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Sample records for al2o3 films formed

  1. Effect of atomic layer deposition temperature on current conduction in Al2O3 films formed using H2O oxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    To develop high-performance, high-reliability gate insulation and surface passivation technologies for wide-bandgap semiconductor devices, the effect of atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature on current conduction in Al2O3 films is investigated based on the recently proposed space-charge-controlled field emission model. Leakage current measurement shows that Al2O3 metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors formed on the Si substrates underperform thermally grown SiO2 capacitors at the same average field. However, using equivalent oxide field as a more practical measure, the Al2O3 capacitors are found to outperform the SiO2 capacitors in the cases where the capacitors are negatively biased and the gate material is adequately selected to reduce virtual dipoles at the gate/Al2O3 interface. The Al2O3 electron affinity increases with the increasing ALD temperature, but the gate-side virtual dipoles are not affected. Therefore, the leakage current of negatively biased Al2O3 capacitors is approximately independent of the ALD temperature because of the compensation of the opposite effects of increased electron affinity and permittivity in Al2O3. By contrast, the substrate-side sheet of charge increases with increasing ALD temperature above 210 °C and hence enhances the current of positively biased Al2O3 capacitors more significantly at high temperatures. Additionally, an anomalous oscillatory shift of the current-voltage characteristics with ALD temperature was observed in positively biased capacitors formed by low-temperature (≤210 °C) ALD. This shift is caused by dipoles at the Al2O3/underlying SiO2 interface. Although they have a minimal positive-bias leakage current, the low-temperature-grown Al2O3 films cause the so-called blisters problem when heated above 400 °C. Therefore, because of the absence of blistering, a 450 °C ALD process is presently the most promising technology for growing high-reliability Al2O3 films.

  2. Preparation of γ-Al2O3 films by laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Ito, Akihiko; Goto, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    γ- and α-Al2O3 films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using CO2, Nd:YAG, and InGaAs lasers to investigate the effects of varying the laser wavelength and deposition conditions on the phase composition and microstructure. The CO2 laser was found to mostly produce α-Al2O3 films, whereas the Nd:YAG and InGaAs lasers produced γ-Al2O3 films when used at a high total pressure. γ-Al2O3 films had a cauliflower-like structure, while the α-Al2O3 films had a dense and columnar structure. Of the three lasers, it was the Nd:YAG laser that interacted most with intermediate gas species. This promoted γ-Al2O3 nucleation in the gas phase at high total pressure, which explains the cauliflower-like structure of nanoparticles observed.

  3. Oxidation precursor dependence of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films in a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 surface passivation stacks.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuren; Zhou, Chunlan; Jia, Endong; Wang, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain a good passivation of a silicon surface, more and more stack passivation schemes have been used in high-efficiency silicon solar cell fabrication. In this work, we prepared a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks on KOH solution-polished n-type solar grade mono-silicon(100) wafers. For the Al2O3 film deposition, both thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) were used. Interface trap density spectra were obtained for Si passivation with a-Si films and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks by a non-contact corona C-V technique. After the fabrication of a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks, the minimum interface trap density was reduced from original 3 × 10(12) to 1 × 10(12) cm(-2) eV(-1), the surface total charge density increased by nearly one order of magnitude for PE-ALD samples and about 0.4 × 10(12) cm(-2) for a T-ALD sample, and the carrier lifetimes increased by a factor of three (from about 10 μs to about 30 μs). Combining these results with an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we discussed the influence of an oxidation precursor for ALD Al2O3 deposition on Al2O3 single layers and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stack surface passivation from field-effect passivation and chemical passivation perspectives. In addition, the influence of the stack fabrication process on the a-Si film structure was also discussed in this study.

  4. Space-charge-controlled field emission model of current conduction through Al2O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    This study proposes a model for current conduction in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, assuming the presence of two sheets of charge in the insulator, and derives analytical formulae of field emission (FE) currents under both negative and positive bias. Since it is affected by the space charge in the insulator, this particular FE differs from the conventional FE and is accordingly named the space-charge-controlled (SCC) FE. The gate insulator of this study was a stack of atomic-layer-deposition Al2O3 and underlying chemical SiO2 formed on Si substrates. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics simulated using the SCC-FE formulae quantitatively reproduced the experimental results obtained by measuring Au- and Al-gated Al2O3/SiO2 MIS capacitors under both biases. The two sheets of charge in the Al2O3 films were estimated to be positive and located at a depth of greater than 4 nm from the Al2O3/SiO2 interface and less than 2 nm from the gate. The density of the former is approximately 1 × 1013 cm-2 in units of electronic charge, regardless of the type of capacitor. The latter forms a sheet of dipoles together with image charges in the gate and hence causes potential jumps of 0.4 V and 1.1 V in the Au- and Al-gated capacitors, respectively. Within a margin of error, this sheet of dipoles is ideally located at the gate/Al2O3 interface and effectively reduces the work function of the gate by the magnitude of the potential jumps mentioned above. These facts indicate that the currents in the Al2O3/SiO2 MIS capacitors are enhanced as compared to those in ideal capacitors and that the currents in the Al-gated capacitors under negative bias (electron emission from the gate) are more markedly enhanced than those in the Au-gated capacitors. The larger number of gate-side dipoles in the Al-gated capacitors is possibly caused by the reaction between the Al and Al2O3, and therefore gate materials that do not react with underlying gate insulators should be chosen

  5. Luminescent properties of Al2O3:Ce single crystalline films under synchrotron radiation excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Zorenko, T.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Voznyak, T.; Fabisiak, K.; Zhusupkalieva, G.; Fedorov, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper is dedicated to study the luminescent and scintillation properties of the Al2O3:Ce single crystalline films (SCF) grown by LPE method onto saphire substrates from PbO based flux. The structural quality of SCF samples was investigated by XRD method. For characterization of luminescent properties of Al2O3:Ce SCFs the cathodoluminescence spectra, scintillation light yield (LY) and decay kinetics under excitation by α-particles of Pu239 source were used. We have found that the scintillation LY of Al2O3:Ce SCF samples is relatively large and can reach up to 50% of the value realized in the reference YAG:Ce SCF. Using the synchrotron radiation excitation in the 3.7-25 eV range at 10 K we have also determined the basic parameters of the Ce3+ luminescence in Al2O3 host.

  6. Atomic layer controlled deposition of Al 2O 3 films using binary reaction sequence chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, A. W.; McCarley, K. C.; Klaus, J. W.; Way, J. D.; George, S. M.

    1996-11-01

    Al 2O 3 films with precise thicknesses and high conformality were deposited using sequential surface chemical reactions. To achieve this controlled deposition, a binary reaction for Al 2O 3 chemical vapor deposition (2Al(CH 3) 3 + 3H 2O → Al 2O 3 + 6CH 4) was separated into two half-reactions: (A) AlOH ∗ + Al(CH 3) 3 → AlOAl(CH 3) 2∗ + CH 4, (B) AlCH 3∗ + H 2O → AlOH ∗ + CH 4, where the asterisks designate the surface species. Trimethylaluminum (Al(CH 3) 3) (TMA) and H 2O reactants were employed alternately in an ABAB … binary reaction sequence to deposit Al 2O 3 films on single-crystal Si(100) and porous alumina membranes with pore diameters of ˜ 220 Å. Ellipsometric measurements obtained a growth rate of 1.1 Å/AB cycle on the Si(100) substrate at the optimal reaction conditions. The Al 2O 3 films had an index of refraction of n = 1.65 that is consistent with a film density of ϱ = 3.50 g/cm 3. Atomic force microscope images revealed that the Al 2O 3 films were exceptionally flat with a surface roughness of only ±3 Å ( rms) after the deposition of ˜ 270 Å using 250 AB reaction cycles. Al 2O 3 films were also deposited inside the pores of Anodisc alumina membranes. Gas flux measurements for H 2 and N 2 were consistent with a progressive pore reduction versus number of AB reaction cycles. Porosimetry measurements also showed that the original pore diameter of ˜ 220 Å was reduced to ˜ 130 Å after 120 AB reaction cycles.

  7. Property transformation of graphene with Al2O3 films deposited directly by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li; Cheng, Xinhong; Cao, Duo; Wang, Zhongjian; Xia, Chao; Yu, Yuehui; Shen, Dashen

    2014-01-01

    Al2O3 films are deposited directly onto graphene by H2O-based atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the films are pinhole-free and continuously cover the graphene surface. The growth process of Al2O3 films does not introduce any detective defects in graphene, suppresses the hysteresis effect and tunes the graphene doping to n-type. The self-cleaning of ALD growth process, together with the physically absorbed H2O and oxygen-deficient ALD environment consumes OH- bonds, suppresses the p-doping of graphene, shifts Dirac point to negative gate bias and enhances the electron mobility.

  8. Growth and characterization of Al2O3 films on fluorine functionalized epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Zachary R.; Jernigan, Glenn G.; Wheeler, Virginia D.; Hernández, Sandra C.; Eddy, Charles R.; Mowll, Tyler R.; Ong, Eng Wen; Ventrice, Carl A.; Geisler, Heike; Pletikosic, Ivo; Yang, Hongbo; Valla, Tonica

    2016-08-01

    Intelligent engineering of graphene-based electronic devices on SiC(0001) requires a better understanding of processes used to deposit gate-dielectric materials on graphene. Recently, Al2O3 dielectrics have been shown to form conformal, pinhole-free thin films by functionalizing the top surface of the graphene with fluorine prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) of the Al2O3 using a trimethylaluminum (TMA) precursor. In this work, the functionalization and ALD-precursor adsorption processes have been studied with angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that the functionalization process has a negligible effect on the electronic structure of the graphene, and that it results in a twofold increase in the adsorption of the ALD-precursor. In situ TMA-dosing and XPS studies were also performed on three different Si(100) substrates that were terminated with H, OH, or dangling Si-bonds. This dosing experiment revealed that OH is required for TMA adsorption. Based on those data along with supportive in situ measurements that showed F-functionalization increases the amount of oxygen (in the form of adsorbed H2O) on the surface of the graphene, a model for TMA-adsorption on graphene is proposed that is based on a reaction of a TMA molecule with OH.

  9. Image reconstruction algorithm for optically stimulated luminescence 2D dosimetry using laser-scanned Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Schnell, E.; Ahmad, S.; Yukihara, E. G.

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an image reconstruction algorithm for 2D dosimetry using Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) films imaged using a laser scanning system. The algorithm takes into account parameters associated with detector properties and the readout system. Pieces of Al2O3:C films (~8 mm  ×  8 mm  ×  125 µm) were irradiated and used to simulate dose distributions with extreme dose gradients (zero and non-zero dose regions). The OSLD film pieces were scanned using a custom-built laser-scanning OSL reader and the data obtained were used to develop and demonstrate a dose reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm includes corrections for: (a) galvo hysteresis, (b) photomultiplier tube (PMT) linearity, (c) phosphorescence, (d) ‘pixel bleeding’ caused by the 35 ms luminescence lifetime of F-centers in Al2O3, (e) geometrical distortion inherent to Galvo scanning system, and (f) position dependence of the light collection efficiency. The algorithm was also applied to 6.0 cm  ×  6.0 cm  ×  125 μm or 10.0 cm  ×  10.0 cm  ×  125 µm Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg films exposed to megavoltage x-rays (6 MV) and 12C beams (430 MeV u‑1). The results obtained using pieces of irradiated films show the ability of the image reconstruction algorithm to correct for pixel bleeding even in the presence of extremely sharp dose gradients. Corrections for geometric distortion and position dependence of light collection efficiency were shown to minimize characteristic limitations of this system design. We also exemplify the application of the algorithm to more clinically relevant 6 MV x-ray beam and a 12C pencil beam, demonstrating the potential for small field dosimetry. The image reconstruction algorithm described here provides the foundation for laser-scanned OSL applied to 2D dosimetry.

  10. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Amorphous Al2O3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yuqing; Sang, Lijun; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Lizhen; Wang, Zhengduo; Liu, Zhongwei

    2013-01-01

    Without extra heating, Al2O3 thin films were deposited on a hydrogen-terminated Si substrate etched in hydrofluoric acid by using a self-built electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) device with Al(CH3)3 (trimethylaluminum; TMA) and O2 used as precursor and oxidant, respectively. During the deposition process, Ar was introduced as a carrier and purging gas. The chemical composition and microstructure of the as-deposited Al2O3 films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), an X-ray photoelectric spectroscope (XPS), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). It achieved a growth rate of 0.24 nm/cycle, which is much higher than that deposited by thermal ALD. It was found that the smooth surface thin film was amorphous alumina, and an interfacial layer formed with a thickness of ca. 2 nm was observed between the Al2O3 film and substrate Si by HRTEM. We conclude that ECR plasma-assisted ALD can grow Al2O3 films with an excellent quality at a high growth rate at ambient temperature.

  11. Enhanced Barrier Performance of Engineered Paper by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Van Bui, Hao; van Ommen, J Ruud; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Englezos, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Surface modification of cellulosic paper is demonstrated by employing plasma assisted atomic layer deposition. Al2O3 thin films are deposited on paper substrates, prepared with different fiber sizes, to improve their barrier properties. Thus, a hydrophobic paper is created with low gas permeability by combining the control of fiber size (and structure) with atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 films. Papers are prepared using Kraft softwood pulp and thermomechanical pulp. The cellulosic wood fibers are refined to obtain fibers with smaller length and diameter. Films of Al2O3, 10, 25, and 45 nm in thickness, are deposited on the paper surface. The work demonstrates that coating of papers prepared with long fibers efficiently reduces wettability with slight enhancement in gas permeability, whereas on shorter fibers, it results in significantly lower gas permeability. Wettability studies on Al2O3 deposited paper substrates have shown water wicking and absorption over time only in papers prepared with highly refined fibers. It is also shown that there is a certain fiber size at which the gas permeability assumes its minimum value, and further decrease in fiber size will reverse the effect on gas permeability.

  12. Enhanced Barrier Performance of Engineered Paper by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Van Bui, Hao; van Ommen, J Ruud; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Englezos, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Surface modification of cellulosic paper is demonstrated by employing plasma assisted atomic layer deposition. Al2O3 thin films are deposited on paper substrates, prepared with different fiber sizes, to improve their barrier properties. Thus, a hydrophobic paper is created with low gas permeability by combining the control of fiber size (and structure) with atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 films. Papers are prepared using Kraft softwood pulp and thermomechanical pulp. The cellulosic wood fibers are refined to obtain fibers with smaller length and diameter. Films of Al2O3, 10, 25, and 45 nm in thickness, are deposited on the paper surface. The work demonstrates that coating of papers prepared with long fibers efficiently reduces wettability with slight enhancement in gas permeability, whereas on shorter fibers, it results in significantly lower gas permeability. Wettability studies on Al2O3 deposited paper substrates have shown water wicking and absorption over time only in papers prepared with highly refined fibers. It is also shown that there is a certain fiber size at which the gas permeability assumes its minimum value, and further decrease in fiber size will reverse the effect on gas permeability. PMID:27165172

  13. The impact of ultrathin Al2O3 films on the electrical response of p-Ge/Al2O3/HfO2/Au MOS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botzakaki, M. A.; Skoulatakis, G.; Kennou, S.; Ladas, S.; Tsamis, C.; Georga, S. N.; Krontiras, C. A.

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that the most critical issue in Ge CMOS technology is the successful growth of high-k gate dielectrics on Ge substrates. The high interface quality of Ge/high-k dielectric is connected with advanced electrical responses of Ge based MOS devices. Following this trend, atomic layer deposition deposited ultrathin Al2O3 and HfO2 films were grown on p-Ge. Al2O3 acts as a passivation layer between p-Ge and high-k HfO2 films. An extensive set of p-Ge/Al2O3/HfO2 structures were fabricated with Al2O3 thickness ranging from 0.5 nm to 1.5 nm and HfO2 thickness varying from 2.0 nm to 3.0 nm. All structures were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and AFM. XPS analysis revealed the stoichiometric growth of both films in the absence of Ge sub-oxides between p-Ge and Al2O3 films. AFM analysis revealed the growth of smooth and cohesive films, which exhibited minimal roughness (~0.2 nm) comparable to that of clean bare p-Ge surfaces. The electrical response of all structures was analyzed by C-V, G-V, C-f, G-f and J-V characteristics, from 80 K to 300 K. It is found that the incorporation of ultrathin Al2O3 passivation layers between p-Ge and HfO2 films leads to superior electrical responses of the structures. All structures exhibit well defined C-V curves with parasitic effects, gradually diminishing and becoming absent below 170 K. D it values were calculated at each temperature, using both Hill-Coleman and Conductance methods. Structures of p-Ge/0.5 nm Al2O3/2.0 nm HfO2/Au, with an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) equal to 1.3 nm, exhibit D it values as low as ~7.4  ×  1010 eV-1 cm-2. To our knowledge, these values are among the lowest reported. J-V measurements reveal leakage currents in the order of 10-1 A cm-2, which are comparable to previously published results for structures with the same EOT. A complete mapping of the energy distribution of D its into the energy bandgap of p-Ge, from the valence band

  14. The impact of ultrathin Al2O3 films on the electrical response of p-Ge/Al2O3/HfO2/Au MOS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botzakaki, M. A.; Skoulatakis, G.; Kennou, S.; Ladas, S.; Tsamis, C.; Georga, S. N.; Krontiras, C. A.

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that the most critical issue in Ge CMOS technology is the successful growth of high-k gate dielectrics on Ge substrates. The high interface quality of Ge/high-k dielectric is connected with advanced electrical responses of Ge based MOS devices. Following this trend, atomic layer deposition deposited ultrathin Al2O3 and HfO2 films were grown on p-Ge. Al2O3 acts as a passivation layer between p-Ge and high-k HfO2 films. An extensive set of p-Ge/Al2O3/HfO2 structures were fabricated with Al2O3 thickness ranging from 0.5 nm to 1.5 nm and HfO2 thickness varying from 2.0 nm to 3.0 nm. All structures were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and AFM. XPS analysis revealed the stoichiometric growth of both films in the absence of Ge sub-oxides between p-Ge and Al2O3 films. AFM analysis revealed the growth of smooth and cohesive films, which exhibited minimal roughness (~0.2 nm) comparable to that of clean bare p-Ge surfaces. The electrical response of all structures was analyzed by C–V, G–V, C–f, G–f and J–V characteristics, from 80 K to 300 K. It is found that the incorporation of ultrathin Al2O3 passivation layers between p-Ge and HfO2 films leads to superior electrical responses of the structures. All structures exhibit well defined C–V curves with parasitic effects, gradually diminishing and becoming absent below 170 K. D it values were calculated at each temperature, using both Hill–Coleman and Conductance methods. Structures of p-Ge/0.5 nm Al2O3/2.0 nm HfO2/Au, with an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) equal to 1.3 nm, exhibit D it values as low as ~7.4  ×  1010 eV‑1 cm‑2. To our knowledge, these values are among the lowest reported. J–V measurements reveal leakage currents in the order of 10–1 A cm‑2, which are comparable to previously published results for structures with the same EOT. A complete mapping of the energy distribution of D its into the energy bandgap of p-Ge, from

  15. Tribological properties of Ag/Ti films on Al2O3 ceramic substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Pepper, Stephen V.; Honecy, Frank S.

    1991-01-01

    Ag solid lubricant films, with a thin Ti interlayer for enhanced adhesion, were sputter deposited on Al2O3 substrate disks to reduce friction and wear. The dual Ag/Ti films were tested at room temperature in a pin-on-disk tribometer sliding against bare, uncoated Al2O3 pins under a 4.9 N load at a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. The Ag/Ti films reduced the friction coefficient by 50 percent to about 0.41 compared to unlubricated baseline specimens. Pin wear was reduced by a factor of 140 and disk wear was reduced by a factor of 2.5 compared to the baseline. These films retain their good tribological properties including adhesion after heat treatments at 850 C and thus may be able to lubricate over a wide temperature range. This lubrication technique is applicable to space lubrication, advanced heat engines, and advanced transportation systems.

  16. Electrical characteristics of SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong; Yao, Manwen; Chen, Jianwen; Xu, Kaien; Yao, Xi

    2016-07-01

    The electrical characteristics of SrTiO3/Al2O3 (160 nm up/90 nm down) laminated film capacitors using the sol-gel process have been investigated. SrTiO3 is a promising and extensively studied high-K dielectric material, but its leakage current property is poor. SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated films can effectively suppress the demerits of pure SrTiO3 films under low electric field, but the leakage current value reaches to 0.1 A/cm2 at higher electric field (>160 MV/m). In this study, a new approach was applied to reduce the leakage current and improve the dielectric strength of SrTiO3/Al2O3 laminated films. Compared to laminated films with Au top electrodes, dielectric strength of laminated films with Al top electrodes improves from 205 MV/m to 322 MV/m, simultaneously the leakage current maintains the same order of magnitude (10-4 A/cm2) until the breakdown occurs. The above electrical characteristics are attributed to the anodic oxidation reaction in origin, which can repair the defects of laminated films at higher electric field. The anodic oxidation reactions have been confirmed by the corresponding XPS measurement and the cross sectional HRTEM analysis. This work provides a new approach to fabricate dielectrics with high dielectric strength and low leakage current.

  17. Influence of argon plasma on the deposition of Al2O3 film onto the PET surfaces by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) films with and without plasma pretreatment were modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD). It demonstrates that the Al2O3 films are successfully deposited onto the surface of PET films. The cracks formed on the deposited Al2O3 films in the ALD, plasma pretreated ALD, and PA-ALD were attributed to the energetic ion bombardment in plasmas. The surface wettability in terms of water contact angle shows that the deposited Al2O3 layer can enhance the wetting property of modified PET surface. Further characterizations of the Al2O3 films suggest that the elevated density of hydroxyl -OH group improve the initial growth of ALD deposition. Chemical composition of the Al2O3-coated PET film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which shows that the content of C 1s reduces with the growing of O 1s in the Al2O3-coated PET films, and the introduction of plasma in the ALD process helps the normal growth of Al2O3 on PET in PA-ALD. PMID:23413804

  18. Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 thin films using dimethylaluminum isopropoxide and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wontae; Sung, Kiwhan; An, Ki-Seok; Sook Lee, Sun; Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Yunsoo

    2003-07-01

    Dimethylaluminum isopropoxide (DMAI), (CH3)2AlOCH(CH3)2, a precursor originally developed for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of alumina, was adopted as a new precursor for growing aluminum oxide thin films on HF-treated Si(001) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). This precursor is stable for a prolonged period of storage time under inert atmosphere (such as in nitrogen or argon) and does not react vigorously in air, and therefore is easy to handle and safe, without causing hazards. The self-limiting ALD process by alternate surface reactions of DMAI and H2O was confirmed by thicknesses of the grown aluminum oxide films measured as functions of the DMAI pulse time and the number of DMAI-H2O cycles. A maximum growth rate of ~1.06 Å/cycle was achieved in the substrate temperature range ~120-150 °C. Growth of stoichiometric Al2O3 thin films without appreciable carbon incorporation was verified by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Atomic force microscopy images showed atomically flat and uniform surfaces. In particular, a cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image of an Al2O3 film shows that there is no distinguishable interfacial oxide layer between the Al2O3 film and the Si substrate. These results prove the validity of DMAI as a new ALD source for aluminum oxide.

  19. Influence of Content of Al2O3 on Structure and Properties of Nanocomposite Nb-B-Al-O films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Dong, Lei; Dong, Lei; Yu, Jiangang; Pan, Yupeng; Wan, Rongxin; Gu, Hanqing; Li, Dejun

    2015-12-01

    Nb-B-Al-O nanocomposite films with different power of Al2O3 were successfully deposited on the Si substrate via multi-target magnetron co-sputtering method. The influences of Al2O3's content on structure and properties of obtained nanocomposite films through controlling Al2O3's power were investigated. Increasing the power of Al2O3 can influence the bombarding energy and cause the momentum transfer of NbB2. This can lead to the decreasing content of Al2O3. Furthermore, the whole films showed monocrystalline NbB2's (100) phase, and Al2O3 shaded from amorphous to weak cubic-crystalline when decreasing content of Al2O3. This structure and content changes were proof by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When NbB2 grains were far from each other in lower power of Al2O3, the whole films showed a typical nanocomposite microstructure with crystalline NbB2 grains embedded in a matrix of an amorphous Al2O3 phase. Continuing increasing the power of Al2O3, the less content of Al2O3 tended to cause crystalline of cubic-Al2O3 between the close distances of different crystalline NbB2 grains. The appearance of cubic-crystallization Al2O3 can help to raise the nanocomposite films' mechanical properties to some extent. The maximum hardness and elastic modulus were up to 21.60 and 332.78 GPa, which were higher than the NbB2 and amorphous Al2O3 monolithic films. Furthermore, this structure change made the chemistry bond of O atom change from the existence of O-Nb, O-B, and O-Al bonds to single O-Al bond and increased the specific value of Al and O. It also influenced the hardness in higher temperature, which made the hardness variation of different Al2O3 content reduced. These results revealed that it can enhance the films' oxidation resistance properties and keep the mechanical properties at high temperature. The study highlighted the importance of controlling the Al2O3's content to prepare

  20. Effect of adsorbed films on friction of Al2O3-metal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetic friction of polycrystalline Al2O3 sliding on Cu, Ni, and Fe in ultrahigh vacuum was studied as a function of the surface chemistry of the metal. Clean metal surfaces were exposed to O2, Cl2, C2H4, and C2H3Cl, and the change in friction due to the adsorbed species was observed. Auger electron spectroscopy assessed the elemental composition of the metal surface. It was found that the systems exposed to Cl2 exhibited low friction, interpreted as the van der Waals force between the Al2O3 and metal chloride. The generation of metal oxide by oxygen exposures resulted in an increase in friction, interpreted as due to strong interfacial bonds established by reaction of metal oxide with Al2O3 to form the complex oxide (spinel). The only effect of C2H4 was to increase the friction of the Fe system, but C2H3Cl exposures decreases friction in both Ni and Fe systems, indicating the dominance of the chlorine over the ethylene complex on the surface

  1. Interface Properties of Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films on Ultraviolet/Ozone-Treated Multilayer MoS2 Crystals.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonyoung; Kim, Seong Yeoul; Choi, Yura; Kim, Myungjun; Shin, Hyunjung; Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Woong

    2016-05-11

    We report the interface properties of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films on ultraviolet/ozone (UV/O3)-treated multilayer MoS2 crystals. The formation of S-O bonds on MoS2 after low-power UV/O3 treatment increased the surface energy, allowing the subsequent deposition of uniform Al2O3 thin films. The capacitance-voltage measurement of Au-Al2O3-MoS2 metal oxide semiconductor capacitors indicated n-type MoS2 with an electron density of ∼10(17) cm(-3) and a minimum interface trap density of ∼10(11) cm(-2) eV(-1). These results demonstrate the possibility of forming a high-quality Al2O3-MoS2 interface by proper UV/O3 treatment, providing important implications for their integration into field-effect transistors.

  2. Atomic Layer Deposition Al2O3 Thin Films in Magnetized Radio Frequency Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingcun; Chen, Qiang; Sang, Lijun; Yang, Lizhen; Liu, Zhongwei; Wang, Zhenduo

    Self-limiting deposition of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films were accomplished by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and O2 as precursor and oxidant, respectively, where argon was kept flowing in whole deposition process as discharge and purge gas. In here we present a novel plasma source for the atomic layer deposition technology, magnetized radio frequency (RF) plasma. Difference from the commercial RF source, magnetic coils were amounted above the RF electrode, and the influence of the magnetic field strength on the deposition rate and morphology are investigated in detail. It concludes that a more than 3 Å/ purging cycle deposition rate and the good quality of ALD Al2O3 were achieved in this plasma source even without extra heating. The ultra-thin films were characterized by including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The high deposition rates obtained at ambient temperatures were analyzed after in-situ the diagnostic of plasmas by Langmuir probe.

  3. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids were observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. The voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxidemetal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidation of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al, Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al, Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationship between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  4. Nano porous Al2O3-TiO2 thin film based humidity sensor prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekara, H. D.; Angadi, Basavaraj; Ravikiran, Y. T.; Poornima, P.; Shashidhar, R.; Murthy, L. C. S.

    2016-05-01

    The nano porous surface structured TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 thin films were prepared using spray pyrolysis technique at 350°C. The XRD pattern of Al2O3-TiO2 film shows anatase phase and mixed phase of Al2TiO5. The surface morphology of films show a uniformly distributed nano porous structure. The elemental analysis through EDAX shows good stoichiometry. The sensitivity for humidity sensing were determined for both films of TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 and corresponding values are found to be 74.2% and 84.02%, this result reveal that Al2O3-TiO2 films shows higher sensing percent than the TiO2 due to the nano porous surface nature. The Al2O3-TiO2 film shows fast response time and long recovery time than the TiO2 film, this may be due to the meso-porous morphology of these films.

  5. Passivation Effect of Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Film on HgCdTe Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Sun, Chang-Hong; Chen, Yi-Yu; Zhang, Tian-Ning; Chen, Xin; Lin, Chun; Ding, Ring-Jun; He, Li

    2016-09-01

    The passivation effect of atomic layer deposition of (ALD) Al2O3 film on a HgCdTe infrared detector was investigated in this work. The passivation effect of Al2O3 film was evaluated by measuring the minority carrier lifetime, capacitance versus voltage ( C- V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices, and resistance versus voltage ( R- V) characteristics of variable-area photodiodes. The minority carrier lifetime, C- V characteristics, and R- V characteristics of HgCdTe devices passivated by ALD Al2O3 film was comparable to those of HgCdTe devices passivated by e-beam evaporation of ZnS/CdTe film. However, the baking stability of devices passivated by Al2O3 film is inferior to that of devices passivated by ZnS/CdTe film. In future work, by optimizing the ALD Al2O3 film growing process and annealing conditions, it may be feasible to achieve both excellent electrical properties and good baking stability.

  6. Stabilization of Hydrogen Production via Methanol Steam Reforming in Microreactor by Al2O3 Nano-Film Enhanced Catalyst Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heondo; Na, Jeong-Geol; Jang, Min Su; Ko, Chang Hyun

    2016-05-01

    In hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming reaction with microchannel reactor, Al2O3 thin film formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced on the surface of microchannel reactor prior to the coating of catalyst particles. Methanol conversion rate and hydrogen production rate, increased in the presence of Al2O3 thin film. Over-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy study showed that the adhesion between catalyst particles and the surface of microchannel reactor enhanced due to the presence of Al2O3 thin film. The improvement of hydrogen production rate inside the channels of microreactor mainly came from the stable fixation of catalyst particles on the surface of microchannels. PMID:27483762

  7. Stabilization of Hydrogen Production via Methanol Steam Reforming in Microreactor by Al2O3 Nano-Film Enhanced Catalyst Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heondo; Na, Jeong-Geol; Jang, Min Su; Ko, Chang Hyun

    2016-05-01

    In hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming reaction with microchannel reactor, Al2O3 thin film formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced on the surface of microchannel reactor prior to the coating of catalyst particles. Methanol conversion rate and hydrogen production rate, increased in the presence of Al2O3 thin film. Over-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy study showed that the adhesion between catalyst particles and the surface of microchannel reactor enhanced due to the presence of Al2O3 thin film. The improvement of hydrogen production rate inside the channels of microreactor mainly came from the stable fixation of catalyst particles on the surface of microchannels.

  8. Impact of device size and thickness of Al2O 3 film on the Cu pillar and resistive switching characteristics for 3D cross-point memory application.

    PubMed

    Panja, Rajeswar; Roy, Sourav; Jana, Debanjan; Maikap, Siddheswar

    2014-12-01

    Impact of the device size and thickness of Al2O3 film on the Cu pillars and resistive switching memory characteristics of the Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN structures have been investigated for the first time. The memory device size and thickness of Al2O3 of 18 nm are observed by transmission electron microscope image. The 20-nm-thick Al2O3 films have been used for the Cu pillar formation (i.e., stronger Cu filaments) in the Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN structures, which can be used for three-dimensional (3D) cross-point architecture as reported previously Nanoscale Res. Lett.9:366, 2014. Fifty randomly picked devices with sizes ranging from 8 × 8 to 0.4 × 0.4 μm(2) have been measured. The 8-μm devices show 100% yield of Cu pillars, whereas only 74% successful is observed for the 0.4-μm devices, because smaller size devices have higher Joule heating effect and larger size devices show long read endurance of 10(5) cycles at a high read voltage of -1.5 V. On the other hand, the resistive switching memory characteristics of the 0.4-μm devices with a 2-nm-thick Al2O3 film show superior as compared to those of both the larger device sizes and thicker (10 nm) Al2O3 film, owing to higher Cu diffusion rate for the larger size and thicker Al2O3 film. In consequence, higher device-to-device uniformity of 88% and lower average RESET current of approximately 328 μA are observed for the 0.4-μm devices with a 2-nm-thick Al2O3 film. Data retention capability of our memory device of >48 h makes it a promising one for future nanoscale nonvolatile application. This conductive bridging resistive random access memory (CBRAM) device is forming free at a current compliance (CC) of 30 μA (even at a lowest CC of 0.1 μA) and operation voltage of ±3 V at a high resistance ratio of >10(4). PMID:26088986

  9. Studies on the properties of Al2O3:Cr2O3 (50:50) thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponmudi, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2016-05-01

    Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and chromium oxide (Cr2O3) thin films have received great attention of researchers because of their unique properties of corrosion/oxidation resistance and high dielectric constant. In addition, chromium aluminium oxide has been considered as a best candidate for deep-ultraviolet optical masks. In the present work, thin films of Al2O3:Cr2O3 (50:50) were deposited on pre-cleaned microscopic glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The substrate temperature and RF power induced changes in structural, surface morphological, compositional and optical properties of the films have been studied.

  10. Enhanced TC in granular and thin film Al-Al2O3 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. S.; Greene, R. L.

    It is known since the 1970s that the superconducting transition temperature of granular aluminum films can be as high as two to three times the transition temperature of bulk aluminum, depending on the grain size and how strongly the nanometer size grains are connected1,2. As the strength of the grain connectivity becomes increasingly weak, the enhanced TC is suppressed. The mechanism behind this enhancement is still under debate. Recently, work on larger aluminum nanoparticles (18nm) embedded in an insulating Al2O3 matrix showed an onset of the superconducting transition as high as three times that of bulk aluminum3. In this situation, the Al grains are electrically disconnected and in a regime far removed from that of the granular films. Here we compare the two situations through electronic and thermal measurements in order to help elucidate the mechanism behind the enhancements. 1S. Pracht, et al., arXiv:1508.04270v1 [cond-mat.supr-con] (2015). 2G. Deutscher, New Superconductors From Granular to High TC, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2006, p. 72-74. 3V. N. Smolyaninova, et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 15777 (2015). Funding by NSF DMR # 1410665.

  11. Dynamic Friction Performance of a Pneumatic Cylinder with Al2O3 Film on Cylinder Surface.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-11-01

    A friction force system is proposed for accurately measuring friction force and motion properties produced by reciprocating motion of piston in a pneumatic cylinder. In this study, the proposed system is used to measure the effects of lubricating greases of different viscosities on the friction properties of pneumatic cylinder, and improvement of stick-slip motion for the cylinder bore by anodizing processes. A servo motor-driven ball screw is used to drive the pneumatic cylinder to be tested and to measure the change in friction force of the pneumatic cylinder. Experimental results show, that under similar test conditions, the lubricating grease with viscosity VG100 is best suited for measuring reciprocating motion of the piston of pneumatic cylinder. The wear experiment showed that, in the Al2O3 film obtained at a preset voltage 40 V in the anodic process, the friction coefficient and hardness decreased by 55% and increased by 274% respectively, thus achieving a good tribology and wear resistance. Additionally, the amplitude variation in the friction force of the pneumatic cylinder wall that received the anodizing treatment was substantially reduced. Additionally, the stick-slip motion of the pneumatic cylinder during low-speed motion was substantially improved. PMID:26726680

  12. Luminescence and structural properties of germanium nanocrystals formed by annealing multilayer GeOx/Al2O3 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grachev, D. A.; Garakhin, S. A.; Belolipetsky, A. V.; Nezhdanov, A. V.; Ershov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    By Raman scattering, luminescence, and IR-absorption spectroscopy multilayer nanoperiodic structures Ge/Al2O3 & GeOx/Al2O3 have been investigated. The samples have been obtained by the physical evaporation; their properties have been varied by changing the layer thicknesses (2-20 nm) and annealing temperature (500-1000 °C). It is found that germanium nanocrystals are formed in the temperature range of 500-800 °C and exhibit intense size-depend photoluminescence at 1.2 eV and 1.8-2.0 eV.

  13. Characterization of Al2O3 optically stimulated luminescence films for 2D dosimetry using a 6 MV photon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Shrestha, N.; Schnell, E.; Ahmad, S.; Akselrod, M. S.; Yukihara, E. G.

    2016-11-01

    This work evaluates the dosimetric properties of newly developed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) films, fabricated with either Al2O3:C or Al2O3:C,Mg, using a prototype laser scanning reader, a developed image reconstruction algorithm, and a 6 MV therapeutic photon beam. Packages containing OSL films (Al2O3:C and Al2O3:C,Mg) and a radiochromic film (Gafchromic EBT3) were irradiated using a 6 MV photon beam using different doses, field sizes, with and without wedge filter. Dependence on film orientation of the OSL system was also tested. Diode-array (MapCHECK) and ionization chamber measurements were performed for comparison. The OSLD film doses agreed with the MapCHECK and ionization chamber data within the experimental uncertainties (<2% at 1.5 Gy). The system background and minimum detectable dose (MDD) were  <0.5 mGy, and the dose response was approximately linear from the MDD up to a few grays (the linearity correction was  <10% up to ~2–4 Gy), with no saturation up to 30 Gy. The dose profiles agreed with those obtained using EBT3 films (analyzed using the triple channel method) in the high dose regions of the images. In the low dose regions, the dose profiles from the OSLD films were more reproducible than those from the EBT3 films. We also demonstrated that the OSL film data are independent on scan orientation and field size over the investigated range. The results demonstrate the potential of OSLD films for 2D dosimetry, particularly for the characterization of small fields, due to their wide dynamic range, linear response, resolution and dosimetric properties. The negligible background and potential simple calibration make these OSLD films suitable for remote audits. The characterization presented here may motivate further commercial development of a 2D dosimetry system based on the OSL from Al2O3:C or Al2O3:C,Mg.

  14. Impact of graphene-graphite films on electrical properties of Al2O3 metal-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyeong-Keun; Kee, Jong; Park, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Deok-kee

    2016-08-01

    The diffusion barrier property of directly grown graphene-graphite films between Al2O3 films and Si substrates was evaluated using metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. The roughness, morphology, sheet resistance, Raman spectrum, chemical composition, and breakdown field strength of the films were investigated after rapid thermal annealing. About 2.5-nm-thick graphene-graphite films effectively blocked the formation of the interfacial layer between Al2O3 films and Si, which was confirmed by the decreased breakdown field strength of graphene-graphite film structures. After annealing at 975 °C for 90 s, the increase in the mean breakdown field strength of the structure with the ˜2.5-nm-thick graphene-graphite film was about 91% (from 8.7 to 16.6 MV/cm), while that without the graphene-graphite film was about 187% (from 11.2 to 32.1 MV/cm). Si atom diffusion into Al2O3 films was reduced by applying the carbon-based diffusion barrier.

  15. Impact of graphene–graphite films on electrical properties of Al2O3 metal–insulator–semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyeong-Keun; Kee, Jong; Park, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Deok-kee

    2016-08-01

    The diffusion barrier property of directly grown graphene–graphite films between Al2O3 films and Si substrates was evaluated using metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) structures. The roughness, morphology, sheet resistance, Raman spectrum, chemical composition, and breakdown field strength of the films were investigated after rapid thermal annealing. About 2.5-nm-thick graphene–graphite films effectively blocked the formation of the interfacial layer between Al2O3 films and Si, which was confirmed by the decreased breakdown field strength of graphene–graphite film structures. After annealing at 975 °C for 90 s, the increase in the mean breakdown field strength of the structure with the ∼2.5-nm-thick graphene–graphite film was about 91% (from 8.7 to 16.6 MV/cm), while that without the graphene–graphite film was about 187% (from 11.2 to 32.1 MV/cm). Si atom diffusion into Al2O3 films was reduced by applying the carbon-based diffusion barrier.

  16. Enhanced carrier mobility of multilayer MoS2 thin-film transistors by Al2O3 encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Yeoul; Park, Seonyoung; Choi, Woong

    2016-10-01

    We report the effect of Al2O3 encapsulation on the carrier mobility and contact resistance of multilayer MoS2 thin-film transistors by statistically investigating 70 devices with SiO2 bottom-gate dielectric. After Al2O3 encapsulation by atomic layer deposition, calculation based on Y-function method indicates that the enhancement of carrier mobility from 24.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 to 41.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 occurs independently from the reduction of contact resistance from 276 kΩ.μm to 118 kΩ.μm. Furthermore, contrary to the previous literature, we observe a negligible effect of thermal annealing on contact resistance and carrier mobility during the atomic layer deposition of Al2O3. These results demonstrate that Al2O3 encapsulation is a useful method of improving the carrier mobility of multilayer MoS2 transistors, providing important implications on the application of MoS2 and other two-dimensional materials into high-performance transistors.

  17. Interface Properties of Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films on Ultraviolet/Ozone-Treated Multilayer MoS2 Crystals.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonyoung; Kim, Seong Yeoul; Choi, Yura; Kim, Myungjun; Shin, Hyunjung; Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Woong

    2016-05-11

    We report the interface properties of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films on ultraviolet/ozone (UV/O3)-treated multilayer MoS2 crystals. The formation of S-O bonds on MoS2 after low-power UV/O3 treatment increased the surface energy, allowing the subsequent deposition of uniform Al2O3 thin films. The capacitance-voltage measurement of Au-Al2O3-MoS2 metal oxide semiconductor capacitors indicated n-type MoS2 with an electron density of ∼10(17) cm(-3) and a minimum interface trap density of ∼10(11) cm(-2) eV(-1). These results demonstrate the possibility of forming a high-quality Al2O3-MoS2 interface by proper UV/O3 treatment, providing important implications for their integration into field-effect transistors. PMID:27117229

  18. Twin symmetry texture of energetically condensed niobium thin films on sapphire substrate (a-plane Al2O3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Phillips, L.; Reece, C. E.; Seo, Kang; Krishnan, M.; Valderrama, E.

    2011-08-01

    An energetic condensation technique, cathodic arc discharge deposition, is used to grow epitaxial Niobium (Nb) thin films on a-plane sapphire (hexagonal-closed-packed Al2O3) at moderate substrate heating temperature (<400 °C). The epitaxial Nb(110)/Al2O3(1,1,-2,0) thin films reached a maximum residual resistance ratio (RRR) value 214, despite using a reactor-grade Nb cathode source whose RRR was only 30. The measurements suggest that the film's density of impurities and structural defects are lower when compared to Nb films produced by other techniques, such as magnetron sputtering, e-beam evaporation or molecular-beam-epitaxy. At lower substrate temperature, textured polycrystalline Nb thin films were created, and the films might have twin symmetry grains with {110} orientations in-plane. The texture was revealed by x-ray diffraction pole figures. The twin symmetry might be caused by a combination effect of the Nb/Al2O3 three-dimensional epitaxial relationship ("3D-Registry" Claassen's nomenclature) and the "Volmer-Weber" (Island) growth model. However, pole figures obtained by electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) found no twin symmetry on the thin films' topmost surface (˜50 nm in depth). The EBSD pole figures showed only one Nb{110} crystal plane orientation. A possible mechanism is suggested to explain the differences between the bulk (XRD) and surface (EBSD) pole figures.

  19. Controlled direct growth of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films on graphene by H2O-based atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li; Cheng, Xinhong; Yu, Yuehui; Xie, Yahong; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Zhongjian

    2015-02-01

    Graphene has been drawing worldwide attention since its discovery in 2004. In order to realize graphene-based devices, thin, uniform-coverage and pinhole-free dielectric films with high permittivity on top of graphene are required. Here we report the direct growth of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films onto graphene by H2O-based atom layer deposition (ALD). Al2O3-onto-HfO2 stacks benefited the doping of Al2O3 into HfO2 matrices more than HfO2-onto-Al2O3 stacks did due to the micro-molecular property of Al2O3 and the high chemical activity of trimethylaluminum (TMA). Al2O3 acted as a network modifier, maintained the amorphous structure of the film even to 800 °C, and made the film smooth with a root mean square (RMS) roughness of 0.8 nm, comparable to the surface of pristine graphene. The capacitance and the relative permittivity of Al2O3-onto-HfO2 stacks were up to 1.18 μF cm(-2) and 12, respectively, indicating the high quality of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films on graphene. Moreover, the growth process of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films introduced no detective defects into graphene confirmed by Raman measurements. PMID:25519447

  20. Molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of thin Bi2Se3 films on Al2O3 (110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, Phillip; Keenan, Cameron; Urazhdin, Sergei; Lederman, David

    2011-07-01

    The structural and electronic properties of thin Bi2Se3 films grown on Al2O3 (110) by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. The epitaxial films grow in the Frank-van der Merwe mode and are c-axis oriented. They exhibit the highest crystallinity, the lowest carrier concentration, and optimal stoichiometry at a substrate temperature of 200 °C determined by the balance between surface kinetics and desorption of Se. The crystallinity of the films improves with increasing Se/Bi flux ratio. Our results enable studies of thin topological insulator films on inert, non-conducting substrates that allow optical access to both film surfaces.

  1. A Study on the Growth Behavior and Stability of Molecular Layer Deposited Alucone Films Using Diethylene Glycol and Trimethyl Aluminum Precursors, and the Enhancement of Diffusion Barrier Properties by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Capping.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Won; Yoo, Mi; Lee, Hyuck Mo; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jin-Seong

    2016-05-18

    As a route to the production of organic-inorganic hybrid multilayers, the growth behavior of molecular layer deposited (MLD) alucone and atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films on top of each other was examined. MLD alucone films were prepared using trimethyl aluminum and diethylene glycol precursors, the latter resulting in faster growth rates than ethylene glycol precursors. The sensitivity of individual alucone films with respect to ambient exposure was found to be related to moisture permeation and hydration reactions, of which the mechanism is studied by density functional theory calculations. Deleterious effects such as thickness reduction over time could be suppressed by applying a protective Al2O3 layer on top of alucone. A preliminary nucleation period was required in the ALD process of Al2O3 films on alucone surfaces, prior to reaching a linear regime where the thickness increases linearly with respect to the number of ALD cycles. The same behavior was observed for alucone growing on Al2O3. The protective Al2O3 films were found to effectively suppress moisture permeation, thus isolating the underlying alucone from the surrounding environment. The water vapor transmission rate was greatly reduced when an Al2O3/alucone/Al2O3 multilayer stack was formed, which suggests that proper combinations of organic/inorganic hybrid structures may provide chemically stable platforms, especially for mechanically flexible applications. PMID:27117392

  2. Structural evolution and the control of defects in atomic layer deposited HfO2-Al2O3 stacked films on GaAs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu-Seon; Kim, Dae-Kyoung; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Cho, Mann-Ho; Kim, Chung Yi; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyoungsub; Kim, Dong-Chan

    2013-03-01

    The structural characteristics and interfacial reactions of bilayered dielectric stacks of 3 nm HfO2/2 nm Al2O3 and 3 nm Al2O3/2 nm HfO2 on GaAs, prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD), were examined during film growth and the postannealing process. During the postdeposition annealing (PDA) of the Al2O3/HfO2/GaAs structures at 700 °C, large amounts of Ga oxides were generated between the Al2O3 and HfO2 films as the result of interfacial reactions between interdiffused oxygen impurities and out-diffused atomic Ga. However, in the case of the HfO2/Al2O3/GaAs structures, the presence of an Al2O3 buffer layer effectively blocked the out-diffusion of atomic Ga, thus suppressing the formation of Ga oxide. Microstructural analyses showed that HfO2 films that were deposited on Al2O3/GaAs had completely crystallized during the PDA process, even at 700 °C, because of the Al2O3 diffusion barrier. Capacitance-voltage measurements showed a relatively large frequency dispersion of the Al2O3/HfO2/GaAs structure in accumulation capacitance compared to the HfO2/Al2O3/GaAs structure due to a higher interface state density. Conductance results revealed that the Al2O3 buffer layer on GaAs resulted in a significant reduction in gap states in GaAs. The induced gap state in the Al2O3/HfO2/GaAs structure originated from the out-diffusion of atomic Ga into the HfO2 film. Density functional theory calculations supported this conclusion.

  3. Ellipsometry and XPS comparative studies of thermal and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited Al2O3-films

    PubMed Central

    Haeberle, Jörg; Gargouri, Hassan; Naumann, Franziska; Gruska, Bernd; Arens, Michael; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeißer, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Summary We report on results on the preparation of thin (<100 nm) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films on silicon substrates using thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) in the SENTECH SI ALD LL system. The T-ALD Al2O3 layers were deposited at 200 °C, for the PE-ALD films we varied the substrate temperature range between room temperature (rt) and 200 °C. We show data from spectroscopic ellipsometry (thickness, refractive index, growth rate) over 4” wafers and correlate them to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. The 200 °C T-ALD and PE-ALD processes yield films with similar refractive indices and with oxygen to aluminum elemental ratios very close to the stoichiometric value of 1.5. However, in both also fragments of the precursor are integrated into the film. The PE-ALD films show an increased growth rate and lower carbon contaminations. Reducing the deposition temperature down to rt leads to a higher content of carbon and CH-species. We also find a decrease of the refractive index and of the oxygen to aluminum elemental ratio as well as an increase of the growth rate whereas the homogeneity of the film growth is not influenced significantly. Initial state energy shifts in all PE-ALD samples are observed which we attribute to a net negative charge within the films. PMID:24367741

  4. Passivation mechanism of thermal atomic layer-deposited Al2O3 films on silicon at different annealing temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Thermal atomic layer-deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) acquires high negative fixed charge density (Qf) and sufficiently low interface trap density after annealing, which enables excellent surface passivation for crystalline silicon. Qf can be controlled by varying the annealing temperatures. In this study, the effect of the annealing temperature of thermal ALD Al2O3 films on p-type Czochralski silicon wafers was investigated. Corona charging measurements revealed that the Qf obtained at 300°C did not significantly affect passivation. The interface-trapping density markedly increased at high annealing temperature (>600°C) and degraded the surface passivation even at a high Qf. Negatively charged or neutral vacancies were found in the samples annealed at 300°C, 500°C, and 750°C using positron annihilation techniques. The Al defect density in the bulk film and the vacancy density near the SiOx/Si interface region decreased with increased temperature. Measurement results of Qf proved that the Al vacancy of the bulk film may not be related to Qf. The defect density in the SiOx region affected the chemical passivation, but other factors may dominantly influence chemical passivation at 750°C. PMID:23452508

  5. Enhanced water vapor barrier properties for biopolymer films by polyelectrolyte multilayer and atomic layer deposited Al 2 O 3 double-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirvikorpi, Terhi; Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Harlin, Ali; Salomäki, Mikko; Areva, Sami; Korhonen, Juuso T.; Karppinen, Maarit

    2011-09-01

    Commercial polylactide (PLA) films are coated with a thin (20 nm) non-toxic polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) film made from sodium alginate and chitosan and additionally with a 25-nm thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al 2O 3 layer. The double-coating of PEM + Al 2O 3 is found to significantly enhance the water vapor barrier properties of the PLA film. The improvement is essentially larger compared with the case the PLA film being just coated with an ALD-grown Al 2O 3 layer. The enhanced water vapor barrier characteristics of the PEM + Al 2O 3 double-coated PLA films are attributed to the increased hydrophobicity of the surface of these films.

  6. The adsorption of water on Cu2O and Al2O3 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xingyi; Herranz, Tirma; Weis, Christoph; Bluhm, Hendrik; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-06-27

    The initial stages of water condensation, approximately 6 molecular layers, on two oxide surfaces, Cu{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, have been investigated by using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at relative humidity values (RH) from 0 to >90%. Water adsorbs first dissociatively on oxygen vacancies producing adsorbed hydroxyl groups in a stoichiometric reaction: O{sub lattic} + vacancies + H{sub 2}O = 2OH. The reaction is completed at {approx}1% RH and is followed by adsorption of molecular water. The thickness of the water film grows with increasing RH. The first monolayer is completed at {approx}15% RH on both oxides and is followed by a second layer at 35-40% RH. At 90% RH, about 6 layers of H{sub 2}O film have been formed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  7. Isotope analysis of diamond-surface passivation effect of high-temperature H2O-grown atomic layer deposition-Al2O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Saito, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The Al2O3 film formed using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method with trimethylaluminum as Al precursor and H2O as oxidant at a high temperature (450 °C) effectively passivates the p-type surface conduction (SC) layer specific to a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, leading to a successful operation of diamond SC field-effect transistors at 400 °C. In order to investigate this excellent passivation effect, we carried out an isotope analysis using D2O instead of H2O in the ALD and found that the Al2O3 film formed at a conventional temperature (100 °C) incorporates 50 times more CH3 groups than the high-temperature film. This CH3 is supposed to dissociate from the film when heated afterwards at a higher temperature (550 °C) and causes peeling patterns on the H-terminated surface. The high-temperature film is free from this problem and has the largest mass density and dielectric constant among those investigated in this study. The isotope analysis also unveiled a relatively active H-exchange reaction between the diamond H-termination and H2O oxidant during the high-temperature ALD, the SC still being kept intact. This dynamic and yet steady H termination is realized by the suppressed oxidation due to the endothermic reaction with H2O. Additionally, we not only observed the kinetic isotope effect in the form of reduced growth rate of D2O-oxidant ALD but found that the mass density and dielectric constant of D2O-grown Al2O3 films are smaller than those of H2O-grown films. This is a new type of isotope effect, which is not caused by the presence of isotopes in the films unlike the traditional isotope effects that originate from the presence of isotopes itself. Hence, the high-temperature ALD is very effective in forming Al2O3 films as a passivation and/or gate-insulation layer of high-temperature-operation diamond SC devices, and the knowledge of the aforementioned new isotope effect will be a basis for further enhancing ALD technologies in general.

  8. In situ Formed α-Al2O3 Nanocrystals Repaired the Preexisting Microcracks in Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3 Coating via Stress-Induced Phase Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Feng, Jingwei; Rong, Jian; Liu, Chenguang; Tao, Shunyan; Ding, Chuanxian

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the phase composition and generation mechanism of the nanocrystals located in the microcracks of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coating were reevaluated. The Al2O3 coatings were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. We supply the detailed explanations to support the new viewpoint that in situ formation of α-Al2O3 nanocrystals in the preexisting microcracks of the as-sprayed Al2O3 coating may be due to the stress-induced phase transformation. Owing to the partially coherent relationship, the phase interfaces between the α-Al2O3 nanocrystals with the preferred orientation and the γ-Al2O3 matrix may possess better bonding strength. The α-Al2O3 nanocrystals could repair the microcracks in the coating, which further strengthens grain boundaries. Grain boundary strengthening is beneficial to the coating fracture toughness enhancement.

  9. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes from Langmuir-Blodgett Films Deposited Fe Nanoparticles on Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si Substrate.

    PubMed

    Takagiwa, Shota; Kanasugi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    In order to apply vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) to a new Pt supporting material of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), number density and outer diameter of CNTs must be controlled independently. So, we employed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for depositing CNT growth catalysts. A Fe nanoparticle (NP) was used as a CNT growth catalyst. In this study, we tried to thicken VA-CNT carpet height and inhibit thermal aggregation of Fe NPs by using Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si substrate. Fe NP LB films were deposited on three typed of substrates, SiO2/Si, as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si and annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si at 923 K in Ar atmosphere of 16 Pa. It is known that Al2O3/Al catalyzes hydrocarbon reforming, inhibits thermal aggregation of CNT growth catalysts and reduces CNT growth catalysts. It was found that annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si exerted three effects more strongly than as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si. VA-CNTs were synthesized from Fe NPs-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. As a result, at the distance between two nearest CNTs 28 nm or less, VA-CNT carpet height on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was about twice and ten times thicker than that on SiO2/Si and that on as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si, respectively. Moreover, distribution of CNT outer diameter on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was inhibited compared to that on SiO2/Si. These results suggest that since thermal aggregation of Fe NPs is inhibited, catalyst activity increases and distribution of Fe NP size is inhibited.

  10. Effects of annealing conditions on the dielectric properties of solution-processed Al2O3 layers for indium-zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Park, Sung Kyu

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the effects of annealing conditions on the dielectric properties of solution-processed aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layers for indium-zinc-tin-oxide (IZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been investigated. The dielectric properties of Al2O3 layers such as leakage current density and dielectric strength were largely affected by their annealing conditions. In particular, oxygen partial pressure in rapid thermal annealing, and the temperature profile of hot plate annealing had profound effects on the dielectric properties. From a refractive index analysis, the enhanced dielectric properties of Al2O3 gate dielectrics can be attributed to higher film density depending on the annealing conditions. With the low-temperature-annealed Al2O3 gate dielectric at 350 degrees C, solution-processed IZTO TFTs with a field-effect mobility of approximately 2.2 cm2/Vs were successfully fabricated. PMID:24245333

  11. Selenium speciation and partitioning within Burkholderia cepacia biofilms formed on α-Al 2O 3 surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Alexis S.; Trainor, Thomas P.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2003-10-01

    The distribution and speciation of Se within aerobic Burkholderia cepacia biofilms formed on α-Al 2O 3 (1-102) surfaces have been examined using grazing-angle X-ray spectroscopic techniques. We present quantitative information on the partitioning of 10 -6 M to 10 -3 M selenate and selenite between the biofilms and underlying alumina surfaces derived from long-period X-ray standing wave (XSW) data. Changes in the Se partitioning behavior over time are correlated with microbially induced reduction of Se(VI) and Se(IV) to Se(0), as observed from X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Selenite preferentially binds to the alumina surfaces, particularly at low [Se], and is increasingly partitioned into the biofilms at higher [Se]. When B. cepacia is metabolically active, B. cepacia rapidly reduces a fraction of the SeO 32- to red elemental Se(0). In contrast, selenate is preferentially partitioned into the B. cepacia biofilms at all [Se] tested due to a lower affinity for binding to the alumina surface. Rapid reduction of SeO 42- by B. cepacia to Se(IV) and Se(0) subsequently results in a vertical segregation of Se species at the B. cepacia/α-Al 2O 3 interface. Elemental Se(0) accumulates within the biofilm with Se(VI), whereas Se(IV) intermediates preferentially sorb to the alumina surface. B. cepacia/α-Al 2O 3 samples incubated with SeO 42- and SeO 32- when the bacteria were metabolically active result in a significant reduction in the mobility of Se vs. X-ray treated biofilms. Remobilization experiments show that a large fraction of the insoluble Se(0) produced within the biofilm is retained during exchange with Se-free solutions. In addition, Se(IV) intermediates generated during Se(VI) reduction are preferentially bound to the alumina surface and do not fully desorb. In contrast, Se(VI) is rapidly and extensively remobilized.

  12. Variations in the Nature of Metal Adsorption on Ultrathin Al(2)O(3) Films

    SciTech Connect

    Bogicevic, A.; Jennison, D.R.

    1998-11-24

    First-principles density-functional calculations are used to study metal adsorption (Li, K, Y, Nb, Ru, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, and Al at 1/3-4 monolayer coverages) atop 5 ~ A1203 films on Al(Ill). The oxide-metal bond is ionic at Iow coverages but, with interesting exceptions, caused by polari@i ,~-cE!vED at high coverages where the overlayer is metallic. Binding trends are explained in terms of s'imp e concepts. Increasing overlayer thickness can cause the adsorbate-oxide interface structure to than . %lEc o ~ 1998 and while some metals wet, most do not.

  13. Atomic layer deposited alumina (Al2O3) thin films on a high-Q mechanical silicon oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahtela, O.; Sievilä, P.; Chekurov, N.; Tittonen, I.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the influence of the atomic layer deposited alumina (Al2O3) thin films on the dynamics of a high-Q mechanical silicon oscillator was experimentally studied. The resonance frequency and Q value of uncoated oscillators used in this work were about f0 = 27 kHz and Q = 100 000 at p < 10-2 mbar and T = 300 K. Deposited alumina film thicknesses varied from 5 to 662 nm. It is demonstrated that the resonance frequency of the mechanical oscillator increases with the film thickness because the added alumina films effectively stiffen the oscillator structure. In addition, it is shown that alumina thin films with thickness up to 100 nm can be deposited on microfabricated mechanical resonant structures without degrading the initially high quality (Q value) of the resonance. The resonance frequency of the silicon oscillator was less sensitive to the changes in ambient temperature with thicker alumina coatings. The reflectivity of silicon at 633 nm was reduced from RSi = 0.35 to RAR = 0.035 by coating the silicon oscillator with an alumina film whose thickness corresponds to the quarter of the optical wavelength serving as a single-layer anti-reflection coating.

  14. Very low-pressure VLP-CVD growth of high quality γ-Al 2O 3 films on silicon by multi-step process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Liwen; Zan, Yude; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qiyuan; Yu, Yuanhuan; Wang, Shurui; Liu, Zhongli; Lin, Lanying

    2002-03-01

    γ-Al 2O 3 films were grown on Si (1 0 0) substrates using the sources of TMA (Al(CH 3) 3) and O 2 by very low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The effects of temperature control on the crystalline quality, surface morphology, uniformity and dielectricity were investigated. It has been found that the γ-Al 2O 3 film prepared at a temperature of 1000°C has a good crystalline quality, but the surface morphology, uniformity and dielectricity were poor due to the etching reaction between O 2 and Si substrate in the initial growth stage. However, under a temperature-varied multi-step process the properties of γ-Al 2O 3 film were improved. The films have a mirror-like surface and the dielectricity was superior to that grown under a single-step process. The uniformity of γ-Al 2O 3 films for 2-in epi-wafer was <5%, it is better than that disclosed elsewhere. In order to improve the crystalline quality, the γ-Al 2O 3 films were annealed for 1 h in O 2 atmosphere.

  15. Effect of Al2O3 Micro-powder Additives on the Properties of Micro-arc Oxidation Coatings Formed on 6061 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Wu, Ting; Xiao, You Tao; Pu, Jun; Guo, Xiao Yang; Huang, Jun; Xiang, Chun Lang

    2016-07-01

    Al2O3 micro-powder was suspended in the basis electrolyte to form micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coatings on 6061 aluminum alloy by MAO. During the stage of micro-arc oxidation, Al2O3 micro-powder with negative surface charge was melted by the micro-arc around the anode and incorporated into the MAO coatings. With the continuous addition of Al2O3 micro-powder, the oxidation voltages rose up firstly and then decreased. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies showed that the size of micropores decreased and the MAO coatings surface got loosened following the variation in Al2O3 micro-powder concentration. As a consequence of the changing coating structure, the corrosion resistance of the coatings decreased apparently. The micro-hardness of the coatings increased firstly and then decreased, opposite to the trend of the average friction coefficient. It revealed the minimum average friction coefficient of MAO coatings and maximum adhesion between the coatings and substrate when 2.0 g/L Al2O3 micro-powder was added into electrolyte. There were visible cracks and peelings on the coating surface merely at 4.0 g/L after thermal shock tests. The x-ray diffraction results indicated that the addition of Al2O3 micro-powder had less effect on the phase composition of MAO coatings.

  16. Effect of Al2O3 Micro-powder Additives on the Properties of Micro-arc Oxidation Coatings Formed on 6061 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Wu, Ting; Xiao, You Tao; Pu, Jun; Guo, Xiao Yang; Huang, Jun; Xiang, Chun Lang

    2016-09-01

    Al2O3 micro-powder was suspended in the basis electrolyte to form micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coatings on 6061 aluminum alloy by MAO. During the stage of micro-arc oxidation, Al2O3 micro-powder with negative surface charge was melted by the micro-arc around the anode and incorporated into the MAO coatings. With the continuous addition of Al2O3 micro-powder, the oxidation voltages rose up firstly and then decreased. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies showed that the size of micropores decreased and the MAO coatings surface got loosened following the variation in Al2O3 micro-powder concentration. As a consequence of the changing coating structure, the corrosion resistance of the coatings decreased apparently. The micro-hardness of the coatings increased firstly and then decreased, opposite to the trend of the average friction coefficient. It revealed the minimum average friction coefficient of MAO coatings and maximum adhesion between the coatings and substrate when 2.0 g/L Al2O3 micro-powder was added into electrolyte. There were visible cracks and peelings on the coating surface merely at 4.0 g/L after thermal shock tests. The x-ray diffraction results indicated that the addition of Al2O3 micro-powder had less effect on the phase composition of MAO coatings.

  17. Controlling the electronic properties of SWCNT FETs via modification of the substrate surface prior to atomic layer deposition of 10 nm thick Al2O3 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonsung; Yoon, Jangyeol; Na, Junhong; Yee, Seongmin; Kim, Gyu Tae; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate the controllability of the electronic transport properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) field effect transistors (FETs) via the use of 10 nm thick atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric films, where the substrate surfaces were modified with differently functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) prior to their growth, namely SAMs with hydrophobic (-CH3) or hydrophilic (-OH) groups. Al2O3 grown on a hydrophilic surface causes the SWCNT FETs to keep their intrinsic p-type transfer characteristics by alleviating the electron-doping effect originating from defects in the Al2O3 film. However, the SAM with methyl groups increases the defect density of the Al2O3 film, enhancing the n-type transfer characteristics and inducing ambipolar to n-type behavior in the SWCNT FETs. In this work, we find clues about the distribution of charged defects in the Al2O3 film, which strongly influences the transfer characteristics of the SWCNT FETs, by measuring the thickness-dependent flat band voltages.

  18. Electrical performance of Al2O3 gate dielectric films deposited by atomic layer deposition on 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Carey M.; Perng, Ya-Chuan; Frewin, Christopher; Saddow, Stephen E.; Chang, Jane P.

    2007-11-01

    Stoichiometric and pure Al2O3 gate dielectric films were grown on n-type 4H-SiC by a thermal atomic layer deposition process. The electrical properties of both amorphous and epitaxial Al2O3 films were studied by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. A dielectric constant of 9 and a flatband voltage shift of +1.3V were determined. A leakage current density of 10-3A/cm2 at 8MV/cm was obtained for the amorphous Al2O3 films, lower than that of any high-κ gate oxide on 4H-SiC reported to date. A Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism was used to determine an Al2O3/4H-SiC barrier height of 1.58eV. Higher leakage current was obtained for the epitaxial γ-Al2O3 films, likely due to grain boundary conduction.

  19. Electrically programmable-erasable In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/Pt nanocrystals/Al2O3 gate stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shi-Bing; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) memory is very promising for transparent and flexible system-on-panel displays; however, electrical erasability has always been a severe challenge for this memory. In this article, we demonstrated successfully an electrically programmable-erasable memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/Pt nanocrystals/Al2O3 gate stack under a maximal processing temperature of 300 oC. As the programming voltage was enhanced from 14 to 19 V for a constant pulse of 0.2 ms, the threshold voltage shift increased significantly from 0.89 to 4.67 V. When the programmed device was subjected to an appropriate pulse under negative gate bias, it could return to the original state with a superior erasing efficiency. The above phenomena could be attributed to Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling of electrons from the IGZO channel to the Pt nanocrystals during programming, and inverse tunnelling of the trapped electrons during erasing. In terms of 0.2-ms programming at 16 V and 350-ms erasing at -17 V, a large memory window of 3.03 V was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the memory exhibited stable repeated programming/erasing (P/E) characteristics and good data retention, i.e., for 2-ms programming at 14 V and 250-ms erasing at -14 V, a memory window of 2.08 V was still maintained after 103 P/E cycles, and a memory window of 1.1 V was retained after 105 s retention time.

  20. Enhanced self-repairing capability of sol-gel derived SrTiO3/nano Al2O3 composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Manwen; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Ruihua; Li, Qiuxia; Yao, Xi

    2016-08-01

    SrTiO3/nano Al2O3 inorganic nanocomposites were prepared by using a conventional sol-gel spin coating process. For comparison, SrTiO3 films doped by equivalent amount of sol-Al2O3 have also been investigated. Aluminum deposited by using vacuum evaporation was used as the top electrode. The nanocomposites exhibited a significantly enhanced dielectric strength of 506.9 MV/m, which was increased by 97.4% as compared with the SrTiO3 films doped with sol-Al2O3. The leakage current maintained of the same order of microampere until the ultimate breakdown of the nanocomposites. The excellent electrical performances are ascribed to the anodic oxidation reaction in origin, which can repair the internal and/or surface defects of the films.

  1. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Excellent Passivation of p-Type Si Surface by Sol-Gel Al2O3 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hai-Qing; Zhou, Chun-Lan; Cao, Xiao-Ning; Wang, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hai-Ling; Diao, Hong-Wei

    2009-08-01

    Al2O3 films with a thickness of about 100 nm synthesized by spin coating and thermally treated are applied for field-induced surface passivation of p-type crystalline silicon. The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques based on photoconductance. An effective surface recombination velocity below 100 cm/s is obtained on 10Ω ·cm p-type c-Si wafers (Cz Si). A high density of negative fixed charges in the order of 1012 cm-2 is detected in the Al2O3 films and its impact on the level of surface passivation is demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, a comparison between the surface passivation achieved for thermal SiO2 and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiNx:H films on the same c-Si is presented. The high negative fixed charge density explains the excellent passivation of p-type c-Si by Al2O3.

  2. Studies on oxidation and deuterium permeation behavior of a low temperature α-Al2O3-forming Fesbnd Crsbnd Al ferritic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Si-Xiang; Liu, Feng; Li, Xiao-Chun; Zhao, Ming-Zhong; Wang, Jing; Lu, Tao; Hong, Suk-Ho; Zhou, Hai-Shan; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the capability of Fesbnd Crsbnd Al ferritic steels as tritium permeation barrier in fusion systems, the oxidation behavior together with the permeation behavior of a Fesbnd Crsbnd Al steel was investigated. Gas driven permeation experiments were performed. The permeability of the oxidized Fesbnd Crsbnd Al steel was obtained and a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel CLF-1 was used as a comparison. In order to characterize the oxide layer, SEM, XPS, TEM, HRTEM were used. Al2O3 was detected in the oxide film by XPS, and HRTEM showed that Al2O3 in the α phase was found. The formation of α-Al2O3 layer at a relatively low temperature may result from the formation of Cr2O3 nuclei.

  3. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes from Langmuir-Blodgett Films Deposited Fe Nanoparticles on Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si Substrate.

    PubMed

    Takagiwa, Shota; Kanasugi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    In order to apply vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) to a new Pt supporting material of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), number density and outer diameter of CNTs must be controlled independently. So, we employed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for depositing CNT growth catalysts. A Fe nanoparticle (NP) was used as a CNT growth catalyst. In this study, we tried to thicken VA-CNT carpet height and inhibit thermal aggregation of Fe NPs by using Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si substrate. Fe NP LB films were deposited on three typed of substrates, SiO2/Si, as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si and annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si at 923 K in Ar atmosphere of 16 Pa. It is known that Al2O3/Al catalyzes hydrocarbon reforming, inhibits thermal aggregation of CNT growth catalysts and reduces CNT growth catalysts. It was found that annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si exerted three effects more strongly than as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si. VA-CNTs were synthesized from Fe NPs-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. As a result, at the distance between two nearest CNTs 28 nm or less, VA-CNT carpet height on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was about twice and ten times thicker than that on SiO2/Si and that on as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si, respectively. Moreover, distribution of CNT outer diameter on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was inhibited compared to that on SiO2/Si. These results suggest that since thermal aggregation of Fe NPs is inhibited, catalyst activity increases and distribution of Fe NP size is inhibited. PMID:27451619

  4. Hydrophobicity enhancement of Al2O3 thin films deposited on polymeric substrates by atomic layer deposition with perfluoropropane plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamran; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Chang Young; Doh, Yang Hoi; Jo, Jeongdai

    2014-06-01

    The optoelectronics devices such as organic light emitting diodes are greatly vulnerable to moisture, which reduces their functionality and life cycle. The Al2O3 thin films are mostly used as barrier coatings in such electronic devices to protect them from water vapors. The performance of the Al2O3 barrier films can be improved by enhancing their hydrophobicity. Greater the hydrophobicity of the barrier films, greater will be their protection against water vapors. This paper reports on the enhancement of hydrophobicity of Al2O3 thin films through perfluoropropane (C3F8) plasma treatment. Firstly, good quality Al2O3 films have been fabricated through atomic layer deposition (ALD) on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates at different temperatures. The fabricated films are then plasma treated with C3F8 to enhance their hydrophobicity. Hydrophobic Al2O3 thin films have shown good morphological and optical properties. Low average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 1.90 nm, 0.93 nm and 0.88 nm have been recorded for the C3F8 plasma treated films deposited at room temperature (RT), 50 °C and 150 °C, respectively. Optical transmittance of more than 90% has been achieved for the C3F8 plasma treated films grown at 50 °C and 150 °C. The contact angle has been increased from 48° ± 3 to 158° ± 3 for the films deposited at RT and increased from 41° ± 3 to 148° ± 3 for the films deposited at 150 °C.

  5. Transmission electron microscopy study of microstructural properties and dislocation characterization in the GaN film grown on the cone-shaped patterned Al2O3 substrate.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Sik; Yang, Jun-Mo; Park, Kyung Jin; Park, Yun Chang; Yoo, Jung Ho; Jeong, Chil Seong; Park, Jucheol; He, Yinsheng; Shin, Keesam

    2014-02-01

    Growing a GaN film on a patterned Al2O3 substrate is one of the methods of reducing threading dislocations (TDs), which can significantly deteriorate the performance of GaN-based LEDs. In this study, the microstructural details of the GaN film grown on a cone-shaped patterned Al2O3 substrate were investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and weak-beam dark-field techniques. Various defects such as misfit dislocations (MDs), recrystallized GaN (R-GaN) islands and nano-voids were observed on the patterned Al2O3 surfaces, i.e. the flat surface (FS), the inclined surface (IS) and the top surface (TS), respectively. Especially, the crystallographic orientation of R-GaN between the GaN film and the inclined Al2O3 substrate was identified as $[\\overline 1 2\\overline 1 0]_{{\\rm GaN}} \\hbox{//}[\\overline 1 101]_{{\\rm R - GaN} \\,{\\rm on}\\,{\\rm IS}} \\hbox{//}[\\overline 1 100]_{ {{\\rm Al}} _{\\rm 2} {\\rm O}_{\\rm 3}} $, $(\\overline 1 012)_{{\\rm GaN}} \\hbox{//}(1\\overline 1 02)_{{\\rm R - Ga}\\,{\\rm Non}\\,{\\rm IS}} \\hbox{//}(\\overline {11} 26)_{ {{\\rm Al}} _{\\rm 2} {\\rm O}_{\\rm 3}} $. In addition, a rotation by 9° between $(10\\overline 1 1)_{{\\rm R - GaN}} $ and $(0002)_{{\\rm GaN}} $ and between $(10\\overline 1 1)_{{\\rm R - GaN}} $ and $(0006)_{ {{\\rm Al}} _{\\rm 2} {\\rm O}_{\\rm 3}} $ was found to reduce the lattice mismatch between the GaN film and the Al2O3 substrate. Many TDs in the GaN film were observed on the FS and TS of Al2O3. However, few TDs were observed on the IS. Most of the TDs generated from the FS of Al2O3 were bent to the inclined facet rather than propagating to the GaN surface, resulting in a reduction in the dislocation density. Most of the TDs generated from the TS of Al2O3 were characterized as edge dislocations.

  6. Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films with thin SiO2 layers grown by in situ O3 oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Keun; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2004-08-01

    The growth, thermal annealing behaviors, and electrical properties of Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on bare (100)Si and various oxidized Si wafers, by in situ O3 oxidation at 400°C and ex situ rapid thermal annealing (RTA) under O2 atmosphere at 900°C, were investigated. The ALD process was performed using Al(CH3)3 and high concentration of O3(400gm3). The high oxidation potential of O3 oxidized the Si surface at a very early stage of film growth and eliminated the incubation period even on a bare Si surface. The as-grown Al2O3 films had excess oxygen in the films, which diffused to the film Si interface and increased the interfacial layer by oxidizing the Si substrates during postannealing. The Al2O3 films grown on a bare Si substrate had the highest concentration of excess oxygen which resulted in the largest increase in the interfacial layer thickness during postannealing. As a result, the initial oxidation of the Si wafer did not significantly decrease the capacitance density compared to the films grown on a nonoxidized Si wafer at the as-deposited and postannealed states. Therefore, the Al2O3 layers grown using a high concentration of O3 oxidant on the in situ O3 oxidized Si wafers showed real high-k gate dielectric performance although the dielectric constants of the Al2O3 films were rather small (˜9) compared to other high-k gate dielectric films.

  7. A light-stimulated synaptic transistor with synaptic plasticity and memory functions based on InGaZnOx-Al2O3 thin film structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. K.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, P.; Hu, S. G.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Lee, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a synaptic transistor based on the indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)-aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin film structure, which uses ultraviolet (UV) light pulses as the pre-synaptic stimulus, has been demonstrated. The synaptic transistor exhibits the behavior of synaptic plasticity like the paired-pulse facilitation. In addition, it also shows the brain's memory behaviors including the transition from short-term memory to long-term memory and the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve. The synapse-like behavior and memory behaviors of the transistor are due to the trapping and detrapping processes of the holes, which are generated by the UV pulses, at the IGZO/Al2O3 interface and/or in the Al2O3 layer.

  8. A flexible transparent gas barrier film employing the method of mixing ALD/MLD-grown Al2O3 and alucone layers.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wang; Hui, Duan Ya; Zheng, Chen; Yu, Duan; Qiang, Yang Yong; Ping, Chen; Xiang, Chen Li; Yi, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been widely reported as a novel method for thin film encapsulation (TFE) of organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. Both organic and inorganic thin films can be deposited by ALD with a variety of precursors. In this work, the performances of Al2O3 thin films and Al2O3/alucone hybrid films have been investigated. The samples with a 50 nm Al2O3 inorganic layer deposited by ALD at a low temperature of 80°C showed higher surface roughness (0.503 ± 0.011 nm), higher water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) values (3.77 × 10(-4) g/m(2)/day), and lower transmittance values (61%) when compared with the Al2O3 (inorganic)/alucone (organic) hybrid structure under same conditions. Furthermore, a bending test upon single Al2O3 layers showed an increased WVTR of 1.59 × 10(-3) g/m(2)/day. However, the film with a 4 nm alucone organic layer inserted into the center displayed improved surface roughness, barrier performance, and transmittance. After the bending test, the hybrid film with 4 nm equally distributed alucone maintained better surface roughness (0.339 ± 0.014 nm) and barrier properties (9.94 × 10(-5) g/m(2)/day). This interesting phenomenon reveals that multilayer thin films consisting of inorganic layers and decentralized alucone organic components have the potential to be useful in TFE applications on flexible optical electronics.

  9. Preparation and Wear Resistance of Aluminum Composites Reinforced with In Situ Formed TiO/Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Q. D.; Huang, B. W.; Li, W.; Zeng, Z. Y.

    2016-05-01

    An in situ TiO/Al2O3-reinforced Al composite is successfully prepared using a powder metallurgy route by the reaction of Ti2CO and Al powder. The Ti2CO powder is produced by carrying out a carbothermic reduction of titanium dioxide at 1000 °C. XRD results show that the final product is composed of Al, TiO, Al2O3, and Al3Ti. Morphology examination of the composite reveals the presence of bigger blocks of TiO and fine particles of Al2O3 and the volume fraction of reinforcement is found to range between 18 and 55%. As the volume fraction of the reinforced materials approaches 50%, the particles start to agglomerate. Dry sliding wear tests conducted using a conventional pin-on-disk testing machine show that the wear resistance of the composite is higher than that of the pure aluminum ingot. The wear rate of the composite increases almost linearly with the increase in the wear distance. The sliding wear test shows that as the volume fraction of the reinforced phase increases, the coefficient of friction decreases. The wear mechanism is also discussed.

  10. Negative charge trapping effects in Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition onto thermally oxidized 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilirò, Emanuela; Lo Nigro, Raffaella; Fiorenza, Patrick; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    This letter reports on the negative charge trapping in Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition onto oxidized silicon carbide (4H-SiC). The films exhibited a permittivity of 8.4, a breakdown field of 9.2 MV/cm and small hysteresis under moderate bias cycles. However, severe electron trapping inside the Al2O3 film (1 × 1012 cm-2) occurs upon high positive bias stress (>10V). Capacitance-voltage measurements at different temperatures and stress conditions have been used to determine an activation energy of 0.1eV. The results provide indications on the possible nature of the trapping defects and, hence, on the strategies to improve this technology for 4H-SiC devices.

  11. Structure Evolution and Electric Properties of TaN Films Deposited on Al2O3-BASED Ceramic and Glass Substrates by Magnetron Reactive Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan Ming; Ma, Yang Zhao; Xie, Zhong; He, Ming Zhi

    2014-03-01

    Structure evolution and electric properties of tantalum nitride (TaN) films deposited on Al2O3-based ceramic and glass substrates by magnetron reactive sputtering were carried out as a function of the N2-to-Ar flow ratio. The TaN thin films on Al2O3-based ceramic substrates grow with micronclusters composed of numerous nanocrystallites, contains from single-phase of Ta2N grains to TaN, and exhibits high defect density, sheet resistance and negative TCR as the N2-to-Ar flow ratio continuously increases. However, the films on the glass substrates grow in the way of sandwich close-stack, contains from single-phase of Ta2N grains to TaN and Ta3N5 phases with the increase of N2-to-Ar flow ratio. These results indicate that the N2-to-Ar flow ratio and surface characteristic difference of substrates play a dominant effect on the structure and composition of the TaN films, resulting in different electrical properties for the films on Al2O3-based ceramic and the samples on glass substrates.

  12. Evidence of ferroelectricity in ferrimagnetic κ-Al2O3-type In0.25Fe1.75O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasaki, Yosuke; Shimizu, Takao; Yasui, Shintaro; Taniyama, Tomoyasu; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2016-10-01

    We report direct evidence of the multiferroic nature of the κ-Al2O3-type InxFe2-xO3 films (x = 0-0.25) grown on the SrTiO3(111) substrates at room temperature. The κ-Al2O3-type InxFe2-xO3 films show a clear saturated and opened P-E hysteresis loop at room temperature with a remnant polarization of 1.8 μC cm-2. Also, the ferrimagnetic-incommensurate magnetic phase transition is observed at 205 K, which is compatible with the recent report on the In0.24Fe1.76O3 nanorods. The results indicate that the substitution of Me3+ ion, which has a larger ionic radius than Fe3+, is effective to grow good insulating ferroelectric κ-Al2O3-type Fe2O3 films, leading to the genuine multiferroic nature.

  13. Distribution of Oxygen Vacancies and Gadolinium Dopants in ZrO2-CeO2 Multi-Layer Films Grown on α-Al2O3

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chong M.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Azad, Samina; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; McCready, David E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Yu, Zhongqing; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Watanabe, M.; Williams, D. B.

    2006-06-15

    Gd-doped ZrO2 and CeO2 multi-layer films were deposited on α-Al2O3 (0001) using oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Oxygen vacancies and Gd dopant distributions were investigated in these multi-layer films using x-ray diffraction (XRD), conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), annular dark-filed imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) elemental mapping and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling. EDS and XPS reveal that Gd concentration in the ZrO2 layer is lower than that in the CeO2 layer. As a result, higher oxygen vacancy concentration exists in CeO2 layers compared to that in ZrO2 layers. In addition, Gd is found to segregate only at the interfaces formed during the deposition of CeO2 layers on ZrO2 layers. On the other hand, the interfaces formed during the deposition of ZrO2 layers on CeO2 layers did not show any Gd segregation. The Gd segregation behavior at the every other interface is believed to be associated with the low solubility of Gd in ZrO2.

  14. Comparison of the microstructure and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite films deposited on Al2O3(0001), Si(100)/Pt(111) and Si(100) substrates by pulsed laser technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudpanah, S. M.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.; Ong, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Strontium hexaferrite SrFe12O19 (SrM) films have been deposited on Al2O3(0001), Si(100)/Pt(111) and Si(100) substrates. The (001) oriented SrFe12O19 films deposited on the Al2O3(0001) and Si(100)/Pt(111) substrates have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. Higher coercivity in perpendicular direction rather than in-plane direction of the SrM/Al2O3(0001) and SrM/Pt(111) films showed that the films had perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The (001) orientation and similar microstructure and magnetic properties of the SrM/Al2O3(0001) and SrM/Pt(111) films show the Al2O3(0001) substrate can be replaced by the Si(100)/Pt(111) substrate.

  15. Atomic layer deposition for fabrication of HfO2/Al2O3 thin films with high laser-induced damage thresholds.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yaowei; Pan, Feng; Zhang, Qinghua; Ma, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on the laser damage resistance of thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is rare. In this work, the ALD process for thin film generation was investigated using different process parameters such as various precursor types and pulse duration. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) was measured as a key property for thin films used as laser system components. Reasons for film damaged were also investigated. The LIDTs for thin films deposited by improved process parameters reached a higher level than previously measured. Specifically, the LIDT of the Al2O3 thin film reached 40 J/cm(2). The LIDT of the HfO2/Al2O3 anti-reflector film reached 18 J/cm(2), the highest value reported for ALD single and anti-reflect films. In addition, it was shown that the LIDT could be improved by further altering the process parameters. All results show that ALD is an effective film deposition technique for fabrication of thin film components for high-power laser systems.

  16. Structural, electrical, optical, thermoelectrical and photoconductivity properties of the SnO2-Al2O3 binary transparent conducting films deposited by the spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharrami, F.; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M.-M.; Azimi-Juybari, H.; Shokooh-Saremi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the SnO2-Al2O3 binary thin-film system has been deposited on a glass substrate by the spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of aluminum concentration on the structural, electrical, thermoelectrical, optical and photoconductivity properties of films was studied. The [Al]/[Sn] atomic ratio was in the range 0-100 at.% in solution. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all films with different doping levels have polycrystalline SnO2 cassiterite phase. At doping levels of 40 at.% and above, the Al2O3 phase was observed and the sheet resistance of the films increased with increasing Al doping in the ranges from 5 at.% to less than 40 at.% and more than 60 at.% due to the substitution of Al3+ with Sn4+. Minimum sheet resistance of films was found in the range 40-60 at.%. Using Hall effect measurements, the majority carriers concentration obtained was of the order of 1018 cm-3. Hall effect and thermoelectrical measurements show that at doping levels between 10 and 20% and also higher than 60 at.%, majority carriers change from electrons (n-type conduction) to holes (p-type conduction). Also, a higher Seebeck coefficient value equal to -341 μV K-1 was obtained for the 30 at.% Al-doping level. The average transmittance of the films at low doping levels was about 75-90%. The photoconductivity properties of SnO2-Al2O3 thin films increased with increasing doping level.

  17. Enhancement of ferromagnetic resonance in Al2O3-doped Co2FeAl Heusler alloy film prepared by oblique sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shan-Dong; Cai, Zhi-Yi; Xu, Jie; Cao, Xiao-Qin; Du, Hong-Lei; Xue, Qian; Gao, Xiao-Yang; Xie, Shi-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Large and variable in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in a nanocrystalline (Co2FeAl)97.8(Al2O3)2.2 soft magnetic thin film is obtained by an oblique sputtering method without being induced by magnetic field or post annealing. The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy varies from 50 Oe to 180 Oe (1 Oe = 79.5775 Am-1) by adjusting the sample's position. As a result, the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of the film increases from 1.9 GHz to 3.75 GHz.

  18. Sputtering characteristics, crystal structures, and transparent conductive properties of TiOxNy films deposited on α-Al2O3(0 0 0 1) and glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Housei

    2012-12-01

    Adding N2 gas during reactive sputtering of a Ti target prevented the target surface from being severely poisoned by oxygen atoms and sustained a high deposition rate for titanium oxynitride films under metal-mode-like sputtering conditions. With progress in the degree of oxidization, films deposited onto a glass substrate varied from TiO1-xNx having a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure to TiO2-xNx having an anatase structure. Titanium oxynitride films deposited on an Al2O3(0 0 0 1) substrate were epitaxial with major orientations toward the (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) directions for fcc-TiO1-xNx and (1 1 2) for anatase-TiO2-xNx. Intermediately oxidized films between TiO1-xNx and TiO2-xNx were amorphous on the glass substrate but crystallized into a Magneli phase, TinO(N)2n-1, on the Al2O3(0 0 0 1) substrate. Partially substituting oxygen in TiO2 with nitrogen as well as continuously irradiating the growing film surface with a Xe plasma stream preferentially formed anatase rather than rutile. However, the occupation of anion sites with enough oxygen rather than nitrogen was the required condition for anatase crystals to form. The transparent conductive properties of epitaxial TiO2-xNx films on Al2O3(0 0 0 1) were superior to those of microcrystalline films on the glass substrate. Since resistivity and optical transmittance of TiOxNy films vary continuously with changing N2 flow rate, their transparent conductive properties can be controlled more easily than TiOx. Nb5+ ions could be doped as donors in TiO2-xNx anatase crystals.

  19. Data storage applications based on LiCoO2 thin films grown on Al2O3 and Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoukis, E.; Mihailescu, C. N.; Mai, V. H.; Schneegans, O.; Breza, K.; Lioutas, C.; Giapintzakis, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, LiCoO2 thin films were investigated for data storage applications based on scanning probe mediated approaches. LiCoO2, compared to other materials proposed for scanning probe mediated nanoscale patterning, is highly stable and exhibits reversible electrochemical surface modifications. LiCoO2 thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on Al2O3 and Si substrates over a range of deposition temperatures. The crystal structure and the microstructure of the films has been inferred through in- and out-of-plane X-ray diffraction studies and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The influence of the film deposition temperature on the surface electrical properties of the LiCoO2 films is discussed along with the relevant mechanism of surface resistance modification.

  20. Microstructure of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The structure of transient scales formed on pure and Y or Zr-doped Ni-15Cr-13Al alloys oxidized for 0.1 hr at 1100 C was studied by the use of transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographically oriented scales were found on all three alloys, but especially for the Zr-doped NiCrAl. The oriented scales consisted of alpha-(Al,Cr)2O3, Ni(Al,Cr)2O4 and gamma-Al2O3. They were often found in intimate contact with each other such that the close-packed planes and directions of one oxide phase were aligned with those of another. The prominent structural features of the oriented scales were approximately equal to micrometer subgrains; voids, antiphase domain boundaries and aligned precipitates were also prevalent. Randomly oriented alpha-Al2O3 was also found and was the only oxide ever observed at the immediate oxide metal interface. These approximately 0.15 micrometer grains were populated by intragranular voids which decreased in size and number towards the oxide metal interface. A sequence of oxidation was proposed in which the composition of the growing scale changed from oriented oxides rich in Ni and Cr to oriented oxides rich in Al. At the same time the structure changed from cubic spinels to hexagonal corundums with apparent precipitates of one phase in the matrix of the other. Eventually randomly oriented pure alpha-Al2O3 formed as the stable oxide with an abrupt transition: there was no gradual loss of orientation, no gradual compositional change or no gradual decrease in precipitate density.

  1. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance of α-Fe2O3 thin films by surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles coupled with surface passivation by atom layer deposition of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuting; Xu, Zhen; Yin, Min; Fan, Haowen; Cheng, Weijie; Lu, Linfeng; Song, Ye; Ma, Jing; Zhu, Xufei

    2015-09-01

    The short lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers of hematite (α-Fe2O3) thin films strongly hindered the PEC performances. Herein, α-Fe2O3 thin films with surface nanowire were synthesized by electrodeposition and post annealing method for photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) water splitting. The thickness of the α-Fe2O3 films can be precisely controlled by adjusting the duration of the electrodeposition. The Au nanoparticles (NPs) and Al2O3 shell by atom layer deposition were further introduced to modify the photoelectrodes. Different constructions were made with different deposition orders of Au and Al2O3 on Fe2O3 films. The Fe2O3-Au-Al2O3 construction shows the best PEC performance with 1.78 times enhancement by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of NPs in conjunction with surface passivation of Al2O3 shells. Numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the promotion mechanisms. The high PEC performance for Fe2O3-Au-Al2O3 construction electrode could be attributed to the Al2O3 intensified LSPR, effective surface passivation by Al2O3 coating, and the efficient charge transfer due to the Fe2O3-Au Schottky junctions.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of highly luminescent Er3+:Al2O3 thin films with optimized growth parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayar, Priyanka; Zhu, Xue-Yi; Yang, Fuyi; Lu, Minghui; Lakshminarayana, G.; Liu, Xiao Ping; Chen, Yan-Feng; Kityk, I. V.

    2016-10-01

    Erbium doped amorphous alumina thin films were fabricated using Co-sputtering technique in various depositions runs with varying parameters for optimizing the deposition parameters to obtain the films with best optical performance. The main subject of investigation includes the effects of change in various deposition parameters such as substrate heating, radio frequency (RF) power and oxygen pressure inside the chamber while deposition. High quality as-deposited films with various Er concentrations and low carbon content have been confirmed by XPS. Substrate heating ∼500 °C was found to be very effective in getting highly dense films with high refractive index of 1.70 at 1530-1570 nm emission band. The Er3+-doped films showed very intense near-infrared luminescence peak at 1550 nm even without any post-deposition annealing treatment.

  3. Epitaxial growth a-plane ZnO films on a-GaN/r-Al2O3 templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng; Dai, Jiangnan; Wu, Zhihao; Han, Xiangyun; He, Qinghua; Yu, Chenhui; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Yihua; Chen, Changqing

    2008-12-01

    In this work, we have grown a-plane ZnO films on a-plane GaN/r-sapphire templates by pulsed laser deposition. The aplane GaN of the templates is aimed to mitigate the large lattice mismatch between ZnO and sapphire, and was grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The grown a-plane ZnO films have been analyzed by various techniques such as high resolution X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence. It shows that high quality a-plane ZnO films have been achieved by our growth method.

  4. Microstructure and dielectric properties of (Ba 0.6Sr 0.4)TiO 3 thin films grown on super smooth glazed-Al 2O 3 ceramics substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Chuanren; Zheng, Shanxue; Zhang, Jihua; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Lei, Guanhuan; Lou, Feizhi; Yang, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    Modified substrates with nanometer scale smooth surface were obtained via coating a layer of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CaAlSi) high temperature glaze with proper additives on the rough-95% Al2O3 ceramics substrates. (Ba0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 (BST) thin films were deposited on modified Al2O3 substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, dielectric, and insulating properties of BST thin films grown on glazed-Al2O3 substrates were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), and dielectric properties measurement. These results showed that microstructure and dielectric properties of BST thin films grown on glazed-Al2O3 substrates were almost consistent with that of BST thin films grown on LaAlO3 (1 0 0) single-crystal substrates. Thus, the expensive single-crystal substrates may be substituted by extremely cheap glazed-Al2O3 substrates.

  5. Surface plasmon coupled emission studies on engineered thin film hybrids of nano α-Al2O3 on silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulpur, Pradyumna; Lingam, Kiran; Chunduri, Avinash; Rattan, Tanu Mimani; Rao, Apparao M.; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2014-01-01

    We report the first time engineering and fabrication of a novel thin film hybrid of nano α-alumina doped in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix along with rhodamine b (Rh.B) on a silver thin film. Silver films of 50 nm thickness on glass slides were fabricated by thermal evaporation. Nano α-alumina was synthesized through the combustion route and characterized by XRD. The α-alumina was dispersed in the PVA-Rh.B matrix by tip sonication. The resultant solution was spin coated on the Ag thin film at 3000 rpm to generate an overcoat of ˜30 nm. We have designed and constructed an opto-mechanical setup for performing the SPCE studies. Excitation with a 532 nm continuous laser, led to the coupling of the energy of Rh.B emission to the surface plasmon modes of silver. The emission @ 580 nm was recorded using an Ocean Optics{copyright, serif} fiber optic spectrometer. Calculation of the ratio of signal intensity between the directional SPCE and isotropic fluorescence gives us the factor of signal enhancements which SPCE offers. We report an '8 fold' signal enhancement attributed to SPCE arising from the metal oxide doped thin film hybrid. We observed only a '5 fold' signal enhancement in the case of a thin film hybrid without α-alumina. The emission was also 92% P-polarized which is in coherence with the theory of SPCE. The greater degree of signal enhancement observed in the α-alumina doped thin film substrate can be attributed to the surface roughness which alumina offers to silver, which along with the porous nature of alumina enables a greater degree of adsorption of Rh.B which results in a higher emission intensity. Computational modeling was also performed, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) calculations to provide theoretical background to observed experimental data. The α-alumina thin film hybrid can be extended as an economical sensing platform towards the high sensitive detection of analytes.

  6. Effect of Al2O3 insulator thickness on the structural integrity of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide based thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Jun; Hwang, In-Ju; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2014-12-01

    The current transparent oxide semiconductors (TOSs) technology provides flexibility and high performance. In this study, multi-stack nano-layers of TOSs were designed for three-dimensional analysis of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) based thin film transistors (TFTs). In particular, the effects of torsional and compressive stresses on the nano-sized active layers such as the a-IGZO layer were investigated. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the structural integrity of a-IGZO based TFTs with three different thicknesses of the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) insulator (δ = 10, 20, and 30 nm), respectively, using a commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The results are graphically depicted for operating conditions. PMID:25971080

  7. Kinetics aspects of initial stage thin γ-Al2O3 film formation on single crystalline β-NiAl (110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongfan; Jung, Keeyoung; Li, Long; Yang, Judith C.

    2012-02-01

    The growth kinetics and mechanisms of thermally-grown thin γ-Al2O3 film at 650 °C in air on single-crystalline β-NiAl (110) was characterized via transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and thermo-gravimetric analyses. The oxidation kinetics as a function of thickness was gradually changing from an inverse-logarithmic to parabolic behavior across the "intermediate thickness regime" as the oxide thickness increases. To define the boundaries of the three thickness regimes, the high field approximation (x1) and Debye-Hückel length (LD) were determined using the existing theoretical kinetics models combined with experimentally measured data. All the relevant constants for each rate law at the three thickness regimes were also experimentally determined to quantitatively describe the initial stage growth kinetics.

  8. Growth of single-crystalline Cu2O (111) film on ultrathin MgO modified α-Al2O3 (0001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junqiang; Mei, Zengxia; Ye, Daqian; Liang, Huili; Liu, Yaoping; Du, Xiaolong

    2012-08-01

    We report the synthesis of Cu2O single crystalline films on the c-plane α-Al2O3 substrate by radio-frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. An ultrathin MgO layer was adopted to modify the complex surface structure of sapphire (0001) and engineer the interfacial atomic matching between the epilayer and the substrate. The experimental results solidly proved the single crystallinity of cubic Cu2O (111) without twin crystals. A coincident match mode was proposed to explain the unusual in-plane orientation between strained MgO (111) and Cu2O (111). It was found that the crystal quality of Cu2O is very sensitive to the thickness of MgO layer, which is optimized to be ˜2 nm. The reason why MgO has a critical thickness in Cu2O single crystal growth was also tentatively discussed.

  9. A novel p-type and metallic dual-functional Cu-Al2O3 ultra-thin layer as the back electrode enabling high performance of thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qinxian; Su, Yantao; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Yang, Xiaoyang; Yuan, Sheng; Hu, Jiangtao; Lin, Yuan; Liang, Jun; Pan, Feng

    2016-09-14

    Increasing the open-circuit voltage (Voc) along with the fill factor (FF) is pivotal for the performance improvement of solar cells. In this work, we report the design and construction of a new structure of CdS/CdTe/Al2O3/Cu using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method, and then we control Cu diffusion through the Al2O3 atomic layer into the CdTe layer. Surprisingly, this generates a novel p-type and metallic dual-functional Cu-Al2O3 atomic layer. Due to this dual-functional character of the Cu-Al2O3 layer, an efficiency improvement of 2% in comparison with the standard cell was observed. This novel dual-functional back contact structure could also be introduced into other thin film solar cells for their efficiency improvement. PMID:27384986

  10. A novel p-type and metallic dual-functional Cu-Al2O3 ultra-thin layer as the back electrode enabling high performance of thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qinxian; Su, Yantao; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Yang, Xiaoyang; Yuan, Sheng; Hu, Jiangtao; Lin, Yuan; Liang, Jun; Pan, Feng

    2016-09-14

    Increasing the open-circuit voltage (Voc) along with the fill factor (FF) is pivotal for the performance improvement of solar cells. In this work, we report the design and construction of a new structure of CdS/CdTe/Al2O3/Cu using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method, and then we control Cu diffusion through the Al2O3 atomic layer into the CdTe layer. Surprisingly, this generates a novel p-type and metallic dual-functional Cu-Al2O3 atomic layer. Due to this dual-functional character of the Cu-Al2O3 layer, an efficiency improvement of 2% in comparison with the standard cell was observed. This novel dual-functional back contact structure could also be introduced into other thin film solar cells for their efficiency improvement.

  11. Effects of ozone post deposition treatment on interfacial and electrical characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 and HfO2 films on GaSb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lianfeng; Tan, Zhen; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 and HfO2 films on GaSb substrates were treated by in-situ ozone post deposition treatment (PDT). The effects of ozone PDT on the interfacial and electrical properties of Al2O3 and HfO2 gate dielectric films on GaSb substrates were investigated carefully. It is found that the dielectric quality and the interfacial properties of the Al2O3 and HfO2 films are improved by ozone PDT. After in-situ ozone PDT for 5 min, the Al2O3 and HfO2 films on GaSb substrates exhibit improved electrical and interfacial properties, such as reduced frequency dispersion, gate leakage current, border traps and interface traps. Interface trap density is reduced by ∼24% for the Al2O3/GaSb stacks and ∼27% for the HfO2/GaSb stacks. In-situ ozone PDT is proved to be a promising technique in improving the quality of high-k gate stacks on GaSb substrates.

  12. Reduced impurities and improved electrical properties of atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 film grown at a low temperature (100 °C) by Al2O3 incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae Joo; Byun, Youngchol; Wallace, Robert M.; Kim, Jiyoung

    2016-05-01

    The HfO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at a low temperature (100 °C) necessarily has a large amount of residual impurities due to lack of thermal energy for stable ALD reactions such as ligand removal and oxidation, which degrades various properties. However, Al2O3 incorporation into the film significantly decreased the residual impurities despite of a low growth temperature. The decrease in C impurity is attributed to the reduced oxygen vacancies by the incorporated Al2O3 phase or the high reactivity of Al precursor. Consequently, the electronic band structure of the film, and thereby the electrical properties were improved significantly.

  13. Optical characteristic and numerical study of gold nanoparticles on Al2O3 coated gold film for tunable plasmonic sensing platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumdee, Chatdanai; Yun, Binfeng; Kik, Pieter G.

    2013-09-01

    Substrate-based tuning of plasmon resonances on gold nanoparticles (NP) is a versatile method of achieving plasmon resonances at a desired wavelength, and offers reliable nanogap sizes and large field enhancement factors. The reproducibility and relative simplicity of these structures makes them promising candidates for frequency-optimized sensing substrates. The underlying principle in resonance tuning of such a structure is the coupling between a metal nanoparticle and the substrate, which leads to a resonance shift and a polarization dependent scattering response. In this work, we experimentally investigate the optical scattering spectra of isolated 60 nm diameter gold nanoparticles on aluminum oxide (Al2O3) coated gold films with various oxide thicknesses. Dark-field scattering images and scattering spectra of gold particles reveal two distinct resonance modes. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations, revealing the magnitude and phase relationships between the effective dipoles of the gold particle and the gold substrate. The numerical approach is described in detail, and enables the prediction of the resonance responses of a particle-on-film structure using methods that are available in many available electromagnetics simulation packages. The simulated scattering spectra match the experimentally observed data remarkably well, demonstrating the usefulness of the presented approach to researchers in the field.

  14. Large modification in insulator-metal transition of VO2 films grown on Al2O3 (001) by high energy ion irradiation in biased reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhan, Nurul Hanis; Okimura, Kunio; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Shin-ichi; Zaghrioui, Mustapha; Sakai, Joe

    2016-02-01

    High energy ion irradiation in biased reactive sputtering enabled significant modification of insulator-metal transition (IMT) properties of VO2 films grown on Al2O3 (001). Even at a high biasing voltage with mean ion energy of around 325 eV induced by the rf substrate biasing power of 40 W, VO2 film revealed low IMT temperature (TIMT) at 309 K (36 °C) together with nearly two orders magnitude of resistance change. Raman measurements from -193 °C evidenced that the monoclinic VO2 lattice begins to transform to rutile-tetragonal lattice near room temperature. Raman spectra showed the in-plane compressive stress in biased VO2 films, which results in shortening of V-V distance along a-axis of monoclinic structure, aM-axis (cR-axis) and thus lowering the TIMT. In respect to that matter, significant effects in shortening the in-plane axis were observed through transmission electron microscopy observations. V2p3/2 spectra from XPS measurements suggested that high energy ion irradiation also induced oxygen vacancies and resulted for an early transition onset and rather broader transition properties. Earlier band gap closing against the temperature in VO2 film with higher biasing power was also probed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Present results with significant modification of IMT behavior of films deposited at high-energy ion irradiation with TIMT near the room temperature could be a newly and effective approach to both exploring mechanisms of IMT and further applications of this material, due to the fixed deposition conditions and rather thicker VO2 films.

  15. Border trap reduction in Al2O3/InGaAs gate stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kechao; Winter, Roy; Zhang, Liangliang; Droopad, Ravi; Eizenberg, Moshe; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature on the border trap density (Nbt) of Al2O3/InGaAs gate stacks is investigated quantitatively, and we demonstrate that lowering the trimethylaluminum (TMA)/water vapor ALD temperature from 270 °C to 120 °C significantly reduces Nbt. The reduction of Nbt coincides with increased hydrogen incorporation in low temperature ALD-grown Al2O3 films during post-gate metal forming gas annealing. It is also found that large-dose (˜6000 L) exposure of the In0.53Ga0.47As (100) surface to TMA immediately after thermal desorption of a protective As2 capping layer is an important step to guarantee the uniformity and reproducibility of high quality Al2O3/InGaAs samples made at low ALD temperatures.

  16. Ultra-sensitive film sensor based on Al2O3-Au nanoparticles supported on PDDA-functionalized graphene for the determination of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbo; Sun, Weiyan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Wang, Yanhui; Sun, Yuanling; Ding, Chaofan; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-08-01

    An electrochemical sensor of acetaminophen based on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-functionalized reduced graphene-loaded Al2O3-Au nanoparticles coated onto glassy carbon electrode (Al2O3-Au/PDDA/reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/glass carbon electrode (GCE)) were prepared by layer self-assembly technique. The as-prepared electrode-modified materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic performances of Al2O3-Au/PDDA/rGO-modified glassy carbon electrode toward the acetaminophen were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The modified electrodes of graphene oxide (GO)/GCE, PDDA/rGO/GCE, and Al2O3-Au/PDDA/rGO/GCE were constructed for comparison and learning the catalytic mechanism. The research showed Al2O3-Au/PDDA/rGO/GCE having good electrochemical performance, attributing to the synergetic effect that comes from the special nanocomposite structure and physicochemical properties of Al2O3-Au nanoparticles and graphene. A low detection limit of 6 nM (S/N = 3) and a wide linear detection range from 0.02 to 200 μM (R (2) = 0.9970) was obtained. The preparation of sensor was successfully applied for the detection of acetaminophen in commercial pharmaceutical pills. Graphical abstract Schematic diagram of synthesis of Al2O3-Au/PDDA/rGO/GCE. PMID:27255103

  17. Ultrathin-layer chromatography on SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), TiO(2), and ZrO(2) nanostructured thin films.

    PubMed

    Wannenmacher, Julia; Jim, Steven R; Taschuk, Michael T; Brett, Michael J; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2013-11-29

    We explored four different inorganic oxides and determined their merits in miniaturized planar chromatography. Despite progression of chromatographic techniques over several decades, such alternatives to traditional planar silica gel stationary phases have not been fully evaluated. Glancing angle deposition(GLAD) provided an excellent platform for engineering nanostructured thin films in these materials for ultrathin-layer chromatography (UTLC). Separations of carotenoids and synthetic food dyes were used to investigate the attributes of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), TiO(2), and ZrO(2)GLAD UTLC media. These anisotropic high surface area thin films possessed similar channel-like features but different chromatographic properties.TiO(2)and ZrO(2)media were especially interesting since analyte retention could be modified through sim-ple oxidation heat treatments and UV irradiation. Generally, oxidation reduced analyte retention while UV exposure increased retention. Changes in retention factor as large as ΔhRF∼ 40 (for Acid Red 14 on titanium oxide) were achieved. Food dye mixtures were applied using consumer inkjet printers as per the Office Chromatography concept and separation performance was quantified using advanced video instrumentation designed for miniaturized plates. Enhanced time-resolved UTLC methods were used to calculate figures of merit from recorded dye separation videos. Small theoretical plate heights (<4 μm)and low limits of detection (<2 ng per zone for the food dye tartrazine) were measured. The combination of engineered GLAD UTLC plates, inkjet application of analyte spots, time-resolved UTLC, and custom analysis algorithms enabled some of the best performance achieved on GLAD UTLC layers. Separations on the inorganic oxide thin films were also successfully hyphenated with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the first time. This investigation demonstrates the utility of alternative inorganic oxide GLADUTLC media and probes avenues of expanding

  18. Analysis of interface states of FeO-Al2O3 spinel composite film/p-Si diode by conductance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataroğlu, Adem; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; El-Tantawy, Farid; Farooq, W. A.; Yakuphanoğlu, F.

    2016-03-01

    The interface states and series resistance properties of the Al/FeO-Al2O3/p-Si diode were investigated by the capacitance ( C) and conductance ( G) measurements. The measured capacitance and conductance values were corrected to eliminate the effect of series resistance to obtain the real capacitance and conductance values of the diode. The C and G characteristics indicate the presence of interface states at the interface of the diode. The interface states density, N ss, was determined using Hill-Coleman method, and it was found that the density of interface states is decreased with the frequency. The obtained results suggest that the series resistance and interface states affect significantly the electronic parameters of the Al/FeO-Al2O3/p-Si diode.

  19. Electrical properties of (Al2O3)x(TiO2)1-x films deposited on a silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, P.; Alexieva, Z.; Harizanova, A.; Horvath, Z.; Dozsa, L.

    2008-05-01

    Direct current conductance in Al/(Al2O3)X(TiO2)1-X/silicon structure was studied, the dielectric layers being deposited by the chemical solution deposition method. The measurements were carried out at room temperature and 320, 340 and 360 K. The results correspond to bulk-limited conduction of the Poole-Frenkel type. High voltages and temperature lead to an additional current rise, explained by thermal excitation and tunneling of electrons through the lowered Poole-Frenkel barrier.

  20. Thermal Stability of the Dynamic Magnetic Properties of FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 Films Grown by Gradient-Composition Sputtering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiaoxi; Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Long; Li, Lezhong

    2016-08-01

    We carry out a systematic investigation of the dynamic magnetic properties of FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 thin films prepared by gradient-composition deposition technique with respect to temperature in the range of 300 K to 420 K. It was found that the magnetic anisotropy field (H K) and ferromagnetic resonance frequency (f FMR) are increased with increasing deposition angle (β) due to the enhancement of stress (σ) when concentrations of Al and O or Si and O are increased. The thermal stability of FeSiAl-Al2O3 films show a very interesting behavior with the magnetic anisotropy increasing with temperature when the deposition angle is increased. In contrast, when the deposition angle is lower, the usual trend of decreasing magnetic anisotropy with increasing temperature is observed. Moreover, the temperature-dependent behaviors of the dynamic permeability and effective Gilbert damping coefficient (α eff) for FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 films at different deposition angles are discussed in detail.

  1. Interface properties of atomic layer deposited TiO2/Al2O3 films on In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/InP substrates.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, C; Das, T; Mahata, C; Maiti, C K; Chia, C K; Chiam, S Y; Chi, D Z; Dalapati, G K

    2014-03-12

    Electrical and interfacial properties of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated using atomic layer deposited bilayer TiO2/Al2O3 films on In0.53Ga0.47As/InP substrates are reported. Vacuum annealing at 350 °C is shown to improve the interface quality. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics with higher accumulation capacitance, negligible frequency dispersion, small hysteresis and low interface state density (∼1.5 × 10(11) cm(-2) eV(-1)) have been observed for MOS capacitors. Low frequency (1/f) noise characterization and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) studies have been performed to determine defects and interface traps and explain the lattice dynamics and trap state generation mechanisms. Both the IETS and 1/f noise studies reveal the spatial locations of the traps near the interface and also the nature of the traps. The IETS study further revealed the dynamic evolution of trap states related to low frequency noise sources in the deposited TiO2/Al2O3 stacks. It is shown that deposition of an ultrathin layer of TiO2 on Al2O3 can effectively control the diffusion of As in the dielectric and the oxidation states of In and Ga at the In0.53Ga0.47As surface. PMID:24472090

  2. What determines the interfacial configuration of Nb/Al2O3 and Nb/MgO interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J. L.; Fang, Y.; Fu, E. G.; Ding, X.; Yu, K. Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Wang, Y. Q.; Baldwin, J. K.; Wang, P. P.; Bai, Q.

    2016-10-01

    Nb films are deposited on single crystal Al2O3 (110) and MgO(111) substrates by e-beam evaporation technique. Structure of Nb films and orientation relationships (ORs) of Nb/Al2O3 and Nb/MgO interface are studied and compared by the combination of experiments and simulations. The experiments show that the Nb films obtain strong (110) texture, and the Nb film on Al2O3(110) substrate shows a higher crystalline quality than that on MgO(111) substrate. First principle calculations show that both the lattice mismatch and the strength of interface bonding play major roles in determining the crystalline perfection of Nb films and ORs between Nb films and single crystal ceramic substrates. The fundamental mechanisms for forming the interfacial configuration in terms of the lattice mismatch and the strength of interface bonding are discussed.

  3. What determines the interfacial configuration of Nb/Al2O3 and Nb/MgO interface

    PubMed Central

    Du, J. L.; Fang, Y.; Fu, E. G.; Ding, X.; Yu, K. Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Wang, Y. Q.; Baldwin, J. K.; Wang, P. P.; Bai, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Nb films are deposited on single crystal Al2O3 (110) and MgO(111) substrates by e-beam evaporation technique. Structure of Nb films and orientation relationships (ORs) of Nb/Al2O3 and Nb/MgO interface are studied and compared by the combination of experiments and simulations. The experiments show that the Nb films obtain strong (110) texture, and the Nb film on Al2O3(110) substrate shows a higher crystalline quality than that on MgO(111) substrate. First principle calculations show that both the lattice mismatch and the strength of interface bonding play major roles in determining the crystalline perfection of Nb films and ORs between Nb films and single crystal ceramic substrates. The fundamental mechanisms for forming the interfacial configuration in terms of the lattice mismatch and the strength of interface bonding are discussed. PMID:27698458

  4. Self limiting atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on perovskite surfaces: a reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Devika; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Sarkar, Shaibal K.

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of self-saturated atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on an organolead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) surface through a well known trimethylaluminium (TMA)-water (H2O) chemistry is studied. Though the sequential dosages of reactants form films on the perovskite surfaces, a self saturated growth is never observed. Self-saturation leads to the degradation of the material. Both experimental and density functional theory calculations are carried out for complete understanding of the growth mechanism of self-limiting Al2O3 on the perovskite surface.The feasibility of self-saturated atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on an organolead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) surface through a well known trimethylaluminium (TMA)-water (H2O) chemistry is studied. Though the sequential dosages of reactants form films on the perovskite surfaces, a self saturated growth is never observed. Self-saturation leads to the degradation of the material. Both experimental and density functional theory calculations are carried out for complete understanding of the growth mechanism of self-limiting Al2O3 on the perovskite surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional QCM results, FTIR spectra and DFT results. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06974b

  5. Role of Ge and Si substrates in higher-k tetragonal phase formation and interfacial properties in cyclical atomic layer deposition-anneal Hf1-xZrxO2/Al2O3 thin film stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sonal; Tapily, Kandabara; Consiglio, Steven; Clark, Robert D.; Wajda, Cory S.; Leusink, Gert J.; Woll, Arthur R.; Diebold, Alain C.

    2016-09-01

    Using a five-step atomic layer deposition (ALD)-anneal (DADA) process, with 20 ALD cycles of metalorganic precursors followed by 40 s of rapid thermal annealing at 1073 K, we have developed highly crystalline Hf1-xZrxO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) thin films (<7 nm) on ˜1 nm ALD Al2O3 passivated Ge and Si substrates for applications in higher-k dielectric metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors below 10 nm technology node. By applying synchrotron grazing incidence x-ray d-spacing maps, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and angle-resolved XPS, we have identified a monoclinic to tetragonal phase transition with increasing ZrO2 content, elucidated the role of the Ge vs Si substrates in complete tetragonal phase formation (CTPF), and determined the interfacial characteristics of these technologically relevant films. The ZrO2 concentration required for CTPF is lower on Ge than on Si substrates (x ˜ 0.5 vs. x ˜ 0.86), which we attribute as arising from the growth of an ultra-thin layer of metal germanates between the Hf1-xZrxO2 and Al2O3/Ge, possibly during the first deposition and annealing cycle. Due to Ge-induced tetragonal phase stabilization, the interfacial metal germanates could act as a template for the subsequent preferential growth of the tetragonal Hf1-xZrxO2 phase following bottom-up crystallization during the DADA ALD process. We surmise that the interfacial metal germanate layer also function as a diffusion barrier limiting excessive Ge uptake into the dielectric film. An ALD Al2O3 passivation layer of thickness ≥1.5 nm is required to minimize Ge diffusion for developing highly conformal and textured HfO2 based higher-k dielectrics on Ge substrates using the DADA ALD process.

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemical selective area atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalker, P. R.; Marshall, P. A.; Dawson, K.; Brunell, I. F.; Sutcliffe, C. J.; Potter, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the photochemical atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 thin films and the use of this process to achieve area-selective film deposition. A shuttered vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is used to excite molecular oxygen and trimethyl aluminum to deposit films at 60°C. In-situ QCM and post-deposition ellipsometric measurements both show that the deposition rate is saturative as a function of irradiation time. Selective area deposition was achieved by projecting the VUV light through a metalized magnesium fluoride photolithographic mask and the selectivity of deposition on the illuminated and masked regions of the substrate is a logarithmic function of the UV exposure time. The Al2O3 films exhibit dielectric constants of 8 - 10 at 1 MHz after forming gas annealing, similar to films deposited by conventional thermal ALD.

  7. Influence of the Al2O3 partial-monolayer number on the crystallization mechanism of TiO2 in ALD TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates and its impact on the material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testoni, G. E.; Chiappim, W.; Pessoa, R. S.; Fraga, M. A.; Miyakawa, W.; Sakane, K. K.; Galvão, N. K. A. M.; Vieira, L.; Maciel, H. S.

    2016-09-01

    TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates are being investigated to obtain unique materials with chemical, physical, optical, electrical and mechanical properties for a broad range of applications that include electronic and energy storage devices. Here, we discuss the properties of TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminate structures constructed on silicon (1 0 0) and glass substrates using atomic layer deposition (ALD) by alternatively depositing a TiO2 sublayer and Al2O3 partial-monolayer using TTIP–H2O and TMA–H2O precursors, respectively. The Al2O3 is formed by a single TMA–H2O cycle, so it is a partial-monolayer because of steric hindrance of the precursors, while the TiO2 sublayer is formed by several TTIP–H2O cycles. Overall, each nanolaminate incorporates a certain number of Al2O3 partial-monolayers with this number varying from 10–90 in the TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminate grown during 2700 total reaction cycles of TiO2 at a temperature of 250 °C. The fundamental properties of the TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates, namely film thickness, chemical composition, microstructure and morphology were examined in order to better understand the influence of the number of Al2O3 partial-monolayers on the crystallization mechanism of TiO2. In addition, some optical, electrical and mechanical properties were determined and correlated with fundamental characteristics. The results show clearly the effect of Al2O3 partial-monolayers as an internal barrier, which promotes structural inhomogeneity in the film and influences the fundamental properties of the nanolaminate. These properties are correlated with gas phase analysis that evidenced the poisoning effect of trimethylaluminum (TMA) pulse during the TiO2 layer growth, perturbing the growth per cycle and consequently the overall film thickness. It was shown that the changes in the fundamental properties of TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates had little influence on optical properties such as band gap and transmittance. However, in contrast, electrical properties as

  8. Influence of the Al2O3 partial-monolayer number on the crystallization mechanism of TiO2 in ALD TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates and its impact on the material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testoni, G. E.; Chiappim, W.; Pessoa, R. S.; Fraga, M. A.; Miyakawa, W.; Sakane, K. K.; Galvão, N. K. A. M.; Vieira, L.; Maciel, H. S.

    2016-09-01

    TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates are being investigated to obtain unique materials with chemical, physical, optical, electrical and mechanical properties for a broad range of applications that include electronic and energy storage devices. Here, we discuss the properties of TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminate structures constructed on silicon (1 0 0) and glass substrates using atomic layer deposition (ALD) by alternatively depositing a TiO2 sublayer and Al2O3 partial-monolayer using TTIP-H2O and TMA-H2O precursors, respectively. The Al2O3 is formed by a single TMA-H2O cycle, so it is a partial-monolayer because of steric hindrance of the precursors, while the TiO2 sublayer is formed by several TTIP-H2O cycles. Overall, each nanolaminate incorporates a certain number of Al2O3 partial-monolayers with this number varying from 10-90 in the TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminate grown during 2700 total reaction cycles of TiO2 at a temperature of 250 °C. The fundamental properties of the TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates, namely film thickness, chemical composition, microstructure and morphology were examined in order to better understand the influence of the number of Al2O3 partial-monolayers on the crystallization mechanism of TiO2. In addition, some optical, electrical and mechanical properties were determined and correlated with fundamental characteristics. The results show clearly the effect of Al2O3 partial-monolayers as an internal barrier, which promotes structural inhomogeneity in the film and influences the fundamental properties of the nanolaminate. These properties are correlated with gas phase analysis that evidenced the poisoning effect of trimethylaluminum (TMA) pulse during the TiO2 layer growth, perturbing the growth per cycle and consequently the overall film thickness. It was shown that the changes in the fundamental properties of TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminates had little influence on optical properties such as band gap and transmittance. However, in contrast, electrical properties as resistivity

  9. Atomic rearrangements in amorphous Al2O3 under electron-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, R.; Ishimaru, M.; Yasuda, H.; Nakajima, H.

    2013-02-01

    The electron-irradiation-induced crystallization of amorphous Al2O3 (a-Al2O3) was investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy under the wide electron-energy region of 25-300 keV. The formation of γ-Al2O3 nanocrystallites was induced by irradiating the a-Al2O3 thin film along with the formation of nanovoids in the crystalline grains regardless of the acceleration voltage. The crystallization became more pronounced with decreasing the electron energy, indicating that electronic excitation processes play a dominant role in the formation of γ-Al2O3. Radial distribution analyses suggested that a-Al2O3 transforms to γ-phase via the "excited" ("stimulated") amorphous state, in which the breaking and rearrangement of unstable short-range Al-O bonds, i.e., fivefold-coordinated Al-O (AlO5) basic units, occur.

  10. pH-controlled selective etching of Al2O3 over ZnO.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kaige G; Li, Yuanyuan V; Saint John, David B; Jackson, Thomas N

    2014-05-28

    We describe pH-controlled selective etching of atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al2O3 over ZnO. Film thickness as a function of etch exposure was measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. We find that alkaline aqueous solutions with pH between about 9 and 12 will etch Al2O3 at useful rate with minimal attack of ZnO. Highly selective etching of Al2O3 over ZnO (selectivity >400:1) and an Al2O3 etch rate of ∼50 nm/min can be obtained using a pH 12 etch solution at 60 °C. PMID:24818868

  11. Static compression of Al2O3 to 1.2 Mbars /120 GPa/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, M. C.; Ruoff, A. L.

    1979-01-01

    Pressures up to 120 GPa were generated when a diamond indentor of radius 10.0 micrometers was pressed against a very thin sample of Al2O3 on a diamond flat. The thin film of Al2O3 was prepared by sputtering of aluminum in an oxygen atmosphere. From the measurement of the electrical resistance of Al2O3 as a function of pressure it was found that Al2O3 remains an insulator at the highest pressure studied, namely, 120 GPa.

  12. Non-polar a-plane ZnO films grown on r-Al2O3 substrates using GaN buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Chen, W.; Pan, X. H.; Chen, S. S.; Ye, Z. Z.; Huang, J. Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, GaN buffer layer has been used to grow non-polar a-plane ZnO films by laser-assisted and plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The thickness of GaN buffer layer ranges from ∼3 to 12 nm. The GaN buffer thickness effect on the properties of a-plane ZnO thin films is carefully investigated. The results show that the surface morphology, crystal quality and optical properties of a-plane ZnO films are strongly correlated with the thickness of GaN buffer layer. It was found that with 6 nm GaN buffer layer, a-plane ZnO films display the best crystal quality with X-ray diffraction rocking curve full-width at half-maximum of only 161 arcsec for the (101) reflection.

  13. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaN and InGaN on ZnO substrate using Al2O3 as a transition layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nola; Wang, Shen-Jie; Huang, Chung-Lung; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Valencia, Adriana; Nause, Jeff; Summers, Christopher; Ferguson, Ian

    2008-08-01

    Al2O3 films were deposited on the Zn face of ZnO (0001) substrates as a transition layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The as-deposited 20 and 50nm Al2O3 films were transformed to polycrystalline α-Al2O3 phase after optimal annealing at 1100°C after 10 and 20 minutes, respectively, as identified by high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD). Furthermore, GaN and InGaN layers were grown on annealed 20 and 50nm Al2O3 deposited ZnO substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using NH3 as a nitrogen source at high growth temperature. Wurtzite GaN was only seen on the 20nm Al2O3/ZnO substrates. Room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) shows the near band-edge emission of GaN red-shifted, which might be from oxygen incorporation forming a shallow donor-related level in GaN. Raman scattering also indicated the presence of a wellcrystallized GaN layer on the 20nm Al2O3/ZnO substrate. InGaN was grown on bare ZnO as well as Al2O3 deposited ZnO substrates. HRXRD measurements revealed that the thin Al2O3 layer after annealing was an effective transition layer for the InGaN films grown epitaxially on ZnO substrates. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) atomic depth profile shows a decrease in Zn in the InGaN layer. Moreover, (0002) InGaN layers were successfully grown on 20nm Al2O3/ZnO substrates after 10min annealing in a high temperature furnace.

  14. Microstructural characteristics of tin oxide-based thin films on (0001) Al2O3 substrates: effects of substrate temperature and RF power during co-sputtering.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sooyeon; Lee, Ju Ho; Kim, Young Yi; Yun, Myeong Goo; Lee, Kwan-Hun; Lee, Jeong Yong; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2014-12-01

    While tin oxides such as SnO and SnO2 are widely used in various applications, surprisingly, only a limited number of reports have been presented on the microstructural characteristics of tin oxide thin films grown under various growth conditions. In this paper, the effects of the substrate temperature and content of foreign Zn ion on the microstructural characteristics of tin oxide thin films grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering were investigated. The increase in substrate temperature induced change in the stoichiometry of the thin films from SnO(1+x) to SnO(2-x). Additionally, the phase contrast in the transmission electron microscopy image revealed that SnO(1+x) and SnO(2-x) phases were alternating in thin films and the width of each phase became narrower at high substrate temperature. The ternary zinc tin oxide thin films were deposited using the co-sputtering method. As the ZnO target power increased, the crystallinity of the thin films became poly-crystalline, and then showed improved crystallinity again with two types of phases. PMID:25970980

  15. PEDOT gate electrodes with PVP/Al2O3 dielectrics for stable high-performance organic TFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Kyu; Maniruzzaman, Md.; Lee, Chiyoung; Lee, Mi Jung; Lee, Eun-Gu; Lee, Jaegab

    2013-11-01

    A poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) gate electrode on a polyestersulfone (PES) substrate was used to fabricate inverted staggered pentacene organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). The PEDOT gate formed on the PES substrate exhibited semi-transparency, high conductivity, and excellent adhesion to the substrate. Prior to the deposition of poly-4-vinyl phenol (PVP) dielectrics, a thin Al2O3 layer (12 nm) was coated onto a PEDOT electrode, providing an effective barrier against inter-diffusion between the PVP dielectrics and the underlying PEDOT gate electrode, and against moisture penetration through the PES substrate. This led to stable high-performance OTFTs consisting of a PEDOT gate electrode and PVP/Al2O3 dielectrics. The combined PVP/Al2O3 dielectrics with PEDOT gate electrodes were successfully implemented in flexible organic TFTs that exhibit excellent compatibility with flexible electronics.

  16. Tensile Behavior of Al2o3/feal + B and Al2o3/fecraly Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Eldridge, J. I.; Aiken, B. J. M.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of Al2O3/FeAl + B and Al2O3/FeCrAlY composites for high-temperature applications was assessed. The major emphasis was on tensile behavior of both the monolithics and composites from 298 to 1100 K. However, the study also included determining the chemical compatibility of the composites, measuring the interfacial shear strengths, and investigating the effect of processing on the strength of the single-crystal Al2O3 fibers. The interfacial shear strengths were low for Al203/FeAl + B and moderate to high for Al203/FeCrAlY. The difference in interfacial bond strengths between the two systems affected the tensile behavior of the composites. The strength of the Al203 fiber was significantly degraded after composite processing for both composite systems and resulted in poor composite tensile properties. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values of the composites could generally be predicted with either rule of mixtures (ROM) calculations or existing models when using the strength of the etched-out fiber. The Al2O3/FeAl + B composite system was determined to be unfeasible due to poor interfacial shear strengths and a large mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Development of the Al2O3/FeCrAlY system would require an effective diffusion barrier to minimize the fiber strength degradation during processing and elevated temperature service.

  17. Resistive switching characteristics in memristors with Al2O3/TiO2 and TiO2/Al2O3 bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseeva, Liudmila; Nabatame, Toshihide; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Petrov, Anatolii

    2016-08-01

    Differences between the resistive switching characteristics of Al2O3/TiO2 and TiO2/Al2O3 bilayer structures, fabricated by atomic layer deposition at 200 °C and post-deposition annealing, were studied in Pt bottom electrode (Pt-BE)/insulator/Pt top electrode (Pt-TE) capacitors. The Pt-BE/Al2O3/TiO2/Pt-TE capacitor exhibits stable bipolar resistive switching with an on-resistance/off-resistance ratio of ∼102 controlled by a small voltage of ±0.8 V. The forming process occurs in two steps of breaking of the Al2O3 layer and transfer of oxygen vacancies (VO) into the TiO2 layer. The capacitor showed poor endurance, particularly in the high-resistance state under vacuum conditions. This indicates that the insulating TiO2 layer without VO is not formed near the Al2O3 layer because oxygen cannot be introduced from the exterior. On the other hand, in the Pt-BE/TiO2/Al2O3/Pt-TE capacitor, multilevel resistive switching with several applied voltage-dependent nonvolatile states is observed. The switching mechanism corresponds to the Al2O3 layer’s trapped VO concentration, which is controlled by varying the applied voltage.

  18. The MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system - Free energy of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite. [in earth mantle formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    The model of fictive ideal components is used to determine Gibbs free energies of formation of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite from the experimental data on coexisting garnet and orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene and spinel in the temperature range 1200-1600 K. It is noted that Al2O3 forms an ideal solution with MgSiO3. These thermochemical data are found to be consistent with the Al2O3 isopleths that could be drawn using most recent experimental data and with the reversed experimental data on the garnet-spinel field boundary.

  19. Epitaxial Al2O3 capacitors for low microwave loss superconducting quantum circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K.-H.; Patel, U.; Podkaminer, J.; Gao, Y.; Folkman, C. M.; Bark, C. W.; Lee, S.; Zhang, Y.; Pan, X. Q.; McDermott, R.; Eom, C. B.

    2013-10-01

    We have characterized the microwave loss of high-Q parallel plate capacitors fabricated from thin-film Al/Al2O3/Re heterostructures on (0001) Al2O3 substrates. The superconductor-insulator-superconductor trilayers were grown in situ in a hybrid deposition system: the epitaxial Re base and polycrystalline Al counterelectrode layers were grown by sputtering, while the epitaxial Al2O3 layer was grown by pulsed laser deposition. Structural analysis indicates a highly crystalline epitaxial Al2O3 layer and sharp interfaces. The measured intrinsic (low-power, low-temperature) quality factor of the resonators is as high as 3 × 104. These results indicate that low-loss grown Al2O3 is an attractive candidate dielectric for high-fidelity superconducting qubit circuits.

  20. The role of thermally and chemically stable composite Y2O3:Al2O3 in the development of YBa2Cu3O7-x films on metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, L.; Tao, B. W.; Holesinger, T. G.; Yang, H.; Feldmann, D. M.; Maiorov, B.; Baily, S. A.; Civale, L.; DePaula, R. F.; Li, Y. R.; Jia, Q. X.

    2010-04-01

    We have developed Y2O3:Al2O3 (YAlO) composites to simplify the architecture of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) thick films on polycrystalline metal substrates. By implementing the use of YAlO, we have reduced the total number of non-superconducting layers between the polycrystalline metal substrate and the YBCO film from five (as in the standard architecture used by industry) to three. The YBCO films grown on this simplified platform exhibited an in-plane mosaic spread of less than 4° in full width at half-maximum, correlated pinning centered at \\mathbf {H}\\parallel c , and an α value (the proportionality factor of the critical current density H - α) of around 0.38 over the field range of 0.1-1.0 T. We believe that the excellent structural stability at high temperatures and the exceptional chemical inertness in an oxidizing environment make YAlO a good choice for use in the growth of biaxially oriented MgO and subsequent buffer and superconducting layers.

  1. High Temperature Mechanical Characterization and Analysis of Al2O3 /Al2O3 Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen ply unidirectional zirconia coated single crystal Al2O3 fiber reinforced polycrystalline Al2O3 was tested in uniaxial tension at temperatures to 1400 C in air. Fiber volume fractions ranged from 26 to 31%. The matrix has primarily open porosity of approximately 40%. Theories for predicting the Young's modulus, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate strength were applied and evaluated for suitability in predicting the mechanical behavior of Al2O3/Al2O3 composites. The composite exhibited pseudo tough behavior (increased area under the stress/strain curve relative to monolithic alumina) from 22 to 1400 C. The rule-of-mixtures provides a good estimate of the Young's modulus of the composite using the constituent properties from room temperature to approximately 1200 C for short term static tensile tests in air. The ACK theory provides the best approximation of the first matrix cracking stress while accounting for residual stresses at room temperature. Difficulties in determining the fiber/matrix interfacial shear stress at high temperatures prevented the accurate prediction of the first matrix cracking stress above room temperature. The theory of Cao and Thouless, based on Weibull statistics, gave the best prediction for the composite ultimate tensile strength.

  2. Metastability in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    DOE PAGES

    Wilkerson, Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Hemrick, James G.

    2014-07-22

    Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( γ-Al2O3) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between MgAl2O4 and α-Al2O3. The solvus line between MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 has been defined at 79.6 wt% Al2O3 at 1500°C, 83.0 wt% Al2O3 at 1600°C, and 86.5 wt% Al2O3 at 1700°C. A metastable region has been defined at temperatures up to 1700°C which could have significant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on final chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an infinite solid solution with Al2O3 at elevatedmore » temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975°C and a chemistry of 96 wt% Al2O3 rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidification.« less

  3. Interface behavior of Al2O3/Ti joints produced by liquid state bonding.

    PubMed

    Lemus-Ruiz, J; Guevara-Laureano, A O; Zarate-Medina, J; Arellano-Lara, A; Ceja-Cárdenas, L

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study brazing of Al2O3 to Ti with biocompatibility properties, using a Au-foil as joining element. Al2O3 was produced by sintering of powder at 1550°C. Al2O3 samples were coated with a 2 and 4μm thick of Mo layer and then stacked with Ti. Al2O3-Mo/Au/Ti combinations were joined at 1100°C in vacuum. Successful joining of Mo-Al2O3 to Ti was observed. Interface shows the formation of a homogeneous diffusion zone. Mo diffused inside Au forming a concentration line. Ti3Au and TiAu phases were observed.

  4. Structural, electronic structure, and band alignment properties at epitaxial NiO/Al2O3 heterojunction evaluated from synchrotron based X-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. D.; Nand, Mangla; Das, Arijeet; Ajimsha, R. S.; Upadhyay, Anuj; Kamparath, Rajiv; Shukla, D. K.; Mukherjee, C.; Misra, P.; Rai, S. K.; Sinha, A. K.; Jha, S. N.; Phase, D. M.; Ganguli, Tapas

    2016-04-01

    The valence band offset value of 2.3 ± 0.2 eV at epitaxial NiO/Al2O3 heterojunction is determined from photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Pulsed laser deposited thin film of NiO on Al2O3 substrate is epitaxially grown along [111] direction with two domain structures, which are in-plane rotated by 60° with respect to each other. Observation of Pendellosung oscillations around Bragg peak confirms high interfacial and crystalline quality of NiO layer deposited on Al2O3 substrate. Surface related feature in Ni 2p3/2 core level spectra along with oxygen K-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicates that the initial growth of NiO on Al2O3 substrate is in the form of islands, which merge to form NiO layer for the larger coverage. The value of conduction band offset is also evaluated from the measured values of band gaps of NiO and Al2O3 layers. A type-I band alignment at NiO and Al2O3 heterojunction is also obtained. The determined values of band offsets can be useful in heterojunction based light emitting devices.

  5. Formation and stability of crystalline and amorphous Al2O3 layers deposited on Ga2O3 nanowires by atomic layer epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, M. B.; Twigg, M. E.; Prokes, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    Although the crystalline α and γ phases are the most stable forms of alumina, small-diameter (<6 nm) nanoparticles are known to be completely amorphous, due to the surface energy being correspondingly lower for the less stable non-crystalline phase. Al2O3 films with a thickness of 5 nm grown by low temperature (200 °C) atomic layer deposition (ALD) on small-diameter (<20 nm) Ga2O3 nanowires (NWs), however, are identified by transmission electron microscopy as belonging to the α, γ, and possibly θ crystalline phases of Al2O3, while films deposited on larger diameter (>20 nm) NWs are found to be amorphous. Indeed, until recently, all Al2O3, films deposited by low-temperature ALD using trimethylaluminum and water have been reported to be amorphous, regardless of film thickness or substrate. The formation of a crystalline ALD film can be understood in terms of the energetics of misfit dislocations that maintain the registry between the ALD film and the NW substrate, as well as the influence of strain and surface energy. The decreasing energy of co-axial misfit dislocations with NW diameter results in a corresponding decrease in the contribution of the Al2O3/Ga2O3 interface to the free energy, while the interfacial energy for an amorphous film is independent of the NW diameter. Therefore, for NW cores of sufficiently small diameter, the free energy contribution of the Al2O3/Ga2O3 interface is smaller for crystalline films than for amorphous films, thereby favoring the formation of crystalline films for small-diameter NWs. For ALD Al2O3 films of 10 nm thickness deposited on small-diameter Ga2O3 NWs, however, only the first 5 nm of the ALD film is found to be crystalline, possibly due to well-established kinetic limitations to low temperature epitaxial growth.

  6. Metalorganic chemical vapour deposition of GaN layers on ZnO substrates using α-Al2O3 as a transition layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shen-Jie; Li, Nola; Yu, Hong Bo; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Summers, Christopher; Ferguson, Ian

    2009-12-01

    This work addresses the instability of a ZnO substrate during metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) growth of GaN by using Al2O3 films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a stabilizing transition layer on the Zn face of ZnO (0 0 0 1) substrates. A systematic study of Al2O3 films of different thicknesses (2-90 nm) under different ALDs and post-annealing conditions was carried out. However, this paper focuses on as-deposited 20 and 50 nm Al2O3 films that were transformed to polycrystalline α-Al2O3 phases after optimal annealing at 1100 °C for 10 min and 20 min, respectively. GaN layers were grown on ZnO substrates with these α-Al2O3 transition layers by MOCVD using NH3 as a nitrogen source. Wurtzite GaN was observed by high resolution x-ray diffraction only on 20 nm Al2O3/ZnO substrates. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed a mirror-like surface, no etch pits and no film peeling in these samples. Room temperature photoluminescence showed a red-shift in the near band-edge emission of GaN, which may be related to oxygen incorporation forming a shallow donor-related level in GaN. Raman scattering also indicated the presence of a well-crystallized GaN layer on the 20 nm Al2O3/ZnO substrate.

  7. Dependence of electrostatic potential distribution of Al2O3/Ge structure on Al2O3 thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Xiang, Jinjuan; Wang, Wenwu; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Electrostatic potential distribution of Al2O3/Ge structure is investigated vs. Al2O3 thickness by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrostatic potential distribution is found to be Al2O3 thickness dependent. This interesting phenomenon is attributed to the appearance of gap states on Al2O3 surface (GSAl2O3) and its higher charge neutrality level (CNL) compared with the CNL of gap states at Al2O3/Ge interface (GSAl2O3/Ge), leading to electron transfer from GSAl2O3 to GSAl2O3/Ge. In the case of thicker Al2O3, fewer electrons transfer from GSAl2O3 to GSAl2O3/Ge, resulting in a larger potential drop across Al2O3 and XPS results.

  8. Al2O3 on Black Phosphorus by Atomic Layer Deposition: An in Situ Interface Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; McDonnell, Stephen; Qin, Xiaoye; Azcatl, Angelica; Cheng, Lanxia; Addou, Rafik; Kim, Jiyoung; Ye, Peide D; Wallace, Robert M

    2015-06-17

    In situ "half cycle" atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 was carried out on black phosphorus ("black-P") surfaces with modified phosphorus oxide concentrations. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is employed to investigate the interfacial chemistry and the nucleation of the Al2O3 on black-P surfaces. This work suggests that exposing a sample that is initially free of phosphorus oxide to the ALD precursors does not result in detectable oxidation. However, when the phosphorus oxide is formed on the surface prior to deposition, the black-P can react with both the surface adventitious oxygen contamination and the H2O precursor at a deposition temperature of 200 °C. As a result, the concentration of the phosphorus oxide increases after both annealing and the atomic layer deposition process. The nucleation rate of Al2O3 on black-P is correlated with the amount of oxygen on samples prior to the deposition. The growth of Al2O3 follows a "substrate inhibited growth" behavior where an incubation period is required. Ex situ atomic force microscopy is also used to investigate the deposited Al2O3 morphologies on black-P where the Al2O3 tends to form islands on the exfoliated black-P samples. Therefore, surface functionalization may be needed to get a conformal coverage of Al2O3 on the phosphorus oxide free samples.

  9. Formation of gamma'-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+Al2O3) equals gamma'(+Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ Al2O3) = gamma'(+ Al2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3Al phase field.

  10. Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

  11. Feasibility study of plasma sprayed Al2O3 coatings as diffusion barrier on CFC components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, Kirsten; Zhao, Lidong; Kopp, Nils; Warda, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFC) materials are increasingly applied as sample carriers in modern furnaces. Only their tendency to react with different metals at high temperatures by C-diffusion is a disadvantage, which can be solved by application of diffusion barriers. Within this study the feasibility of plasma sprayed Al2O3 coatings as diffusion barrier was studied. Al2O3 coatings were prepared by air plasma spraying (APS). The coatings were investigated in terms of their microstructure, bonding to CFC substrates and thermal stability. The results showed that Al2O3 could be well deposited onto CFC substrates. The coatings had a good bonding and thermal shock behavior at 1060°C. At higher temperature of 1270°C, crack network formed within the coating, showing that the plasma sprayed Al2O3 coatings are limited regarding to their application temperatures as diffusion barrier on CFC components.

  12. Influence of AL2O3 Nanoparticles on the Phase Matrix of Polyethylene Oxide - Silver Triflate Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthanthiraraj, S. Austin; Sheeba, D. Joice

    2006-06-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes comprising polyethylene oxide (PEO), silver triflate (AgCF3SO3) and varying weight percentage of Al2O3 (0, 2, 5, 10, 15) nanoparticles, were prepared by solution casting technique using acetonitrile as the common solvent. These polymer electrolytes were formed as very thin films of large surface area and the thickness of these films was measured using Air-Wedge technique. Typical values for the thickness of these films ranged from 30 to 100 μm. The effect of the dispersion of various amounts of Al2O3 nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide - silver triflate polymer electrolytes was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Wagner's polarization techniques. The X-ray diffraction pattern, indicated the amorphous nature of the polymer electrolyte. The DSC traces showed slight change in the glass transition temperature (Tg), whereas the degree of crystallization (Xc) decreased from 99.2%(pure PEO) to 27.3% for the nano - Al2O3 blended polymer electrolytes. The total ionic transference number (tion) calculated by wagner's polarization technique was found to be approximately unity, reveling that the significant contribution to electrical conduction was due to ions.

  13. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Self-patterned aluminium interconnects and ring electrodes for arrays of microcavity plasma devices encapsulated in Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. S.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Automatic formation of Al interconnects and ring electrodes, fully encapsulated by alumina, in planar arrays of Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 microcavity plasma devices has been accomplished by electrochemical processing of Al foil. Following the fabrication of cylindrical microcavities (50-350 µm in diameter) in 127 µm thick Al foil, virtually complete anodization of the foil yields azimuthally symmetric Al electrodes surrounding each cavity and interconnects between adjacent microcavities that are produced and simultaneously buried within a transparent Al2O3 film without the need for conventional patterning techniques. The diameter and pitch of the microcavities prior to anodization, as well as the anodization process parameters, determine which of the microcavity plasma devices in a one- or two-dimensional array are connected electrically. Data presented for 200 µm diameter cavities with a pitch of 150-225 µm illustrate the patterning of the interconnects and electrode connectivity after 4-10 h of anodization in oxalic acid. Self-patterned, linear arrays comprising 25 dielectric barrier devices have been excited by a sinusoidal or bipolar pulse voltage waveform and operated in 400-700 Torr of rare gas. Owing to the electrochemical conversion of most of the Al foil into Al2O3, the self-formed arrays exhibit an areal capacitance ~82% lower than that characteristic of previous Al/Al2O3 device arrays (Park et al 2006 J. Appl. Phys. 99 026107).

  14. Radiation endurance in Al2O3 nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    García Ferré, F.; Mairov, A.; Ceseracciu, L.; Serruys, Y.; Trocellier, P.; Baumier, C.; Kaïtasov, O.; Brescia, R.; Gastaldi, D.; Vena, P.; Beghi, M. G.; Beck, L.; Sridharan, K.; Di Fonzo, F.

    2016-01-01

    The lack of suitable materials solutions stands as a major challenge for the development of advanced nuclear systems. Most issues are related to the simultaneous action of high temperatures, corrosive environments and radiation damage. Oxide nanoceramics are a promising class of materials which may benefit from the radiation tolerance of nanomaterials and the chemical compatibility of ceramics with many highly corrosive environments. Here, using thin films as a model system, we provide new insights into the radiation tolerance of oxide nanoceramics exposed to increasing damage levels at 600 °C –namely 20, 40 and 150 displacements per atom. Specifically, we investigate the evolution of the structural features, the mechanical properties, and the response to impact loading of Al2O3 thin films. Initially, the thin films contain a homogeneous dispersion of nanocrystals in an amorphous matrix. Irradiation induces crystallization of the amorphous phase, followed by grain growth. Crystallization brings along an enhancement of hardness, while grain growth induces softening according to the Hall-Petch effect. During grain growth, the excess mechanical energy is dissipated by twinning. The main energy dissipation mechanisms available upon impact loading are lattice plasticity and localized amorphization. These mechanisms are available in the irradiated material, but not in the as-deposited films. PMID:27653832

  15. Radiation endurance in Al2O3 nanoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Ferré, F.; Mairov, A.; Ceseracciu, L.; Serruys, Y.; Trocellier, P.; Baumier, C.; Kaïtasov, O.; Brescia, R.; Gastaldi, D.; Vena, P.; Beghi, M. G.; Beck, L.; Sridharan, K.; di Fonzo, F.

    2016-09-01

    The lack of suitable materials solutions stands as a major challenge for the development of advanced nuclear systems. Most issues are related to the simultaneous action of high temperatures, corrosive environments and radiation damage. Oxide nanoceramics are a promising class of materials which may benefit from the radiation tolerance of nanomaterials and the chemical compatibility of ceramics with many highly corrosive environments. Here, using thin films as a model system, we provide new insights into the radiation tolerance of oxide nanoceramics exposed to increasing damage levels at 600 °C –namely 20, 40 and 150 displacements per atom. Specifically, we investigate the evolution of the structural features, the mechanical properties, and the response to impact loading of Al2O3 thin films. Initially, the thin films contain a homogeneous dispersion of nanocrystals in an amorphous matrix. Irradiation induces crystallization of the amorphous phase, followed by grain growth. Crystallization brings along an enhancement of hardness, while grain growth induces softening according to the Hall-Petch effect. During grain growth, the excess mechanical energy is dissipated by twinning. The main energy dissipation mechanisms available upon impact loading are lattice plasticity and localized amorphization. These mechanisms are available in the irradiated material, but not in the as-deposited films.

  16. Passivation of Al2O3 / TiO2 on monocrystalline Si with relatively low reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chun-Ti; Huang, Yu-Shiang; Liu, C. W.

    2016-06-01

    Al2O3/TiO2 stack layers deposited by the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition enhance photoluminescence intensity by reducing effective surface recombination velocities on both n-type and p-type monocrystalline Si. The field effect of negative oxide charges in the dielectrics is responsible for the low effective surface recombination velocity. The dependence of the effective surface recombination velocity on the photoluminescence intensity is investigated by the 2D numerical simulation. The bilayer stacks without texture also reduce the AM1.5-weighted front side reflectance to 11.8%. The field-effect passivation of Al2O3/TiO2 films is further improved by a forming gas annealing due to the additional increase of the negative oxide charge density.

  17. Optical properties of the Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszałek, Konstanty; Winkowski, Paweł; Jaglarz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of bilayer and trilayer Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings are presented in this paper. The oxide films were deposited on a heated quartz glass by e-gun evaporation in a vacuum of 5 × 10-3 [Pa] in the presence of oxygen. Depositions were performed at three different temperatures of the substrates: 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C. The coatings were deposited onto optical quartz glass (Corning HPFS). The thickness and deposition rate were controlled with Inficon XTC/2 thickness measuring system. Deposition rate was equal to 0.6 nm/s for Al2O3, 0.6 nm - 0.8 nm/s for HfO2 and 0.6 nm/s for SiO2. Simulations leading to optimization of the thin film thickness and the experimental results of optical measurements, which were carried out during and after the deposition process, have been presented. The optical thickness values, obtained from the measurements performed during the deposition process were as follows: 78 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 and 78 nm/156 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2. The results were then checked by ellipsometric technique. Reflectance of the films depended on the substrate temperature during the deposition process. Starting from 240 nm to the beginning of visible region, the average reflectance of the trilayer system was below 1 % and for the bilayer, minima of the reflectance were equal to 1.6 %, 1.15 % and 0.8 % for deposition temperatures of 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C, respectively.

  18. Low-Temperature Process for Atomic Layer Chemical Vapor Deposition of an Al2O3 Passivation Layer for Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoonbae; Lee, Jihye; Sohn, Sunyoung; Jung, Donggeun

    2016-05-01

    Flexible organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells have drawn extensive attention due to their light weight, cost efficiency, portability, and so on. However, OPV cells degrade quickly due to organic damage by water vapor or oxygen penetration when the devices are driven in the atmosphere without a passivation layer. In order to prevent damage due to water vapor or oxygen permeation into the devices, passivation layers have been introduced through methods such as sputtering, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD). In this work, the structural and chemical properties of Al2O3 films, deposited via ALCVD at relatively low temperatures of 109 degrees C, 200 degrees C, and 300 degrees C, are analyzed. In our experiment, trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O were used as precursors for Al2O3 film deposition via ALCVD. All of the Al2O3 films showed very smooth, featureless surfaces without notable defects. However, we found that the plastic flexible substrate of an OPV device passivated with 300 degrees C deposition temperature was partially bended and melted, indicating that passivation layers for OPV cells on plastic flexible substrates need to be formed at temperatures lower than 300 degrees C. The OPV cells on plastic flexible substrates were passivated by the Al2O3 film deposited at the temperature of 109 degrees C. Thereafter, the photovoltaic properties of passivated OPV cells were investigated as a function of exposure time under the atmosphere. PMID:27483916

  19. Low-Temperature Process for Atomic Layer Chemical Vapor Deposition of an Al2O3 Passivation Layer for Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoonbae; Lee, Jihye; Sohn, Sunyoung; Jung, Donggeun

    2016-05-01

    Flexible organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells have drawn extensive attention due to their light weight, cost efficiency, portability, and so on. However, OPV cells degrade quickly due to organic damage by water vapor or oxygen penetration when the devices are driven in the atmosphere without a passivation layer. In order to prevent damage due to water vapor or oxygen permeation into the devices, passivation layers have been introduced through methods such as sputtering, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD). In this work, the structural and chemical properties of Al2O3 films, deposited via ALCVD at relatively low temperatures of 109 degrees C, 200 degrees C, and 300 degrees C, are analyzed. In our experiment, trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O were used as precursors for Al2O3 film deposition via ALCVD. All of the Al2O3 films showed very smooth, featureless surfaces without notable defects. However, we found that the plastic flexible substrate of an OPV device passivated with 300 degrees C deposition temperature was partially bended and melted, indicating that passivation layers for OPV cells on plastic flexible substrates need to be formed at temperatures lower than 300 degrees C. The OPV cells on plastic flexible substrates were passivated by the Al2O3 film deposited at the temperature of 109 degrees C. Thereafter, the photovoltaic properties of passivated OPV cells were investigated as a function of exposure time under the atmosphere.

  20. Rapid fabrication of Al2O3 encapsulations for organic electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamran; Ali, Junaid; Mehdi, Syed Murtuza; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; An, Young Jin

    2015-10-01

    Organic electronics have earned great reputation in electronic industry yet they suffer technical challenges such as short lifetimes and low reliability because of their susceptibility to water vapor and oxygen which causes their fast degradation. This paper report on the rapid fabrication of Al2O3 encapsulations through a unique roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition technology (R2R-AALD) for the life time enhancement of organic poly (4-vinylphenol) (PVP) memristor devices. The devices were then categorized into two sets. One was processed with R2R-AALD Al2O3 encapsulations at 50 °C and the other one was kept as un-encapsulated. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results revealed that pin holes and other irregularities in PVP films with average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 9.66 nm have been effectively covered by Al2O3 encapsulation having Ra of 0.92 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS spectrum for PVP film showed peaks of C 1s and O 1s at the binding energies of 285 eV and 531 eV, respectively. The respective appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74 eV, 119 eV, and 531 eV, confirms the fabrication of Al2O3 films. Electrical current-voltage (I-V) measurements confirmed that the Al2O3 encapsulation has a huge influence on the performance, robustness and life time of memristor devices. The Al2O3 encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks whereas the un-encapsulated devices could only last for one week. The performance of encapsulated device had been promising after being subjected to bending test for 100 cycles and the variations in its stability were of minor concern confirming the mechanical robustness and flexibility of the devices.

  1. Al2O3 e-Beam Evaporated onto Silicon (100)/SiO2, by XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Madaan, Nitesh; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Jensen, David S.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Samha, Hussein; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25

    We report the XPS characterization of a thin film of Al2O3 (35 nm) deposited via e-beam evaporation onto silicon (100). The film was characterized with monochromatic Al Ka radiation. An XPS survey scan, an Al 2p narrow scan, and the valence band spectrum were collected. The Al2O3 thin film is used as a diffusion barrier layer for templated carbon nanotube (CNT) growth in the preparation of microfabricated thin layer chromatography plates.

  2. Effect of bacterial exopolymer on lead (II) adsorption by γAl 2O 3 in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellems, B. L.; Lion, L. W.

    1989-04-01

    The influence of exocellular polymeric organic materials on adsorption of Pb(II) by gamma aluminium oxide (γAl 2O 3) was evaluated for Pb concentrations ranging from 10 -7 M to 10 -5 M and surface concentrations from 1 m 2 l -1 to 100 m 2 l -1. Exopolymer produced by two strains of the marine film forming bacterium Pseudomonas atlantica was employed in these studies at concentrations ranging from 1 mg l -1 to approximately 90 mg l -1. No observable influence of exopolymer on Pb(II) adsorption was seen under the experimental conditions considered with the exception of reduced Pb adsorption at pH > 7 for the highest polymer concentration and lowest specific surface area of γAl 2O 3. The lead binding characteristics of γAl 2O 3 and exopolymer were independently measured and modelled with multiple binding site models. Calculations using the model parameters confirm that the Pb binding strength of bacterial exopolymer is insufficient to perturb Pb(II) adsorption even at P. atlantica polymer concentrations substantially higher than those which are anticipated in marine environments.

  3. Investigating the electronic properties of Al2O3/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotipalli, R.; Vermang, B.; Joel, J.; Rajkumar, R.; Edoff, M.; Flandre, D.

    2015-10-01

    Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) surfaces have been demonstrated to exhibit excellent surface passivation properties, which is advantageous in reducing recombination losses at the rear metal contact of CIGS thin-film solar cells. Here, we report, for the first time, experimentally extracted electronic parameters, i.e. fixed charge density (Qf) and interface-trap charge density (Dit), for as-deposited (AD) and post-deposition annealed (PDA) ALD Al2O3 films on CIGS surfaces using capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-frequency (G-f) measurements. These results indicate that the AD films exhibit positive fixed charges Qf (approximately 1012 cm-2), whereas the PDA films exhibit a very high density of negative fixed charges Qf (approximately 1013 cm-2). The extracted Dit values, which reflect the extent of chemical passivation, were found to be in a similar range of order (approximately 1012 cm-2 eV-1) for both AD and PDA samples. The high density of negative Qf in the bulk of the PDA Al2O3 film exerts a strong Coulomb repulsive force on the underlying CIGS minority carriers (ns), preventing them to recombine at the CIGS/Al2O3 interface. Using experimentally extracted Qf and Dit values, SCAPS simulation results showed that the surface concentration of minority carriers (ns) in the PDA films was approximately eight-orders of magnitude lower than in the AD films. The electrical characterization and estimations presented in this letter construct a comprehensive picture of the interfacial physics involved at the Al2O3/CIGS interface.

  4. Super Smooth Modification of Al2O3 Ceramic Substrate by High Temperature Glaze of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihua; Zhen, Shanxue; Yang, Lijun; Lou, Feizhi; Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Chuanren

    2011-01-01

    The rough surface of ceramic substrate is an obstacle for the scale down of line-width for thin film passive integrated devices (PID). In this paper, a modification method for Al2O3 ceramic substrate with super smooth in surface was proposed. Coating a layer of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) glass was performed to flat the rough surface of alumina substrate by sol-gel method. It was found that addition of 0.06% V2O5 can inhibit the recrystallization of the glaze. The root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the glazed substrates reached a surprising flatness as small as 0.5 nm, and its melting temperature is higher than 1300 °C. This substrate with super flatness and high temperature endurance may be promising for high performance thin film devices.

  5. Photochemistry of the α-Al2O3-PETN interface

    DOE PAGES

    Tsyshevsky, Roman V.; Zverev, Anton; Mitrofanov, Anatoly; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kuklja, Maija M.

    2016-02-29

    Optical absorption measurements are combined with electronic structure calculations to explore photochemistry of an α-Al2O3-PETN interface formed by a nitroester (pentaerythritol tetranitrate, PETN, C5H8N4O12) and a wide band gap aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3) substrate. The first principles modeling is used to deconstruct and interpret the α-Al2O3-PETN absorption spectrum that has distinct peaks attributed to surface F0-centers and surfacePETN transitions. We predict the low energy α-Al2O3 F0-centerPETN transition, producing the excited triplet state, and α-Al2O3 F-0-centerPETN charge transfer, generating the PETN anion radical. This implies that irradiation by commonly used lasers can easily initiate photodecomposition of both excited and charged PETN atmore » the interface. As a result, the feasible mechanism of the photodecomposition is proposed.« less

  6. Hydrogen bonds in Al2O3 as dissipative two-level systems in superconducting qubits

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Luke; Abu-Farsakh, Hazem; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2014-01-01

    Dissipative two-level systems (TLS) have been a long-standing problem in glassy solids over the last fifty years, and have recently gained new relevance as sources of decoherence in quantum computing. Resonant absorption by TLSs in the dielectric poses a serious limitation to the performance of superconducting qubits; however, the microscopic nature of these systems has yet to be established. Based on first-principles calculations, we propose that hydrogen impurities in Al2O3 are the main source of TLS resonant absorption. Hydrogen is an ubiquitous impurity and can easily incorporate in Al2O3. We find that interstitial H in Al2O3 forms a hydrogen bond (O-H…O). At specific O-O distances, consistent with bond lengths found in amorphous Al2O3 or near Al2O3 surfaces or interfaces, the H atom feels a double well. Tunneling between two symmetric positions gives rise to resonant absorption in the range of 10 GHz, explaining the experimental observations. We also calculate the expected qubit-TLS coupling and find it to lie between 16 and 20 MHz, consistent with experimental measurements. PMID:25534108

  7. NMR Spectroscopy of the Hydrated Layer of Composite Particles Based on Nanosized Al2O3 and Vitreous Humor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turov, V. V.; Gerashchenko, I. I.; Markina, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    The hydrated layer of composite particles prepared using Al2O3 and cattle vitreous humor was investigated using NMR spectroscopy. It was found that water bound to Al2O3 nanoparticles was present in the form of clusters with different degrees of association and energies of interaction with the surface. Water bound to the surface of the Al2O3/vitreous humor composite became more uniform upon immobilization of vitreous humor components on the surface of the Al2O3. With this, the clusters of adsorbed water had characteristics that were close to those found in air and weakly polar CHCl3 media. Addition of polar CH3CN led to the formation of very small water clusters. PMR spectra of the surface of the Al2O3/vitreous humor composite in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid differentiated four types of hydrated structures that differed in the degree of water association.

  8. Effect of H2O on the morphological changes of KNO3 formed on K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage materials: Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-02-27

    Based on combined FTIR and XRD studies, we report here that H2O induces a morphological change of KNO3 species formed on model K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage-reduction catalysts. Specifically as evidenced by FTIR, the contact of H2O with NO2 pre-adsorbed on K2O/Al2O3 promotes the transformation from bidentate (surface-like) KNO3 species to ionic (bulk-like) ones irrespective of K loadings. Once H2O is removed from the sample, a reversible transformation into bidentate KNO3 is observed, demonstrating a significant dependence of H2O on such morphological changes. TR-XRD results show the formation of two different types of bulk KNO3 phases (orthorhomobic and rhombohedral) in an as-impregnated sample. Once H2O begins to desorb above 400 K, the former is transformed into the latter, resulting in the existence of only the rhombohedral KNO3 phase. On the basis of consistent FTIR and TR-XRD results, we propose a model for the morphological changes of KNO3 species with respect to NO2 adsorption/desorption, H2O and/or heat treatments. Compared with the BaO/Al2O3 system, K2O/Al2O3 shows some similarities with respect to the formation of bulk nitrates upon H2O contact. However, there are significant differences that originate from the lower melting temperature of KNO3 relative to Ba(NO3)2.

  9. Charge trapping behavior and its origin in Al2O3/SiC MIS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Yi-Yu; Peng, Zhao-Yang; Li, Cheng-Zhan; Wu, Jia; Bai, Yun; Tang, Yi-Dan; Liu, Ke-An; Shen, Hua-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Charge trapping behavior and its origin in Al2O3/SiC MOS structure are investigated by analyzing the capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis and the chemical composition of the interface. The C-V hysteresis is measured as a function of oxide thickness series for an Al2O3/SiC MIS capacitor. The distribution of the trapped charges, extracted from the C-V curves, is found to mainly follow a sheet charge model rather than a bulk charge model. Therefore, the electron injection phenomenon is evaluated by using linear fitting. It is found that most of the trapped charges are not distributed exactly at the interface but are located in the bulk of the Al2O3 layers, especially close to the border. Furthermore, there is no detectable oxide interface layer in the x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. In addition, Rutherford back scattering (RBS) analysis shows that the width of the Al2O3/SiC interface is less than 1 nm. It could be concluded that the charge trapping sites in Al2O3/SiC structure might mainly originate from the border traps in Al2O3 film rather than the interface traps in the interfacial transition layer. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61106080) and the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013ZX02305).

  10. Effect of AL2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles on aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosteva, I.; Morgalev, Yu; Morgaleva, T.; Morgalev, S.

    2015-11-01

    Environmental toxicity of aqueous disperse systems of nanoparticles of binary compounds of titanium dioxides (with particle size Δ50=5 nm, Δ50=50 nm, Δ50=90 nm), aluminum oxide alpha-forms (Δ50=7 nm and Δ50=70 nm) and macro forms (TiO2 Δ50=350 nm, Al2O3 A50=4000 nm) were studied using biological testing methods. The bioassay was performed using a set of test organisms representing the major trophic levels. We found the dependence of the toxic effect concentration degree of nTiO2 and nAl2O3 on the fluorescence of the bacterial biosensor "Ekolyum", the chemotactic response of ciliates Paramecium caudatum, the growth of unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer and mortality of entomostracans Daphnia magna Straus. We revealed the selective dependence of nTiO2 and nAl2O3 toxicity on the size, concentration and chemical nature of nanoparticles. The minimal concentration causing an organism's response on nTiO2 and nAl2O3 effect depends on the type of the test- organism and the test reaction under study. We specified L(E)C50 and acute toxicity categories for all the studied nanoparticles. We determined that nTiO2 (Δ50=5 nm) belong to the category «Acute toxicity 1», nTiO2 (A50=90 nm) and nAl2O3 (Δ50=70 nm) - to the category «Acute toxicity 2», nAl2O3 (Δ50=7 nm) - to the category «Acute toxicity 3». No acute toxicity was registered for nTiO2 (Δ50=50 nm) and macro form TiO2.

  11. Reactive Plasma Nitriding of AL2O3 Powder in Thermal Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    Among advanced ceramics, aluminum nitride (AlN) had attracted much attention in the field of electrical and structural applications due to its outstanding properties. However, it is difficult to fabricate AlN coating by conventional thermal spray processes directly. Due to the thermal decomposition of feedstock AlN powder during spraying without a stable melting phase (which is required for deposition in thermal spray). Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) has been considered as a promising technology for in-situ formation of AlN thermally sprayed coatings. In this study the possibility of fabrication of AlN coating by reactive plasma nitriding of alumina (Al2O3) powder using N2/H2 plasma was investigated. It was possible to fabricate a cubic-AlN (c-AlN) based coating and the fabricated coating consists of c-AlN, α-Al2O3, Al5O6N and γ-Al2O3. It was difficult to understand the nitriding process from the fabricated coatings. Therefore, the Al2O3 powders were sprayed and collected in water. The microstructure observation of the collected powder and its cross section indicate that the reaction started from the surface. Thus, the sprayed particles were melted and reacted in high temperature reactive plasma and formed aluminum oxynitride which has cubic structure and easily nitride to c-AlN. During the coatings process the particles collide, flatten, and rapidly solidified on a substrate surface. The rapid solidification on the substrate surface due to the high quenching rate of the plasma flame prevents AlN crystal growth to form the hexagonal phase. Therefore, it was possible to fabricate c-AlN/Al2O3 based coatings through reactive plasma nitriding reaction of Al2O3 powder in thermal spray.

  12. Study of the KNO3-Al2O3 system by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, A. M.; Gafurov, M. M.; Rabadanov, K. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    The structural and the thermodynamic properties of potassium nitrate KNO3 and its composites with nanosized aluminum oxide Al2O3 have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. It has been found that an amorphous phase forms in composites (1- x)KNO3- x Al2O3. The thermal effect corresponding to this phase has been observed at 316°C. It has been found that the phase transition heats of potassium nitrate decreased as the aluminum oxide fraction increased.

  13. Pt-Al2O3 interfaces in cofired ceramics for use in miniaturized neuroprosthetic implants.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Thomas; Kong, Charlie; Lu, Hong; Svehla, Martin J; Lovell, Nigel H; Ruys, Andrew; Suaning, Gregg J

    2014-04-01

    A core element to miniaturized, hermetic encapsulations for neuroprosthetic implants with high numbers of stimulation channels is the creation of electrical feedthroughs. Platinum (Pt) and alumina (Al2 O3 ) are necessary to connect the sealed electronics to external components including electrode arrays that provide a neural interface function, as well as to sources of power or data. Combined with laser micro-processing, high-density feedthrough arrays were created with up to 2500 channels per cm(2) . The chemistry, micro structure, and crystallography of the Pt-Al2 O3 interface created by the cofiring of Pt particles and Al2 O3 particulate in binder were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and selective area electron diffraction (SAED) to determine the nature of the Pt-Al2 O3 bond. While Pt-Al2 O3 interfaces only occurred in cases where the different grains were in distinct orientations where the crystal lattices matched, the addition of glass additives allowed for bonding nonmatching orientations by devitrification to form Pt-glass-Al2 O3 interfaces. The conditions for the formation of both mechanisms were determined, and it was shown that higher order crystal planes than previously described can be matched. Analyzing the lattice matches in detail showed the ability of the material compound to compensate for mismatches by the formation of dislocations, out-of-angle matching, lattice distortion, and the existence of semi-coherent interfaces in case of integer misfit ratios to create domain matching. PMID:24106159

  14. A study of planar structures formed on the modified Al2O3 surfaces determining the topology of superconducting elements during YBa2Cu3O7- d deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterov, D. V.; Pavlov, S. A.; Parafin, A. E.; Yunin, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the structural and electrical properties of planar superconducting structures based on the YBa2Cu3O7- d (YBCO) epitaxial films obtained by preliminary modification of the substrate surface. A special master mask was formed on the substrates, so that, at the standard YBCO film deposition onto such a substrate, an insulator layer grew in the modified areas and a superconducting film, in the unmodified ones. Thus, the planar superconducting structure of a desired topology was formed, and the YBCO deposition finished the process. Using this technique, YBCO bridges with widths of 4, 10, and 50 μm on films of different thicknesses and a planar inductive coil were formed. The superconducting transition temperature of the bridges was about 90 K, and the critical current density at a temperature of 77 K was up to 3 MA/cm2. The Q factor of the planar inductive coil at a frequency of 85 MHz was 53000 at a temperature of 77 K.

  15. Sulfation and Desulfation Behavior of Pt-BaO/MgO-Al2O3 NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soyeon; Kim, Do Heui

    2016-05-01

    The comparative study between Pt-BaO/Al2O3 and Pt-BaO/MgO-Al2O3 gives the information about the effect of MgO addition to Al2O3 support on the sulfation and desulfation behavior of Pt-BaO/MgO-Al2O3 NOx storage reduction catalyst. The sulfated two samples were analyzed by using element analysis (EA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), H2 temperature programmed reaction (H2 TPRX) and NOx uptake measurement. The amount of sulfur uptake on 2 wt% Pt-20 wt% BaO/Al2O3 and 2 wt% Pt-20 wt% BaO/MgO-Al2O3 are almost identical as 0.45 and 0.40 of S/Ba, respectively, which yields the drastic decrease in NOx uptake for both sulfated samples. However, after desulfa- tion with H2 at 600 degrees C, the residual sulfur amount on MgO-Al2O3 supported catalyst is three times larger than that on Al2O3 supported one, indicating that sulfur species formed on the former are more stable than those on the latter. It is also well corresponding to the H2 TPRX results where the main H2S peak from MgO-Al2O3 supported sample is observed at higher temperature than Al2O3 supported one, resulting in the lower NOx uptake activity of former sample than the latter one. Meanwhile, after desulfation of MgO-Al2O3 supported sample at 700 degrees C and 800 degrees C, the activity is recovered more significantly due to the removal of the large amount of sulfur while Al2O3 supported one decreases monotonically due to the sintering of Pt crystallite and the formation of BaAl2O4 phase. It is summarized that MgO-Al2O3 supported catalyst enhances the thermal stability of the catalyst, however, forms the stable sulfate species, which needs to be improved to develop the more sulfur resistant NSR catalyst system. PMID:27483765

  16. Sulfation and Desulfation Behavior of Pt-BaO/MgO-Al2O3 NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soyeon; Kim, Do Heui

    2016-05-01

    The comparative study between Pt-BaO/Al2O3 and Pt-BaO/MgO-Al2O3 gives the information about the effect of MgO addition to Al2O3 support on the sulfation and desulfation behavior of Pt-BaO/MgO-Al2O3 NOx storage reduction catalyst. The sulfated two samples were analyzed by using element analysis (EA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), H2 temperature programmed reaction (H2 TPRX) and NOx uptake measurement. The amount of sulfur uptake on 2 wt% Pt-20 wt% BaO/Al2O3 and 2 wt% Pt-20 wt% BaO/MgO-Al2O3 are almost identical as 0.45 and 0.40 of S/Ba, respectively, which yields the drastic decrease in NOx uptake for both sulfated samples. However, after desulfa- tion with H2 at 600 degrees C, the residual sulfur amount on MgO-Al2O3 supported catalyst is three times larger than that on Al2O3 supported one, indicating that sulfur species formed on the former are more stable than those on the latter. It is also well corresponding to the H2 TPRX results where the main H2S peak from MgO-Al2O3 supported sample is observed at higher temperature than Al2O3 supported one, resulting in the lower NOx uptake activity of former sample than the latter one. Meanwhile, after desulfation of MgO-Al2O3 supported sample at 700 degrees C and 800 degrees C, the activity is recovered more significantly due to the removal of the large amount of sulfur while Al2O3 supported one decreases monotonically due to the sintering of Pt crystallite and the formation of BaAl2O4 phase. It is summarized that MgO-Al2O3 supported catalyst enhances the thermal stability of the catalyst, however, forms the stable sulfate species, which needs to be improved to develop the more sulfur resistant NSR catalyst system.

  17. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P.; Archanjo, Bráulio S.; Schmidt, João E.; Baptista, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm. PMID:26395513

  18. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P; Archanjo, Bráulio S; Schmidt, João E; Baptista, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm. PMID:26395513

  19. On the Structural and Chemical Characteristics of Co/Al2O3/graphene Interfaces for Graphene Spintronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Canto, Bárbara; Gouvea, Cristol P; Archanjo, Bráulio S; Schmidt, João E; Baptista, Daniel L

    2015-09-23

    We report a detailed investigation of the structural and chemical characteristics of thin evaporated Al2O3 tunnel barriers of variable thickness grown onto single-layer graphene sheets. Advanced electron microscopy and spectrum-imaging techniques were used to investigate the Co/Al2O3/graphene/SiO2 interfaces. Direct observation of pinhole contacts was achieved using FIB cross-sectional lamellas. Spatially resolved EDX spectrum profiles confirmed the presence of direct point contacts between the Co layer and the graphene. The high surface diffusion properties of graphene led to cluster-like Al2O3 film growth, limiting the minimal possible thickness for complete barrier coverage onto graphene surfaces using standard Al evaporation methods. The results indicate a minimum thickness of nominally 3 nm Al2O3, resulting in a 0.6 nm rms rough film with a maximum thickness reaching 5 nm.

  20. Nanopore patterning using Al2O3 hard masks on SOI substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Goryll, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Aluminum oxide Al2O3, deposited using amorphous atomic layer deposition (ALD), is a very promising material to be utilized as a hard mask for nano-patterning. We used an aluminum oxide hard mask on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate to implement a sub-100 nm nanopore process. The transfer of nanoscale patterns via dry etching of the Al2O3 thin film was investigated by comparing etch profiles, etch rates, and selectivity of Al2O3 over PMMA resist, using different gas chemistries such as Cl2, Ar, Ar/BCl3 mixtures, and BCl3 plasma. A selectivity of 1:4 was observed using an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) tool with BCl3 plasma, and the sub-100 nm nanopore patterns were anisotropically transferred to the alumina layer from a 250 nm PMMA layer. The dense and inert Al2O3 hard mask showed exceptional etch selectivity to Si and SiO2, which allowed the subsequent transfer of the nanopore patterns into the 340 nm-thick Si device layer and made it possible to attempt etching the 1 μm-thick buried oxide (BOX) layer. Using chlorine chemistry, nanopores patterned in the Si device layer showed excellent anisotropy while preserving the original pattern dimensions. The process demonstrated is ideally suited for patterning high aspect ratio nanofluidic structures.

  1. Epitaxial growth and electrochemical transfer of graphene on Ir(111)/α-Al2O3(0001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Shinji; Saito, Yuta; Kodama, Hideyuki; Sawabe, Atsuhito

    2016-07-01

    Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene on Iridium (Ir) layers epitaxially deposited on α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates was investigated. The X-ray diffraction, Raman and reflection high energy electron diffraction characterizations revealed that graphene films were epitaxially grown on Ir(111) layers, and the in-plane epitaxial relationship between graphene, Ir(111), and α-Al2O3(0001) was graphene ⟨ 1 1 ¯ 00 ⟩//Ir⟨ 11 2 ¯ ⟩//α-Al2O3⟨ 11 2 ¯ 0 ⟩. The graphene on Ir(111) was electrochemically transferred onto SiO2/Si substrates. We also demonstrated the reuse of the Ir(111)/α-Al2O3(0001) substrates in multiple growth and transfer cycles.

  2. Ce-TZP/Al2O3 nanocomposite as a bearing material in total joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenji; Tamura, Jiro; Kawanabe, Keiichi; Nawa, Masahiro; Oka, Masanori; Uchida, Masaki; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the biocompatibility, phase stability, and wear properties of a newly developed Ce-TZP/Al(2)O(3) nanocomposite, as compared to conventional ceramics, and to determine whether the new composite could be used as a bearing material in total joint prostheses. In tests of mechanical properties, this composite showed significantly higher toughness than conventional Y-TZP. For biocompatibility tests, cylindrical specimens of both the Ce-TZP/Al(2)O(3) nanocomposite and monolithic alumina were implanted into the paraspinal muscles of male Wistar rats. The tissue reactions were almost the same, and at 24 weeks after implantation, thin fibrous capsules with almost no inflammation were observed around both of them. There were no significant differences in membrane thickness between the two ceramics. After hydrothermal treatment in 121 degrees C vapor for 18 h, the new composite showed complete resistance to aging degradation, whereas Y-TZP showed a phase transformation of 25.3 vol% (initial 0.4%) to the monoclinic form. According to the results of pin-on-disk tests, the wear rates of Ce-TZP/Al(2)O(3) nanocomposite and alumina were 0.55 +/- 0.04 x 10(-7) and 2.12 +/- 0.37 x 10(-7)mm(3)/Nm, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the Ce-TZP/Al(2)O(3) nanocomposite is a promising alternative ceramic component for total joint replacement.

  3. Fast neutron detection with Al 2O 3 thermoluminescence dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranogajec-Komor, Maria; Osvay, Margit; Dvornik, Igor; Biró, Tamàs

    1983-07-01

    The technique of thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeter activation can be used to detect any radiation making TL dosimeters radioactive. In the experiment discussed in this paper Al2O3:Mg, Y TL dosimeters were irradiated by cyclotron neutrons with 5±1 MeV mean energy and by accompanying gamma rays. The gamma and the fast neutron component can be separately measured by the same dosimeter. Because of low neutron sensitivity of Al2O3 the gamma dose can be determined by the first TL reading while the 27Al(n, α)24 Na reaction provides the possibility of fast neutron detection by the subsequent reading of thermoluminescence induced in the TL material by the decay of 24Na.

  4. Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. I - Optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 thin films. II - Vacuum ultraviolet all-dielectric narrowband filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.; Spann, James F.; Torr, Marsha R.

    1990-01-01

    An iteration process matching calculated and measured reflectance and transmittance values in the 120-230 nm VUV region is presently used to ascertain the optical constants of bulk MgF2, as well as films of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 deposited on MgF2 substrates. In the second part of this work, a design concept is demonstrated for two filters, employing rapidly changing extinction coefficients, centered at 135 nm for BaF2 and 141 nm for SiO2. These filters are shown to yield excellent narrowband spectral performance in combination with narrowband reflection filters.

  5. Transparent and flexible capacitors based on nanolaminate Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guozhen; Wu, Hao; Chen, Chao; Wang, Ti; Yue, Jin; Liu, Chang

    2015-02-01

    Transparent and flexible capacitors based on nanolaminate Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 dielectrics have been fabricated on indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene naphthalate substrates by atomic layer deposition. A capacitance density of 7.8 fF/μm2 at 10 KHz was obtained, corresponding to a dielectric constant of 26.3. Moreover, a low leakage current density of 3.9 × 10-8 A/cm2 at 1 V has been realized. Bending test shows that the capacitors have better performances in concave conditions than in convex conditions. The capacitors exhibit an average optical transmittance of about 70% in visible range and thus open the door for applications in transparent and flexible integrated circuits.

  6. Transparent and flexible capacitors based on nanolaminate Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhen; Wu, Hao; Chen, Chao; Wang, Ti; Yue, Jin; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Transparent and flexible capacitors based on nanolaminate Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 dielectrics have been fabricated on indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene naphthalate substrates by atomic layer deposition. A capacitance density of 7.8 fF/μm(2) at 10 KHz was obtained, corresponding to a dielectric constant of 26.3. Moreover, a low leakage current density of 3.9 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at 1 V has been realized. Bending test shows that the capacitors have better performances in concave conditions than in convex conditions. The capacitors exhibit an average optical transmittance of about 70% in visible range and thus open the door for applications in transparent and flexible integrated circuits.

  7. The role of copper species on Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalysts for NH3-SCO reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chunxia; Li, Xinyong; Qu, Zhenping; Tade, Moses; Liu, Shaomin

    2012-02-01

    UV-vis spectra, XRD, H2-TPR, TEM and ESR were used to characterize a series of Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalysts, which were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation using copper nitrate, copper acetate or copper sulfate as precursors, to study the role of Cu species on Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalysts for NH3-SCO reaction. It was found that the mixture of CuO phase and CuAl2O4 phase formed on various Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalysts, and the Cu species and dispersion had significant influence on the Cu/γ-Al2O3 activity. Highly dispersed CuO phase on the support would be related with its high activity for the NH3-SCO reaction.

  8. Thermal expansion and elastic anisotropy in single crystal Al2O3 and SiC reinforcements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Li, Zhuang; Bradt, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    In single crystal form, SiC and Al2O3 are attractive reinforcing components for high temperature composites. In this study, the axial coefficients of thermal expansion and single crystal elastic constants of SiC and Al2O3 were used to determine their coefficients of thermal expansion and Young's moduli as a function of crystallographic orientation and temperature. SiC and Al2O3 exhibit a strong variation of Young's modulus with orientation; however, their moduli and anisotropies are weak functions of temperature below 1000 C. The coefficients of thermal expansion exhibit significant temperature dependence, and that of the non-cubic Al2O3 is also a function of crystallographic orientation.

  9. Bovine serum albumin adsorption onto colloidal Al2O3 particles: a new model based on zeta potential and UV-vis measurements.

    PubMed

    Rezwan, Kurosch; Meier, Lorenz P; Rezwan, Mandana; Vörös, Janos; Textor, Marcus; Gauckler, Ludwig J

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on colloidal Al2O3 particles in an aqueous environment. Changes in the zeta potential of the Al2O3 particles upon the adsorption of BSA were measured using an electro-acoustic technique. The mass of protein adsorbed was determined by using UV-vis spectroscopy. The change of the isoelectric point of the Al2O3 powder-protein suspension was found to be a function of adsorbed protein mass. It was shown that approximately one monolayer of BSA was needed to fully mask the surface and to compromise the charge of Al2O3. From titration experiments it follows that about 30-36% of the negatively charged groups of the protein form bonds with the protonated and charged Al2O3 surface. On the basis of our observations we introduced a new adsorption model for BSA on Al2O3 particles.

  10. On the Control of the Fixed Charge Densities in Al2O3-Based Silicon Surface Passivation Schemes.

    PubMed

    Simon, Daniel K; Jordan, Paul M; Mikolajick, Thomas; Dirnstorfer, Ingo

    2015-12-30

    A controlled field-effect passivation by a well-defined density of fixed charges is crucial for modern solar cell surface passivation schemes. Al2O3 nanolayers grown by atomic layer deposition contain negative fixed charges. Electrical measurements on slant-etched layers reveal that these charges are located within a 1 nm distance to the interface with the Si substrate. When inserting additional interface layers, the fixed charge density can be continuously adjusted from 3.5 × 10(12) cm(-2) (negative polarity) to 0.0 and up to 4.0 × 10(12) cm(-2) (positive polarity). A HfO2 interface layer of one or more monolayers reduces the negative fixed charges in Al2O3 to zero. The role of HfO2 is described as an inert spacer controlling the distance between Al2O3 and the Si substrate. It is suggested that this spacer alters the nonstoichiometric initial Al2O3 growth regime, which is responsible for the charge formation. On the basis of this charge-free HfO2/Al2O3 stack, negative or positive fixed charges can be formed by introducing additional thin Al2O3 or SiO2 layers between the Si substrate and this HfO2/Al2O3 capping layer. All stacks provide very good passivation of the silicon surface. The measured effective carrier lifetimes are between 1 and 30 ms. This charge control in Al2O3 nanolayers allows the construction of zero-fixed-charge passivation layers as well as layers with tailored fixed charge densities for future solar cell concepts and other field-effect based devices.

  11. Heating rate effects in simulated liquid Al2O_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoang, Vo

    2006-01-01

    The heating rate effects in simulated liquid Al{2}O{3} have been investigated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) method. Simulations were done in the basic cube under periodic boundary conditions containing 3000 ions with Born-Mayer type pair potentials. The temperature of the system was increasing linearly in time from the zero temperature as T(t)=T0 +γ t, where γ is the heating rate. The heating rate dependence of density and enthalpy of the system was found. Calculations show that static properties of the system such as the coordination number distributions and bond-angle distributions slightly depend on γ . Structure of simulated amorphous Al{2}O{3} model with the real density at the ambient pressure is in good agreement with Lamparter's experimental data. The heating rate dependence of dynamics of the system has been studied through the diffusion constant, mean-squared atomic displacement and comparison of partial radial distribution functions (PRDFs) for 10% most mobile and immobile particles with the corresponding mean ones. Finally, the evolution of diffusion constant of Al and O particles and structure of the system upon heating for the smallest heating rate was studied and presented. And we find that the temperature dependence of self-diffusion constant in the high temperature region shows a crossover to one which can be described well by a power law, D∝ (T-Tc )^γ . The critical temperature Tc is about 3500 K and the exponent γ is close to 0.941 for Al and to 0.925 for O particles. The glass phase transition temperature Tg for the Al{2}O{3} system is at anywhere around 2000 K.

  12. Formation of Al2O3-graphite core shells versus growth time by using thermal chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-duk; Park, Chinho

    2016-09-01

    Al2O3-graphite core shells were synthesized on Al2O3 nanopowders by using a thermal chemical vapor deposition technique with C2H2, H2, and Ar gases, and the effects of the growth time on the formation of the core shells were investigated. The crystalline quality of the Al2O3-graphite core shells increased with increasing growth time. The C-Al chemical bonding at 283 eV was confirmed by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thus the thin Al layers on Al2O3 cores, which formed through a reduction process, played an important role in the fabrication of the graphene shells. The characteristics of an electrode composed of Al2O3-graphite core-shell ink on a glass substrate were investigated. This study demonstrated a very effective and simple method for the synthesis of Al2O3-graphite core shells, and the technique developed in this study may be applicable to the synthesis of various metal-graphite core shells.

  13. Formation Mechanism of CuAlO2 Prepared by Rapid Thermal Annealing of Al2O3/Cu2O/Sapphire Sandwich Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, C. H.; Tseng, B. H.

    Single-phase CuAlO2 films were successfully prepared by thin-film reaction of an Al2O3/Cu2O/sapphire sandwich structure. We found that the processing parameters, such as heating rate, holding temperature and annealing ambient, were all crucial to form CuAlO2 without second phases. Thermal annealing in pure oxygen ambient with a lower temperature ramp rate might result in the formation of CuAl2O4 in addition to CuAlO2, since part of Cu2O was oxidized to form CuO and caused the change in reaction path, i.e. CuO + Al2O3 → CuAl2O4. Typical annealing conditions successful to prepare single-phase CuAlO2 would be to heat the sample with a temperature rampt rate higher than 7.3 °C/sec and hold the temperature at 1100 °C in air ambient. The formation mechanism of CuAlO2 has also been studied by interrupting the reaction after a short period of annealing. TEM observations showed that the top Al2O3 layer with amorphous structure reacted immediately with Cu2O to form CuAlO2 in the early stage and then the remaining Cu2O reacted with the sapphire substrate.

  14. Atomic layer deposition of highly-doped Er:Al2O3 and Tm:Al2O3 for silicon-based waveguide amplifiers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roenn, John; Karvonen, Lasse; Pyymäki-Perros, Alexander; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Lipsanen, Harri; Säynätjoki, Antti; Sun, Zhipei

    2016-05-01

    Recently, rare-earth doped waveguide amplifiers (REDWAs) have drawn significant attention as a promising solution to on-chip amplification of light in silicon photonics and integrated optics by virtue of their high excited state lifetime (up to 10 ms) and broad emission spectrum (up to 200 nm) at infrared wavelengths. In the family of rare-earths, at least erbium, holmium, thulium, neodymium and ytterbium have been demonstrated to be good candidates for amplifier operation at moderate concentrations (< 0.1 %). However, efficient amplifier operation in REDWAs is a very challenging task because high concentration of ions (<0.1%) is required in order to produce reasonable amplification over short device length. Inevitably, high concentration of ions leads to energy-transfer between neighboring ions, which results as decreased gain and increased noise in the amplifier system. It has been shown that these energy-transfer mechanisms in highly-doped gain media are inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance between the ions. Therefore, novel fabrication techniques with the ability to control the distribution of the rare-earth ions within the gain medium are urgently needed in order to fabricate REDWAs with high efficiency and low noise. Here, we show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an excellent technique to fabricate highly-doped (<1%) RE:Al2O3 gain materials by using its nanoscale engineering ability to delicately control the incorporation of RE ions during the deposition. In our experiment, we fabricated Er:Al2O3 and Tm:Al2O3 thin films with ALD by varying the concentration of RE ions from 1% to 7%. By measuring the photoluminescence response of the fabricated samples, we demonstrate that it is possible to incorporate up to 5% of either Er- or Tm-ions in Al2O3 host before severe quenching occurs. We believe that this technique can be extended to other RE ions as well. Therefore, our results show the exceptionality of ALD as a deposition technique for

  15. The Influence of Al2O3 Powder Morphology on the Properties of Cu-Al2O3 Composites Designed for Functionally Graded Materials (FGM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strojny-Nędza, Agata; Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Węglewski, Witold

    2016-08-01

    In order to meet the requirements of an increased efficiency applying to modern devices and in more general terms science and technology, it is necessary to develop new materials. Combining various types of materials (such as metals and ceramics) and developing composite materials seem to be suitable solutions. One of the most interesting materials includes Cu-Al2O3 composite and gradient materials (FGMs). Due to their potential properties, copper-alumina composites could be used in aerospace industry as rocket thrusters and components in aircraft engines. The main challenge posed by copper matrix composites reinforced by aluminum oxide particles is obtaining the uniform structure with no residual porosity (existing within the area of the ceramic phase). In the present paper, Cu-Al2O3 composites (also in a gradient form) with 1, 3, and 5 vol.% of aluminum oxide were fabricated by the hot pressing and spark plasma sintering methods. Two forms of aluminum oxide (αAl2O3 powder and electrocorundum) were used as a reinforcement. Microstructural investigations revealed that near fully dense materials with low porosity and a clear interface between the metal matrix and ceramics were obtained in the case of the SPS method. In this paper, the properties (mechanical, thermal, and tribological) of composite materials were also collected and compared. Technological tests were preceded by finite element method analyses of thermal stresses generated in the gradient structure, and additionally, the role of porosity in the formation process of composite properties was modeled. Based on the said modeling, technological conditions for obtaining FGMs were proposed.

  16. The Influence of Al2O3 Powder Morphology on the Properties of Cu-Al2O3 Composites Designed for Functionally Graded Materials (FGM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strojny-Nędza, Agata; Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Węglewski, Witold

    2016-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of an increased efficiency applying to modern devices and in more general terms science and technology, it is necessary to develop new materials. Combining various types of materials (such as metals and ceramics) and developing composite materials seem to be suitable solutions. One of the most interesting materials includes Cu-Al2O3 composite and gradient materials (FGMs). Due to their potential properties, copper-alumina composites could be used in aerospace industry as rocket thrusters and components in aircraft engines. The main challenge posed by copper matrix composites reinforced by aluminum oxide particles is obtaining the uniform structure with no residual porosity (existing within the area of the ceramic phase). In the present paper, Cu-Al2O3 composites (also in a gradient form) with 1, 3, and 5 vol.% of aluminum oxide were fabricated by the hot pressing and spark plasma sintering methods. Two forms of aluminum oxide (αAl2O3 powder and electrocorundum) were used as a reinforcement. Microstructural investigations revealed that near fully dense materials with low porosity and a clear interface between the metal matrix and ceramics were obtained in the case of the SPS method. In this paper, the properties (mechanical, thermal, and tribological) of composite materials were also collected and compared. Technological tests were preceded by finite element method analyses of thermal stresses generated in the gradient structure, and additionally, the role of porosity in the formation process of composite properties was modeled. Based on the said modeling, technological conditions for obtaining FGMs were proposed.

  17. Al2O3-based nanofluids: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara, Veeranna; Satapathy, Lakshmi Narayan

    2011-07-01

    Ultrahigh performance cooling is one of the important needs of many industries. However, low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in developing energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required for cooling purposes. Nanofluids are engineered by suspending nanoparticles with average sizes below 100 nm in heat transfer fluids such as water, oil, diesel, ethylene glycol, etc. Innovative heat transfer fluids are produced by suspending metallic or nonmetallic nanometer-sized solid particles. Experiments have shown that nanofluids have substantial higher thermal conductivities compared to the base fluids. These suspended nanoparticles can change the transport and thermal properties of the base fluid. As can be seen from the literature, extensive research has been carried out in alumina-water and CuO-water systems besides few reports in Cu-water-, TiO2-, zirconia-, diamond-, SiC-, Fe3O4-, Ag-, Au-, and CNT-based systems. The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in research on the stability of nanofluids, enhancement of thermal conductivities, viscosity, and heat transfer characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)-based nanofluids. The Al2O3 nanoparticles varied in the range of 13 to 302 nm to prepare nanofluids, and the observed enhancement in the thermal conductivity is 2% to 36%.

  18. Specific heat capacity of nanoporous Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cong-Liang; Feng, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Li, Jing; Wang, Ge

    2013-09-01

    Based on Lindemann's criterion, a specific heat capacity model for nanoporous material was proposed by defining the surface-atom layer, to take the surface atoms and the volume atoms separately into account. The height of the surface-atom layer was determined from the experiment, and results show that only the first layer atoms on the surface should be separately considered for nanoporous Al2O3. The shape factor of the pore was also introduced in the model with values between 2 (for cylindrical pore) and 3 (for spherical pore) to characterize the morphology of the pore. It turns out experimentally that the specific heat capacity of the analyzed nanoporous Al2O3 is much larger than that of the bulk, which can be interpreted as due to the fact that the surface atom plays a more important role than the volume one. And the smaller the radius and/or the larger the porosity, which lead to a larger surface-volume ratio, the larger the specific heat capacity becomes. The nanoporous material could be a better heat storage medium than the corresponding bulk with a much lighter weight, smaller volume but higher heat storage capacity.

  19. Al2O3-based nanofluids: a review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ultrahigh performance cooling is one of the important needs of many industries. However, low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in developing energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required for cooling purposes. Nanofluids are engineered by suspending nanoparticles with average sizes below 100 nm in heat transfer fluids such as water, oil, diesel, ethylene glycol, etc. Innovative heat transfer fluids are produced by suspending metallic or nonmetallic nanometer-sized solid particles. Experiments have shown that nanofluids have substantial higher thermal conductivities compared to the base fluids. These suspended nanoparticles can change the transport and thermal properties of the base fluid. As can be seen from the literature, extensive research has been carried out in alumina-water and CuO-water systems besides few reports in Cu-water-, TiO2-, zirconia-, diamond-, SiC-, Fe3O4-, Ag-, Au-, and CNT-based systems. The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in research on the stability of nanofluids, enhancement of thermal conductivities, viscosity, and heat transfer characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)-based nanofluids. The Al2O3 nanoparticles varied in the range of 13 to 302 nm to prepare nanofluids, and the observed enhancement in the thermal conductivity is 2% to 36%. PMID:21762528

  20. Frustration of Negative Capacitance in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayer Structure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Min Hyuk; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Han Joon; Jeon, Woojin; Moon, Taehwan; Do Kim, Keum; Jeong, Doo Seok; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of capacitance by negative capacitance (NC) effect in a dielectric/ferroelectric (DE/FE) stacked film is gaining a greater interest. While the previous theory on NC effect was based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory, this work adopted a modified formalism to incorporate the depolarization effect to describe the energy of the general DE/FE system. The model predicted that the SrTiO3/BaTiO3 system will show a capacitance boost effect. It was also predicted that the 5 nm-thick Al2O3/150 nm-thick BaTiO3 system shows the capacitance boost effect with no FE-like hysteresis behavior, which was inconsistent with the experimental results; the amorphous-Al2O3/epitaxial-BaTiO3 system showed a typical FE-like hysteresis loop in the polarization – voltage test. This was due to the involvement of the trapped charges at the DE/FE interface, originating from the very high field across the thin Al2O3 layer when the BaTiO3 layer played a role as the NC layer. Therefore, the NC effect in the Al2O3/BaTiO3 system was frustrated by the involvement of reversible interface charge; the highly stored charge by the NC effect of the BaTiO3 during the charging period could not be retrieved during the discharging process because integral part of the polarization charge was retained within the system as a remanent polarization. PMID:26742878

  1. Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 on WSe2 Functionalized by Titanyl Phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Hong; Fathipour, Sara; Kwak, Iljo; Sardashti, Kasra; Ahles, Christopher F; Wolf, Steven F; Edmonds, Mary; Vishwanath, Suresh; Xing, Huili Grace; Fullerton-Shirey, Susan K; Seabaugh, Alan; Kummel, Andrew C

    2016-07-26

    To deposit an ultrathin dielectric onto WSe2, monolayer titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) is deposited by molecular beam epitaxy as a seed layer for atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 on WSe2. TiOPc molecules are arranged in a flat monolayer with 4-fold symmetry as measured by scanning tunneling microscopy. ALD pulses of trimethyl aluminum and H2O nucleate on the TiOPc, resulting in a uniform deposition of Al2O3, as confirmed by atomic force microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The field-effect transistors (FETs) formed using this process have a leakage current of 0.046 pA/μm(2) at 1 V gate bias with 3.0 nm equivalent oxide thickness, which is a lower leakage current than prior reports. The n-branch of the FET yielded a subthreshold swing of 80 mV/decade. PMID:27305595

  2. Oxygen defects in amorphous Al2O3: A hybrid functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhendong; Ambrosio, Francesco; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    The electronic properties of the oxygen vacancy and interstitial in amorphous Al2O3 are studied via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and hybrid functional calculations. Our results indicate that these defects do not occur in amorphous Al2O3, due to structural rearrangements which assimilate the defect structure and cause a delocalization of the associated defect levels. The imbalance of oxygen leads to a nonstoichiometric compound in which the oxygen occurs in the form of O2- ions. Intrinsic oxygen defects are found to be unable to trap excess electrons. For low Fermi energies, the formation of peroxy linkages is found to be favored leading to the capture of holes. The relative +2/0 defect levels occur at 2.5 eV from the valence band.

  3. [Laser Raman spectra study on Co-Mo/Al2O3 hydrodesulphurization catalysts].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hui; Xu, Guang-Tong; Qiherima; Li, Hui-Feng; Lu, Li-Jun; Yang, Xing-Yuan; Tana

    2014-02-01

    Due to the implementation of more stringent specifications in sulfur content for gasoline , a deep understanding of the active phase of Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalysts is necessary to the development of hydrodesulphurization (HDS) catalysts. A series of Co-Mo/Al2O3 HDS catalysts with different metal loading were studied by laser Raman spectra. The existence form and the content of the active component of the catalyst were obtained by Raman spectra. The result shows that the percentage of characteristic Raman bands 940 cm(-1) correlates linearly with the HDS selectivity, which can be used as an experimental evidence for developing industrial selective HDS catalysts. Raman spectra of sulfided catalysts show that the bands of oxidic catalysts at 839 and 940 cm(-1) disappeared, and simultaneously, the bands of Mo-S at 372 and 408 cm(-1) emerged, which indicate that the oxidic sample is sulfided completely. PMID:24822416

  4. Effect of Processing Parameters on Thermal Cycling Behavior of Al2O3-Al2O3 Brazed Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandapat, Nandadulal; Ghosh, Sumana; Guha, Bichitra Kumar; Datta, Someswar; Balla, Vamsi Krishna

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, alumina ceramics were active metal brazed at different temperatures ranging from 1163 K to 1183 K (890 °C to 910 °C) using TICUSIL (68.8Ag-26.7Cu-4.5Ti in wt pct) foil as filler alloy of different thicknesses. The brazed joints were subjected to thermal cycling for 100 cycles between 323 K and 873 K (50 °C and 600 °C). The microstructural and elemental composition analysis of the brazed joints were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) before and after thermal cycling. Helium (He) leak test and brazing strength measurement were also conducted after thermal cycling for 100 cycles. The joint could withstand up to 1 × 10-9 Torr pressure and brazing strength was higher than 20 MPa. The experimental results demonstrated that joints brazed at the higher temperature with thinner filler alloy produced strong Al2O3-Al2O3 joints.

  5. Effect of Processing Parameters on Thermal Cycling Behavior of Al2O3-Al2O3 Brazed Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandapat, Nandadulal; Ghosh, Sumana; Guha, Bichitra Kumar; Datta, Someswar; Balla, Vamsi Krishna

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, alumina ceramics were active metal brazed at different temperatures ranging from 1163 K to 1183 K (890 °C to 910 °C) using TICUSIL (68.8Ag-26.7Cu-4.5Ti in wt pct) foil as filler alloy of different thicknesses. The brazed joints were subjected to thermal cycling for 100 cycles between 323 K and 873 K (50 °C and 600 °C). The microstructural and elemental composition analysis of the brazed joints were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) before and after thermal cycling. Helium (He) leak test and brazing strength measurement were also conducted after thermal cycling for 100 cycles. The joint could withstand up to 1 × 10-9 Torr pressure and brazing strength was higher than 20 MPa. The experimental results demonstrated that joints brazed at the higher temperature with thinner filler alloy produced strong Al2O3-Al2O3 joints.

  6. Solid state reduction of chromium (VI) pollution for Al2O3-Cr metal ceramics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hekai; Fang, Minghao; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yangai; Tang, Hao; Min, Xin; Wu, Xiaowen

    2016-04-01

    Reduction of chromium (VI) from Na2CrO4 through aluminothermic reaction and fabrication of metal-ceramic materials from the reduction products have been investigated in this study. Na2CrO4 could be successfully reduced into micrometer-sized Cr particles in a flowing Ar atmosphere in presence of Al powder. The conversion ratio of Na2CrO4 to metallic Cr attained 96.16% efficiency. Al2O3-Cr metal-ceramic with different Cr content (5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt%, 20 wt%) were further prepared from the reduction product Al2O3-Cr composite powder, and aluminum oxide nanopowder via pressure-less sintering. The phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of metal-ceramic composites were characterized to ensure the potential of the Al2O3-Cr composite powder to form ceramic materials. The highest relative density and bending strength can reach 93.4% and 205 MP, respectively. The results indicated that aluminothermic reduction of chromium (VI) for metal-ceramics application is a potential approach to remove chromium (VI) pollutant from the environment.

  7. Different behavior of lithium interaction with SiO2 and Al2 O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Ban, Chunmei; Kappes, Branden B.; Xu, Qiang; Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Ciobanu, Cristian V.; Dillon, Anne C.

    2014-03-01

    Lithiation of SiO2 and lithium intercalation in Al2O3 is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Lithium interacts with these two types of oxides in distinctly different behaviors. Reversible insertion/extraction of lithium in SiO2 up to a Li density of 2/3 Li per Si are demonstrated experimentally. Density-functional-theory (DFT) calculation shows that neither free interstitial Li atoms (no reduction) nor formation of a local Li2O cluster plus a Si-Si bond (full reduction) is energetically favorable. However, two Li atoms can effectively break a Si-O bond and be stabilized between the Si and O atoms. Such a defect, representing a state of partial reduction of SiO2, is energetically favorable. DFT simulation shows that intercalation of SiO2 at high Li density through partial reduction results in crystalline compounds LixSiO2 (x <2/3) with tunable band-gaps in the range of 2-3.4 eV. In sharp contrast, Al2O3 is very stable against lithiation through any form of reduction. However, good conductivity of Li ions is shown in porous Al2O3. Work funded by the U.S. DOE under Subcontract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 through the Office of EERE, the Office of the Vehicle Technologies Program, and by NSF through Award Nos. OCI-1048586 and CMMI-0846858.

  8. Removal of alachlor from water by catalyzed ozonation on Cu/Al2O3 honeycomb

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The herbicide alachlor (2-chloro-2′6′-diethyl-N-methoxymethylacetanilide) has been known as a probable human carcinogen, and the MCL (minimum contamination level) for drinking water has been set at 2 μg L-1. Therefore, the advanced methods for effectively removing it from water are a matter of interest. Catalyzed ozonation is a promising method for refractory organics degradation. Cu/Al2O3 catalyzed ozonation for degrading an endocrine disruptor (alachlor) in water was investigated. Results Experimental results showed that the ozonation of alachlor can be effectively catalyzed and enhanced by Cu/Al2O3-honeycomb. The main intermediate products formed (aliphatic carboxylic acids) were mineralized to a large extent in the catalytic process. Conclusions This study has shown that Cu/Al2O3-honeycomb is a feasible and efficient catalyst in the ozonation of alachlor in water. Less intermediate oxidation product was produced in the catalytic process than in the uncatalytic one. Furthermore, the mineralization of alachlor could be enhanced by increasing the pH of the reaction solution. PMID:23977841

  9. Operando Raman spectroscopy study on the deactivation of Pt/Al2O3 and Pt-Sn/Al2O3 propane dehydrogenation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Jesper J H B; Beale, Andrew M; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2013-08-01

    The deactivation of 0.5 wt% Pt/Al2O3 and 0.5 wt% Pt-1.5 wt% Sn/Al2O3 catalysts has been studied by operando Raman spectroscopy during the dehydrogenation of propane and subsequent regeneration in air for 10 successive dehydrogenation-regeneration cycles. Furthermore, the reaction feed was altered by using different propane/propene/hydrogen ratios. It was found that the addition of hydrogen to the feed increases the catalyst performance and decreases the formation of coke deposits, as was revealed by thermogravimetrical analysis. The positive effect of hydrogen on the catalyst performance is comparable to the addition of Sn, a promoter element which increases both the propane conversion and propene selectivity. Operando Raman spectroscopy showed that hydrogen altered the nature of the coke deposits formed during propane dehydrogenation. Due to this approach it was possible to perform a systematic deconvolution procedure on the Raman spectra. By analysing the related intensity, band position and bandwidth of the different Raman features, it was determined that smaller graphite crystallites, which have less defects, are formed when the partial pressure of hydrogen in the feed was increased. PMID:23615824

  10. Assimilation Behavior of Calcium Ferrite and Calcium Diferrite with Sintered Al2O3 and MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hongming; Wu, Xuejian; Chun, Tiejun; Di, Zhanxia; Yu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the assimilation behaviors between calcium ferrite (CF), calcium diferrite (CF2) and sintered Al2O3, and MgO were explored by an improved sessile drop technique, and the interfacial microstructure was discussed. The results indicated that the apparent contact angles of CF slag on Al2O3 and MgO substrate were 15.7 and 5.5 deg, and the apparent contact angles of CF2 slag on Al2O3 and MgO substrate were 17.9 and 7.2 deg, respectively. Namely, CF and CF2 slag were wetting well with Al2O3 and MgO substrate. The dissolution of Al2O3 substrate into the CF and CF2 slag was found to be the driving force of the wetting process. For the CF-MgO and CF2-MgO substrate systems, CaO contrarily distributed with MgO after wetting. For the CF-MgO system, after wetting, the slag was composed of CF and C2F, and most of the Fe2O3 permeated into substrate and formed two permeating layers.

  11. Turbulent heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of dilute water based Al2O3-Cu hybrid nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Suresh, S; Venkitaraj, K P; Hameed, M Shahul; Sarangan, J

    2014-03-01

    A study on fully developed turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated circular tube is presented in this paper. For this, Al2O3-Cu nanocomposite powder was synthesized in a thermo chemical route using hydrogen reduction technique and dispersed the hybrid nano powder in deionised water to form a stable hybrid nanofluid of 0.1% volume concentration. The prepared powder was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to confirm the chemical composition, determine the particle size and study the surface morphology. Stability of the nanofluid was ensured by pH and zeta potential measurements. The average heat transfer enhancement for Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is 8.02% when compared to pure water. The experimental results also showed that 0.1% Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluids have slightly higher friction factor compared to 0.1% Al2O3/water nanofluid. The empirical correlations proposed for Nusselt number and friction factor were well agreed with the experimental data.

  12. Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

  13. Influence of calcination temperature on the surface area of submicron-sized Al2O3 electrospun fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyeon Ung; Ramsier, Rex D.; Chase, George G.

    2016-03-01

    Submicron-sized Al2O3 fibers were formed by calcination of electrospun aluminum acetate/PVP composite fibers. At 650 °C, the fibers were amorphous. As the calcination temperature increased to 750 °C, the fibers transitioned from amorphous to 49 % crystalline gamma phase Al2O3. The crystallinity further increased with calcination temperature to 80 % gamma Al2O3 at 950 °C, but decreased above 950 °C as the crystal structure began to change to alpha phase. The fiber diameters tended to decrease as calcination temperature increased to 950 °C but increased as the alpha phase was formed at temperatures above 950 °C. Surface areas as measured by BET decreased as gamma phase crystallinity increased. Further decrease in surface area as the gamma phase crystal structure transitioned to alpha phase indicated changing internal pore structures of the fibers.

  14. Quantum Chemical Simulation of Carbon Nanotube Nucleation on Al2O3 Catalysts via CH4 Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Page, Alister J; Saha, Supriya; Li, Hai-Bei; Irle, Stephan; Morokuma, Keiji

    2015-07-29

    We present quantum chemical simulations demonstrating how single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) form, or "nucleate", on the surface of Al2O3 nanoparticles during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using CH4. SWCNT nucleation proceeds via the formation of extended polyyne chains that only interact with the catalyst surface at one or both ends. Consequently, SWCNT nucleation is not a surface-mediated process. We demonstrate that this unusual nucleation sequence is due to two factors. First, the π interaction between graphitic carbon and Al2O3 is extremely weak, such that graphitic carbon is expected to desorb at typical CVD temperatures. Second, hydrogen present at the catalyst surface actively passivates dangling carbon bonds, preventing a surface-mediated nucleation mechanism. The simulations reveal hydrogen's reactive chemical pathways during SWCNT nucleation and that the manner in which SWCNTs form on Al2O3 is fundamentally different from that observed using "traditional" transition metal catalysts. PMID:26148208

  15. Unraveling the Origin of Structural Disorder in High Temperature Transition Al2O3: Structure of θ-Al2O3

    SciTech Connect

    Kovarik, Libor; Bowden, Mark E.; Shi, Dachuan; Washton, Nancy M.; Anderson, Amity; Hu, Jian Z.; Lee, Jaekyoung; Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-09-22

    The crystallography of transition Al2O3 has been extensively studied in the past due to the advantageous properties of the oxide in catalytic and a range of other technological applications. However, existing crystallographic models are insufficient to describe the structure of many important Al2O3 polymorphs due to their highly disordered nature. In this work, we investigate structure and disorder in high-temperature treated transition Al2O3, and provide a structural description for θ-Al2O3 by using a suite of complementary imaging, spectroscopy and quantum calculation techniques. Contrary to current understanding, our high-resolution imaging shows that θ-Al2O3 is a disordered composite phase of at least two different end members. By correlating imaging and spectroscopy results with DFT calculations, we propose a model that describes θ-Al2O3 as a disordered intergrowth of two crystallographic variants at the unit cell level. One variant is based on β-Ga2O3, and the other on a monoclinic phase that is closely-related to δ-Al2O3. The overall findings and interpretations afford new insight into the origin of poor crystallinity in transition Al2O3, and also provide new perspectives on structural complexity that can emerge from intergrowth of closely related structural polymorphs.

  16. Dipole defects in Al2O3:Mg,Cr.

    PubMed

    Blak, A R; Gobbi, V; Ayres, F

    2002-01-01

    In this work, dipole defects are investigated applying the thermally stimulated depolarisation currents (TSDC) technique. The TSDC spectra of Al2O3 doped with Mg and Cr show two bands centred at 230 K and 250 K, respectively. The maximum intensity of the bands increases linearly with the polarisation field, a typical behaviour of defects with dipole origin. An increase of the band at 250 K with gamma irradiation has been observed and a thermal decrease of the bands for heat treatments between 1000 K and 1400 K. Above this temperature the bands are partially recovered. Impurity neutron activation analysis shows that magnesium. chromium and iron content varies from 15 to 60 ppm. Optical absorption (AO) measurements show a broad band centred in 2.6 eV (21000 cm(-1)) associated with trapped holes localised on an O- ion adjacent to a cation site which is deficient in positive charge. It has been assumed that a substitutional Mg2+ ion occupies the cation site near a trapped hole on one of the six oxygen ions surrounding the magnesium impurity giving rise to the dipole responsible for the observed TSDC bands. Calculations carried out through defect simulation methods confirm that the probability of Al3+ being replaced by Mg2+ is higher than Mn2+, Co2+, Fe2+ and Cr2+. PMID:12382829

  17. The thermodynamic properties of hydrated -Al2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Elinor; Huang, Baiyu; Parker, Stewart F.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Ross, Dr. Nancy; Woodfield, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report a combined calorimetric and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) study of hydrated -Al2O3 ( -alumina) nanoparticles. These complementary techniques have enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of this technological and industrially important metal oxide to be achieved. The isobaric heat capacity (Cp) data presented herein provide further critical insights into the much-debated chemical composition of -alumina nanoparticles. Furthermore, the isochoric heat capacity (Cv) of the surface water, which is so essential to the stability of all metal-oxides at the nanoscale, has been extracted from the high-resolution INS data and differs significantly from that of ice Ih due to the dominating influence of strong surface-water interactions. This study also encompassed the analysis of four -alumina samples with differing pore diameters [4.5 (1), 13.8 (2), 17.9 (3), and 27.2 nm (4)], and the results obtained allow us to unambiguously conclude that the water content and pore size have no influence on the thermodynamic behaviour of hydrated -alumina nanoparticles.

  18. One-nanometer-precision control of Al(2)O(3) nanoshells through a solution-based synthesis route.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chi, Zi-Xiang; Mao, Wen-Xin; Lv, Rong-Wen; Cao, An-Min; Wan, Li-Jun

    2014-11-17

    Forming uniform metal oxide nanocoatings is a well-known challenge in the construction of core-shell type nanomaterials. Herein, by using buffer solution as a specific reaction medium, we demonstrate the possibility to grow thin nanoshells of metal oxides, typically Al2 O3 , on different kinds of core materials, forming a uniform surface-coating layer with thicknesses achieving one nanometer precision. The application of this methodology for the surface modification of LiCoO2 shows that a thin nanoshell of Al2 O3 can be readily tuned on the surface for an optimized battery performance.

  19. Nonpolar light emitting diodes of m-plane ZnO on c-plane GaN with the Al2O3 interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Wu, H.; Zheng, H.; Wang, J. B.; Wang, Z.; Chen, C.; Xu, Y.; Liu, C.

    2013-04-01

    Nonpolar m-plane ZnO films are deposited on GaN (0002) with a 10 nm Al2O3 interlayer by atomic layer deposition. The growth direction of the ZnO films directly on GaN (0002) is [707¯4] (perpendicular to (101¯1) plane), whereas with the Al2O3 interlayer it changes into [101¯0]. With the Al2O3 interlayer, the m-plane ZnO films are presented and the leakage current of the heterojunctions dramatically reduces. The electroluminescence spectra of the n-ZnO/Al2O3/p-GaN heterojunctions are dominated by a blue emission under forward biases, whereas it is violet under reverse biases.

  20. Investigation on the passivated Si/Al2O3 interface fabricated by non-vacuum spatial atomic layer deposition system.

    PubMed

    Lien, Shui-Yang; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Wu, Kuei-Ching; Kung, Chung-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Currently, aluminum oxide stacked with silicon nitride (Al2O3/SiNx:H) is a promising rear passivation material for high-efficiency P-type passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC). It has been indicated that atomic layer deposition system (ALD) is much more suitable to prepare high-quality Al2O3 films than plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system and other process techniques. In this study, an ultrafast, non-vacuum spatial ALD with the deposition rate of around 10 nm/min, developed by our group, is hired to deposit Al2O3 films. Upon post-annealing for the Al2O3 films, the unwanted delamination, regarded as blisters, was found by an optical microscope. This may lead to a worse contact within the Si/Al2O3 interface, deteriorating the passivation quality. Thin stoichiometric silicon dioxide films prepared on the Si surface prior to Al2O3 fabrication effectively reduce a considerable amount of blisters. The residual blisters can be further out-gassed when the Al2O3 films are thinned to 8 nm and annealed above 650°C. Eventually, the entire PERC with the improved triple-layer SiO2/Al2O3/SiNx:H stacked passivation film has an obvious gain in open-circuit voltage (V oc) and short-circuit current (J sc) because of the increased minority carrier lifetime and internal rear-side reflectance, respectively. The electrical performance of the optimized PERC with the V oc of 0.647 V, J sc of 38.2 mA/cm(2), fill factor of 0.776, and the efficiency of 19.18% can be achieved.

  1. Glass-ceramic nuclear waste forms obtained by crystallization of SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb) and actinides (Th): Study of the crystallization from the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, P.; Caurant, D.

    2010-07-01

    Glass-ceramic materials containing zirconolite (nominally CaZrTi 2O 7) crystals in their bulk can be envisaged as potential waste forms for minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and Pu immobilization. In this study such matrices are synthesized by crystallization of SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb) and actinides (Th) as surrogates. A thin partially crystallized layer containing titanite and anorthite (nominally CaTiSiO 5 and CaAl 2Si 2O 8, respectively) growing from glass surface is also observed. The effect of the nature and concentration of surrogates on the structure, the microstructure and the composition of the crystals formed in the surface layer is presented in this paper. Titanite is the only crystalline phase able to significantly incorporate trivalent lanthanides whereas ThO 2 precipitates in the layer. The crystal growth thermal treatment duration (2-300 h) at high temperature (1050-1200 °C) is shown to strongly affect glass-ceramics microstructure. For the system studied in this paper, it appears that zirconolite is not thermodynamically stable in comparison with titanite growing form glass surface. Nevertheless, for kinetic reasons, such transformation (i.e. zirconolite disappearance to the benefit of titanite) is not expected to occur during interim storage and disposal of the glass-ceramic waste forms because their temperature will never exceed a few hundred degrees.

  2. Lipid bilayer coated Al2O3 nanopore sensors: towards a hybrid biological solid-state nanopore

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Bala Murali; Polans, James; Comer, Jeffrey; Sridhar, Supriya; Wendell, David; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state nanopore sensors are highly versatile platforms for the rapid, label-free electrical detection and analysis of single molecules, applicable to next generation DNA sequencing. The versatility of this technology allows for both large scale device integration and interfacing with biological systems. Here we report on the development of a hybrid biological solid-state nanopore platform that incorporates a highly mobile lipid bilayer on a single solid-state Al2O3 nanopore sensor, for the potential reconstitution of ion channels and biological nanopores. Such a system seeks to combine the superior electrical, thermal, and mechanical stability of Al2O3 solid-state nanopores with the chemical specificity of biological nanopores. Bilayers on Al2O3 exhibit higher diffusivity than those formed on TiO2 and SiO2 substrates, attributed to the presence of a thick hydration layer on Al2O3, a key requirement to preserving the biological functionality of reconstituted membrane proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that the electrostatic repulsion between the dipole of the DOPC headgroup and the positively charged Al2O3 surface may be responsible for the enhanced thickness of this hydration layer. Lipid bilayer coated Al2O3 nanopore sensors exhibit excellent electrical properties and enhanced mechanical stability (GΩ seals for over 50 h), making this technology ideal for use in ion channel electrophysiology, the screening of ion channel active drugs and future integration with biological nanopores such as α-hemolysin and MspA for rapid single molecule DNA sequencing. This technology can find broad application in bio-nanotechnology. PMID:21487665

  3. Growth-Rate Induced Epitaxial Orientation of CeO2 on Al2O3(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Gao, Fei; Jiang, Weilin; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Seal, Sudipta; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2009-05-19

    High-quality ceria (CeO2) films were grown on sapphire (Al2O3) (0001) substrates using oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The epitaxial orientation of the ceria films has been found to be (100) and (111) at low (< 8 Å/min) and higher growth rates (up to ~30 Å/min), respectively. Evidence shows that CeO2 (100) film grows as three-dimensional islands, while CeO2 (111) proceeds with layered growth. Three in-plane domains at 30° to each other are observed in the CeO2 (100), which is attributed to the close match of the oxygen sub-lattices in the film and substrate that has a three-fold symmetry. Molecular dynamic simulations have further confirmed that the CeO2 film retains (100) orientation on the Al2O3 (0001) substrate.

  4. Glass-ceramic nuclear waste forms obtained from SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb) and actinides (Th): study of internal crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, P.; Caurant, D.; Baffier, N.; Mazerolles, L.; Fillet, C.

    2004-10-01

    Glass-ceramic waste forms such as zirconolite (nominally CaZrTi 2O 7) based ones can be envisaged as good candidates for minor actinides or Pu immobilization. Such materials, in which the actinides (or lanthanides used as actinide surrogates) would be preferentially incorporated into zirconolite crystals homogeneously dispersed in a durable glassy matrix, can be prepared by controlled crystallization (nucleation + crystal growth) of parent glasses belonging to the SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 system. In this work we present the effects of the nature of the minor actinide surrogate (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb, Th) on the structure, the microstructure and the composition of the zirconolite crystals formed in the bulk of the glass-ceramics. The amount of lanthanides and thorium incorporated into zirconolite crystals is discussed in relation with the capacity of the glass to accommodate these elements and of the crystals to incorporate them in the calcium and zirconium sites of their structure.

  5. Evolution of complementary resistive switching characteristics using IrOx/GdOx/Al2O3/TiN structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Debanjan; Samanta, Subhranu; Maikap, Siddheswar; Cheng, Hsin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics using an IrOx/GdOx/Al2O3/TiN single cell are observed whereas the bipolar resistive switching (BRS) characteristics are observed for the IrOx/GdOx/TiN structure. Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy depth profile show crystalline GdOx film and the presence of higher amount of oxygen at both IrOx/GdOx interface and Al2O3 layer. Inserting thin Al2O3 layer, the BRS is changed to CRS. This CRS has hopping distance of 0.58 nm and Poole-Frenkel current conductions for the "0" and "1" states, respectively. A schematic model using oxygen vacancy filament formation/rupture at the TE/GdOx interface and Al2O3 layer has been illustrated. This CRS device has good endurance of 1000 cycles with a pulse width of 1 μs, which is very useful for future crossbar architecture.

  6. Effects of high-temperature O2 annealing on Al2O3 blocking layer and Al2O3/Si3N4 interface for MANOS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongguang; Zhu, Chenxin; Huo, Zongliang; Zhao, Shengjie; Liu, Ming

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the effects of O2 post-deposition annealing (PDA) on metal/Al2O3/Si3N4/SiO2/Si (MANOS) devices. Compared with low-energy plasma oxygen pre-treatment and the N2 PDA process, the O2 PDA process can lead to a significant retention improvement. The improvement is attributed to the removal of oxygen vacancies in Al2O3 block oxide and the oxygen incorporation at the Si3N4/Al2O3 interfacial layer which is determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and electrical characteristics. Metal/Al2O3/SiO2/Si (MAOS) devices are also studied to confirm these effects. As a result, we consider that the O2 PDA process is a crucial process for future MANOS-type memory devices.

  7. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanotextured Black Silicon Solar Cells Using Al2O3/TiO2 Dual-Layer Passivation Stack Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Meng-Chen; Yang, Jason; Hsu, Chuck; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-05-20

    In this study, efficient nanotextured black silicon (NBSi) solar cells composed of silicon nanowire arrays and an Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack on the n(+) emitter were fabricated. The highly conformal Al2O3 and TiO2 surface passivation layers were deposited on the high-aspect-ratio surface of the NBSi wafers using atomic layer deposition. Instead of the single Al2O3 passivation layer with a negative oxide charge density, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack treated with forming gas annealing provides a high positive oxide charge density and a low interfacial state density, which are essential for the effective field-effect and chemical passivation of the n(+) emitter. In addition, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack suppresses the total reflectance over a broad range of wavelengths (400-1000 nm). Therefore, with the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack, the short-circuit current density and efficiency of the NBSi solar cell were increased by 11% and 20%, respectively. In conclusion, a high efficiency of 18.5% was achieved with the NBSi solar cells by using the n(+)-emitter/p-base structure passivated with the Al2O3/TiO2 stack.

  8. An in-depth understanding of the bimetallic effects and coked carbon species on an active bimetallic Ni(Co)/Al2O3 dry reforming catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xin; Gerdts, Rihards; Parker, Stewart F; Chi, Lina; Zhao, Yongxiang; Hill, Martyn; Guo, Junqiu; Jones, Martin O; Jiang, Zheng

    2016-06-29

    Ni/Al2O3, Co/Al2O3 and bimetallic Ni(Co)/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared using an impregnation method and employed in CO2 dry reforming of methane under coking-favored conditions. The spent catalysts were carefully characterized using typical characterization technologies and inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy. The bimetallic catalyst exhibited a superior activity and anti-coking performance compared to Ni/Al2O3, while the most resistant to coking behavior was Co/Al2O3. The enhanced activity of the Ni(Co)/Al2O3 bimetallic catalyst is attributed to the reduced particle size of metallic species and resistance to forming stable filamentous carbon. The overall carbon deposition on the spent bimetallic catalyst is comparable to that of the spent Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, whereas the carbon deposited on the bimetallic catalyst is mainly less-stable carbonaceous species as confirmed by SEM, TPO, Raman and INS characterization. This study provides an in depth understanding of alloy effects in catalysts, the chemical nature of coked carbon on spent Ni-based catalysts and, hopefully, inspires the creative design of a new bimetallic catalyst for dry reforming reactions. PMID:27326792

  9. Phase Compositions of Self Reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 Composite using X-ray Diffraction Data and Rietveld Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, D.; Low, I. M.; O'Connor, B.

    2008-03-01

    The analysis of x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns by the Rietveld technique was tested to the quantitatively phase compositions of self reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 composite. Room-temperature XRD patterns revealed that α-Al2O3 was the only phase presence in the CA0 sample, whereas the α-Al2O3 and CaAl12O19 phases were found for CA5, CA15, CA30, and CA50 samples. The peak intensity of CA6 in the self reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 composites increased in proportion with increase in CaAl12O19 content in contrast to α-Al2O3. The diffraction patterns for CA100 sample shows minor traces of α-Al2O3 even in relatively low peak intensity. It is suggesting that the in-situ reaction sintering of raw materials were not react completely to form 100 wt% CaAl12O19 at temperature 1650 °C. Quantitative phase compositions of self reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 composites by Rietveld analysis with XRD data has been well demonstrated. The results showed that the GOF values are relatively low and the fluctuation in the difference plots shows a reasonable fit between the observed and the calculated plot.

  10. An in-depth understanding of the bimetallic effects and coked carbon species on an active bimetallic Ni(Co)/Al2O3 dry reforming catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xin; Gerdts, Rihards; Parker, Stewart F; Chi, Lina; Zhao, Yongxiang; Hill, Martyn; Guo, Junqiu; Jones, Martin O; Jiang, Zheng

    2016-06-29

    Ni/Al2O3, Co/Al2O3 and bimetallic Ni(Co)/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared using an impregnation method and employed in CO2 dry reforming of methane under coking-favored conditions. The spent catalysts were carefully characterized using typical characterization technologies and inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy. The bimetallic catalyst exhibited a superior activity and anti-coking performance compared to Ni/Al2O3, while the most resistant to coking behavior was Co/Al2O3. The enhanced activity of the Ni(Co)/Al2O3 bimetallic catalyst is attributed to the reduced particle size of metallic species and resistance to forming stable filamentous carbon. The overall carbon deposition on the spent bimetallic catalyst is comparable to that of the spent Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, whereas the carbon deposited on the bimetallic catalyst is mainly less-stable carbonaceous species as confirmed by SEM, TPO, Raman and INS characterization. This study provides an in depth understanding of alloy effects in catalysts, the chemical nature of coked carbon on spent Ni-based catalysts and, hopefully, inspires the creative design of a new bimetallic catalyst for dry reforming reactions.

  11. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanotextured Black Silicon Solar Cells Using Al2O3/TiO2 Dual-Layer Passivation Stack Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Meng-Chen; Yang, Jason; Hsu, Chuck; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-05-20

    In this study, efficient nanotextured black silicon (NBSi) solar cells composed of silicon nanowire arrays and an Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack on the n(+) emitter were fabricated. The highly conformal Al2O3 and TiO2 surface passivation layers were deposited on the high-aspect-ratio surface of the NBSi wafers using atomic layer deposition. Instead of the single Al2O3 passivation layer with a negative oxide charge density, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack treated with forming gas annealing provides a high positive oxide charge density and a low interfacial state density, which are essential for the effective field-effect and chemical passivation of the n(+) emitter. In addition, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack suppresses the total reflectance over a broad range of wavelengths (400-1000 nm). Therefore, with the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack, the short-circuit current density and efficiency of the NBSi solar cell were increased by 11% and 20%, respectively. In conclusion, a high efficiency of 18.5% was achieved with the NBSi solar cells by using the n(+)-emitter/p-base structure passivated with the Al2O3/TiO2 stack. PMID:25919200

  12. CoFe2/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructures by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Grocke, Garrett; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Wang, Xinjun; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Nianxiang; Howe, Brandon; Chen, Xing

    2016-05-01

    Multiferroic materials and applications allow electric bias control of magnetism or magnetic bias control of polarization, enabling fast, compact, energy-efficient devices in RF/microwave communication systems such as filters, shifters, and antennas; electronics devices such as inductors and capacitors; and other magnetic material related applications including sensors and memories. In this manuscript, we utilize atomic layer deposition technology to grow magnetic CoFe metallic thin films onto PMNPT, with a ˜110 Oe electric field induced ferromagnetic resonance field shift in the CoFe/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructure. Our work demonstrates an atomic layer deposition fabricated multiferroic heterostructure with significant tunability and shows that the unique thin film growth mechanism will benefit integrated multiferroic application in near future.

  13. Containerless solidification of undercooled SrO-Al2O3 binary melts.

    PubMed

    Kato, Katsuyoshi; Masuno, Atsunobu; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The solidification of the SrO-Al2O3 binary system was investigated under containerless conditions using an aerodynamic levitation furnace. Glass formation was observed in compositions with 35-45 mol% SrO and 55-75 mol% SrO. Cooling curves were obtained at a constant cooling rate in the range of 1-1000 °C s(-1). The crystallization temperature was apparently independent of the cooling rate and far below the melting point when the sample was fully crystallized, whereas it decreased when the sample was partially crystallized. The difference between the crystallization temperature and the melting point under containerless conditions is considered a good measure of the glass-forming ability when there is not much difference in the critical cooling rates between the melt compositions. Furthermore, the homogeneous nucleation theory suggests that the apparent time-independent crystallization temperature is attributed to the high glass-forming ability of the SrO-Al2O3 binary system. The results suggest that the experimentally obtained continuous cooling transformation diagrams under containerless conditions provide new insights regarding solidification from an undercooled melt. PMID:25655235

  14. Stacked Graphene-Al2O3 Nanopore Sensors for Sensitive Detection of DNA and DNA-Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Bala Murali; Estrada, David; Banerjee, Shouvik; Jin, Xiaozhong; Dorgan, Vincent E.; Bae, Myung-Ho; Aluru, Narayana R.; Pop, Eric; Bashir, Rashid

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of a multilayered graphene-Al2O3 nanopore platform for the sensitive detection of DNA and DNA-protein complexes. Graphene-Al2O3 nanolaminate membranes are formed by sequentially depositing layers of graphene and Al2O3 with nanopores being formed in these membranes using an electron-beam sculpting process. The resulting nanopores are highly robust, exhibit low electrical noise (significantly lower than nanopores in pure graphene), are highly sensitive to electrolyte pH at low KCl concentrations (attributed to the high buffer capacity of Al2O3) and permit the electrical biasing of the embedded graphene electrode, thereby allowing for three terminal nanopore measurements. In proof-of-principle biomolecule sensing experiments, the folded and unfolded transport of single DNA molecules and RecA coated DNA complexes could be discerned with high temporal resolution. The process described here also enables nanopore integration with new graphene based structures, including nanoribbons and nanogaps, for single molecule DNA sequencing and medical diagnostic applications. PMID:22165962

  15. Slurry Erosion Performance of Ni-Al2O3 Based Thermal-Sprayed Coatings: Effect of Angle of Impingement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewal, H. S.; Agrawal, Anupam; Singh, H.; Shollock, B. A.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, slurry erosion performance of high velocity flame-sprayed Ni-Al2O3 based coatings was evaluated. The coatings were deposited on a hydroturbine steel (CA6NM) by varying the content of Al2O3 in Ni. Using jet-type test rig, erosion behavior of coatings and bare steel was evaluated at different impingement angles. Detailed investigation of the surface morphology of the eroded specimens was undertaken using SEM/EDS to identify potential erosion mechanism. A parameter named "erosion mechanism identifier" (ξ) was used to predict the mode of erosion. It was observed that the coating prepared using 40 wt.% of Al2O3 showed a highest resistance to erosion. This coating enhanced the erosion resistance of the steel by 2 to 4 times. Spalling in the form of splats and chunks of material (formed by interlinking of cracks) along with fracture of Al2O3 splats were identified as primary mechanisms responsible for the loss of coating material. The erosion mechanism of coatings and bare steel predicted by ξ was in good agreement with that observed experimentally. Among different parameters,, a function of fracture toughness ( K IC) and hardness ( H) showed excellent correlation with erosion resistance of coatings at both the impingement angles.

  16. Effect of intersplat interface bonding on the microstructure of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Er-Juan; Li, Chang-Jiu; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Takahashi, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    The interface bonding between lamellae dominates the properties and performance of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings. In this study, the interlamellar interface bonding and its effect on the splat microstructure were examined using TEM analysis of the microstructure of a plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coating. The obtained results revealed that the intersplat interface microstructure depends significantly on the intersplat bonding. An amorphous phase was observed in the interface region in which the bonding was formed, while the γ-Al2O3 phase was observed at the interface where no bonding was formed. In addition, it was found that the interface bonding significantly influenced the interface microstructure of the coating. After heat treatment, the phase of the bonding between adjacent splats was transformed from amorphous to γ-Al2O3. In the interface region in which the amorphous phase recrystallization occurred, nanosized pores evolved owing to the volume shrinkage accompanying the transformation of alumina from the amorphous to the γ-Al2O3 phase.

  17. Influence of Al2O3 on the ionic conductivity of plasticized PVC-PEG blend polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindran, D.; Vickraman, P.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolytes with PVC-PEG blend as host matrix and LiClO4 as dopant salt was prepared through conventional solution casting method. To enhance the conductivity propylene carbonate (PC) was used as plasticizer. The influence of ceramic filler Al2O3 on the conductivity of the electrolyte films were studied by varying the (PVC: Al2O3) ratio. The films were subjected to XRD, complex impedance analysis and SEM analysis. The XRD studies reveal a marginal increase in the amorphous phase of the electrolyte films due to the incorporation of filler. The AC impedance analysis shows the dependency of ionic conductivity on the content (wt %) of filler and exhibit a maximum at 4 wt% filler. The SEM analysis depicts the occurrence of phase separation in electrolyte which is attributed to the poor solubility of polymer PVC in the liquid electrolyte.

  18. Atomic layer etching of Al2O3 using sequential, self-limiting thermal reactions with Sn(acac)2 and hydrogen fluoride.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younghee; George, Steven M

    2015-02-24

    The atomic layer etching (ALE) of Al2O3 was demonstrated using sequential, self-limiting thermal reactions with tin(II) acetylacetonate (Sn(acac)2) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) as the reactants. The Al2O3 samples were Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) films grown using trimethylaluminum and H2O. The HF source was HF-pyridine. Al2O3 was etched linearly with atomic level precision versus number of reactant cycles. The Al2O3 ALE was monitored at temperatures from 150 to 250 °C. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies revealed that the sequential Sn(acac)2 and HF reactions were self-limiting versus reactant exposure. QCM measurements also determined that the mass change per cycle (MCPC) increased with temperature from -4.1 ng/(cm(2) cycle) at 150 °C to -18.3 ng/(cm(2) cycle) at 250 °C. These MCPC values correspond to etch rates from 0.14 Å/cycle at 150 °C to 0.61 Å/cycle at 250 °C based on the Al2O3 ALD film density of 3.0 g/cm(3). X-ray reflectivity (XRR) analysis confirmed the linear removal of Al2O3 and measured an Al2O3 ALE etch rate of 0.27 Å/cycle at 200 °C. The XRR measurements also indicated that the Al2O3 films were smoothed by Al2O3 ALE. The overall etching reaction is believed to follow the reaction Al2O3 + 6Sn(acac)2 + 6HF → 2Al(acac)3 + 6SnF(acac) + 3H2O. In the proposed reaction mechanism, the Sn(acac)2 reactant donates acac to the substrate to produce Al(acac)3. The HF reactant allows SnF(acac) and H2O to leave as reaction products. The thermal ALE of many other metal oxides using Sn(acac)2 or other metal β-diketonates, together with HF, should be possible by a similar mechanism. This thermal ALE mechanism may also be applicable to other materials such as metal nitrides, metal phosphides, metal sulfides and metal arsenides.

  19. Atomic layer etching of Al2O3 using sequential, self-limiting thermal reactions with Sn(acac)2 and hydrogen fluoride.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younghee; George, Steven M

    2015-02-24

    The atomic layer etching (ALE) of Al2O3 was demonstrated using sequential, self-limiting thermal reactions with tin(II) acetylacetonate (Sn(acac)2) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) as the reactants. The Al2O3 samples were Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) films grown using trimethylaluminum and H2O. The HF source was HF-pyridine. Al2O3 was etched linearly with atomic level precision versus number of reactant cycles. The Al2O3 ALE was monitored at temperatures from 150 to 250 °C. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies revealed that the sequential Sn(acac)2 and HF reactions were self-limiting versus reactant exposure. QCM measurements also determined that the mass change per cycle (MCPC) increased with temperature from -4.1 ng/(cm(2) cycle) at 150 °C to -18.3 ng/(cm(2) cycle) at 250 °C. These MCPC values correspond to etch rates from 0.14 Å/cycle at 150 °C to 0.61 Å/cycle at 250 °C based on the Al2O3 ALD film density of 3.0 g/cm(3). X-ray reflectivity (XRR) analysis confirmed the linear removal of Al2O3 and measured an Al2O3 ALE etch rate of 0.27 Å/cycle at 200 °C. The XRR measurements also indicated that the Al2O3 films were smoothed by Al2O3 ALE. The overall etching reaction is believed to follow the reaction Al2O3 + 6Sn(acac)2 + 6HF → 2Al(acac)3 + 6SnF(acac) + 3H2O. In the proposed reaction mechanism, the Sn(acac)2 reactant donates acac to the substrate to produce Al(acac)3. The HF reactant allows SnF(acac) and H2O to leave as reaction products. The thermal ALE of many other metal oxides using Sn(acac)2 or other metal β-diketonates, together with HF, should be possible by a similar mechanism. This thermal ALE mechanism may also be applicable to other materials such as metal nitrides, metal phosphides, metal sulfides and metal arsenides. PMID:25604976

  20. Al2O3 fiber strength degradation in metal and intermetallic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S. L.; Locci, I. E.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanisms for fiber damage in single crystal Al2O3 fiber-reinforced composites were investigated. Both fiber fragmentation and fiber strength degradation were observed in composites with a variety of matrix compositions. Four mechanisms that may be contributing to the fiber strength loss have been proposed and include matrix reaction, reaction with binders, residual stress-induced damage, and pressure from hot pressing. The effect of matrix reaction was separated from the other three effects by sputter-coating the matrices on cleaned fibers and annealing with a temperature profile that simulates processing conditions. These experiments revealed that Y and Cr in FeCrAlY base alloys and Zr in NiAl alloys reacted with the fiber, and grooves and adherent particles were formed on the fiber surface which were responsible for the strength loss. The effects of the matrix reaction appeared to dominate over the other possible mechanisms, although evidence for reaction with binders was also found. Ridges on the fiber surface, which reflected the grain boundaries of the matrix, were also observed. In order for single-crystal Al2O3 to be used as a fiber in MMC's and IMC's, a matrix or protective coating which minimizes matrix reaction during processing will be necessary. Of the matrices investigated, the Thermo-span(sup TM) alloy was the least damaging to fiber properties.

  1. Atomic-Scale Structure of Al2O3-ZrO2 Mixed Oxides Prepared by Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Xiuchun; Dubiel, M.; Hofmeister, H.; Riehemann, W.

    2007-02-02

    By means of x-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, the phase composition and atomic structure of laser evaporated ZrO2 and ZrO2-Al2O3 nanopowders have been studied. The results indicate that pure ZrO2 exists in the form of tetragonal structure, Al2O3 doped ZrO2 nanoparticles, however, have cubic structure. Compared to bulk tetragonal ZrO2, pure tetragonal ZrO2 nanoparticles have a shorter Zr-O- and Zr-Zr shell, indicating that the lattice contracts with decreasing particle size. For Al2O3 doped ZrO2 solid solution, the distances of first Zr-O and Zr-Zr (Al) coordination decrease with increasing solid solubility. The disorder degree of the ZrO2 lattice increases with increasing solid solubility. The coevaporated ZrO2-Al2O3 is quickly solidified into amorphous phase when it is ablated in a higher pressure. The amorphous phase contains Zr-O-Zr (Al) clusters and has shorter Zr-O distance and tower Zr-O coordination number.

  2. Enhanced lithium battery with polyethylene oxide-based electrolyte containing silane-Al2 O3 ceramic filler.

    PubMed

    Zewde, Berhanu W; Admassie, Shimelis; Zimmermann, Jutta; Isfort, Christian Schulze; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-08-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte prepared by using a solvent-free, scalable technique is reported. The membrane is formed by low-energy ball milling followed by hot-pressing of dry powdered polyethylene oxide polymer, LiCF3 SO3 salt, and silane-treated Al2 O3 (Al2 O3 -ST) ceramic filler. The effects of the ceramic fillers on the properties of the ionically conducting solid electrolyte membrane are characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, XRD, differential scanning calorimeter, SEM, and galvanostatic cycling in lithium cells with a LiFePO4 cathode. We demonstrate that the membrane containing Al2 O3 -ST ceramic filler performs well in terms of ionic conductivity, thermal properties, and lithium transference number. Furthermore, we show that the lithium cells, which use the new electrolyte together with the LiFePO4 electrode, operate within 65 and 90 °C with high efficiency and long cycle life. Hence, the Al2 O3 -ST ceramic can be efficiently used as a ceramic filler to enhance the performance of solid polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries.

  3. Investigation of neutron converters for production of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) neutron dosimeters using Al 2O 3:C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittani, J. C. R.; da Silva, A. A. R.; Vanhavere, F.; Akselrod, M. S.; Yukihara, E. G.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of neutron dosimeters in powder and in the form of pellets prepared with a mixture of Al 2O 3:C and neutron converters. The neutron converters investigated were high density polyethylene (HDPE), lithium fluoride (LiF), lithium fluoride 95% enriched with 6Li ( 6LiF), lithium carbonate 95% enriched with 6Li ( 6Li 2CO 3), boric acid enriched with 99% of 10B (H310BO) and gadolinium oxide (Gd 2O 3). The proportion of Al 2O 3:C and neutron converter in the mixture was varied to optimize the total OSL signal and neutron sensitivity. The neutron sensitivity and dose-response were determined for the OSL dosimeters using a bare 252Cf source and compared to the response of Harshaw TLD-600 and TLD-700 dosimeters ( 6LiF:Mg,Ti and 7LiF:Mg,Ti). The results demonstrate the possibility of developing an OSL dosimeter made of Al 2O 3:C powder and neutron converter with a neutron sensitivity (defined as the ratio between the 60Co equivalent gamma dose and the reference neutron absorbed dose) and neutron-gamma discrimination comparable to the TLD-600/TLD-700 combination. It was shown that the shape of the OSL decay curves varied with the type of the neutron converter, demonstrating the influence of the energy deposition mechanism and ionization density on the OSL process in Al 2O 3:C.

  4. Evaluation of Ir/Al2O3, Ir-Ru/Al2O3 and Ru/Al2O3 catalyst performance in a 5 N satellite thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jofre, J. B. F.; Soares Neto, T. G.; Dias, F. F.; Cruz, G. M.

    2013-04-01

    Ir/Al2O3, Ir-Ru/Al2O3 and Ru/Al2O3 catalysts with approximately 33% metallic content in mass were prepared in 20 impregnation steps. For the Ru catalyst, two impregnation methods were employed: incipient wetness (chlorinated precursor) and by excess volume (non-chlorinated precursor). For the remaining catalysts, only incipient wetness impregnation was used with chlorinated precursors. Catalyst textural properties were evaluated before and after catalytic tests: metallic grade, specific area, mesopore volume distribution, metallic dispersion, and metallic particle average diameter. Catalysts were tested for hydrazine (N2H4) decomposition reaction in a 5 N satellite thruster and their performances were compared to Shell 405 commercial catalyst. Results showed that catalysts containing Ir were similar in performance to Shell 405 commercial catalyst and that the catalyst containing only Ru should not be used in cold starts.

  5. Al(2)O(3(w))-Al(2)O(3(n))-ZrO(2) (TZ-3Y)(n) multi-scale nanocomposite: an alternative for different dental applications?

    PubMed

    Nevarez-Rascon, A; Aguilar-Elguezabal, A; Orrantia, E; Bocanegra-Bernal, M H

    2010-02-01

    The influence of the addition of Al(2)O(3) whiskers (2.5wt.% up to 30wt.%) on Vickers hardness and fracture toughness in an Al(2)O(3(n))+ZrO(2) (TZ-3Y)(n) (90, 80 and 70wt.%) composite was investigated. Green compacts were obtained by uniaxial pressing at 50MPa and pressureless sintering at 1500 degrees C in air for 2h. After sintering, relative densities ranging from 75% to 97% were reached. The whiskers resisted particle rearrangement owing to the extensive sliding distances along the whisker boundaries during sintering and the high length/diameter ratios. Sintering becomes more difficult with increasing whisker content, because whiskers come into contact with each other, forming a rigid network which hinders densification. The 2.5wt.% Al(2)O(3) whiskers+27.5wt.% Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles+70wt.% TZ-3Y composite showed a hardness>13GPa and a maximum fracture toughness of 6.9MPam(-1/2), with an average grain size of 0.4+/-0.17microm. The observed crack deflection was an important mechanism in the improved fracture toughness of the composite. In addition, the grain size and residual porosity also seem to be factors in obtaining a wide range of hardness as well as fracture toughness by varying the Al(2)O(3) whiskers and ZrO(2) (TZ-3Y) content. The use of alumina-whisker-reinforced composites in dental applications could be promising for increasing hardness and fracture toughness compared with other materials. The reported values for these composites can compete with those of commercially available materials in different dental applications.

  6. Fabrication of charged membranes by the solvent-assisted lipid bilayer (SALB) formation method on SiO2 and Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Vafaei, Setareh; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we employed the solvent-assisted lipid bilayer (SALB) formation method to fabricate charged membranes on solid supports. The SALB formation method exploits a ternary mixture of lipid-alcohol-aqueous buffer to deposit lamellar phase structures on solid supports upon gradual increase of the buffer fraction. Using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique, we investigated the formation of negatively and positively charged membranes via the SALB formation method and directly compared with the vesicle fusion method on two different oxide films. Bilayers containing an increasing fraction of negatively charged DOPS lipid molecules were successfully formed on both SiO2 and Al2O3 substrates using the SALB formation method at physiological pH (7.5). In contrast, the vesicle fusion method did not support bilayer formation on Al2O3 and those containing more than 10% DOPS ruptured on SiO2 only under acidic conditions (pH 5). Characterization of the fraction of negatively charge DOPS by in situ annexin 5A binding assay revealed that the fraction of DOPS lipid molecules in the bilayers formed on Al2O3 is significantly higher than that formed on SiO2. This suggests that the SALB self-assembly of charged membranes is predominantly governed by the electrostatic interaction. Furthermore, our findings indicate that when multicomponent lipid mixtures are used, the relative fraction of lipids in the bilayer may differ from the fraction of lipids in the precursor mixture. PMID:25858554

  7. Role of Tricoordinate Al Sites in CH3ReO3/Al2O3 Olefin Metathesis Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Valla, Maxence; Wischert, Raphael; Comas-Vives, Aleix; Conley, Matthew P; Verel, René; Copéret, Christophe; Sautet, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Re2O7 supported on γ-alumina is an alkene metathesis catalyst active at room temperature, compatible with functional groups, but the exact structures of the active sites are unknown. Using CH3ReO3/Al2O3 as a model for Re2O7/Al2O3, we show through a combination of reactivity studies, in situ solid-state NMR, and an extensive series of DFT calculations, that μ-methylene structures (Al-CH2-ReO3-Al) containing a Re═O bound to a tricoordinated Al (AlIII) and CH2 bound to a four-coordinated Al (AlIVb) are the precursors of the most active sites for olefin metathesis. The resting state of CH3ReO3/Al2O3 is a distribution of μ-methylene species formed by the activation of the C-H bond of CH3ReO3 on different surface Al-O sites. In situ reaction with ethylene results in the formation of Re metallacycle intermediates, which were studied in detail through a combination of solid-state NMR experiments, using labeled ethylene, and DFT calculations. In particular, we were able to distinguish between metallacycles in TBP (trigonal-bipyramidal) and SP (square-pyramidal) geometry, the latter being inactive and detrimental to catalytic activity. The SP sites are more likely to be formed on other Al sites (AlIVa/AlIVa). Experimentally, the activity of CH3ReO3/Al2O3 depends on the activation temperature of alumina; catalysts activated at or above 500 °C contain more active sites than those activated at 300 °C. We show that the dependence of catalytic activity on the Al2O3 activation temperature is related to the quantity of available AlIII-defect sites and adsorbed H2O.

  8. Role of Tricoordinate Al Sites in CH3ReO3/Al2O3 Olefin Metathesis Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Valla, Maxence; Wischert, Raphael; Comas-Vives, Aleix; Conley, Matthew P; Verel, René; Copéret, Christophe; Sautet, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Re2O7 supported on γ-alumina is an alkene metathesis catalyst active at room temperature, compatible with functional groups, but the exact structures of the active sites are unknown. Using CH3ReO3/Al2O3 as a model for Re2O7/Al2O3, we show through a combination of reactivity studies, in situ solid-state NMR, and an extensive series of DFT calculations, that μ-methylene structures (Al-CH2-ReO3-Al) containing a Re═O bound to a tricoordinated Al (AlIII) and CH2 bound to a four-coordinated Al (AlIVb) are the precursors of the most active sites for olefin metathesis. The resting state of CH3ReO3/Al2O3 is a distribution of μ-methylene species formed by the activation of the C-H bond of CH3ReO3 on different surface Al-O sites. In situ reaction with ethylene results in the formation of Re metallacycle intermediates, which were studied in detail through a combination of solid-state NMR experiments, using labeled ethylene, and DFT calculations. In particular, we were able to distinguish between metallacycles in TBP (trigonal-bipyramidal) and SP (square-pyramidal) geometry, the latter being inactive and detrimental to catalytic activity. The SP sites are more likely to be formed on other Al sites (AlIVa/AlIVa). Experimentally, the activity of CH3ReO3/Al2O3 depends on the activation temperature of alumina; catalysts activated at or above 500 °C contain more active sites than those activated at 300 °C. We show that the dependence of catalytic activity on the Al2O3 activation temperature is related to the quantity of available AlIII-defect sites and adsorbed H2O. PMID:27140286

  9. Mesoscopic analysis of leakage current suppression in ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2 nano-laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Dominik; Grube, Matthias; Weinreich, Wenke; Müller, Johannes; Weber, Walter M.; Schröder, Uwe; Riechert, Henning; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Metal-Insulator-Metal capacitors, with ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2 (ZAZ)-nanolaminate thin-films as a dielectric layer, exhibit reduced leakage currents compared to corresponding capacitors based on pure ZrO2 while maintaining a sufficiently high dielectric constant for the DRAM application. This work is a comparative study demonstrating how the incorporation of a small amount of Al is responsible for the suppression of crystallization during deposition. Extensive electrical characterization leads to the identification of a defect band which conductive atomic force microscopy shows to be formed along crystallite grain boundaries, extending through the entire ZrO2-film. The incorporation of a sub-layer of Al2O3 prevents these grain boundaries resulting in an effective reduction of leakage currents, despite the film being in the nanocrystalline phase, necessary for it to exhibit the required high dielectric constant. A transport model based on phonon assisted trap to trap tunneling is proposed.

  10. Rectification and tunneling effects enabled by Al2O3 atomic layer deposited on back contact of CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Lin, Qinxian; Li, Hao; Su, Yantao; Yang, Xiaoyang; Wu, Zhongzhen; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Xinwei; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is employed to optimize the back contact of thin film CdTe solar cells. Al2O3 layers with a thickness of 0.5 nm to 5 nm are tested, and an improved efficiency, up to 12.1%, is found with the 1 nm Al2O3 deposition, compared with the efficiency of 10.7% without Al2O3 modification. The performance improvement stems from the surface modification that optimizes the rectification and tunneling of back contact. The current-voltage analysis indicates that the back contact with 1 nm Al2O3 maintains large tunneling leakage current and improves the filled factor of CdTe cells through the rectification effect. XPS and capacitance-voltage electrical measurement analysis show that the ALD-Al2O3 modification layer features a desired low-density of interface state of 8 × 1010 cm-2 by estimation.

  11. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0

  12. [Catalytic degradation of naphthalene by CuO (-CeO2)/Al2O3].

    PubMed

    Zha, Jian; Zhou, Hong-Cang; He, Du-Liang; Shan, Long; Zhang, Lu; Xie, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Three catalysts CuO/Al2O3, CeO2/Al2O3 and CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 were prepared by the impregnation method. The textural and structural properties of the synthesized catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, SEM and XRD, and the effect of active ingredients, flow rate and reaction temperature on catalytic degradation of naphthalene (NaP) were investigated in fixed-bed reactor. The experimental results show that the prepared 18% CeO2/Al2O3 has a low catalytic activity of NaP. Nevertheless, both 18% CuO/Al2O3 and 9% CuO-9% CeO2/Al2O3 exhibit high catalytic activity whose removal efficiencies at 300°C can reach 91% and 89%, respectively. Besides, compared with CuO/Al2O3, CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 possesses a higher low-temperature activity. Furthermore, the variation of flow rates has little effect on the performance of two catalysts.

  13. Injection Seeding of Ti:Al2O3 in an unstable resonator theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C.; Wang, L. G.; Barnes, N. P.; Edwards, W. C.; Cheng, W. A.; Hess, R. V.; Lockard, G. E.; Ponsardin, P. L.

    1991-01-01

    Injection Seeding of a Ti:Al2O3 unstable resonator using both a pulsed single-mode Ti:Al2O3 laser and a continuous wave laser diode has been characterized. Results are compared with a theory which calculates injection seeding as function of seed and resonator alignment, beam profiles, and power.

  14. [Catalytic degradation of naphthalene by CuO (-CeO2)/Al2O3].

    PubMed

    Zha, Jian; Zhou, Hong-Cang; He, Du-Liang; Shan, Long; Zhang, Lu; Xie, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Three catalysts CuO/Al2O3, CeO2/Al2O3 and CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 were prepared by the impregnation method. The textural and structural properties of the synthesized catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, SEM and XRD, and the effect of active ingredients, flow rate and reaction temperature on catalytic degradation of naphthalene (NaP) were investigated in fixed-bed reactor. The experimental results show that the prepared 18% CeO2/Al2O3 has a low catalytic activity of NaP. Nevertheless, both 18% CuO/Al2O3 and 9% CuO-9% CeO2/Al2O3 exhibit high catalytic activity whose removal efficiencies at 300°C can reach 91% and 89%, respectively. Besides, compared with CuO/Al2O3, CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 possesses a higher low-temperature activity. Furthermore, the variation of flow rates has little effect on the performance of two catalysts. PMID:25693411

  15. [CuO-Ru/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation of acetophenone in water].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Shi, Rui; Zang, Xing-jie; Tong, Shao-ping; Ma, Chun-an

    2010-03-01

    Two-component CuO-Ru based on active Al2O3 (CuO-Ru/Al2O3) catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and used to catalytic ozonation of acetophenone (AP). The results showed that doping Ru could significantly improve the catalytic activity of CuO/Al2O3. For example, the COD removal rates of AP solution after 30 min by ozonation alone, CuO/Al2O3/O3, and CuO-Ru/Al2O3/O3 were 6.3%, 20.0% and 54.0%, respectively. The change of pH almost had no affect on degradation efficiency of AP. However, a comparison of COD removal between ozonation alone and catalytic ozonation indicated that CuO-Ru/Al2O3 catalyst was more suitable for application in neutral or acidic condition. CuO-Ru/Al2O3 catalyst could accelerate decomposition rate of ozone in water, and its decomposition rate constant reached 2.58 x 10(-3) s(-1) while that of ozone alone in double-water was 1.19 x 10(-3) s(-1). The experimental result of t-butanol indicated that CuO-Ru/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation of AP followed a radical-type mechanism. PMID:20358832

  16. Influences of high-temperature annealing on atomic layer deposited Al2O3/4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Yu; Shen, Hua-Jun; Bai, Yun; Tang, Yi-Dan; Liu, Ke-An; Li, Cheng-Zhan; Liu, Xin-Yu

    2013-07-01

    High-temperature annealing of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 films on 4H-SiC in O2 atmosphere is studied with temperature ranging from 800 °C to 1000 °C. It is observed that the surface morphology of Al2O3 films annealed at 800 °C and 900 °C is pretty good, while the surface of the sample annealed at 1000 °C becomes bumpy. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements demonstrate that the as-grown films are amorphous and begin to crystallize at 900 °C. Furthermore, C—V measurements exhibit improved interface characterization after annealing, especially for samples annealed at 900 °C and 1000 °C. It is indicated that high-temperature annealing in O2 atmosphere can improve the interface of Al2O3/SiC and annealing at 900 °C would be an optimum condition for surface morphology, dielectric quality, and interface states.

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of Co68Fe24Zr8/Al2O3 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidbaum, Hans; Raanaei, Hossein; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th.; Leifer, Klaus; Hjörvarsson, Björgvin

    2010-02-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Co68Fe24Zr8/Al2O3 multilayers grown by using magnetron sputtering were investigated with X-ray reflectivity, transmission electron microscopy and magneto-optical Kerr effect. The Co68Fe24Zr8 form amorphous islands when the nominal thickness of the Co68Fe24Zr8 layers is 10 Å, exhibiting an isotropic superparamagnetic behavior. Continuous layers with mostly a nano-crystalline structure are instead formed when the nominal thickness of the Co68Fe24Zr8 layers is increased to 20 Å. The continuous layers exhibit random, in-plane, magnetic anisotropy resulting from the growth process. However, induced uniaxial anisotropy is obtained when growing the sample in the presence of an applied magnetic field, regardless of the combination of amorphous and nano-crystalline material.

  18. Field-assisted Densification of Superhard B6O Materials with Y2O3/Al2O3 Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, M.; Raethel, J.; Sempf, K.; Thiele, M.; Bales, A.; Sigalas, I.

    B6O is a possible candidate of superhard materials with a hardness of 45 GPa measured on single crystals. Up to now, densification of these materials was only possible at high pressure. However, recently it was found that different oxides can be utilized as effective sintering additives. In this work the effect of addition of Y2O3/Al2O3 on the densification behaviour as a function of applied pressure, its microstructure evolution, and resulting mechanical properties were investigated. A strong dependence of the densification with increasing pressure was found. The material revealed characteristic triple junctions filled with amorphous residue composed of B2O3, Al2O3 and Y2O3, while no amorphous grain-boundary films were observed along internal interfaces. Mechanical testing revealed on average hardness of 33 GPa, a fracture toughness of 4 MPam1/2, and a strength value of 500 MPa.

  19. Effect of incorporation of different modified Al2O3 nanoparticles on holographic characteristics of PVA/AA photopolymer composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunxi; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Hailong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Han, Junhe; Huang, Mingju

    2015-11-20

    Al2O3 nanoparticles modified with different chemical reagents, prepared by using three chemical dispersants [high definition (HD), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, and cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride], were doped into photopolymer films in a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide (PVA/AA) system, respectively. A 647 nm Ar-Kr laser was used to expose and study the holographic properties of the samples. The research shows that doping Al2O3 nanoparticles into PVA/AA photopolymer film leads to different levels of improvement of the holographic characteristics. The diffraction efficiency of the sample can be raised to 93.8%, the maximum refractive index modulation increased to 2.28×10(-3), the shrinkage can be depressed to 0.8%, and the Bragg mismatch is 0.04°, while the concentration of 10 nm Al2O3 nanoparticles modified by HD dispersant is 1.02×10(-3)  mol·L(-1). PMID:26836540

  20. Synthesis and study on pore structure of SiO2/Al2O3 aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakina, O. V.; Glazkova, E. A.; Svarovskaya, N. V.; Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Lerner, M. I.; Petrova, T. M.; Ponomarev, Y. N.; Solodov, A. A.; Solodov, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    In the current paper, the mixed SiO2/Al2O3 aerogel was synthesized by sol-gel method with subcritical drying and characterized. Tetraethoxysilane was used as a precursor of silicon sol. The flower-shaped alumina suspension was peptized to produce alumina sol. The aerogel texture, morphology, and structure were determined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, and high-resolution spectroscopy. A special attention was paid to the pore structure of aerogel, and aerogel framework was formed by the spherical agglomerates containing spherical particles of silicon oxide and alumina nanopetals. The pore size distribution was bimodal with peaks of 5.5 nm and 77 nm.

  1. Solution-processed Al2O3 gate dielectrics for graphene field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Goon-Ho; Kim, Kwan-Soo; Fukidome, Hirokazu; Suemitsu, Tetsuya; Otsuji, Taiichi; Cho, Won-Ju; Suemitsu, Maki

    2016-09-01

    The performance of actual graphene FETs suffers significant degradation from that expected for pristine graphene, which can be partly attributed to the onset of defects and the doping of the graphene induced during the fabrication of gate dielectric layers. These effects are mainly due to high-temperature processes such as postdeposition annealing. Here, we propose a novel low-temperature method for the fabrication of gate dielectrics, which consists of the natural oxidation of an ultrathin Al layer and a sol–gel process with oxygen plasma treatment to form an Al2O3 layer. The method results in a significant reduction of defects and doping in graphene, and devices fabricated by this method show an intrinsic carrier mobility as high as 9100 cm2 V‑1 s‑1.

  2. Adsorption properties of CO, H2 and CH4 over Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalyst: A density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zijian; Wang, Ben; Yu, Jie; Ma, Chuan; Qu, Qinggong; Zeng, Zhao; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Sun, Lushi

    2016-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to investigate the adsorption characteristics of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), and methane (CH4) on the surface of clean γ-Al2O3 and Pd supported γ-Al2O3, which is of significant for catalytic combustion. The adsorption intensities of the three gas molecules in pure γ-Al2O3 (1 1 0) and Pd/γ-Al2O3 (1 1 0) were in the order of CO > H2 > CH4. The corresponding adsorption energies on the Pd/γ-Al2O3 (1 1 0) surface were at least three times higher than those on γ-Al2O3 (1 1 0). Anlysis of Mulliken population and partial density of states (PDOS) showed that the adsorption mechanisms were as follow: (a) CO stably adsorbed on the bridge site of dimer Pd with two Csbnd Pd bonds because of charges transfer from the surface to CO, and the triple bond (Ctbnd O) was broken to a double bond (Cdbnd O); (b) H2 was dissociated into hydrogen atoms on the dimer Pd and produced a stable planar configuration; and (c) the tetrahedral structure of CH4 was destroyed on the surface and formed a sbnd CH3 species bonded to the Pd atom, which contributes to the orbital hybridization between C and Pd atoms.

  3. Properties of slow traps of ALD Al2O3/GeOx/Ge nMOSFETs with plasma post oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, M.; Yu, X.; Chang, C.; Takenaka, M.; Takagi, S.

    2016-07-01

    The realization of Ge gate stacks with a small amount of slow trap density as well as thin equivalent oxide thickness and low interface state density (Dit) is a crucial issue for Ge CMOS. In this study, we examine the properties of slow traps, particularly the location of slow traps, of Al2O3/GeOx/n-Ge and HfO2/Al2O3/GeOx/n-Ge MOS interfaces with changing the process and structural parameters, formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 and HfO2/Al2O3 combined with plasma post oxidation. It is found that the slow traps can locate in the GeOx interfacial layer, not in the ALD Al2O3 layer. Furthermore, we study the time dependence of channel currents in the Ge n-MOSFETs with 5-nm-thick Al2O3/GeOx/Ge gate stacks, with changing the thickness of GeOx, in order to further clarify the position of slow traps. The time dependence of the current drift and the effective time constant of slow traps do not change among the MOSFETs with the different thickness GeOx, demonstrating that the slow traps mainly exist near the interfaces between Ge and GeOx.

  4. Synthesis, sintering and characterization of Al2O 3-TiC nano-composites powders from carbon coated precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaga, Hisashi

    Synthesis, sintering and characterization of Al2O3-TiC nano-composite powders from carbon coated precursors were investigated. Degussa P-25 titanium dioxide, Cabot carbon black, and Alfa Aesar aluminum were the initial starting powders. Hydrocarbon gas (C3H6) was used as the carbon source for the carbon coated precursors. Analytical methods employed in this research were BET surface area measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Vickers hardness tester, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For Al2O3-TiC formation studies, three different types of precursors which are carbon coated TiO2/Al mixture, mixture of carbon coated TiO2 and Al, and standard mixture of TiO 2, Al, and carbon black were prepared to examine formation mechanism reaction. The carbon coated TiO2/Al mixture dramatically changed the reaction mechanism and produced high quality nanosize Al2O 3-TiC powders. XRD and BET results showed that the carbon coated TiO 2/Al synthesized at 1200°C had only Al2O3 and TiC phases with high surface area about 22m2/g which were formed via intermediate phases of Ti2O3 and Al 3Ti. TEM results showed that the produced Al2O3-TiC powders had fine particle size (20--80 nm), narrow particle size distribution, and freely agglomerated. DSC curve and XRD results of the carbon coated TiO 2/Al mixture also showed that there were two endothermic and three successive weak exothermic reactions because released heat was controlled by the carbon coating. Experimentally determined the first exothermic reaction 5Al + 3TiO 2 → Al2O3 + Ti2O3 + Al3Ti which was compared with theoretical explanation model and they were found to be in agreement. Sintering behavior of nano-size Al 2O3-TiC synthesized from carbon coated precursors was investigated in Al2O3-TiC-MgO system using pressureless sintering and hot-pressing methods. After pressureless sintering, MgO doped Al 2O3-20wt.%TiC resulted in 98% of theoretical

  5. Catalytic ozonation of petroleum refinery wastewater utilizing Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O 3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmao; Yoza, Brandon A; Wang, Yandan; Wang, Ping; Li, Qing X; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2015-04-01

    There is of great interest to develop an economic and high-efficient catalytic ozonation system (COS) for the treatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. Applications of COS require options of commercially feasible catalysts. Experiments in the present study were designed to prepare and investigate a novel manganese-iron-copper oxide-supported alumina-assisted COS (Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS) for the pretreatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. The highly dispersed composite metal oxides on the catalyst surface greatly promoted the performance of catalytic ozonation. Hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation is a dominant reaction in Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS enhanced COD removal by 32.7% compared with a single ozonation system and by 8-16% compared with Mn-Fe/Al2O3-COS, Mn-Cu/Al2O3-COS, and Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. The O/C and H/C ratios of oxygen-containing polar compounds significantly increased after catalytic ozonation, and the biodegradability of petroleum refinery wastewater was significantly improved. This study illustrates potential applications of Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS for pretreatment of biologically refractory wastewaters.

  6. Pinhole Effect on the Melting Behavior of Ag@Al2O3 SERS Substrates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lingwei; Huang, Yu; Hou, Mengjing; Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-12-01

    High-temperature surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing is significant for practical detections, and pinhole-containing (PC) metal@oxide structures possessing both enhanced thermal stability and superior SERS sensitivity are served as promising SERS sensors at extreme sensing conditions. Through tuning the Al2O3 precursors' exposure time during atomic layer deposition (ALD), Al2O3 shells with different amount of pinholes were covered over Ag nanorods (Ag NRs). By virtue of these unique PC Ag@Al2O3 nanostructures, herein we provide an excellent platform to investigate the relationship between the pinhole rate of Al2O3 shells and the melting behavior, high-temperature SERS performances of these core-shell nanostructures. Pinhole effect on the melting procedures of PC Ag@Al2O3 substrates was characterized in situ via their reflectivity variations during heating, and the specific melting point was quantitatively estimated. It is found that the melting point of PC Ag@Al2O3 raised along with the decrement of pinhole rate, and substrates with less pinholes exhibited better thermal stability but sacrificed SERS efficiency. This work achieved highly reliable and precise control of the pinholes over Al2O3 shells, offering sensitive SERS substrates with intensified thermal stability and superior SERS performances at extreme sensing conditions. PMID:27033846

  7. Catalytic ozonation of petroleum refinery wastewater utilizing Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O 3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmao; Yoza, Brandon A; Wang, Yandan; Wang, Ping; Li, Qing X; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2015-04-01

    There is of great interest to develop an economic and high-efficient catalytic ozonation system (COS) for the treatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. Applications of COS require options of commercially feasible catalysts. Experiments in the present study were designed to prepare and investigate a novel manganese-iron-copper oxide-supported alumina-assisted COS (Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS) for the pretreatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. The highly dispersed composite metal oxides on the catalyst surface greatly promoted the performance of catalytic ozonation. Hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation is a dominant reaction in Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS enhanced COD removal by 32.7% compared with a single ozonation system and by 8-16% compared with Mn-Fe/Al2O3-COS, Mn-Cu/Al2O3-COS, and Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. The O/C and H/C ratios of oxygen-containing polar compounds significantly increased after catalytic ozonation, and the biodegradability of petroleum refinery wastewater was significantly improved. This study illustrates potential applications of Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS for pretreatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. PMID:25649390

  8. Pinhole Effect on the Melting Behavior of Ag@Al2O3 SERS Substrates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lingwei; Huang, Yu; Hou, Mengjing; Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-12-01

    High-temperature surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing is significant for practical detections, and pinhole-containing (PC) metal@oxide structures possessing both enhanced thermal stability and superior SERS sensitivity are served as promising SERS sensors at extreme sensing conditions. Through tuning the Al2O3 precursors' exposure time during atomic layer deposition (ALD), Al2O3 shells with different amount of pinholes were covered over Ag nanorods (Ag NRs). By virtue of these unique PC Ag@Al2O3 nanostructures, herein we provide an excellent platform to investigate the relationship between the pinhole rate of Al2O3 shells and the melting behavior, high-temperature SERS performances of these core-shell nanostructures. Pinhole effect on the melting procedures of PC Ag@Al2O3 substrates was characterized in situ via their reflectivity variations during heating, and the specific melting point was quantitatively estimated. It is found that the melting point of PC Ag@Al2O3 raised along with the decrement of pinhole rate, and substrates with less pinholes exhibited better thermal stability but sacrificed SERS efficiency. This work achieved highly reliable and precise control of the pinholes over Al2O3 shells, offering sensitive SERS substrates with intensified thermal stability and superior SERS performances at extreme sensing conditions.

  9. Pinhole Effect on the Melting Behavior of Ag@Al2O3 SERS Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lingwei; Huang, Yu; Hou, Mengjing; Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-03-01

    High-temperature surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing is significant for practical detections, and pinhole-containing (PC) metal@oxide structures possessing both enhanced thermal stability and superior SERS sensitivity are served as promising SERS sensors at extreme sensing conditions. Through tuning the Al2O3 precursors' exposure time during atomic layer deposition (ALD), Al2O3 shells with different amount of pinholes were covered over Ag nanorods (Ag NRs). By virtue of these unique PC Ag@Al2O3 nanostructures, herein we provide an excellent platform to investigate the relationship between the pinhole rate of Al2O3 shells and the melting behavior, high-temperature SERS performances of these core-shell nanostructures. Pinhole effect on the melting procedures of PC Ag@Al2O3 substrates was characterized in situ via their reflectivity variations during heating, and the specific melting point was quantitatively estimated. It is found that the melting point of PC Ag@Al2O3 raised along with the decrement of pinhole rate, and substrates with less pinholes exhibited better thermal stability but sacrificed SERS efficiency. This work achieved highly reliable and precise control of the pinholes over Al2O3 shells, offering sensitive SERS substrates with intensified thermal stability and superior SERS performances at extreme sensing conditions.

  10. Ni-Al2O3 and Ni-Al composite high-aspect-ratio microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Sorrell, Melford; Kelly, Kevin W.; Ma, Evan

    1998-09-01

    High-aspect-ratio microstructures (HARMs) have a variety of potential applications in heat transfer, fluid mechanics, catalysts and other microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility to fabricate high performance particulate metal-matrix composite and intermetallic micromechanical structures using the LIGA process. Well-defined functionally graded Ni-Al2O3 and Ni-Al high-aspect-ratio microposts were electroformed into lithographically patterned PMMA holes from a nickel sulfamate bath containing submicron alumina and a diluted Watts bath containing microsized aluminum particles, respectively. SEM image analysis showed that the volume fraction of the alumina reached up to around 30% in the Ni-Al2O3 deposit. The Vickers microhardness of these composites is in the range of 418 through 545, which is higher than those of nickel microstructures from a similar particle-free bath and other Ni-based electrodeposits. In the work on Ni-Al electroplating, a newly developed diluted Watts bath was used to codeposit micron-sized aluminum particles. The intermetallic compound Ni3Al was formed by the reaction of nickel matrices and aluminum particles through subsequent annealing at 630 degrees Celsius. WDS and XRD analyses confirmed that the annealed coating is a two-phase (Ni-Ni3Al) composite. The maximum aluminum volume fraction reached 19% at a cathode current density of 12 mA cm-2, and the Vickers microhardness of the as-deposited coatings is in the range 392 - 515 depending on the amount of aluminum incorporated.

  11. Finite element analysis of WC-Al2O3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Vaish, Rahul

    2014-02-01

    Object oriented finite element analysis (OOF2) is used to estimate the thermal and mechanical properties of WC-Al2O3 composites. In the present work, five compositions of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% Al2O3 (by volume) are studied. Young's modulus, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient are estimated using OOF2 and compared with other known analytical methods. Stress and strain contours are plotted to study the thermal and mechanical behavior of composites. It is found that the stresses are largely concentrated at the interfaces of the WC-Al2O3 phases.

  12. Synthesis and optical studies of chemically synthesized PPy/Al2O3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, Indra; Mishra, Sheo K.; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Shukla, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, we have synthesised pure and 2wt% Al2O3 doped PPy by the chemical oxidation method. XRD patterns of 2wt% Al2O3 doped PPy shows several broad peaks while pure PPy shows only one single peak indicating poor crystalline phase of PPy. FTIR spectra confirm the formation of PPy and also suggest that doping of Al2O3 in PPy does not affect its structure. PL shows several emission peaks for both samples located at ˜365 nm with two shoulders at ˜473 nm and ˜533 nm. The further synthesis and properties study is under investigation.

  13. Thermoluminescence studies of γ-irradiated Al2O3:Ce3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Satyanarayana; Nagabhushana, K. R.; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-01

    Pure and Ce3+ doped Al2O3 phosphors were synthesized by solution combustion method. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and its shows α-phase of Al2O3. Crystallite size was estimated by Williamson-Hall (W-H) method and found to be 49, 59 and 84 nm for pure, 0.1 mol% and 1 mol% Ce3+ doped Al2O3 respectively. Trace elemental analysis of undoped Al2O3 shows impurities viz. Fe, Cr, Mn, Mg, Ti, etc. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Al2O3:Ce3+ shows emission at 367 nm and excitation peak at 273 nm, which are corresponding to 5D → 4F and 4F → 5D transitions respectively. PL intensity decreases with concentration up to 0.4 mol%, beyond this mol% PL intensity increases with doping concentration up to 2 mol%. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies of γ-rayed pure and Ce3+ doped Al2O3 have been studied. Two well resolved TL glow peaks at 457.5 K and 622 K were observed in pure Al2O3. Additional glow peak at 566 K was observed in Al2O3:Ce3+. Maximum TL intensity was observed for Al2O3:Ce3+ (0.1 mol%) beyond this TL intensity decreases with increasing Ce3+ concentration. Computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) method was used to resolve the multiple peaks and to calculate TL kinetic parameters. Thermoluminescence emission (TLE) spectra of pure Al2O3 glow peaks (457.5 K and 622 K) shows sharp emission at 694 nm and two small humps at 672 nm and 709 nm. The sharp peak at 696 nm corresponds to Cr3+ impurity of 2Eg → 4A2g transition of R lines and 713 nm hump is undoubtedly belongs to Cr3+ emission of near neighbor pairs. The emission at 672 nm is characteristic of Mn4+ impurity ions of 2E → 4A2 transition. TLE of Al2O3:Ce3+ (0.1 mol%) shows additional broad emission at 412 nm corresponds to F-centers. Linearity is observed in the dose range 20-500 Gy in Al2O3:Ce3+ (1 mol%).

  14. [Preparation, characterization and three way catalytic performance for Pd/CZ/Al2O3 catalyst].

    PubMed

    Fang, Shi-Ping; Chen, Hong-De; Tian, Qun; Yao, Qing; Han, Yun

    2005-09-01

    Pd/CZ/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by impregnating a noble metal solution to the support CZ/Al2O3 which was prefabricated by co-impregnation. The investigation results show that Pd/CZ/Al2O3 has a superior three-way catalytic performance, which is comparable to Pd/CZ for the fresh sample and a better one after thermal ageing. Based on the XRD, BET and TPR characterizations, the internal relationship between catalytic performance, composition and structure was discussed. The relatively high activity after thermal ageing is ascribed to the maintenance of the Strong Metal-Support Interaction (SMSI).

  15. Proactive control of the metal-ceramic interface behavior of thermal barrier coatings using an artificial alpha-Al2O 3 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yi-Feng

    The reliability and life of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used in the hottest sections of advanced aircraft engines and power generation systems are largely dictated by: (1) the ability of a metallic bond coating to form an adherent thermally grown oxide (TGO) at the metal-ceramic interface and (2) the rate at which the TGO grows upon oxidation. It is postulated that a thin alpha-Al2O3 layer, if it could be directly deposited on a Ni-based alloy, will guide the alloy surface to form a TGO that is more tenacious and slower growing than what is attainable with state-of-the-art bond coatings. A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process was used to directly deposit an alpha-Al2O3 layer on the surface of a single crystal Ni-bases superalloy. The layer was 150 nm thick, and consisted of small columnar grains (˜100 to 200 nm) with alpha-Al2O 3 as the major phase with a minute amount of theta-Al2O 3. Within 0.5 h of oxidation at 1150°C, the resulting TGO formed on the alloy surface underwent significant lateral grain growth. Consequently, within this time scale, the columnar nature of the TGO became well established. After 50 h, a network of ridges was clearly observed on the TGO surface instead of equiaxed grains typically observed on uncoated alloy surface. Comparison of the TGO morphologies observed with and without the CVD-Al2O 3 layer suggested that the transient oxidation of the alloy surface was considerably reduced. The alloy coated with the CVD-Al2O 3 layer also produced a much more adherent and slow growing TGO in comparison to that formed on the uncoated alloy surface. The CVD-Al2O 3 layer also improved its spallation resistance. Without the CVD-Al 2O3 layer, more than 50% of the TGO spalled off the alloy surface after 500 h in oxidation with significant wrinkling of the TGO that remained on the alloy surface. In contrast, the TGO remained intact with the CVD-Al2O3 layer after the 500 h exposure. Furthermore, the CVD layer significantly reduced the degree of

  16. Al2O3 as a suitable substrate and a dielectric layer for n-layer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arunima K.; Hennig, Richard G.; Davydov, Albert V.; Tavazza, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Sapphire (α-Al2O3) is a common substrate for the growth of single- to few-layer MoS2 films, and amorphous aluminium oxide serves as a high-κ dielectric gate oxide for MoS2 based transistors. Using density-functional theory calculations with a van der Waals functional, we investigate the structural, energetic, and electronic properties of n-layer MoS2 (n = 1and 3) on the α-Al2O3 (0001) surface. Our results show that the sapphire stabilizes single-layer and tri-layer MoS2, while having a negligible effect on the structure, band gap, and electron effective masses of MoS2. This combination of a strong energetic stabilization and weak perturbation of the electronic properties shows that α-Al2O3 can serve as an ideal substrate for depositing ultra-thin MoS2 layers and can also serve as a passivation or gate-oxide layer for MoS2 based devices.

  17. Reduced defect density at the CZTSSe/CdS interface by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan, Mehmet Eray; Chawla, Vardaan; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    The greatest challenge for improving the power conversion efficiency of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe)/CdS/ZnO thin film solar cells is increasing the open circuit voltage (VOC). Probable leading causes of the VOC deficit in state-of-the-art CZTSSe devices have been identified as bulk recombination, band tails, and the intertwined effects of CZTSSe/CdS band offset, interface defects, and interface recombination. In this work, we demonstrate the modification of the CZTSSe absorber/CdS buffer interface following the deposition of 1 nm-thick Al2O3 layers by atomic layer deposition (ALD) near room temperature. Capacitance-voltage profiling and quantum efficiency measurements reveal that ALD-Al2O3 interface modification reduces the density of acceptor-like states at the heterojunction resulting in reduced interface recombination and wider depletion width. Indications of increased VOC resulting from the modification of the heterojunction interface as a result of ALD-Al2O3 treatment are presented. These results, while not conclusive for application to state-of-the-art high efficiency CZTSSe devices, suggest the need for further studies as it is probable that interface recombination contributes to reduced VOC even in such devices.

  18. Synthesis of Al-Al2O3 and Al-Aln Nanoparticle Composites Via Electric Explosion of Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, M. I.; Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Pervikov, A. V.; Bakina, O. V.

    2016-07-01

    Composite Al-Al2O3 and Al-AlN nanoparticles were synthesized via electric explosion of aluminum wires in an argon-oxygen gas mixture and in nitrogen. The parameters of electric explosion and gas medium affect the size and relative content of nitride and aluminum oxide in the nanoparticles. Processes of forming chemical compounds during aluminum oxidation at the contact surface between explosive products and gas and of nitrogen diffusions into the nanoparticles of the condensed phase are considered.

  19. Some Investigations on Effect of Cooling Rate on Al2O3 Reinforced Al-MMC Prepared by Vacuum Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rupinder; Sahni, Kanwalpreet

    2016-07-01

    In the present research work effort has been made to study the effect of cooling rate of Al2O3 reinforced; aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) on hardness of component prepared by vacuum moulding (VM) process. The study started with selection of the component for industrial application. This study also highlights the effect of reinforcement in form of double particle size and triple particle size on hardness of Al-Al2O3 MMC. The input parameters of process are composition of MMC, vacuum moulding silica sand AFS No., vacuum pressure and component volume. The results of study supported by microstructure analysis suggest the geometric model for MMC hardness prepared by VM process.

  20. A comparative study of CeO2-Al2O3 support prepared with different methods and its application on MoO3/CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst for sulfur-resistant methanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Minhong; Wang, Baowei; Yao, Yuqin; Li, Zhenhua; Ma, Xinbin; Qin, Shaodong; Sun, Qi

    2013-11-01

    The CeO2-Al2O3 supports prepared with impregnation (IM), deposition precipitation (DP), and solution combustion (SC) methods for MoO3/CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst were investigated in the sulfur-resistant methanation. The supports and catalysts were characterized by N2-physisorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). The N2-physisorption results indicated that the DP method was favorable for obtaining better textural properties. The TEM and RS results suggested that there is a CeO2 layer on the surface of the support prepared with DP method. This CeO2 layer not only prevented the interaction between MoO3 and γ-Al2O3 to form Al2(MoO4)3 species, but also improved the dispersion of MoO3 in the catalyst. Accordingly, the catalysts whose supports were prepared with DP method exhibited the best catalytic activity. The catalysts whose supports were prepared with SC method had the worst catalytic activity. This was caused by the formation of Al2(MoO4)3 and crystalline MoO3. Additionally, the CeO2 layer resulted in the instability of catalysts in reaction process. The increasing of calcination temperature of supports reduced the catalytic activity of all catalysts. The decrease extent of the catalysts whose supports were prepared with DP method was the lowest as the CeO2 layer prevented the interaction between MoO3 and γ-Al2O3.

  1. The formation of tungsten doped Al2O3/ZnO coatings on aluminum by plasma electrolytic oxidation and their application in photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojadinović, Stevan; Vasilić, Rastko; Radić, Nenad; Tadić, Nenad; Stefanov, Plamen; Grbić, Boško

    2016-07-01

    Tungsten doped Al2O3/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminum substrate in supporting electrolyte (0.1 M boric acid + 0.05 M borax + 2 g/L ZnO) with addition of different concentrations of Na2WO4·2H2O. The morphology, crystal structure, chemical composition, and light absorption characteristics of formed surface coatings are investigated. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that formed surface coatings consist of alpha and gamma phase of Al2O3, ZnO, metallic tungsten and WO3. Obtained results showed that incorporated tungsten does not have any influence on the absorption spectra of Al2O3/ZnO coatings, which showed invariable band edge at about 385 nm. The photocatalytic activity of undoped and tungsten doped Al2O3/ZnO coatings is estimated by the photodegradation of methyl orange. The photocatalytic activity of tungsten doped Al2O3/ZnO coatings is higher thanof undoped Al2O3/ZnO coatings; the best photocatalytic activity is ascribed to coatings formed in supporting electrolyte with addition of 0.3 g/L Na2WO4·2H2O. Tungsten in Al2O3/ZnO coatings acts as a charge trap, thus reducing the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The results of PL measurements are in agreement with photocatalytic activity. Declining PL intensity corresponds to increasing photocatalytic activity of the coatings, indicating slower recombination of electron-hole pairs.

  2. Production of hydrogen by autothermal reforming of propane over Ni/delta-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Ri; Lee, Kwi Yeon; Park, Nam Cook; Shin, Jae Soon; Moon, Dong Ju; Lee, Byung Gwon; Kim, Young Chul

    2006-11-01

    The performance of Ni/delta-Al2O3 catalyst in propane autothermal reforming (ATR) for hydrogen production was investigated in the present study. The catalysts were characterized using XRD, TEM, and SEM. The activity of the Ni/delta-Al2O3 catalyst manufactured by the water-alcohol method was better than those of the catalysts manufactured by the impregnation and chemical reduction methods. The Ni/delta-Al2O3 catalysts were modified by the addition of promoters such as Mg, La, Ce, and Co, in order to improve their stability and yield. Hydrogen production was the largest for the Ni-Co-CeO2/Al2O3, catalyst.

  3. 12Cao-7Al2o3 Electride Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Lauren P. (Inventor); Williams, John D. (Inventor); Martinez, Rafael A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The use of the electride form of 12CaO-7Al.sub.2O.sub.3, or C12A7, as a low work function electron emitter in a hollow cathode discharge apparatus is described. No heater is required to initiate operation of the present cathode, as is necessary for traditional hollow cathode devices. Because C12A7 has a fully oxidized lattice structure, exposure to oxygen does not degrade the electride. The electride was surrounded by a graphite liner since it was found that the C12A7 electride converts to it's eutectic (CA+C3A) form when heated (through natural hollow cathode operation) in a metal tube.

  4. Tb3+ ion doping into Al2O3: Solubility limit and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Yuya; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-11-01

    Tb3+-activated Al2O3 phosphors with a molar ratio of \\text{Al}:\\text{Tb} = (1 - x):x are synthesized by metal organic decomposition (x = 0–0.15) and subsequent calcination at T c = 200–1200 °C for 1 h in air. The material properties of the synthesized phosphors are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) analyses, PL excitation spectroscopy, and luminescence lifetime measurements. At x = 0.015, the metastable phase of γ-Al2O3 is obtained by calcination at T c ∼ 300–1050 °C and a mixture of γ, θ, and α phases at T c ∼ 1050–1150 °C. The high-temperature stable phase of α-Al2O3 is obtained only at T c ≥ 1150 °C. Below T c ∼ 300 °C, the XRD data suggest the formation of boehmite (AlOOH). The solubility limit of Tb3+ in α-Al2O3 is also clearly determined to be x ∼ 0.015 (1.5%). The PL decay time of the Tb3+ green emission in α-Al2O3 is ∼1.1 ms for x < 0.015 and slowly decreases with further increase in x (Tb3+). The schematic energy-level diagram of Tb3+ in α-Al2O3 is proposed for a better understanding of the present phosphor system. Finally, the temperature dependence of the PL intensity is examined between T = 20 and 450 K, yielding quenching energies of E q ∼ 0.28 eV (α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3).

  5. Al2O3 Scale Development on Iron Aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Thaidigsmann, Katja; Ager, Joel; Hou, Peggy Y.

    2005-11-10

    The structure and phase of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale that forms on an Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloy (Fe-28Al-5Cr) (at %) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). Oxidation was performed at 900 C and 1000 C for up to 190 min. TEM revealed that single-layer scales were formed after short oxidation times. Electron diffraction was used to show that the scales are composed of nanoscale crystallites of the {theta}, {gamma}, and {alpha} phases of alumina. Band-like structure was observed extending along three 120{sup o}-separated directions within the surface plane. Textured {theta} and {gamma} grains were the main components of the bands, while mixed {alpha} and transient phases were found between the bands. Extended oxidation produced a double-layered scale structure, with a continuous {alpha} layer at the scale/alloy interface, and a {gamma}/{theta} layer at the gas surface. The mechanism for the formation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales on iron aluminide alloys is discussed and compared to that for nickel aluminide alloys.

  6. Ion conduction and relaxation in PEO-LiTFSI-Al2O3 polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2015-05-01

    Ion conduction and relaxation in PEO-LiTFSI-Al2O3 polymer nanocomposite electrolytes have been studied for different concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetric studies show that the maximum amorphous phase of PEO is observed for PEO-LiTFSI embedded with 5 wt. % Al2O3. The maximum ionic conductivity ˜3.3 × 10-4 S cm-1 has been obtained for this composition. The transmission electron microscopic image shows a distribution of Al2O3 nanoparticles in all compositions with size of <50 nm. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity follows Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher nature, indicating a strong coupling between ionic and polymer chain segmental motions. The scaling of the ac conductivity implies that relaxation dynamics follows a common mechanism for different temperatures and Al2O3 concentrations. The imaginary modulus spectra are asymmetric and skewed toward the high frequency sides of the maxima and analyzed using Havriliak-Negami formalism. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time obtained from modulus spectra also exhibits Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher nature. The values of the stretched exponent obtained from Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts fit to the modulus data are fairly low, suggesting highly non-exponential relaxation for all concentrations of Al2O3 in these electrolytes.

  7. Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3-Al2O3 system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku

    2008-12-01

    We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO(3)-Al(2)O(3) system by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh(2)O(3)(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving Al(2)O(3) tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO(3) but the effect is not significant ( approximately -0.2 GPa/mol% Al(2)O(3)); (ii) Al(2)O(3) produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (approximately 1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (x(Al2O3) approximately 6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D'' seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (approximately 4 GPa) for the basaltic Al-rich composition (x(Al2O3) approximately 20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh(2)O(3)(II) with increasing the Al concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations.

  8. Influence of annealing temperature on the phase transformation of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, Annie Maria; Mastuli, Mohd Sufri; Kamarulzaman, Norlida

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, Al2O3 powders were prepared via a self-propagating combustion method using citric acid as a combustion agent. Effects of annealing temperature on the phase transformation of the prepared powders were studied on samples annealed at 800 °C and 1000 °C. The Al2O3 samples were characterized using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The XRD results showed that pure η-phase and pure α-phase of Al2O3 were obtained at 800 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. Their crystallite sizes are totally different as can be seen clearly from the FESEM micrographs. The η-Al2O3 sample annealed at low temperature has crystallite size smaller than 10 nm compared to the α-Al2O3 sample annealed at higher temperature which has crystallites from few microns to hundreds microns in size. From the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) method, the specific surface area for both samples are 59.4 m2g-1 and 3.1 m2g-1, respectively. It is proposed that the annealing temperature less pronounced for the morphology, but, it is significant for the phase transitions as well as the size and the specific surface area of the Al2O3 samples.

  9. Sodium ion diffusion in Al2O3: a distinct perspective compared with lithium ion diffusion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Chul; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Choi, Jang Wook; Han, Young-Kyu

    2014-11-12

    Surface coating of active materials has been one of the most effective strategies to mitigate undesirable side reactions and thereby improve the overall battery performance. In this direction, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is one of the most widely adopted coating materials due to its easy synthesis and low material cost. Nevertheless, the effect of Al2O3 coating on carrier ion diffusion has been investigated mainly for Li ion batteries, and the corresponding understanding for emerging Na ion batteries is currently missing. Using ab initio molecular dynamics calculations, herein, we first find that, unlike lithiation, sodiation of Al2O3 is thermodynamically unfavorable. Nonetheless, there can still exist a threshold in the Na ion content in Al2O3 before further diffusion into the adjacent active material, delivering a new insight that both thermodynamics and kinetics should be taken into account to describe ionic diffusion in any material media. Furthermore, Na ion diffusivity in NaxAl2O3 turns out to be much higher than Li ion diffusivity in LixAl2O3, a result opposite to the conventional stereotype based on the atomic radius consideration. While hopping between the O-rich trapping sites via an Na-O bond breaking/making process is identified as the main Na ion diffusion mechanism, the weaker Na-O bond strength than the Li-O counterpart turns out to be the origin of the superior diffusivity of Na ions.

  10. Reactive Plasma Spraying of Fine Al2O3/AlN Feedstock Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) is a promising technology for in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings. Recently, AlN-based coatings were fabricated by RPS of alumina (Al2O3) powder in N2/H2 thermal plasma. This study investigated the feasibility of RPS of a fine Al2O3/AlN mixture and the influence of the plasma gases (N2, H2) on the nitriding conversion, and coating microstructure and properties. Thick AlN/Al2O3 coatings with high nitride content were successfully fabricated. The coatings consist of h-AlN, c-AlN, Al5O6N, γ-Al2O3, and a small amount of α-Al2O3. Use of fine particles enhanced the nitriding conversion and the melting tendency by increasing the surface area. Furthermore, the AlN additive improved the AlN content in the coatings. Increasing the N2 gas flow rate improved the nitride content and complete crystal growth to the h-AlN phase, and enhanced the coating thickness. On the other hand, though the H2 gas is required for plasma nitriding of the Al2O3 particles, increasing its flow rate decreased the nitride content and the coating thickness. Remarkable influence of the plasma gases on the coating composition, microstructure, and properties was observed during RPS of the fine particles.

  11. Polystyrene-Al2O3 composite solid polymer electrolyte for lithium secondary battery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yu-Jeong; An, Yu-Ha; Jo, Nam-Ju

    2012-01-05

    In a common salt-in-polymer electrolyte, a polymer which has polar groups in the molecular chain is necessary because the polar groups dissolve lithium salt and coordinate cations. Based on the above point of view, polystyrene [PS] that has nonpolar groups is not suitable for the polymer matrix. However, in this PS-based composite polymer-in-salt system, the transport of cations is not by segmental motion but by ion-hopping through a lithium percolation path made of high content lithium salt. Moreover, Al2O3 can dissolve salt, instead of polar groups of polymer matrix, by the Lewis acid-base interactions between the surface group of Al2O3 and salt. Notably, the maximum enhancement of ionic conductivity is found in acidic Al2O3 compared with neutral and basic Al2O3 arising from the increase of free ion fraction by dissociation of salt. It was revealed that PS-Al2O3 composite solid polymer electrolyte containing 70 wt.% salt and 10 wt.% acidic Al2O3 showed the highest ionic conductivity of 9.78 × 10-5 Scm-1 at room temperature.

  12. Adsorption and dehydrogenation of 2-propanol on the surface of γ-Al2O3-supported gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Ramirez, Z.; Gonzalez-Calderon, J. A.; Almendarez-Camarillo, A.; Fierro-Gonzalez, J. C.

    2012-08-01

    The adsorption and reactions of 2-propanol on γ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3-supported gold samples were investigated by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and mass spectrometry. Adsorption of the alcohol on the samples at room temperature led to formation of molecularly adsorbed 2-propanol and 2-propoxide species bonded to Al3+ sites. Treatment of γ-Al2O3 after alcohol adsorption in flowing He from 25 to 300 °C led to 2-propanol desorption, without evidence of surface reactions. In contrast, when supported gold samples were exposed to the same thermal treatment, formation of acetone and H2 was observed by mass spectra of the effluent gases from the flow reactor. Concomitantly, IR spectra of the samples showed the appearance of a band at 1698 cm- 1, assigned to νCO vibrations of adsorbed acetone. The formation of acetone occurred by the dehydrogenation of 2-propoxide species bonded to Al3+ sites, as evidenced by (a) the decrease in the intensities of their IR bands and (b) the presence of a MDSC peak at approximately the same temperature as that at which acetone was formed and the 2-propoxide species were consumed. It is proposed that gold particles on the γ-Al2O3 surface facilitate breaking of the β-Csbnd H bond of neighboring surface 2-propoxide species to give acetone. Our results emphasize the bifunctional character of supported gold catalysts for the dehydrogenation of alcohols.

  13. Phase relations in the system MgSiO3-Al2O3 up to 52 GPa and 2000 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaodong; Irifune, Tetsuo; Nishi, Masayuki; Tange, Yoshinori; Arimoto, Takeshi; Shinmei, Toru

    2016-08-01

    Phase relations in the system MgSiO3-Al2O3 have been determined for pressures from 15 to 52 GPa and at a temperature of 2000 K from in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements obtained using sintered diamond anvils in a multi-anvil apparatus. A wide two-phase region of garnet and corundum is found to exist up to 27 GPa; at higher pressures, a phase assemblage of aluminous bridgmanite and corundum is stabilized. The solubility of Al2O3 in bridgmanite and that of MgSiO3 in corundum are highly dependent on pressure; the Al2O3 content in bridgmanite increases from 12 mol% at 27 GPa to 29 mol% at 52 GPa, forming bridgmanite with the pyrope composition (25 mol% Al2O3) at about 45 GPa. In contrast, the MgSiO3 content in corundum decreases from 24 mol% at 27 GPa to 9 mol% at 52 GPa. The minimum pressure where the pyropic bridgmanite is formed is significantly higher than the result of the earlier study (∼37 GPa) on the pyrope composition. These results suggest the Al2O3 content in bridgmanite and the MgSiO3 content in corundum are good pressure indicators in the mixed-phase region at pressures above 30 GPa, where virtually no pressure references are available for quench experiments. The new phase diagram in the system MgSiO3-Al2O3 confirms that bridgmanite is the dominant host mineral for Al2O3 in the pyrolitic or peridotitic compositions under the pressure and temperature conditions of the Earth's lower mantle.

  14. Selective-area growth and magnetic characterization of MnAs/AlGaAs nanoclusters on insulating Al2O3 layers crystallized on Si(111) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakita, Shinya; Hara, Shinjiro; Elm, Matthias T.; Klar, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    We report on selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and magnetic characterization of coupled MnAs/AlGaAs nanoclusters formed on thin Al2O3 insulating layers crystallized on Si(111) substrates. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that poly-crystalline γ-Al2O3 grains are formed after an annealing treatment of the amorphous Al2O3 layers deposited by atomic layer deposition on Si(111) substrates. The ⟨111⟩ direction of the γ-Al2O3 grains tends to be oriented approximately parallel to the ⟨111⟩ direction of the Si substrate. We observe that hexagonal MnAs nanoclusters on AlGaAs buffer layers grown by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on partially SiO2-masked Al2O3 insulator crystallized on Si(111) substrates are oriented with the c-axis along the ⟨111⟩ direction of the substrates, but exhibit a random in-plane orientation. A likely reason is the random orientation of the poly-crystalline γ-Al2O3 grains in the Al2O3 layer plane. Magnetic force microscopy studies at room temperature reveal that arrangements of coupled MnAs nanoclusters exhibit a complex magnetic domain structure. Such arrangements of coupled MnAs nanoclusters may also show magnetic random telegraph noise, i.e., jumps between two discrete resistance levels, in a certain temperature range, which can be explained by thermally activated changes of the complex magnetic structure of the nanocluster arrangements.

  15. Interface effects for the hydrogenation of CO2 on Pt4/γ-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yulu; Liu, Jie; Feng, Gang; Yin, Shi; Cen, Wanglai; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-11-01

    Density Functional Theory was applied to investigate the hydrogenation of CO2 to HCOO or CO on Pt4/γ-Al2O3(110) catalyst. It was found that the formation of CO is preferred to that of HCOO, kinetically and thermodynamically, indicating that methane can be formed on the Pt-based catalysts preferably. Furthermore, rather low an activation barrier (0.34 eV) for the formation of trans-COOH species was found, compared with that on Pt(111) surface (0.59 eV), showing that the interface between Pt4 cluster and γ-Al2O3(110) slab promotes the hydrogenation of CO2. However, the activation barrier for the dissociation of cis-COOH species on the supported catalyst is 0.91 eV, which is much higher than that on pure metal surface (0.56 eV). An electronic transfer channel was found to reconcile the divergence. Our results indicate that Pt/γ-Al2O3 should be a promising candidate for the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 by adjusting the metal/support interface to balance the activation barriers for the formation of trans-COOH and the dissociation of cis-COOH species.

  16. Oxidation Behavior of Al2O3 Coating on Ti-25Al-12.5Nb Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małecka, J.

    2016-07-01

    The oxidation behavior of Al2O3 coating deposited on Ti-25Al-12.5Nb alloy by sol-gel method was investigated at 700 and 800 °C under isothermal oxidation conditions in air. At both temperatures, the coated samples exhibited reduced mass gain compared to uncoated alloy; at 700 °C rather insignificant differences were observed; however, at the temperature of 800 °C, the deposited coating strongly limits the mass gain of the test material. As a consequence of the isothermal oxidation a scale forms containing mainly TiO2 on the alloy surface of the uncoated alloy, while during the oxidation of the coated alloy the surface coating of Al2O3 dissociated and the initially compact Al2O3 coating dissolved and its place was taken by a porous scale. These coated samples displayed good resistance to oxidation in set conditions and no zones of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen were recorded. No spallation of the coated samples was observed.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of molybdenum catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3-CeO2 composite oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Ramli, Anita; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2012-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of a catalyst play a vital role in various industrial applications. Molybdenum catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3-CeO2 mixed oxides with varying loading of CeO2 (5, 10, 15, 20 wt% with respect to γ-Al2O3) were prepared by wet impregnation method. The physiochemical properties of these synthesized Mo catalysts were studied with various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive analysis (FESEM-EDX) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). The results showed that the addition of CeO2 into the support affected the binding energies of the elements and reducibility of the metal oxides formed after calcination of catalyst samples due to the change in metal-support interaction. Further, the characterization techniques showed that the active metal was well dispersed on the surface of support material.

  18. Effect of Fluorine on the Structure of High Al2O3-Bearing System by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Guozheng; He, Shengping; Wu, Ting; Wang, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Calcium aluminosilicate is the most important slag system in continuous casting, while CaF2 is commonly used as a fluxing agent in mold fluxes. In this study, the structural properties of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2 system with varying fluorine content have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation using the pairwise potential model. The results showed that with the substitution of oxygen ions by fluorine ions, the average bond length of Si-O remained unchanged, while the average bond length of Al-O increased from 1.74 to 1.75 Å. The addition of fluorine contributed to the increase in the bridging oxygen proportion and the network connectivity ( Q n ) degree, suggesting that the polymerization of melts was enhanced. Meanwhile, the threefold-coordinated Al was found when mass fraction of fluorine was increased, and it was due to that the fluorine ions substituted the oxygen ions and formed the [AlO3F] tetrahedron. The Al avoidance principle is not applicable in the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2 system with a high content of Al2O3.

  19. Pool boiling of water-Al2O3 and water-Cu nanofluids on horizontal smooth tubes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer during pool boiling of two nanofluids, i.e., water-Al2O3 and water-Cu has been carried out. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1% by weight. The horizontal smooth copper and stainless steel tubes having 10 mm OD and 0.6 mm wall thickness formed test heater. The experiments have been performed to establish the influence of nanofluids concentration as well as tube surface material on heat transfer characteristics at atmospheric pressure. The results indicate that independent of concentration nanoparticle material (Al2O3 and Cu) has almost no influence on heat transfer coefficient while boiling of water-Al2O3 or water-Cu nanofluids on smooth copper tube. It seems that heater material did not affect the boiling heat transfer in 0.1 wt.% water-Cu nanofluid, nevertheless independent of concentration, distinctly higher heat transfer coefficient was recorded for stainless steel tube than for copper tube for the same heat flux density. PMID:21711741

  20. Pool boiling of water-Al2O3 and water-Cu nanofluids on horizontal smooth tubes.

    PubMed

    Cieslinski, Janusz T; Kaczmarczyk, Tomasz Z

    2011-03-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer during pool boiling of two nanofluids, i.e., water-Al2O3 and water-Cu has been carried out. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1% by weight. The horizontal smooth copper and stainless steel tubes having 10 mm OD and 0.6 mm wall thickness formed test heater. The experiments have been performed to establish the influence of nanofluids concentration as well as tube surface material on heat transfer characteristics at atmospheric pressure. The results indicate that independent of concentration nanoparticle material (Al2O3 and Cu) has almost no influence on heat transfer coefficient while boiling of water-Al2O3 or water-Cu nanofluids on smooth copper tube. It seems that heater material did not affect the boiling heat transfer in 0.1 wt.% water-Cu nanofluid, nevertheless independent of concentration, distinctly higher heat transfer coefficient was recorded for stainless steel tube than for copper tube for the same heat flux density.

  1. Pool boiling of water-Al2O3 and water-Cu nanofluids on horizontal smooth tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, Janusz T.; Kaczmarczyk, Tomasz Z.

    2011-12-01

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer during pool boiling of two nanofluids, i.e., water-Al2O3 and water-Cu has been carried out. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1% by weight. The horizontal smooth copper and stainless steel tubes having 10 mm OD and 0.6 mm wall thickness formed test heater. The experiments have been performed to establish the influence of nanofluids concentration as well as tube surface material on heat transfer characteristics at atmospheric pressure. The results indicate that independent of concentration nanoparticle material (Al2O3 and Cu) has almost no influence on heat transfer coefficient while boiling of water-Al2O3 or water-Cu nanofluids on smooth copper tube. It seems that heater material did not affect the boiling heat transfer in 0.1 wt.% water-Cu nanofluid, nevertheless independent of concentration, distinctly higher heat transfer coefficient was recorded for stainless steel tube than for copper tube for the same heat flux density.

  2. Capability for Fine Tuning of the Refractive Index Sensing Properties of Long-Period Gratings by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Overlays

    PubMed Central

    Śmietana, Mateusz; Myśliwiec, Marcin; Mikulic, Predrag; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S.; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an application of thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films obtained using atomic layer deposition (ALD) for fine tuning the spectral response and refractive-index (RI) sensitivity of long-period gratings (LPGs) induced in optical fibers. The technique allows for an efficient and well controlled deposition at monolayer level (resolution ∼ 0.12 nm) of excellent quality nano-films as required for optical sensors. The effect of Al2O3 deposition on the spectral properties of the LPGs is demonstrated experimentally and numerically. We correlated both the increase in Al2O3 thickness and changes in optical properties of the film with the shift of the LPG resonance wavelength and proved that similar films are deposited on fibers and oxidized silicon reference samples in the same process run. Since the thin overlay effectively changes the distribution of the cladding modes and thus also tunes the device's RI sensitivity, the tuning can be simply realized by varying number of cycles, which is proportional to thickness of the high-refractive-index (n > 1.6 in infrared spectral range) Al2O3 film. The advantage of this approach is the precision in determining the film properties resulting in RI sensitivity of the LPGs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an ultra-precise method for overlay deposition has been applied on LPGs for RI tuning purposes and the results have been compared with numerical simulations based on LP mode approximation.

  3. The remarkable enhancement of CO-pretreated CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 supported catalyst for the reduction of NO with CO: the formation of surface synergetic oxygen vacancy.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Yu, Qiang; Li, Shan-Shan; Wan, Hai-Qin; Liu, Lian-Jun; Qi, Lei; Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei; Dong, Lin; Chen, Yi

    2011-05-01

    NO reduction by CO was investigated over CuO/γ-Al2O3, Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3, and CuOMn2O3/γ-Al2O3 model catalysts before and after CO pretreatment at 300 °C. The CO-pretreated CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst exhibited higher catalytic activity than did the other catalysts. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Raman, and H2-temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) results, as well as our previous studies, the possible interaction model between dispersed copper and manganese oxide species as well as γ-Al2O3 surface has been proposed. In this model, Cu and Mn ions occupied the octahedral vacant sites of γ-Al2O3, with the capping oxygen on top of the metal ions to keep the charge conservation. For the fresh CuO/γ-Al2O3 and Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalysts, the -Cu-O-Cu- and -Mn-O-Mn- species were formed on the surface of γ-Al2O3, respectively; but for the fresh CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, -Cu-O-Mn- species existed on the surface of -Al2O3. After CO pretreatment, -Cu-□-Cu- and -Mn-□-Mn- (□ represents surface oxygen vacancy (SOV)) species would be formed in CO-pretreated CuO/γ-Al2O3 and CO-pretreated Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalysts, respectively; whereas -Cu-□-Mn- species existed in CO-pretreated CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3. Herein, a new concept, surface synergetic oxygen vacancy (SSOV), which describes the oxygen vacancy formed between the individual Mn and Cu ions, is proposed for CO-pretreated CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. In addition, the role of SSOV has also been approached by NO temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and in situ FTIR experiments. The FTIR results of competitive adsorption between NO and CO on all the CO-pretreated CuO/γ-Al2O3, Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3, and CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 samples demonstrated that NO molecules mainly were adsorbed on Mn2+ and CO mainly on Cu+ sites. The current study suggests that the properties of the SSOVs in CO-pretreated CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst were significantly

  4. Deposition and Properties of the Pseudobinary Alloy (Al2O3)x(TiO2)1-x and Its Application for Silicon Surface Passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, P.; Harizanova, A.; Ivanova, T.; Alexieva, Z.; Agostinelli, G.

    2006-07-01

    The electrical properties of (Al2O3)x(TiO2)1-x thin films, obtained from sol solution by spin coating on Si substrates (c-Si or mc-Si), have been studied. By varying the ratios between Al2O3 and TiO2 components, the optical and dielectric characteristics can be changed. This deposition method can be used for effective engineering of physical properties of the dielectric layer. Surface recombination velocities as low as 150 cm/s have been obtained using (Al2O3)x(TiO2)1-x layers on 1 Ω\\cdotcm Czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers. Low surface recombination is achieved by field induced surface passivation due to a high density of negative fixed charges.

  5. Resistive Switching in Al/Al2O3/TiO2/Al/PES Flexible Device for Nonvolatile Memory Application.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Lee, Wang-Ying; Lee, Han-Tang

    2016-05-01

    Resistive switching memory devices with superior properties are possibly used in next-generation nonvolatile memory to replace the flash memory. In addition, flexible electronics has also attracted much attention because of its light-weight and flexibility. Therefore, an Al/Al2O3/TiO2/Al/PES flexible resistive switching memory is employed in this study. The resistive switching characteristics and stability of the flexible device are improved by inserting the Al2O3 film. The resistive switching of the flexible device can be repeated over hundreds of times after the bending test. A possible resistive switching model of the flexible device is also proposed. In addition, the non-volatility of the flexible device is demonstrated. Based on our research results, the proposed Al2O3/TiO2-based resistive switching memory is possibly used in next-generation flexible electronics and nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:27483828

  6. Impacts of Annealing Conditions on the Flat Band Voltage of Alternate La2O3/Al2O3 Multilayer Stack Structures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xing-Yao; Liu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Lu; Fei, Chen-Xi; Liu, He-Lei

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of flat band voltage (VFB) shift for alternate La2O3/Al2O3 multilayer stack structures in different annealing condition is investigated. The samples were prepared for alternate multilayer structures, which were annealed in different conditions. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) measuring results indicate that the VFB of samples shift negatively for thinner bottom Al2O3 layer, increasing annealing temperature or longer annealing duration. Simultaneously, the diffusion of high-k material to interfaces in different multilayer structures and annealing conditions is observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the dipole theory, a correlation between the diffusion effect of La towards bottom Al2O3/Si interface and VFB shift is found. Without changing the dielectric constant k of films, VFB shift can be manipulated by controlling the single-layer cycles and annealing conditions of alternate high-k multilayer stack. PMID:27620192

  7. Impacts of Annealing Conditions on the Flat Band Voltage of Alternate La2O3/Al2O3 Multilayer Stack Structures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xing-Yao; Liu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Lu; Fei, Chen-Xi; Liu, He-Lei

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of flat band voltage (VFB) shift for alternate La2O3/Al2O3 multilayer stack structures in different annealing condition is investigated. The samples were prepared for alternate multilayer structures, which were annealed in different conditions. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) measuring results indicate that the VFB of samples shift negatively for thinner bottom Al2O3 layer, increasing annealing temperature or longer annealing duration. Simultaneously, the diffusion of high-k material to interfaces in different multilayer structures and annealing conditions is observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the dipole theory, a correlation between the diffusion effect of La towards bottom Al2O3/Si interface and VFB shift is found. Without changing the dielectric constant k of films, VFB shift can be manipulated by controlling the single-layer cycles and annealing conditions of alternate high-k multilayer stack.

  8. Impacts of Annealing Conditions on the Flat Band Voltage of Alternate La2O3/Al2O3 Multilayer Stack Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xing-Yao; Liu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Lu; Fei, Chen-Xi; Liu, He-Lei

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of flat band voltage (VFB) shift for alternate La2O3/Al2O3 multilayer stack structures in different annealing condition is investigated. The samples were prepared for alternate multilayer structures, which were annealed in different conditions. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) measuring results indicate that the VFB of samples shift negatively for thinner bottom Al2O3 layer, increasing annealing temperature or longer annealing duration. Simultaneously, the diffusion of high- k material to interfaces in different multilayer structures and annealing conditions is observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the dipole theory, a correlation between the diffusion effect of La towards bottom Al2O3/Si interface and VFB shift is found. Without changing the dielectric constant k of films, VFB shift can be manipulated by controlling the single-layer cycles and annealing conditions of alternate high- k multilayer stack.

  9. First-principles Analysis of NOx Adsorption on Anhydrous γ-Al2O3 Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2009-04-09

    The interaction of nitrogen oxides NOx (x=1-3) with gamma Al2O3 has been investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. NO and NO2 weakly physisorb on the clean, dehydrated (100) and (110) surfaces of gamma Al2O3, whereas the adsorption of the NO3 radical is rather strong. Only the basic-like O-down adsorption configurations were found to be stable. The interaction between NOx and gamma Al2O3 can be described as a surface mediated electron transfer process. For single NOx adsorption, greater electron transfer from the surface to the adsorbate (negatively charged) yields stronger interactions between NOx and the surface. The adsorption of four combinations of NOx+NOy (x=1-3, y=2, 3) pairs on the (100) and the (110) facets of gamma Al2O3 were investigated. Except for the NO2+NO2 pair, a strong cooperative effect that substantially enhances the stability of NOx on both gamma Al2O3 surfaces was found. This cooperative effect consists of surface-mediated electron transfer processes resulting in a favorable electrostatic interaction between two adsorbed NOx species. The pair was found to be the thermodynamically most stable state among the co-adsorbed NOx+NOy pairs on both gamma Al2O3 surfaces. The results are used to analyze the experimentally observed NOx evolution during temperature programmed desorption from NO2-saturated gamma Al2O3 substrates. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  10. Differential toxicity of Al2O3 particles on Gram-positive and Gram-negative sediment bacterial isolates from freshwater.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Bairoliya, Sakcham; Parashar, Abhinav; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2016-06-01

    The current study was aimed to explore the differential effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative freshwater sediment bacterial isolates upon exposure to nano-particles and bulk particles of Al2O3 at low concentrations (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L). The Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more susceptible to both the nano-forms and bulk forms than the Gram-positive Bacillus altitudinis. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of lipopolysaccharide due to membrane damage were dependent on the dose of nano-Al2O3. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) studies confirmed the attachment of nano-Al2O3 on bacterial cells, which may lead to subsequent changes in the cell membrane composition and integrity. Internalization of nano-Al2O3 was estimated to be more for P. aeruginosa than for B. altitudinis cells. As a role of defense mechanism, the biofilm formation and production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs; polysaccharide and protein) were increased with respect to the concentration of toxicant. Nano-Al2O3 was estimated to cause more DNA damage than the bulk particles in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

  11. Effect of powder reactivity on fabrication and properties of NiAl/Al2O3 composite coated on cast iron using spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyhaghi, Maryam; Kiani-Rashid, Ali-Reza; Kashefi, Mehrdad; Khaki, Jalil Vahdati; Jonsson, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    Powder mixtures of Ni, NiO and Al are ball milled for 1 and 10 h. X-ray diffractometry and differential thermal analysis show that while ball milling for 1 h produced mechanically activated powder; 10 h ball milling produced NiAl and Al2O3 phases. Dense NiAl/Al2O3 composite coatings are formed on gray cast iron substrate by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The effect of powder reactivity on microstructure, hardness and scratch hardness of NiAl/Al2O3 coatings after SPS is discussed. Results show that in the coating sample made of mechanically activated powder in situ synthesis of NiAl/Al2O3 composite coating is fulfilled and a thicker well-formed diffusion bond layer at the interface between coating and substrate is observed. The diffusion of elements across the bond layers and phase evolution in the bond layers were investigated. No pores or cracks were observed at the interface between coating layer and substrate in any of samples. Higher Vickers hardness and scratch hardness values in coating made of 10 h ball milled powder than in coating fabricated from 1 h ball milled powder are attributed to better dispersion of Al2O3 reinforcement particles in NiAl matrix and nano-crystalline structure of NiAl matrix. Scratched surface of coatings did not reveal any cracking or spallation at coating-substrate interface indicating their good adherence at test conditions.

  12. New battery strategies with a polymer/Al2O3 separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyusung; Cho, Joon Hee; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Song, Jie; Peng, Jing; Gobet, Mallory; Greenbaum, Steven; Ellison, Christopher J.; Goodenough, John B.

    2014-10-01

    A low-cost, thin, flexible, and mechanically robust alkali-ion electrolyte separator is shown to allow fabrication of a safe rechargeable alkali-ion battery with alternative cathode strategies. A Na-ion battery with an insertion host as cathode and a Li-ion battery with a redox flow-through cathode are demonstrated to cycle without significant fade. The separator membrane is a composite of Al2O3 particles and cross-linked ethylene-oxide chains; it can be fabricated at low cost into a large-area thin membrane that blocks dendrites from an alkali-metal anode. To block a soluble ferrocene redox molecule from crossing from the cathode side to the anode in a Li-ion battery with a redox-flow cathode, a thin mixed Li+/electronic-conducting film has been added to the cathode side of the composite separator. An osmosis issue was minimized by balancing concentrations of solutes on the two sides of the separator where the cathode side contains a soluble redox molecule.

  13. Peculiarities of the formation and properties of light-emitting structures based on ion-synthesized silicon nanocrystals in SiO2 and Al2O3 matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylov, A. N.; Belov, A. I.; Kostyuk, A. B.; Zhavoronkov, I. Yu.; Korolev, D. S.; Nezhdanov, A. V.; Ershov, A. V.; Guseinov, D. V.; Gracheva, T. A.; Malygin, N. D.; Demidov, E. S.; Tetelbaum, D. I.

    2012-02-01

    A comprehensive comparative study of SiO2 and Al2O3 oxide layers with Si nanocrystals formed by Si+ ion implantation and high-temperature annealing has been performed. Information on morphology, phase composition, structure, and luminescent properties of ensembles of ion-synthesized silicon nanocrystals has been obtained using confocal Raman microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and photoluminescence. It has been found that the peculiarities of the formation of nanocrystals, the distribution of nanocrystals over the depth of the implanted layer, the structure, and the character of chemical bonds are similar for both types of oxide matrices; however, the photoluminescence in the wavelength range 600-1000 nm, which is caused by the nanocrystals in the Al2O3 matrix, has been observed only in the case of the formation of SiO2 shells around the Si nanocrystals. The surface oxidation of the Si nanocrystals, which is necessary for the formation of SiO2 shells, is possible due to the presence of excess oxygen in the Al2O3 matrix (the case of Si implantation into the deposited Al2O3 film), as well as due to the inflow of oxygen from the annealing atmosphere (the case of Si implantation into sapphire). In order to verify the quantum-confinement mechanism of luminescence, available data on the temperature dependence of the photoluminescence intensity have been analyzed. An analysis of the mechanisms of charge transfer and electroluminescence excitation in diode structures based on thin ion-synthesized layers with silicon nanocrystals has also been performed.

  14. Dosimetric properties of alpha-Al(2)O(3):C exposed to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colyott, Leslie Edward

    Scope and method of study. The trapping states of Czochralski-grown α-Al2O3:C were studied using a variety of experimental techniques, including thermoluminescence (TL), phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) and optical absorption measurements. The focus was placed upon those states responsible for the dosimetric behavior of the α- Al2O3:C, following exposure to various forms of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Findings and conclusions. The most effective wavelengths for PTTL are in the short wavelength visible to UV range. The phototransfer processes are complex and appear to involve both electrons and holes. PTTL data suggest that the fading is due to the optical stimulation of charge from the traps into the delocalized bands. At short wavelengths the phototransfer of charge from deep traps into the dosimetry traps must be considered and, thus, the exact wavelength dependence is governed by the radiation and thermal history of the sample. The dose dependence of the TL peak suggests an overlap of several peaks resulting from an array of closely spaced energy levels. A dosimeter which measures the integrated ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure in air or in water was developed as an application of the PTTL properties of α- Al2O3:C. This dosimeter exploits the increased phototransfer efficiency of α- Al2O3:C to light in the UVB region of the spectrum to produce a near-linear dynamic range of over three decades of UVB exposure. TL and PTTL signals are analyzed, using an algorithm which assumes that a distribution of trapping levels are responsible for the observed TL signals. The signals are deconvolved into unique distribution signatures, which enable the discrimination between irradiations due to gamma/beta, alpha and neutrons. Experiments involving the high temperature anneal of α-Al2O3:C powder in an oxygen atmosphere suggest a diffusion of oxygen vacancies out of the crystal lattice under these conditions, resulting in a decrease in F- and F+- centers. TL

  15. Growth and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of the epitaxial α-Al2O3/Fe(110) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedkov, Yu. S.; Fonin, M.; Rüdiger, U.; Güntherodt, G.

    2002-09-01

    Electronic and structural properties of epitaxial ultrathin aluminum oxide layers grown on epitaxial Fe(110) films were investigated at room temperature by means of spin-, angle- and energy-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. A spin polarization of -(15±5)% near the Fermi energy EF is found for 1 (ML) of α-Al2O3 on epitaxial Fe(110). This value results from the attenuation of -80% of Fe(110) by the oxide layer thickness and the spin-independent part of the scattering cross section.

  16. Encapsulation of pentacene/C60 organic solar cells with Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potscavage, W. J.; Yoo, S.; Domercq, B.; Kippelen, B.

    2007-06-01

    Organic solar cells based on pentacene/C60 heterojunctions were encapsulated using a 200-nm-thick film of Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Encapsulated devices maintained power conversion efficiency after exposure to ambient atmosphere for over 6000h, while devices with no encapsulation degraded rapidly after only 10h of air exposure. In addition, thermal annealing associated with the ALD deposition is shown to improve the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency of the solar cells.

  17. Quick photo-Fenton degradation of phenolic compounds by Cu/Al2O3-MCM-41 under visible light irradiation: small particle size, stabilization of copper, easy reducibility of Cu and visible light active material.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Amaresh C; Nanda, Binita; Parida, K M; Das, Mira

    2013-01-14

    The present study reports the photo-Fenton degradation of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol and 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol) in aqueous solution using mesoporous Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 nanocomposite as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton-like catalyst. The in situ incorporation of mesoporous Al(2)O(3) (MA) into the framework of MCM-41 (sol-gel method) forms Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 and wetness impregnation of Cu(II) on Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 generates mesoporous Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite. The effects of pH and H(2)O(2) concentration on degradation of phenol, 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol and 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol are studied. Kinetics analysis shows that the photocatalytic degradation reaction follows a first-order rate equation. Mesoporous 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 is found to be an efficient photo-Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of phenolic compounds. It shows nearly 100% degradation in 45 min at pH 4. The combined effect of small particle size, stabilization of Cu(2+) on the support Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41, ease reducibility of Cu(2+) and visible light activeness are the key factors for quick degradation of phenolic compounds by Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41. PMID:23090390

  18. Formation of SiGe nanocrystals embedded in Al2O3 for the application of write-once-read-many-times memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min-Lin; Wu, Yung-Hsien; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chen, Lun-Lun

    2012-10-01

    The structure of SiGe nanocrystals embedded in Al2O3 formed by sequential deposition of Al2O3/Si/Ge/Al2O3 and a subsequent annealing was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and its application for write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices was explored in this study. By applying a -10 V pulse for 1 s, a large amount of holes injected from Si substrate are stored in the nanocrystals and consequently, the current at +1.5 V increases by a factor of 104 as compared to that of the initial state. Even with a smaller -5 V pulse for 1 μs, a sufficiently large current ratio of 36 can still be obtained, verifying the low power operation. Since holes are stored in nanocrystals which are isolated from Si substrate by Al2O3 with good integrity and correspond to a large valence band offset with respect to Al2O3, desirable read endurance up to 105 cycles and excellent retention over 100 yr are achieved. Combining these promising characteristics, WORM memory devices are appropriate for high-performance archival storage applications.

  19. Synthesis, biocompatibility and mechanical properties of ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramics composites.

    PubMed

    Nevarez-Rascon, Alfredo; González-Lopez, Santiago; Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Nevarez-Rascon, Martina Margarita; Orrantia-Borunda, Erasmo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated cell viability, microhardness and flexural strength of two ceramic composites systems (ZA and AZ), pure alumina and zirconia. There were prepared homogeneous mixtures of 78wt%Al2O3+20wt%3Y-TZP+2wt%Al2O3w (AZ) and 80wt%3YTZP+18wt%Al2O3+2wt%Al2O3w (ZA), as well as 3Y-TZP (Z), pure Al2O3 (A) and commercial monolithic 3Y-TZP (Zc). Also mouse fibroblast cells 3T3-L1 and a MTT test was carried out at 24, 48 and 72 h. The surfaces were observed with SEM and the microhardness and three-point flexural strength values were estimated. The absolute microhardness values were: A>AZ>Z>Zc>ZA. Flexural strength of Zc, Z, and ZA were around double than AZ and A. All groups showed high biocompatibility trough cell viability values at 24, 48 and 72 h. Factors like grain shape, grain size and homogeneous or heterogeneous grain distributions may play an important role in physical, mechanical and biological properties of the ceramic composites. PMID:27251994

  20. (100) facets of γ-Al2O3: the active surfaces for alcohol dehydration reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Rousseau, Roger J.; Szanyi, Janos

    2011-05-01

    Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol, and methanol dehydration reaction were studied on γ-Al2O3 in order to identify the catalytic active sites for alcohol dehydration reactions. Two high temperature (> 473 K) desorption features were observed following ethanol adsorption. Samples calcined at T≤473 K displayed a desorption feature in the 523-533 K temperature range, while those calcined at T ≥ 673 K showed a single desorption feature at 498 K. The switch from the high to low temperature ethanol desorption correlated well with the dehydroxylation of the (100) facets of γ-Al2O3 that was predicted at 550 K DFT calculations. Theoretical DFT simulations of the mechanism of dehydration. on clean and hydroxylated γ-Al2O3(100) surfaces, find that a concerted elimination of ethylene from an ethanol molecule chemisorbed at an Al3+ pentacoordinated site is the rate limiting step for catalytic cycle on both surfaces. Furthermore, titration of the pentacoordinate Al3+ sites on the (100) facets of γ-Al2O3 by BaO completely turned off the methanol dehydration reaction activity. These results unambiguously demonstrate that only the (100) facets on γ-Al2O3 are the catalytic active surfaces for alcohol dehydration.

  1. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Polypropylene/Nano α-Al2O3 Composites

    PubMed Central

    Mirjalili, F.; Chuah, L.; Salahi, E.

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite containing polypropylene (PP) and nano α-Al2O3 particles was prepared using a Haake internal mixer. Mechanical tests, such as tensile and flexural tests, showed that mechanical properties of the composite were enhanced by addition of nano α-Al2O3 particles and dispersant agent to the polymer. Tensile strength was approximately ∼16% higher than pure PP by increasing the nano α-Al2O3 loading from 1 to 4 wt% into the PP matrix. The results of flexural analysis indicated that the maximum values of flexural strength and flexural modulus for nanocomposite without dispersant were 50.5 and 1954 MPa and for nanocomposite with dispersant were 55.88 MPa and 2818 MPa, respectively. However, higher concentration of nano α-Al2O3 loading resulted in reduction of those mechanical properties that could be due to agglomeration of nano α-Al2O3 particles. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic observations of the nanocomposites also showed that fracture surface became rougher by increasing the content of filler loading from 1 to 4% wt. PMID:24688421

  2. Atomic layer deposition of Al(2)O(3) and ZnO at atmospheric pressure in a flow tube reactor.

    PubMed

    Jur, Jesse S; Parsons, Gregory N

    2011-02-01

    Improving nanoscale thin film deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition (ALD) to permit operation at ambient pressure is important for high-throughput roll-to-roll processing of emerging flexible substrates, including polymer sheets and textiles. We present and investigate a novel reactor design for inorganic materials growth by ALD at atmospheric pressure. The reactor uses a custom "pressure boost" approach for delivery of low vapor pressure ALD precursors that controls precursor dose independent of reactor pressure. Analysis of continuum gas flow in the reactor shows key relations among reactor pressure, inert gas flow rate, and species diffusion that define conditions needed to efficiently remove product and adsorbed reactive species from the substrate surface during the inert gas purge cycle. Experimental results, including in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) characterization and film thickness measurements for deposition of ZnO and Al(2)O(3) are presented and analyzed as a function of pressure and gas flow rates at 100 °C. At atmospheric pressure and high gas flow, ZnO deposition can proceed at the same mass uptake and growth rate as observed during more typical low pressure ALD. However, under the same high pressure and flow conditions the mass uptake and growth rate for Al(2)O(3) is a factor of ∼1.5-2 larger than at low pressure. Under these conditions, Al(2)O(3) growth at atmospheric pressure in a "flow-through" geometry on complex high surface area textile materials is sufficiently uniform to yield functional uniform coatings.

  3. The effect of Al2O3-SiO2 mixing ratio as steel coating S45C to the thermal and adhesiveness characteristic with flame spray method for rocket nozzle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyastuti, Kukuh, W. W.; Putrawan, M. A.; Alvian, T. W.; Ridwan, S.

    2013-09-01

    Nozzle is one part of rocket which works at high temperatures. The S45C steel is applied for material base of nozzle. This material was coated by Thermal barrier coating (TBC) of Al2O3-SiO2. The mixing ratio of ceramic oxide were 80% Al2O3 - 20% SiO2; 70% Al2O3 - 30% SiO2, and 60% Al2O3 - 40% SiO2. Coating process is conduct by Flame Spray. The microstructure, phase and adhesion strength of TBC examined by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM), X-Ray Diffraction and pull off test. The results shown that mullite formed at mixing ratio 70% Al2O3 - 30% SiO2. The reduction of TBC thickness was reduced to 40% of the initial thickness after heating. The adhesive strength decreases with increasing of SiO2 composition.

  4. Anchorage of γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    DOE PAGES

    Rodríguez-Pulido, A.; Martínez-Gutiérrez, H.; Calderon-Polania, G. A.; Lozano, M. A. Gonzalez; Cullen, D. A.; Terrones, H.; Smith, D. J.; Terrones, M.

    2016-06-07

    Nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNx-MWNTs) have been decorated with γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles by a novel method. This process involved a wet chemical approach in conjunction with thermal treatment. During the particle anchoring process, individual CNx-MWNT nanotubes agglomerated into bundles, resulting in arrays of aligned CNx-MWNT coated with γ-Al2O3. Extensive characterization of the resulting γ-Al2O3/CNx-MWNT bundles was performed using a range of electron microscopy imaging and microanalytical techniques. In conclusion, a possible mechanism explaining the nanobundle alignment is described, and possible applications of these materials for the fabrication of ceramic composites using CNx-MWNTs are briefly discussed.

  5. Glycerol Steam Reforming Over Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 Catalyst: Effect of Cerium.

    PubMed

    Go, Gwang-Sub; Go, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Hong-Joo; Moon, Dong-Ju; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Young-Chul

    2016-02-01

    In this work, hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming was studied using Ni-metal oxide catalysts. Ni-based catalyst becomes deactivated during steam reforming reactions because of coke deposits and sintering. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reduce carbon deposits and sintering on the catalyst surface by adding a promoter. Ni-metal oxide catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared via impregnation method, and the calcined catalyst was reduced under H2 flow for 2 h prior to the reaction. The characteristics of the catalysts were examined by XRD, TPR, TGA, and SEM. The Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst, which contained less than 2 wt% Ce, showed the highest hydrogen selectivity and glycerol conversion. Further analysis of the catalysts revealed that the Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst required a lower reduction temperature and produced minimum carbon deposit. PMID:27433687

  6. Glycerol Steam Reforming Over Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 Catalyst: Effect of Cerium.

    PubMed

    Go, Gwang-Sub; Go, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Hong-Joo; Moon, Dong-Ju; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Young-Chul

    2016-02-01

    In this work, hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming was studied using Ni-metal oxide catalysts. Ni-based catalyst becomes deactivated during steam reforming reactions because of coke deposits and sintering. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reduce carbon deposits and sintering on the catalyst surface by adding a promoter. Ni-metal oxide catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared via impregnation method, and the calcined catalyst was reduced under H2 flow for 2 h prior to the reaction. The characteristics of the catalysts were examined by XRD, TPR, TGA, and SEM. The Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst, which contained less than 2 wt% Ce, showed the highest hydrogen selectivity and glycerol conversion. Further analysis of the catalysts revealed that the Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst required a lower reduction temperature and produced minimum carbon deposit.

  7. Growth, Quantitative Growth Analysis, and Applications of Graphene on γ-Al2O3 catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaehyun; Lee, Joohwi; Choi, Jung-Hae; Hwang, Do Kyung; Song, Yong-Won

    2015-01-01

    The possibilities offered by catalytic γ-Al2O3 substrates are explored, and the mechanism governing graphene formation thereon is elucidated using both numerical simulations and experiments. The growth scheme offers metal-free synthesis at low temperature, grain-size customization, large-area uniformity of electrical properties, single-step preparation of graphene/dielectric structures, and readily detachable graphene. We quantify based on thermodynamic principles the activation energies associated with graphene nucleation/growth on γ-Al2O3, verifying the low physical and chemical barriers. Importantly, we derive a universal equation governing the adsorption-based synthesis of graphene over a wide range of temperatures in both catalytic and spontaneous growth regimes. Experimental results support the equation, highlighting the catalytic function of γ-Al2O3 at low temperatures. The synthesized graphene is manually incorporated as a ‘graphene sticker’ into an ultrafast mode-locked laser. PMID:26137994

  8. Optical and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of α-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ram; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Vinay; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    α-Al2O3 powder sample was synthesized at 550 °C via solution combustion synthesis (SCS) method using urea as an organic fuel. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Optical spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) without any further thermal treatment. XRD study reveals that the powder crystallized directly in the hexagons α-Al2O3 phase. A band gap of 5.7 eV was estimated using diffuse reflectance spectra. For surface investigation X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) was carried out. The XPS survey scan study of α-Al2O3 powder reveals that the sample is free from impurity. The core levels of Al-2s and O-1s are also reported.

  9. Electrical Double Layer Capacitance in a Graphene-embedded Al2O3 Gate Dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Ki Min, Bok; Kim, Seong K.; Jun Kim, Seong; Ho Kim, Sung; Kang, Min-A; Park, Chong-Yun; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Graphene heterostructures are of considerable interest as a new class of electronic devices with exceptional performance in a broad range of applications has been realized. Here, we propose a graphene-embedded Al2O3 gate dielectric with a relatively high dielectric constant of 15.5, which is about 2 times that of Al2O3, having a low leakage current with insertion of tri-layer graphene. In this system, the enhanced capacitance of the hybrid structure can be understood by the formation of a space charge layer at the graphene/Al2O3 interface. The electrical properties of the interface can be further explained by the electrical double layer (EDL) model dominated by the diffuse layer. PMID:26530817

  10. HRTEM observation of bonding interface between Ce-TZP/Al2O3 nanocomposite and porcelain.

    PubMed

    Ban, Seiji; Nawa, Masahiro; Sugata, Fumio; Tsuruki, Jiro; Kono, Hiroshi; Kawai, Tatsushi

    2014-01-01

    The surface of a ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Ce-TZP/Al2O3) nanocomposite was sandblasted by alumina particles and veneered with feldspathic porcelain via a conventional condensation method. The part of each specimen containing the interface layer was sliced to ultrathin sections with an argon ion slicer, and these sliced sections were observed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). For both interfaces, Ce-TZP/porcelain and Al2O3/porcelain, no transition layers due to abrupt changes in atomic distributions were observed. Besides, the porcelain layers of both interfaces consisted of homogeneous amorphous phases. These results suggested that both Ce-TZP and Al2O3 could be directly bonded to porcelain by Van der Waals forces arising from the close contact between them.

  11. Electrical conductivity studies on CuBr containing Al2O3 particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubec, P. M.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The conductivity of CuBr was studied and the role of a second phase, Al2O3, dispersed in CuBr was tested. CuBr melts at 493 C and exhibits three phases in the solid state. CuBr is a good ionic conductor with a transport number for copper ions of virtually unity with weighed proportions of the appropriate chemicals used. The CuBr materials were heated above melting point of CuBr, and the samples were sandwiched between copper electrodes. The ac conductivity, was determined at 1 kHz between 25 and 440 C depending on the sample. It was shown that at low temperatures, the conductivity for CuBr (Al2O3) increased by as much as 100, whereas in the beta phase the conductivity of CuBr containing Al2O3 decreased. The electrical conductivity studies are in agreement with earlier data.

  12. Surface reactions of dimethyl ether on γ-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, G. N.; Volnina, E. A.; Kipnis, M. A.; Rodionov, A. S.; Samokhin, P. V.; Lin, G. I.

    2016-02-01

    The surface reactions of dimethyl ether (DME) on industrial alumina (γ-Al2O3) were studied by chromatographic analysis of the products at the outlet of the flow reactor and (independently) by diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy. The major products of the reactions at 250°C were found to be methanol formed in the reaction of DME with hydroxyl groups (the 3720 and 3674 cm-1 bands in the diffuse reflectance spectrum) and various methoxy groups (the 1121, 1070, 695, and 670 cm-1 bands in the differential spectra). The presence of molecularly adsorbed methanol was confirmed by experiments with methanol fed in a high-temperature IR cell. The interaction of the resulting methanol molecule with the hydroxyl group led to the formation of a water molecule in the gas phase and a methoxy group on the oxide surface. Strong adsorption of molecular DME was revealed, which was favored by an increase in the temperature of the preliminary calcination of oxide from 250 to 450-500°C; treatment of alumina with water vapor after its preliminary contact with DME led to a recovery of the hydroxyl coating and a replacement of molecularly adsorbed DME with hydroxyl. The thermal effect recorded in a flow reactor was positive during the adsorption of DME and negative during the desorption of weakly bonded DME. Schemes of formation of methoxy groups in the interaction of DME and methanol with surface hydroxyls were suggested.

  13. Characterization of Al2O3 Supported Nickel Catalysts Derived from RFNon-thermal Plasma Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Ben W; Helleson, Michael J; Shi, Chunkai; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Schwartz, Viviane; Liang, Chengdu; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2008-01-01

    Catalysts derived from non-thermal plasma techniques have previously shown unusual and highly advantageous catalytic properties including room temperature reduction, unusual metal particle structure and metal-support interactions, and enhanced selectivity and stability. This study focuses on the characterization of Al2O3 supported Ni catalysts derived from the RF non-thermal plasma technique with in-situ XRD, TPR-MS and STEM and on relating the results to the enhanced activity and stability of benzene hydrogenation. The results suggest that catalysts with plasma treatments before impregnation are relatively easier to be reduced and result in better activities under mild reduction conditions. These plasma treatments stabilize the nickel particle sizes of air(B) and H2(B) catalysts at 600 C by slowing down the sintering process. Plasma treatments after the impregnation of precursors, on the other hand, tend to delay the growth of nickel particles below 600 C, forming smaller Ni particles, but with a sudden increase in particle size near 600 C. It suggests that the structure of Ni nitrate and the metal-support interaction have been altered by the plasma treatments. The reduction patterns of plasma 1 treated catalysts are, therefore, changed. The catalyst with a combination plasma treatment demonstrates that the effect of a combination plasma treatment is larger than either the plasma treatment before or after the impregnation alone. Both plasma treatments before and after the impregnation of metal precursor play important roles in modifying supported metal catalysts.

  14. Chemical reactions and morphological stability at the Cu/Al2O3 interface.

    PubMed

    Scheu, C; Klein, S; Tomsia, A P; Rühle, M

    2002-10-01

    The microstructures of diffusion-bonded Cu/(0001)Al2O3 bicrystals annealed at 1000 degrees C at oxygen partial pressures of 0.02 or 32 Pa have been studied with various microscopy techniques ranging from optical microscopy to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The studies revealed that for both oxygen partial pressures a 20-35 nm thick interfacial CuAlO2 layer formed, which crystallises in the rhombohedral structure. However, the CuAlO2 layer is not continuous, but interrupted by many pores. In the samples annealed in the higher oxygen partial pressure an additional reaction phase with a needle-like structure was observed. The needles are several millimetres long, approximately 10 microm wide and approximately 1 microm thick. They consist of CuAlO2 with alternating rhombohedral and hexagonal structures. Solid-state contact angle measurements were performed to derive values for the work of adhesion. The results show that the adhesion is twice as good for the annealed specimen compared to the as-bonded sample. PMID:12366593

  15. In2O3/Al2O3 Catalysts for NOx Reduction in Lean Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Paul W.; Ragle, Christie; Boyer, Carrie S.; Balmer, M Lou; Engelhard, Mark H. ); McCready, David E. )

    2002-01-01

    The lean NOx performance and catalytic properties of In2O3/Al2O3 catalysts were investigated. High lean NOx activity was observed when propene was used as a reductant in the presence of 9% O2 and 7% H2O at a space velocity of 30,000h-1. The optimum lean NOx activity of In2O3/Al2O3 catalysts was observed at a loading of 2.5 wt.% indium on -Al2O3 which was prepared by a sol-gel technique (230 m2/g). When propane was used as a reductant, the In2O3/Al2O3 catalyst did not promote NOx reduction compared to the alumina substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) have been used to characterize a series of In2O3/Al2O3 catalysts to better understand the surface structure of indium oxide species on the alumina support. The XRD data indicated that crystalline In2O3 was present at In2O3 loadings > 5wt.% and the quantity of the crystalline phase increased as a function of indium loading. XPS results suggested that indium oxide existed as a well-dispersed phase up to 10wt.% indium. The well dispersed or reducible indium oxide species below 400 C in TPR experiments were assigned as the sites which activate propene to oxygenated hydrocarbons such as acetaldehyde and acrolein. Alumina sites readily utilize the oxygenated hydrocarbons to reduce NOx. Dual-function mechanism was proposed to explain NOx reduction over In2O3/Al2O3 catalysts.

  16. High Temperature Aerogels in the Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Aranda, Denisse V.; Gallagher, Meghan E.

    2008-01-01

    Al2O3-SiO2 aerogels are of interest as constituents of thermal insulation systems for use at high temperatures. Al2O3 and mullite aerogels are expected to crystallize at higher temperatures than their SiO2 counterparts, hence avoiding the shrinkages that accompany the formation of lower temperature SiO2 phases and preserving pore structures into higher temperature regimes. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of processing parameters on shrinkage, gel structure (including surface area, pore size and distribution) and pyrolysis behavior.

  17. Reactions of alkoxysilanes on metal oxide surfaces: decomposition of tetraethoxysilane on MgO(100) and Al 2O 3(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, J. B.; Vohs, J. M.

    1993-12-01

    The thermal decomposition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on MgO(100) and Al 2O 3(0001) surfaces was investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). TEOS was found to dissociate on both MgO(100) and Al 2O 3(0001) to form ethoxysilane species, Si(OCH 2CH 3) n, n=2, 3. The ethoxysilanes are stable to a temperature of 600 K at which point they decompose, liberating ethanol, ethylene and ethyl radicals and depositing SiO 2.

  18. SIMS and FAB-MS surface studies of Pt-Sn/Al 2O 3 and Pt 3Pb model catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, W.; Lietz, G.; Lieske, H.; Völter, J.

    1990-08-01

    SIMS and FAB-MS methods have been applied to study surface complexes in chloride containing Pt-Sn/Al 2O 3 and Pt 3Pb in dependence on the temperature of treatment in oxygen. The existence and the limited (700 to ˜850 K) thermal stability of a (PtO xCl y) surface complex was confirmed. Pt-Sn/Al 2O 3, air treated (calcined) at 770 K, contains already neighbouring Pt and Sn species being precursors of alloy clusters formed during subsequent reduction.

  19. [Research on SCR denitrification of MnOx/Al2O3 modified by CeO2 and its mechanism at low temperature].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Li, Cai-Ting; Lu, Pei; Cui, Hua-Fei; Peng, Dun-Liang; Wen, Qing-Bo

    2011-08-01

    The Al2O3,which has large specific surface area and is used as carrier,was prepared by sol-gel method in this study. Series catalysts of MnOx, CeO2 plus MnOx supported on Al2O3 by isometric impregnation method. The SCR denitrification experimental conditions were as follows: NH3 as reductive agent, certain gas velocity and suitable ratio of gas mixed was setup. Furthermore, the experiments of BET, XRD and SEM were also carried out respectively in order to obtain physicochemical properties of the prepared catalysts. The experimental results showed that the loading of active component and calcination temperature made a big difference to the catalysts' performance. With appropriate addition of CeO2, MnOx/Al2O3 exhibits better activity and stability. For MnOx/Al2O3, the catalytic activity on NO was greatly influenced by its loaded content, and 7% MnOx/Al2O3 showed superior catalytic activity among the MnOx/Al2O3. The addition of CeO2 could greatly improve the dispersibility of MnOx on the carrier and increase its catalytic activity. The 4% CeO2 addition was the optimum loaded mass precent. Forthermore, 550 degrees C is the best calcination temperature, as MnOx formed different crystalline phases with temperature, at the same time, the addition of CeO2 could affect MnOx crystalline phase. The catalytic mechanism of SCR on NO was also discussed.

  20. Synthesis of Al2O3 nanoparticles highly distributed in YBa2Cu3O7 superconductor by citrate-nitrate auto-combustion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suan, Mohd Shahadan Mohd; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2013-09-01

    The effects of Al2O3 nanoparticles on the structure and superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ matrix prepared by auto-combustion reaction were investigated. The auto-combustion reaction has successfully transformed the Al nitrate added YBCO precursor gels to very fine ashes which yielded to Al2O3 and YBCO phases after the calcination process at 900 °C. The resultant reactions produced nanocrystalline YBa2Cu3O7-δ powders having well distributed Al2O3 nanoparticles (∼10 nm). The TG/DTA analysis reveals that the Al nitrate added precursor gels decomposed by two-steps reaction at temperature of 180 and 220 °C due to the decomposition of Al nitrate followed by Y, Ba and Cu nitrates. The XRD pattern showed the orthorhombic structure of Al2O3 added YBa2Cu3O7-δ powders having the particle size ranged in between 20 and 25 nm. SEM analysis showed that Al2O3 nanoparticles were distributed along the grain boundaries of YBa2Cu3O7-δ matrix for the higher mol of Al nitrate. The higher concentration of Al2O3 reacts with the YBa2Cu3O7 matrix to form Al3+ rich spots and diffuse within the YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting matrix which was confirmed by EDX analysis. The samples produced in this work were electrically superconducting at temperature above 85 K as measured by using standard four-probe technique. Formation of alumina precipitates and incorporation of Al3+ into YBa2Cu3O7-δ structure was found to significantly reduce the Tc of pure YBa2Cu3O7-δ.

  1. Network topology for the formation of solvated electrons in binary CaO-Al2O3 composition glasses.

    PubMed

    Akola, Jaakko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Usuki, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Weber, J K Richard; Benmore, Chris J

    2013-06-18

    Glass formation in the CaO-Al2O3 system represents an important phenomenon because it does not contain typical network-forming cations. We have produced structural models of CaO-Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory-reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experiments (X-ray and neutron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and result in cohesive energies close to the crystalline ground states. The O-Ca and O-Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol % CaO (64CaO) glass [comparable to 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7)], and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. This topologically disordered network is the signature of the high glass-forming ability of 64CaO glass and high viscosity in the melt. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the atomic charges for Al are comparable to those for Ca, and the bond strength of Al-O is stronger than that of Ca-O, indicating that oxygen is more weakly bound by cations in CaO-rich glass. The analysis shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occurs in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass [Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H (2011) Science 333(6038):71-74] synthesized from a strongly reduced high-temperature melt can host solvated electrons and bipolarons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms (additional electrons) confirm this observation. The comparable atomic charges and coordination of the cations promote more efficient elemental mixing, and this is the origin of the extended cage structure and hosted solvated (trapped) electrons in the C12A7 glass.

  2. Network topology for the formation of solvated electrons in binary CaO–Al2O3 composition glasses

    PubMed Central

    Akola, Jaakko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Usuki, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Weber, J. K. Richard; Benmore, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Glass formation in the CaO–Al2O3 system represents an important phenomenon because it does not contain typical network-forming cations. We have produced structural models of CaO–Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory–reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experiments (X-ray and neutron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and result in cohesive energies close to the crystalline ground states. The O–Ca and O–Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol % CaO (64CaO) glass [comparable to 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7)], and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. This topologically disordered network is the signature of the high glass-forming ability of 64CaO glass and high viscosity in the melt. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the atomic charges for Al are comparable to those for Ca, and the bond strength of Al–O is stronger than that of Ca–O, indicating that oxygen is more weakly bound by cations in CaO-rich glass. The analysis shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occurs in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass [Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H (2011) Science 333(6038):71–74] synthesized from a strongly reduced high-temperature melt can host solvated electrons and bipolarons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms (additional electrons) confirm this observation. The comparable atomic charges and coordination of the cations promote more efficient elemental mixing, and this is the origin of the extended cage structure and hosted solvated (trapped) electrons in the C12A7 glass. PMID:23723350

  3. Dehydrogenation of dodecahydro-N-ethylcarbazole on Pd/Al2O3 model catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sobota, Marek; Nikiforidis, Ioannis; Amende, Max; Sanmartín Zanón, Beatriz; Staudt, Thorsten; Höfert, Oliver; Lykhach, Yaroslava; Papp, Christian; Hieringer, Wolfgang; Laurin, Mathias; Assenbaum, Daniel; Wasserscheid, Peter; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Görling, Andreas; Libuda, Jörg

    2011-10-01

    To elucidate the dehydrogenation mechanism of dodecahydro-N-ethylcarbazole (H(12)-NEC) on supported Pd catalysts, we have performed a model study under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions. H(12)-NEC and its final dehydrogenation product, N-ethylcarbazole (NEC), were deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) at temperatures between 120 K and 520 K onto a supported model catalyst, which consisted of Pd nanoparticles grown on a well-ordered alumina film on NiAl(110). Adsorption and thermally induced surface reactions were followed by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It was shown that, at 120 K, H(12)-NEC adsorbs molecularly both on the Al(2)O(3)/NiAl(110) support and on the Pd particles. Initial activation of the molecule occurs through C-H bond scission at the 8a- and 9a-positions of the carbazole skeleton at temperatures above 170 K. Dehydrogenation successively proceeds with increasing temperature. Around 350 K, breakage of one C-N bond occurs accompanied by further dehydrogenation of the carbon skeleton. The decomposition intermediates reside on the surface up to 500 K. At higher temperatures, further decay to small fragments and atomic species is observed. These species block most of the absorption sites on the Pd particles, but can be oxidatively removed by heating in oxygen at 600 K, fully restoring the original adsorption properties of the model catalyst. PMID:21953930

  4. Electrochemical Impedance Studies on Tribocorrosion Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Chu, Zhenhua; Chen, Xueguang; Dong, Yanchun; Yang, Yong; Li, Yingzhen; Yan, Dianran

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the tribocorrosion of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings in simulated seawater was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique, complemented by scanning electron microscopy to observe the morphology of the tribocorrosion attack. Base on EIS of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings undergoing long-time immersion in simulated seawater, the corrosion process of Al2O3 coatings can be divided into the earlier stage of immersion (up to 20 h) and the later stage (beyond 20 h). Then, the wear tests were carried out on the surface of Al2O3 coating undergoing different times of immersion to investigate the influence of wear on corrosion at different stages. The coexistence of wear and corrosion condition had been created by a boron nitride grinding head rotating on the surface of coatings corroded in simulated seawater. The measured EIS and the values of the fitting circuit elements showed that wear accelerated corrosion at the later stage, meanwhile, corrosion accelerated wear with the immersion time increasing.

  5. Optical observation of DNA translocation through Al2O3 sputtered silicon nanopores in porous membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Hirohito; Ito, Shintaro; Esashika, Keiko; Taguchi, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Toshiharu

    2016-03-01

    Nanopore sensors are being developed as a platform for analyzing single DNA, RNA, and protein. In nanopore sensors, ionic current measurement is widely used and proof-of-concept of nanopore DNA sequencing by it has been demonstrated by previous studies. Recently, we proposed an alternative platform of nanopore DNA sequencing that incorporates ultraviolet light and porous silicon membrane to perform high-throughput measurement. In the development of our DNA sequencing platform, controlling nanopore size in porous silicon membrane is essential but remains a challenge. Here, we report on observation of DNA translocation through Al2O3 sputtered silicon nanopores (Al2O3 nanopores) by our optical scheme. Electromagnetic wave simulation was performed to analyze the excitation volume on Al2O3 nanopores generated by focused ultraviolet light. In the experiment, DNA translocation time through Al2O3 nanopores was compared with that of silicon nanopores and we examined the effect of nanopore density and thickness of membrane by supplementing the static electric field simulation.

  6. Investigation of Ti/Al2O3 joints with intermediate tantalum and niobium layers.

    PubMed

    Gibbesch, B; Elssner, G; Petzow, G

    1992-01-01

    The microstructure of TiTa30 alloys diffusion bonded to a 99.7 wt% Al2O3 ceramic was subdivided into a reaction double layer containing the intermetallic phases TiAl and Ti3Al and the (alpha + beta) Ti microstructure. Excellent fracture toughness data of the TiTa30/Al2O3 joints of about 37 J/m2 were obtained after welding at 1200 degrees C for 1 h. The fracture energies of the joints were strongly dependent on the welding temperature which also influenced the thickness of the reaction double layer. The uptake of aluminium and oxygen into the reaction layer and the metal caused an embrittlement and decreased the yield stress and ductility of the metal. Introducing an Nb or Ta layer between pure Ti and Al2O3 before welding resulted in high fracture energies of 40 J/m2 for the Ti/Al2O3 joints. The thermal-induced stresses at the metal-ceramic interface were reduced by the occurrence of an Nb- or Ta-enriched region. The intermediate metal foils also decreased the O and Al uptake of the metal and therefore reduced the brittleness of the reaction zone and the adjacent metal. The thermal-induced stresses at the metal-ceramic interface caused a deflection of the crack into the ceramic during fracture mechanical testing in four-point bending.

  7. Crack-resistant Al2O3-SiO2 glasses.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining "hard" and "crack-resistant" glasses have always been of great important in glass science and glass technology. However, in most commercial glasses both properties are not compatible. In this work, colorless and transparent xAl2O3-(100-x)SiO2 glasses (30 ≤ x ≤ 60) were fabricated by the aerodynamic levitation technique. The elastic moduli and Vickers hardness monotonically increased with an increase in the atomic packing density as the Al2O3 content increased. Although a higher atomic packing density generally enhances crack formation in conventional oxide glasses, the indentation cracking resistance increased by approximately seven times with an increase in atomic packing density in binary Al2O3-SiO2 glasses. In particular, the composition of 60Al2O3 • 40SiO2 glass, which is identical to that of mullite, has extraordinary high cracking resistance with high elastic moduli and Vickers hardness. The results indicate that there exist aluminosilicate compositions that can produce hard and damage-tolerant glasses. PMID:27053006

  8. Plasma etching behavior of Y2O3 ceramics: Comparative study with Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu-Chao; Zhao, Lei; Luo, Jin; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Yokota, Hiroki; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Li, Jing-Feng

    2016-03-01

    The plasma etching behavior of Y2O3 coating was investigated and compared with that of Al2O3 coating under various conditions, including chemical etching, mixing etching and physical etching. The etching rate of Al2O3 coating declined with decreasing CF4 content under mixing etching, while that of Y2O3 coating first increased and then decreased. In addition, the Y2O3 coating demonstrated higher erosion-resistance than Al2O3 coating after exposing to fluorocarbon plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the formations of YF3 and AlF3 on the Y2O3 and Al2O3 coatings, respectively, which acted as the protective layer to prevent the surface from further erosion with fluorocarbon plasma. It was revealed that the etching behavior of Y2O3 depended not only on the surface fluorination but also on the removal of fluoride layer. To analyze the effect of porosity, Y2O3 bulk samples with high density were prepared by spark plasma sintering, and they demonstrated higher erosion-resistances compared with Y2O3 coating.

  9. Consolidation of Al2O3/Al Nanocomposite Powder by Cold Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Dominique; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel; Drew, Robin A. L.; Gauvin, Raynald

    2011-01-01

    While the improvement in mechanical properties of nanocomposites makes them attractive materials for structural applications, their processing still presents significant challenges. In this article, cold spray was used to consolidate milled Al and Al2O3/Al nanocomposite powders as well as the initial unmilled and unreinforced Al powder. The microstructure and nanohardness of the feedstock powders as well as those of the resulting coatings were compared. The results show that the large increase in hardness of the Al powder after mechanical milling is preserved after cold spraying. Good quality coating with low porosity is obtained from milled Al. However, the addition of Al2O3 to the Al powder during milling decreases the powder and coating nanohardness. This lower hardness is attributed to non-optimized milling parameters leading to cracked particles with insufficient Al2O3 embedding in Al. The coating produced from the milled Al2O3/Al mixture also showed lower particle cohesion and higher amount of porosity.

  10. New fully bakeable and moveable vacuum seal between stainless steel and Al2O3 ceramic.

    PubMed

    Langenwalter, M; Grössl, M; Märk, T D

    1979-02-01

    The current paper describes a simple construction which allows the monitoring of the radial dependence of the extracted and mass identified ion currents in a hollow cathode stationary afterglow apparatus at any time during the afterglow. The main feature of the monitoring device is a fully bakeable and moveable vacuum seal between polished stainless steel and polished Al2O3 ceramic. PMID:18699481

  11. Crack-resistant Al2O3–SiO2 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A.; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Obtaining “hard” and “crack-resistant” glasses have always been of great important in glass science and glass technology. However, in most commercial glasses both properties are not compatible. In this work, colorless and transparent xAl2O3–(100–x)SiO2 glasses (30 ≤ x ≤ 60) were fabricated by the aerodynamic levitation technique. The elastic moduli and Vickers hardness monotonically increased with an increase in the atomic packing density as the Al2O3 content increased. Although a higher atomic packing density generally enhances crack formation in conventional oxide glasses, the indentation cracking resistance increased by approximately seven times with an increase in atomic packing density in binary Al2O3–SiO2 glasses. In particular, the composition of 60Al2O3•40SiO2 glass, which is identical to that of mullite, has extraordinary high cracking resistance with high elastic moduli and Vickers hardness. The results indicate that there exist aluminosilicate compositions that can produce hard and damage-tolerant glasses.

  12. Transport mechanisms of leakage current in Al2O3/InAlAs MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chengji; Lu, Hongliang; Zhang, Yimen; Zhang, Yuming; Guan, He; Wu, Lifan; Lu, Bin; Liu, Chen

    2016-09-01

    An Al2O3 layer is inserted between the InAlAs layer and the metal gate in InAs/AlSb HEMTs to suppress the leakage current. The transport mechanisms of leakage current in Al2O3/InAlAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors at both positive and negative biases at different temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 70 °C are investigated. For positive bias, the leakage current is dominated by Schottky emission. Based on the fitted straight lines, the relative dielectric constant of Al2O3 and the barrier height between Al2O3 and InAlAs are extracted. However, for negative bias, the leakage current is dominated by Frenkel-Poole (F-P) emission and the depth of the trap energy level from the conduction band (ϕt) is extracted. Furthermore, authors explain the reason why the dominating mechanisms at positive and negative biases are different.

  13. Crack-resistant Al2O3–SiO2 glasses

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A.; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining “hard” and “crack-resistant” glasses have always been of great important in glass science and glass technology. However, in most commercial glasses both properties are not compatible. In this work, colorless and transparent xAl2O3–(100–x)SiO2 glasses (30 ≤ x ≤ 60) were fabricated by the aerodynamic levitation technique. The elastic moduli and Vickers hardness monotonically increased with an increase in the atomic packing density as the Al2O3 content increased. Although a higher atomic packing density generally enhances crack formation in conventional oxide glasses, the indentation cracking resistance increased by approximately seven times with an increase in atomic packing density in binary Al2O3–SiO2 glasses. In particular, the composition of 60Al2O3•40SiO2 glass, which is identical to that of mullite, has extraordinary high cracking resistance with high elastic moduli and Vickers hardness. The results indicate that there exist aluminosilicate compositions that can produce hard and damage-tolerant glasses. PMID:27053006

  14. Structural optical correlated properties of SnO2/Al2O3 core@ shell heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiba, Zein K.; Imam, N. G.; Bakr Mohamed, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Nano size polycrystalline samples of the core@shell heterostructure of SnO2 @ xAl2O3 (x = 0, 25, 50, 75 wt.%) were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The resulting samples were characterized with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns manifest diffraction peaks of SnO2 as main phase with weak peaks corresponding to Al2O3 phase. The formation of core@ shell structure is confirmed by TEM images and Rietveld quantitative phase analysis which revealed that small part of Al2O3 is incorporated into the SnO2 lattice while the main part (shell) remains as a separate phase segregated on the grain boundary surface of SnO2 (core). It is found that the grain size of the mixed oxides SnO2 @ xAl2O3 is below 10 nm while for pure SnO2 it is over 41 nm, indicating that alumina can effectively prevent SnO2 from further growing up in the process of calcination. This is confirmed by the large increase in the specific surface area for mixed oxide samples. The PL emission showed great dependence on the structure properties analyzed by XRD and FTIR. The PL results recommend Al2O3@SnO2 core@shell heterostructure to be a promising short-wavelength luminescent optoelectronic devices for blue, UV, and laser light-emitting diodes.

  15. Swift ion irradiation effect on high-k ZrO2- and Al2O3-based MOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Ashwath; Chaurasia, Priyanka; Singh, B. R.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the heavy ion-induced effects on the electrical characteristics of reactively sputtered ZrO2 and Al2O3 high-k gate oxides deposited in argon plus nitrogen containing plasma. Radiation-induced degradation of sputtered high-k dielectric ZrO2/Si and Al2O3/Si interface was studied using 45 MeV Li3+ ions. The devices were irradiated with Li3+ ions at various fluences ranging from 5 × 109 to 5 × 1012 ions/cm2. Capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics were used for electrical characterization. Shift in flat band voltage towards negative value was observed in devices after exposure to ion radiation. Post-deposition annealing effect on the electrical behavior of high-k/Si interface was also investigated. The annealed devices showed better electrical and reliability characteristics. Different device parameters such as flat band voltage, leakage current, interface defect density and oxide-trapped charge have been extracted.The surface morphology and roughness values for films deposited in nitrogen containing plasma before and after ion radiation are extracted from Atomic Force Microscopy.

  16. Thermal conductivity of amorphous Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saima; Juntunen, Taneli; Sintonen, Sakari; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L.; Lipsanen, Harri; Tittonen, Ilkka; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2016-11-01

    The thermophysical properties of Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are studied as a function of bilayer thickness and relative TiO2 content (0%–100%) while the total nominal thickness of the nanolaminates was kept at 100 nm. Cross-plane thermal conductivity of the nanolaminates is measured at room temperature using the nanosecond transient thermoreflectance method. Based on the measurements, the nanolaminates have reduced thermal conductivity as compared to the pure amorphous thin films, suggesting that interfaces have a non-negligible effect on thermal transport in amorphous nanolaminates. For a fixed number of interfaces, we find that approximately equal material content of Al2O3 and TiO2 produces the lowest value of thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity reduces with increasing interface density up to 0.4 nm‑1, above which the thermal conductivity is found to be constant. The value of thermal interface resistance approximated by the use of diffuse mismatch model was found to be 0.45 m2 K GW‑1, and a comparative study employing this value supports the interpretation of non-negligible interface resistance affecting the overall thermal conductivity also in the amorphous limit. Finally, no clear trend in thermal conductivity values was found for nanolaminates grown at different deposition temperatures, suggesting that the temperature in the ALD process has a non-trivial while modest effect on the overall thermal conductivity in amorphous nanolaminates.

  17. Thermal conductivity of amorphous Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saima; Juntunen, Taneli; Sintonen, Sakari; Ylivaara, Oili M E; Puurunen, Riikka L; Lipsanen, Harri; Tittonen, Ilkka; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2016-11-01

    The thermophysical properties of Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are studied as a function of bilayer thickness and relative TiO2 content (0%-100%) while the total nominal thickness of the nanolaminates was kept at 100 nm. Cross-plane thermal conductivity of the nanolaminates is measured at room temperature using the nanosecond transient thermoreflectance method. Based on the measurements, the nanolaminates have reduced thermal conductivity as compared to the pure amorphous thin films, suggesting that interfaces have a non-negligible effect on thermal transport in amorphous nanolaminates. For a fixed number of interfaces, we find that approximately equal material content of Al2O3 and TiO2 produces the lowest value of thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity reduces with increasing interface density up to 0.4 nm(-1), above which the thermal conductivity is found to be constant. The value of thermal interface resistance approximated by the use of diffuse mismatch model was found to be 0.45 m(2) K GW(-1), and a comparative study employing this value supports the interpretation of non-negligible interface resistance affecting the overall thermal conductivity also in the amorphous limit. Finally, no clear trend in thermal conductivity values was found for nanolaminates grown at different deposition temperatures, suggesting that the temperature in the ALD process has a non-trivial while modest effect on the overall thermal conductivity in amorphous nanolaminates. PMID:27670821

  18. Thermal conductivity of amorphous Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saima; Juntunen, Taneli; Sintonen, Sakari; Ylivaara, Oili M E; Puurunen, Riikka L; Lipsanen, Harri; Tittonen, Ilkka; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2016-11-01

    The thermophysical properties of Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are studied as a function of bilayer thickness and relative TiO2 content (0%-100%) while the total nominal thickness of the nanolaminates was kept at 100 nm. Cross-plane thermal conductivity of the nanolaminates is measured at room temperature using the nanosecond transient thermoreflectance method. Based on the measurements, the nanolaminates have reduced thermal conductivity as compared to the pure amorphous thin films, suggesting that interfaces have a non-negligible effect on thermal transport in amorphous nanolaminates. For a fixed number of interfaces, we find that approximately equal material content of Al2O3 and TiO2 produces the lowest value of thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity reduces with increasing interface density up to 0.4 nm(-1), above which the thermal conductivity is found to be constant. The value of thermal interface resistance approximated by the use of diffuse mismatch model was found to be 0.45 m(2) K GW(-1), and a comparative study employing this value supports the interpretation of non-negligible interface resistance affecting the overall thermal conductivity also in the amorphous limit. Finally, no clear trend in thermal conductivity values was found for nanolaminates grown at different deposition temperatures, suggesting that the temperature in the ALD process has a non-trivial while modest effect on the overall thermal conductivity in amorphous nanolaminates.

  19. Surface morphology of Al0.3Ga0.7N/Al2O3-high electron mobility transistor structure.

    PubMed

    Cörekçi, S; Usanmaz, D; Tekeli, Z; Cakmak, M; Ozçelik, S; Ozbay, E

    2008-02-01

    We present surface properties of buffer films (AIN and GaN) and Al0.3Gao.zN/Al2O3-High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) structures with/without AIN interlayer grown on High Temperature (HT)-AIN buffer/Al2O3 substrate and Al2O3 substrate. We have found that the GaN surface morphology is step-flow in character and the density of dislocations was about 10(8)-10(9) cm(-2). The AFM measurements also exhibited that the presence of atomic steps with large lateral step dimension and the surface of samples was smooth. The lateral step sizes are in the range of 100-250 nm. The typical rms values of HEMT structures were found as 0.27, 0.30, and 0.70 nm. HT-AIN buffer layer can have a significant impact on the surface morphology of Al0.3Ga0.7N/Al2O3-HEMT structures.

  20. The Influence of Na2O on the Solidification and Crystallization Behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Based Mold Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinxing; Wen, Guanghua; Sun, Qihao; Tang, Ping; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    The reaction between [Al] and SiO2 sharply increased the Al2O3 and decreased SiO2 contents in mold flux during the continuous casting of high-Al steels. These changes converted original CaO-SiO2-based flux into CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based flux, promoting the crystallization and deteriorating the mold lubrication. Therefore, study on the solidification and crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux, with the applicable fluidizers, is of importance. The effect of Na2O, predominantly used as the fluidizer in mold flux, on the solidification and crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux needs to be investigated. In this study, a CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux containing 6.5 wt pct Li2O was designed; the effect of Na2O on the solidification and crystallization behavior of these mold fluxes was investigated using the single hot thermocouple technique (SHTT) and the double hot thermocouple technique (DHTT). Moreover, the slag film obtained by a heat flux simulator was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the solid fraction of molten slag (Fs) and the crystalline fraction of solid slag (Fc) in the mold slag films decrease with increasing Na2O content from 0 to 2 wt pct. However, Fs and Fc increased when the Na2O content increased from 2 to 6 wt pct. The critical cooling rates initially decreases and then increases with increasing Na2O content. The XRD analysis results show that LiAlO2 and CaF2 were the basic crystals for all the mold fluxes. Increasing the Na2O content both inhibits the Ca2Al2SiO7 formation and promotes the production of Ca12Al14O33, indicating that the mold lubrication deteriorated because of the high melting-point phase formation of Ca2Al2SiO7 in the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux containing 6.5 wt pct Li2O, without Na2O. The strong crystallization tendency also deteriorated the mold lubrication for the mold flux with a higher Na2O content. Therefore, the addition of Na2O was less than 2 wt pct in

  1. TPR investigations on the reducibility of Cu supported on Al 2O 3, zeolite Y and SAPO-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Dang Lanh; Dang, Thi Thuy Hanh; Engeldinger, Jana; Schneider, Matthias; Radnik, Jörg; Richter, Manfred; Martin, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Reducibility of Cu supported on Al 2O 3, zeolite Y and silicoaluminophosphate SAPO-5 has been investigated in dependence on the Cu content using a method combining conventional temperature programmed reduction (TPR) by hydrogen with reoxidation in N 2O followed by a second the so-called surface-TPR (s-TPR). The method enables discrimination and a quantitative estimation of the Cu oxidation states +2, +1 and 0. The quantitative results show that the initial oxidation state of Cu after calcination in air at 400 °C, independent on the nature of the support, is predominantly +2. Cu 2+ supported on Al 2O 3 is quantitatively reduced by hydrogen to metallic Cu 0. Comparing the TPR of the samples calcined in air and that of samples additionally pre-treated in argon reveals that in zeolite Y and SAPO-5 Cu 2+ cations are stabilized as weakly and strongly forms. In both systems, strongly stabilized Cu 2+ ions are not auto-reduced by pre-treatment in argon at 650 °C, but are reduced in hydrogen to form Cu +. The weakly stabilized Cu 2+ ions, in contrast, may be auto-reduced by pre-treatment in argon at 650 °C forming Cu + but are reduced in hydrogen to metallic Cu 0.

  2. Microstructure of Suspension Plasma Spray and Air Plasma Spray Al2O3-ZrO2 Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dianying; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice

    2009-09-01

    Al2O3-ZrO2 coatings were deposited by the suspension plasma spray (SPS) molecularly mixed amorphous powder and the conventional air plasma spray (APS) Al2O3-ZrO2 crystalline powder. The amorphous powder was produced by heat treatment of molecularly mixed chemical solution precursors below their crystallization temperatures. Phase composition and microstructure of the as-synthesized and heat-treated SPS and APS coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. XRD analysis shows that the as-sprayed SPS coating is composed of α-Al2O3 and tetragonal ZrO2 phases, while the as-sprayed APS coating consists of tetragonal ZrO2, α-Al2O3, and γ-Al2O3 phases. Microstructure characterization revealed that the Al2O3 and ZrO2 phase distribution in SPS coatings is much more homogeneous than that of APS coatings.

  3. Catalytic oxidation of HCN over a 0.5% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Haibo; Tonkyn, Russell G; Barlow, Stephan E; Koel, Bruce E; Peden, Charles HF

    2006-03-27

    The adsorption of HCN on, its catalytic oxidation with 6% O2 over 0.5% Pt/Al2O3, and the subsequent oxidation of strongly bound chemisorbed species upon heating were investigated. The observed N-containing products were N2O, NO and NO2, and some residual adsorbed N-containing species were oxidized to NO and NO2 during subsequent temperature programmed oxidation. Because N-atom balance could not be obtained after accounting for the quantities of each of these product species, we propose that N2 and was formed. Both the HCN conversion and the selectivity towards different N-containing products depend strongly on the reaction temperature and the composition of the reactant gas mixture. In particular, total HCN conversion reaches 95% above 250 C. Furthermore, the temperature of maximum HCN conversion to N2O is located between 200 and 250 C, while raising the reaction temperature increases the proportion of NOx in the products. The co-feeding of H2O and C3H6 had little, if any effect on the total HCN conversion, but C3H6 addition did increase the conversion to NO and decrease the conversion to NO2, perhaps due to the competing presence of adsorbed fragments of reductive C3H6. Evidence is also presented that introduction of NO and NO2 into the reactant gas mixture resulted in additional reaction pathways between these NOx species and HCN that provide for lean-NOx reduction coincident with HCN oxidation.

  4. Al2O3-ZrO2 Finely Structured Multilayer Architectures from Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingaud, Olivier; Montavon, Ghislain; Denoirjean, Alain; Coudert, Jean-François; Rat, Vincent; Fauchais, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is an alternative to conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) aiming at manufacturing thinner layers (i.e., 10-100 μm) due to the specific size of the feedstock particles, from a few tens of nanometers to a few micrometers. The staking of lamellae and particles, which present a diameter ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 μm and an average thickness from 20 to 300 nm, permits to manufacture finely structured layers. Moreover, it appears as a versatile process able to manufacture different coating architectures according to the operating parameters (suspension properties, injection configuration, plasma properties, spray distance, torch scan velocity, scanning step, etc.). However, the different parameters controlling the properties of the coating, and their interdependences, are not yet fully identified. Thus, the aim of this paper is, on the one hand, to better understand the influence of operating parameters on the coating manufacturing mechanisms (in particular, the plasma gas mixture effect) and, on the other hand, to produce Al2O3-ZrO2 finely structured layers with large varieties of architectures. For this purpose, a simple theoretical model was used to describe the plasma torch operating conditions at the nozzle exit, based on experimental data (mass enthalpy, arc current intensity, thermophysical properties of plasma forming gases, etc.) and the influences of the spray parameters were determined by mean of the study of sizes and shapes of spray beads. The results enabled then to reach a better understanding of involved phenomena and their interactions on the final coating architectures permitting to manufacture several types of microstructures.

  5. Characterization of ZrO2 buffer layers for sequentially evaporated Y-Ba-CuO on Si and Al2O3 substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valco, George J.; Rohrer, Norman J.; Pouch, John J.; Warner, Joseph D.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1988-01-01

    Thin film high temperature superconductors have the potential to change the microwave technology for space communications systems. For such applications it is desirable that the films be formed on substrates such as Al2O3 which have good microwave properties. The use of ZrO2 buffer layers between Y-Ba-Cu-O and the substrate has been investigated. These superconducting films have been formed by multilayer sequential electron beam evaporation of Cu, BaF2 and Y with subsequent annealing. The three layer sequence of Y/BaF2/Cu is repeated four times for a total of twelve layers. Such a multilayer film, approximately 1 micron thick, deposited directly on SrTiO3 and annealed at 900 C for 45 min produces a film with a superconducting onset of 93 K and critical temperature of 85 K. Auger electron spectroscopy in conjunction with argon ion sputtering was used to obtain the distribution of each element as a function of depth for an unannealed film, the annealed film on SrTiO3 and annealed films on ZrO2 buffer layers. The individual layers were apparent. After annealing, the bulk of the film on SrTiO3 is observed to be fairly uniform while films on the substrates with buffer layers are less uniform. The Y-Ba-Cu-O/ZrO2 interface is broad with a long Ba tail into the ZrO2, suggesting interaction between the film and the buffer layer. The underlying ZrO2/Si interface is sharper. The detailed Auger results are presented and compared with samples annealed at different temperatures and durations.

  6. The effect of Mg location on Co-Mg-Ru/γ-Al2O3 Fischer–Tropsch catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Combes, Gary B.; Ozkaya, Don; Enache, Dan I.; Ellis, Peter R.; Kelly, Gordon; Rosseinsky, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of Mg as a promoter of Co-Ru/γ-Al2O3 Fischer–Tropsch catalysts depends on how and when the Mg is added. When the Mg is impregnated into the support before the Co and Ru addition, some Mg is incorporated into the support in the form of MgxAl2O3+x if the material is calcined at 550°C or 800°C after the impregnation, while the remainder is present as amorphous MgO/MgCO3 phases. After subsequent Co-Ru impregnation MgxCo3−xO4 is formed which decomposes on reduction, leading to Co(0) particles intimately mixed with Mg, as shown by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The process of impregnating Co into an Mg-modified support results in dissolution of the amorphous Mg, and it is this Mg which is then incorporated into MgxCo3−xO4. Acid washing or higher temperature calcination after Mg impregnation can remove most of this amorphous Mg, resulting in lower values of x in MgxCo3−xO4. Catalytic testing of these materials reveals that Mg incorporation into the Co oxide phase is severely detrimental to the site-time yield, while Mg incorporation into the support may provide some enhancement of activity at high temperature. PMID:26755760

  7. Interactions between vacancies and prismatic Σ3 grain boundary in α-Al2O3: First principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Wang; Wen-Sheng, Lai; Ru-Song, Li; Bin, He; Su-Fen, Li

    2016-06-01

    Interactions between vacancies and Σ3 prismatic screw-rotation grain boundary in α-Al2O3 are investigated by the first principles projector-augmented wave method. It turns out that the vacancy formation energy decreases with reducing the distance between vacancy and grain boundary (GB) plane and reaches the minimum on the GB plane (at the atomic layer next to the GB) for an O (Al) vacancy. The O vacancy located on the GB plane can attract other vacancies nearby to form an O-O di-vacancy while the Al vacancy cannot. Moreover, the O-O di-vacancy can further attract other O vacancies to form a zigzag O vacancy chain on the GB plane, which may have an influence on the diffusion behavior of small atoms such as H and He along the GB plane of α-Al2O3. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research and Technology Program, China (Grant No. 2010CB731601) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50871057).

  8. Effect of surface roughness on the development of protective Al 2O 3 on Fe-10Al (at.%) alloys containing 0-10 at.% Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. G.; Hou, P. Y.; Gesmundo, F.; Niu, Y.

    2006-11-01

    The effect of alloy surface roughness, achieved by different degrees of surface polishing, on the development of protective alumina layer on Fe-10 at.% Al alloys containing 0, 5, and 10 at.% Cr was investigated during oxidation at 1000 °C in 0.1 MPa oxygen. For alloys that are not strong Al 2O 3 formers (Fe-10Al and Fe-5Cr-10Al), the rougher surfaces increased Fe incorporation into the overall surface layer. On the Fe-10Al, more iron oxides were formed in a uniform layer of mixed aluminum- and iron-oxides since the layer was thicker. On the Fe-5Cr-10Al, more iron-rich nodules developed on an otherwise thin Al 2O 3 surface layer. These nodules nucleated preferentially along surface scratch marks but not on alloy grain boundaries. For the strong Al 2O 3-forming Fe-10Cr-10Al alloy, protective alumina surface layers were observed regardless of the surface roughness. These results indicate that the formation of a protective Al 2O 3 layer on Fe-Cr-Al surfaces is not dictated by Al diffusion to the surface. More cold-worked surfaces caused an enhanced Fe diffusion, hence produced more Fe-rich oxides during the early stage of oxidation.

  9. Effect of Nano-Al2O3 on the Toxicity and Oxidative Stress of Copper towards Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Suyang; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    Nano-Al2O3 has been widely used in various industries; unfortunately, it can be released into the aquatic environment. Although nano-Al2O3 is believed to be of low toxicity, it can interact with other pollutants in water, such as heavy metals. However, the interactions between nano-Al2O3 and heavy metals as well as the effect of nano-Al2O3 on the toxicity of the metals have been rarely investigated. The current study investigated copper toxicity in the presence of nano-Al2O3 towards Scenedesmus obliquus. Superoxide dismutase activity and concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde in cells were determined in order to quantify oxidative stress in this study. Results showed that the presence of nano-Al2O3 reduced the toxicity of Cu towards S. obliquus. The existence of nano-Al2O3 decreased the growth inhibition of S. obliquus. The accumulation of copper and the level of oxidative stress in algae were reduced in the presence of nano-Al2O3. Furthermore, lower copper accumulation was the main factor that mitigated copper toxicity with the addition of nano-Al2O3. The decreased copper uptake could be attributed to the adsorption of copper onto nanoparticles and the subsequent decrease of available copper in water. PMID:27294942

  10. Eliminated Phototoxicity of TiO2 Particles by an Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2 O3 Coating Layer for UV-Protection Applications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eunyong; Sridharan, Kishore; Park, Young Min; Park, Tae Joo

    2016-08-16

    We demonstrate the conformal coating of an ultrathin Al2 O3 layer on TiO2 nanoparticles through atomic layer deposition by using a specifically designed rotary reactor to eliminate the phototoxicity of the particles for cosmetic use. The ALD reactor is modified to improve the coating efficiency as well as the agitation of the particles for conformal coating. Elemental and microstructural analyses show that ultrathin Al2 O3 layers are conformally deposited on the TiO2 nanoparticles with a controlled thickness. Rhodamine B dye molecules on Al2 O3 -coated TiO2 exhibited a long life time under UV irradiation, that is, more than 2 h, compared to that on bare TiO2 , that is, 8 min, indicating mitigation of photocatalytic activity by the coated layer. The effect of carbon impurities in the film resulting from various deposition temperatures and thicknesses of the Al2 O3 layer on the photocatalytic activity are also thoroughly investigated with controlled experimental condition by using dye molecules on the surface. Our results reveal that an increased carbon impurity resulting from a low processing temperature provides a charge conduction path and generates reactive oxygen species causing the degradation of dye molecule. A thin coated layer, that is, less than 3 nm, also induced the tunneling of electrons and holes to the surface, hence oxidizing dye molecules. Furthermore, the introduction of an Al2 O3 layer on TiO2 improves the light trapping thus, enhances the UV absorption. PMID:27405514

  11. ALD TiO2-Al2O3 Stack: An Improved Gate Dielectrics on Ga-polar GaN MOSCAPs

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Daming; Edgar, James H.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Retterer, Scott T.; Meyer, III, Harry M.

    2014-10-15

    This research focuses on the benefits and properties of TiO2-Al2O3 nano-stack thin films deposited on Ga2O3/GaN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) for gate dielectric development. This combination of materials achieved a high dielectric constant, a low leakage current, and a low interface trap density. Correlations were sought between the films’ structure, composition, and electrical properties. The gate dielectrics were approximately 15 nm thick and contained 5.1 nm TiO2, 7.1 nm Al2O3 and 2 nm Ga2O3 as determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The interface carbon concentration, as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profile, was negligible for GaN pretreated bymore » thermal oxidation in O2 for 30 minutes at 850°C. The RMS roughness slightly increased after thermal oxidation and remained the same after ALD of the nano-stack, as determined by atomic force microscopy. The dielectric constant of TiO2-Al2O3 on Ga2O3/GaN was increased to 12.5 compared to that of pure Al2O3 (8~9) on GaN. In addition, the nano-stack's capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis was small, with a total trap density of 8.74 × 1011 cm-2. The gate leakage current density (J=2.81× 10-8 A/cm2) was low at +1 V gate bias. These results demonstrate the promising potential of plasma ALD deposited TiO2/Al2O3 for serving as the gate oxide on Ga2O3/GaN based MOS devices.« less

  12. Eliminated Phototoxicity of TiO2 Particles by an Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2 O3 Coating Layer for UV-Protection Applications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eunyong; Sridharan, Kishore; Park, Young Min; Park, Tae Joo

    2016-08-16

    We demonstrate the conformal coating of an ultrathin Al2 O3 layer on TiO2 nanoparticles through atomic layer deposition by using a specifically designed rotary reactor to eliminate the phototoxicity of the particles for cosmetic use. The ALD reactor is modified to improve the coating efficiency as well as the agitation of the particles for conformal coating. Elemental and microstructural analyses show that ultrathin Al2 O3 layers are conformally deposited on the TiO2 nanoparticles with a controlled thickness. Rhodamine B dye molecules on Al2 O3 -coated TiO2 exhibited a long life time under UV irradiation, that is, more than 2 h, compared to that on bare TiO2 , that is, 8 min, indicating mitigation of photocatalytic activity by the coated layer. The effect of carbon impurities in the film resulting from various deposition temperatures and thicknesses of the Al2 O3 layer on the photocatalytic activity are also thoroughly investigated with controlled experimental condition by using dye molecules on the surface. Our results reveal that an increased carbon impurity resulting from a low processing temperature provides a charge conduction path and generates reactive oxygen species causing the degradation of dye molecule. A thin coated layer, that is, less than 3 nm, also induced the tunneling of electrons and holes to the surface, hence oxidizing dye molecules. Furthermore, the introduction of an Al2 O3 layer on TiO2 improves the light trapping thus, enhances the UV absorption.

  13. Effect Of Preparation Methods On The Performance Of Co/Al2O3 Catalysts For Dry Reforming Of Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Ewbank, Jessica L.; Kovarik, Libor; Kenvin, Christian C.; Sievers, Carsten

    2014-01-06

    Two methods, dry impregnation (DI) and controlled adsorption (CA), are used for the preparation of Co/ Al2O3 catalysts for methane dry reforming reactions. Point of zero charge (PZC) measurements, pH-precipitation studies, and adsorption isotherms are used to develop a synthesis procedure in which deposition of Co2+ takes place in a more controlled manner than metal deposition during drying in synthesis by dry impregnation. The possible adsorption phenomena that occur during preparation of Co/Al2O3 catalysts by controlled adsorption are discussed. H2 chemisorption and TEM show that catalysts prepared by CA have smaller average particle sizes and higher dispersions. TPR studies show that for the sample prepared by CA a higher amount of cobalt is reduced to its metallic state and that more CoAl2O4 spinel species are present relative to DI samples. The catalyst prepared by CA shows higher activity and slower deactivation for methane dry reforming than the catalyst prepared by DI. XPS and C, H, N analysis on spent catalysts confirm two types of carbonaceous deposits are formed depending on the preparation method.

  14. Stoichiometry of the ALD-Al2O3/4H–SiC interface by synchrotron-based XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Saveda Suvanam, Sethu; Ghadami Yazdi, Milad; Göthelid, Mats; Sultan, Muhammad; Hallén, Anders

    2016-06-01

    The interface of Al2O3 with 4H-SiC is investigated with synchrotron-based high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to clarify the effect of post-dielectric deposition annealing processes (rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and furnace annealing (FA)) involved in device fabrication. Our results show that post-deposition annealing of Al2O3/4H-SiC up to 1100 °C forms a thin interfacial layer of SiO2 between Al2O3 and SiC, which possibly improves the dielectric properties of the system by reducing oxide charges and near-interface traps. Moreover, the formation of SiO2 at the interface gives additional band offset to the dielectric system. We have also observed that the RTA and FA processes have similar results at a high temperature of 1100 °C. Therefore, we propose that high-temperature post-oxide (Al2O3) deposition annealing of up to 1100 °C may be used in device processing, which can improve overall dielectric properties and consequently the device performance.

  15. N-doped carbon@Ni-Al2O3 nanosheet array@graphene oxide composite as an electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Qiu, Tian; Chen, Xu; Lu, Yanluo; Yang, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    An NiAl-layered double-hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) nanosheet array is grown on a graphene oxide (GO) substrate (NiAl-LDH@GO) by the hydrothermal method. The NiAl-LDH@GO is used as the precursor to synthetize an N-doped carbon@Ni-Al2O3 nanosheet array@GO composite (N-C@Ni-Al2O3@GO) by coating with dopamine followed by calcination. The N-C@Ni-Al2O3@GO is used as a non-noble metal electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline medium, and exhibits high electrocatalytic activity with low onset overpotential (-75 mV). The improved electrocatalytic performance of N-C@Ni-Al2O3@GO arises from its intrinsic features. First, it has a high specific surface area with the Ni nanoparticles in the composite dispersed well and the sizes of Ni nanoparticles are small, which lead to the exposure of more active sites for electrocatalysis. Second, there is a synergistic effect between the Ni nanoparticles and the N-C coating layer, which is beneficial to reduce the activation energy of the Volmer step and improve the electrocatalytic activity. Third, the N-C coating layer and the XC-72 additive can form an electrically conductive network, which serves as a bridge for the transfer of electrons from the electrode to the Ni nanoparticles.

  16. Preparation of HZSM-5 membrane packed CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 nanoparticles for catalysing carbon dioxide hydrogenation to dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Tian, Haifeng; Yang, Aimei; Zha, Fei; Ding, Jian; Chang, Yue

    2015-08-01

    Spherical carbons were prepared successfully from aqueous glucose using hydrothermal method. After covered with aqueous Cu2+, Zn2+ and Al3+ ions during the co-precipitation treatment, carbons were removed via calcination to yield CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 nanoparticles. HZSM-5 membrane, which was synthesized using tetrapropylammonium hydroxide as templating agent, was packed onto CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 nanoparticles hydrothermally to form HZSM-5 packed CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 nanoparticles. It was characterized by the method of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and nitrogen sorption measurement. HZSM-5 packed CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 nanoparticles were used as catalysts for the CO2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether. The catalyst activity was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. Under the reaction conditions of pressure at 3.0 MPa, space velocity (SV) of 1800 mL gcat-1 h-1, volume ratio of CO2/H2 to 1:3 and temperature at 270 °C, the conversion of CO2 could reach to 48.3%, with a dimethyl ether yield and selectivity of 23.4% and 48.5%, respectively.

  17. Using a surface-sensitive chemical probe and a bulk structure technique to monitor the γ- to θ-Al2O3 phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2011-06-30

    In this work, we investigated the phase transformation of γ Al2O3 to θ Al2O3 by ethanol TPD and XRD. Ethanol TPD showed remarkable sensitivity toward the surface structures of the aluminas studied. Maximum desorption rates for the primary product of ethanol adsorption, ethylene, were observed at 225°C, 245°C and 320°C over γ-, θ-, and α-Al2O3, respectively. Ethanol TPD over a γ Al2O3 sample calcined at 800 °C clearly show that the surface of the resulting material possesses θ-alumina characteristics, even though only the γ-alumina phase was detected by XRD. These results strongly suggest that the γ-to-θ phase transformation of alumina initiates at oxide particle surfaces. The results obtained are also consistent with our previous finding that the presence of penta-coordinated Al3+ sites, formed on the (100) facets of the alumina surface, are strongly correlated with the thermal stability of γ-alumina.

  18. Stoichiometry of the ALD-Al2O3/4H-SiC interface by synchrotron-based XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Saveda Suvanam, Sethu; Ghadami Yazdi, Milad; Göthelid, Mats; Sultan, Muhammad; Hallén, Anders

    2016-06-01

    The interface of Al2O3 with 4H-SiC is investigated with synchrotron-based high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to clarify the effect of post-dielectric deposition annealing processes (rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and furnace annealing (FA)) involved in device fabrication. Our results show that post-deposition annealing of Al2O3/4H-SiC up to 1100 °C forms a thin interfacial layer of SiO2 between Al2O3 and SiC, which possibly improves the dielectric properties of the system by reducing oxide charges and near-interface traps. Moreover, the formation of SiO2 at the interface gives additional band offset to the dielectric system. We have also observed that the RTA and FA processes have similar results at a high temperature of 1100 °C. Therefore, we propose that high-temperature post-oxide (Al2O3) deposition annealing of up to 1100 °C may be used in device processing, which can improve overall dielectric properties and consequently the device performance.

  19. Improvement in mechanical properties of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings by Al2O3 reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Manoj; Nath, S K; Prakash, Satya

    2013-07-01

    Thermal sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings suffer from poor mechanical properties like tensile strength, wear resistance, hardness, toughness and fatigue. The mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite coatings can be enhanced via incorporation of secondary bioinert reinforcement material. In this study an attempt has been made to improve the mechanical properties of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite by reinforcing it with 10, 20 and 30% Al2O3. The plasma sprayed coatings have been characterized using FE-SEM/EDAX, XRD, AFM and FTIR spectroscopy. Corrosion studies have been done in simulated body fluid and abrasive wear studies have been performed on flat specimens on a disk wear tester. Microhardness, tensile strength and wear resistance are found to be increased with increasing Al2O3 content. All types of coatings show superior resistance against corrosion in simulated body fluid.

  20. Effect of sulfur removal on Al2O3 scale adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of removing sulfur impurity on the adhesion of Al2O3 scale to NiCrAl was investigated in four experiments. It was found that removing sulfur to concentration less than 1 ppm per weight is sufficient to produce a very significant degree of alpha-Al2O3 scale adhesion to undoped NiCrAl alloys. Results of experiments show that repeated oxidation, and polishing after each oxidation cycle, of pure NiCrAl alloy lowered sulfur content from 10 to 2 ppm by weight (presumably by removing the segregated interfacial layer after each cycle); thinner samples became adherent after fewer oxidation-polishing cycles because of more limited supply of sulfur. It was found that spalling in subsequent cyclic oxidation tests was a direct function of the initial sulfur content. The transition between the adherent and nonadherent behavior was modeled in terms of sulfur flux, sulfur content, and sulfur segregation.

  1. Luminescence study of nanosized Al2O3:Tb3+ obtained by gas-dispersed synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovskaya, I. V.; Poletaev, N. I.; Khlebnikova, M. E.; Zatovsky, I. V.; Bychkov, K. L.; Efryushina, N. P.; Khomenko, O. V.; Dotsenko, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    Terbium-doped Al2O3 samples were obtained by gas-dispersed synthesis. It was shown that the resulting powders, with particle sizes of 10-70 nm, consist of a mixture of transition aluminas, among which the δ *-polymorph is dominant. The luminescence properties of Al2O3:Tb3+ have been studied upon excitation in the UV-visible range of the spectrum. It was found that Tb3+ ions cause several groups of inhomogeneously broadened emission bands in the range of 470-640 nm, which are characteristic for disordered materials. In addition, the emission spectra contain a broad band at about 450 nm and several narrower ones in the 680-720 nm region. These features are attributed to surface defects and impurity Cr3+ ions occupying Al3+ octahedral positions, respectively.

  2. Influence of hydrothermal modification on the properties of Ni/Al 2O 3 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, L.; Gong, Y. L.; Li, J. C.; Wang, Z. W.

    2004-12-01

    An advanced hydrothermal modification method was developed to synthesis Ni/Al 2O 3 catalyst with perfect activity. SEM, XRD, DTA-TG and XPS were used to characterize the textural properties of the materials obtained after each synthesis step. The experimental results indicated that the modification of the impregnation samples at elevated temperatures enhanced the absorption of Ni(NO 3) 2· xH 2O on the surface of supporters which were composed mainly of Al(OH) 3 and AlOOH, leading to the formation of the porous sintering products (NiAl 2O 4/Al 2O 3) with bigger specific surface areas and higher Ni contents. The conversion of CH 4 increased a lot by using the hydrothermal-modified catalyst instead of using the catalyst prepared via the traditional impregnation-sintering route.

  3. DRIFTS study of CO adsorption on praseodymium modified Pt/Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankov, I.; Cassinelli, W. H.; Bueno, J. M. C.; Arishtirova, K.; Damyanova, S.

    2012-10-01

    The effect of PrO2 content (1-20 wt.%) and temperature pretreatment on the structure and surface properties of PrO2-Al2O3-supported Pt catalysts was studied by XRD, XPS and DRIFTS of carbon monoxide adsorption. XRD analysis showed that platinum particle size decreases with the increase of PrO2 content for samples calcined at high temperature of 1023 K. The intensity and position of the infrared bands were strongly dependent on the praseodymium oxide content and reduction temperature. Two kinds of Pt sites (Pt0 and Ptδ+) were recorded in reduced PrO2-containing samples. A better thermal stability of the Ptsbnd CO bond in PrO2-containing samples compared to Pt/Al2O3 was observed.

  4. PTOSL response of commercial Al2O3:C detectors to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Gronchi, Claudia C; Caldas, Linda V E

    2013-04-01

    The photo-transferred optically stimulated luminescence (PTOSL) technique using Al2O3:C detectors has been suggested as a good option for ultraviolet (UV) radiation dosimetry. The objective of this work was to study the PTOSL response of Al2O3:C InLight detectors and the OSL microStar reader of Landauer. The parameters such as radiation pre-dose, optical treatment time and UV illumination time were determined. The detectors presented a satisfactory stimulus of PTOSL signals when they were subjected to a preconditioning procedure with gamma radiation (1 Gy pre-dose), 30 min of optical treatment (to empty the shallow traps) and 30 min of UV illumination from an artificial source. PMID:22887115

  5. Luminescence study of nanosized Al2O3:Tb3+ obtained by gas-dispersed synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovskaya, I. V.; Poletaev, N. I.; Khlebnikova, M. E.; Zatovsky, I. V.; Bychkov, K. L.; Efryushina, N. P.; Khomenko, O. V.; Dotsenko, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    Terbium-doped Al2O3 samples were obtained by gas-dispersed synthesis. It was shown that the resulting powders, with particle sizes of 10–70 nm, consist of a mixture of transition aluminas, among which the δ *-polymorph is dominant. The luminescence properties of Al2O3:Tb3+ have been studied upon excitation in the UV–visible range of the spectrum. It was found that Tb3+ ions cause several groups of inhomogeneously broadened emission bands in the range of 470–640 nm, which are characteristic for disordered materials. In addition, the emission spectra contain a broad band at about 450 nm and several narrower ones in the 680–720 nm region. These features are attributed to surface defects and impurity Cr3+ ions occupying Al3+ octahedral positions, respectively.

  6. Geant4 calculations for space radiation shielding material Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capali, Veli; Acar Yesil, Tolga; Kaya, Gokhan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Yavuz, Mustafa; Tilki, Tahir

    2015-07-01

    Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 is the most widely used material in the engineering applications. It is significant aluminium metal, because of its hardness and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point. This material has several engineering applications in diverse fields such as, ballistic armour systems, wear components, electrical and electronic substrates, automotive parts, components for electric industry and aero-engine. As well, it is used as a dosimeter for radiation protection and therapy applications for its optically stimulated luminescence properties. In this study, stopping powers and penetrating distances have been calculated for the alpha, proton, electron and gamma particles in space radiation shielding material Al2O3 for incident energies 1 keV - 1 GeV using GEANT4 calculation code.

  7. Oxidation of elemental mercury vapor over gamma-Al2O3 supported CuCl2 catalyst for mercury emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhouyang; Liu, Xin; Lee, Joo-Youp; Bolin, Trudy B.

    2015-09-01

    In our previous studies, CuCl2 demonstrated excellent Hg(0) oxidation capability and holds potential for Hg(0) oxidation in coal-fired power plants. In this study, the properties and performances of CuCl2 supported onto gamma-Al2O3 with high surface area were investigated. From various characterization techniques using XPS, XAFS, XRD, TPR, SEM and TGA, the existence of multiple copper species was identified. At low CuCl2 loadings, CuCl2 forms copper aluminate species with gamma-Al2O3 and is inactive for Hg(0) oxidation. At high loadings, amorphous CuCl2 forms onto the gamma-Al2O3 surface, working as a redox catalyst for Hg(0) oxidation by consuming Cl to be converted into CuCl and then being regenerated back into CuCl2 in the presence of O-2 and HCl gases. The 10%(wt) CuCl2/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst showed excellent Hg(0) oxidation performance and SO2 resistance at 140 degrees C under simulated flue gas conditions containing 6%(v) O-2 and 10 ppmv HCl. The oxidized Hg(0) in the form of HgCl2 has a high solubility in water and can be easily captured by other air pollution control systems such as wet scrubbers in coal-fired power plants. The CuCl2/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst can be used as a low temperature Hg(0) oxidation catalyst. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of Surface and Bulk Nitrates of γ-Al2O3-Supported Alkaline Earth Oxides using Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Verrier, Christelle M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2009-05-14

    “Surface" and "bulk" nitrates formed on a series of alkaline earth oxides (AEOs), AE(NO3)2, were investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. The formation of these surface and bulk nitrates was modeled by the adsorption of NO2+NO3 pairs on gamma-Al2O3-supported monomeric AEOs (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO) and on the extended AEO(001) surfaces, respectively. The calculated vibrational frequencies of the surface and bulk nitrates based on our proposed models are in good agreement with experimental measurements of AEO/gamma-Al2O3 materials after prolonged NO2 exposure. This indicates that experimentally observed "surface" nitrates are most likely formed with isolated two dimensional (including monomeric) AEO clusters on the gamma-Al2O3 substrate, while the "bulk" nitrates are formed on exposed (including (001)) surfaces (and likely in the bulk as well) of large three dimensional AEO particles supported on the gamma-Al2O3 substrate. Also in line with the experiments, our calculations show that the low and high frequency components of the vibrations for both surface and bulk nitrates are systematically red shifted with the increasing basicity and cationic size of the AEOs. The adsorption strengths of NO2+NO3 pairs are nearly the same for the series of alumina-supported monomeric AEOs, while the adsorption strengths of NO2+NO3 pairs on the AEO surfaces increase in the order of MgO < CaO < SrO ~ BaO. Compared to the NO2+NO3 pair that only interacts with monomeric AEOs, the stability of NO2+NO3 pairs that interact with both the monomeric AEO and the gamma-Al2O3 substrate is enhanced by about 0.5 eV. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  9. Aqueous-phase reforming of n-BuOH over Ni/Al 2O 3 and Ni/CeO 2 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, B.; Sullivan, H.; Leclerc, C. A.

    The aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of n-butanol (n-BuOH) over Ni(20 wt%) loaded Al 2O 3 and CeO 2 catalysts has been studied in this paper. Over 100 h of run time, the Ni/Al 2O 3 catalyst showed significant deactivation compared to the Ni/CeO 2 catalyst, both in terms of production rates and the selectivity to H 2 and CO 2. The Ni/CeO 2 catalyst demonstrated higher selectivity for H 2 and CO 2, lower selectivity to alkanes, and a lower amount of C in the liquid phase compared to the Ni/Al 2O 3 sample. For the Ni/Al 2O 3 catalyst, the selectivity to CO increased with temperature, while the Ni/CeO 2 catalyst produced no CO. For the Ni/CeO 2 catalyst, the activation energies for H 2 and CO 2 production were 146 and 169 kJ mol -1, while for the Ni/Al 2O 3 catalyst these activation energies were 158 and 175 kJ mol -1, respectively. The difference of the active metal dispersion on Al 2O 3 and CeO 2 supports, as measured from H 2-pulse chemisorption was not significant. This indicates deposition of carbon on the catalyst as a likely cause of lower activity of the Ni/Al 2O 3 catalyst. It is unlikely that carbon would build up on the Ni/CeO 2 catalyst due to higher oxygen mobility in the Ni doped non-stoichiometric CeO 2 lattice. Based on the products formed, the proposed primary reaction pathway is the dehydrogenation of n-BuOH to butaldehyde followed by decarbonylation to propane. The propane then partially breaks down to hydrogen and carbon monoxide through steam reforming, while CO converts to CO 2 mostly through water gas shift. Ethane and methane are formed via Fischer-Tropsch reactions of CO/CO 2 with H 2.

  10. X-ray imaging using the thermoluminescent properties of commercial Al2O3 ceramic plates.

    PubMed

    Shinsho, Kiyomitsu; Kawaji, Yasuyuki; Yanagisawa, Shin; Otsubo, Keisuke; Koba, Yusuke; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Matsumoto, Kazuki; Ushiba, Hiroaki

    2016-05-01

    This research demonstrated that commercially available alumina is well-suited for use in large area X-ray detectors. We discovered a new radiation imaging device that has a high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, large imaging area, repeatable results, and low operating costs. The high thermoluminescent (TL) properties of Al2O3 ceramic plates make them useful for X-ray imaging devices. PMID:26972627

  11. Technical Performance of the Luxel Al2O3:C Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosemeter Element at Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Accident Dose Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Steven D.; Murphy, Mark K.

    2006-12-12

    The dose ranges typical for radiation oncology and nuclear accident dosimetry are on the order of 2?70 Gy and 0.1?5 Gy, respectively. In terms of solid-state passive dosimetry; thermoluminescent (TL) materials historically have been used extensively for these two applications, with silver-halide, leuco-dye, and BaFBr:Eu-based films being used on a more limited basis than TL for radiation oncology. This present work provides results on the performance of a film based on an aluminum oxide, Al2O3:C, for these dosimetry applications, using the optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) readout method. There have been few investigations of Al2O3:C performance at radiation oncology and nuclear accident dose levels, and these have included minimal dosimetric and environmental effects information. Based on investigations already published, the authors of this present study determined that overall improvements over film and TLDs for this Al2O3:C OSL technology at radiation oncology and nuclear accident dose levels may include (1) a more tissue-equivalent response to photons compared to X-ray film, (2) higher sensitivity, (3) ability to reread dosemeters, and (4) diagnostic capability using small-area imaging. The results of the present investigation indicate that additional favorable performance characteristics for the Al2O3:C dosemeter are a wide dynamic range(0.001 to 100 Gy), a response insensitive to temperature and moisture over a wide range, negligible dose rate dependence, and minimal change in post-irradiation response. As a radiation detection medium, this OSL phosphor offers an assortment of dosimetry properties that will permit it to compete with current radiation detection technologies such as silver-halide, leuco-dye, and photostimulable-phosphor based films, as well as TLDs.

  12. Spectroscopy and optically stimulated luminescence of Al2O3:C using time-resolved measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukihara, E. G.; McKeever, S. W. S.

    2006-10-01

    This paper reports the observation of ultraviolet (UV) emission at 335nm in the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al2O3:C) and presents results on the investigation of the OSL properties of this band, including its dose response, time dependence after irradiation, and dependence of the OSL signal on the type of radiation. Time-resolved OSL measurements were used to separate the UV emission band from the dominant OSL emission band of Al2O3:C, namely, the F-center luminescence at 420nm. A comparison of the OSL properties of the UV and F-center emission bands is important for various dosimetric applications because the relative contribution of the UV and F-center emissions to the OSL signal varies with readout technique and optical filters used in the readout equipment. The UV emission band is found to show an ionization density dependence that is different from the dependence observed for the F-center emission, and an increase in intensity with time elapsed after beta irradiation. These results are relevant for OSL dosimetry of radiation fields containing heavy charged particles, such as the space radiation field and the secondary fields created by interactions of matter with energetic neutrons, as well as for understanding of the basic OSL mechanism in Al2O3:C.

  13. A short-time fading study of Al2O3:C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, L. F.; Vanhavere, F.; Silva, E. H.; Deene, Y. De

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the short-time fading from Al2O3:C by measuring optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals (Total OSL: TOSL, and Peak OSL: POSL) from droplets and Luxel™ pellets. The influence of various bleaching regimes (blue, green and white) and light power is compared. The fading effect is the decay of the OSL signal in the dark at room temperature. Al2O3:C detectors were submitted to various bleaching regimes, irradiated with a reference dose and read out after different time spans. Investigations were carried out using 2 mm size droplet detectors, made of thin Al2O3:C powder mixed with a photocured polymer. Tests were compared to Luxel™-type detectors (Landauer Inc.). Short-time post-irradiation fading is present in OSL results (TOSL and POSL) droplets for time spans up to 200 s. The effect of short-time fading can be lowered/removed when treating the detectors with high-power and/or long time bleaching regimes; this result was observed in both TOSL and POSL from droplets and Luxel™.

  14. Thermoluminescence glow curves and optical stimulated luminescence of undoped alpha-Al2O3 crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C X; Tang, Q; Lin, L B; Luo, D L

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of thermoluminescence (TL) and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) in undoped alpha-Al2O3 single crystals were studied. The TL glow curves of the crystal samples irradiated at various dose levels were measured by RisØ TL/OSL-DA-15B/C reader with U-340 or 7-59 filters at different heating rates. The glow peaks measured with U-340 at approximately 210 degrees C of the undoped alpha-Al2O3 can be well fitted by first-order kinetic equation whereas the glow peaks measured with 7-59 filters are a composite of two first-order glow peaks. It indicates that the TL glow curves are dependent upon the filter used in the reader that is related to the emission spectra of luminescence materials. The OSL were also measured and fitted by two exponential functions to get the luminescence intensities. The TL and OSL dose responses of the undoped alpha-Al2O3 crystal were obtained in the dose range of 0.12-248 Gy and fitted by the composite action dose-response function to get nonlinear characteristic parameters. The TL and OSL dose responses are linear-sublinear. PMID:16644982

  15. Insight into the effects of different ageing protocols on Rh/Al2O3 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Baohuai; Ran, Rui; Cao, Yidan; Wu, Xiaodong; Weng, Duan; Fan, Jun; Wu, Xueyuan

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a catalyst of Rh loaded on Al2O3 was prepared by impregnating method with rhodium nitrate aqueous solution as the Rh precursor. The catalyst was aged under different protocols (lean, rich, inert and cyclic) to obtain several aged samples. All the Rh/Al2O3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, CO-chemisorption, H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that a specific ageing treatment could strongly affect the catalytic activity. The N2 aged and the H2 aged samples had a better catalytic activity for CO + NO reaction than the fresh sample while the air aged and the cyclic aged samples exhibited much worse activity. More surface Rh content and better reducibility were obtained in the N2 and the H2 aged samples and the Rh particles existed with an appropriate size, which were all favorable to the catalytic reaction. However, the air and the cyclic ageing protocols induced a strong interaction between Rh species and the Al2O3 support, which resulted in a severe sintering of particles of Rh species and the loss of active sites. The structure evolution scheme of the catalysts aged in different protocols was also established in this paper.

  16. Room Temperature Radiolytic Synthesized Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a 60Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation. PMID:23109893

  17. Room temperature radiolytic synthesized Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a (60)Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation. PMID:23109893

  18. The electrical conductivity of Al2O3 under shock-compression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanyu; Tse, John S.; Nellis, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Sapphire (Al2O3) crystals are used below 100 GPa as anvils and windows in dynamic-compression experiments because of their transparency and high density. Above 100 GPa shock pressures, sapphire becomes opaque and electrically conducting because of shock-induced defects. Such effects prevent temperature and dc conductivity measurements of materials compressed quasi-isentropically. Opacities and electrical conductivities at ~100 GPa are non-equilibrium, rather than thermodynamic parameters. We have performed electronic structure calculations as a guide in predicting and interpreting shock experiments and possibly to discover a window up to ~200 GPa. Our calculations indicate shocked sapphire does not metallize by band overlap at ~300 GPa, as suggested previously by measured non-equilibrium data. Shock-compressed Al2O3 melts to a metallic liquid at ~500 GPa and 10,000 K and its conductivity increases rapidly to ~2000 Ω−1cm−1 at ~900 GPa. At these high shock temperatures and pressures sapphire is in thermal equilibrium. Calculated conductivity of Al2O3 is similar to those measured for metallic fluid H, N, O, Rb, and Cs. Despite different materials, pressures and temperatures, and compression techniques, both experimental and theoretical, conductivities of all these poor metals reach a common end state typical of strong-scattering disordered materials. PMID:26239369

  19. Atomic layer deposition of Al-doped ZnO/Al2O3 double layers on vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays.

    PubMed

    Malek, Gary A; Brown, Emery; Klankowski, Steven A; Liu, Jianwei; Elliot, Alan J; Lu, Rongtao; Li, Jun; Wu, Judy

    2014-05-14

    High-aspect-ratio, vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) were conformally coated with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to produce a three-dimensional array of metal-insulator-metal core-shell nanostructures. Prefunctionalization before ALD, as required for initiating covalent bonding on a carbon nanotube surface, was eliminated on VACNFs due to the graphitic edges along the surface of each CNF. The graphitic edges provided ideal nucleation sites under sequential exposures of H2O and trimethylaluminum to form an Al2O3 coating up to 20 nm in thickness. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the conformal core-shell AZO/Al2O3/CNF structures while energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy verified the elemental composition of the different layers. HRTEM selected area electron diffraction revealed that the as-made Al2O3 by ALD at 200 °C was amorphous, and then, after annealing in air at 450 °C for 30 min, was converted to polycrystalline form. Nevertheless, comparable dielectric constants of 9.3 were obtained in both cases by cyclic voltammetry at a scan rate of 1000 V/s. The conformal core-shell AZO/Al2O3/VACNF array structure demonstrated in this work provides a promising three-dimensional architecture toward applications of solid-state capacitors with large surface area having a thin, leak-free dielectric.

  20. Atomic layer deposition of Al-doped ZnO/Al2O3 double layers on vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays.

    PubMed

    Malek, Gary A; Brown, Emery; Klankowski, Steven A; Liu, Jianwei; Elliot, Alan J; Lu, Rongtao; Li, Jun; Wu, Judy

    2014-05-14

    High-aspect-ratio, vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) were conformally coated with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to produce a three-dimensional array of metal-insulator-metal core-shell nanostructures. Prefunctionalization before ALD, as required for initiating covalent bonding on a carbon nanotube surface, was eliminated on VACNFs due to the graphitic edges along the surface of each CNF. The graphitic edges provided ideal nucleation sites under sequential exposures of H2O and trimethylaluminum to form an Al2O3 coating up to 20 nm in thickness. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the conformal core-shell AZO/Al2O3/CNF structures while energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy verified the elemental composition of the different layers. HRTEM selected area electron diffraction revealed that the as-made Al2O3 by ALD at 200 °C was amorphous, and then, after annealing in air at 450 °C for 30 min, was converted to polycrystalline form. Nevertheless, comparable dielectric constants of 9.3 were obtained in both cases by cyclic voltammetry at a scan rate of 1000 V/s. The conformal core-shell AZO/Al2O3/VACNF array structure demonstrated in this work provides a promising three-dimensional architecture toward applications of solid-state capacitors with large surface area having a thin, leak-free dielectric. PMID:24689702

  1. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of Al2O3:C, BaFCl:Eu and K2Ca2(SO4)3:Eu phosphors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pratik; Bahl, Shaila; Sahare, P D; Kumar, Surender; Singh, Manveer

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of BaFCl:Eu and K2Ca2(SO4)3:Eu phosphors for different doses and bleaching durations. The results have also been compared with the commercially available Landauer Al2O3:C (Luxel®) dosemeter. Nanocrystalline K2Ca2(SO4)3:Eu is known to be a sensitive thermoluminescent phosphor, but its OSL response is hardly reported. At first, pellets of nanocrystalline K2Ca2(SO4)3:Eu powder were prepared by adding Teflon as a binder. Their OSL signal was compared with that of the material in pure form, i.e. without adding the binder (in 100:1 ratio). It was observed that adding the binder does not appreciably affect the OSL intensity. On comparison with the commercially available Al2O3:C from Landauer, it was found that K2Ca2(SO4)3:Eu is around 15 times less sensitive than Al2O3:C. 'Homemade' BaFCl:Eu phosphor has also been studied. The intensity of BaFCl:Eu was ∼20 times more than the standard Al2O3:C dosemeter and ∼200 times more sensitive than K2Ca2(SO4)3:Eu in the dose range of 13-200 cGy. OSL dosemeters are believed to give luminescence signal even if they are read before, i.e. multiple reading may be possible under suitable conditions after single exposure. This was also checked for all the prepared dosemeters and it was found that Al2O3:C showed the least decrease of <2 %, followed by BaFCl:Eu of 15 % and K2Ca2(SO4)3:Eu with 20 %. Finally, Al2O3:C and BaFCl:Eu phosphors were also studied for their optical bleaching durations to which the respective signals get completely removed so that the phosphor can be re-used. It was observed that BaFCl:Eu is bleached faster and more easily than Al2O3:C. PMID:25646524

  2. Electrochemical and solid-state NMR studies on LiCoO 2 coated with Al 2O 3 derived from carboxylate-alumoxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fey, George T. K.; Kao, H. M.; Muralidharan, P.; Kumar, T. P.; Cho, Y. D.

    The surface of LiCoO 2 cathodes was coated with various wt.% of Al 2O 3 derived from methoxyethoxy acetate-alumoxane (MEA-alumoxane) by a mechano-thermal coating procedure, followed by calcination at 723 K in air for 10 h. The structure and morphology of the surface modified LiCoO 2 samples have been characterized with XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, BET, XPS/ESCA and solid-state 27Al magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR techniques. The Al 2O 3 coating forms a thin layer on the surface of the core material with an average thickness of 20 nm. The corresponding 27Al MAS NMR spectrum basically exhibited the same characteristics as the spectrum for pristine Al 2O 3 derived from MEA-alumoxane, indicating that the local environment of aluminum atoms was not significantly changed at coating levels below 1 wt.%. This provides direct evidence that Al 2O 3 was on the surface of the core materials. The LiCoO 2 coated with 1 wt.% Al 2O 3 sustained continuous cycle stability 13 times longer than pristine LiCoO 2. A comparison of the electrochemical impedance behavior of the pristine and coated materials revealed that the failure of pristine cathode performance is associated with an increase in the particle-particle resistance upon continuous cycling. Coating improved the cathode performance by suppressing the characteristic structural phase transitions (hexagonal to monoclinic to hexagonal) that occur in pristine LiCoO 2 during the charge-discharge processes.

  3. Oxidative-reforming of model biogas over NiO/Al2O3 catalysts: The influence of the variation of support synthesis conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asencios, Yvan J. O.; Elias, Kariny F. M.; Assaf, Elisabete M.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, nickel catalysts (20 wt%) supported on γ-Al2O3 were prepared by the impregnation method. The γ-Al2O3, was synthesized by precipitation of bayerite gel obtained from aluminum scrap. The synthetic conditions of the bayerite gel varied as follows: precipitation pH ranging from 6 to 7; ageing temperature ranging from 25 to 80 °C, the calcination temperature for all samples was 500 °C. The catalysts and the supports were analyzed by temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), physisorption of N2 (BET), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Isopropanol decomposition reactions over the catalysts were carried out to evaluate their acidity. SEM images of the spent catalysts showed that the morphology of the carbon formed during the reaction is of the filamentous type. The TPR analysis of the catalysts showed the presence of NiO species weakly interacted with the support as well as stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric nickel aluminate, the reduction of these species was also observed by XANES analysis. XRD analysis of the fresh catalyst showed peaks assigned to NiO, NiAl2O4 and γ-Al2O3. The best catalysts (samples NiAl7-25 and NiAl7-80) synthesized in this report showed high stability and high conversion values (CH4 (70%) and CO2 (78%)). These catalysts showed better performance than the catalyst supported on commercial γ-Al2O3, which showed a high coke formation which affected the course of the reaction. The γ-Al2O3 synthesized from bayerite obtained at neutral pH conditions was the best support for nickel catalysts in the oxidative-reforming of model biogas.

  4. Hg(0) Capture over CoMoS/γ-Al2O3 with MoS2 Nanosheets at Low Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haitao; Yang, Gang; Gao, Xiang; Pang, Cheng Heng; Kingman, Samuel W; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-19

    CoMoS/γ-Al2O3 sorbent was prepared via incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) and sulfur-chemical vapor reaction (S-CVR) methods and tested in terms of its potential for Hg(0) capture. It was observed that the CoMoO/γ-Al2O3 showed a Hg(0) capture efficiency around 75% at a temperature between 175 and 325 °C while CoMoS/γ-Al2O3 achieved almost 100% Hg(0) removal efficiency at 50 °C. The high removal efficiency for CoMoS/γ-Al2O3 remained unchanged for 2000 min in the test. Its theoretical capacity for Hg(0) capture was found to be 18.95 mg/g based on the Elovich model. The ability of this material for Hg(0) capture is atributed to the MoS2 nanosheets coated on surface of the maro- and meso-pores of γ-Al2O3. These MoS2 are two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide (2D TMDC) assembled with unsulfided cobalt atoms at the edges. It is believed that these MoS2 nanosheets provided dense active sites for Hg(0) capture. The removal of Hg(0) at low temperatures was achieved via the combination of Hg(0) with the chalcogen (S) atoms on the entire basal plane of the MoS2 nanosheets with coordinative unsaturated sites (CUS) to form a stable compound, HgS. PMID:26690488

  5. Macroscopic and spectroscopic characterization of selenate, selenite, and chromate adsorption at the solid-water interface of gamma-Al(2)O(3).

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Evert J; Tang, Yuanzhi; McDonald, Jason; DeSisto, Stephanie; Reeder, Richard J

    2009-12-15

    The interaction of selenate, selenite, and chromate with the hydrated surface of gamma-Al(2)O(3) was studied using a combination of macroscopic pH edge data, electrophoretic mobility measurements, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses. The pH edge data show generally increased oxyanion adsorption with decreasing pH, and indicate ionic strength-(in)dependent adsorption of chromate and selenate across the pH range 4-9, and ionic strength-(in)dependent adsorption of selenite in this pH range. The adsorption of chromate peaks at pH 5.0, whereas for selenate and selenite no pH adsorption maxima are observed. Electrophoretic mobility measurements show that all three oxyanions decrease the zeta potential of gamma-Al(2)O(3) upon adsorption; however, only selenite decreased the pH(PZC) of the gamma-Al(2)O(3) sorbent. EXAFS data indicate that selenite ions are coordinated in a bridging bidentate fashion to surface AlO(6) octahedra, whereas no second-neighbor Al scattering was observed for adsorbed selenate ions. Combined, the results presented here show that pH is a major factor in determining the extent of adsorption of selenate, selenite, and chromate on hydrated gamma-Al(2)O(3). The results point to substantial differences between these anions as to the mode of adsorption at the hydrated gamma-Al(2)O(3) surface, with selenate adsorbing as nonprotonated outer-sphere complexes, chromate forming a mixture of monoprotonated and nonprotonated outer-sphere adsorption complexes, and selenite coordinating as inner-sphere surface complexes in bridging configuration.

  6. Electrochemical promotion of propane oxidation on Pt deposited on a dense β″-Al2O3 ceramic Ag+ conductor

    PubMed Central

    Tsampas, Mihalis N.; Kambolis, Anastasios; Obeid, Emil; Lizarraga, Leonardo; Sapountzi, Foteini M.; Vernoux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    A new kind of electrochemical catalyst based on a Pt porous catalyst film deposited on a β″-Al2O3 ceramic Ag+ conductor was developed and evaluated during propane oxidation. It was observed that, upon anodic polarization, the rate of propane combustion was significantly electropromoted up to 400%. Moreover, for the first time, exponential increase of the catalytic rate was evidenced during galvanostatic transient experiment in excellent agreement with EPOC equation. PMID:24790942

  7. A nanoplate-like α-Al2O3 out-layered Al2O3-ZrO2 coating fabricated by micro-arc oxidation for hip joint prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Wenting; Han, Yong; Tang, Wu

    2016-01-01

    A nanoplate-like α-Al2O3 out-layered Al2O3-ZrO2 coating was fabricated on Zr substrate by micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The structure, formation mechanism, anti-wear property and aging behavior of the coating were explored. The obtained results show that the coating is composed of Al2O3 and ZrO2; the amount and crystallinity of Al2O3 increase gradually from inner layer to the coating surface; monoclinic ZrO2 (m-ZrO2) and tetragonal ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) are both present in the coating, and the ratio of t-ZrO2/m-ZrO2 increases with closing to the coating surface by a "constraint" mechanism of Al2O3; the coating surface mainly consists of nanoplate-like α-Al2O3, and a small amount of nanocrystallized m- and t-ZrO2. The superimposition of α-Al2O3 growth unit on {0 0 0 1} face should be prohibited by PO43- during the MAO process, resulting in the formation of nanoplate-like α-Al2O3 on the coating surface. Compared with pure Zr, the coating shows noticeable improvement in wear-resistance. For aging behavior, although more t-ZrO2 in the coating is transformed to m-ZrO2 with increasing aging time, wear loss increases slightly. It indicates that the nanoplate-like α-Al2O3 out-layered Al2O3-ZrO2 is a potential coating for articular head replacement.

  8. Cu/Ba/bauxite: an Inexpensive and Efficient Alternative for Pt/Ba/Al2O3 in NOx Removal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuyun; Chen, Zhilin; Luo, Yongjin; Jiang, Lilong; Wang, Ruihu

    2013-01-01

    Cu/Ba/bauxite possesses superior NOx storage and reduction (NSR) performances, high thermal stability, strong resistance against SO2 poisoning and outstanding regeneration ability in comparison with Pt/Ba/Al2O3. It can serve as a cheap and promising alternative for traditional Pt/Ba/Al2O3 in NOx removal from lean-burn engines. PMID:23536149

  9. Characterization of Al2O3 in High-Strength Mo Alloy Sheets by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yucheng; Gao, Yimin; Wei, Shizhong; Hu, Yajie

    2016-02-01

    A novel type of alumina (Al2O3)-doped molybdenum (Mo) alloy sheet was prepared by a hydrothermal method and a subsequent powder metallurgy process. Then the characterization of α-Al2O3 was investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as the research focus. The tensile strength of the Al2O3-doped Mo sheet is 43-85% higher than that of the pure Mo sheet, a very obvious reinforcement effect. The sub-micron and nanometer-scale Al2O3 particles can increase the recrystallization temperature by hindering grain boundary migration and improve the tensile strength by effectively blocking the motion of the dislocations. The Al2O3 particles have a good bond with the Mo matrix and there exists an amorphous transition layer at the interface between Al2O3 particles and the Mo matrix in the as-rolled sheet. The sub-structure of α-Al2O3 is characterized by a number of nanograins in the $\\left[ {2\\bar{2}1} \\right]$ direction. Lastly, a new computer-based method for indexing diffraction patterns of the hexagonal system is introduced, with 16 types of diffraction patterns of α-Al2O3 indexed. PMID:26914997

  10. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of Al2O3-WC nanocomposite ceramic spectrally selective solar absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang-Hu; Wang, Cheng-Bing; Guo, Zhi-Ming; Geng, Qing-Fen; Theiss, Wolfgang; Liu, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Traditional metal-dielectric composite coating has found important application in spectrally selective solar absorbers. However, fine metal particles can easily diffuse, congregate, or be oxidized at high temperature, which causes deterioration in the optical properties. In this work, we report a new spectrally selective solar absorber coating, composed of low Al2O3 ceramic volume fraction (Al2O3(L)-WC) layer, high Al2O3 ceramic volume fraction (Al2O3(H)-WC layer) and Al2O3 antireflection layer. The features of our work are: 1) compared with the metal-dielectric composites concept, Al2O3-WC nanocomposite ceramic successfully achieves the all-ceramic concept, which exhibits a high solar absorptance of 0.94 and a low thermal emittance of 0.08, 2) Al2O3 and WC act as filler material and host material, respectively, which are different from traditional concept, 3) Al2O3-WC nanocomposite ceramic solar absorber coating exhibits good thermal stability at 600 °C. In addition, the solar absorber coating is successfully modelled by a commercial optical simulation programme, the result of which agrees with the experimental results.

  11. Al2O3 influence on structural, elastic, thermal properties of Yb(3+) doped Ba-La-tellurite glass: evidence of reduction in self-radiation trapping at 1μm emission.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Biswas, K; Sontakke, A D; Gupta, G; Ghosh, D; Annapurna, K

    2014-12-10

    Ba-La-tellurite glasses doped with Yb(3+) ions have been prepared through melt quenching technique by modifying their composition with the inclusion of varied concentration of Al2O3 to elucidate its effects on glass structural, elastic, thermal properties and Yb(3+) ion NIR luminescence performance. The FTIR spectral analysis indicates Al2O3 addition is promoting the conversion of BOs from NBOs which have been generated during the process of depolymerisation of main glass forming TeO4 units. The elastic properties of the glass revealed an improved rigidity of the glass network on addition of Al2O3. In concurrence to this, differential thermal analysis showed an increase in glass transition temperature with improved thermal stability factor. Also, Yb(3+) fluorescence dynamics demonstrated that, Al2O3 inclusion helps in restraining the detrimental radiation trapping of ∼1μm emission.

  12. Recombinant Phage Coated 1D Al2O3 Nanostructures for Controlling the Adhesion and Proliferation of Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juseok; Jeon, Hojeong; Haidar, Ayman; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Veith, Michael; Kim, Youngjun

    2015-01-01

    A novel synthesis of a nanostructured cell adhesive surface is investigated for future stent developments. One-dimensional (1D) Al2O3 nanostructures were prepared by chemical vapor deposition of a single source precursor. Afterwards, recombinant filamentous bacteriophages which display a short binding motif with a cell adhesive peptide (RGD) on p3 and p8 proteins were immobilized on these 1D Al2O3 nanostructures by a simple dip-coating process to study the cellular response of human endothelial EA hy.926. While the cell density decreased on as-deposited 1D Al2O3 nanostructures, we observed enhanced cell proliferation and cell-cell interaction on recombinant phage overcoated 1D Al2O3 nanostructures. The recombinant phage overcoating also supports an isotropic cell spreading rather than elongated cell morphology as we observed on as-deposited Al2O3 1D nanostructures. PMID:26090458

  13. Behavior of Al2O3 and SiO2 with heating in a Cl2 + CO stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetinin, L. K.

    1984-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the chlorination of alpha-Al2O3, gamma-Al2O3 and amorphous SiO2 in a Cl + CO stream, for the preparation of AlCl3 and SiCl4. The chlorination starting temperatures were 235 deg for Al2O3 and 680 deg for SiO2. The chlorination of alpha- and gamma-Al2O3 takes place via the formation of AlOCl as an intermediate product, and its subsequent dissociation at 480 to 560 deg, according to 3AlOCl yields AlCl3 + Al2O3. The chlorination activation energies are given for the three oxides.

  14. Research on microcracks avoidance in processing of α-Al2O3 by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Wei; Zhao, Quan-Zhong

    2013-07-01

    The optical crystal α-Al2O3 has been widely used as the matrix of ruby and blue sapphire for its wide transparency, high thermal conductivity, big scale and low cost. α-Al2O3 is so hard that cutter is easily abraded. Micromachining of α-Al2O3 by ultrashort pulsed laser is superior to the traditional mechanical approach as its non-contact and cold machining features. However, unexpected cracks on the surface of α-Al2O3 are observed after femtosecond laser machining. In order to hinder the crack source from stretching, we optimize the laser parameters accompanied with annealing. The crack-free machining can be achieved. Three-dimensional α-Al2O3 microstructures free from fracture, such as cylinder, barrel and sphere are demonstrated.

  15. Effect of Microstructure on the Thermal Conductivity of Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3-YSZ Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xuemei; Liu, Ziwei; Kong, Mingguang; Wang, Yongzhe; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin; Zeng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    The microstructures of three atmospheric plasma-sprayed (APS) Al2O3-ZrO2 coatings were investigated using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The differences in the microstructures of the three Al2O3-ZrO2 coatings, including their phase compositions, cracks, pores, grain sizes, and solid solutions, were analyzed in detail. A close relationship was observed between the thermal conductivities of the coatings and the microstructures, and the Al2O3-YSZ coatings with more spherical pores, fewer vertical cracks, and finer grains exhibited the lowest thermal conductivity of 0.91 W/m·K. Compared with YSZ coatings, Al2O3-YSZ coatings can exhibit lower thermal conductivity, which may be attributed to the formation of an amorphous phase, smaller grains, and Al2O3-YSZ solid solution.

  16. Preparation and characterization of Ppy/Al 2O 3/Al used as a solid-state capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ming-Liao; Chen, Pei-Jiun; Do, Jing-Shan

    The characteristics of a solid-state capacitor based on Ppy (polypyrrole)/Al 2O 3/Al prepared by the constant-current method are investigated. The surface composition of aluminum (Al) foil analyzed to by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) is found to be AlO 2- when the native oxide on the Al foil is etched by 0.1 M NaOH. Three stages are defined from the relationship between the potential and the electrolysis time in simultaneously preparing the dielectric layer (Al 2O 3) and the conducting polymer (Ppy) on Al foil etched with 0.1 M NaOH. The experimental results indicate that only stage one, i.e. the formation of Al 2O 3, occurs in the preparation of Ppy/Al 2O 3/Al at a current density greater than 0.9 mA cm -2. A higher concentration of pyrrole enhances the nucleation of Ppy within the pores of Al 2O 3 such that the period of the first stage decrease and the second stage of the propagation of Ppy is increased. The leakage current of Ppy/Al 2O 3/Al rises from 0.009 to 0.405 μA cm -2 with increase in the concentration of pyrrole in preparing Ppy/Al 2O 3/Al from 0.05 to 0.15 M. Raising the cut-off potential for preparing Ppy/Al 2O 3/Al from 20 to 60 V increases the thickness of Al 2O 3 and lowers the capacity of Ppy/Al 2O 3/Al from 478.5 to 174.2 nF cm -2.

  17. Oxide Charge Engineering of Atomic Layer Deposited AlOxNy/Al2O3 Gate Dielectrics: A Path to Enhancement Mode GaN Devices.

    PubMed

    Negara, M A; Kitano, M; Long, R D; McIntyre, P C

    2016-08-17

    Nitrogen incorporation to produce negative fixed charge in Al2O3 gate insulator layers is investigated as a path to achieve enhancement mode GaN device operation. A uniform distribution of nitrogen across the resulting AlOxNy films is obtained using N2 plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD). The flat band voltage (Vfb) increases to a significantly more positive value with increasing nitrogen concentration. Insertion of a 2 nm thick Al2O3 interlayer greatly decreases the trap density of the insulator/GaN interface, and reduces the voltage hysteresis and frequency dispersion of gate capacitance compared to single-layer AlOxNy gate insulators in GaN MOSCAPs.

  18. Oxide Charge Engineering of Atomic Layer Deposited AlOxNy/Al2O3 Gate Dielectrics: A Path to Enhancement Mode GaN Devices.

    PubMed

    Negara, M A; Kitano, M; Long, R D; McIntyre, P C

    2016-08-17

    Nitrogen incorporation to produce negative fixed charge in Al2O3 gate insulator layers is investigated as a path to achieve enhancement mode GaN device operation. A uniform distribution of nitrogen across the resulting AlOxNy films is obtained using N2 plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD). The flat band voltage (Vfb) increases to a significantly more positive value with increasing nitrogen concentration. Insertion of a 2 nm thick Al2O3 interlayer greatly decreases the trap density of the insulator/GaN interface, and reduces the voltage hysteresis and frequency dispersion of gate capacitance compared to single-layer AlOxNy gate insulators in GaN MOSCAPs. PMID:27459343

  19. A novel Al 2O 3 fluorescent nuclear track detector for heavy charged particles and neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, G. M.; Akselrod, M. S.; Benton, E. R.; Yasuda, N.

    2006-06-01

    A novel Al2O3 fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD), recently developed by Landauer, Inc., has demonstrated sensitivity and functionality superior to that of existing nuclear track detectors. The FNTD is based on single crystals of aluminum oxide doped with carbon and magnesium, and having aggregate oxygen vacancy defects (Al2O3:C,Mg). Radiation-induced color centers in the new material have an absorption band at 620 nm and produce fluorescence at 750 nm with a high quantum yield and a short, 75 ± 5 ns, fluorescence lifetime. Non-destructive readout of the detector is performed using a confocal fluorescence microscope. Scanning of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of fluorescence intensity along the track of a heavy charged particle (HCP) permits reconstruction of particle trajectories through the crystal and the LET can be determined as a function of distance along the trajectory based on the fluorescence intensity. Major advantages of Al2O3:C,Mg FNTD over conventionally processed CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector include superior spatial resolution, a wider range of LET sensitivity, no need for post-irradiation chemical processing of the detector and the capability to anneal and reuse the detector. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated that the material possesses a low-LET threshold of <1 keV/μm, does not saturate at LET in water as high as 1800 keV/μm, and is capable of irradiation to fluences in excess of 106 cm-2 without saturation (track overlap).

  20. Particulate strengthened Ni Al2O3 microcomposite HARMs for harsh-environmental micromechanical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Kelly, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    The LIGA micromachining process can be used to fabricate high-aspect-ratio microstructures (HARMs), usually from electroplated nickel (Ni). In recent years, there has been a growing demand for applications involving HARMs subjected to harsh environments such as high temperatures, high pressures, constant erosion and friction. Numerous mechanical characterizations and tests revealed that LIGA-fabricated Ni devices might not meet the criteria required in these applications due to their insufficient mechanical and tribological properties under service conditions. By incorporating particulates into the electroplated Ni HARMs, LIGA-compatible particulate strengthened metal matrix composite microstructures result with substantially higher strength and wear resistance. In this paper, nickel-alumina (Ni-Al2O3) composite microstructures were electrodeposited into x-ray-patterned high-aspect-ratio polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) cavities from Ni sulfamate electrolytes containing submicron Al2O3 particles. The resulting microstructures were characterized with the use of a scanning electron microscope, a energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer, a wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer, a transmission electron microscope and a microhardness tester. It was found that the electrolytes containing surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) alone led to particle agglomeration in deposited microstructures, while homogenous composites were obtained from a bath containing SDS, saccharin and coumarin. Bath agitation has little effect on the particle dispersion under the conditions studied. A hypothesis in view of alumina solid/electrolyte interaction was proposed to better understand the evolution of the agglomerates. It suggests an approach to manipulate the composite material properties by optimizing surfactants to control the balance between the attractive van der Waals force and repulsive force of like-charged particles. Examinations showed that the hardness of the composites was

  1. Dynamic atmospheres and winds of cool luminous giants. I. Al2O3 and silicate dust in the close vicinity of M-type AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfner, S.; Bladh, S.; Aringer, B.; Ahuja, R.

    2016-10-01

    Context. In recent years, high spatial resolution techniques have given valuable insights into the complex atmospheres of AGB stars and their wind-forming regions. They make it possible to trace the dynamics of molecular layers and shock waves, to estimate dust condensation distances, and to obtain information on the chemical composition and size of dust grains close to the star. These are essential constraints for understanding the mass loss mechanism, which presumably involves a combination of atmospheric levitation by pulsation-induced shock waves and radiation pressure on dust, forming in the cool upper layers of the atmospheres. Aims: Spectro-interferometric observations indicate that Al2O3 condenses at distances of about 2 stellar radii or less, prior to the formation of silicates. Al2O3 grains are therefore prime candidates for producing the scattered light observed in the close vicinity of several M-type AGB stars, and they may be seed particles for the condensation of silicates at lower temperatures. The purpose of this paper is to study the necessary conditions for the formation of Al2O3 and the potential effects on mass loss, using detailed atmosphere and wind models. Methods: We have constructed a new generation of Dynamic Atmosphere and Radiation-driven Wind models based on Implicit Numerics (DARWIN), including a time-dependent treatment of grain growth and evaporation for both Al2O3 and Fe-free silicates (Mg2SiO4). The equations describing these dust species are solved in the framework of a frequency-dependent radiation-hydrodynamical model for the atmosphere and wind structure, taking pulsation-induced shock waves and periodic luminosity variations into account. Results: Condensation of Al2O3 at the close distances and in the high concentrations implied by observations requires high transparency of the grains in the visual and near-IR region to avoid destruction by radiative heating. We derive an upper limit for the imaginary part of the refractive

  2. Investigation of the flatband voltage (V(FB)) shift of Al2O3 on N2 plasma treated Si substrate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyungchul; Lee, Jaesang; Jeon, Heeyoung; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2013-09-01

    The relationships between the physical and electrical characteristics of films treated with N2 plasma followed by forming gas annealing (FGA) were investigated. The Si substrates were treated with various radio frequency (RF) power levels under a N2 ambient. Al2O3 films were then deposited on Si substrates via remote plasma atomic-layer deposition. The plasma characteristics, such as the radical and ion density, were investigated using optical emission spectroscopy. Through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the chemical-bonding configurations of the samples treated with N2 plasma and FGA were examined. The quantity of Si-N bonds increased as the RF power was increased, and Si--O--N bonds were generated after FGA. The flatband voltage (VFB) was shifted in the negative direction with increasing RF power, but the VFB values of the samples after FGA shifted in the positive direction due to the formation of Si--O--N bonds. N2 plasma treatment with various RF power levels slightly increased the leakage current due to the generation of defect sites.

  3. Shock-induced transformation of Al2O3 and LiF into semiconducting liquids.

    PubMed

    Hicks, D G; Celliers, P M; Collins, G W; Eggert, J H; Moon, S J

    2003-07-18

    Shock compression of sapphire (Al2O3) and lithium fluoride (LiF) to pressures above 5 Mbar has been observed to transform these transparent, wide band-gap insulators into partially degenerate liquid semiconductors with optical reflectivities of several percent. Reflectivities rise steadily with shock pressure up to 45% in sapphire at 20 Mbar and 20% in LiF at 13 Mbar. Using a simple model, the electron scattering length was inferred to be approximately the interatomic distance. In addition, several equation-of-state points at these pressures were measured.

  4. NOx Uptake Mechanism on Pt/BaO/Al2O3 Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Szailer, Tamas; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2006-11-01

    The NOx adsorption mechanism on Pt/BaO/Al2O3 catalysts was investigated by performing NOx storage/reduction cycles, NO2 adsorption and NO + O2 adsorption on 2%Pt/(x)BaO/Al2O3 (x = 2, 8 and 20 wt%) catalysts. NOx uptake profiles on 2%Pt/20%BaO/Al2O3 at 523 K show complete uptake behavior for almost 5 min, and then the NOx level starts gradually increasing with time and it reaches 75% of the inlet NOx concentration after 30 min time-on-stream. Although this catalyst shows fairly high NOx conversion at 523 K, only ~ 2.4 wt% out of 20 wt% BaO is converted to Ba(NO3)2. Adsorption studies by using NO2 and NO + O2 suggest two different NOx adsorption mechanisms. The NO2 uptake profile on 2%Pt/20%BaO/Al2O3 shows the absence of a complete NOx uptake period at the beginning of adsorption and the overall NOx uptake is controlled by the gas-solid equilibrium between NO2 and BaO/Ba(NO3)2 phase. When we use NO + O2, complete initial NOx uptake occurs and the time it takes to convert ~ 4 % of BaO to Ba(NO3)2 is independent of the NO concentration. These NOx uptake characteristics suggest that the NO + O2 reaction on the surface of Pt particles produces NO2 that is subsequently transferred to the neighboring BaO phase by spill over. At the beginning of the NOx uptake, this spill-over process is very fast and so it is able to provide complete NOx storage. However, the NOx uptake by this mechanism slows down as BaO in the vicinity of Pt particles are converted to Ba(NO3)2. The formation of Ba(NO3)2 around the Pt particles results in the development of a diffusion barrier for NO2, and increases the probability of NO2 desorption and consequently, the beginning of NOx slip. As NOx uptake by NO2 spill-over mechanism slows down due to the diffusion barrier formation, the rate and extent of NO2 uptake are determined by the diffusion rate of nitrate ions into the BaO bulk, which, in turn, is determined by the gas phase NO2 concentration.

  5. In situ study of atomic layer deposition Al2O3 on GaP (100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Qin, X.; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Hinkle, C. L.; Kim, J.; Wallace, R. M.

    2013-09-01

    The interfacial chemistry of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 on chemically treated GaP (100) has been studied using in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A "self-cleaning" effect for Ga-oxide upon exposure to trimethylaluminum is seen to be efficient on the native oxide and chemically treated surfaces. The phosphorus oxide chemical states are seen to change during the ALD process, but the total concentration of P-oxides is seen to remain constant throughout the ALD process.

  6. Calcinations effect on the grain size distributions Al2O3 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Tarik Talib; Mohammed, Awattif A.; Kamil, Dunia

    2012-09-01

    Fine of Al2O3 Powder was calcined at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C respectively for 2 hours under static air, x-ray diffraction, optical microscope and grain size distribution were done to analysis the resulting data after calcinations process. Batter particle size was achieved at 800°C of value (0.486) μm, while batter particles mean value of size 7.18 μm was found at 400°C. SEM micrographs shows that the agglomerate particles were vanished due to the calcinations process.

  7. Hydrogen and Carbon Effects on Al2O3 Surface Phases and Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John

    2005-03-01

    Effects of H and C impurities on α-Al2O3 (0001) surface stability and metal wetting behavior are determined from first principles[1]. The ab initio surface phase diagram for H and C on the alumina surface reveals six distinct surface phases. These different surface phases exhibit a variety of adhesion strengths with Cu and Co, and correspondingly different wetting behaviors. These results are consistent with the varied wetting characteristics observed experimentally. [1] Xiao-Gang Wang and John R. Smith, Phys. Rev. B70, Rapid communications, 081401 (2004).

  8. Viscosity affected by nanoparticle aggregation in Al2O3-water nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An investigation on viscosity was conducted 2 weeks after the Al2O3-water nanofluids having dispersants were prepared at the volume concentration of 1-5%. The shear stress was observed with a non-Newtonian behavior. On further ultrasonic agitation treatment, the nanofluids resumed as a Newtonian fluids. The relative viscosity increases as the volume concentrations increases. At 5% volume concentration, an increment was about 60% in the re-ultrasonication nanofluids in comparison with the base fluid. The microstructure analysis indicates that a higher nanoparticle aggregation had been observed in the nanofluids before re-ultrasonication. PMID:21711762

  9. Head-up display using an inclined Al2O3 column array.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wen-Hao; Lee, Chao-Te; Kei, Chi-Chung; Liao, Bo-Huei; Chiang, Donyau; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2014-02-01

    An orderly inclined Al2O3 column array was fabricated by atomic layer deposition and sequential electron beam evaporation using a hollow nanosphere template. The transmittance spectra at various angles of incidence were obtained through the use of a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 900 UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer. The inclined column array could display the image information through a scattering mechanism and was transparent at high viewing angles along the deposition plane. This characteristic of the inclined column array gives it potential for applications in head-up displays in the automotive industry.

  10. Shock properties of Al2O3 and ZrO2 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H.; Bless, S. J.; Brar, N. S.; Simha, C. H.; Jang, S. D.

    1994-07-01

    We conducted plate impact experiments on Al2O3 and ZrO2 ceramics using embedded Manganin gages. Composition and microstructure were controlled to study their effects on dynamic properties. Stress time curves were reduced to stress-strain loading paths. Some of the specimens exhibited ``multiple'' HEL's thus indicating the persistence of elastic behavior. Unloading behavior was analyzed by comparing measured stress levels with those predicted by the impedance match solution, which indicated that the unloading was primarily elastic. Anomalies in the plastic wave speed were noted, which may indicate some degree of polymorphic phase change in the shocked material.

  11. Novel guar gum/Al2O3 nanocomposite as an effective photocatalyst for the degradation of malachite green dye.

    PubMed

    Pathania, Deepak; Katwal, Rishu; Sharma, Gaurav; Naushad, Mu; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H

    2016-06-01

    Guar gum/Al2O3 (GG/AO) nanocomposite was prepared using simple and cost effective sol-gel method. This nanocomposite was characterized by several analytical techniques viz. scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The FTIR analysis confirmed that GG/AO composite material was formed. TEM images inferred the particle size in the range between 20 and 45nm. GG/AO nanocomposite exhibited good photocatalytic performance for malachite green (MG) dye (dye initial concentration 1.5×10(-5)M) degradation from aqueous phase. The adsorption followed by photocatalysis and coupled adsorption/photocatalysis reaction achieved about 80% and 90% degradation of MG dye under solar irradiation. Antibacterial test showed the excellent activity of GG/AO nanocomposite against Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Colony structure in Ce-doped Al2O3/YAG eutectic systems grown by vertical Bridgman technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Seiya; Yoshimura, Masafumi; Sakata, Shin-ichi; Taishi, Toshinori; Hoshikawa, Keigo

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the influence of growth rate and Ce concentration on colony structure variation in Al2O3/YAG:Ce eutectic systems. The distance between boundary zones in the colony structure decreased with increases in either growth rate or Ce concentration. The eutectic spacing in the coarse microstructure in the boundary zone decreased with increasing growth rate but increased with increasing Ce concentration. We conclude that the colony structure is formed by cellular growth driven by constitutional supercooling with an interface instability due to Ce atom accumulation, so that the distance between boundary zones depends on both the growth rate and Ce concentration, and the coarse microstructure in the boundary zone depends on the solidification rate perpendicular to the growth interface at the cell bottom of the microscopic growth interface shape in the cellular growth.

  13. Novel guar gum/Al2O3 nanocomposite as an effective photocatalyst for the degradation of malachite green dye.

    PubMed

    Pathania, Deepak; Katwal, Rishu; Sharma, Gaurav; Naushad, Mu; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H

    2016-06-01

    Guar gum/Al2O3 (GG/AO) nanocomposite was prepared using simple and cost effective sol-gel method. This nanocomposite was characterized by several analytical techniques viz. scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The FTIR analysis confirmed that GG/AO composite material was formed. TEM images inferred the particle size in the range between 20 and 45nm. GG/AO nanocomposite exhibited good photocatalytic performance for malachite green (MG) dye (dye initial concentration 1.5×10(-5)M) degradation from aqueous phase. The adsorption followed by photocatalysis and coupled adsorption/photocatalysis reaction achieved about 80% and 90% degradation of MG dye under solar irradiation. Antibacterial test showed the excellent activity of GG/AO nanocomposite against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26944664

  14. The coordination chemistry of weathering: I. Dissolution kinetics of δ- Al2O3 and BeO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furrer, Gerhard; Stumm, Werner

    1986-09-01

    The dissolution kinetics of most slightly soluble oxides and silicates are controlled by chemical processes at the surface. The reaction controlling steps can be interpreted in terms of a surface coordination model. In dilute acid solutions, in the absence of complex-forming ligands, the dissolution kinetics are controlled by the surface bound protons. The rate of the proton-promoted reaction of δ- Al2O3 is RH = kH( CH3) 3 where C h3 is the proton concentration per unit area on the oxide surface. The mechanism can be described by the attachment of three protons to the reaction site prior to the detachment of an Al species into the solution. The dissolution rate of BeO is proportional to (C H2) 2. For δ- Al2O3 at pH ⩽ 3.5 dissolution rate is independent of pH; at this pH maximum surface concentration of protons is reached. The organic ligand-promoted dissolution, RL, is of first order with respect to concentration of surface chelates: R L = k L{M ?L} where {M ?L} is the concentration of surface chelates per unit area. Detachable surface complexes result from surface coordination of metal ions of the hydrous oxides with bidentate ligands. Especially efficient are bidentate ligands that form mononuclear surface complexes. The sequence of rate constants shows that five- and six-membered chelate rings (oxalate, catechol, malonate and salicylate) enhance the dissolution reactions to a greater extent than seven-membered rings (phthalate, succinate). Monodentate ligands (benzoate ion), though readily adsorbed, do not enhance dissolution rates. However, they can inhibit dissolution by displacing ligands that catalyze this reaction.

  15. Bimetallic Pt-Au Nanocatalysts on ZnO/Al2O3/Monolith for Air Pollution Control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Joong; Ahn, Ho-Geun

    2015-08-01

    The catalytic activity of a monolithic catalyst with nanosized Pt and Au particles on ZnO/Al2O3 (Pt-Au/ZnO/Al2O3/M) prepared by a wash-coat method was examined, specifically for toluene oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy image showed clearly the formation of a ZnO/Al2O3 layer on the monolith. Nanosized Pt-Au particles on ZnO/Al2O3/M with different sizes could be found in the Pt-Au/ZnO/Al2O3/M catalyst. The conversion of toluene decreased with increasing toluene concentration and was also largely affected by the feed flow rate. The Pt-Au/ZnO/Al2O3/M catalysts prepared in this work have almost the same activity (molecules of toluene per second) compared with a powder Pt-Au/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst with the same loadings of Pt and Au components; thus this catalyst could be used in controlling air pollution with very low concentrations and high flow rate. PMID:26369207

  16. Enhanced Dielectric Properties and High-Temperature Microwave Absorption Performance of Zn-Doped Al2O3 Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Luo, Fa; Wei, Ping; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei

    2015-07-01

    To improve the dielectric and microwave absorption properties of Al2O3 ceramic, Zn-doped Al2O3 ceramic was prepared by conventional ceramic processing. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that Zn atoms successfully entered the Al2O3 ceramic lattice and occupied Al sites. The complex permittivity increased with increasing Zn concentration, which is mainly attributed to the increase in charged vacancy defects and densification of the Al2O3 ceramic. In addition, the temperature-dependent complex permittivity of 3% Zn-doped Al2O3 ceramic was determined in the temperature range from 298 K to 873 K. Both the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity increased monotonically with increasing temperature, which can be ascribed to the shortened relaxation time and increasing electrical conductivity. The increased complex permittivity leads to a great improvement in microwave absorption. In particular, when the temperature is up to 873 K, the 3% Zn-doped Al2O3 ceramic exhibited the best absorption performance with a maximum peak (-12.1 dB) and broad effective absorption bandwidth (reflection loss less than -10 dB from 9.3 GHz to 12.3 GHz). These results reveal that Zn-doped Al2O3 ceramic is a promising candidate for use as a kind of high-temperature microwave absorption material.

  17. First principles investigation of helium physisorption on an α-Al2O3(0001) surface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guikai; Xiang, Xin; Yang, Feilong; Liu, Lang; Tang, Tao; Shi, Yan; Wang, Xiaolin

    2016-06-21

    The interaction of helium with an α-Al2O3(0001) surface was studied by density functional theory (DFT), with consideration of the effects of He-coverage, surface defects, He-coadsorption and van der Waals interaction, respectively. Adsorption energies of helium atoms are very small as expected for a physisorbed state, varying from -20 to -5 meV, which is attributed to the small overlap between Al 3sp, O 2sp and He 1s states. A correlation is obtained for the adsorption energies and the He to nearest-neighbor Al atom distances on a clean (0001) surface. The He atom prefers to bound atop the Al site of the fourth atomic layer (Al4 hollow site), and the favorable site around an O-vacancy is atop the site of the O vacancy with less stability. The competition between O-He attraction and Al-He repulsion makes the He stable sites. As He-coverage on the surface increases, He atoms tend to form clusters, and coadsorption configuration is not solely determined by the most stable site but also by the He-He distance. The two co-adsorbed He atoms absorb on hollow sites Al4 and Al3, with a He-He distance of 2.767 Å. The OBS dispersion corrected DFT energies are 2.2-4.4 times larger than the non-corrected DFT values and He-surface distances are smaller. Finally, implications on H/He interaction within α-Al2O3 as a tritium permeation barrier are discussed. PMID:27226211

  18. Structural properties of Y2O3–Al2O3 liquids and glasses: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Wilding, Martin C.; Wilson, Mark; McMillan, Paul F.; Benmore, Chris J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Deschamps, Thierry; Champagnon, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Liquids in the system Y2O3- Al2O3 have been the subject of considerable study because of the reported occurrence of a first-order density and entropy-driven liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) in the supercooled liquid state. The observations have become controversial because of the presence of crystalline material that can be formed simultaneously and that can mask the nucleation and growth of the lower density liquid. The previous work is summarized here along with arguments for and against the different viewpoints. Also two studies have been undertaken to investigate the LLPT in this refractory system with emphasis on determining the structure of unequivocally amorphous materials. These include the in situ high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) of supercooled Y2O3 - Al2O3 liquids and the low frequency vibrational dynamics of recovered glasses. Manybody molecular dynamics simulations are also used to interpret the results of both studies. The HEXRD measurements, combined with aerodynamic levitation and rapid data acquisition techniques, show that for the 20 mol% Y2O3 (i.e. AlY20) liquid there is a shift in the position of the first peak in the diffraction pattern over a narrow temperature range (2100-1800 K) prior to crystallization. Microbeam Raman spectroscopy measurements made on AlY20 glasses clearly show contrasting spectra in the low frequency part of the spectrum for low(LDA) and high-density (HDA) glassy regions. The molecular dynamics simulations identify contrasting coordination environments around oxygen anions for the high- (HDL) and low-density (LDL) liquids. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microstructural and Tribological Properties of Al2O3-13pctTiO2 Thermal Spray Coatings Deposited by Flame Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Rassim; Bradai, Mohand Amokrane; Sadeddine, Abdelhamid; Mouadji, Youcef; Bilek, Ali; Benabbas, Abderrahim

    2015-10-01

    T He present investigation has been conducted to study the tribological properties of Al2O3-13pctTiO2 (AT-13) ceramic coatings deposited on a low carbon steel type E335 by using a thermal flame spray technique. The microstructure and phase composition of wire and coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Measurements of micro hardness were also performed on the surface of the coatings. The tribological tests were carried out using a pin-on-disk tribometer at different loads. All tests were performed using two disks as counter body, namely Al2O3-ZrO2 (AZ-25) and Al2O3-TiO2 (AT-3) which formed couple 1 and couple 2, respectively, in order to work out the wear rate and friction coefficient. Roughness profiles were also evaluated before and after each test. The SEM showed that the dense microstructure of Al2O3-TiO2 (AT-13) coatings have a homogenous lamellar morphology and complex of several phases with the presence of porosities and unmelted particles. The XRD analysis of the wire before the spray showed a majority phase of α-Al2O3 rhombohedral structure and a secondary phase of Al2TiO5 orthorhombic structure with little traces of TiO2 (rutile) tetragonal structure, whereas the XRD of the coating revealed the disappearance of TiO2 replaced by the formation of a new metastable phase γ-Al2O3 cubic structure. The tribological results showed that the applied contact pressure affects the variation of the friction coefficient with time and that it decreases with the rise of the normal force of contact. It was found also that the couple 2 with nearly chemical compositions of spray-coated (AT-13) and disk (AT-3) exhibited much higher wear resistance than the couple 1 although they have sliding coefficient of friction nearly.

  20. Thermodynamic simulation on mineralogical composition of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO quaternary slag system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; Li, Jie; Li, Jun-Guo; Kang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    It is necessary to elucidate the crystallization thermodynamic of mineralogical phases during the cooling process of the molten BFS with different chemical composition, because the high-melting point mineral phase maybe crystallized during the fiber forming and thereafter cooling process. Thermodynamic calculation software FactSage6.4 and the hot remelting experiments were performed to explore the influence of basicity, Al2O3 content and MgO content on the crystallization of mineralogical components and their transformation. The results showed that the main mineralography of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO quaternary slag system was melilite, and a certain amount of anorthite and calcium metasilicate. The crystallographic temperature of melilite is increased with the increasing of basicity, MgO and Al2O3 content, which has a significant impact on the utilization performance of the mineral wool prepared with the hot blast furnace slag directly. With the increasing of basicity, there was a tendency that crystallographic amount of melilite increased to the summit and then declined, while the amount of anorthite and calcium metasilicate decreased consistently. Finally, these two mineralogical components could be replaced by magnesium rhodonite and spinel with the increasing of basicity. When the basicity and MgO content were 1.0 and 9 %, the crystallographic mass ratio of melilite and anorthite increased, while that of calcium silicate declined, and replaced by spinel finally with the increasing of Al2O3 content. When the basicity and Al2O3 content were 1.0 and 13 %, the crystallographic mass ratio of melilite increased, while that of anorthite and calcium silicate declined, and replaced by pyroxene and spinel with the increasing of MgO content. To decline fiberization temperature of the melt BFS, the basicity, MgO and Al2O3 content should be decreased during the modification process of chemical composition, because the crystallization temperature of the primary crystalline

  1. Interactions in Ternary Mixtures of MnO2, Al2O3, and Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and the Impact on MnO2 Oxidative Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Taujale, Saru; Baratta, Laura R; Huang, Jianzhi; Zhang, Huichun

    2016-03-01

    Our previous work reported that Al2O3 inhibited the oxidative reactivity of MnO2 through heteroaggregation between oxide particles and surface complexation of the dissolved Al ions with MnO2 (S. Taujale and H. Zhang, "Impact of interactions between metal oxides to oxidative reactivity of manganese dioxide" Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 2764-2771). The aim of the current work was to investigate interactions in ternary mixtures of MnO2, Al2O3, and NOM and how the interactions affect MnO2 oxidative reactivity. For the effect of Al ions, we examined ternary mixtures of MnO2, Al ions, and NOM. Our results indicated that an increase in the amount of humic acids (HAs) increasingly inhibited Al adsorption by forming soluble Al-HA complexes. As a consequence, there was less inhibition on MnO2 reactivity than by the sum of two binary mixtures (MnO2+Al ions and MnO2+HA). Alginate or pyromellitic acid (PA)-two model NOM compounds-did not affect Al adsorption, but Al ions increased alginate/PA adsorption by MnO2. The latter effect led to more inhibition on MnO2 reactivity than the sum of the two binary mixtures. In ternary mixtures of MnO2, Al2O3, and NOM, NOM inhibited dissolution of Al2O3. Zeta potential measurements, sedimentation experiments, TEM images, and modified DLVO calculations all indicated that HAs of up to 4 mg-C/L increased heteroaggregation between Al2O3 and MnO2, whereas higher amounts of HAs completely inhibited heteroaggregation. The effect of alginate is similar to that of HAs, although not as significant, while PA had negligible effects on heteroaggregation. Different from the effects of Al ions and NOMs on MnO2 reactivity, the MnO2 reactivity in ternary mixtures of Al2O3, MnO2, and NOM was mostly enhanced. This suggests MnO2 reactivity was mainly affected through heteroaggregation in the ternary mixtures because of the limited availability of Al ions.

  2. Surface micromorphology of dental composites [CE-TZP]-[Al2O3] with Ca(+2) modifier.

    PubMed

    Berezina, Sofia; Il'icheva, Alla Alexandrovna; Podzorova, Lyudmila Ivanovna; Ţălu, Ştefan

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) surface micromorphology of the ceramics produced from nanoparticles of alumina and tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) with addition of Ca(+2) for sintering improvement. The 3D surface roughness of samples was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fractal analysis of the 3D AFM-images, and statistical analysis of surface roughness parameters. Cube counting method, based on the linear interpolation type, applied for AFM data was used for fractal analysis. The morphology of non-modified ceramic sample was characterized by the rather big (1-2 μm) grains of α-Al2O3 phase with a habit close to hexagonal drowned in solid solution of t-ZrO2 with smooth surface. The pattern surfaces of modified composite content a little amount of elongated prismatic grains with composition close to the phase of СаСеAl3О7 as well as hexahedral α-Al2O3-grains. Fractal dimension, D, as well as height values distribution have been determined for the surfaces of the samples with and without modifying. It can be concluded that the smoothest surface is of the modified samples with Ca(+2) modifier but the most regular one is of the non-modified samples. A connection was observed between the surface morphology and the physical properties as assessed in previous works. PMID:26190812

  3. Dissolution Behavior of Indium in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Kyu Yeol; Park, Joo Hyun

    2011-12-01

    The solubility of indium in a molten CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system was measured at 1773 K (1500 °C) to establish the dissolution mechanism of indium under a highly reducing atmosphere. The solubility of indium increases with increasing oxygen potential, whereas it decreases with increased activity of basic oxide. Therefore, a dissolution mechanism of indium can be constructed according to the following equation: {{In}}({{s}}) + 1/4{{O}}2 ({{g}}) = ({{In}}^{ + } ) + 1/2({{O}}^{2 - } ) The relationship between indium capacity and sulfide capacity shows a good correlation that is consistent with theoretical expectations. The enthalpy change of the indium dissolution reaction is negative, which indicates that the dissolution is an exothermic reaction. The heat of dissolution into high-silica melts is greater than that into low-silica melts. The solubility of indium is strongly dependent on the silica content. The activity coefficient, and thus the excess free energy of In2O, decreases linearly with increasing silica content, indicating that the In2O is believed to behave as a weak basic oxide in the current CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 ternary system under reducing conditions.

  4. Texture Analyses of Ti/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Produced Using Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei-Zarghani, Aziz; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid; Gerlich, Adrian P.

    2016-11-01

    The texture evolution of Ti/Al2O3 nanocomposite fabricated using friction stir processing (FSP) was investigated at both macroscopic and microscopic levels employing X-ray diffraction and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. The developed textures were compared with ideal shear textures of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure, revealing that the fabricated nanocomposite is dominated by the P 1 hcp (fiber { 10bar{1}1} < 1bar{2}10rangle (and relatively weak B (fiber { 10bar{1}1} < bar{1}bar{1}23rangle ) textures. The analyses of macro- and microtextures showed that the presence of nanosized Al2O3 particles activated the pyramidal { 10bar{1}1} < bar{1}bar{1}23rangle slip system in addition to dominant { 10bar{1}0} < 1bar{2}10rangle prism, basal { {0002} }< 1bar{2}10rangle, and pyramidal { 10bar{1}1} < 1bar{2}10rangle slip systems which normally govern plastic deformation during FSP of commercially pure titanium alloy. Moreover, the presence of nanoparticles promoted the occurrence of continuous dynamic recrystallization as well as increasing the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries within the developed microstructure.

  5. Activation energy of negative fixed charges in thermal ALD Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnhold-Pospischil, S.; Saint-Cast, P.; Richter, A.; Hofmann, M.

    2016-08-01

    A study of the thermally activated negative fixed charges Qtot and the interface trap densities Dit at the interface between Si and thermal atomic-layer-deposited amorphous Al2O3 layers is presented. The thermal activation of Qtot and Dit was conducted at annealing temperatures between 220 °C and 500 °C for durations between 3 s and 38 h. The temperature-induced differences in Qtot and Dit were measured using the characterization method called corona oxide characterization of semiconductors. Their time dependency were fitted using stretched exponential functions, yielding activation energies of EA = (2.2 ± 0.2) eV and EA = (2.3 ± 0.7) eV for Qtot and Dit, respectively. For annealing temperatures from 350 °C to 500 °C, the changes in Qtot and Dit were similar for both p- and n-type doped Si samples. In contrast, at 220 °C the charging process was enhanced for p-type samples. Based on the observations described in this contribution, a charging model leading to Qtot based on an electron hopping process between the silicon and Al2O3 through defects is proposed.

  6. Cold-Sprayed Ni-Al2O3 Coatings for Applications in Power Generation Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevillano, F.; Poza, P.; Múnez, C. J.; Vezzù, S.; Rech, S.; Trentin, A.

    2013-06-01

    Cermets coatings are extensively used in energy applications both because of their high wear resistance as required, for example, in components like gas turbine sealants, and because of their specific functionality as required in solar absorbers. So far, high-temperature thermal spraying and physical vapor deposition have traditionally been used to deposit this kind of coatings. In this study, Ni-Al2O3 coatings have been deposited using a Kinetic®3000 cold-spray system starting from Ni and Al2O3 powders blend; five blends have been prepared setting the alumina content in the feedstock to 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90 wt.%. The embedded alumina ranges between a few percent weight up to 16 and 31 wt.%, while the microhardness shows a deep increase from 175 Vickers in the case of pure Ni coatings up to 338 Vickers. The spray and coating growth mechanism have been discussed, with special attention to the fragmentation of the ceramic particles during the impact. Finally, the coating behavior at high temperature was analyzed by oxidation tests performed in air at 520 °C emphasizing a good oxidation resistance that could represent a very promising basis for application in power generation systems.

  7. Experimental determination of ampicillin adsorption to nanometer-size Al2O3 in water.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jonathan W; Burkhart, Rachel S; Shaw, Drew C; Schuiling, Amanda B; Haserodt, Megan J; Seymour, Michael D

    2010-09-01

    Transport of antibiotics in soil-water systems is controlled in part by adsorption to nanometer-size (10(-9)m) particles. Batch adsorption experiments were performed with ampicillin, a common amphoteric antibiotic, and 50 nm-Al(2)O(3) (alpha-alumina) at different pH conditions. Sorption to Al(2)O(3) can be described by linear isotherms for 2.9 microM-2.9 mM ampicillin concentrations. Distribution coefficients (K(d)) are 11.1 (+/-0.32)L kg(-1) at pH 2, 0.55 (+/-.04) L kg(-1) at pH 4, 21.9 (+/-0.9) L kg(-1) at pH 6, and 39.5 (+/-2.2) L kg(-1) at pH 8. At pH 2, approximately 47% of the initially adsorbed drug was removable by rinsing, at pH 4-56% was removed. Only 7% of the drug could be removed by rinsing at pH 6, and 3% at pH 8. Weak electrostatic forces dominate at pH<4, and stronger attachment mechanisms at higher pH. Low yields in rinsing (desorption) experiments at pH6 indicate strong attachment mechanisms, either electrostatic or possibly surface complexation. PMID:20638098

  8. Electrodeposition of Ni-Al2O3 nano composite coating and evaluation of wear characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavendra, C. R.; Basavarajappa, S.; Sogalad, Irappa

    2016-09-01

    Electrodeposition is one of the most technologically feasible and economically superior technique for producing metallic coating. The advancement in the application of nano particles has grabbed the attention in all fields of engineering. In this present study an attempt has been made on the nano particle composite coating on aluminium substrate by electrodeposition process. The aluminium surface requires a specific pre-treatment for better adherence of coating. In light of this a thin zinc layer is coated on the aluminium substrate by electroless process. This layer offers protection against oxidation thus prevents the formation of a native oxide layer. In this work Ni-Al2O3 composite coating were successfully coated by varying the process parameters such as bath temperature, current density and particle loading. The experimentation was performed using central composite design based 20 trials of experiments. The effect of process parameters on surface morphology and wear behavior was studied. The results shown a better wear resistance of Ni-Al2O3 composite electrodeposited coating compared to Ni coating. The particle loading and interaction effect of current density with temperature has greater significant effect on wear rate followed by the bath temperature. The decrease in wear rate was observed with the increased current density and temperature.

  9. Sulfuric acid baking and leaching of spent Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-In; Park, Kyung-Ho; Mishra, Devabrata

    2009-07-30

    Dissolution of metals from a pre-oxidized refinery plant spent Co-Mo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst have been tried through low temperature (200-450 degrees C) sulfuric acid baking followed by mild leaching process. Direct sulfuric acid leaching of the same sample, resulted poor Al and Mo recoveries, whereas leaching after sulfuric acid baking significantly improved the recoveries of above two metals. The pre-oxidized spent catalyst, obtained from a Korean refinery plant found to contain 40% Al, 9.92% Mo, 2.28% Co, 2.5% C and trace amount of other elements such as Fe, Ni, S and P. XRD results indicated the host matrix to be poorly crystalline gamma- Al(2)O(3). The effect of various baking parameters such as catalyst-to-acid ratio, baking temperature and baking time on percentage dissolutions of metals has been studied. It was observed that, metals dissolution increases with increase in the baking temperature up to 300 degrees C, then decreases with further increase in the baking temperature. Under optimum baking condition more than 90% Co and Mo, and 93% Al could be dissolved from the spent catalyst with the following leaching condition: H(2)SO(4)=2% (v/v), temperature=95 degrees C, time=60 min and Pulp density=5%.

  10. Revisiting the Al/Al2O3 Interface: Coherent Interfaces and Misfit Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Thijsse, Barend J.; Hoagland, Richard G.; Lazić, Ivan; Valone, Steven M.; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    We study the coherent and semi-coherent Al/α-Al2O3 interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations with a mixed, metallic-ionic atomistic model. For the coherent interfaces, both Al-terminated and O-terminated nonstoichiometric interfaces have been studied and their relative stability has been established. To understand the misfit accommodation at the semi-coherent interface, a 1-dimensional (1D) misfit dislocation model and a 2-dimensional (2D) dislocation network model have been studied. For the latter case, our analysis reveals an interface dislocation structure with a network of three sets of parallel dislocations, each with pure-edge character, giving rise to a pattern of coherent and stacking-fault-like regions at the interface. Structural relaxation at elevated temperatures leads to a further change of the dislocation pattern, which can be understood in terms of a competition between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation interaction energy at the interface. Our results are expected to serve as an input for the subsequent dislocation dynamics models to understand and predict the macroscopic mechanical behavior of Al/α-Al2O3 composite heterostructures. PMID:24670940

  11. Tribological Properties of Ti(Al,O)/Al2O3 Composite Coating by Thermal Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Asma; Gabbitas, Brian; Cao, Peng; Zhang, Deliang

    The use of thermal spray coatings provides protection to the surfaces operating in severe environments. The main goal of the current work is to investigate the possibility of using a high velocity air fuel (HVAF) thermally sprayed wear resistant Ti(Al,O)/Al2O3 coating on tool steel (H13) which is used for making dies for aluminium high pressure die casting and dummy blocks aluminium extrusion. A feedstock of Ti(Al,O)/Al2O3 composite powder was produced from a mixture of Al and TiO2 powders by high energy mechanical milling, followed by a thermal reaction process. The feedstock was then thermally sprayed using a high velocity air-fuel (HVAF) technique onto H13 steel substrates to produce a composite coating. The present study describes and compares the tribological properties such as friction and sliding wear rate of the coating both at room and high temperature (700°C). The wear resistance of the coating was investigated by a tribometer using a spherical ended alumina pin as a counter body under dry and lubricating conditions. The results showed that composite coating has lower wear rate at high temperature than at room temperature without using lubricant. The composite coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). This paper reports the experimental observations and discusses the wear resistance performance of the coatings at room and high temperatures.

  12. Texture Analyses of Ti/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Produced Using Friction Stir Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei-Zarghani, Aziz; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid; Gerlich, Adrian P.

    2016-08-01

    The texture evolution of Ti/Al2O3 nanocomposite fabricated using friction stir processing (FSP) was investigated at both macroscopic and microscopic levels employing X-ray diffraction and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. The developed textures were compared with ideal shear textures of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure, revealing that the fabricated nanocomposite is dominated by the P 1 hcp (fiber { 10bar{1}1} < 1bar{2}10rangle (and relatively weak B (fiber { 10bar{1}1} < bar{1}bar{1}23rangle ) textures. The analyses of macro- and microtextures showed that the presence of nanosized Al2O3 particles activated the pyramidal { 10bar{1}1} < bar{1}bar{1}23rangle slip system in addition to dominant { 10bar{1}0} < 1bar{2}10rangle prism, basal { {0002} }< 1bar{2}10rangle, and pyramidal { 10bar{1}1} < 1bar{2}10rangle slip systems which normally govern plastic deformation during FSP of commercially pure titanium alloy. Moreover, the presence of nanoparticles promoted the occurrence of continuous dynamic recrystallization as well as increasing the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries within the developed microstructure.

  13. Decomposition of hexachlorobenzene over Al2O3 supported metal oxide catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifei; Zheng, Minghui; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Gao, Lirong; Ba, Te; Ren, Zhiyuan; Su, Guijin

    2008-01-01

    Decomposition of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated over several metal oxides (i.e., MgO, CaO, BaO, La2O3, CeO2, MnO2, Fe2O3, and Co3O4) supported on Al2O3, which was achieved in closed system at a temperature of 300 degrees C. Catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation with different metal oxides loading and impregnating solvents. The decomposition efficiency of different catalysts for this reaction depends on the nature of the metal oxide used, and Al2O3 supported La2O3 was found to be the most active one. Pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and all tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB), trichlorobenzene (TrCB), and dichlorobenzene (DCB) isomers were detected after the decomposition reaction, indicating that the decomposition was mainly a dechlorination process. The detection of all lower chlorinated benzenes suggested the complexity of decomposition and the presence of more than one dechlorination pathway. PMID:19209643

  14. Cyclic Oxidation of FeCrAlY/Al2O3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Draper, Susan L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Three-ply FeCrAlY/Al2O3 composites and FeCrAlY matrix-only samples were cyclically oxidized at 1000 C and 1100 C for up to 1000 1-hr cycles. Fiber ends were exposed at the ends of the composite samples. Following cyclic oxidation, cracks running parallel to and perpendicular to the fibers were observed on the large surface of the composite. In addition, there was evidence of increased scale damage and spallation around the exposed fiber ends, particularly around the middle ply fibers. This damage was more pronounced at the higher temperature. The exposed fiber ends showed cracking between fibers in the outer plies, occasionally with Fe and Cr-rich oxides growing out of the cracks. Large gaps developed at the fiber/matrix interface around many of the fibers, especially those in the outer plies. Oxygen penetrated many of these gaps resulting in significant oxide formation at the fiber/matrix interface far within the composite sample. Around several fibers, the matrix was also internally oxidized showing Al2O3 precipitates in a radial band around the fibers. The results show that these composites have poor cyclic oxidation resistance due to the CTE mismatch and inadequate fiber/matrix bond strength at temperatures of 1000 C and above.

  15. A light-scattering study of Al2O3 abrasives of various grit sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinson, Yuli W.; Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Sorensen, Christopher M.

    2016-09-01

    We report light scattering phase function measurements for irregularly shaped Al2O3 abrasive powders of various grit sizes. Q-space analysis is applied to the angular scattering to reveal a forward scattering regime, Guinier regime, power law regime with quantifiable exponents, and an enhanced backscattering regime. The exponents of the power laws for Al2O3 abrasives decrease with increasing internal coupling parameter ρ ‧ , which is in agreement with previous observations for other irregular particles. Unlike other dust particles previously studied showing single power laws under Q-space analysis, the largest three abrasives, for which ρ ‧ ≳ 100 , showed a kink in the power law, which is possibly due to the higher degree of symmetry for the abrasives than for all the particles studied previously. Direct comparison of the 1200, 1000, and 800 grit abrasive scattering to scattering by corresponding spheres shows that the scatterings approximately coincide at the spherical particle qR ≃ ρ ‧ crossover point. Furthermore, the scattering at the maximum qR = 2 kR by the irregularly shaped abrasives is close to the geometric centers of the glories of the spheres.

  16. Fabrication of Al2O3-W Functionally Graded Materials by Slipcasting Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Tomoyuki; Sukenaga, Sohei; Saito, Noritaka; Kagata, Hajime; Nakashima, Kunihiko

    2011-10-01

    We have successfully fabricated a functionally graded material (FGM) from tungsten and alumina powders by a slip-casting method. This FGM has applications as a sealing and conducting component for high-intensity discharge lamps (HiDLs) that have a translucent alumina envelope. Two types of W powder, with different oxidizing properties, were used as the raw powders for the Al2O3-W FGM. "Oxidized W" was prepared by heat-treatment at 200 °C for 180 min in air. Alumina and each of the W powders were mixed in ultrapure water by ultrasonic stirring. The slurry was then cast into a cylindrical acrylic mold, which had a base of porous alumina, under controlled pressure. The green compacts were subsequently dried, and then sintered using a vacuum furnace at 1600 °C for a fixed time. The microstructures of the FGMs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the polished section. The Al2O3-W FGM with the "oxidized W" powder resulted in a microscopic compositional gradient. However, the FGM with "as-received W" showed no compositional gradient. This result was mainly attributed to the difference between the ζ-potentials of the W powders with the different oxidizing conditions; basically "oxidized W" powder tends to disperse because of the larger ζ-potential of the oxide layer coated on the W powder core.

  17. Revisiting the Al/Al2O3 Interface: Coherent Interfaces and Misfit Accommodation

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Thijsse, Barend J.; Hoagland, Richard G.; Lazić, Ivan; Valone, Steven M.; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-03-27

    We report the coherent and semi-coherent Al/α-Al2O3 interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations with a mixed, metallic-ionic atomistic model. For the coherent interfaces, both Al-terminated and O-terminated nonstoichiometric interfaces have been studied and their relative stability has been established. To understand the misfit accommodation at the semi-coherent interface, a 1-dimensional (1D) misfit dislocation model and a 2-dimensional (2D) dislocation network model have been studied. For the latter case, our analysis reveals an interface dislocation structure with a network of three sets of parallel dislocations, each with pure-edge character, giving rise to a pattern of coherent and stacking-fault-like regions at the interface.more » Structural relaxation at elevated temperatures leads to a further change of the dislocation pattern, which can be understood in terms of a competition between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation interaction energy at the interface. In conclusion, our results are expected to serve as an input for the subsequent dislocation dynamics models to understand and predict the macroscopic mechanical behavior of Al/α-Al2O3 composite heterostructures.« less

  18. Density Measurements of Low Silica CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhmood, Luckman; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2010-08-01

    Density measurements of a low-silica CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system were carried out using the Archimedes principle. A Pt 30 pct Rh bob and wire arrangement was used for this purpose. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained from the model developed in the current group as well as with other results reported earlier. The density for the CaO-SiO2 an