 ALD on the MoS2 surface is strongly inhibited at temperatures between 125°C and 300°C, with no growth occurring on MoS2 crystal basal planes and selective nucleation only at line defects or grain boundaries at MoS2 top surface. During further deposition, the as-formed Al2O3 nano-ribbons grow in both vertical and lateral directions. Eventually, a continuous Al2O3 film is obtained by lateral growth over the MoS2 crystal basal plane, with the point of layer closure determined by the grain size at the MoS2 top surface and the lateral growth rate. The created Al2O3/MoS2 interface consists mainly of van der Waals interactions. The nucleation is improved by contributions of reversible adsorption on the MoS2 basal planes by using low

  2. MgSiO3-FeSiO3-Al2O3 in the Earth's lower mantle: Perovskite and garnet at 1200 km depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Bridget; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Natural pyroxene and garnet starting material are used to study the effects of joint Fe and Al substitution into MgSiO3 perovskite at approxmiately 50 GPa. Garnet is found to coexist with perovskite in samples containing both Fe and Al to pressures occurring deep into the lower mantel (approximately 1200 km depth). The volume of the perovskite unit cell is V(sub o(Angstrom(exp 3)) = 162.59 + 5.95x(sub FeSiO3) + 10.80x(sub Al2O3) with aluminum causing a significant increase in the distortion from the ideal cubic cell. On the basis of a proposed extension of the MgSiO3-Al2O3 high-pressure phase diagram toward FeSiO3, Fe is shown to partition preferentially into the garnet phase. The stability of garnet deep into the lower mantel may hinder the penetration of subducted slabs below the transition zone.

  3. Effect of Al2O3 on the Crystallization of Mold Flux for Casting High Al Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lejun; Wang, Wanlin; Zhou, Kechao

    2015-06-01

    In order to lower the weight of automotive bodies for better fuel-efficiency and occupant safety, the demand for high Al-containing advanced high strength steel, such as transformation-induced plasticity and twinning-induced plasticity steel, is increasing. However, high aluminum content in steels would tend to significantly affect the properties of mold flux during the continuous casting process. In this paper, a kinetic study of the effect of Al2O3 content on the crystallization behavior of mold flux was conducted by using the single hot thermocouple technique and the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model combined with the Arrhenius Equation. The results suggested that Al2O3 behaves as an amphoteric oxide in the crystallization process of mold flux. The precipitated phases of mold flux change from cuspidine (Ca4Si2O7F2) into nepheline (NaAlSiO4) and CaF2, and then into gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) with the increase of Al2O3 content. The kinetics study of the isothermal crystallization process indicated that the effective crystallization rate ( k) and Avrami exponent ( n) also first increased and then decreased with the increase of Al2O3 content. The values for the crystallization activation energy of mold flux with different Al2O3 contents were E R0.8A7 = 150.76 ± 17.89 kJ/mol, E R0.8A20 = 136.43 ± 6.48 kJ/mol, E R0.8A30 = 108.63 ± 12.25 kJ/mol and E R0.8A40 = 116.15 ± 8.17 kJ/mol.

  4. Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Helically Coiled Tube with Al2O3/WATER Nanofluid Under Laminar Flow Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P. C. Mukesh; Kumar, J.; Suresh, S.; Babu, K. Praveen

    2012-10-01

    In this experimental investigation, the heat transfer coefficients of a shell and helically coiled tube heat exchanger using Al2O3/water nanofluid under laminar flow condition were studied. The Al2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The Al2O3/water nanofluid at 0.1%, 0.4% and 0.8% particle volume concentration were prepared by using two step method. The prepared nanofluid was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is observed that the overall heat transfer coefficient, inner heat transfer coefficient and experimental inner Nusselt number increase while increasing particle volume concentration and increasing inner Dean number. The enhancement of overall heat transfer coefficient was found to be 7%, 16.9% and 24.2% at 0.1%, 0.4% and 0.8% Al2O3/water nanofluid respectively when compared with water. The enhancement of tube side experimental Nusselt number was found to be 17%, 22.9% and 28% at 0.1%, 0.4% and 0.8% particle volume concentration of Al2O3/water nanofluid respectively when compared with water at fixed Dean number. The tests were conducted in the range of 1600 < De < 2700, and 5200 < Re < 8600 under laminar flow condition and counter flow configuration. These enhancements are due to higher thermal conductivity of nanofluid while increasing particle volume concentration and Brownian motion of nanoparticles. It is studied that there is no negative impact on formation of secondary flow and mixing of fluid when nanofluid passes through the helically coiled tube.

  5. Characterization of humic acid reactivity modifications due to adsorption onto α-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Janot, Noémie; Reiller, Pascal E; Zheng, Xing; Croué, Jean-Philippe; Benedetti, Marc F

    2012-03-01

    Adsorption of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) onto α-Al(2)O(3) is studied by batch experiments at different pH, ionic strength and coverage ratios R (mg of PAHA by m(2) of mineral surface). After equilibration, samples are centrifuged and the concentration of PAHA in the supernatants is measured. The amount of adsorbed PAHA per m(2) of mineral surface is decreasing with increasing pH. At constant pH value, the amount of adsorbed PAHA increases with initial PAHA concentration until a pH-dependent constant value is reached. UV/Visible specific parameters such as specific absorbance SUVA(254), ratio of absorbance values E(2)/E(3) and width of the electron-transfer absorbance band Δ(ET) are calculated for supernatant PAHA fractions of adsorption experiments at pH 6.8, to have an insight on the evolution of PAHA characteristics with varying coverage ratio. No modification is observed compared to original compound for R ≥ 20 mg(PAHA)/g(α)(-)(A)1₂(O)₃. Below this ratio, aromaticity decreases with initial PAHA concentration. Size-exclusion chromatography - organic carbon detection measurements on these supernatants also show a preferential adsorption of more aromatic and higher-sized fractions. Spectrophotometric titrations were done to estimate changes of reactivity of supernatants from adsorption experiments made at pH ≈6.8 and different PAHA concentrations. Evolutions of UV/Visible spectra with varying pH were treated to obtain titration curves that are interpreted within the NICA-Donnan framework. Protonation parameters of non-sorbed PAHA fractions are compared to those obtained for the PAHA before contact with the oxide. The amount of low proton-affinity type of sites and the value of their median affinity constant decrease after adsorption. From PAHA concentration in the supernatant and mass balance calculations, "titration curves" are experimentally proposed for the adsorbed fractions for the first time. These changes in reactivity to our opinion could

  6. Synthesis, sintering and characterization of Al2O 3-TiC nano-composites powders from carbon coated precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaga, Hisashi

    Synthesis, sintering and characterization of Al2O3-TiC nano-composite powders from carbon coated precursors were investigated. Degussa P-25 titanium dioxide, Cabot carbon black, and Alfa Aesar aluminum were the initial starting powders. Hydrocarbon gas (C3H6) was used as the carbon source for the carbon coated precursors. Analytical methods employed in this research were BET surface area measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Vickers hardness tester, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For Al2O3-TiC formation studies, three different types of precursors which are carbon coated TiO2/Al mixture, mixture of carbon coated TiO2 and Al, and standard mixture of TiO 2, Al, and carbon black were prepared to examine formation mechanism reaction. The carbon coated TiO2/Al mixture dramatically changed the reaction mechanism and produced high quality nanosize Al2O 3-TiC powders. XRD and BET results showed that the carbon coated TiO 2/Al synthesized at 1200°C had only Al2O3 and TiC phases with high surface area about 22m2/g which were formed via intermediate phases of Ti2O3 and Al 3Ti. TEM results showed that the produced Al2O3-TiC powders had fine particle size (20--80 nm), narrow particle size distribution, and freely agglomerated. DSC curve and XRD results of the carbon coated TiO 2/Al mixture also showed that there were two endothermic and three successive weak exothermic reactions because released heat was controlled by the carbon coating. Experimentally determined the first exothermic reaction 5Al + 3TiO 2 → Al2O3 + Ti2O3 + Al3Ti which was compared with theoretical explanation model and they were found to be in agreement. Sintering behavior of nano-size Al 2O3-TiC synthesized from carbon coated precursors was investigated in Al2O3-TiC-MgO system using pressureless sintering and hot-pressing methods. After pressureless sintering, MgO doped Al 2O3-20wt.%TiC resulted in 98% of theoretical

  7. Bovine serum albumin adsorption onto colloidal Al2O3 particles: a new model based on zeta potential and UV-vis measurements.

    PubMed

    Rezwan, Kurosch; Meier, Lorenz P; Rezwan, Mandana; Vörös, Janos; Textor, Marcus; Gauckler, Ludwig J

    2004-11-09

    We investigated the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on colloidal Al2O3 particles in an aqueous environment. Changes in the zeta potential of the Al2O3 particles upon the adsorption of BSA were measured using an electro-acoustic technique. The mass of protein adsorbed was determined by using UV-vis spectroscopy. The change of the isoelectric point of the Al2O3 powder-protein suspension was found to be a function of adsorbed protein mass. It was shown that approximately one monolayer of BSA was needed to fully mask the surface and to compromise the charge of Al2O3. From titration experiments it follows that about 30-36% of the negatively charged groups of the protein form bonds with the protonated and charged Al2O3 surface. On the basis of our observations we introduced a new adsorption model for BSA on Al2O3 particles.

  8. Low-temperature growth of single-walled carbon nanotube using Al2O3/Pd/Al2O3 multilayer catalyst by alcohol gas source method at high vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiribayashi, Hoshimitsu; Ogawa, Seigo; Kozawa, Akinari; Saida, Takahiro; Naritsuka, Shigeya; Maruyama, Takahiro

    2016-06-01

    We carried out single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) growth at 500 and 600 °C using Al2O3/Pd/Al2O3 multilayer catalysts on SiO2/Si substrates by the alcohol gas source method. When the ethanol pressures were 1 × 10-4 and 1 × 10-3 Pa, radial-breathing-mode (RBM) peaks and sharp G band peaks appeared in Raman spectra, indicating the growth of SWCNTs even at 500 °C. When the growth temperature and ethanol pressure were 500 °C and 1 × 10-4 Pa, respectively, the growth rate decreased gradually with the growth time, but the SWCNT growth continued for more than 4 h and the diameter distribution changed as the growth proceeded. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements showed that oxidized Pd catalyst particles were reduced to metallic states after the SWCNT growth started.

  9. Characterization of Al2O3 optically stimulated luminescence films for 2D dosimetry using a 6 MV photon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Shrestha, N.; Schnell, E.; Ahmad, S.; Akselrod, M. S.; Yukihara, E. G.

    2016-11-01

    This work evaluates the dosimetric properties of newly developed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) films, fabricated with either Al2O3:C or Al2O3:C,Mg, using a prototype laser scanning reader, a developed image reconstruction algorithm, and a 6 MV therapeutic photon beam. Packages containing OSL films (Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg) and a radiochromic film (Gafchromic EBT3) were irradiated using a 6 MV photon beam using different doses, field sizes, with and without wedge filter. Dependence on film orientation of the OSL system was also tested. Diode-array (MapCHECK) and ionization chamber measurements were performed for comparison. The OSLD film doses agreed with the MapCHECK and ionization chamber data within the experimental uncertainties (<2% at 1.5 Gy). The system background and minimum detectable dose (MDD) were  <0.5 mGy, and the dose response was approximately linear from the MDD up to a few grays (the linearity correction was  <10% up to ~2-4 Gy), with no saturation up to 30 Gy. The dose profiles agreed with those obtained using EBT3 films (analyzed using the triple channel method) in the high dose regions of the images. In the low dose regions, the dose profiles from the OSLD films were more reproducible than those from the EBT3 films. We also demonstrated that the OSL film data are independent on scan orientation and field size over the investigated range. The results demonstrate the potential of OSLD films for 2D dosimetry, particularly for the characterization of small fields, due to their wide dynamic range, linear response, resolution and dosimetric properties. The negligible background and potential simple calibration make these OSLD films suitable for remote audits. The characterization presented here may motivate further commercial development of a 2D dosimetry system based on the OSL from Al2O3:C or Al2O3:C,Mg.

  10. Investigation by Mössbauer spectroscopy of Sn redox transformations during H2/O2 titration on Pt/Al2O3Sn-Cl and Pt/Al2O3SnIn-Cl naphtha reforming catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahel, Ali; Avenier, Priscilla; Lacombe, Sylvie; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette; Jumas, Jean-Claude

    2010-03-01

    Bimetallic Pt/Al2O3Sn-Cl and trimetallic Pt/Al2O3SnIn-Cl catalysts were characterized by H2/O2 double titration and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. The addition of Sn or both Sn and In to the monometallic Pt/Al2O3-Cl catalyst leads to an increase in the volume of chemisorbed O2 at each titration. For bimetallic and trimetallic catalysts the increase in the Pt dispersion, calculated from the second oxygen titre, abnormally surpasses the barrier of 100%. Characterization of samples obtained after each step of the H2/O2 titration sequence using 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy allowed to follow the redox transformations of Sn species suspected of contributing to O2 consumption. 119Sn Mössbauer spectra show that after reduction unalloyed metalic Sn and PtSn alloy phases are formed in bi- and trimetallic catalysts respectively. These metallic phases are oxidized upon the first oxygen titre into the so-called PtxSn(O) oxometalic phases. The index calculated from this titre thus expresses the Pt-Sn bimetallic character and is called the bimetallicity index (BMI). These latter phases further undergo reduction and regeneration (oxidation) upon the second O2 titre and thus contribute to the calculated Pt dispersion as well.

  11. Evolution of Inclusions in Fe-13Cr Treated by CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Based Top Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Jun; Li, Jianmin; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2017-02-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the effect of Al2O3 in the slag of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-CaF2 system on the cleanness of Fe-13Cr stainless steel deoxidized by ferrosilicon. Increasing the Al2O3 content in basicity = 2.28 slag can reduce the usage of CaF2 and benefit the obtainment of a good kinetic condition for inclusion removal, but over 21 pct would lead to a higher total oxygen content in the melt and make the inclusion composition more complex. It is found that increasing basicity in 16 pct Al2O3 slag would have a good deoxidation ability and accelerate the transformation from high Al2O3 inclusions to low melting point CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system inclusions, but basicity over 2.58 would lead to high content of [Al] in liquid steel, which would promote the formation of MgO-Al2O3 inclusions. Therefore, it is not suitable to add a high content of Al2O3 into high-basicity slag. Adding Al2O3 into slag of 2.28 in basicity until a content of 16 pct could achieve inclusion plastication within 45 minutes without Ca treatment, which has potential application in industrial production.

  12. Thermodynamics and Structure of CaO-Al2O3-3 Mass Pct B2O3 Slag at 1773 K (1500 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Qifeng; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiang; Chou, Kuochih

    2016-12-01

    Activity values of Al2O3 in CaO-Al2O3-B2O3 systems at 1773 K (1500 °C) were determined experimentally using a gas-copper-slag equilibrium technique. The oxygen partial pressure was controlled by C/CO equilibrium. A negative deviation from ideality was found in measured activity of Al2O3. The activity coefficient of Al2O3 decreases with the increase of CaO/Al2O3 ratio. To interpret the variation of Al2O3 activity with composition, structures of CaO-Al2O3-B2O3 glassy slag were investigated by using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the number of bridging oxygen decreases with increasing CaO/Al2O3 ratio. With increase of CaO content, the aluminate network was gradually depolymerized, which corresponds to the decrease of the activity coefficient of Al2O3.

  13. Hydroprocessing of Jatropha Oil for Production of Green Diesel over Non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Lei, Jiandu; He, Jing; Deng, Lihong; Wang, Luying; Fan, Kai; Rong, Long

    2015-01-01

    The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was developed to produce green diesel from the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil. The Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by one-pot synthesis of Ni/Al2O3 with the co-precipitation method and then impregnanting Ni/Al2O3 with PTA solution. The catalysts were characterized with BET, SEM-EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA and NH3-TPD. The Ni and W species of the Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst were much more homogeneously distributed on the surface than that of commercial Al2O3. Catalytic performance in the hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil was evaluated by GC. The maximum conversion of Jatropha oil (98.5 wt%) and selectivity of the C15-C18 alkanes fraction (84.5 wt %) occurred at 360 °C, 3.0 MPa, 0.8 h−1. The non-sulfided Ni-PTA/Al2O3 catalyst is more environmentally friendly than the conventional sulfided hydroprocessing catalyst, and it exhibited the highest catalytic activity than the Ni-PTA catalyst supported with commercial Al2O3 grain and Al2O3 powder. PMID:26162092

  14. Reduction of Ordering Temperature of FePt Al2O3 Thin Films by N2 Addition During Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jiang-Wei; Katayama, N.; Yang, Zheng; Wei, Fu-Lin; Matsumoto, M.; Morisako, A.; Liu, Xiao-Xi; Takei, S.

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the effect of N2 addition during sputtering on the microstructure and magnetic properties of FePt-Al2O3 thin films. The texture of FePt phase in FePt-Al2O3 thin films changes from (111) to a more random orientation by N2 addition during sputtering. The ordering temperature of FePt phase reduces about 100°C with appropriate N2 partial pressure. A larger coercivity of 6.0×105 A/m is obtained with N2 partial pressure about 15%. Structural analysis reveals that a small quantity of Fe3N phase forms during sputtering and the release of N atoms during the post annealing induces a large number of vacancies in the films, which benefits to the transformation of FePt phase from fcc to fct.

  15. Temperature and frequency effects on the electric conductivity of X% Al2O3 powder extracted from Iraqi kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, A. S.

    2015-03-01

    Samples containing X% of Al2O3 (X =17.85, 28.05, 87.98 and 95.63) were prepared from Iraqi kaolin through calcinations process, by the method of evaporation. Electrical conductivity on as prepared and annealed samples at 1200°C were performed in the temperature range (30 - 115°C) and with applied frequencies from (10 KHz to 1MHz). The electrical conductivity increased with the increase of temperature for all investigated samples except 17.8%Al2O3. From the electrical conductivity curves, activation energies are obtained with the assumption of Arrhenius behavior over the entire temperature range from (30 to 110°C).

  16. Interface Defect Hydrogen Depassivation and Capacitance-Voltage Hysteresis of Al2O3/InGaAs Gate Stacks.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kechao; Palumbo, Felix Roberto; Zhang, Liangliang; Droopad, Ravi; McIntyre, Paul C

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the effects of pre- and postatomic layer deposition (ALD) defect passivation with hydrogen on the trap density and reliability of Al2O3/InGaAs gate stacks. Reliability is characterized by capacitance-voltage hysteresis measurements on samples prepared using different fabrication procedures and having different initial trap densities. Despite its beneficial capability to passivate both interface and border traps, a final forming gas (H2/N2) anneal (FGA) step is correlated with a significant hysteresis. This appears to be caused by hydrogen depassivation of defects in the gate stack under bias stress, supported by the observed bias stress-induced increase of interface trap density, and strong hydrogen isotope effects on the measured hysteresis. On the other hand, intentional air exposure of the InGaAs surface prior to Al2O3 ALD increases the initial interface trap density (Dit) but considerably lowers the hysteresis.

  17. An investigation of thermal performance improvement of a cylindrical heat pipe using Al2O3 nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarpour, M.; Khodabandeh, R.; Vafai, K.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, effect of Al2O3 nanofluid on thermal performance of cylindrical heat pipe is investigated. An analytical model is employed to study the thermal performance of the heat pipe utilizing nanofluid and the predicted results are compared with the experimental results. A substantial change in the heat pipe thermal resistance, effective thermal conductivity and entropy generation of the heat pipe is observed when using Al2O3 nanofluid as a working fluid. It is found that entropy generation in the heat pipe system decreases when using a nanofluid due to the lower thermal resistance of the heat pipe which results in an improved thermal performance. It is shown that the proposed model is in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results and can be used as a fast technique to explore various features of thermal characteristics of the nanofluid based heat pipe.

  18. Influence of Al2O3 on the ionic conductivity of plasticized PVC-PEG blend polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindran, D.; Vickraman, P.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolytes with PVC-PEG blend as host matrix and LiClO4 as dopant salt was prepared through conventional solution casting method. To enhance the conductivity propylene carbonate (PC) was used as plasticizer. The influence of ceramic filler Al2O3 on the conductivity of the electrolyte films were studied by varying the (PVC: Al2O3) ratio. The films were subjected to XRD, complex impedance analysis and SEM analysis. The XRD studies reveal a marginal increase in the amorphous phase of the electrolyte films due to the incorporation of filler. The AC impedance analysis shows the dependency of ionic conductivity on the content (wt %) of filler and exhibit a maximum at 4 wt% filler. The SEM analysis depicts the occurrence of phase separation in electrolyte which is attributed to the poor solubility of polymer PVC in the liquid electrolyte.

  19. [Effects of SO2 on NO reduction with methanol over Ag/Al2O3 catalyst].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tianle; Hao, Jiming; Fu, Lixin; Cui, Xiangyu; Wang, Yanji

    2002-07-01

    Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with 5% Ag loading was prepared by the single step sol-gel mixture method and the effects of adding SO2 to reaction feed on NO reduction by CH3OH over the catalyst was investigated in the presence of oxygen. The results showed that in the absence of SO2 and H2O the catalyst displayed lower activity temperature and higher N2O selectivity, which was attributed to the partial reduction of oxidized Ag into metallic Ag under reaction conditions. Selective catalytic reduction activity was not decreased but significantly increased, N2O formation was suppressed and most effective NO reduction temperature shifted to higher temperature by pre-sulfated Ag/Al2O3 or addition of SO2 to reaction mixture. XPS analysis showed that the sulfate-like species were formed by the effect of SO2.

  20. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange induced by an electric field in α-Al2O3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, R.; Colera, I.; Gonz&Ález, R.; Savoini, B.; Chen, Y.

    Hydrogen and deuterium are observed in α-Al2O3 crystals in the form of OH- and OD- radicals, respectively, which absorb in the infrared region. Infrared-absorption measurements were used to monitor diffusion of deuterons and protons in α-Al2O3 single crystals under the application of a moderate electric field parallel to the crystallographic c-axis, in the temperature range of 973-1333K. A linear dependence of the percent of exchange with both annealing time and applied voltage is observed, indicating that ionic conduction was taking place. The activation energy for the H+ ↔; D+ exchange was determined to be 2.4 eV, less than half the value obtained by pure thermal means, suggesting that under the application of an electric field the deuteron (proton) diffusion mechanism is different.

  1. Amplified spontaneous emission measurement of a line-narrowed, tunable, Ti:Al2O3 amplifier using rubidium absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, James C.; Barnes, Norman P.; Lockard, George E.; Cross, Patricia L.

    1989-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission, ASE, generated by a Ti:Al2O3 laser amplifier has been measured as a function of pump energy, and thus gain, using the atomic absorption of rubidium, Rb, gas at 0.780 micron. By tuning the Ti:Al2O3 laser, the Rb cell could selectively absorb the narrow spectral bandwidth laser radiation while transmitting the wide spectral bandwidth ASE. Transmission of laser amplifier pulses through a Rb absorption cell, measured at various temperatures, thus allows the measurement of the weak ASE in the vicinity of the strong laser pulse. A model for the transmission of Rb as a function of temperature and wavelength has been developed. The measured transmissions are in good agreement with the transmission model predictions.

  2. The Effects of Al2O3 Amount on the Microstructure and Properties of Fe-Cr Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsuddin, Saidatulakmar; Jamaludin, Shamsul Baharin; Hussain, Zuhailawati; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin

    2010-12-01

    Iron based matrix composites reinforced with 5 to 25 wt pct of Al2O3 particles were fabricated using the powder metallurgy method. The samples were prepared by mixing at 250 rpm for 30 minutes, uniaxially pressing at 750 MPa and sintering in a vacuum furnace at a temperature of 1373 K (1100 °C) for 2 hours with 10 °C/min heating rate. The optimum amount of reinforcement was determined by evaluating the microstructure, relative density, total porosity, micro Vickers hardness, and wear resistance of the composites. The results and analysis revealed that the micro Vickers hardness and wear resistance of the composites were better after increasing the reinforcement up to 20 wt pct. Increasing the Al2O3 particles to 25 wt pct resulted in a decrease in mechanical properties due to agglomeration of the particles in the matrix, which lowers the interaction between the matrix and reinforcement.

  3. CO oxidation mechanism on the γ-Al2O3 supported single Pt atom: First principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongwei

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the role of metal-support interaction for the supported single-atom catalysts is very important in heterogeneous catalysis. Here, Three different CO oxidation mechanisms on Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst were probed by periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations in detail, namely the reactive O*sbnd Osbnd C*dbnd O intermediate mechanism, the reactive CO3 intermediate mechanism and the Pt-Al3+ double sites mechanism. According to the calculated results analysis, we concluded that the dominant reaction pathway at the low temperatures is the reactive O*sbnd Osbnd C*dbnd O intermediate mechanism. Our results are in very good agreement with the experimental evidence for O*sbnd Osbnd C*dbnd O coverage on Pt/γ-Al2O3 at room temperature by an in situ diffuse reflectance infrared detector.

  4. Corrosion Behavior of Novel Al-Al2O3 Composites in Aerated 3.5% Chloride Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo-Hurtado, P. O.; Sundaram, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of novel Al-Al2O3 MMCs was evaluated in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution through potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These materials corrode almost spontaneously by pitting in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution. Observations indicate that intermetallic particles in these composites appear to play an important role in this pitting corrosion behavior. Addition of Al2O3 particles to the base alloys did not appear to increase their corrosion resistance significantly, although corrosion rate was affected by these reinforcement particles. In cyclic polarization experiments, the small difference between the pitting potentials and the repassivation potentials for these MMCs indicated their low resistance to pitting corrosion. EIS measurements indicate adsorption/diffusion phenomena at the interface of the composites. Electrically equivalent circuits are proposed to describe and substantiate the corrosion processes occurring in these materials.

  5. The resistance to wear and corrosion of laser-cladding Al 2O 3 ceramic coating on Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ya-li; Wang, Cun-shan; Yao, Man; Liu, Hong-bin

    2007-04-01

    The paper presents a study on the preparation of Al 2O 3 ceramic coating on AZ91HP Mg alloy by laser remelting plasma-sprayed coating. It was found that after laser remelting, the coating exhibited obvious layer-like characteristics due to influence of temperature distribution, thermophysical parameters and layer thickness. According to the microstructural difference, the coating can be divided into the melted zone with the α-Al 2O 3 column-like crystal, the sintered zone with flock-like structure, the residual plasma-sprayed zone with loosened structure. Because of the dense column-like crystal, the hardness, wear and corrosion resistance of the laser remelted coating are much higher than those of the plasma-sprayed coating and as-received Mg alloy.

  6. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in Pd/Fe bilayers on Al2O3 (0001) induced by oblique deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Chiao-Sung; Wang, Bo-Yao; Pong, Way-Faung; Ho, Tsung-Ying; Tsai, Cheng-Jui; Lo, Fang-Yuh; Chern, Ming-Yau; Lin, Wen-Chin

    2012-06-01

    This study reports the preparation of self-organized 1-dimensional magnetic structures of Fe on Al2O3 (0001) by oblique deposition. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results in this study show the preferred (110) texture of the Fe films. XRD and extended x-ray adsorption fine structure measurements indicate larger oblique deposition angle (65°) leads to more disorder in the Fe crystalline structure. After capping with a Pd overlayer, the Pd/Fe/Al2O3 (0001) still exhibits uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by the underlying 1-dimensional Fe nanostructure. This uniaxial magnetic anisotropy changes with the variation in Fe thickness and oblique deposition angle. These results clearly indicate the feasibility of manipulating uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and crystalline order through the oblique deposition of magnetic materials.

  7. Microstructure and Optical Properties of SS/Mo/Al2O3 Spectrally Selective Solar Absorber Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang-Hu; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Geng, Qing-Fen; Ma, Peng-Jun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Surface-textured Mo thin film is fabricated by magnetron sputtering through the adjustment of deposition parameters, which exhibits a high absorptance of 0.80 and a low emittance of 0.09. The single-layer Mo deposited on stainless steel (SS) is characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and optical measurement. The controlled surface roughness combined with larger aspect ratio contributes much to the high absorptance and low emittance. Based on the SS/Mo coating, a spectrally selective coating (SS/Mo/Al2O3) is designed and fabricated. The coating shows an amorphous structure and exhibits an absorptance of 0.90 and an emittance of 0.08. Tauc-Lorentz and Drude free-electron models are used to modeling the optical properties of Al2O3 and Mo layers by phase-modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  8. Wetting of the (0001) α-Al2O3 Sapphire Surface by Molten Aluminum: Effect of Surface Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Santillan, Joaquin

    2010-03-01

    The wetting of molten aluminum on the “ c”-plane (0001) of single-crystal α-Al2O3 (sapphire) was studied by the sessile drop technique from 800 °C (1073 K) to 1200 °C (1473 K). Systematically increasing the (0001) surface roughness by SiC abrasion increased the wetting contact angle, resulting in reduced wetting. The surface roughness factor R originally defined by Wenzel, was determined as a function of the abrasion, temperature, and time. The wetting decreases as the surface roughness increases. Rough surfaces also create time and temperature effects on wetting, changing those for a smoothly polished surface. The existence of a high-temperature surface structural transition for (0001) of α-Al2O3, which has been previously suggested, was confirmed. Increased roughness R accents the effect of the surface structural transition, increasing the wetting contact angle changes during the transition.

  9. Blue upconversion luminescence in 12 CaO·7 Al 2O 3:Tm 3 + /Yb 3 + polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Liang; Sun, Jinchao; Qian, Yannan; Zhang, Yushen; Xu, Yanling

    2012-03-01

    The effect of Yb 3 + concentration on the fluorescence of 12 CaO·7 Al 2O 3:Tm 3 + /Yb 3 + polycrystals is investigated. Under the excitation of 980 nm laser, the strong blue (477 nm) emission band is observed and attributed to 1G 4 → 3H 6 of Tm 3 + . The ratio of blue to red emission increases with the increasing of Yb 3 + and remains constant at 10 mol% Yb 3 + . The pump dependence and upconversion mechanisms show that the two-photon cooperative upconversion process is responsible for the enhancement of the blue upconversion emission. The Commission Internationale de l'eclairage chromaticity coordinates (x, y) illustrate that the 12 CaO·7 Al 2O 3:1 mol% Tm 3 + /10 mol% Yb 3 + can emit high-purity blue light.

  10. O-18 tracer studies of Al2O3 scale formation on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, K. P. R.; Cooper, A. R.; Smialek, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Diffusion processes in Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl + Zr alloys were studied by the proton activation technique employing the O-18 isotope as a tracer. The O-18 profiles identified a zone of oxide penetration beneath the external scale. Both this subscale formation and the outer Al2O3 scale thickness were shown by this technique to increase with Zr content in the alloy. Estimated kp's from scale thicknesses were in agreement with gravimetric measurements for various Zr levels. Alternate exposures in O-16 and O-18 revealed that oxygen inward transport was the primary growth mechanism. A qualitative analysis of these O-18 profiles indicated that the oxygen transport was primarily via short-circuit paths, such as grain boundaries.

  11. Experimental investigation of benzoic acid diffusion coefficient in γ-Al2O3 nanofluids at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manouchehrian Fard, Manouchehr; Beiki, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    An experimental study was performed to measure benzoic acid diffusion coefficient in water-based γ-Al2O3 nanofluids at different temperatures. Measurements were carried out at 15, 20 and 25 °C. γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10-20 nm were added into de-ionized water as the based fluid. Nanoparticles volume fractions used in the based fluid were 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 %. Measurements showed that the diffusion coefficients was not changed with nanoparticles concentration and no enhancement was found. Dependence of diffusion coefficients on nanoparticles concentration followed the same trend in all temperatures investigated in this work. Nano stirring and nano-obstacles could be regarded as two reasons for mass diffusivity changes in nanofluids.

  12. Atomic layer deposited Al2O3 passivation of type II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salihoglu, Omer; Muti, Abdullah; Kutluer, Kutlu; Tansel, Tunay; Turan, Rasit; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2012-04-01

    Taking advantage of the favorable Gibbs free energies, atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was used as a novel approach for passivation of type II InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL) midwave infrared (MWIR) single pixel photodetectors in a self cleaning process (λcut-off ˜ 5.1 μm). Al2O3 passivated and unpassivated diodes were compared for their electrical and optical performances. For passivated diodes, the dark current density was improved by an order of magnitude at 77 K. The zero bias responsivity and detectivity was 1.33 A/W and 1.9 × 1013 Jones, respectively at 4 μm and 77 K. Quantum efficiency (QE) was determined as %41 for these detectors. This conformal passivation technique is promising for focal plane array (FPA) applications.

  13. Microstructure and Optical Properties of SS/Mo/Al2O3 Spectrally Selective Solar Absorber Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang-Hu; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Geng, Qing-Fen; Ma, Peng-Jun; Liu, Gang

    2016-11-01

    Surface-textured Mo thin film is fabricated by magnetron sputtering through the adjustment of deposition parameters, which exhibits a high absorptance of 0.80 and a low emittance of 0.09. The single-layer Mo deposited on stainless steel (SS) is characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and optical measurement. The controlled surface roughness combined with larger aspect ratio contributes much to the high absorptance and low emittance. Based on the SS/Mo coating, a spectrally selective coating (SS/Mo/Al2O3) is designed and fabricated. The coating shows an amorphous structure and exhibits an absorptance of 0.90 and an emittance of 0.08. Tauc-Lorentz and Drude free-electron models are used to modeling the optical properties of Al2O3 and Mo layers by phase-modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  14. Microstructure of hot-pressed Al2O3-Si3N4 mixtures as a function of holding temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    Powder mixtures of 40 m/o Si3N4-60 m/o Al2O3 were hot-pressed at 4000 psi at various holding temperatures from 1100 C to 1700 C. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electro Microscopy results were correlated to X-ray phase analysis and density measurements. The progressively developed microstructure was used to interpret the densification behavior of SiAlON. Photomicrographs of microstructures are shown.

  15. Electrochemical promotion of propane oxidation on Pt deposited on a dense β"-Al2O3 ceramic Ag+ conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsampas, Michail; Kambolis, Anastasios; Obeid, Emil; Lizarraga, Leonardo; Sapountzi, Foteini; Vernoux, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    A new kind of electrochemical catalyst based on a Pt porous catalyst film deposited on a β"-Al2O3 ceramic Ag+ conductor was developed and evaluated during propane oxidation. It was observed that upon anodic polarization, the rate of propane combustion was significantly electropromoted up to 400%. Moreover, for the first time, exponential increase of the catalytic rate was evidenced during galvanostatic transient experiment in excellent agreement with EPOC equation.

  16. Effect of Pt promotion on Ni/Al2O3 for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.; Borodi, G.; Almasan, V.

    2013-11-01

    Ni/Al2O3 (10 wt.% Ni) and Ni-Pt/Al2O3 (10 wt.% Ni, 0.5 wt.% Pt) were comparatively tested in the hydrogen selective catalytic reduction process (H2-SCR), at reaction temperatures below 350°C. Catalytic activity tests consisted in temperature programmed reactions (TPRea) under plug flow conditions from 50 to 350°C, with a temperature rate of 5°C/min, using a feed stream with a reactant ratio NO:H2 = 1:1.3 and a GHSV of 4500 h-1. Promotion with Pt increases the catalytic performances of the Ni based catalyst, in respect to NO conversion, N2 selectivity and N2 yield. The reaction temperatures for NO conversion above 95% decrease significantly due to Pt addition, from 250°C for Ni/Al2O3 to 125°C for Ni-Pt/Al2O3. Characterization of catalysts was performed by: X ray powder diffraction (XRD) for the estimation of Ni crystallite size, temperature programmed reduction (TPR) for the catalyst reducibility, temperature programmed desorption of hydrogen (H2-TPD) for the investigation of active sites and metal dispersion on the support, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms at -196°C for the determination of total specific surface area and pore size distribution, and H/D isotopic exchange on the catalyst surface. At the request of the Proceedings Editor, and all authors of the paper, an updated version of this article was published on 14 January 2014. Data presented in Table 1 of the original paper contained errors which have been corrected in the updated and re-published article. The Corrigendum attached to the corrected article PDF file explains the errors in more detail.

  17. Thermally assisted photo transfer OSL from deep traps in Al2O3:C grains exhibiting different TL peak shapes.

    PubMed

    Polymeris, George S; Kitis, George

    2012-10-01

    The present work studies the thermally assisted photo transfer OSL (TAPT OSL) signal in the case of Al(2)O(3):C samples showing double-structured main dosimetric TL peaks. The measurement signal provides indirect experimental evidence regarding the presence of deep traps along with one transfer mechanism extremely powerful and efficient. The experimental features of this signal are presented along with those yielded for samples with narrow TL peaks for the sake of comparison. In the framework of a dosimetric characterization, the straightforward relation observed between the TAPT OSL integrated intensity and the dose, even if non-linear, implies that this signal could be effectively used towards dosimetry purposes in the high dose region up to 250 Gy. Furthermore, the study on the influence of the annealing temperature on the TL glow curve shape on Al(2)O(3):C grains is attempted. The variety of glow curve shapes reported especially in the case of single grains is not affected by high temperature annealing, since its effect is dominant even after heating at 1085°C. Thus, this variety should not be correlated to the different deep trap occupancies, but rather be attributed to a possible structural defect. The main dosimetric TL peak af all grains is considered to be a composite of two unambiguously different traps of non-first-order kinetics. The low temperature part of these traps, reaching a maximum at ~190°C is an electron trap and the high temperature part with maximum at ~250°C is a hole trap. TL dose response of Al(2)O(3):C grains presenting double peak structures is presented for the first time in literature, suggesting the usefulness on the applicability of Al(2)O(3):C in the dose regime up to 100 Gy.

  18. Oxidation of the GaAs semiconductor at the Al2O3/GaAs junction.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Marjukka; Yasir, Muhammad; Lång, Jouko; Dahl, Johnny; Kuzmin, Mikhail; Mäkelä, Jaakko; Punkkinen, Marko; Laukkanen, Pekka; Kokko, Kalevi; Schulte, Karina; Punkkinen, Risto; Korpijärvi, Ville-Markus; Polojärvi, Ville; Guina, Mircea

    2015-03-14

    Atomic-scale understanding and processing of the oxidation of III-V compound-semiconductor surfaces are essential for developing materials for various devices (e.g., transistors, solar cells, and light emitting diodes). The oxidation-induced defect-rich phases at the interfaces of oxide/III-V junctions significantly affect the electrical performance of devices. In this study, a method to control the GaAs oxidation and interfacial defect density at the prototypical Al2O3/GaAs junction grown via atomic layer deposition (ALD) is demonstrated. Namely, pre-oxidation of GaAs(100) with an In-induced c(8 × 2) surface reconstruction, leading to a crystalline c(4 × 2)-O interface oxide before ALD of Al2O3, decreases band-gap defect density at the Al2O3/GaAs interface. Concomitantly, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) from these Al2O3/GaAs interfaces shows that the high oxidation state of Ga (Ga2O3 type) decreases, and the corresponding In2O3 type phase forms when employing the c(4 × 2)-O interface layer. Detailed synchrotron-radiation XPS of the counterpart c(4 × 2)-O oxide of InAs(100) has been utilized to elucidate the atomic structure of the useful c(4 × 2)-O interface layer and its oxidation process. The spectral analysis reveals that three different oxygen sites, five oxidation-induced group-III atomic sites with core-level shifts between -0.2 eV and +1.0 eV, and hardly any oxygen-induced changes at the As sites form during the oxidation. These results, discussed within the current atomic model of the c(4 × 2)-O interface, provide insight into the atomic structures of oxide/III-V interfaces and a way to control the semiconductor oxidation.

  19. Thermal diffusivity of Al-Mg based metallic matrix composite reinforced with Al2O3 ceramic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Orea, A.; Morales, J. E.; Saavedra S, R.; Carrasco, C.

    2010-03-01

    Thermal diffusivities of Al-Mg based metallic matrix composite reinforced with ceramic particles of Al2O3 are reported in this article. The samples were produced by rheocasting and the studied operational condition in this case is the shear rate: 800, 1400 and 2000 rpm. Additionally, the AlMg base alloy was tested. Measurements of thermal diffusivity were performed at room temperature by using photoacoustic technique.

  20. Effect of Al2O3 Addition on the Precipitated Phase Transformation in Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongmin; Li, Jinfu; Sun, Yongqi; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-04-01

    The present paper aims to provide a fundamental understanding on phase change of Ti-enriched crystalline phase induced by Al2O3 addition in Ti-bearing blast furnace slags with different basicities using Single Hot Thermocouple Technique and X-ray Diffraction. The results showed that an increase in the Al2O3 content led to phase change from rutile or perovskite to Mg3Al4Ti8O25 and prompted crystallization of the slags with basicity of 0.60 and 0.75, whereas only CaTiO3 was precipitated at a basicity of 0.95. Both thermodynamic and kinetic analyses were conducted to study the slag crystallization, which would throw light on phase change and enhanced crystallization. To further reveal the relationship with Al2O3 addition on slag structure and crystallization, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance were adopted, with AlO4 tetrahedra and AlO6 octahedra observed in the slag. For slags with the basicity of 0.60 and 0.75, AlO6 octahedron, which was suggested to induce the phase change from TiO2 or CaTiO3 to Mg3Al4Ti8O25, was detected at high Al2O3 content. On the other hand, in slags with the basicity of 0.95, abundant Ca2+ may be connected to TiO6 octahedra, resulting in CaTiO3 formation.

  1. Numerical study of conjugate heat transfer in rectangular microchannel heat sink with Al2O3/H2O nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Samanta, A. N.; Chakraborty, S.

    2009-08-01

    In the present paper, conjugate heat transfer approach has been used to numerically study laminar forced convective heat transfer characteristics of Al2O3/H2O nanofluid flowing in a silicon microchannel heat sink (MCHS) of rectangular cross-section using thermal dispersion model. Results are presented in terms of thermal resistance that characterizes MCHS performance. It is observed that use of nanofluid improves MCHS performance by reducing fin (conductive) thermal resistance.

  2. Hydrogenation of FeCoZr-Al2O3 nanocomposites studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, A.; Kasiuk, J.; Fedotova, J.; Szilagyi, E.; Przewoznik, J.; Kapusta, Cz.; Marszalek, M.

    2009-02-01

    Hydrogenation effects on crystalline and magnetic structure of nanocomposites (FeCoZr) x (Al2O3)100 - x , 38 ≤ x ≤ 63 at.% are studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetometry. Variations of local structure, blocking temperature and mean FeCoZr nanoparticles’ volume are discussed with respect to (i) composition and (ii) two competing processes—H2 incorporation and annealing—occurred during treatment in H2 plasma.

  3. Mechanism and modelling of aluminium nanoparticle oxidation coupled with crystallisation of amorphous Al2O3 shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Chengdong; Yu, Dan; Li, Shuiqing; Yao, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    The oxidation of aluminium nanoparticles coupled with crystallisation of amorphous alumina shell is investigated through the thermogravimetric analyser and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC) and the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The thermogravimetric (TG) curves show stepwise shapes with temperature increase and could be divided into four stages. The reaction at the second stage is complex, including the simultaneous crystallisation of amorphous alumina (am-Al2O3) and Al oxidation. The crystallisation of am-Al2O3 promotes the reaction through generating fast diffusion channels, like micro-cracks and grain boundaries in the oxide shell to accelerate the ionic diffusion. An enhancement factor (freact), which follows a power-law formula with the crystallisation rate, is introduced to quantify the impact of crystallisation on reaction. With heating rate increase, the second stage of TG curves shifts to the high temperature regime and the total weight gain at the second stage decreases slowly. A crystallisation-reaction model is constructed to fit and predict the weight gain after derivation of diffusivities and crystallisation kinetics. Modelling indicates that with heating rate rise, the mass increment at the second stage of TG curves decreases owing to the reduced reaction time, although the reaction is accelerated. The shift of TG curve to higher temperature is due to the polymorphic phase transition. Actually the derived kinetics of the crystallisation of amorphous alumina indicates that the polymorphic phase transformation mechanism works mainly below the heating rate of 3 K s-1. At higher heating rate, the melting of Al takes place firstly and the crystallisation of am-Al2O3 follows to enhance the ionic diffusion. Therefore, when the heating rate is fast during ignition or combustion, the Al nanoparticles undergo both the melting of Al and the polymorphic phase transition of am-Al2O3 to accelerate the reaction.

  4. The use of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R.; Slonimskaya, E.; Doroshenko, A.; Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n = 34) were injected with radioactive 99mTc-Al2O3, and Group II patients (n = 30) received 99mTc-labeled phytate colloid. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. 18 hours after 99mTc-Al2O3 injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7-11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17-31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II SLNs were detected in 27 patients. 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5-2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4-7% by gamma probe. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc-Al2O3 demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. The sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-Al2O3 were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  5. Wear and Adhesive Failure of Al2O3 Powder Coating Sprayed onto AISI H13 Tool Steel Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanov, Auezhan; Pyun, Young-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an alumina (Al2O3) ceramic powder was sprayed onto an AISI H13 hot-work tool steel substrate that was subjected to sanding and ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) treatment processes. The significance of the UNSM technique on the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating and on the hardness of the substrate was investigated. The adhesive failure of the coating sprayed onto sanded and UNSM-treated substrates was investigated by a micro-scratch tester at an incremental load. It was found, based on the obtained results, that the coating sprayed onto the UNSM-treated substrate exhibited a better resistance to adhesive failure in comparison with that of the coating sprayed onto the sanded substrate. Dry friction and wear property of the coatings sprayed onto the sanded and UNSM-treated substrates were assessed by means of a ball-on-disk tribometer against an AISI 52100 steel ball. It was demonstrated that the UNSM technique controllably improved the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating, where the critical load was improved by about 31%. Thus, it is expected that the application of the UNSM technique to an AISI H13 tool steel substrate prior to coating may delay the adhesive failure and improve the sticking between the coating and the substrate thanks to the modified and hardened surface.

  6. Surface passivation and optical characterization of Al2O3/a-SiCx stacks on c-Si substrates.

    PubMed

    López, Gema; Ortega, Pablo R; Voz, Cristóbal; Martín, Isidro; Colina, Mónica; Morales, Anna B; Orpella, Albert; Alcubilla, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the surface passivation of aluminum oxide/amorphous silicon carbide (Al2O3/a-SiCx) stacks on both p-type and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates as well as the optical characterization of these stacks. Al2O3 films of different thicknesses were deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 200 °C and were complemented with a layer of a-SiCx deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form anti-reflection coating (ARC) stacks with a total thickness of 75 nm. A comparative study has been carried out on polished and randomly textured wafers. We have experimentally determined the optimum thickness of the stack for photovoltaic applications by minimizing the reflection losses over a wide wavelength range (300-1200 nm) without compromising the outstanding passivation properties of the Al2O3 films. The upper limit of the surface recombination velocity (S eff,max) was evaluated at a carrier injection level corresponding to 1-sun illumination, which led to values below 10 cm/s. Reflectance values below 2% were measured on textured samples over the wavelength range of 450-1000 nm.

  7. Temperature dependence of convective heat transfer with Al2O3 nanofluids in the turbulent flow region.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Younghwan; Lee, Kwangho; Park, Minchan; Koo, Kyoungmin; Lee, Jaekeun; Doh, Youngjin; Lee, Soowon; Kim, Doohyun; Jung, Yoongho

    2013-12-01

    An experimental investigation on the characteristics of the convective heat transfer in the fully developing region of a circular straight tube with a constant heat flux was carried out with Al2O3 nanofluids. Stable nanofluids, which were water-based suspensions of Al2O3 nanoparticles, were prepared by two-step method. The effects of the thermal conductivity, viscosity, and heat capacity of the nanofluids on convective heat transfer were investigated. The result showed that the coefficient enhancement of the convective heat transfer in the Al2O3 nanofluids was increased with increasing fluid temperature compared to that of water at a volume fraction of 3.0% in the turbulent flow region. Thermal conductivity was increased from 8% to 20%, and the increment of convective heat transfer coefficient was enhanced from 14% to 30% with fluid temperature from 22 degrees C to 75 degrees C, respectively. We observed that the increment of convective heat transfer coefficient in nanofluids was much higher than that of the thermal conductivity at a given temperature condition. The enhancement of Brownian motion due to the decreasing kinematic viscosity led to a higher convective heat transfer coefficient at a higher temperature condition.

  8. Surface-Mechanical Properties of Electrodeposited Cu-Al2O3 Composite Coating and Effects of Processing Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharana, H. S.; Ashok, Akarapu; Pal, S.; Basu, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cu/Al2O3 composite coatings were prepared from acidic copper sulfate bath containing ultrafine Al2O3 particles by direct current plating method to increase the surface-mechanical property of Cu for its possible use as electrical contact. Effect of ultrafine Al2O3 particle concentration in electrolyte and deposition current density on the surface-mechanical properties of the coatings was investigated. Coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques for the purpose of surface morphology and phase study. From XRD data, crystallographic texture of the coating was also analyzed. To study the mechanical properties, microhardness testing, adhesion, and wear test were carried out. Improved hardness of the resultant coatings was observed and was correlated with the wt pct of ultrafine particle in the Cu matrix, matrix structure, and crystallographic orientation. Better wear property of the composite coating was also reported from the wear plot and wear track morphology. Altogether, better coating property was attributed toward finer matrix, hard reinforced phase, and preferred orientation in selected conditions. Electrical conductivity of the coating was affected by grain size and second-phase concentration, and the values obtained were in the usable range required for electrical applications.

  9. Strength and formation of poor metals from insulators: bonds to bands in Al2O3 and H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellis, W. J.

    2011-06-01

    HELs of Al2O3 and H2 are ~15 GPa and 0, respectively, while Al-O and H-H bond energies are both 4.5 eV and both are wide gap insulators at ambient. Al2O3 is a likely metallic glass at ~300 GPa; hydrogen is a metallic fluid at 140 GPa. How can such different materials at ambient both be disordered poor metals at 100 GPas? As McQueen pointed out, shock dissipation TS is absorbed in temperature T and entropy S (disorder). Because of strength, the split between T and S differs greatly between these two. H2s interact via weak pair interactions, which means high compressibility, high shock Ts, and dissociation (S) to monatomic metal at high pressures. Al and O atoms interact strongly via directional bonds in large 3D networks. Dissipation is first absorbed breaking bonds (S), which keeps T and thermal pressure low up to 400 GPa. Once most Al-O bonds are broken, Al2O3 is amorphous and atom densities so large that atomic wave functions probably overlap to form a metallic glass. Existing conductivity measurements to 220 GPa need to be extended to ~300 GPa to test this prediction.

  10. Tribological Wear Behaviour and Hardness Measurement of SiC, Al2O3 Reinforced Al. Matrix Hybrid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Senthil Murugan; Vijayan, Jegan; Muthaiah, Velmurugan

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, Aluminium Matrix Hybrid Composite (AMHC) of 6061-T6 alloy reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) particulate and further addition of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) particulate was fabricated by stir casting process. The wear resistance and frictional properties of that AMHC were studied by performing dry sliding wear test using a pin on disk wear tester. The experiments were conducted at a constant sliding velocity of 1.57 m/s and sliding distance of 1800 m under loading conditions of 10 and 20 N. Further tests were also carried out by keeping Al2O3 percentage (7%) constant and increasing the SiC percentage (10, 15, and 20%). The results show that the reinforcement of the metal matrix with SiC and Al2O3 reduces the wear rate range and also indicate that the wear of the test specimen increases with the increasing load and sliding distance. The coefficient of friction increases with load and increasing volume content of reinforcement. The worn surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscope to study the wear mechanism. By using wear mechanism analysis, the wear surfaces and wear properties of AMHC were determined.

  11. Hybrid composite membranes based on polyethylene separator and Al2O3 nanoparticles for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2013-05-01

    A hybrid composite membrane is prepared by coating nano-sized Al2O3 powder (13 and 50 nm) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)) binder on both sides of polyethylene separator. The composite membrane shows better thermal stability and improved wettability for organic liquid electrolyte than polyethylene separator, due to the presence of heat-resistant Al2O3 particles with high-surface area in the coating layer. By using the composite membrane, the lithium-ion cells composed of carbon anode and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode are assembled and their cycling performances are evaluated. The cells assembled with the composite membranes are proven to have better capacity retention than the cell prepared with polyethylene separator, due to the enhanced ability to retain the electrolyte solution in the cell. The cell assembled with the composite membrane containing 13 nm-sized Al2O3 particles has an initial discharge capacity of 173.2 mA h g(-1) with good capacity retention.

  12. Microstructure and Properties of Nanocrystalline Copper Strengthened by a Low Amount of Al2O3 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ďurišinová, Katarína; Ďurišin, Juraj; Ďurišin, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Dispersion-strengthened Cu-Al2O3 materials have been studied over recent years to find an optimum processing route to obtain a high strength, thermal-stable copper alloy designed for modern applications in electrical engineering. The study analyses the influence of 1 vol.% of alumina content on strengthening the copper matrix. Microstructure of the Cu-Al2O3 composite was studied by x-ray diffraction as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The composite shows a homogeneous, thermal-stable nanostructure up to 900 °C due to dispersed alumina nanoparticles. The particles effectively strengthen crystallite/grain boundaries in processes of powder consolidation and annealing of the compact. In contrast to monolithic Cu, the Cu-1 vol.% Al2O3 exhibits more than double strength and hardness. The nanocrystalline matrix and the low amount of alumina particles result in a yield strength of 288 MPa and a ductility of 15% which is a good combination for practical utilization of the material.

  13. Effect of Er3+ concentration on the luminescence properties of Al2O3-ZrO2 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clabel H., J. L.; Rivera, V. A. G.; Nogueira, I. C.; Leite, E. R.; Siu Li, M.; Marega, E.

    2016-12-01

    This manuscript reports on the effects of the luminescence properties of Er3+ on Al2O3-ZrO2 powder synthesized by the conventional solid-state method. The best conditions found for the calcinations were 1500 °C and 4 h. The structural dependence of the luminescence on Er3+:Al2O3-ZrO2 is associated with phase transformations of the Al2O3-ZrO2 host and presence of the OH group. Green and red emissions at room temperature from the 2H11/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 and 4F9/2 → 4I15/2 levels of Er3+ ions were observed under 482 nm pumping. The green-to-red emission intensity ratios and CIE chromaticity coordinates were determined from emission spectra for the evaluation of light emitted as a function of the Er3+ concentration. The Er3+ luminescence quenching due to group OH and variation in the Er3+ concentration plays an important role in the definition of the luminescent response.

  14. Reversible removal of SO2 at low temperature by Bacillus licheniformis immobilized on γ-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lishan; Deng, Renpan; Song, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis R08 biomass was immobilized on γ-Al2O3 and the effects of R08 biomass loading, SO2 concentration, water vapor, oxygen and temperature on removal of SO2 were investigated. The experimental results indicated that SO2 saturation capacity increased with increasing R08 biomass loading and SO2 concentration, but decreased with increasing adsorption temperature. Water vapor activated the adsorbent and promoted SO2 removal. An increase in oxygen concentration from 5 to 10% had little effect on SO2 removal. FTIR analysis revealed that the R08 biomass bound to γ-Al2O3 mainly by forming R-CO-O-Al bonds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that γ-Al2O3 reacted with SO2 and formed aluminum sulfate in the presence of oxygen when R08 biomass loading was 13.8%, but that amido groups of the R08 biomass reacted with SO2 and formed sulfite when biomass loading was 32.4%. Ten continuous adsorption-desorption cycles showed that the adsorbent had an excellent regeneration performance.

  15. Nanostructural Free-Volume Effects in Humidity-Sensitive MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics for Sensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klym, H.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Hadzaman, I.; Hotra, O.; Kostiv, Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Technologically modified spinel MgO-Al2O3 ceramics were prepared from Al2O3 and 4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·5H2O powders at sintering temperatures of 1200, 1300, and 1400 °C. Free-volume structural effects in MgO-Al2O3 ceramics and their electrophysical properties were studied using combined x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Hg-porosimetry, and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It is shown that increasing of sintering temperature from 1200 to 1400 °C results in the transformation of pore size distribution in ceramics from tri- to bi-modal including open macro- and meso(micro)pores with sizes from ten to hundreds nm and nanopores with sizes up to a few nm. Microstructure of these ceramics is improved with the increase of sintering temperature, which results in decreased amount of additional phases located near grain boundaries. These phase extractions serve as specific trapping centers for positrons penetrating the ceramics. The positron trapping and ortho-positronium decaying components are considered in the mathematical treatment of the measured spectra. Classic Tao-Eldrup model is used to draw the correlation between the ortho-positronium lifetime and the size of nanopores, which is complementary to porosimetry data. The studied ceramics with optimal nanoporous structure are highly sensitive to humidity changes in the region of 31-96% with minimal hysteresis in adsorption-desorption cycles.

  16. Optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanocrystal thin films passivated by atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Kim, Jungwoo; Oh, Soong Ju; Kim, Daekyoung; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Chae, Heeyeop; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2016-07-01

    While colloidal semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) is preferred for use in solution-based optoelectronic devices, the large number of surface defects associated with its high surface-to-volume ratio degrades the optimal performance of NC-based devices due to the extensive trapping of free carriers available for charge transport. Here, we studied a simple and effective strategy to control the degree of passivation and doping level of solution-deposited ZnO NC films by infilling with ultra-thin Al2O3 using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. According to various spectroscopic, microstructural, and electrical analyses, the ALD-Al2O3 treatment dramatically reduced the number of surface trap states with high ambient stability while simultaneously supplied excess carriers probably via a remote doping mechanism. As a consequence, the field-effect transistors built using the ZnO NC films with ALD-Al2O3 treatment for an optimal number of cycles exhibited significantly enhanced charge transport.

  17. Oxidation resistance of Al2O3-nanostructured/CSZ composite compared to conventional CSZ and YSZ thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyvani, A.; Bahamirian, M.

    2016-10-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are widely used in combustion sections of turbine engines, however, their main disadvantage is the spallation from the bond coat, occurring due to oxidation and formation of thermally grown oxide (TGO). In this paper, the oxidation resistance of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), ceria stabilized zirconia (CSZ), and Al2O3-nanostructured/CSZ composite coatings have been studied and compared with each other. Samples were heated in air at 1100 °C using an electrical furnace. Three types of the top coats were applied by thermal spray technique on IN738LC base metal. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure of the coatings before and after the oxidation. The experimental results showed that Al2O3-nanostructured/CSZ composite coating exhibits considerably better oxidation resistance compared to conventional YSZ and CSZ coatings. The microstructural analysis indicated a smaller growth of TGO in the Al2O3-nanostructured/CSZ composite coating, improving the oxidation resistance of the coating.

  18. Pressure drop and heat transfer of Al2O3-H2O nanofluids through silicon microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinyu; Wu, Huiying; Cheng, Ping

    2009-10-01

    Experimental investigations were performed on the single-phase flow and heat transfer characteristics through the silicon-based trapezoidal microchannels with a hydraulic diameter of 194.5 µm using Al2O3-H2O nanofluids with particle volume fractions of 0, 0.15% and 0.26% as the working fluids. The effects of the Reynolds number, Prandtl number and nanoparticle concentration on the pressure drop and convective heat transfer were investigated. Experimental results show that the pressure drop and flow friction of the nanofluids increased slightly when compared with that of the pure water, while the Nusselt number increased considerably. At the same pumping power, using nanofluids instead of pure water caused a reduction in the thermal resistance. It was also found that the Nusselt number increased with the increase in the particle concentration, Reynolds number and Prandtl number. Based on the experimental data, the dimensionless correlations for the flow friction and heat transfer of Al2O3-H2O nanofluids through silicon microchannels were proposed for the first time. The agglomeration and deposition of nanoparticles in the silicon microchannels were also examined in this paper. It was found that the Al2O3 nanoparticles deposited on the inner wall of microchannels more easily with increasing wall temperature, and once boiling commenced, there is a severe deposition and adhesion of nanoparticles to the inner wall, which makes the boiling heat transfer of nanofluids in silicon microchannels questionable.

  19. First-principles study of hydrogen diffusion in α-Al2O3 and liquid alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belonoshko, A. B.; Rosengren, A.; Dong, Q.; Hultquist, G.; Leygraf, C.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the energetics and mobility of neutral hydrogen in alumina Al2O3 using ab initio density-functional calculations. The mobility of hydrogen was studied in corundum (α-Al2O3) as well as in liquid alumina. Using both static as well as molecular-dynamics calculations, and applying classical transition state theory, we derive the temperature-dependent diffusivity of hydrogen in α-Al2O3 as D(T)=(21.7×10-8 m2/s)exp(-1.24 eV/kT). The corresponding diffusivity of hydrogen in liquid/amorphous alumina, derived directly from ab initio molecular dynamics calculations, is D(T)=(8.71×10-7 m2/s)exp(-0.91 eV/kT). The computed diffusivity compares very well to experimental data. We conclude that diffusion of neutral hydrogen through the bulk of alumina is a good approximation of the mechanism for hydrogen mobility in corrosion scales. The representation of grain-boundary structures by amorphous alumina is, probably, realistic at higher temperatures.

  20. Compact TPV Generation System Using Al2O3/Er3Al5O12 Eutectic Ceramics Selective Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Yusuke; Yugami, Hiroo; Shibata, Kouji; Nakagawa, Narihito

    2004-11-01

    The emissive properties of Al2O3Er3Al5O12 eutectic ceramics have been measured as a candidate of selective emitters. It is identified that the Al2O3Er3Al5O12 eutectic ceramics have selective emission bands at the wavelength of 1.5 μm, and the emittance at the emission peak is over 0.8. The selective emissive power for GaSb photovoltaic (PV) cells of 49 kW/m2 is achieved by this material at 1600 K. Since the emission bands match the sensitive region of GaSb PV cells, the Al2O3Er3Al5O12 eutectic ceramics are suited as emitter materials in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems using GaSb PV cells. The optical design of small-scale TPV systems for portable power sources has been investigated with the three-dimensional ray tracing simulation. Using a mirror/PV optical design, the concentrated thermal radiation is irradiated on PV cells with the view factor over 0.75.

  1. Minimizing of the boundary friction coefficient in automotive engines using Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohamed Kamal Ahmed; Xianjun, Hou; Elagouz, Ahmed; Essa, F. A.; Abdelkareem, Mohamed A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Minimizing of the boundary friction coefficient is critical for engine efficiency improvement. It is known that the tribological behavior has a major role in controlling the performance of automotive engines in terms of the fuel consumption. The purpose of this research is an experimental study to minimize the boundary friction coefficient via nano-lubricant additives. The tribological characteristics of Al2O3 and TiO2 nano-lubricants were evaluated under reciprocating test conditions to simulate a piston ring/cylinder liner interface in automotive engines. The nanoparticles were suspended in a commercially available lubricant in a concentration of 0.25 wt.% to formulate the nano-lubricants. The Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles had sizes of 8-12 and 10 nm, respectively. The experimental results have shown that the boundary friction coefficient reduced by 35-51% near the top and bottom dead center of the stroke (TDC and BDC) for the Al2O3 and TiO2 nano-lubricants, respectively. The anti-wear mechanism was generated via the formation of protective films on the worn surfaces of the ring and liner. These results will be a promising approach for improving fuel economy in automotive.

  2. Pool boiling of water-Al2O3 and water-Cu nanofluids on horizontal smooth tubes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer during pool boiling of two nanofluids, i.e., water-Al2O3 and water-Cu has been carried out. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1% by weight. The horizontal smooth copper and stainless steel tubes having 10 mm OD and 0.6 mm wall thickness formed test heater. The experiments have been performed to establish the influence of nanofluids concentration as well as tube surface material on heat transfer characteristics at atmospheric pressure. The results indicate that independent of concentration nanoparticle material (Al2O3 and Cu) has almost no influence on heat transfer coefficient while boiling of water-Al2O3 or water-Cu nanofluids on smooth copper tube. It seems that heater material did not affect the boiling heat transfer in 0.1 wt.% water-Cu nanofluid, nevertheless independent of concentration, distinctly higher heat transfer coefficient was recorded for stainless steel tube than for copper tube for the same heat flux density. PMID:21711741

  3. Twin symmetry texture of energetically condensed niobium thin films on sapphire substrate (a-plane Al2O3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Phillips, L.; Reece, C. E.; Seo, Kang; Krishnan, M.; Valderrama, E.

    2011-08-01

    An energetic condensation technique, cathodic arc discharge deposition, is used to grow epitaxial Niobium (Nb) thin films on a-plane sapphire (hexagonal-closed-packed Al2O3) at moderate substrate heating temperature (<400 °C). The epitaxial Nb(110)/Al2O3(1,1,-2,0) thin films reached a maximum residual resistance ratio (RRR) value 214, despite using a reactor-grade Nb cathode source whose RRR was only 30. The measurements suggest that the film's density of impurities and structural defects are lower when compared to Nb films produced by other techniques, such as magnetron sputtering, e-beam evaporation or molecular-beam-epitaxy. At lower substrate temperature, textured polycrystalline Nb thin films were created, and the films might have twin symmetry grains with {110} orientations in-plane. The texture was revealed by x-ray diffraction pole figures. The twin symmetry might be caused by a combination effect of the Nb/Al2O3 three-dimensional epitaxial relationship ("3D-Registry" Claassen's nomenclature) and the "Volmer-Weber" (Island) growth model. However, pole figures obtained by electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) found no twin symmetry on the thin films' topmost surface (˜50 nm in depth). The EBSD pole figures showed only one Nb{110} crystal plane orientation. A possible mechanism is suggested to explain the differences between the bulk (XRD) and surface (EBSD) pole figures.

  4. Microstructure and Properties of Nanocrystalline Copper Strengthened by a Low Amount of Al2O3 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ďurišinová, Katarína; Ďurišin, Juraj; Ďurišin, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Dispersion-strengthened Cu-Al2O3 materials have been studied over recent years to find an optimum processing route to obtain a high strength, thermal-stable copper alloy designed for modern applications in electrical engineering. The study analyses the influence of 1 vol.% of alumina content on strengthening the copper matrix. Microstructure of the Cu-Al2O3 composite was studied by x-ray diffraction as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The composite shows a homogeneous, thermal-stable nanostructure up to 900 °C due to dispersed alumina nanoparticles. The particles effectively strengthen crystallite/grain boundaries in processes of powder consolidation and annealing of the compact. In contrast to monolithic Cu, the Cu-1 vol.% Al2O3 exhibits more than double strength and hardness. The nanocrystalline matrix and the low amount of alumina particles result in a yield strength of 288 MPa and a ductility of 15% which is a good combination for practical utilization of the material.

  5. Interface effects for the hydrogenation of CO2 on Pt4/γ-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yulu; Liu, Jie; Feng, Gang; Yin, Shi; Cen, Wanglai; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-11-01

    Density Functional Theory was applied to investigate the hydrogenation of CO2 to HCOO or CO on Pt4/γ-Al2O3(110) catalyst. It was found that the formation of CO is preferred to that of HCOO, kinetically and thermodynamically, indicating that methane can be formed on the Pt-based catalysts preferably. Furthermore, rather low an activation barrier (0.34 eV) for the formation of trans-COOH species was found, compared with that on Pt(111) surface (0.59 eV), showing that the interface between Pt4 cluster and γ-Al2O3(110) slab promotes the hydrogenation of CO2. However, the activation barrier for the dissociation of cis-COOH species on the supported catalyst is 0.91 eV, which is much higher than that on pure metal surface (0.56 eV). An electronic transfer channel was found to reconcile the divergence. Our results indicate that Pt/γ-Al2O3 should be a promising candidate for the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 by adjusting the metal/support interface to balance the activation barriers for the formation of trans-COOH and the dissociation of cis-COOH species.

  6. Microstructures and properties of Al2O3 dispersion-strengthened copper alloys prepared through different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhi-qiao; Chen, Feng; Ye, Fu-xing; Zhang, Dong-ping; Cai, Yi-xiang

    2016-12-01

    Al2O3 dispersion copper alloy powder was prepared by internal oxidation, and three consolidation methods—high-velocity compaction (HVC), hot pressing (HP), and hot extrusion (HE)—were used to prepare Al2O3 dispersion-strengthened copper (Cu-Al2O3) alloys. The microstructures and properties of these alloys were investigated and compared. The results show that the alloys prepared by the HP and HE methods exhibited the coarsest and finest grain sizes, respectively. The alloy prepared by the HVC method exhibited the lowest relative density (98.3% vs. 99.5% for HP and 100% for HE), which resulted in the lowest electrical conductivity (81% IACS vs. 86% IACS for HP and 87% IACS for HE). However, this alloy also exhibited the highest hardness (77 HRB vs. 69 HRB for HP and 70 HRB for HE), the highest compressive strength (443 MPa vs. 386 MPa for HP and 378 MPa for HE), and the best hardness retention among the investigated alloys. The results illustrate that the alloy prepared by the HVC method exhibits high softening temperature and good mechanical properties at high temperatures, which imply long service life when used as spot-welding electrodes.

  7. Pt-Al2O3 dual layer atomic layer deposition coating in high aspect ratio nanopores.

    PubMed

    Pardon, Gaspard; Gatty, Hithesh K; Stemme, Göran; van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Roxhed, Niclas

    2013-01-11

    Functional nanoporous materials are promising for a number of applications ranging from selective biofiltration to fuel cell electrodes. This work reports the functionalization of nanoporous membranes using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is used to conformally deposit platinum (Pt) and aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)) on Pt in nanopores to form a metal-insulator stack inside the nanopore. Deposition of these materials inside nanopores allows the addition of extra functionalities to nanoporous materials such as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Conformal deposition of Pt on such materials enables increased performances for electrochemical sensing applications or fuel cell electrodes. An additional conformal Al(2)O(3) layer on such a Pt film forms a metal-insulator-electrolyte system, enabling field effect control of the nanofluidic properties of the membrane. This opens novel possibilities in electrically controlled biofiltration. In this work, the deposition of these two materials on AAO membranes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Successful process parameters are proposed for a reliable and cost-effective conformal deposition on high aspect ratio three-dimensional nanostructures. A device consisting of a silicon chip supporting an AAO membrane of 6 mm diameter and 1.3 μm thickness with 80 nm diameter pores is fabricated. The pore diameter is reduced to 40 nm by a conformal deposition of 11 nm Pt and 9 nm Al(2)O(3) using ALD.

  8. H2 dissociation on γ-Al2O3 supported Cu/Pd atoms: A DFT investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongtao; Chen, Lijuan; Lv, Yongkang; Ren, Ruipeng

    2014-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) was applied to investigate the promotion effects of single Cu and Pd atoms deposition on γ-Al2O3 surface for the adsorption and dissociation of H2 molecule, which is of importance for many catalysis reactions. Due to its strong Lewis acidity, the tri-coordinated surface Al site was identified to be the most preferable site for both Cu and Pd location. The inner surface electrons rearrangement from O to Al of alumina was found to be a key factor to stabilize the Cu/Pd adsorption configurations, rather than the total electrons transfer between Cu/Pd and the surface. It was found that the supported Cu and Pd atoms are more active for H2 dissociation than the clean γ-Al2O3 surface. The supported Pd is more active than Cu for H2 dissociation. In addition, the metal-support interaction of the γ-Al2O3 supported Cu/Pd atoms are more favored than the metal-metal interaction of the metal clusters for the H2 dissociated adsorption.

  9. Sulfur passivation for the formation of Si-terminated Al2O3/SiGe(0 0 1) interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardashti, Kasra; Hu, Kai-Ting; Tang, Kechao; Park, Sangwook; Kim, Hyonwoong; Madisetti, Shailesh; McIntyre, Paul; Oktyabrsky, Serge; Siddiqui, Shariq; Sahu, Bhagawan; Yoshida, Noami; Kachian, Jessica; Kummel, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Sulfur passivation is used to electrically and chemically passivate the silicon-germanium (SiGe) surfaces before and during the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The electrical properties of the interfaces were examined by variable frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) spectroscopy. Interface compositions were determined by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS). The sulfur adsorbs to a large fraction of surface sites on the SiGe(0 0 1) surface, protecting the surface from deleterious surface reactions during processing. Sulfur passivation (a) improved the air stability of the cleaned surfaces prior to ALD, (b) increased the stability of the surface during high-temperature deposition, and (c) increased the Al2O3 ALD nucleation density on SiGe, thereby lowering the leakage current. S passivation suppressed formation of Gesbnd O bonds at the interface, leaving the majority of the Al2O3-SiGe interface terminated with direct Sisbnd Osbnd Al bonding.

  10. Reduced defect density at the CZTSSe/CdS interface by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan, Mehmet Eray; Chawla, Vardaan; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    The greatest challenge for improving the power conversion efficiency of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe)/CdS/ZnO thin film solar cells is increasing the open circuit voltage (VOC). Probable leading causes of the VOC deficit in state-of-the-art CZTSSe devices have been identified as bulk recombination, band tails, and the intertwined effects of CZTSSe/CdS band offset, interface defects, and interface recombination. In this work, we demonstrate the modification of the CZTSSe absorber/CdS buffer interface following the deposition of 1 nm-thick Al2O3 layers by atomic layer deposition (ALD) near room temperature. Capacitance-voltage profiling and quantum efficiency measurements reveal that ALD-Al2O3 interface modification reduces the density of acceptor-like states at the heterojunction resulting in reduced interface recombination and wider depletion width. Indications of increased VOC resulting from the modification of the heterojunction interface as a result of ALD-Al2O3 treatment are presented. These results, while not conclusive for application to state-of-the-art high efficiency CZTSSe devices, suggest the need for further studies as it is probable that interface recombination contributes to reduced VOC even in such devices.

  11. Preparation and Wear Resistance of Aluminum Composites Reinforced with In Situ Formed TiO/Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Q. D.; Huang, B. W.; Li, W.; Zeng, Z. Y.

    2016-05-01

    An in situ TiO/Al2O3-reinforced Al composite is successfully prepared using a powder metallurgy route by the reaction of Ti2CO and Al powder. The Ti2CO powder is produced by carrying out a carbothermic reduction of titanium dioxide at 1000 °C. XRD results show that the final product is composed of Al, TiO, Al2O3, and Al3Ti. Morphology examination of the composite reveals the presence of bigger blocks of TiO and fine particles of Al2O3 and the volume fraction of reinforcement is found to range between 18 and 55%. As the volume fraction of the reinforced materials approaches 50%, the particles start to agglomerate. Dry sliding wear tests conducted using a conventional pin-on-disk testing machine show that the wear resistance of the composite is higher than that of the pure aluminum ingot. The wear rate of the composite increases almost linearly with the increase in the wear distance. The sliding wear test shows that as the volume fraction of the reinforced phase increases, the coefficient of friction decreases. The wear mechanism is also discussed.

  12. Temperature effect on the zeta potential and fluoride adsorption at the alpha-Al2O3/aqueous solution interface.

    PubMed

    López Valdivieso, A; Reyes Bahena, J L; Song, S; Herrera Urbina, R

    2006-06-01

    The effect of temperature and pH on the zeta potential of alpha-Al2O3 and adsorption of fluoride ions at the alpha-Al2O3/aqueous solution interface has been investigated through electrophoretic mobility measurements and adsorption studies, to delineate mechanisms involved in the removal of fluoride ions from water using alumina as adsorbent. When the temperature increases from 10 to 40 degrees C, the pH of the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) shifts to smaller values, indicating proton desorption from the alumina surface. The pH(pzc) increases linearly with 1/T, which allowed estimation of the standard enthalpy change for the surface-deprotonation process. Fluoride ion adsorption follows a Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm and is affected by the electric charge at the alpha-Al2O3/aqueous solution interface and the surface density of hydroxyl groups. Such adsorption occurs through an exchange between fluoride ions and surface-hydroxyl groups and it depends on temperature, pH, and initial fluoride ion concentration. At 25 and 40 degrees C, maximum fluoride adsorption density takes place between pH 5 and 6. Increasing the temperature from 25 to 40 degrees C lowers the adsorption density of fluoride.

  13. Microstructure and properties of mullite-based porous ceramics produced from coal fly ash with added Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian-bin; Yan, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Using coal fly ash slurry samples supplemented with different amounts of Al2O3, we fabricated mullite-based porous ceramics via a dipping-polymer-replica approach, which is a popular method suitable for industrial application. The microstructure, phase composition, and compressive strength of the sintered samples were investigated. Mullite was identified in all of the prepared materials by X-ray diffraction analysis. The microstructure and compressive strength were strongly influenced by the content of Al2O3. As the Al/Si mole ratio in the starting materials was increased from 0.84 to 2.40, the amount of amorphous phases in the sintered microstructure decreased and the compressive strength of the sintered samples increased. A further increase in the Al2O3 content resulted in a decrease in the compressive strength of the sintered samples. The mullite-based porous ceramic with an Al/Si molar ratio of 2.40 exhibited the highest compressive strength and the greatest shrinkage among the investigated samples prepared using coal fly ash as the main starting material.

  14. The R-curve behavior and thermal shock resistance for Al2O3 + ZrO2 laminated nanoceramics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bei; Hu, Xiaohua; Cheng, Chuan

    2014-05-01

    The properties of thermal shock resistances of Al2O3 + ZrO2 monolayer and laminated ceramics are determined by the indentation method. The relationships between the R-curve, the thermal shock resistance properties and the mechanism of strengthening and toughening are also studied in this paper. The Al2O3 + ZrO2 laminated ceramics have an R-curve feature and a decrease in the sensitivity of the strength to the size of surface cracks. Indentation thermal shock test shows that the critical temperature difference of the Al2O3 + ZrO2 laminated ceramics is 400 degrees C, 150 degrees C higher than that of the monolayer ceramics. Under the condition of the surface compressive stress, the surface fracture appearance is more uneven and the fracture mechanism is different along the interface. The R-curve and thermal shock resistance properties are improved by strengthening the transformation effect resulting from the surface compressive stress.

  15. Integration of crystalline orientated γ-Al2O3 films and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits on Si(1 0 0) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Koji; Akai, Daisuke; Ishida, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, integration of crystalline orientated γ-Al2O3 films and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits on Si(1 0 0) substrate was reported. In this integration processes, crystalline γ-Al2O3 films need to be preserved their crystallinity during high temperature annealing processes of CMOS fabrication in order to prevent surface condition changes. The γ-Al2O3 films grown on Si substrates are annealed in the CMOS fabrication process conditions, drive-in annealing at 1150 °C in O2 atmosphere and wet annealing 1000 °C in H2O vapor atmosphere. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the crystallinity of γ-Al2O3 films after the annealing processes. Surface conditions of the films are analyzed and observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). As a result, RHEED patterns of the γ-Al2O3 films indicated that wet oxidation annealing was a critical process severally inferior surface condition of crystalline γ-Al2O3 films. XRD, XPS, and SEM investigation unveiled further details of the crystallinity changes on γ-Al2O3 films for each process. These results indicated passivation films were required to integrate γ-Al2O3 films with CMOS fabrication process. Therefore we proposed and introduced Si3N4/TEOS passivation films on γ-Al2O3 films in CMOS fabrication processes. At last, MOSFETs on γ-Al2O3 integrated Si(1 0 0) substrate were fabricated and characterized. The designed characteristics of MOSFETs were obtained on γ-Al2O3 integrated Si substrate.

  16. X-ray and optical crystallographic parameters investigations of high frequency induction melted Al-(alpha-Al(2)O(3)) alloys.

    PubMed

    Bourbia, A; Draissia, M; Bedboudi, H; Boulkhessaim, S; Debili, M Y

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the microstructural strengthening mechanisms of aluminium by means of hard alpha-Al(2)O(3) alumina fine particles. A broad of understanding views covering materials preparations, elaboration process, characterization techniques and associated microstructural characteristic parameters measurements is given. In order to investigate the microstructural characteristic parameters and the mechanical strengthening mechanisms of pure aluminium by hard fine particles, a set of Al-(alpha-Al(2)O(3)) alloys samples were made under vacuum by high fusion temperature melting, the high frequency (HF) process, and rapidly solidified under ambient temperature from a mixture of cold-compacted high-pure fine Al and alpha-Al(2)O(3) powders. The as-solidified Al-(alpha-Al(2)O(3)) alloys were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, optical microscopy observations and Vickers microhardness tests in both brut and heat-treated states. It was found that the as-solidified HF Al-(alpha-Al(2)O(3)) alloys with compositions below 4 wt.% (alpha-Al(2)O(3)) are single-phase microstructures of the solid solution FCC Al phase and over two-phase microstructures of the solid solution FCC Al and the Rhombohedral alpha-Al(2)O(3) phases. The optical micrographs reveal the presence of a grain size refinement in these alloys. Vickers microhardness of the as-solidified Al-(alpha-Al(2)O(3)) is increased by means of pure fine alpha-Al(2)O(3) alumina particles. These combined effects of strengthening and grain size refinement observed in the as-solidified Al-(alpha-Al(2)O(3)) alloys are essentially due to a strengthening of Al by the alpha-Al(2)O(3) alumina particles insertion in the (HF) melted and rapidly solidified alloys.

  17. Synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether from syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo-Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

  18. Optimization on hardness and internal stress of micro-electroformed NiCo/nano-Al2O3 composites with the constraint of low surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Shih-Yu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Ni-Co/nano-Al2O3 composite electroforming was used to make the metallic micro-mold for a microlens array. The microstructures require higher hardness to improve the wear resistance and lifetime. Nano-Al2O3 was applied to strengthen the Ni-Co matrix by a new micro-electroforming technique. The hardness and internal stress of Ni-Co/nano-Al2O3 composite deposit were investigated. The results showed that the hardness increased with the increasing Al2O3 content, but at the cost of deformation. Increasing the Al2O3 content in the composite was not always beneficial to the electroformed mold for microlens array fabrication. This work will concentrate on the relationship between important mechanical properties and electrolyte parameters of Ni-Co/nano-Al2O3 composite electroforming. Electrolyte parameters such as Al2O3 content, Al2O3 particle diameter, Co content, stress reducer and current density will be examined with respect to internal stress and hardness. In the present study, low stress and high hardness electroforming with the constraint of low surface roughness is carried out using SNAOA algorithm to reduce internal stress and increase service life of micro-mold during the forming process. The results show that the internal stress and the RMS roughness are only 0.54 MPa and 4.8 nm, respectively, for the optimal electrolyte parameters combination of SNAOA design.

  19. Hierarchical structured α-Al2O3 supported S-promoted Fe catalysts for direct conversion of syngas to lower olefins.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangping; Ji, Jian; Wang, Di; Duan, Xuezhi; Qian, Gang; Chen, De; Zhou, Xinggui

    2015-05-25

    Hierarchical structured α-Al2O3 is shown to be able to effectively disperse and immobilize iron species, in comparison with commercial α-Al2O3. After promotion using an appropriate amount of sulfur, iron catalysts exhibit not only enhanced Fischer-Tropsch synthesis activity and selectivity toward lower olefins, but also increased resistance against carbon deposits.

  20. Single grain analysis on a nanoscale in ZrO2:Al2O3 nano-composites by means of high-resolution scanning transmission electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossmann, Ulrich; Albu, Mihaela; Hofer, Ferdinand; Würschum, Roland

    2016-12-01

    Nano-particulate powders of Al2O3:ZrO2 composites and the pure constituents were prepared by microwave plasma process synthesis and studied by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The ZrO2:Al2O3 nanocomposite samples showed a structure of randomly arranged, crystalline grains of both ZrO2 and Al2O3 with a size in the range of 3-5 nm. For each constituent, both cubic and monoclinic grains were observed. Similarly prepared, single phase Al2O3 nanoparticles were found to be completely amorphous. In the case of ZrO2, the crystallite size and the fraction of the monoclinic ZrO2 phase is noticeably reduced in the ZrO2:Al2O3 nanocomposite in comparison to single phase samples. The observation of ultra-small crystalline Al2O3 in the composite samples, is tentatively ascribed to a modification of the interface energy by the contact of Al2O3 and ZrO2 as well as a possible uptake of ZrO2 into the Al2O3 grains from the gas phase during synthesis.

  1. Enhanced Sintering of β"-Al2O3/YSZ with the Sintering Aids of TiO2 and MnO2

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-07-11

    β"-Al2O3 has been the dominated choice for the electrolyte materials of sodium batteries because of its high ionic conductivity, excellent stability with the electrode materials, satisfactory mechanical strength, and low material cost. To achieve adequate electrical and mechanical performance, sintering of β"-Al2O3 is typically carried out at temperatures above 1600oC with deliberate efforts on controlling the phase, composition, and microstructure. Here, we reported a simple method to fabricate β"-Al2O3/YSZ electrolyte at relatively lower temperatures. With the starting material of boehmite, single phase of β"-Al2O3 can be achieved at as low as 1200oC. It was found that TiO2 was extremely effective as a sintering aid for the densification of β"-Al2O3 and similar behavior was observed with MnO2 for YSZ. With the addition of 2 mol% TiO2 and 5 mol% MnO2, the β"-Al2O3/YSZ composite was able to be densified at as low as 1400oC with a fine microstructure and good electrical/mechanical performance. This study demonstrated a new approach of synthesis and sintering of β"-Al2O3/YSZ composite, which represented a simple and low-cost method for fabrication of high-performance β"-Al2O3/YSZ electrolyte.

  2. Experimental studies on equilibrium adsorption isosteres and determination of the thermodynamic quantities of polar media on alumina Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonova, Albena

    2017-03-01

    The present work is a revieif of theoretical and experimental study on the adsorption performance of the adsorbent Alumina (Al2O3) used in the adsorption system. An experimental investigation on the equilibrium adsorption isosteres at low pressure (< 1 atm) of working pairs Al2O3/H2O and Al2O3/C2H6O2 is carried out. The isovolume measurement method is adopted in the test setup to directly measure the saturated vapor pressures of working pairs at vapor-liquid equilibrium (dG=0 and dμi=0). Quantity adsorbed is determined from pressure, volume and temperature using gas law. The isosteric heat of adsorption is calculated from the slope of the plot of lnP versus 1/T different amounts of adsorbate onto adsorbent as follows: 0,01 vol% Al2O3/H2O; 0,03 vol% Al2O3/H2O; 0,1 vol% Al2O3/H2O; 0,01 vol% Al2O3/C2H6O2; 0,03 vol% Al2O3/C2H6O2; 0,1 vol% Al2O3/C2H6O2. This study shows that adsorption working pair Al2O3 C2H6O2 has better adsorption performances than those of the A2O3/H2O. Surface acidity! is a most important property! far both adsorption and catalysis and therefore is examined structure of active sites of alumina surface. Thermodynamic parameters such as isosteric heat of adsorption, isosteric enthalpy and entropy of adsorption are critical design variables in estimating the performance and predicting the mechanism of an adsorption process and are also one of the basic requirements for the characterization and optimization of an adsorption process

  3. High-temperature degradation in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition Al2O3 surface passivation layers on crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnhold, Saskia; Saint-Cast, Pierre; Kafle, Bishal; Hofmann, Marc; Colonna, Francesco; Zacharias, Margit

    2014-08-01

    In this publication, the activation and degradation of the passivation quality of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layers with different thicknesses (10 nm, 20 nm, and 110 nm) on crystalline silicon (c-Si) during long and high temperature treatments are investigated. As indicated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, the concentration of tetrahedral and octahedral sites within the Al2O3 layer changes during temperature treatments and correlates with the amount of negative fixed charges at the Si/Al2O3 interface, which was detected by Corona Oxide Characterization of Semiconductors. Furthermore, during a temperature treatment at 820 °C for 30 min, the initial amorphous Al2O3 layer crystallize into the γ-Al2O3 structure and was enhanced by additional oxygen as was proven by x-ray diffraction measurements and underlined by Density Functional Theory simulations. The crystallization correlates with the increase of the optical density up to 20% while the final Al2O3 layer thickness decreases at the same time up to 26%. All observations described above were detected to be Al2O3 layer thickness dependent. These observations reveal novel aspects to explain the temperature induced passivation and degradation mechanisms of Al2O3 layers at a molecular level like the origin of the negative fixe charges at the Si/SiOx/Al2O3 interface or the phenomena of blistering. Moreover, the crystal phase of Al2O3 does not deliver good surface passivation due to a high concentration of octahedral sites leading to a lower concentration of negative fixed charges at the interface.

  4. Determination of average LET of therapeutic proton beams using Al2O3:C optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors.

    PubMed

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O; Sahoo, Narayan; Gasparian, Patricia B R; Rodriguez, Matthew G; Archambault, Louis; Titt, Uwe; Yukihara, Eduardo G

    2010-09-07

    In this work we present a methodology and proof of concept to experimentally determine average linear energy transfer (LET) of therapeutic proton beams using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of small Al(2)O(3):C detectors. Our methodology is based on the fact that the shape of the OSL decay curve of Al(2)O(3):C detectors depends on the LET of the radiation field. Thus, one can use the shape of the OSL decay curves to establish an LET calibration curve, which in turn permits measurements of LET. We performed irradiations at the M D Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center, Houston (PTCH), with passive scattering beams. We determined the average LET of the passive scattering beams using a validated Monte Carlo model of the PTCH passive scattering nozzle and correlated them with the shape of the OSL decay curve to obtain an LET calibration curve. Using this calibration curve and OSL measurements, we determined the averaged LET at various water-equivalent depths for therapeutic spread-out Bragg peaks and compared the results with averaged LETs determined using the Monte Carlo simulations. Agreement between measured and simulated fluence-averaged LET was within 24% for low energy spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) fields and within 14% for high energy SOBP fields. Agreement between measured and simulated dose-averaged LET was within 12% for low energy SOBP fields and within 47% for high energy SOBP fields. The data presented in this work demonstrated the correlation between the OSL decay curve shapes and the average LET of the radiation fields, providing proof of concept of the feasibility of using OSL from Al(2)O(3):C detectors to measure average LET of therapeutic proton beams.

  5. Structural and mechanical characterization of Al/Al2O3 nanotube thin film on TiV alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraf, M.; Zalnezhad, E.; Bushroa, A. R.; Hamouda, A. M. S.; Baradaran, S.; Nasiri-Tabrizi, B.; Rafieerad, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the fabrication and characterization of Al/Al2O3 nanotubular arrays on Ti-6Al-4V substrate were carried out. To this end, aluminum thin films were deposited as a first coating layer by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering with the coating conditions of 300 W, 150 °C and 75 V substrate bias voltage. Al2O3 nanotube array as a second layer was grown on the Al layer by electrochemical anodisation at the constant potential of 20 V within different time periods in an electrolyte solution. For annealing the coated substrates, plasma treatment (PT) technique was utilized under various conditions to get the best adhesion strength of coating to the substrate. To characterize the coating layers, micro scratch test, Vickers hardness and field emission of scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used. Results show that after the deposition of pure aluminum on the substrate the scratch length, load and failure point were 794.37 μm, 1100 mN and 411.43 μm, respectively. After PT, the best adhesion strength (2038 mN) was obtained at RF power of 60 W. With the increase of the RF power up to 80 W, a reduction in adhesion strength was observed (1525.22 mN). From the microstructural point of view, a homogenous porous structure with an average pore size of 40-60 nm was formed after the anodisation for 10-45 min. During PT, the porous structure was converted to dense alumina layer when the RF power rose from 40 to 80 W. This led to an increase in hardness value from 2.7 to 3.4 GPa. Based on the obtained data, the RF power of 60 W was the optimum condition for plasma treatment of Al/Al2O3 nanotubular arrays on Ti-6Al-4V substrate.

  6. Hydrogen production via supercritical water gasification of bagasse using Ni-Cu/γ-Al2O3 nano-catalysts.

    PubMed

    Mehrani, Reza; Barati, Mohammad; Tavasoli, Ahmad; Karimi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Biomass gasification in supercritical water media is a promising method for the production of hydrogen. In this research, Cu-promoted Ni/γ-Al2O3 nano-catalysts were prepared with 2.5-30 wt% Ni and 0.6-7.5 wt% Cu loadings via the microemulsion method. Nano-catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) technique, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), H2 chemisorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) technique, as well as Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen-Sulfur (CHNS) analysis was carried out for elemental analysis of bagasse. Nano-catalysts were assessed in a batch micro-reactor under 400°C and 240 bar. The microemulsion method decreased the catalyst average particle size and increased the percentage dispersion and reduction of the catalysts. The total gas yield increased with an increase in Ni and Cu loadings up to 20 wt% Ni and 5 wt% Cu and then started to decrease. Using the microemulsion technique for the preparation of Ni-Cu/γ-Al2O3 nano-catalyst, increased the hydrogen yield to 11.76 (mmol of H2/g of bagasse), CO yield to 2.67 (mmol of CO/g of bagasse) and light gaseous hydrocarbons to 0.6 (mmol of light gaseous hydrocarbons/g of bagasse). Promotion of Ni/γ-Al2O3 with copper increased the mole fraction of hydrogen in the final gasification products to 58.1 mol%.

  7. Network topology for the formation of solvated electrons in binary CaO–Al2O3 composition glasses

    PubMed Central

    Akola, Jaakko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Usuki, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Weber, J. K. Richard; Benmore, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Glass formation in the CaO–Al2O3 system represents an important phenomenon because it does not contain typical network-forming cations. We have produced structural models of CaO–Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory–reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experiments (X-ray and neutron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and result in cohesive energies close to the crystalline ground states. The O–Ca and O–Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol % CaO (64CaO) glass [comparable to 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7)], and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. This topologically disordered network is the signature of the high glass-forming ability of 64CaO glass and high viscosity in the melt. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the atomic charges for Al are comparable to those for Ca, and the bond strength of Al–O is stronger than that of Ca–O, indicating that oxygen is more weakly bound by cations in CaO-rich glass. The analysis shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occurs in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass [Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H (2011) Science 333(6038):71–74] synthesized from a strongly reduced high-temperature melt can host solvated electrons and bipolarons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms (additional electrons) confirm this observation. The comparable atomic charges and coordination of the cations promote more efficient elemental mixing, and this is the origin of the extended cage structure and hosted solvated (trapped) electrons in the C12A7 glass. PMID:23723350

  8. High-k dielectric Al2O3 nanowire and nanoplate field effect sensors for improved pH sensing

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Bobby; Dorvel, Brian R.; Go, Jonghyun; Nair, Pradeep R.; Elibol, Oguz H.; Credo, Grace M.; Daniels, Jonathan S.; Chow, Edmond K. C.; Su, Xing; Varma, Madoo; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, field-effect transistors (FETs) with nanoscale dimensions have emerged as possible label-free biological and chemical sensors capable of highly sensitive detection of various entities and processes. While significant progress has been made towards improving their sensitivity, much is yet to be explored in the study of various critical parameters, such as the choice of a sensing dielectric, the choice of applied front and back gate biases, the design of the device dimensions, and many others. In this work, we present a process to fabricate nanowire and nanoplate FETs with Al2O3 gate dielectrics and we compare these devices with FETs with SiO2 gate dielectrics. The use of a high-k dielectric such as Al2O3 allows for the physical thickness of the gate dielectric to be thicker without losing sensitivity to charge, which then reduces leakage currents and results in devices that are highly robust in fluid. This optimized process results in devices stable for up to 8 h in fluidic environments. Using pH sensing as a benchmark, we show the importance of optimizing the device bias, particularly the back gate bias which modulates the effective channel thickness. We also demonstrate that devices with Al2O3 gate dielectrics exhibit superior sensitivity to pH when compared to devices with SiO2 gate dielectrics. Finally, we show that when the effective electrical silicon channel thickness is on the order of the Debye length, device response to pH is virtually independent of device width. These silicon FET sensors could become integral components of future silicon based Lab on Chip systems. PMID:21203849

  9. Pyrolysis and gasification of landfilled plastic wastes with Ni-Mg-La/Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kaewpengkrow, Prangtip; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

    2012-12-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification processes were utilized to study the feasibility of producing fuels from landfilled plastic wastes. These wastes were converted in a gasifier at 700-900 degrees C. The equivalence ratio (ER) was varied from 0.4-0.6 with or without addition ofa Ni-Mg-La/Al2O3 catalyst. The pyrolysis and gasification of plastic wastes without catalyst resulted in relatively low H2, CO and other fuel gas products with methane as the major gaseous species. The highest lower heating value (LHV) was obtained at 800 degrees C and for an ER of 0.4, while the maximum cold gas efficiency occurred at 700 degrees C and for an ER of 0.4. The presence of the Ni-Mg-La/Al2O3 catalyst significantly enhanced H2 and CO production as well as increasing the gas energy content to 15.76-19.26 MJ/m3, which is suitable for further usage as quality fuel gas. A higher temperature resulted in more H2 and CO and other product gas yields, while char and liquid (tars) decreased. The maximum gas yield, gas calorific value and cold gas efficiency were achieved when the Ni-Mg-La/Al2O3 catalyst was used at 900 degrees C. In general, addition of prepared catalyst resulted in greater H2, CO and other light hydrocarbon yields from superior conversion of wastes to these gases. Thus, thermochemical treatment of these problematic wastes using pyrolysis and gasification processes is a very attractive alternative for sustainable waste management.

  10. Development of nano-niO/Al2O3 catalyst to be used for tar removal in biomass gasification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfen; Yan, Rong; Xiao, Bo; Liang, David Tee; Du, Lijuan

    2008-08-15

    The objective of this study isto develop a novel supported nano-NiO catalyst for tar removal in biomass gasification/pyrolysis, to significantly enhance the quality of the produced gases. For this purpose, the supported nano-NiO/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by deposition-precipitation (DP) method. Different analytical approaches such as XRD, BET, TEM and SEM/EDX were used to characterize the synthesized catalysts. The results showed thatthe prepared nano-NiO/gamma-Al2O3 catalysts had a coated structure with a loading of NiO in catalysts over 12 wt %, and they had also a higher BET surface area over commercial nickel based catalysts. The active components of catalyst were spherical NiO nanoparticles coated on the surface of supports with a size range of 12-18 nm. Furthermore, the activity of the catalysts to remove tar in the process of biomass pyrolysis was also investigated using a bench-scale combined fixed bed reactor. The experiments demonstrated that the tar yield after addition of the catalyst was reduced significantly; the tar removal efficiency reached to 99% for catalytic pyrolysis at 800 degrees C, and the gas yield after addition of the catalyst increased markedly. The compositions of gas products before and after addition of the catalyst in the process also changed significantly. The percentages of CO2 and CH4 in the product gas after addition of the catalysts were obviously reduced, while those of the valuable H2 and CO strongly increased. Therefore, using the prepared NiO/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst in biomass gasification/pyrolysis can significantly improve the quality of the produced gas and meanwhile efficiently eliminate the tar generation.

  11. Determination of average LET of therapeutic proton beams using Al2O3:C optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Sahoo, Narayan; Gasparian, Patricia B. R.; Rodriguez, Matthew G.; Archambault, Louis; Titt, Uwe; Yukihara, Eduardo G.

    2010-09-01

    In this work we present a methodology and proof of concept to experimentally determine average linear energy transfer (LET) of therapeutic proton beams using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of small Al2O3:C detectors. Our methodology is based on the fact that the shape of the OSL decay curve of Al2O3:C detectors depends on the LET of the radiation field. Thus, one can use the shape of the OSL decay curves to establish an LET calibration curve, which in turn permits measurements of LET. We performed irradiations at the M D Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center, Houston (PTCH), with passive scattering beams. We determined the average LET of the passive scattering beams using a validated Monte Carlo model of the PTCH passive scattering nozzle and correlated them with the shape of the OSL decay curve to obtain an LET calibration curve. Using this calibration curve and OSL measurements, we determined the averaged LET at various water-equivalent depths for therapeutic spread-out Bragg peaks and compared the results with averaged LETs determined using the Monte Carlo simulations. Agreement between measured and simulated fluence-averaged LET was within 24% for low energy spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) fields and within 14% for high energy SOBP fields. Agreement between measured and simulated dose-averaged LET was within 12% for low energy SOBP fields and within 47% for high energy SOBP fields. The data presented in this work demonstrated the correlation between the OSL decay curve shapes and the average LET of the radiation fields, providing proof of concept of the feasibility of using OSL from Al2O3:C detectors to measure average LET of therapeutic proton beams.

  12. Network topology for the formation of solvated electrons in binary CaO-Al2O3 composition glasses.

    PubMed

    Akola, Jaakko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Usuki, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Weber, J K Richard; Benmore, Chris J

    2013-06-18

    Glass formation in the CaO-Al2O3 system represents an important phenomenon because it does not contain typical network-forming cations. We have produced structural models of CaO-Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory-reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experiments (X-ray and neutron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and result in cohesive energies close to the crystalline ground states. The O-Ca and O-Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol % CaO (64CaO) glass [comparable to 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7)], and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. This topologically disordered network is the signature of the high glass-forming ability of 64CaO glass and high viscosity in the melt. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the atomic charges for Al are comparable to those for Ca, and the bond strength of Al-O is stronger than that of Ca-O, indicating that oxygen is more weakly bound by cations in CaO-rich glass. The analysis shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occurs in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass [Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H (2011) Science 333(6038):71-74] synthesized from a strongly reduced high-temperature melt can host solvated electrons and bipolarons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms (additional electrons) confirm this observation. The comparable atomic charges and coordination of the cations promote more efficient elemental mixing, and this is the origin of the extended cage structure and hosted solvated (trapped) electrons in the C12A7 glass.

  13. Observation of nanoscale adhesion, friction and wear between ALD Al2O3 coated silicon MEMS sidewalls.

    PubMed

    Buja, Federico; Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Kokorian, Jaap; Spengen, W Merlijn van

    2015-01-26

    We report a novel investigation of the tribological properties of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) when it is used as protective coating on the sidewalls of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). By using an in-house built optical displacement measurement system, we were able to measure the on-chip displacements with an unprecedented resolution of 2 nm. This corresponds to 2 nN and 9 nN force resolution, respectively, depending on whether an adhesion or a friction sensor MEMS device was used for the measurement. Al2O3 was deposited on the vertical etched sidewalls using atomic layer deposition (ALD). All tests were carried out in ambient conditions. The same tests carried out on uncoated polysilicon devices were not reproducible due to stiction, which sometimes prevented the interacting surfaces from moving once contact was made. The higher adhesion of silicon was also found to hinder the mobility of the slider. In the ALD-coated devices, we observed increasing adhesion after 50000 repeated contacts. We attribute this increase to the accumulation of aluminum hydroxide debris produced by the reaction with moisture in the environment. We also investigated the long-term effect of friction on the coated silicon sidewalls. The dissipated energy decreases, with a minimum lateral force occurring around the 1000th cycle. After 1000 cycles, the lateral displacement decreases, suggesting an additional lateral dragging force caused by the interaction between a mixture of aluminum hydroxides and water. However, the small overall amount of debris produced during the friction test indicates the outstanding characteristic of Al2O3 as a protective coating for MEMS that use contacting or sliding interfaces.

  14. Observation of nanoscale adhesion, friction and wear between ALD Al2O3 coated silicon MEMS sidewalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buja, Federico; Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Kokorian, Jaap; Merlijn van Spengen, W.

    2015-06-01

    We report a novel investigation of the tribological properties of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) when it is used as protective coating on the sidewalls of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). By using an in-house built optical displacement measurement system, we were able to measure the on-chip displacements with an unprecedented resolution of 2 nm. This corresponds to 2 nN and 9 nN force resolution, respectively, depending on whether an adhesion or a friction sensor MEMS device was used for the measurement. Al2O3 was deposited on the vertical etched sidewalls using atomic layer deposition (ALD). All tests were carried out in ambient conditions. The same tests carried out on uncoated polysilicon devices were not reproducible due to stiction, which sometimes prevented the interacting surfaces from moving once contact was made. The higher adhesion of silicon was also found to hinder the mobility of the slider. In the ALD-coated devices, we observed increasing adhesion after 50000 repeated contacts. We attribute this increase to the accumulation of aluminum hydroxide debris produced by the reaction with moisture in the environment. We also investigated the long-term effect of friction on the coated silicon sidewalls. The dissipated energy decreases, with a minimum lateral force occurring around the 1000th cycle. After 1000 cycles, the lateral displacement decreases, suggesting an additional lateral dragging force caused by the interaction between a mixture of aluminum hydroxides and water. However, the small overall amount of debris produced during the friction test indicates the outstanding characteristic of Al2O3 as a protective coating for MEMS that use contacting or sliding interfaces.

  15. Pyridine adsorption on NiSn/MgO-Al2O3: An FTIR spectroscopic study of surface acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penkova, Anna; Bobadilla, Luis F.; Romero-Sarria, Francisca; Centeno, Miguel A.; Odriozola, José A.

    2014-10-01

    The acid-base properties of MgO-Al2O3 supports and NiSn/MgO-Al2O3 catalysts were evaluated by IR spectroscopy using pyridine as a probe molecule. The results indicate that only Lewis acid sites were detected on the surface of the supports as well as on the catalysts. Nevertheless, Brønsted acid sites were not detected. In the support without MgO three kinds of coordinatively unsaturated acid sites were detected: Al3+ cations occupying octahedral, tetrahedral and tetrahedral with cationic vacancy in the neighbourhood. The last sites appear as the strongest. Moreover, they are able to activate the pyridine molecules leading to the formation of an intermediate α-pyridone complex. When MgO or NiO were added to the alumina, the number and strength of the Lewis acid sites decreased and significant changes were observed in the tetrahedral sites with adjoining cation vacancies. The incorporation of the Mg2+ cations into the alumina's structure takes place on the vacant tetrahedral positions, forming spinel MgAl2O4. As a result, the fraction of tetrahedral sites with adjoining cationic vacancy diminished and the intermediate α-pyridone complex in the support with the highest MgO loading was hardly detected. The addition of Ni2+ cations leads to the filling of the free octahedral positions, resulting in the formation of a NiAl2O4 spinel structure and the thermal stability of the α-pyridone species decreases. In the catalysts, the progressive reduction of the number and strength of the Lewis acid sites is due to a competitive formation of the two types of MgAl2O4 and NiAl2O4 spinels. In the catalyst NiSn/30MgO-Al2O3 no cationic vacancies were detected and the surface reaction with α-pyridone formation did not occur.

  16. Theoretical study of the coordination of the Cr3+ ion in α-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, R.; Recio, J. M.; Pendas, A. Martín; Francisco, E.; Luaña, V.; Pueyo, L.

    1995-12-01

    The local arrangement of a substitutional Cr3+ ion for an Al3+ ion in corundum is studied by means of first-principles pairwise simulations and quantum-mechanical ab initio Perturbed Ion calculations. Our investigation is organized in two steps. First, we determine the cohesive properties of the host lattice by calculating the set of four crystalline parameters that makes minimum the total energy of corundum. Secondly, we solve cluster models of increasing complexity centered at the Cr3+ site and embedded in the previously computed crystal potential. This is a consistent strategy that contributes to determine the local geometry of Cr3+ in α-Al2O3.

  17. Using combined XAS/DRIFTS to study CO/NO Oxidation over Pt/Al2O3 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gänzler, A. M.; Lichtenberg, H.; Frenkel, A. I.; Casapu, M.; Boubnov, A.; Wang, D.; Grunwaldt, J.-D.

    2016-05-01

    Combined X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) were applied to investigate the interaction between reaction atmosphere, adsorbates and Pt oxidation state of Pt/Al2O3 model diesel oxidation catalysts under CO/NO oxidation conditions. The Pt oxidation state was correlated to the adsorbates on the catalyst's surface. Even at low temperature the reaction atmosphere had a strong impact on the oxidation state of the catalyst, and the oxidation state in turn strongly affected CO adsorption on the Pt particles.

  18. In situ ESEM observation of melting silver and Inconel on an Al(2)O(3) powder bed.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Simon; Lemster, Katja; Kaegi, Ralf; Kuebler, Jakob; Grobéty, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    A hot stage in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) was used for in situ infiltration experiments. Pressureless infiltration of a porous Ti-activated Al(2)O(3) preform has been investigated at temperatures up to 1530 degrees C under two atmospheres (He and H(2)O((g))). A brief description of the operating and the experimental set-up is given. Silver and Inconel (Ni superalloy) infiltration experiments demonstrate the in situ potential of the ESEM at temperatures up to 1500 degrees C.

  19. Degradation of sulfur mustard on KF/Al2O3 supports: insights into the products and the reactions mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zafrani, Yossi; Goldvaser, Michael; Dagan, Shai; Feldberg, Liron; Mizrahi, Dana; Waysbort, Daniel; Gershonov, Eytan; Columbus, Ishay

    2009-11-06

    The degradation of the warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD) adsorbed onto KF/Al(2)O(3) sorbents is described. These processes were explored by MAS NMR, using (13)C-labeled sulfur mustard (HD*) and LC-MS techniques. Our study on the detoxification of this blister agent showed the formation of nontoxic substitution and less-toxic elimination products (t(1/2) = 3.5-355 h). Interestingly, the reaction rates were found to be affected by MAS conditions, i.e., by a centrifugation effect. The products and the mechanisms of these processes are discussed.

  20. Anomalous nuclear spin-lattice relaxation of 3He in contact with ordered Al2O3 aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alakshin, E. M.; Zakharov, M. Yu.; Klochkov, A. V.; Kuzmin, V. V.; Safiullin, K. R.; Stanislavovas, A. A.; Tagirov, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Spin-lattice relaxation of 3He in contact with the ordered Al2O3 fiber aerogel has been studied at the temperature of 1.6 K in fields of 0.1-0.5 T by the pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method. An additional mechanism of the relaxation of 3He in aerogels is found and it is shown that this relaxation mechanism is not associated with the adsorbed layer. A hypothesis about the influence of intrinsic paramagnetic centers on the relaxation of gaseous 3He is proposed.

  1. The crystallization kinetics and thermal conductivity of alumina/fluorescein sodium salt (Al2O3/FSS) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin; Sekerci, M.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and crystallization mechanism of alumina (Al2O3)/fluorescein sodium salt (FSS) composites prepared by the powder metallurgy method have been investigated by means of differential thermal analysis. The Kissinger method is applied to determine the crystallization kinetics from the endotherm peaks. The activation energy E and Avrami parameter n were calculated. The kinetic parameters (E and n) have made it possible to postulate the type of crystal growth exhibited in the crystallization process. The crystallization growth is found to be one-dimensional for the composite system. The thermal conductivity of the composite system was also determined by differential scanning calorimetry.

  2. Crystallographic Texture and Orientation Variants in Al2O3-Y3Al5O12 Directionally Solidified Eutectic Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, Colleen S.; Dickey, Elizabeth C.; Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Eutectic rods of Al2O3 and Y3Al5O12 were grown by a laser-heated float zone method, and their microstructure and crystallographic texture were studied by scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction and x-ray diffraction. The composites were found to be highly textured with two twin-related crystallographic orientation relationships between the phases. Electron backscattered diffraction was employed to determine the spatial distribution of the orientational variants within the samples and to define the crystallographic orientation of various microstructural features.

  3. Direct Identification of Dilute Surface Spins on Al2 O3 : Origin of Flux Noise in Quantum Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, S. E.; Adamyan, A. A.; Lindström, T.; Erts, D.; Kubatkin, S. E.; Tzalenchuk, A. Ya.; Danilov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    An on-chip electron spin resonance technique is applied to reveal the nature and origin of surface spins on Al2 O3 . We measure a spin density of 2.2 ×1 017 spins/m2 , attributed to physisorbed atomic hydrogen and S =1 /2 electron spin states on the surface. This is direct evidence for the nature of spins responsible for flux noise in quantum circuits, which has been an issue of interest for several decades. Our findings open up a new approach to the identification and controlled reduction of paramagnetic sources of noise and decoherence in superconducting quantum devices.

  4. Catalytic properties of Fe/SiO2-Al2O3 systems, obtained via sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon'kova, T. V.; Gordienko, M. G.; Alekhina, M. B.; Men'shutina, N. V.

    2017-03-01

    The high efficacy of iron-containing catalysts based on SiO2-Al2O3 systems obtained via sol-gel method in the oxidative destruction of carmoisine azo dye in aqueous solutions is demonstrated. It is found that the stability of the catalysts with respect to the leaching of iron ions into a solution during catalysis grows along with the aluminum content in the composition of aluminosilicate supports. It is concluded that the synthesized catalysts are promising materials for purifying wastewaters contaminated with organic dyes.

  5. Resistance switching of epitaxial VO2/Al2O3 heterostructure at room temperature induced by organic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mengmeng; Yang, Yuanjun; Hong, Bin; Huang, Haoliang; Hu, Sixia; Dong, Yongqi; Wang, Haibo; He, Hao; Zhao, Jiyin; Liu, Xuguang; Luo, Zhenlin; Li, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Haibin; Gao, Chen

    2015-03-01

    We studied using organic liquids (cyclohexane, n-butanol, and ethylene glycol) to modulate the transport properties at room temperature of an epitaxial VO2 film on a VO2/Al2O3 heterostructure. The resistance of the VO2 film increased when coated with cyclohexane or n-butanol, with maximum changes of 31% and 3.8%, respectively. In contrast, it decreased when coated with ethylene glycol, with a maximum change of -7.7%. In all cases, the resistance recovered to its original value after removing the organic liquid. This organic-liquid-induced reversible resistance switching suggests that VO2 films can be used as organic molecular sensors.

  6. Optical spectroscopy of RE3 ions in sol-gel prepared α-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofilov, S. P.; Kaplyanskii, A. A.; Kulinkin, A. B.; Kutsenko, A. B.; Vasilevskaya, T. N.; Zakharchenya, R. I.

    The monolithic polycrystalline small-grain corundum α-Al2O3 doped with trivalent rare earth ions RE3+ (Eu3+, Er3+, Pr3+) was produced for the first time using the sol-gel technology. The fluorescence and absorption spectra of these materials were studied which exhibit the sets of narrow lines belonging to f-f transitions between RE3+ states. It was shown that Eu3+ and Er3+ ions form in corundum lattice the single dominating type of regular centers. The energy scheme of Stark sublevels for ground and excited states of dominating Eu3+ and Er3+ centers in corundum was determined.

  7. Effect of water and ammonia on surface species formed during NO(x) storage-reduction cycles over Pt-K/Al2O3 and Pt-Ba/Al2O3 catalysts.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Sara; Prinetto, Federica; Castoldi, Lidia; Lietti, Luca; Forzatti, Pio; Ghiotti, Giovanna

    2013-08-28

    The effect of water, in the temperature range 25-350 °C, and ammonia at RT on two different surface species formed on Pt-K/Al2O3 and Pt-Ba/Al2O3 NSR catalysts during NO(x) storage-reduction cycles was investigated. The surface species involved are nitrates, formed during the NO(x) storage step, and isocyanates, which are found to be intermediates in N2 production during reduction by CO. FT-IR experiments demonstrate that the dissociative chemisorption of water and ammonia causes the transformation of the bidentate nitrates and linearly bonded NCO(-) species into more symmetric species that we call ionic species. In the case of water, the effect on nitrates is observable at all the temperatures studied; however, the extent of the transformation decreases upon increasing temperature, consistent with the decreased extent of dissociatively adsorbed water. It was possible to hypothesize that the dissociative chemisorption of water and ammonia takes place in a competitive way on surface sites able to give bidentate nitrates and linearly bonded NCO(-) that are dislocated, remaining on the surface as ionic species.

  8. Nanoflake-assembled Al2O3-supported CeO2-ZrO2 as an efficient catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tehua; Guan, Xiaolin; Lu, Huiyi; Liu, Zhongwen; Ji, Min

    2017-03-01

    An Al2O3 material assembled by nanoflakes was used to prepare supported CeO2-ZrO2 catalyst via a deposition-precipitation method for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with CO2. Both unsupported and commercial Al2O3-supported CeO2-ZrO2 were prepared for comparison. It was found that the CeO2-ZrO2/nanoflake-assembled Al2O3 catalyst exhibited the best catalytic activity. The characterization results revealed that the slit-shape pores existing in nanoflake-assembled Al2O3 were responsible for the small particle size and high Ce/Zr surface ratio of supported CeO2-ZrO2 species. The dispersion of Ce1-xZrx(OH)4 precursors onto Al2O3 support surface during the deposition-precipitation process was proposed. The high dispersion and large numbers of surface oxygen vacancies of the CeO2-ZrO2 species on nanoflake-assembled Al2O3 contributed to the excellent catalytic performance in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with CO2. This kind of special Al2O3 is expected to be a promising support for preparing highly dispersed metal/metal oxide catalysts.

  9. Preparation of ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts by using atomic layer deposition for plasma-assisted non-oxidative methane coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Young Dok; Park, Sunyoung; Kasinathan, Palraj; Hwang, Young Kyu; Chang, Jong-San; Park, Yong-Ki

    2016-05-01

    We prepared a ZnO/mesoporous Al2O3-shell/core structure by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO on commercially-available mesoporous Al2O3. We used various analysis techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and surface area and pore size analyses based on nitrogen isotherm data. A 200 nm-thick slab of mesoporous Al2O3 particles was decorated by ZnO upon ALD deposition, whereas the inner part of the Al2O3 particle was free of ZnO. We evaluated the catalytic activity of the bare and the ZnO-covered Al2O3 for plasma-assisted nonoxidative coupling of methane. The catalytic behavior was shown to be sensitive to the amount of ZnO deposited. Particularly, 40-cycled ZnO/Al2O3 showed an enhanced selectivity to the olefin product with almost the same CH4 conversion as that of bare Al2O3. Preparation of the shell/core structure by using ALD can be an interesting strategy for finding highly-efficient catalysts in a plasma-assisted catalytic reaction.

  10. Influence of argon plasma on the deposition of Al2O3 film onto the PET surfaces by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Edy, Riyanto; Huang, Xiaojiang; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Jianjun

    2013-02-15

    In this paper, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) films with and without plasma pretreatment were modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD). It demonstrates that the Al2O3 films are successfully deposited onto the surface of PET films. The cracks formed on the deposited Al2O3 films in the ALD, plasma pretreated ALD, and PA-ALD were attributed to the energetic ion bombardment in plasmas. The surface wettability in terms of water contact angle shows that the deposited Al2O3 layer can enhance the wetting property of modified PET surface. Further characterizations of the Al2O3 films suggest that the elevated density of hydroxyl -OH group improve the initial growth of ALD deposition. Chemical composition of the Al2O3-coated PET film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which shows that the content of C 1s reduces with the growing of O 1s in the Al2O3-coated PET films, and the introduction of plasma in the ALD process helps the normal growth of Al2O3 on PET in PA-ALD.

  11. Epitaxial growth and electric properties of γ-Al2O3(110) films on β-Ga2O3(010) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Mai; Oshima, Takayoshi; Wakabayashi, Ryo; Yoshimatsu, Kohei; Sasaki, Kohei; Masui, Takekazu; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Ohtomo, Akira

    2016-12-01

    Epitaxial growth and electrical properties of γ-Al2O3 films on β-Ga2O3(010) substrates were investigated regarding the prospect of a gate oxide in a β-Ga2O3-based MOSFET. The γ-Al2O3 films grew along the [110] direction and inherited the oxygen sublattice from β-Ga2O3 resulting in the unique in-plane epitaxial relationship of γ-Al2O3 [\\bar{1}10] ∥ β-Ga2O3[001]. We found that the γ-Al2O3 layer had a band gap of 7.0 eV and a type-I band alignment with β-Ga2O3 with conduction- and valence-band offsets of 1.9 and 0.5 eV, respectively. A relatively high trap density (≅ 2 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1) was found from the voltage shift of photoassisted capacitance-voltage curves measured for a Au/γ-Al2O3/β-Ga2O3 MOS capacitor. These results indicate good structural and electric properties and some limitations hindering the better understanding of the role of the gate dielectrics (a γ-Al