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Sample records for ala american library

  1. The 1997 AIA/ALA Library Buildings Award Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreazen, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Describes the seven library buildings named as winners by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) and the American Library Association (ALA) that include four new facilities, one conversion of a warehouse building to library use, and two renovations. Public, school, and university libraries are included. (LRW)

  2. LJ Q&A "ALA Candidates": Library Advocacy x 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2008-01-01

    Library advocacy in one of two directions is the top priority of both Camila Alire and J. Linda Williams, the candidates campaigning to capture the 2009-10 term as president of the American Library Association (ALA). Alire, dean emeritus of the libraries of both the University of New Mexico and Colorado State University, will push for enhancements…

  3. Research on the History of the American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomison, Dennis

    A researcher on the history of the American Library Association (ALA) describes problems encountered on his project, important trends in ALA, weaknesses and benefits of ALA, and needs in the area of historical research. Some of the problems cited are the inadequacy of organization and housing of the ALA archives, the unevenness of the archival…

  4. ALA Standards Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Committee on Standards.

    This American Library Association (ALA) policy statement and procedure manual is intended for use in the preparation of all standards issued by ALA and its component units to insure coordination of format and correlation of content of ALA standards. A brief discussion of the purpose of standards is offered, followed by definitions of four types of…

  5. ALA Candidates: Presidential Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with two effective spokespeople, notable school librarian Sara Kelly Johns and retired public library administrator Molly Raphael, who compete to be American Library Association (ALA) president. One of them will be elected president of ALA for a year's term beginning in July 2011. Each candidate comes from a…

  6. Family Friendly Libraries vs. the American Library Association: A Test of Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsburg, Jane D.

    1997-01-01

    To protect children from material it considers harmful, Family Friendly Libraries (FFL) seeks to limit access to information in public libraries. This article describes the conflict between the FFL and the American Library Association (ALA). Provides an overview of censorship and U.S. legislative history, presents the FFL position and the ALA…

  7. Leadership in Legislation and Public Policy Development: The Case of the American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the federal legislative and information policy leadership roles of the American Library Association (ALA). Highlights include the ALA legislative policy structure today, lobbying in the public interest, resources for successful lobbying, effective lobbying techniques, lobbies and organizational theory, ALA lobbying style, and the White…

  8. Resources for Scholars: Four Library and Information Science Collections. Part 2: Columbia University and American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cava, Olha della; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the research resources of two information science collections: (1) the Columbia University School of Library Service, including materials on library science, the history of printing and publishing, and the history of children's literature; and (2) the headquarters library of the American Library Association (ALA), which contains both ALA…

  9. Canadian Literature in American Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, A. Robert

    1973-01-01

    Acquisition of Canadian literature by American libraries was investigated in three ways: questionnaires were sent to selected large libraries, titles were checked against the National Union Catalog'' and published literature describing major collections was examined. With the exception of the Library of Congress, American libraries purchase…

  10. The African American Male Librarian: Motivational Factors in Choosing a Career in Library and Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Kendrick, Kaetrena D.

    2009-01-01

    A recent American Library Association (ALA) report has shown that less than 1% of credentialed librarians are African American males. This article discusses possible reasons for this dearth; and, in an effort to inform future LIS recruiting and marketing campaigns, the included study attempted to discover which factors lead African American males…

  11. ALA 2010: The Costly Cornucopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    Every librarian wants to go to the American Library Association (ALA) annual conference in Washington, DC, June 24-29. Despite that, more than half of those asked informally said they can't afford it. The good news is a cornucopia of programs aimed at nearly every need of librarians of all types and including every best practice in libraries. Many…

  12. The Development of the Partnership between the American Library Association and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the development of the partnership between the American Library Association (ALA) and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). The research focused on archival documents from the ALA Archives at the University of Illinois Archives. The archival research focused on documents during the…

  13. Surviving the Tremors: ALA in San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson Library Bulletin, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Reports on the American Library Association (ALA) 1992 Annual Conference. Highlights include awards given; libraries' futures; bibliographic instruction; NREN (National Research and Education Network); telecommunications; lack of status in librarianship; proposed guidelines for patron behavior; interlibrary loan; the Americans with Disabilities…

  14. Homecoming for Library Symbol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Bessie

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the significance and development of the library symbol and the history of its acceptance by the American Library Association (ALA) and the Canadian Library Association (CLA). Suggestions are made for its use. (CLB)

  15. ALA Conference 2009: Chicago Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    There is joy among those who have the funds to go to Chicago for the American Library Association (ALA) annual conference, July 9-15. Every librarian knows there is nothing better than a Chicago gathering, with the city's wonderful haunts, museums, restaurants, and fine memories of past conferences. The conference program covers nearly every…

  16. Stick to the ALA Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    One candidate for president-elect of the American Library Association (ALA) is a woman, the other is a man. One can tell them apart by looking at them. But Nancy Davenport and James Rettig are not that far apart on the issues that confront the old association and the profession it serves. They have selected slightly different emphases for their…

  17. African American Undergraduates and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the academic library experiences of African American undergraduates attending a research university in the Midwest. Data collection techniques included questionnaires and ethnographic observations. The results indicated that African American undergraduates are using the academic library primarily to read and to study with their…

  18. Toward a Multicultural American Public Library History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Cheryl Knott

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the view that public libraries are institutions that advance the dominant culture's ideology; considers the multicultural society in which libraries operate; and reviews selected books and articles, particularly those related to African-American experiences in and around libraries, and suggests ways to move toward a more inclusive public…

  19. Library Journal Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninghausen, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides excerpts from David Berninghausens's "Social Responsibility vs. the Library Bill of Rights" and responses that appeared in "Library Journal" in 1972 and 1973 because of the continuing debate over the role of the American Library Association (ALA) Social Responsibilities Round Table and whether or not ALA should take…

  20. ALA, the MLS, and Professional Employment: An Observer's Field Guide to the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Pauline

    1984-01-01

    Examines issues arising from recent controversy associated with American Library Association's (ALA) support of MLS degree as minimum requirement for professional employment. Highlights include ALA involvement in legal cases and viewpoints of ALA groups focusing on goals, constituency and handling of conflict versus nature of librarianship and its…

  1. Outsourcing in American Libraries--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordeianu, Sever; Benaud, Claire-Lise

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the state of outsourcing in American libraries. Highlights include objectives (to reduce cost, increase the quality of service, and achieve a better price/performance objective); operations that can be outsourced; pros and cons; changes in the way library personnel view their work; outsourcing in special, public, academic, and federal…

  2. Younger Americans' Reading and Library Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickuhr, Kathryn; Rainie, Lee; Purcell, Kristen; Madden, Mary; Brenner, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    More than eight in ten Americans between the ages of 16 and 29 read a book in the past year, and six in ten used their local public library. At the youngest end of the spectrum, high schoolers in their late teens (ages 16-17) and college-aged young adults (ages 18-24) are especially likely to have read a book or used the library in the past 12…

  3. ALA 2010: Where to Eat in DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As host to visitors and transplants from around the world, Washington, DC, benefits from the constant infusion of different cultures. Although most neighborhoods lack a unified culinary flavor, make no mistake: DC is a city of distinctive areas, each with its own style, ensuring that hungry American Library Association (ALA) 2010 conference…

  4. American Sculpture and the Library of Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somma, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    The Thomas Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress is one of the more significant public structures in American architecture, due for the most part to its wealth and quality of decoration, including an extensive sculptural program executed in 1894-97. The architects entrusted the program to a committee of three prominent sculptors, J. Q. A.…

  5. American Museum of Natural History Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Nina J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history, facilities, collections and services offered by the American Museum of Natural History Library. Also described are collection organization, work on preservation of materials, grant-funded projects, and the outlook for the future. Statistics provided include date founded, director, collection and staff size, and main subjects…

  6. Librarians in Winter: Bullish on ALA, Bearish on Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson Library Bulletin, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Summary of American Library Association's (ALA) 1986 Midwinter Meeting highlights administrative reports, legislative update, government publishing update, finances and operations (the long range outlook), the Oxford Project, library education, standards, issues and ideas, accreditation project, toward a White House conference, aspiring ALA…

  7. ALA 2010 Midwinter Meeting: The Price to Participate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    While the library economy continues its downward slide, the cost of attending the American Library Association (ALA) Midwinter Meeting seems as high as ever. That is the price of professional participation. These days it seems a bit too high and tends to limit involvement in the old association to librarians in the higher echelons of the field.…

  8. National Association and Organization Reports. American Library Association; Association of American Publishers; American Booksellers Association; Association of Research Libraries; Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC); Council on Library and Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John W.; Platt, Judith; Hoynes, Michael; Webster, Duane E.; Johnson, Richard; Smith, Kathlin

    2002-01-01

    This section includes reports from the American Library Association, Association of American Publishers, American Booksellers Association, Association of Research Libraries, Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC), and Council on Library and Information Resources. (LRW)

  9. The Library of Congress View on Its Relation to the ALA MARC Advisory Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avram, Henriette D.

    1974-01-01

    A framework for cooperation between Library of Congress and the RTSD/ISAD/RASD Committee on Representation in Machine-Readable Form of Bibliographic Information in regard to changes in the MARC System. (LS)

  10. Library Services to Mexican Americans: Policies, Practices and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urzua, Roberto, Ed.; And Others

    Much has happened in the field to alter the nature of library services to the Mexican American. The newest areas of library services available to Mexican Americans are at the public school and at the university level. This paper brings together some new concepts, trends, and feelings in the areas of library services in general, and in public,…

  11. The Use of Public Libraries by Native Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Susan K.

    2007-01-01

    Library services to Native Americans have expanded greatly in the past several decades, but more work still needs to be done to provide for the information needs of Native Americans. Data from the U.S. Current Population Survey were used to compare library use rates of Native American households to rates of Anglo households. Results show that…

  12. Federal Legislative Policy of the American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Legislation Committee.

    The American Library Association's policy on federal legislation is based on its objectives of promoting and improving library service and librarianship. Representing those who use libraries as well as those who operate them, the Association is a source of information on libraries and information services for those concerned with formulating and…

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Source: Hubbard Free Library, Hallowell, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Source: Hubbard Free Library, Hallowell, Maine THE BUILDING WITH ITS FIRST ADDITION OF 1893-94 - Hubbard Free Library, 115 Second Street, Hallowell, Kennebec County, ME

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Source: Hubbard Free Library, Hallowell, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Source: Hubbard Free Library, Hallowell, Maine THE ORIGINAL BUILDING SHORTLY AFTER COMPLETION IN 1879 - Hubbard Free Library, 115 Second Street, Hallowell, Kennebec County, ME

  15. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Source: Hubbard Free Library, Hallowell, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Source: Hubbard Free Library, Hallowell, Maine INTERIOR VIEW TOWARD THE WEST WITH FIRST AND SECOND ADDITIONS, CIRCA 1900 - Hubbard Free Library, 115 Second Street, Hallowell, Kennebec County, ME

  16. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Source: Hubbard Free Library, Hallowell, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Source: Hubbard Free Library, Hallowell, Maine TRAIN DAMAGE TO WEST (REAR) WALL OF SECOND ADDITION, EARLY 20th CENTURY - Hubbard Free Library, 115 Second Street, Hallowell, Kennebec County, ME

  17. ALA Office for Intellectual Freedom: Who We Are and How We Help Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekoll, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The American Library Association's (ALA's) Office for Intellectual Freedom (OIF) strives to educate librarians and the public about the nature and importance of intellectual freedom in libraries, and it will celebrate its fiftieth anniversary in 2017. Libraries are a forum for information and ideas (under the First Amendment), and librarians are…

  18. "LJ" Report "Anaheim, ALA 2008": Amid the Fantasy, Doses of Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstein, Lynn; Berry, John; Fialkoff, Francine; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hadro, Josh; Horrocks, Norman; Oder, Norman; Roncevic, Mirela

    2008-01-01

    If the resort city of Anaheim, California, home of Disneyland and its "imagineers," marked a departure from the urban reality of the typical American Library Association (ALA) annual conference, it was impossible, at this 2008 meeting, to avoid urgent library issues. How do libraries maintain their value and cultural presence as users…

  19. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy: Original in the Library ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy: Original in the Library of Congress Pictorial Archives of Early American Architecture EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION C. 1899 - Adams-Mason House, 1072 Thomas Jefferson Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Original at Library of Congress, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Original at Library of Congress, Pictorial Archives of Early American Architecture Arthur A. Snyder, Photographer AQUEDUCT BRIDGE, FEBRUARY 2,1900 - Potomac Aqueduct, Georgetown abutment at Georgetown waterfront, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. School Library Ethics--A Battle of Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on issues concerning school library ethics. In the U.S., American Library Association (ALA) has established a code of ethics for this profession. However, the school library is not the only one affected by the ethical code of the ALA. Since teachers have their own codes of ethics, librarians have now assumed yet another mantle…

  2. Knowledge Organisation Systems in North American Digital Library Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali; Chase-Kruszewski, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report an investigation into the types of knowledge organisation systems (KOSs) utilised in North American digital library collections. Design/methodology/approach: The paper identifies, analyses and deep scans online North American hosted digital libraries. It reviews the literature related to the…

  3. The Very Slow Decline of the American Social Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Haynes

    1985-01-01

    Examines development of social libraries (formed by associations for member use) in New England and rest of United States before 1850, and social and public library growth between 1850 and 1900. Opinions of contemporaries and seven aspects of American life indicating reluctance to abandon social library are highlighted. (27 references) (EJS)

  4. Merchants of Light: The Paris Library School, Internationalism, and the Globalization of a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Amid growing isolationism after World War I, the American Library Association transferred its wartime programs to train librarians in Europe and promote the American model of public libraries. Working in collaboration with American philanthropists and members of the French library community, ALA established a permanent library school in Paris that…

  5. Leading by Example? ALA Division Publications, Open Access, and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nathan; Arnold-Garza, Sara; Gong, Regina; Shorish, Yasmeen

    2016-01-01

    This investigation explores scholarly communication business models in American Library Association (ALA) division peer-reviewed academic journals. Previous studies reveal the numerous issues organizations and publishers face in the academic publishing environment. Through an analysis of documented procedures, policies, and finances of five ALA…

  6. Library Employment Sources on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of online resources for library job seekers. This includes general sites/portals like American Library Association (ALA): Education & Careers and Canadian Library Association: Library Careers. It also includes sites by sector, employment agencies/commercial services, listservs and networking sites.

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy courtesy of the Library ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy courtesy of the Library of Congress VIEW NORTH UP SEVENTH STREET - Firemen's Insurance Company Building, 303 Seventh Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Illinois State Historical Library, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Illinois State Historical Library, Photographer SECOND FLOOR HALL LOOKING SOUTH INTO STUDY - David Davis Mansion, Monroe & Davis Streets, Bloomington, McLean County, IL

  9. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Owned by the Library of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Owned by the Library of Congress, Cartography Division, See Catalog of Graphic Material #49, PHOTOCOPY OF THE 1777 MONTRESSOR MAP OF FORT MIFFLIN. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Yale University Library, Map Collection, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Yale University Library, Map Collection, See Catalog of Graphic Material #13 PHOTOCOPY OF PLAN BY CHARLES BLASKOWITZ, 1777. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original from Butler Library, Columbia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original from Butler Library, Columbia University, See Catalog of Graphic Material #14, PHOTOCOPY OF PLAN, 1777. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 33. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, California Original: 1860's Re-photo: February 1940 INTERIOR OF CHURCH BEFORE RESTORATION - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  13. 32. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, California Original: Re-photo: February 1940 DETAIL OF ENTRANCE (East Elevation) - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  14. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, California Original: Ante 1860 Re-photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Collection Sacramento ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Collection Sacramento Co. History Thompson & West Sketch of 1880 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…

  17. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Yale University Library ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Yale University Library ORIGINAL DRAWING FOR CITY HALL, WEST ELEVATION, c. 1861 BY HENRY AUSTIN, ARCHITECT Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from Yale University Library New Haven, Connecticut - New Haven City Hall & Courthouse, Church Street, between Court & Elm Streets, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  18. National Conference on Library Statistics (Chicago, June 6-8, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trezza, Alphonse F., Ed.; Beasley, James, Ed.

    Attended by representatives of American Library Association (ALA) divisions and committees, other national library associations, state library agencies, library schools, and all types of libraries, this conference was held to discuss: (1) the program of the National Center for Educational Statistics (USOE) as it pertains to libraries; (2) the…

  19. Hispanic Education in the United States: Raices y Alas. Critical Issues of Contemporary American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E.

    This book portrays what works in creating better educational opportunities and effective school reform for Hispanic Americans, offering a reflection on the bicultural experience of minority groups in U.S. schools and showing how and why educational reforms must seek to build upon rather than downplay the native culture and language of minority…

  20. A Statistical Analysis of Library School Deans' Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpela, Raymond

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the extent to which deans holding office in 1983 in American Library Association (ALA) accredited graduate library education programs fulfilled the expectations of academia and the ALA "Standards'" requirement with respect to sustained productive scholarship and evidence of aptitude for research through…

  1. The "Ever Green" Interpretations of the "Library Bill of Rights"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Helen R.

    2010-01-01

    The American Library Association's (ALA) "Library Bill of Rights" is important to school librarians because it provides the philosophical structure for intellectual freedom in school libraries and asserts the rights of minors. It states: "A person's right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin, age,…

  2. The Ala54Thr Polymorphism of the Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 Gene Modulates HDL Cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Salto, Lorena M; Bu, Liming; Beeson, W Lawrence; Firek, Anthony; Cordero-MacIntyre, Zaida; De Leon, Marino

    2015-12-23

    The alanine to threonine amino acid substitution at codon 54 (Ala54Thr) of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) has been associated with elevated levels of insulin and blood glucose as well as with dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of this FABP2 polymorphism in Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the context of a three-month intervention to determine if the polymorphism differentially modulates selected clinical outcomes. For this study, we genotyped 43 participant samples and performed post-hoc outcome analysis of the profile changes in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid panel and body composition, stratified by the Ala54Thr polymorphism. Our results show that the Thr54 allele carriers (those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the threonine-encoding allele) had lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels at baseline compared to the Ala54 homozygotes (those who were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele). Both groups made clinically important improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic control as a response to the intervention. Whereas the Ala54 homozygotes decreased HDL cholesterol in the context of an overall total cholesterol decrease, Thr54 allele carriers increased HDL cholesterol as part of an overall total cholesterol decrease. We conclude that the Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 modulates HDL cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with T2D and that Thr54 allele carriers may be responsive in interventions that include dietary changes.

  3. The Ala54Thr Polymorphism of the Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 Gene Modulates HDL Cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Salto, Lorena M.; Bu, Liming; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Firek, Anthony; Cordero-MacIntyre, Zaida; De Leon, Marino

    2015-01-01

    The alanine to threonine amino acid substitution at codon 54 (Ala54Thr) of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) has been associated with elevated levels of insulin and blood glucose as well as with dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of this FABP2 polymorphism in Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the context of a three-month intervention to determine if the polymorphism differentially modulates selected clinical outcomes. For this study, we genotyped 43 participant samples and performed post-hoc outcome analysis of the profile changes in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid panel and body composition, stratified by the Ala54Thr polymorphism. Our results show that the Thr54 allele carriers (those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the threonine-encoding allele) had lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels at baseline compared to the Ala54 homozygotes (those who were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele). Both groups made clinically important improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic control as a response to the intervention. Whereas the Ala54 homozygotes decreased HDL cholesterol in the context of an overall total cholesterol decrease, Thr54 allele carriers increased HDL cholesterol as part of an overall total cholesterol decrease. We conclude that the Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 modulates HDL cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with T2D and that Thr54 allele carriers may be responsive in interventions that include dietary changes. PMID:26703680

  4. Voters Step up: Library Referenda 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Beth

    2010-01-01

    For libraries, the impact of the derailed economy was felt more fully in 2009 than in 2008, as tax revenues decreased and public funds dwindled. By February 2009, the American Library Association (ALA) reported from a survey of its Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA) that 41 percent of states expected declining state funding for…

  5. American Education, Entrepreneurship, and the Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of compulsory school attendance in United States focuses on a national exodus from public schools into self-education or other alternative education by the 5 percent of the nation's children classified as gifted. Nurturing of the innovative mind and entrepreneurial daring by the public library movement is addressed. Six references are…

  6. Financing North American medical libraries in the nineteenth century*

    PubMed Central

    Belleh, Godfrey S.; Luft, Eric v. d.

    2001-01-01

    Culture not only justifies the existence of libraries but also determines the level of funding libraries receive for development. Cultural appreciation of the importance of libraries encourages their funding; lack of such appreciation discourages it. Medical library development is driven by culture in general and the culture of physicians in particular. Nineteenth-century North American medical library funding reflected the impact of physician culture in three phases: (1) Before the dawn of anesthesia (1840s) and antisepsis (1860s), when the wisdom of elders contained in books was venerated, libraries were well supported. (2) In the last third of the nineteenth century, as modern medicine grew and as physicians emphasized the practical and the present, rather than books, support for medical libraries declined. (3) By the 1890s, this attitude had changed because physicians had come to realize that, without both old and new medical literature readily available, they could not keep up with rapidly changing current clinical practice or research. Thus, “The Medical Library Movement” heralded the turn of the century. PMID:11837261

  7. ICT and Marketing Challenges in Latin American Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feria, Lourdes

    Latin American libraries have experienced an important development in the last two decades. Telecommunications and Information Technologies (ITC) have been key elements in this process. There are leading institutions with remarkable programs; nevertheless it is necessary to design marketing strategies to improve their benefits. A case study based…

  8. "American Psycho": A Collection Management Survey in Canadian Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Examines questions of censorship based on a study of the novel "American Psycho" and a survey of Canadian public libraries that investigated selection policies and the circulation of controversial titles. Highlights include previous research, Canadian laws regarding freedom of information, role of the chief librarian, and the role of…

  9. Library and Information Science Journal Prestige as Assessed by Library and Information Science Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzari, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This prestige study surveyed full-time faculty of American Library Association (ALA)-accredited programs in library and information studies regarding library and information science (LIS) journals. Faculty were asked to rate a list of eighty-nine LIS journals on a scale from 1 to 5 based on each journal's importance to their research and teaching.…

  10. Hey, Small Spender: An Insider's Guide to Navigating ALA's Chicago Conference on the Cheap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an insider's guide to navigating the American Library Association's (ALA) annual conference in Chicago on July 9-15. As for the extracurricular activities, Chicago has a lot to offer. This article provides tips from the arts and entertainment bible "Time Out Chicago" on where to go and what to do (on a limited…

  11. Shifting with the Paradigm: LJ's Picks & Pans for ALA in Disneyland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2008-01-01

    The feelings of librarians planning for the American Library Association (ALA) conference at Disneyland (aka Anaheim, California, June 26-July 2) range from moderate pleasure to dread. Some remember the joys and difficulties of Orlando, especially the exorbitant cab fares and mediocre restaurants. Others quail at screaming kids and tourists in…

  12. Statement on Behalf of the New York Library Association Prepared for the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography Hearings in New York City on January 22, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    This statement supports and endorses the Intellectual Freedom policies of the American Library Association (ALA) as exemplified by the ALA Bill of Rights. The case of Pico v. Island Trees Free School District provides a legal precedent in support of the idea that decisions to remove materials from the school library cannot be based on personal…

  13. Access to Electronic Information, Services, and Networks: An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Office of Intellectual Freedom.

    The American Library Association (ALA) expresses the basic principles of librarianship in its "Code of Ethics" and in the "Library Bill of Rights" and its interpretations. All library system and network policies, procedures or regulations relating to electronic resources and services should be scrutinized for potential…

  14. American Library Directory[TM], 2002-2003. Vol. 1: Libraries in the United States [and] Vol. 2: Libraries in Canada, Library Networks, Consortia & Schools, Organization Index, Personnel Index. 55th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The "American Library Directory[TM] 2002-2003," in two volumes, provides access to comparative data, additional resources, and sales prospects for the United States and Canadian library communities. Containing full profiles on public, academic, government, and special libraries, the totally updated 55th edition is organized by state and…

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey S.F. Chronicle Library Circa 1906 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey S.F. Chronicle Library Circa 1906 RUINS, AFTER EARTHQUAKE AND FIRE (Looking North) - St. Francis Church, Historic View, 610 Vallejo Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco CallBulletin Library VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Call-Bulletin Library VIEW OF FACADE Demolished August 1940 - St. Rose's Church, North Brannan & Fifth Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. Library Media Specialists and Spirituality in Schools: Native American Images as a Beginning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of spirituality in schools focuses on Native American images, especially as used for school mascots and product marketing. Includes various resources, both electronic and printed, that are helpful to school library media specialists as well as other educators. (LRW)

  18. 41. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco CallBulletin Library San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Call-Bulletin Library San Francisco, California INTERIOR VIEW OF CHURCH BEFORE RESTORATION - 1934 - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  19. Best Small Library in American 2008: Chelsea District Library--A Michigan Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2008-01-01

    This article features Chelsea District Library (CDL), Michigan, which claims recognition as the 2008 Best Small Library in America, an award sponsored by "Library Journal" and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The aggressively responsive staff of CDL has created a model for small libraries all over America. There, careful…

  20. Library Use Instruction in Selected American Colleges. Occasional Papers No. 134.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stuart Wayne

    Limited to programs aimed at undergraduate students in American college libraries, this paper describes the development of the concept of library skills instruction and discusses current instructional programs in 13 colleges: Brown, Washington and Lee, Manhattanville, Occidental, Dillard, Dickinson, Oberlin, State University College at…

  1. CILA: A New Approach to Problems in the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouston, John Samuel

    This paper attempts to provide a contextual study of CILA--Centro Interamericano de Libros Academicos--a new scheme for the distribution of scholarly books in the Americas. Because of the scheme's peculiar relevance to the needs of Canadian academic libraries, the status of Latin American studies and relevant library collections in Canada are…

  2. Faculty Status of Theological Librarians in the American Theological Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Ann L.

    This paper is the result of a survey of the institutional members of the American Theological Library Association. The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) defines faculty status as: (1) freedom to exercise independent judgment in performance of professional duties and a formal method of performance review, (2) adoption of an…

  3. The Teaching of Reference in American Library Schools. Historical Paper 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Frances Neel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes to present a superficial view of what is being taught in the 32 American Library Association accredited graduate library schools. She briefly discusses and answers the following three questions: (1) Who is teaching reference?; (2) What is being taught?; and (3) How is it being taught? [For the commentary on…

  4. American Indian Studies, Multiculturalism, and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The current status of multicultural and diversity efforts suggests the need for incorporating into the discussion of librarianship an understanding of previously underrepresented populations such as the American Indian. American Indian Studies speaks from the American Indian perspective and addresses the contemporary condition of American Indians.…

  5. Diversity: Then Is Now. Commentary on Carter, J. R. (1978) Multicultural Graduate Library Education. (Journal of Education for Librarianship, 18(4), 295-314)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Lorienne

    2015-01-01

    Robbins Carter's portrait of the librarian workforce is still true. According to the latest American Library Association (ALA) demographics, the profile of today's librarian is that of a white (87.1 percent) woman (80.7 percent) of middle age (57.1 percent, age 45 or older) (ALA, 2013). Despite these data, support for increased diversity is…

  6. The Franco-Americans of New England: A Union List of Materials in Selected Maine Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simano, Irene M., Comp.

    Approximately 140 bibliographic citations of periodicals, serials, and newspapers; books, pamphlets and theses; and selected articles dating from the 1890's to the present time and held in Maine libraries are included in this inventory of materials by or about Franco-American people. The term "Franco-American" as used here designates…

  7. Meeting the Learning Needs of African American Youth in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.

    2013-01-01

    The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…

  8. Assessment of the National Library of Medicine's health disparities plan: a focus on Native American outreach*

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Elliot R.; Wood, Frederick B.; Dutcher, Gale A.; Ruffin, Angela; Logan, Robert A.; Scott, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Overcoming health disparities between majority and minority populations is a significant national challenge. This paper assesses outreach to Native Americans (American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians) by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). A companion paper details NLM's portfolio of Native American outreach projects. Method: NLM's Native American outreach is assessed in light of the presentations at a community-based health information outreach symposium and the goals set by NLM's plan to reduce health disparities. Results: NLM's current portfolio of Native American outreach projects appears most advanced in meeting the goal set in area 1 of the health disparities plan, “Promote use of health information by health professionals and the public.” NLM's portfolio also shows significant strength and good progress regarding area 2 of the plan, “Expand partnerships among various types of libraries and community-based organizations.” The portfolio is weaker in area 3, “Conduct and support informatics research.” More knowledge-building efforts would benefit NLM, the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and Native American and community-based organizations. Implications: The current Native American outreach portfolio should be continued, but new approaches are needed for evaluating Native American outreach and for forging collaborations with Native American groups, approaches grounded in consultation and mutual understanding of needs and perspectives. PMID:16239954

  9. Internationalization in German Academic Libraries: Moving beyond North American Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordonaro, Karen; Rauchmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how internationalization is understood and experienced in German academic libraries. Its main purpose is to move the discussion of internationalization in academic libraries beyond the boundaries of English-speaking North America by investigating a European perspective. Its secondary purpose is to investigate the role of…

  10. Trends in Automation in American Academic Libraries: Ohio University's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hwa-Wei

    Three decades of applications of information technology and library automation at Ohio University are chronicled in this paper. The first major development highlighted is the founding of OCLC (the Ohio College Library Center) as a cooperative cataloging device in the 1960s. OCLC's growth is traced from when it was a small organization of two staff…

  11. The Information Ambassadors: The 1989-90 Library/Book Fellows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL.

    This report begins by describing the American Library Association (ALA) Library/Book Fellows program, which began with a grant from the U.S. Information Agency in 1986. The program has a threefold purpose: (1) to increase international understanding through the establishment of professional and personal relationships and the accomplishment of…

  12. Collection Development Policies. College Library Information Packets. CLIP Note #2-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

    This publication presents college library collection development policies and policy excerpts, selected on the basis of their compatibility with a 1979 set of guidelines for the formulation of collection development policies prepared by the American Library Association (ALA). The guidelines themselves are also presented. It is noted that none of…

  13. U.S. Information Ambassadors: The 1991-92 Library Fellows and Debriefing Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert P.

    The American Library Association (ALA) Library Fellows program began in 1986 with a grant from the U.S. Information Agency. The program's purpose is threefold: (1) to increase international understanding through the establishment of professional and personal relationships and the accomplishment of mutual goals; (2) to promote international sharing…

  14. The Information Ambassadors: The 1990-91 Library/Book Fellows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL.

    The American Library Association (ALA) Library/Book Fellows program began in 1986 with a grant from the U.S. Information Agency. The program's purpose is threefold: (1) to increase international understanding through the establishment of professional and personal relationships and the accomplishment of mutual goals; (2) to promote international…

  15. Building the Distributed North American Library Collection for Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzner, Burkhart

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the future of research libraries and changes in international scholarship focuses on the acquisition and distribution of foreign-language and area-studies materials. Experiences at the University of Pittsburgh are highlighted, including planning principles. (LRW)

  16. Evaluation of a health sciences internship for Latino and Native American library students

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Quasem, Sanjana; Kelly, Janice E.; Dutcher, Gale A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of a graduate-level internship for Latino and Native American library science students or students who are interested in serving those populations. Methods The authors analyzed semi-structured interviews with thirteen internship program graduates or participants. Results The analysis suggests that the program increased participants' interest in health sciences librarianship and led to improved career opportunities, both in health sciences libraries and other libraries with health information programming. It also highlights specific factors that are likely to contribute to the strength of career pipeline programs aiming to bring Latino and Native American students and students who are interested in serving those communities into health librarianship. Conclusions Exposing graduate-level interns to a broad range of health sciences librarianship tasks, including outreach to Latino and Native American communities and formal mentorship, is likely to maximize interns' interests in both health sciences librarianship and service to these communities. PMID:27822159

  17. Designing Effective Library Services for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    President Obama signed the "White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans" on July 26, 2012. This executive order recognizes that many "African Americans lack equal access to highly effective teachers and principals, safe schools, and challenging college preparatory classes, and disproportionately experience…

  18. The National Library of Medicine's Native American outreach portfolio: a descriptive overview*

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Frederick B.; Siegel, Elliot R.; Dutcher, Gale A.; Ruffin, Angela; Logan, Robert A.; Scott, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This paper provides the most complete accounting of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) Native outreach since 1995, when there were only a few scattered projects. Method: The descriptive overview is based on a review of project reports, inventories, and databases and input from the NLM Specialized Information Services Division, National Network Office of the Library Operations Division, National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and Office of Health Information Programs Development of the Office of the NLM Director. The overview focuses on NLM-supported or sponsored outreach initiatives involving Native peoples: American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians. Results: The review of NLM's relevant activities resulted in a portfolio of projects that clustered naturally into the following areas: major multisite projects: Tribal Connections and related, Native American Information Internship Project: Sacred Root, tribal college outreach and tribal librarianship projects, collaboration with inter-tribal and national organizations, participation in Native American Powwows, Native American Listening Circle Project, Native American Health Information, and other Native American outreach projects. Implications: NLM's Native American Outreach reached programmatic status as of late 2004. The companion paper identifies several areas of possible new or enhanced Native outreach activities. Both papers highlight the importance of solid reporting and evaluation to optimize project results and programmatic balance and priorities. PMID:16239955

  19. ALA Drafts Goals for WHCLIS to Consider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Russell

    1979-01-01

    Presents a draft of a statement articulating the American Library Association's goals for the White House Conference on Library and Information Services in the areas of libraries' social value, library funding, literacy programs, outreach policies, national planning, and access to information. (FM)

  20. The FBI's Library Awareness Program: National Security vs Government Intrusion into American Libraries [and] The KGB and the Library Target.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Reports and Bibliographies, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents statements made to the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights by representatives of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the library community concerning the surveillance of library users' reading habits as a national security measure. An FBI study on the extent of Soviet intelligence service's utilization of…

  1. HIV-AIDS Information and the American Library Community: An Overview of Responses to the HIV-AIDS Health Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukenbill, W. Bernard

    This paper presents an overview of how American libraries have responded to the health crisis caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). AIDS information dissemination practices of libraries and the social role which American librarians have articulated regarding their special responsibilities are…

  2. Creating Tomorrow's Technologists: Contrasting Information Technology Curriculum in North American Library and Information Science Graduate Programs against Code4lib Job Listings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maceli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This research study explores technology-related course offerings in ALA-accredited library and information science (LIS) graduate programs in North America. These data are juxtaposed against a text analysis of several thousand LIS-specific technology job listings from the Code4lib jobs website. Starting in 2003, as a popular library technology…

  3. Resiliency in American Library Association Award Winning Juvenile Fiction: A Correlational Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Michelle T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative content analysis was to determine whether there was a relationship between the age, gender, or race of protagonists in contemporary American Library Association award-winning juvenile literature and the representation of resilience by those characters. Award-winning juvenile fiction and biography books were…

  4. Regional Differences in Collecting Freethought Books in American Public Libraries: A Case of Self-Censorship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if American public libraries located in an area of the country hostile to atheist (freethought) ideas collect atheist books at a lower rate than a region of the country more open to such ideas. The US General Social Survey was consulted to locate the contrasting regions. "New York Times" Best Seller…

  5. Basic Documents of the Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    At its eleventh annual meeting in 1966 the Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials decided that the activity carried on principally by informal cooperation up to that time should be brought into a more formal organizational pattern. Draft texts of the Constitution, By-Laws, and Articles of Incorporation were prepared and…

  6. Improvement Of American Indian Use Of The Library. Library Science Institute, University of Oklahoma (July 13 through 31, 1970). Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerard, Beverly

    To improve the American Indian use of libraries, the Library Science Institute at the University of Oklahoma conducted a three-week program for 28 librarians. The purpose of the Institute was to help the participants understand the Indian--his academic, social, economic, and personal problems. The participants were exposed to problems and their…

  7. "I Have a Dream, Too!": The American Dream in Coretta Scott King Award-Winning Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Linda T.; Castleman, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The Coretta Scott King (CSK) Award, instituted in 1969 and recognized as an official award by the American Library Association (ALA) in 1982, is conferred annually to an African American author and an illustrator for their outstanding contributions to literature about the Black experience for children and young adults. A partial impetus for the…

  8. Accreditation: A Way Ahead. "To Explore Procedures and Guidelines for Participation of a Variety of Associations in the Accreditation of Programs of Library and Information Science Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Committee on Accreditation.

    To involve other professional and educational groups in the accreditation process of educational programs in the field of library and information science, for which the American Library Association (ALA) has current responsibility, this project developed specific recommendations with respect to the following needs: (1) to effect procedures and…

  9. International Reports. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; A Canadian-American Librarianship or an American-Canadian Librarianship in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabb, Winston; Birdsall, William F.

    2002-01-01

    Includes two reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that discusses digital libraries, standards, collaboration, and membership and structure of IFLA; and one that considers Canadian-American librarianship in the 21st century, including federal government policy, copyright reform, and…

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism A1298C (Glu429Ala) predicts decline in renal function over time in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial and Veterans Affairs Hypertension Cohort (VAHC)

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Rany M.; Lipkowitz, Michael S.; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Pandey, Braj; Schork, Nicholas J.; O’Connor, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with increased venous thrombosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mutations in the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene have been associated with increased homocysteine levels and risks of CVD in various populations including those with kidney disease. Here, we evaluated the influence of MTHFR variants on progressive loss of kidney function. Methods. We analyzed 821 subjects with hypertensive nephrosclerosis from the longitudinal National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial to determine whether decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) over ∼4.2 years was predicted by common genetic variation within MTHFR at non-synonymous positions C677T (Ala222Val) and A1298C (Glu429Ala) or by MTHFR haplotypes. The effect on GFR decline was then supported by a study of 1333 subjects from the San Diego Veterans Affairs Hypertension Cohort (VAHC), followed over ∼4.5 years. Linear effect models were utilized to determine both genotype [single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)] and genotype (SNP)-by-time interactions. Results. In AASK, the polymorphism at A1298C predicted the rate of GFR decline: A1298/A1298 major allele homozygosity resulted in a less pronounced decline of GFR, with a significant SNP-by-time interaction. An independent follow-up study in the San Diego VAHC subjects supports that A1298/A1298 homozygotes have the greatest estimated GFR throughout the study. Haplotype analysis with C677T yielded concurring results. Conclusion. We conclude that the MTHFR-coding polymorphism at A1298C is associated with renal decline in African-Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis and is supported by a veteran cohort with a primary care diagnosis of hypertension. Further investigation is needed to confirm such findings and to determine what molecular mechanism may contribute to this association. PMID:21613384

  11. The Closing of American Library Schools: Problems and Opportunities. Contributions in Librarianship and Information Science, Number 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Larry J.; And Others

    The issues and forces behind the closing of graduate library schools in the United States are examined. In chapter 1, two arguments that help explain the library school closings are outlined: the business-management and classical-scholarship perspectives. The book continues with a survey of historical trends in American higher education in chapter…

  12. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California…

  13. Japanese Manga in Translation and American Graphic Novels: A Preliminary Examination of the Collections in 44 Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuchika, Glenn; Boldt, Gail

    2010-01-01

    American graphic novels are increasingly recognized as high-quality literature and an interesting genre for academic study. Graphic novels of Japan, called manga, have established a strong foothold in American culture. This preliminary survey of 44 United States university libraries demonstrates that Japanese manga in translation are consistently…

  14. Recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, Computer-based Patient Record Institute, Medical Library Association, Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, American Health Information Management Association, American Nurses Association.

    PubMed

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-01-01

    In mid-1996, the FDA called for discussions on regulation of clinical software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology has developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. Organizations assisting in development of recommendations, or endorsing the consortium position include the American Medical Informatics Association, the Computer-based Patient Record Institute, the Medical Library Association, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries, the American Health Information Management Association, the American Nurses Association, the Center for Healthcare Information Management, and the American College of Physicians. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risks and four classes of measured monitoring and regulatory actions that can be applied strategically based on the level of risk in a given setting. The consortium recommends local oversight of clinical software systems, and adoption by healthcare information system developers of a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively. FDA regulation should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on those systems posing highest clinical risk, with limited opportunities for competent human intervention.

  15. Library+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses possible future directions for academic libraries in the post Web/Library 2.0 world. These possible directions include areas such as data literacy, linked data sets, and opportunities for libraries in support of digital humanities. The author provides a brief sketch of the background information regarding the topics and…

  16. Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 23-26, 1970). Final Report and Working Papers, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Susan Shattuck: Bresie, Mayellen

    Volume 2 contains 13 working papers from the 15th Seminar on Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials. The papers are: (1) A Report on Bibliographic Activities; (2) Microfilm Projects Newsletter; (3) Role of Latin American Legal Material in the Social Science Research Library; (4) A description of sources for Legal and Social Science…

  17. Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (13th, Lawrence, Kansas, June 20-22, 1968). Final Report and Working Papers. Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Alma; Rovira, Carmen

    The eight working papers used as documentation for the Thirteenth Seminar are included in volume II. They are: (1) "Progress Report on the Seminars on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials, 1968;" (2) "Significant Acquisitions of Latin American Material by U.S. Libraries, 1967/68;" (3) "A Report of…

  18. An African-American Bibliography: The Arts. Selected Sources from the Collections of the New York State Library. Reprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aul, Billie; Yates, Melinda

    Selected resources of the New York State Library that document the achievements of African Americans in the arts, as well as the historical and cultural contexts of these achievement, are listed. In addition to primary sources and significant historical and critical works, the bibliography contains references to other bibliographies and research…

  19. Communication in the Service of American Health...A Bicentennial Report from the National Library of Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    Programs of the National Library of Medicine over almost a century and a half are described, ranging from a history of American medical literature and the development of medical indexing to modern technological developments. Activities covered include the development of the Toxicology Information Program and the online data base TOXLINE; the…

  20. The Common Core: A Disaster for Libraries, a Disaster for Language Arts, a Disaster for American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This author contends that there never has been a need for the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), and there is no evidence that it will do students any good. The Common Core ignores the real problem in American education: poverty. The Common Core movement will be a disaster for libraries and will have a negative impact on nearly every aspect of…

  1. A DNA Barcode Library for North American Pyraustinae (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaofu; Landry, Jean-François; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Although members of the crambid subfamily Pyraustinae are frequently important crop pests, their identification is often difficult because many species lack conspicuous diagnostic morphological characters. DNA barcoding employs sequence diversity in a short standardized gene region to facilitate specimen identifications and species discovery. This study provides a DNA barcode reference library for North American pyraustines based upon the analysis of 1589 sequences recovered from 137 nominal species, 87% of the fauna. Data from 125 species were barcode compliant (>500bp, <1% n), and 99 of these taxa formed a distinct cluster that was assigned to a single BIN. The other 26 species were assigned to 56 BINs, reflecting frequent cases of deep intraspecific sequence divergence and a few instances of barcode sharing, creating a total of 155 BINs. Two systems for OTU designation, ABGD and BIN, were examined to check the correspondence between current taxonomy and sequence clusters. The BIN system performed better than ABGD in delimiting closely related species, while OTU counts with ABGD were influenced by the value employed for relative gap width. Different species with low or no interspecific divergence may represent cases of unrecognized synonymy, whereas those with high intraspecific divergence require further taxonomic scrutiny as they may involve cryptic diversity. The barcode library developed in this study will also help to advance understanding of relationships among species of Pyraustinae. PMID:27736878

  2. National Association and Organization Reports. American Library Association; Association of American Publishers; American Booksellers Association; Association of Research Libraries; Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC); Council on Library and Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Maurice J.; Platt, Judith; Hoynes, Michael; Webster, Duane E.; Johnson, Richard; Smith, Kathlin

    2003-01-01

    Includes six reports from national associations and organizations. Highlights include annual meetings; government affairs; copyright; administration; diversity; new technologies; international programs; scholarly communication; information policy; access to information; preservation; statistics and measurement; digital libraries; economics of…

  3. Playing in the Past: A History of Games, Toys, and Puzzles in North American Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Games and other forms of play are used in today's libraries to attract underserved patrons, to introduce patrons to other library resources and services, and to facilitate engagement between library patrons. While many perceive gaming as a new library service, gaming services have been part of librarianship since the nineteenth century through…

  4. Discover Space: an IYA program for libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2009-12-01

    Across the country, there is a growing concern regarding the number of students entering science and technology careers. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. This is particularly true when family interactions are factored in. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The nation’s more than 17,000 public libraries attract diverse audiences in almost every community. Science exhibits in libraries could potentially reach many adults and upper elementary and middle school students with STEM content. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is partnering with the American Library Association (ALA) to develop a pilot exhibit called Discover Space. The exhibit includes two areas: Space Storms and Star Quest and is currently on tour in Colorado. It is a featured IYA outreach project from SSI. This presentation will focus on the results of a national survey of libraries that SSI and ALA conducted in 2008 about interest in STEM exhibits as well as the development process that was used to design and fabricate the exhibit. Preliminary evaluation results will also be shared. The presentation will conclude with an examination of how this program could benefit underserved communities around the country.

  5. LibTech Highlights from ALA Midwinter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hane, Paula J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite lower attendance than in the past and blustery, cold weather, the American Library Association's Midwinter Meeting in Denver in January offered lots of news from industry vendors and lots of opportunities to discuss important issues and trends. In this report, the author highlights some of the most important product announcements with a…

  6. Collaborating with Public Libraries: Successes, Challenges, and Thoughts for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Eisenhamer, B.; Sharma, M.; Brandehoff, S.; Dominiak, J.; Shipp, S.; LaConte, K.

    2012-08-01

    Public libraries serve learners of all ages and backgrounds, provide free and convenient access to resources, and have strong ties to local schools and community-based organizations. Libraries recognize the importance of science literacy to our culture and strive increasingly to include science in their programming portfolio. What are our shared goals in communicating science to the public? What resources, events, or programs are available through your local public library? How can we work with public libraries to connect people to science? This interactive Special Interest Group discussion facilitated by representatives from the American Library Association's (ALA) Public Programs Office, the Lunar and Planetary Institute's Explore! program, and the Space Telescope Science Institute's Visions of the Universe: Four Centuries of Discovery library exhibit explored successes, lessons learned, and future opportunities for incorporating science programming into public library settings.

  7. Using Cooperative Efforts between the African American Church and Local Public Libraries To Expand the Use of Library Services by African Americans. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Frederick A.; Innes, Elizabeth A.

    The African American church has a long history of service to its community. The church in African American life has always served as a source of support, learning, information, and improvement for its members and the community it serves. This project directed its resources and energies toward developing meaningful and effective strategies for…

  8. An Historical Survey of the Relation Among the Philosophy, Method, and Libraries of American Theological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, G. Paul

    This dissertation is the report of an analysis of the literature of American theological education. American theological education is defined here as the efforts of American Protestant theological schools, particularly the member schools of the American Association of Theological Schools (AATS), to prepare students for ministry. An assumption of…

  9. Delta-ALA urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased level of urinary delta-ALA may indicate: Lead poisoning Porphyria (several types) A decreased level may occur ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Lead Poisoning Porphyria Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  10. Sunset at the ALaMO

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new color all-sky camera has opened its eyes at the ALaMO, or Automated Lunar and Meteor Observatory, at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. Watch its inaugural video below, s...

  11. The American Museum of Natural History Mineral Library for Spectroscopic Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissinboim, A.; Ebel, D. S.; Harlow, G. E.; Boesenberg, J. S.; Sherman, K. M.; Lewis, E. R.; Brusentsova, T. N.; Peale, R. E.; Lisse, C. M.; Hibbitts, C. A.

    2010-03-01

    Minerals from the AMNH collections are highly characterized (crystal XRD, EMPA), powdered <2 µm, reanalyzed (SEM, powder XRD), and transmission IR spectra analyzed for Herschel PACS. Library minerals will also serve reflectance spectra needs.

  12. Marketing the Virtual Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2009-01-01

    Far more people are familiar with their local public or college library facility than their library's website and online resources. In fact, according to a recent survey, 96% of Americans said they had visited a library in person, but less than one-third have visited their online library. Since everyone agrees that online library resources are…

  13. Results from Five Task Forces Appointed by the American Council of Learned Societies and the Council on Library and Information Resources. Scholarship, Instruction, and Libraries at the Turn of the Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The American Council of Learned Societies and the Council on Library and Information Resources appointed 36 scholars, librarians, and leaders of various academic enterprises to five task forces "to consider changes in the process of scholarship and instruction that will result from the use of digital technology and to make recommendations to…

  14. MATERIALS BY AND ABOUT AMERICAN NEGROES, PAPERS PRESENTED AT AN INSTITUTE SPONSORED BY THE ATLANTA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LIBRARY SERVICE WITH THE COOPERATION OF THE TREVOR ARNETT LIBRARY (OCTOBER 21-23, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PHINAZEE, ANNETTE HOAGE

    PURPOSES OF THE INSTITUTE ATTENDED BY BOTH LIBRARIANS AND HISTORIANS WERE (1) TO REVIEW THE PRESENT STATUS OF LIBRARY MATERIALS BY AND ABOUT AMERICAN NEGROES AND EXPLORE IDEAS FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT, (2) TO CONSIDER METHODS OF IMPLEMENTING PROGRAMS TO INCREASE ACCESS TO MATERIALS, AND (3) TO STRENGTHEN COMMUNICATION AMONG LIBRARIANS AND SCHOLARS…

  15. Bridging the Gap in Early Library Education History for African Americans: The Negro Teacher-Librarian Training Program (1936-1939)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Allison M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of a little-known library education program hosted on four historically Black colleges and university campuses and credited with training more than 200 African American teacher-librarians is explored. The program's importance to the evolvement of secondary education of the largely undereducated and disenfranchised people of the…

  16. Opportunity for All: How the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at U.S. Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Samantha; Crandall, Michael D.; Fisher, Karen E.; Kinney, Bo; Landry, Carol; Rocha, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade and a half, free access to computers and the Internet in U.S. public libraries evolved from a rare commodity into a core service. Now, people from all walks of life rely on this service every day to look for jobs, find health care, and read the latest news. As the nation struggled through a historic recession, nearly one-third…

  17. Library collaboration with medical humanities in an american medical college in qatar.

    PubMed

    Birch, Sally; Magid, Amani; Weber, Alan

    2013-11-01

    The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of 'doctors' stories' related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a 'best practices' approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders.

  18. Library Collaboration with Medical Humanities in an American Medical College in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Sally; Magid, Amani; Weber, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of ‘doctors’ stories’ related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a ‘best practices’ approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders. PMID:24223240

  19. Comparison between mALA- and ALA-PDT in the treatment of basal cell carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleier, Peter; Zenk, Witold; Hyckel, Peter; Berndt, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Introduction: The external application of aminoleavulinic acid (ALA), which is a substrate of physiologic cell metabolism, represents a possible treatment option in superficial basal cell carcinomas (BCC). The development of new ALA-esters (mALA) with potential for higher penetration depths promises higher therapeutic success. This research aimed to prove the following hypothesis: The cytotoxic effect of the mALA- photodynamic therapy (mALA-PDT), when compared to the ALA-PDT, leads to a higher clinical success rate. Material and Methods: 24 patients with multiple facial tumors, after having received several local surgical excisions with known histology, were treated with either ALA- or mALA-PDT, during the past two years. In total, 89 basal cell carcinoma, 45 actinic keratoses, 6 keratoacanthoma, and 2 squamous cell carcinomas were treated. ALA-PDT: A thermo gel with 40 % mALA or ALA was applied from a cooled syringe. Three to five hours after gel application the skin was cleaned from any gel residues. Irradiation was done with a diode laser and was performed in two sessions, each 10 min long. After intervals of 2, 4 and 12 weeks, the patients were recalled to assess therapeutic efficacy. This was followed by photographic documentation. Results: More than 80% of the tumors treated primarily were resolved successfully. A recurrence rate of approximately 15% was observed. Three per cent of the tumors showed no reaction to therapy. There were no statistically significant differences between the two therapeutic groups. Discussion: The advantage of the use of ALA lies foremost in the fast metabolic use of the body's own photosensitizer PpIX. There are no known side effects of this therapy. Moreover, external application is superior to systemic application with regard to patient management. The method can be combined with other therapies. Although the mALA should have a better penetration in tumor tissue, the therapeutic outcome is similar to the use of ALA.

  20. Library Instruction 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgewater, Rachel; Deitering, Anne-Marie; Munro, Karen

    2009-01-01

    At the 2008 ALA Annual Conference, a wonderful Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) preconference was presented entitled "Library Instruction 2.0: Building Your Online Instruction Toolkit". The presentation was enlightening and provided numerous and valuable recommendations for Web 2.0 sites that can facilitate and enliven library…

  1. PDT of the endometrium using ALA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, Michael J.; Vernon, David I.; Holroyd, J. Andrew; Stringer, Mark R.; Johnson, Nick; Brown, Stanley B.

    1997-05-01

    There is a widely recognized need for new approaches to effect endometrial ablation as an alternative to hysterectomy for treatment of menorrhagia. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers one such approach. We have investigated the use of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-based PDT of the endometrium in model systems and in a series of patients. In all of this work, the ALA was administrated directly into the uterine cavity to reduce any possibility of systemic photosensitization. In a series of experiments in perfused ex vivo uteri, ALA was introduced into the cavity and protoporphyrin formation was measured in the endometrium, the underlying myometrium and the perfusate. ALA transfer into the perfusate was also measured. This work demonstrated that protoporphyrin formation in the endometrium was approximately ten fold that in the underlying myometrium and that systemic photosensitization would be unlikely to result form transfer of administered ALA from the uterus into the circulation. Similar results were found in studies carried out in vivo, where ALA was administered to patients scheduled for hysterectomy. Using a specially designed light source, the first patients have now been treated by giving intrauterine ALA followed by laser light. Two series of treatments - 10 in all - have been carried out. Eight patients have one year follow up. A reduction in measured menstrual blood loss was demonstrated in all but one patient. Complete symptomatic relief was obtained in tow women who did not require further treatment.

  2. Exporting the American (information) revolution: the international impact of the National Library of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, E V; Janson, F S

    1986-10-01

    The National Library of Medicine has had an enormous impact on health information services all over the world. Although NLM is primarily a national institution, it has become an important international resource by responding to requests from the international community. NLM has been influential in three major ways. First, NLM has provided a model for other national and regional health information services. Second, it has been a catalyst, in that MEDLARS and other services it provides formed the nucleus of many regional networks. NLM helped such networks get started by giving advice on how to set up services and build collections and by "training the trainers" on the MEDLARS system. Third, NLM has supported national and regional operations by providing the additional training and materials needed for day-to-day service.

  3. Libraries and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainie, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The majority of Americans think local libraries serve the educational needs of their communities and families pretty well and library users often outpace others in learning activities. But many do not know about key education services libraries provide. This report provides statistics on library usage and presents key education services provided…

  4. Academic Libraries: Their Rationale and Role in American Higher Education. Contributions in Librarianship and Information Science, No. 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Gerald B., Ed.; Person, Ruth J., Ed.

    This book is designed to educate campus administrators on the issues facing their libraries, and the role that a library should have on the campus. Chapters are: (1) "The Academic Library: Its Place and Role in the Institution" (Joanne R. Euster); (2) "What Community Colleges Need from Their Libraries" (David R. Dowell & Jack A. Scott); (3)…

  5. Collaboration, collegiality, and cooperation: consumer health library services and the American Cancer Society navigator role.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Carol Ann; Wellik, Kay E

    2012-10-01

    Patients and family members are overwhelmed by the diagnosis of cancer and often do not know where to look for answers, information on the treatment options, or community resources for support during the cancer journey. A unique relationship was forged with a patient and health education librarian at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona and an American Cancer Society navigator, which encouraged collaboration to better meet the informational and supportive healthcare needs of patients. This article addresses the background of the project, the steps taken to establish the relationship, space allocation, and need for confidentiality. The innovations produced by this partnership also are discussed, including development of cancer pathfinders and cancer communication blogs for patients, as well as comarketing of services.

  6. Work/training programs for international health science librarians in American medical school libraries.

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, P W; Gorman Sullivan, M B

    1989-01-01

    World understanding is more than a desirable goal today: it may be crucial to our survival. Many universities realize this and have in the past decade spent a great deal of time and money to ensure a steady flow of faculty and students between the U.S. and other countries. Librarians with faculty or academic status may benefit from promoting such relationships themselves. Job exchanges and training programs offer librarians in the United States the opportunity to become acquainted with their counterparts in other countries. Such programs enable librarians of various countries to become aware of one another's special needs and common problems, and allow them to share ideas and expertise. This paper presents an overview of international training programs for foreign librarians in the United States, focusing on programs for health sciences librarians in United States medical school libraries. Information is given on the availability and types of institutionally sponsored programs, as well as on MLA's Cunningham Fellowship Program. Some of the difficulties and the benefits of such programs are discussed. PMID:2720220

  7. Microplate fluorescence protease assays test the inhibition of select North American snake venoms' activities with an anti-proteinase library.

    PubMed

    Price, Joseph A

    2015-09-01

    Snake envenomation is a relatively neglected significant world health problem, designated an orphan disease by the WHO. While often effective, antivenins are insufficient. Could another approach greatly aid inhibition of the venom toxins? New fluorescent substrates for measuring protease activity in microplate assays suitable for high throughput screening were tested and found reproducible with snake venom. Representative North American venoms showed relatively strong proteinase and collagenase, but weaker elastase activities. Caseinolytic activity is inhibited by the nonspecific proteinase inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline and by EDTA, as is collagenase activity, consistent with the action of metalloproteinases. Both general protease and collagenase assays CV average 3%, and Km measured were above normal working conditions. Using a library of anti -proteinase compounds with multiple venoms revealed high inhibitor activity by three agents with known multiple metalloproteinase inhibitor activity (Actinonin, GM6001, and NNGH), which incidentally supports the concept that much of the degradative activity of certain venoms is due to metalloproteinases with collagenase activity. These results together support the use of microplate proteinase assays, particularly this collagenase assay, in future drug repurposing studies leading to the development of new treatments for those envenomations that have a major proteolytic component in their pathophysiology.

  8. Towards understanding the tandem mass spectra of protonated oligopeptides. 2: The proline effect in collision-induced dissociation of protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx = Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp).

    PubMed

    Bleiholder, Christian; Suhai, Sándor; Harrison, Alex G; Paizs, Béla

    2011-06-01

    The product ion spectra of proline-containing peptides are commonly dominated by y(n) ions generated by cleavage at the N-terminal side of proline residues. This proline effect is investigated in the current work by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx includes Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp) in an electrospray/quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass spectrometer and by quantum chemical calculations on protonated Ala-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala. The CID spectra of all investigated peptides show a dominant y(2) ion (Pro-Ala sequence). Our computational results show that the proline effect mainly arises from the particularly low threshold energy for the amide bond cleavage N-terminal to the proline residue, and from the high proton affinity of the proline-containing C-terminal fragment produced by this cleavage. These theoretical results are qualitatively supported by the experimentally observed y(2)/b(3) abundance ratios for protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx = Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp). In the post-cleavage phase of fragmentation the N-terminal oxazolone fragment with the Ala-Ala-Xxx sequence and Pro-Ala compete for the ionizing proton for these peptides. As the proton affinity of the oxazolone fragment increases, the y(2)/b(3) abundance ratio decreases.

  9. Changing Dimensions: Managing Library and Information Services for the 1990s: A Global Perspective. Proceedings of the Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association [Conference] (Atlanta, Georgia, July 1, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ravindra Nath, Ed.

    The theme of the 1991 Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association (APALA) was "Changing Dimensions: Managing Library Information Services for the 1990s and Beyond." Members and speakers were invited to discuss this topic from all dimensions of library and information related fields. Presenters had the options either to write on actual…

  10. STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    Science and technology are widely recognized as major drivers of innovation and industry (e.g. Rising above the Gathering Storm, 2006). While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement and public understanding of STEM disciplines. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. Designed spaces, like libraries, allow lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep learning to take place though the research basis for learning in libraries is not as developed as other informal settings like science centers. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national education project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. This project will deepen our knowledge of informal/lifelong learning that takes place in libraries and establish a learning model that can be compared to the more established free-choice learning model for science centers and museums. The project includes the development of two STEM hands-on exhibits on topics that are of interest to library staff and their patrons: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. In addition, the project will produce resources and inquiry-based activities that libraries can use to enrich the exhibit experience. Additional resources will be provided through partnerships with relevant

  11. African-American Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  12. Advancing History Education in American Schools. A Symposium at the Library of Congress. Panel 1. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for History Education, Inc., Westlake, OH.

    This occasional paper discusses and advances the teaching of history in U.S. schools by noted historians. James Billington, the Librarian of Congress, explains the resources available through the Library of Congress' National Digital Library Program designed to bring five million items into digitized format and make them available throughout the…

  13. Libraries in Alabama: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alabama.html Libraries in Alabama To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Birmingham American Sports Medicine Institute Sports Medicine LIBRARY 833 St. Vincent's Drive Suite 205 Birmingham, AL ...

  14. Special Libraries of New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Libraries, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes the facilities, collections, and services of the following special libraries in New York City: Shea and Gould Library; American Foundation for the Blind; Brooklyn Museum; Merrill Lynch Capital Markets Library; Public Relations of American Information Center; Port Authority of New York and New Jersey; and Brooklyn Public Library Business…

  15. [Scientific information, medical education and health policies: the Pan-American Health Organization and the creation of the Regional Library of Medicine--Bireme].

    PubMed

    Pires-Alves, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the creation and the first years of functioning of the Regional Library of Medicine (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina--Bireme--PAHO), today Latin-American Center for Information in Health Sciences, during 1963-1982. In the course of this analysis, Bireme is being characterized as both an apparatus and an arena for negotiation present in the most general processes of development expressed in international cooperation, information in science and technology, health policies and in the movement for expansion and reform of medical teaching. The narrative has as initial landmark the conception of a regional library of medicine for Latin America according to a model proposed by the National Library of Medicine. The article qualifies the first years of Bireme's existence as the history of the reception of this model, a trajectory that reflected the criticism of that time against the way the health care services were organized and their human resources were educated. Finally, beginning in 1976, a new model resulted in a real modification of Bireme's programmatic agenda, implying in very distinct contributions for the functioning of the regime of information in health sciences in force in Brazil and Latin America.

  16. Profiles of the Users and Usages of Afro-American Literature: A Unification of Communications and Library Research Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassata, Mary B.

    1978-01-01

    This article describes the various levels of users of Afro-American materials, the usage they make of these materials, some of the effects and gratifications derived from the study of Afro-American literature, and the physical and psychological barriers that interfere with the utilization of these resources. (Author/AM)

  17. Morphological Versatility in the Self-Assembly of Val-Ala and Ala-Val Dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Hakan; Babur, Esra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Candas, Elif; Gordesel, Merve; Dede, Yavuz; Oren, Ersin Emre; Demirel, Gokcen Birlik; Ozturk, Mustafa Kemal; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman; Demirel, Gokhan

    2015-07-07

    Since the discovery of dipeptide self-assembly, diphenylalanine (Phe-Phe)-based dipeptides have been widely investigated in a variety of fields. Although various supramolecular Phe-Phe-based structures including tubes, vesicles, fibrils, sheets, necklaces, flakes, ribbons, and wires have been demonstrated by manipulating the external physical or chemical conditions applied, studies of the morphological diversity of dipeptides other than Phe-Phe are still required to understand both how these small molecules respond to external conditions such as the type of solvent and how the peptide sequence affects self-assembly and the corresponding molecular structures. In this work, we investigated the self-assembly of valine-alanine (Val-Ala) and alanine-valine (Ala-Val) dipeptides by varying the solvent medium. It was observed that Val-Ala dipeptide molecules may generate unique self-assembly-based morphologies in response to the solvent medium used. Interestingly, when Ala-Val dipeptides were utilized as a peptide source instead of Val-Ala, we observed distinct differences in the final dipeptide structures. We believe that such manipulation may not only provide us with a better understanding of the fundamentals of the dipeptide self-assembly process but also may enable us to generate novel peptide-based materials for various applications.

  18. A Redesigned Vancomycin Engineered for Dual D-Ala-D-Ala and D-Ala-D-Lac Binding Exhibits Potent Antimicrobial Activity Against Vancomycin-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian; Pierce, Joshua G.; James, Robert C.; Okano, Akinori; Boger, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of bacteria resistant to vancomycin, often the antibiotic of last resort, poses a major health problem. Vancomycin-resistant bacteria sense a glycopeptide antibiotic challenge and remodel their cell wall precursor peptidoglycan terminus from D-Ala-d-Ala to D-Ala-D-Lac, reducing the binding of vancomycin to its target 1000-fold and accounting for the loss in antimicrobial activity. Here, we report [Φ[C(=NH)NH]Tpg4]-vancomycin aglycon designed to exhibit the dual binding to D-Ala-D-Ala and D-Ala-D-Lac needed to reinstate activity against vancomycin-resistant bacteria. Its binding to a model D-Ala-D-Ala ligand was found to be only two-fold less than vancomycin aglycon and this affinity was maintained with a model D-Ala-D-Lac ligand, representing a 600-fold increase relative to vancomycin aglycon. Accurately reflecting these binding characteristics, it exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-resistant bacteria (MIC = 0.31 g/mL, VanA VRE). Thus, a complementary single atom exchange in the vancomycin core structure (O NH) to counter the single atom exchange in the cell wall precursors of resistant bacteria (NH O) reinstates potent antimicrobial activity and charts a rational path forward for the development of antibiotics for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant bacterial infections. PMID:21823662

  19. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants

    PubMed Central

    An, Yuyan; Qi, Lin; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn.) plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC), and reduced leaf superoxide anion (O2⋅¯) production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance. PMID:26789407

  20. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    PubMed

    An, Yuyan; Qi, Lin; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn.) plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC), and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  1. American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishenko, S.P.; Savage, W.U.; Honegger, D.G.; McLane, T.R.; ,

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

  2. Astro4Girls and Their Families: Sharing Science via Public Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Smith, D.; Eisenhamer, B.; Ryer, H.; Dussault, M.; Braswell, E.; Cominsky, L.; Apple, N.; Della, T.; Whiffen, P.; Harman, P.; Mitchell, S.; Eyermann, S.; Brandehoff, S.; Dominiak, J.

    2013-04-01

    The “Astro4Girls and Their Families” pilot program offered a variety of informal science events at nine public libraries nationwide in conjunction with Women's History Month (March) 2012. The goals were to engage girls and their families in science, by helping them discover the Universe for themselves and celebrating the contribution of women to astronomy and science. We offered a wide range of activities, from using robotic telescopes for “Do-It-Yourself (DIY) astrophotography” to making edible black holes, to exploring the infrared Universe. Our main target audience was middle-school aged girls, but students of all ages, their families and the public were welcome to participate in many of the activities. Five NASA Science Mission Directorate-funded Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach teams partnered with public libraries in this pilot program; each worked with 1 or 2 libraries to offer a total of about 15 events reaching over 300 people in both urban and rural areas. The American Library Association Public Programs Office identified participating libraries and facilitated their participation through its role in the SMD-funded “Visions of the Universe: Four Centuries of Discovery” traveling exhibit. The NASA Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum coordinated the collaboration. The website is: http://www.ala.org/programming/astro4girls. This poster outlines the details of planning and implementing the 2012 pilot program, its successes, and lessons learned. The collaborators would like to engage the EPO community in a discussion of how to sustain Astro4Girls and engage additional public libraries nationwide during future Women's History Months.

  3. Clergy of the Mind: Alvin S. Johnson, William S. Learned, the Carnegie Corporations, and the American Library Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Joyce M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early twentieth century, Alvin Johnson and William S. Learned produced two separate but related studies relative to the donations of the Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY) to public library construction. These reports became means for the planned disassociation of the philanthropic organization from its historical relationship with…

  4. African Studies Thesaurus. Subject Headings for Library Users. Bibliographies and Indexes in Afro-American and African Studies, Number 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otchere, Freda E.

    This thesaurus identifies nearly 4,000 subject heading terms that pertain specifically to the 41 countries that make up Africa south of the Sahara. The process of identifying these terms began with a search through the "Library of Congress Subject Headings," followed by searches of other subject heading materials and bibliographic…

  5. The Relationship between Library Use and Academic Achievement of English and Spanish-Speaking Hispanic American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hae Seong; Yau, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between school library use and academic achievement of Hispanic students. This study utilizes data from the base-year and the first follow-up of the Education Longitudinal Study: 2002/06. A series of hierarchical regression analysis is incorporated to examine the nature of associations among…

  6. Early American Textbooks, 1775-1900. A Catalog of the Titles Held by the Educational Research Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svobodny, Dolly, Ed.

    Intended as an educational resource for use in the study of the early development of education in the United States, this catalog, prepared by the Educational Research Library of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement, contains bibliographic descriptions for more than 6,000 textbooks published from 1775…

  7. Proceedings: Second Annual Meeting, Western Canada Chapter, American Society for Information Science, September 14, 15, 1970, Vancouver Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, F. T., Ed.

    The two-day conference included the following: (1) a tutorial on Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) services including those of the National Science Library, COMPENDEX, and the retrospective and current-awareness searches of "Chemical Titles;" (2) a workshop on profiling and search editing, for the aforementioned services; (3)…

  8. The Evolution of NxtWave Leaders for 21st-Century Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jody K.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2012, a group of four school library professors attending the ALA Midwinter Meeting were having lunch and discussing various issues related to the school library field. These school library professors agreed that one challenge facing the profession is preparing future leaders. As current school library leaders retire, it is difficult to…

  9. 5-ALA based photodynamic management of glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühm, Adrian; Stepp, Herbert; Beyer, Wolfgang; Hennig, Georg; Pongratz, Thomas; Sroka, Ronald; Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2014-03-01

    Objective: Improvement of the clinical outcome of glioblastoma (GBM) patients by employment of fluorescence and photosensitization on the basis of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Methods: In this report the focus is laid on the use of tumor selective PpIX fluorescence for stereotactic biopsy sampling and intra-operative treatment monitoring. In addition, our current concept for treatment planning is presented. For stereotactic interstitial photodynamic therapy (iPDT), radial diffusers were implanted into the contrast enhancing tumor volume. Spectroscopic measurements of laser light transmission and fluorescence between adjacent fibers were performed prior, during and post PDT. Results: PpIX concentrations in primary glioblastoma tissue show high intra- and inter-patient variability, but are usually sufficient for an effective PDT. During individual treatment attempts with 5-ALA based GBM-iPDT, transmission and fluorescence measurements between radial diffusers gave the following results: 1. In some cases, transmission after PDT is considerably reduced compared to the value before PDT, which may be attributable to a depletion of oxygenated hemoglobin and/or diffuse bleeding. 2. PpIX fluorescence is efficiently photobleached during PDT in all cases. Conclusion: iPDT with assessment of PpIX fluorescence and photobleaching is a promising treatment option. Individualization of treatment parameters appears to bear a potential to further improve clinical outcomes.

  10. Gateways, Gatekeepres, and Roles in the Information Omniverse. Proceedings of the Symposium of the Association of Research Libraries and Association of American University Presses (3rd, Washington, D.C., November 13-15, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okerson, Ann, Ed.; Mogge, Dru, Ed.

    This volume contains the proceedings of the third joint symposium of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Association of American University Presses (AAUP). The following papers were presented: "Opening Remarks for the ARL-AAUP Symposium" (Lisa Freeman); the keynote address, "We're All in this Together, Aren't…

  11. Who, What and How? Commentary on Cheney, F. N. (1963) the Teaching of Reference in American Library Schools. (Journal of Education for Librarianship, 3(3), 188-198)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Cheney's paper was the first major article on the subject of teaching reference in American library schools. In the article, she addressed three questions: (1) Who is teaching reference?; (2) What is being taught?; and (3) How is it being taught? In this article, Linda Smith discusses how the teaching of reference has changed in the more than 50…

  12. First DNA Barcode Reference Library for the Identification of South American Freshwater Fish from the Lower Paraná River.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Juan; Villanova, Gabriela Vanina; Brancolini, Florencia; Del Pazo, Felipe; Posner, Victoria Maria; Grimberg, Alexis; Arranz, Silvia Eda

    2016-01-01

    Valid fish species identification is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. Here, we provide a sequence reference library based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I for a valid identification of 79 freshwater fish species from the Lower Paraná River. Neighbour-joining analysis based on K2P genetic distances formed non-overlapping clusters for almost all species with a ≥99% bootstrap support each. Identification was successful for 97.8% of species as the minimum genetic distance to the nearest neighbour exceeded the maximum intraspecific distance in all these cases. A barcoding gap of 2.5% was apparent for the whole data set with the exception of four cases. Within-species distances ranged from 0.00% to 7.59%, while interspecific distances varied between 4.06% and 19.98%, without considering Odontesthes species with a minimum genetic distance of 0%. Sequence library validation was performed by applying BOLDs BIN analysis tool, Poisson Tree Processes model and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, along with a reliable taxonomic assignment by experts. Exhaustive revision of vouchers was performed when a conflicting assignment was detected after sequence analysis and BIN discordance evaluation. Thus, the sequence library presented here can be confidently used as a benchmark for identification of half of the fish species recorded for the Lower Paraná River.

  13. First DNA Barcode Reference Library for the Identification of South American Freshwater Fish from the Lower Paraná River

    PubMed Central

    Brancolini, Florencia; del Pazo, Felipe; Posner, Victoria Maria; Grimberg, Alexis; Arranz, Silvia Eda

    2016-01-01

    Valid fish species identification is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. Here, we provide a sequence reference library based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I for a valid identification of 79 freshwater fish species from the Lower Paraná River. Neighbour-joining analysis based on K2P genetic distances formed non-overlapping clusters for almost all species with a ≥99% bootstrap support each. Identification was successful for 97.8% of species as the minimum genetic distance to the nearest neighbour exceeded the maximum intraspecific distance in all these cases. A barcoding gap of 2.5% was apparent for the whole data set with the exception of four cases. Within-species distances ranged from 0.00% to 7.59%, while interspecific distances varied between 4.06% and 19.98%, without considering Odontesthes species with a minimum genetic distance of 0%. Sequence library validation was performed by applying BOLDs BIN analysis tool, Poisson Tree Processes model and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, along with a reliable taxonomic assignment by experts. Exhaustive revision of vouchers was performed when a conflicting assignment was detected after sequence analysis and BIN discordance evaluation. Thus, the sequence library presented here can be confidently used as a benchmark for identification of half of the fish species recorded for the Lower Paraná River. PMID:27442116

  14. Proteomics and SSH Analyses of ALA-Promoted Fruit Coloration and Evidence for the Involvement of a MADS-Box Gene, MdMADS1.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinxin; An, Yuyan; Zheng, Jie; Sun, Miao; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Skin color is a key quality attribute of fruits and how to improve fruit coloration has long been a major concern. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural plant growth regulator, can significantly increase anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin and therefore effectively improve coloration of many fruits, including apple. However, the molecular mechanism how ALA stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of ALA on apple skin at the protein and mRNA levels. A total of 85 differentially expressed proteins in apple skins between ALA and water treatment (control) were identified by complementary gel-based and gel-free separation techniques. Most of these differentially expressed proteins were up-regulated by ALA. Function analysis suggested that 87.06% of the ALA-responsive proteins were associated with fruit ripening. To further screen ALA-responsive regulators, we constructed a subtracted cDNA library (tester: ALA treatment; driver: control) and obtained 104 differentially expressed unigenes, of which 38 unigenes were indicators for the fruit ripening-related genes. The differentially changed proteins and transcripts did not correspond well at an individual level, but showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. Among the identified fruit ripening-related genes, the expression of MdMADS1, a developmental transcription regulator of fruit ripening, was positively correlated with expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (MdCHS, MdDFR, MdLDOX, and MdUFGT) in apple skin under ALA treatment. Moreover, overexpression of MdMADS1 enhanced anthocyanin content in transformed apple calli, which was further enhanced by ALA. The anthocyanin content in MdMADS1-silenced calli was less than that in the control with ALA treatment, but higher than that without ALA treatment. These results indicated that MdMADS1 is involved in ALA-induced anthocyanin accumulation. In addition, anthocyanin

  15. Proteomics and SSH Analyses of ALA-Promoted Fruit Coloration and Evidence for the Involvement of a MADS-Box Gene, MdMADS1

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinxin; An, Yuyan; Zheng, Jie; Sun, Miao; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Skin color is a key quality attribute of fruits and how to improve fruit coloration has long been a major concern. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural plant growth regulator, can significantly increase anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin and therefore effectively improve coloration of many fruits, including apple. However, the molecular mechanism how ALA stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of ALA on apple skin at the protein and mRNA levels. A total of 85 differentially expressed proteins in apple skins between ALA and water treatment (control) were identified by complementary gel-based and gel-free separation techniques. Most of these differentially expressed proteins were up-regulated by ALA. Function analysis suggested that 87.06% of the ALA-responsive proteins were associated with fruit ripening. To further screen ALA-responsive regulators, we constructed a subtracted cDNA library (tester: ALA treatment; driver: control) and obtained 104 differentially expressed unigenes, of which 38 unigenes were indicators for the fruit ripening-related genes. The differentially changed proteins and transcripts did not correspond well at an individual level, but showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. Among the identified fruit ripening-related genes, the expression of MdMADS1, a developmental transcription regulator of fruit ripening, was positively correlated with expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (MdCHS, MdDFR, MdLDOX, and MdUFGT) in apple skin under ALA treatment. Moreover, overexpression of MdMADS1 enhanced anthocyanin content in transformed apple calli, which was further enhanced by ALA. The anthocyanin content in MdMADS1-silenced calli was less than that in the control with ALA treatment, but higher than that without ALA treatment. These results indicated that MdMADS1 is involved in ALA-induced anthocyanin accumulation. In addition, anthocyanin

  16. Preserving the Historical Record of American Labor: Union-Library Archival Services Partnerships, Recent Trends, and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Thomas James

    2002-01-01

    Reviews efforts by academic research institutions to capture and preserve archival records of American labor institutions, focusing on a recent project to assess the state of labor archives efforts and the challenges facing union officials and labor archivists. Describes the Labor Archives Project (LAP), including the research methodology and…

  17. Law Libraries as Special Libraries: An Educational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelton, Penny A.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes the history of the law library profession and the development of the educational model for law librarians in light of the particular demands and needs of corporate and law firm libraries. Guidelines of the American Association of Law Libraries for graduate programs in law librarianship are discussed. (Contains 17 references.) (LRW)

  18. Rural Libraries: A Forum for Rural Library Service. Volume X, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheller, Rebekah, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    The two issues of the journal "Rural Libraries" for 1990 contain a total of seven articles. "Cooperation and Rural Libraries," by Jackie Schmitt, reports on a nationwide survey of 119 rural libraries' participation in intrastate library cooperatives. "Rural Public Library Service to Native Americans," by Susan Hollaran, outlines strategies for the…

  19. Expression of the alaE gene is positively regulated by the global regulator Lrp in response to intracellular accumulation of l-alanine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Kohei; Sato, Kazuki; Hori, Hatsuhiro; Makino, Yumiko; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The alaE gene in Escherichia coli encodes an l-alanine exporter that catalyzes the active export of l-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. In our previous study, alaE expression was shown to increase in the presence of l-alanyl-l-alanine (Ala-Ala). In this study, the global regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) was identified as an activator of the alaE gene. A promoter less β-galactosidase gene was fused to an alaE upstream region (240 nucleotides). Cells that were lacZ-deficient and harbored this reporter plasmid showed significant induction of β-galactosidase activity (approximately 17-fold) in the presence of 6 mM l-alanine, l-leucine, and Ala-Ala. However, a reporter plasmid possessing a smaller alaE upstream region (180 nucleotides) yielded transformants with strikingly low enzyme activity under the same conditions. In contrast, lrp-deficient cells showed almost no β-galactosidase induction, indicating that Lrp positively regulates alaE expression. We next performed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a DNase I footprinting assay using purified hexahistidine-tagged Lrp (Lrp-His). Consequently, we found that Lrp-His binds to the alaE upstream region spanning nucleotide -161 to -83 with a physiologically relevant affinity (apparent KD, 288.7 ± 83.8 nM). Furthermore, the binding affinity of Lrp-His toward its cis-element was increased by l-alanine and l-leucine, but not by Ala-Ala and d-alanine. Based on these results, we concluded that the gene expression of the alaE is regulated by Lrp in response to intracellular levels of l-alanine, which eventually leads to intracellular homeostasis of l-alanine concentrations.

  20. Losing Libraries, Saving Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This summer, as public libraries continued to get budget hit after budget hit across the country, several readers asked for a comprehensive picture of the ravages of the recession on library service. In partnership with 2010 Movers & Shakers Laura Solomon and Mandy Knapp, Ohio librarians who bought the Losing Libraries domain name,…

  1. State Library Agencies and Member Libraries of the Association of Research Libraries. Final Report of Two Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chobot, Mary C.

    State Library Agencies (SLAs) and library members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) were surveyed to collect data from potential audiences for American Memory products to assist the planners for this Library of Congress (LC) project. This summary report briefly explains the purpose of the surveys; describes the survey methodology and…

  2. Confidentiality of Library Records: Renewed Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, C. James

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Library Awareness Program and presents the American Library Association's policy on confidentiality of library records and suggested procedures for implementing the policy. Relevant state and federal legislation are summarized, and suggestions are offered for library administrators dealing with the…

  3. Structure of vancomycin and a vancomycin/D-Ala-D-Ala complex in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Molinari, H.; Pastore, A. ); Lian, Luyun ); Hawkes, G.E.; Sales, K. )

    1990-03-06

    Restrained molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the interactions between the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin and the dipeptide Ac-D-Ala-D-Ala. Restraints were obtained from a combination of homonuclear and heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR experiments (NOESY, ROESY, {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N inverse correlation). The comparison between the structures obtained for vancomycin alone and for the complex suggests a new hypothesis on the binding mode of this system. The numerical simulations were not straightforward because vancomycin is made of building blocks for which standard force-fields are not available. The representation of unusual chemical environments is also mandatory. The authors believe that the extension of the force-field parameters to their system could be of more general interest. Furthermore, they consider vancomycin and its complex a good example for exploring the more general problem of molecular recognition, a challenge that has been widely approached in the past few years but for which no unique and general methodology has, so far, been recognized.

  4. John Ash, ALA., Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    John Ash, ALA., Photographer August 1997. VIEW OF LOS ANGELES CITY HALL NINTH FLOOR NORTH OFFICE WING SHOWING PARTITIONS, WINDOWS AND RADIATOR, FACING SOUTHWEST - Los Angeles City Hall, 200 North Spring Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Synthesis, DNA recognition and cleavage studies of novel tetrapeptide complexes, Cu(II)/Zn(II)-Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, Farukh; Jamsheera, A.; Mohapatra, D. K.

    2013-05-01

    New tetrapeptide complexes Cu(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (1) and Zn(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (2) were synthesized from the reaction of tetrapeptide, Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro and CuCl2/ZnCl2 and were thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, IR,1H and 13C NMR (in case of 2), ESI-MS, UV and molar conductance measurements. The solution stability study was carried out employing UV-vis absorption titrations over a broad range of pH which suggested the stability of the complexes in solution. In vitro interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA was studied employing UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroic and viscometry studies. To throw insight into molecular binding event at the target site, UV-vis titrations of 1 and 2 with mononucleotides of interest viz.; 5'-GMP and 5'-TMP were carried out. Cleavage activity of the complexes with pBR322 plasmid DNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and, the electrophoresis pattern demonstrated that both the complexes 1 and 2 are efficient cleavage agents. Further, the Cu(II) complex displayed efficient oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA while various reactive oxygen species are responsible for the cleavage in Zn(II) complex.

  6. Creating Library Spaces: Libraries 2040.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruijnzeels, Rob

    This paper suggests that by 2004, the traditional public libraries will have ceased to exist and new, attractive future libraries will have taken their place. The Libraries 2040 project of the Netherlands is initiating seven different libraries of the future. The Brabant library is the "ultimate library of the future" for the Dutch…

  7. Book Storage in Academic Libraries. A Report Submitted to the Council on Library Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piternick, George

    A study was made to determine the present state of book storage in large North American academic libraries. A letter was sent to every academic library in the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) to inquire if they engaged in book storage. From the 35 which answered affirmatively, 15 were selected for visitation: the libraries of the…

  8. Library Feminism and Library Women's History: Activism and Scholarship, Equity and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildenbrand, Suzanne

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the development of library women's history in the context of library feminism and American history. Considers the aftermath of World War II and the Cold War and suggests that the earlier equity or fairness orientation is today challenged by a cultural orientation in both library feminism and library women's history. (Contains 70…

  9. ALA Annual Conference Was Full of Announcements and Pronouncements. Newsline Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    The American Library Association convened again, with all the standard hoopla, in Chicago in Late June. There was a good bit of new and improved technology to see on the show floor this year. This article highlights a few of the new products featured.

  10. Elevated urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and the inhibition of ALA-synthase and ALA-dehydratase activities in both liver and kidney in mice exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Tomokuni, K; Ichiba, M; Hirai, Y

    1991-12-01

    Urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (ABA) and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was investigated in mice exposed to lead (500 p.p.m.) in drinking water for 14 days. Concentrations of both urinary ABA and urinary ALA increased significantly in the lead-exposed mice. However, the degree of increasing excretion was higher in urinary ALA (10-fold of the control) than in urinary ABA (2-fold of the control). On the other hand, it was demonstrated that ALA dehydratase in liver and kidney is inhibited by exposure to lead, while ALA synthase in these tissues has no inhibitory effect.

  11. The "Lacy Report" and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoduski, Bernadine Abbott

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the final report of the American Library Association's Commission on Freedom and Equality of Access to Information, which addresses such issues as telecommunications, access to electronic and government information, preservation, illiteracy, censorship, copyright, libel, postal rates, and the future role of libraries in providing access…

  12. Application of 5-ALA for differential diagnostics of stomach diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhotnikova, Natalja L.; Dadvany, Sergey A.; Kuszin, Michail I.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sklyanskaya, Olga A.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Volkova, Anna I.; Agafonov, Valery V.

    2001-01-01

    59 patients with stomach diseases including gastric cancer or polyp, gastritis, esofagus disease were investigated. Before gastroscopy all patients were given 5-ALA in doses 5mg, 10mg and 20mg per 1kg of body weight orally. Fluorescence diagnostics which estimates concentration of ALA-induced PPIX in regular and alternated tissues of gastric mucosa were carried out in 2-4 hours. Using of 5-ALA has shown high diagnostic effectiveness for differential diagnostics of stomach diseases. This technique has proved 10 diagnosis of cancer and revealed 15 malignant stomach diseases including 4 cancer in situ for patients with preliminary diagnosis of gastric ulcer. It also revealed 5 patients with enhanced fluorescence for which aimed biopsy has shown high degree of inflammation process. The latter were assigned as a risk group.

  13. Chemical rescue of Asp237-->Ala and Lys358-->Ala mutants in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Frillingos, S; Kaback, H R

    1996-10-15

    Asp237 (helix VII) and Lys358 (helix XI) form a salt bridge in the lactose permease, and neutral replacement of either residue inactivates. Remarkably, noncovalent neutralization of the unpaired Asp or Lys residue, respectively, with n-alkylsulfonates or n-alkylamines of appropriate size restores active transport to high levels in the mutants. Saturation with respect to the concentration of the alkylamines and different size preferences suggest that the alkylamines bind sterically at position 358. Rescue of Asp237-->Ala by alkylsulfonates is apparently more indiscriminate, since methane-, ethane-, or propane-sulfonate have comparable effects. Sodium and chloride, respectively, are also effective in rescuing the Lys358-->Ala and Asp237-->Ala mutants, while various other compounds are ineffective. In marked contrast to Asp237-->Ala or Lys358-->Ala permease, alkylsulfonates or alkylamines have no effect whatsoever on the activity of mutants with neutral replacements for Asp240, Glu269, Arg302, Lys319, His322, or Glu325. The results support the conclusion that neutral replacement of one member of the charge pair between Asp237 and Lys358 leads to inactivation because of an unpaired charge in the low dielectric of the membrane. In addition, the findings are consistent with the idea that interactions between Arg302 and Glu325, His 322 and Glu269, and Asp240 and Lys319 play important roles in the mechanism of the permease, which is not the case for either Asp237 or Lys358 or the salt bridge between the two residues.

  14. Academic Ambitions and Library Development: The American Bureau of Industrial Research and the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1904-18. Occasional Paper Number 159.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colson, John Calvin

    Intended to contribute to a better understanding of research library development in the United States, this report describes the history of the development of the library of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin from 1904 to 1918. It is based on records of the relationships between three principals--John R. Commons and Richard T. Ely (members…

  15. Current Issues and the Veterinary Medical Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nault, Andre J.

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…

  16. IFLA General Conference, 1989. Division of Libraries Serving the General Public. Section on Children's Libraries; Section of School Libraries; Section of Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons. Booklet 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Fifteen papers from the Division of Libraries Serving the General Public are included in this collection: "When the Children's Library Meets the Museum" (French and English versions; Annie Pissard); "Value of Library Service for Children Literature in France" (Aline Eisenegger); "The Latin American Literature in France" (Aline Eisenegger); "The…

  17. Contributions to the History of Library Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Fred R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the historical method in lexicography, the general characteristics of library terminology, and the current state of library lexicography. Presents a glossary which lists quotations supplementing the coverage of library-related vocabulary in the "Oxford English Dictionary" (OED) and the "Dictionary of Americanisms"…

  18. Library Services in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickuhr, Kathryn; Rainie, Lee; Purcell, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    This report explores the changing world of library services by exploring the activities at libraries that are already in transition and the kinds of services citizens would like to see if they could redesign libraries themselves. It is part of a larger research effort by the Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project that is exploring…

  19. The Value of Research in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Gay Helen; Slowik, Amy J. W.

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 2010, two researchers interviewed twenty-three library administrators of comparable academic libraries at American universities for their views of the value of research in academic libraries. The interview questions focused on the administrators' perceived value of academic librarians' research, incentives given to academic…

  20. Identification and expression analyses of the alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) gene family in poplar seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiru; Ma, Jing; Qu, Chunpu; Hu, Yanbo; Hao, Bingqing; Sun, Yan; Liu, Zhongye; Yang, Han; Yang, Chengjun; Wang, Hongwei; Li, Ying; Liu, Guanjun

    2017-04-05

    Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT, E.C.2.6.1.2) catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate and glutamate to alanine and α-oxoglutarate. The AlaAT gene family has been well studied in some herbaceous plants, but has not been well characterized in woody plants. In this study, we identified four alanine aminotransferase homologues in Populus trichocarpa, which could be classified into two subgroups, A and B. AlaAT3 and AlaAT4 in subgroup A encode AlaAT, while AlaAT1 and AlaAT2 in subgroup B encode glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase (GGAT), which catalyzes the reaction of glutamate and glyoxylate to α-oxoglutarate and glycine. Four AlaAT genes were cloned from P. simonii × P. nigra. PnAlaAT1 and PnAlaAT2 were expressed predominantly in leaves and induced by exogenous nitrogen and exhibited a diurnal fluctuation in leaves, but was inhibited in roots. PnAlaAT3 and PnAlaAT4 were mainly expressed in roots, stems and leaves, and was induced by exogenous nitrogen. The expression of PnAlaAT3 gene could be regulated by glutamine or its related metabolites in roots. Our results suggest that PnAlaAT3 gene may play an important role in nitrogen metabolism and is regulated by glutamine or its related metabolites in the roots of P. simonii × P. nigra.

  1. Identification and expression analyses of the alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) gene family in poplar seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiru; Ma, Jing; Qu, Chunpu; Hu, Yanbo; Hao, Bingqing; Sun, Yan; Liu, Zhongye; Yang, Han; Yang, Chengjun; Wang, Hongwei; Li, Ying; Liu, Guanjun

    2017-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT, E.C.2.6.1.2) catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate and glutamate to alanine and α-oxoglutarate. The AlaAT gene family has been well studied in some herbaceous plants, but has not been well characterized in woody plants. In this study, we identified four alanine aminotransferase homologues in Populus trichocarpa, which could be classified into two subgroups, A and B. AlaAT3 and AlaAT4 in subgroup A encode AlaAT, while AlaAT1 and AlaAT2 in subgroup B encode glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase (GGAT), which catalyzes the reaction of glutamate and glyoxylate to α-oxoglutarate and glycine. Four AlaAT genes were cloned from P. simonii × P. nigra. PnAlaAT1 and PnAlaAT2 were expressed predominantly in leaves and induced by exogenous nitrogen and exhibited a diurnal fluctuation in leaves, but was inhibited in roots. PnAlaAT3 and PnAlaAT4 were mainly expressed in roots, stems and leaves, and was induced by exogenous nitrogen. The expression of PnAlaAT3 gene could be regulated by glutamine or its related metabolites in roots. Our results suggest that PnAlaAT3 gene may play an important role in nitrogen metabolism and is regulated by glutamine or its related metabolites in the roots of P. simonii × P. nigra. PMID:28378825

  2. ALA and ALA hexyl ester-induced porphyrin synthesis in chemically induced skin tumours: the role of different vehicles on improving photosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Casas, A; Perotti, C; Fukuda, H; Rogers, L; Butler, A R; Batlle, A

    2001-01-01

    Exogenous administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is becoming widely used to enhance the endogenous synthesis of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in photodynamic therapy. We analysed porphyrin formation in chemically induced squamous papillomas, after topical application of ALA and ALA hexyl ester (He-ALA) administered in different formulations, as well as the pattern of distribution in the internal organs, and the synthesis of porphyrins in distant tumoural and normal skins. A lotion formulation containing DMSO and ethanol was the best vehicle for topical ALA delivery to papillomas, whereas cream was the most efficient formulation for He-ALA application. Similar porphyrin concentration can be accumulated in the skin tumours employing either ALA or He-ALA delivered in their optimal formulations. The use of cream as a vehicle of both ALA and He-ALA, induces highest porphyrin tumour/normal skin ratios. The main advantage of using He-ALA is that porphyrins synthesized from the ester are more confined to the site of application, thus inducing low porphyrin levels in normal skin, liver, blood and spleen, as well as in papillomas distant from the point of application, independently on the vehicle employed, so reducing potential side effects of photodynamic therapy. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11742504

  3. ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in epileptogenic tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Valdes, Pablo A.; Harris, Brent T.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-03-01

    Astrogliotic tissue displays markedly increased levels of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence, making it useful for fluorescence-guided resection in glioma surgery. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and corresponding animal models, there are areas of astrogliosis that often co-localize with the epileptic focus, which can be resected to eliminate seizures in the majority of treated patients. If this epileptogenic tissue can exhibit PpIX fluorescence that is sufficiently localized, it could potentially help identify margins in epilepsy surgery. We tested the hypothesis that ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence could visually accentuate epileptogenic tissue, using an established animal model of chronic TLE. An acute dose of pilocarpine was used to induce chronic seizure activity in a rat. This rat and a normal control were given ALA, euthanized, and brains examined post-mortem for PpIX fluorescence and neuropathology. Preliminary evidence indicates increased PpIX fluorescence in areas associated with chronic epileptic changes and seizure generation in TLE, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal areas. In addition, strong PpIX fluorescence was clearly observed in layer II of the piriform cortex, a region known for epileptic reorganization and involvement in the generation of seizures in animal studies. We are further investigating whether ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence can consistently identify epileptogenic zones, which could warrant the extension of this technique to clinical studies for use as an adjuvant guidance technology in the resection of epileptic tissue.

  4. 33 CFR 110.194 - Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.194 Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance. (a) The anchorage grounds. The waters within a radius of 750 yards from a point located 1,000 yards true north from Fort... an anchorage. It may be used for a general anchorage when not required for vessels...

  5. The Dipeptide Ala-Gly in the Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez, Celina; Varela, Marcelino; Cabezas, Carlos; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L.

    2014-06-01

    The dipeptide Ala-Gly has been examined in gas phase by laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) spectroscopy in the frequency region 3-12 GHz. Three rotamers have been detected in the supersonic expansion. The quadrupole hyperfine structure of two 14N (I=1) nuclei has been totally resolved allowing the conclusive identification of one conformer.

  6. Discover Earth: An earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public’s understanding of Earth’s physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. In spite of this relevance, there are many obstacles to achieving broad public understanding of key earth system science (ESS) concepts. Strategies for addressing climate change can only succeed with the full engagement of the general public. As reported by U.S. News and World Report in 2010, small towns in rural America are emerging as the front line in the climate change debate in the country. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. There are two distinct components of STAR-Net: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. The Discover Earth part of STAR_Net will produce ESS

  7. Library 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    In fall 1984, the Georgia Institute of Technology administration and library staff began planning for Library 2000, a project aimed at creating a showcase library to demonstrate the application of the latest information technology in an academic and research environment. The purposes of Library 2000 include: increasing awareness of students,…

  8. Library Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayall, Susan A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Six articles on computers in libraries discuss training librarians and staff to use new software; appropriate technology; system upgrades of the Research Libraries Group's information system; pre-IBM PC microcomputers; multiuser systems for small to medium-sized libraries; and a library user's view of the traditional card catalog. (EM)

  9. Library Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley, Will; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The innovative designs of three libraries are described: the Tempe (Arizona) Public Library, which emphasizes services for children and students; an underground library at Park College, Missouri; and a public library located in the Vancouver (Washington) Mall. The fourth article describes the work going on to restore the Los Angeles (California)…

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere (papers in Philadelphia Library) DRAWING OF REDWOOD LIBRARY IN 1768. - Redwood Library, 50 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI

  11. Guide to Sources: American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Thomas H., Comp.

    Designed to introduce students to some of the basic bibliographic tools in American history available in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine, this guide begins by listing examples of relevant Library of Congress Subject Headings and providing brief explanations of the call numbers and classification systems (Library of Congress and Dewey…

  12. Metabolism of oral ALA combined small dose HPD in the small rat glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Yan, Ming; Lu, Liping

    2005-07-01

    Objective: Research on the metabolism of oral ALA combined small dose HPD in the small rat glioma to find the optimal oral dose and diagnostic time for the ALA-photodynamic diagnosis and therapy of brain glioma. Methods: Measure the fluorescence spectra of tumor in the treatment groups and control group and of brain tissue of no-tumor group with different doses of ALA taken orally combined injectd small dose HPD and different time before and after take ALA when irradiated by laser. We analyzed the spectrum of fluorescence of every groups with optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) and compared it each other. Result: The maximum ratio (Itumor/Inomal ) of fluorescence was obtained at 60mg/kg of ALA taken orally and 6-8h after ALA taken. Conclusion: The optimal oral dose is 60mg/kg of ALA and the optimal measure time is 6-8 hours after ALA taken.

  13. Umberto Eco on Libraries: A Discussion of "De Biblioteca."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Michael F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a scholar's reactions to libraries made by Umberto Eco in "De Biblioteca." Topics addressed include functions of libraries, including collecting; accessibility of materials; the scholar's creative use of libraries, and discovering materials not looked for or known about; North American research libraries; photocopying; and…

  14. Change in the Library--For the Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Judi

    2010-01-01

    The American Library Association says that the arrangement of library facilities should motivate students to use the materials to learn. Believing that changing the library facility can bring about important changes in the program, this author shares how she became a "decorator" and changed the library media center in an elementary K-6 school. The…

  15. Basic principles of fluorescence detection with use of 5-ALA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Reinhold; Stepp, Herbert G.

    2000-06-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been proven to induce selective accumulation of flourescent Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in many types of malignant tissue. According to the target to treatment different routes of topical and systemical application of 5-ALA can be chosen. They include techniques like inhalation, installation and rinsing. For fluorescence detection a lamp based system have been developed in the laser-Forschungslabor in Munich together with Storz company. By skillful balancing of excitation filter centered around 400 nm and the observation filter with transmission above 450 nm images with high color contrast can be obtained. The universal application of the D-LIGHT could be demonstrated in different clinical disciplines like urology, neurosurgery, ENT clinic, gynecology and others.

  16. Library Services for State Government; An Evaluation of the Resources of the Oregon State Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Mildred M.

    This study outlines the types of library service required to furnish quality reference services to state agencies. The services provided by the Oregon State Library were evaluated according to the standards established by the American Library Association. Evaluation of the collection for scope and coverage in subject areas of automation,…

  17. Native American Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the…

  18. Ala-His Mediated Peptide Bond Formation Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, Deana C.; Martinis, Susan A.; Roberts, Deborah J.; Fox, George E.

    2001-12-01

    The historical origin of the translation machinery remains unresolved. Although the large 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is almost certainly the catalytic component of the peptidyl transferase center in the modern ribosome, it is likely that greatly simplified systems were initially employed in the late stages of the prebiotic world. In particular, it has been suggested that small RNAs carrying amino acids were important for the genesis of protein synthesis. Consistent with this, a dipeptide, Ala-His, was previously claimed to be a prebiotically feasible catalyst mediating peptide bond formation in the presence of aminoacylated tRNA and cognate mRNA template, in the absence of other ribosomal components (Shimizu, 1996). We herein report a detailed study of putative dipeptide formation by Ala-His and RNAs carrying leucine. Based on the results presented here, it is unlikely that the dipeptide, Ala-His, catalyzes significant levels of Leu-Leu dipeptide formation in solution. A product is produced which can be readily mistaken for a dipeptide in the TLC separation systems employed in earlier work. We offer explanations for the formation of this product as well as another unexpected product. The results presented here are consistent with the notion that the translation machinery was likely based on catalytic RNA from its very inception.

  19. The complex filling of alae crater, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, D.A.; Duffield, W.A.; Jackson, D.B.; Peterson, D.W.

    1972-01-01

    Since February 1969 Alae Crater, a 165-m-deep pit crater on the east rift of Kilauea Volcano, has been completely filled with about 18 million m3 of lava. The filling was episodic and complex. It involved 13 major periods of addition of lava to the crater, including spectacular lava falls as high as 100 m, and three major periods of draining of lava from the crater. Alae was nearly filled by August 3, 1969, largely drained during a violent ground-cracking event on August 4, 1969, and then filled to the low point on its rim on October 10, 1969. From August 1970 to May 1971, the crater acted as a reservoir for lava that entered through subsurface tubes leading from the vent fissure 150 m away. Another tube system drained the crater and carried lava as far as the sea, 11 km to the south. Much of the lava entered Alae by invading the lava lake beneath its crust and buoying the crust upward. This process, together with the overall complexity of the filling, results in a highly complicated lava lake that would doubtless be misinterpreted if found in the fossil record. ?? 1972 Stabilimento Tipografico Francesco Giannini & Figli.

  20. PPARγ2Pro12Ala Polymorphism and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    He, Weimin

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is an important transcription factor regulating adipocyte differentiation, lipid and glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity. Numerous genetic mutations of PPARγ have been identified and these mutations positively or negatively regulate insulin sensitivity. Among these, a relatively common polymorphism of PPARγ, Pro12Ala of PPARγ2, the isoform expressed only in adipose tissue has been shown to be associated with lower body mass index, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and resistance to the risk of type 2 diabetes in human subjects carrying this mutation. Subsequent studies in different ethnic populations, however, have revealed conflicting results, suggesting a complex interaction between the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and environmental factors such as the ratio of dietary unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids and/or between the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and genetic factors such as polymorphic mutations in other genes. In addition, this polymorphic mutation in PPARγ2 is associated with other aspects of human diseases, including cancers, polycystic ovary syndrome, Alzheimer disease and aging. This review will highlight findings from recent studies. PMID:19390629

  1. Special Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavendel, Giuliana

    1977-01-01

    Discusses problems involved in maintaining special scientific or engineering libraries, including budget problems, remote storage locations, rental computer retrieval systems, protecting trade secrets, and establishing a magnetic tape library. (MLH)

  2. Using the "Documenting the American South" Digital Library in the Social Studies: A Case Study of the Experiences of Teachers in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlinn, Meghan

    2007-01-01

    Two current themes in social studies education- the inclusion of technology and the emphasis on "doing history"--intersect with the use of Web-based or digital primary sources in the classroom. Digital libraries make these resources available to students and teachers interested in accessing rare primary documents in order to study the…

  3. Library Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karin; Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Branch, Jennifer L.; Solowan, Diane Galloway; Case, Roland; Abilock, Debbie; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Koechlin, Carol; Zwaan, Sandi; Hughes, Sandra; Low, Ann; Litch, Margaret; Lowry, Cindy; Irvine, Linda; Stimson, Margaret; Schlarb, Irene; Wilson, Janet; Warriner, Emily; Parsons, Les; Luongo-Orlando, Katherine; Hamilton, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Includes 19 articles that address issues related to library skills and Canadian school libraries. Topics include information literacy; inquiry learning; critical thinking and electronic research; collaborative inquiry; information skills and the Big 6 approach to problem solving; student use of online databases; library skills; Internet accuracy;…

  4. Working with the Americans with Disabilities Act, Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunde, Michael G.

    1992-01-01

    This third article in a series dealing with libraries' compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act addresses architectural considerations, including library furnishings; accessibility problems outside the library building; architectural barriers in library interiors; and responsibilities of public and private entity libraries. (LRW)

  5. Impact of charged amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of L-alanine exporter, AlaE, of Escherichia coli on the L-alanine export.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seryoung; Ihara, Kohei; Katsube, Satoshi; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The Escherichia coli alaE gene encodes the L-alanine exporter, AlaE, that catalyzes active export of L-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. The transporter comprises only 149 amino acid residues and four predicted transmembrane domains (TMs), which contain three charged amino acid residues. The AlaE-deficient L-alanine non-metabolizing cells (ΔalaE cells) appeared hypersusceptible to L-alanyl-L-alanine showing a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.5 µg/ml for the dipeptide due to a toxic accumulation of L-alanine. To elucidate the mechanism by which AlaE exports L-alanine, we replaced charged amino acid residues in the TMs, glutamic acid-30 (TM-I), arginine-45 (TM-II), and aspartic acid-84 (TM-III) with their respective charge-conserved amino acid or a net neutral cysteine. The ΔalaE cells producing R45K or R45C appeared hypersusceptible to the dipeptide, indicating that arginine-45 is essential for AlaE activity. MIC of the dipeptide in the ΔalaE cells expressing E30D and E30C was 156 µg/ml and >10,000 µg/ml, respectively, thereby suggesting that a negative charge at this position is not essential. The ΔalaE cells expressing D84E or D84C showed an MIC >10,000 and 78 µg/ml, respectively, implying that a negative charge is required at this position. These results were generally consistent with that of the L-alanine accumulation experiments in intact cells. We therefore concluded that charged amino acid residues (R45 and D84) in the AlaE transmembrane domain play a pivotal role in L-alanine export. Replacement of three cysteine residues at C22, C28 (both in TM-I), and C135 (C-terminal region) with alanine showed only a marginal effect on L-alanine export.

  6. Technology Competency Requirements of ALA-Accredited Library Science Programs: An Updated Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scripps-Hoekstra, Lindy; Carroll, Megan; Fotis, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to provide an understanding of how LIS programs ensure that students are prepared for the demands of graduate study in the twenty-first century, how these expectations may have evolved since Kules's and McDaniel's previous 2008 study, and how various types of programs compare in their approaches. Content analysis was used to…

  7. Characterization of the l-alanine exporter AlaE of Escherichia coli and its potential role in protecting cells from a toxic-level accumulation of l-alanine and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seryoung; Ihara, Kohei; Katsube, Satoshi; Hori, Hatsuhiro; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    We previously reported that the alaE gene of Escherichia coli encodes the l-alanine exporter AlaE. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the AlaE exporter. The minimum inhibitory concentration of l-alanine and l-alanyl-l-alanine in alaE-deficient l-alanine-nonmetabolizing cells MLA301ΔalaE was 4- and >4000-fold lower, respectively, than in the alaE-positive parent cells MLA301, suggesting that AlaE functions as an efflux pump to avoid a toxic-level accumulation of intracellular l-alanine and its derivatives. Furthermore, the growth of the alaE-deficient mutant derived from the l-alanine-metabolizing strain was strongly inhibited in the presence of a physiological level of l-alanyl-l-alanine. Intact MLA301ΔalaE and MLA301ΔalaE/pAlaE cells producing plasmid-borne AlaE, accumulated approximately 200% and 50%, respectively, of the [(3) H]l-alanine detected in MLA301 cells, suggesting that AlaE exports l-alanine. When 200 mmol/L l-alanine-loaded inverted membrane vesicles prepared from MLA301ΔalaE/pAlaE were placed in a solution containing 200 mmol/L or 0.34 μmol/L l-alanine, energy-dependent [(3) H]l-alanine accumulation occurred under either condition. This energy-dependent uphill accumulation of [(3) H]l-alanine was strongly inhibited in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone but not by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, suggesting that the AlaE-mediated l-alanine extrusion was driven by proton motive force. Based on these results, physiological roles of the l-alanine exporter are discussed.

  8. ALA, fatty fish or marine n-3 fatty acids for preventing DM?: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Muley, Arti; Muley, Prasad; Shah, Monali

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a global problem. Role of n-3 FA in its prevention is still not completely understood. We carried out this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the relation of dietary intake of fish and n-3PUFA with risk of diabetes. We searched PUBMED, EMBASE and GOOGLE with cross references to identify relevant articles. Since no RCTs were available, we searched for prospective cohort studies. Sixteen studies with 6,79,763 participants which assessed the association of dietary intake of fish and n-3 PUFA (marine or alpha-linolenic acid) with incidence of T2DM in > 18 years population and provided relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of T2DM for each category of fish or n-3 PUFA intake were included. Three independent reviewers reviewed all eligible studies and abstracted the relevant information from individual studies. Meta-analysis confirmed the previous finding that marine n-3 FA increased risk of T2DM in Americans but reduced the same in Asians. We observed that two and seven times increased intake of ALA and fatty fish respectively reduced the risk of T2DM significantly and ALA did not increase the risk in Americans. We concluded that ALA may have some role in preventing T2DM, but is not studied widely. Hence, it should be studied in greater details (with higher degrees of intake; more than two times) to aid in developing effective preventive strategies against diabetes.

  9. Multi-chelation approach towards natural product-like skeletons: one-pot access to a nitrogen-containing tetracyclic framework from AlaAla dipeptide.

    PubMed

    Vellaisamy, Kasipandi; Napoleon, John Victor; Venkatachalam, Ramkumar; Manheri, Muraleedharan Kannoth

    2010-12-28

    Reductive transformation of the dipeptide BocAlaAlaOMe to a complex, internally charge-stabilized, natural product-like skeleton in one synthetic step is discussed. Stepwise replacement of the B-H bonds in borane by B-N or B-O resulted in incorporation of three boron atoms in a tetracyclic framework whereby one is stereogenic!

  10. Fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal tumors using δ-ALA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E. G.; Vladimirov, B. G.; Angelov, I. G.; Avramov, L. A.

    2007-03-01

    In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (δ-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus and stomach. The δ-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system (Olimpus Corp.). Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer (USB4000, OceanOptics Inc.). The fluorescence detected from tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Mucosa autofluorescence lies at 450-600 nm region. The fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced at the 630-710 nm region. Deep minima in the tumor fluorescence signals are observed in the region 540-575 nm, related to hemoglobin re-absorption. Such high hemoglobin content is an indication of the tumors neovascularisation and it is clearly pronounced in all dysplastic and tumor sites investigated. The lack of fluorescence peaks in the red spectral area for normal mucosa is an indication for selective accumulation of δ-ALA/PpIX only in abnormal sites and gives high contrast when lesion borders are determined from clinicians during video observation in the process of diagnostic procedure. Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination results of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  11. CD24 Ala/Val polymorphism and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goris, An; Maranian, Melanie; Walton, Amie; Yeo, Tai Wai; Ban, Maria; Gray, Julia; Dubois, Bénédicte; Compston, Alastair; Sawcer, Stephen

    2006-06-01

    CD24 is expressed on a broad range of cells in the immune and central nervous systems and appears to be required for development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Association of a CD24 Ala/Val coding polymorphism with susceptibility to and progression of multiple sclerosis was recently reported. We typed this coding polymorphism in a combined cohort of 1,180 cases and 1,168 unrelated and family-based controls from Belgium and the UK, but were unable to confirm either association. Since the CD24 gene is part of a segmental duplication, special care is required for the identification and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  12. Introducing ALAS: A Novel Agent-Oriented Programming Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana; Vidaković, Milan

    2011-09-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages represent a family of programming languages that provide developers with high-level abstractions and constructs necessary for implementing and using agent-related concepts. In this paper a novel agent-oriented programming language for rapid and efficient development of reactive agents, named ALAS, is presented. The simple, but powerful set of language constructs is designed to support the execution of agents in heterogenous environments, and to enable easy employment of advanced agent features, such as mobility and web service integration.

  13. Differently Able: A Review of Academic Library Websites for People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassner, Mary; Maxey-Harris, Charlene; Anaya, Toni

    2011-01-01

    This research is based on the Library Services for People with Disabilities Policy, which was approved by the American Library Association in 2001. The policy identified focus areas for libraries including library services, facilities, collections, and assistive technology. Library websites frequently convey this information to users. Our study…

  14. White Supremacy in Children's Literature: Characterizations of African Americans, 1830-1900. Children's Literature and Culture Series, Volume 4. Garland Reference Library of Social Science Series, Volume 1043.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Donnarae

    Literature written for children is often an unselfconscious distillation of a national consensus or a national debate. The characterizations of African Americans in U.S. children's literature show how the white supremacy myth infected the mainstream collective consciousness and the degree to which features of the slavery era were retained. The…

  15. African American Women. A Biographical Dictionary. Garland Reference Library of the Social Sciences, Volume 706. Biographical Dictionaries of Minority Women, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Dorothy C., Ed.

    The nearly 300 biographical sketches in this dictionary focus on women who have made meaningful, although often unheralded, contributions to American history and culture. Although the collection concentrates on historical achievements, several women reflect contemporary accomplishments or historical firsts. The biographies span the time from…

  16. Library links on medical school home pages.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sheila L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the websites of American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC)-member medical schools for the presence of library links. Sixty-one percent (n = 92) of home pages of the 150 member schools of the AAMC contain library links. For the 58 home pages not offering such links, 50 provided a pathway of two or three clicks to a library link. The absence of library links on 39% of AAMC medical school home pages indicates that the designers of those pages did not consider the library to be a primary destination for their visitors.

  17. Discover Earth: an earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2011-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public's understanding of Earth's physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The Space Science Institute's National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. STAR-Net includes two exhibitions: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. The Discover Earth exhibition will focus on local earth science topics-such as weather, water cycle, and ecosystem changes-as well as a global view of our changing planet. The main take-away message (or Big Idea) for this exhibition is that the global environment changes - and is changed by - the host community's local environment. The project team is testing whether this approach will be a good strategy for engaging the public, especially in rural America. This presentation will provide an overview of the Discover Earth project and how it is integrating climate change ideas into the exhibit

  18. Evidence for a Contribution of ALA Synthesis to Plastid-To-Nucleus Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, Olaf; Gläßer, Christine; Chen, Jin-Gui; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Grimm, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The formation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis is widely controlled by environmental and metabolic feedback cues that determine the influx into the entire metabolic path. Because of its central role as the rate-limiting step, we hypothesized a potential role of ALA biosynthesis in tetrapyrrole-mediated retrograde signaling and exploited the direct impact of ALA biosynthesis on nuclear gene expression (NGE) by using two different approaches. Firstly, the Arabidopsis gun1, hy1 (gun2), hy2 (gun3), gun4 mutants showing uncoupled NGE from the physiological state of chloroplasts were thoroughly examined for regulatory modifications of ALA synthesis and transcriptional control in the nucleus. We found that reduced ALA-synthesizing capacity is common to analyzed gun mutants. Inhibition of ALA synthesis by gabaculine (GAB) that inactivates glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminotransferase and ALA feeding of wild-type and mutant seedlings corroborate the expression data of gun mutants. Transcript level of photosynthetic marker genes were enhanced in norflurazon (NF)-treated seedlings upon additional GAB treatment, while enhanced ALA amounts diminish these RNA levels in NF-treated wild-type in comparison to the solely NF-treated seedlings. Secondly, the impact of posttranslationally down-regulated ALA synthesis on NGE was investigated by global transcriptome analysis of GAB-treated Arabidopsis seedlings and the gun4-1 mutant, which is also characterized by reduced ALA formation. A common set of significantly modulated genes was identified indicating ALA synthesis as a potential signal emitter. The over-represented gene ontology categories of genes with decreased or increased transcript abundance highlight a few biological processes and cellular functions, which are remarkably affected in response to plastid-localized ALA biosynthesis. These results support the hypothesis that ALA biosynthesis correlates with retrograde signaling-mediated control of NGE.

  19. What If You Ran Your Bookstore Like a Library? The Troubled Book Business Can Learn from Libraries' Willingness to Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Ten years ago, stories like "B&N: The New College Library" (LJ 2/1/98) and "What If You Ran Your Library Like a Bookstore?" (American Libraries, 3/98) kicked up a controversy about the viability of libraries. Ironically, these days it's the book business that has an aura of crisis and gloom, while visits to libraries are surging. Over two billion…

  20. Women of ALA Youth Services and Professional Jurisdiction: Of Nightingales, Newberies, Realism, and the Right Books, 1937-1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christine A.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of the female-intensive specialization of youth services librarianship and their role in the American Library Association focuses on their jurisdiction over the Newbery Medal. Topics include the question of realism in children's literature; the Sayers Institute; and evaluation criteria. Contains 65 references. (LRW)

  1. A Political and Economic Climate of Crisis?: Perceptions of the Academe at ALA-Accredited LIS Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsou, Andrew; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.

    2015-01-01

    Academia is an ever-evolving institution. Where once it was viewed as a body primarily charged with educating students, many instances universities now consider research to be their primary raison d'être. This research surveyed library and information science (LIS) faculty members employed at institutions accredited by the American Libraries…

  2. Libraries program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Congress authorized a library for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879. The library was formally established in 1882 with the naming of the first librarian and began with a staff of three and a collection of 1,400 books. Today, the USGS Libraries Program is one of the world's largest Earth and natural science repositories and a resource of national significance used by researchers and the public worldwide.

  3. Monitoring blood flow and photobleaching during topical ALA PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Theresa L.; Sunar, Ulas; Foster, Thomas H.; Oseroff, Allan R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using topical aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is currently used as a clinical treatment for nonmelanoma skin cancers. In order to optimize PDT treatment, vascular shutdown early in treatment must be identified and prevented. This is especially important for topical ALA PDT where vascular shutdown is only temporary and is not a primary method of cell death. Shutdown in vasculature would limit the delivery of oxygen which is necessary for effective PDT treatment. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) was used to monitor relative blood flow changes in Balb/C mice undergoing PDT at fluence rates of 10mW/cm2 and 75mW/cm2 for colon-26 tumors implanted intradermally. DCS is a preferable method to monitor the blood flow during PDT of lesions due to its ability to be used noninvasively throughout treatment, returning data from differing depths of tissue. Photobleaching of the photosensitizer was also monitored during treatment as an indirect manner of monitoring singlet oxygen production. In this paper, we show the conditions that cause vascular shutdown in our tumor model and its effects on the photobleaching rate.

  4. Fluorescence microscopy studies on ALA-sensitized tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huettmann, Gereon; Achtelik, Wolfgang; Loening, Martin; Sommer, Konrad; Diddens, Heyke C.

    1996-12-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has the potential to study the spatial distribution of photosensitizers in tissue samples with cellular or subcellular resolution. A fluorescence microscope was developed to study the distribution of photosensitizer in tissue samples by acquiring fluorescence images in various spectral ranges and spatially resolved fluorescence spectra both from identical samples. Both methods provide complementary information, since the fluorescence images show the distribution of the sensitizers with a high spatial resolution whereas spatially resolved fluorescence spectra can identify the sensitizers and separate their fluorescence from background light emission by the spectral shape of the fluorescence. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) distribution induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was studied by fluorescence microscopy in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In an attempt to understand the varying success in treating BCC with topically applied ALA the PPIX distribution was studied in BCC samples of 10 patients. A strong fluorescence was observed in tumor cells as well as in epidermis, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles. The depth of PPIX sensitization of the BCCs ranged from 0.4 to 3 mm and the ratio of tumor versus epidermal fluorescence of uninvolved skin was near one. In the BCCs an uneven sensitization with a lower fluorescence in the center of the tumor was often observed. Samples of the cervical mucosa also showed PPIX fluorescence in the endothelial layer, the malignant tissues and the glands. No increased fluorescence of the dysplastic lesions compared to the epithelium was observed.

  5. 5-ALA/PpIX fluorescence detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Vladimirov, Borislav; Terziev, Ivan; Ivanova, Radina; Avramov, Latchezar

    2009-07-01

    In the recent study delta-ALA/PpIX is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus, stomach and colon. ALA is administered per os six to eight (depending on the lesion location) hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. High-power light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as an excitation source. Special opto-mechanical device is built for the LED to use the light guide of standard video-endoscopic system. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. The fluorescence detected from tumor sites has very complex spectral origins. It consists of autofluorescence, fluorescence from exogenous fluorophores and re-absorption from the chromophores accumulated in the tissue investigated. Spectral features observed during endoscopic investigations could be distinct as the next regions: 450-630 nm region, where tissue autofluorescence is observed; 630-710 nm region, where fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced; 530-580 nm region, where minima in the autofluorescence signal are observed, related to re-absorption of oxy-hemoglobin in this spectral area. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence spectra are used to develop simple but effective algorithm, based on dimensionless ratio of the signals at 560 and 635 nm, for differentiation of normal/abnormal gastrointestinal tissues. Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  6. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

  7. In Quest of the Perfect Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleran, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    There is a sad truth about college libraries: No matter how attractively designed and cleverly constructed, they cannot disguise a central fact--that the undergraduates in them are seldom there to read books they want to read. The author explains that when he walks through the library at Georgetown University or American University, his heart goes…

  8. Cooperative Microform Publishing: The Law Library Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the Hawaii-based Law Library Microform Consortium (LLMC), a nonprofit interlibrary cooperative microfiche project involving several hundred American and foreign law libraries, outlines LLMC's history, organizational structure, operations, publishing record, marketing efforts, and prospects for the future. (EJS)

  9. The Ideas of Henry Jenkins and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Byron

    2008-01-01

    Henry Jenkins, director of the Comparative Media Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and keynote speaker at the 2007 American Library Association's "Gaming, Learning and Libraries Symposium" in Chicago is a visionary leader in the areas of new media and media convergence. In a white paper on digital media and learning…

  10. Libraries, Patrons, and E-Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickuhr, Kathryn; Rainie, Lee; Purcell, Kristen; Madden, Mary; Brenner, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This report explores the world of e-books and libraries, where libraries fit into these book-consumption patterns of Americans, when people choose to borrow their books and when they choose to buy books. It examines the potential frustrations e-book borrowers can encounter when checking out digital titles, such as long wait lists and compatibility…

  11. Bacterial Production and Contamination Mineralization in Sediments of the Ala Wai Canal, Oahu, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-29

    Ala Wai Canal , Oahu, Hawaii September 29, 2009 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Michael T. MonTgoMery richard B. coffin ThoMas...Sediments of the Ala Wai Canal , Oahu, Hawaii Michael T. Montgomery, Richard B. Coffin, Thomas J. Boyd, Leila J. Hamdan, Joseph P. Smith, Rebecca E. Plummer,1...Montgomery (202) 404-6419 The Ala Wai canal is a small, man-made estuary that was dredged from August 2002 to October 2003 to increase water circulation

  12. A Survey of Automated Activities in the Libraries of Mexico, Central America and South America; Volume 4, World Survey Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinostro, Frank S., Comp.; Sanders, Nancy P., Ed.

    The intent of this fourth volume of the "Survey of Automated Activities in the Libraries of the World" is to identify and describe computer-based library projects in the Latin American countries. Information was drawn from survey questionnaires sent to individual libraries. However, few of the South American libraries responded, and as a…

  13. Library Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Kate

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about the issue of advocacy. Standing at the vanguard of literacy, library media specialists have a unique role. However, it is time for media specialists to advocate their services in a proactive way. If library media specialists cannot, both individually and collectively, put advocacy at the forefront, then students will suffer the…

  14. Library Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nancy Kirkpatrick

    This workbook, designed for a Library Research course at Yavapai College, provides 15 lessons in advanced library reference skills. Each lesson provides explanatory text and reinforcement exercises. After Lesson I introduces specialized dictionaries and encyclopedias (e.g., for foreign languages, medicine, music, economics, social sciences, and…

  15. Tissue distribution and kinetics of endogenous porphyrins synthesized after topical application of ALA in different vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Casas, A; Fukuda, H; Batlle, A M del C

    1999-01-01

    The use of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is gaining increasing attention for photosensitization in photodynamic therapy of superficially localized tumours. The aim of this work was to determine the kinetics of porphyrin generation in tissues after topical application of ALA delivered in different vehicles on the skin overlying the tumour and normal skin of mice. Maximal accumulation was found in tumour 3 h after ALA application in both cream and lotion preparations. Normal and overlying tumour skin tissues showed different kinetic patterns, reflecting histological changes when the latter is invaded by tumour cells. Liver, kidney, spleen and blood porphyrins also raised from basal levels, showing that ALA and/or ALA-induced porphyrins reach all tissues after topical application. During the first 24 h of ALA topical application, precursors and porphyrins are excreted by both urine and faeces. ALA lotion applied on the skin overlying the tumour induced higher accumulation of tumoural porphyrins than cream, and lotion applied on normal skin appeared to be the most efficient upon inducing total body porphyrins. This work has demonstrated the great influence of the formulation of ALA vehicle on penetration through the skin. Knowledge of the kinetics of porphyrin generation after different conditions of ALA application is needed for the optimization of diagnosis and phototherapy in human tumours. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10487606

  16. In vivo study of ALA PLGA nanoparticles-mediated PDT for treating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Xiuli

    2014-09-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer and its treatment is still a challenge. Although topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective for treating in situ and superficial SCC, the effectiveness of topical ALA delivery to thick SCC can be limited by its bioavailability. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanopartieles (PLGA NPs) might provide a promising ALA delivery strategy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ALA PLGA NPs PDT for the treatment of cutaneous SCC in a mouse model. Methods: ALA loaded PLGA NPs were prepared and characterized. The therapeutic efficacy of ALA PLGA NP mediated PDT in treating UV-induced cutaneous SCC in the mice model were examined. Results: In vivo study showed that ALA PLGA NPs PDT were more effective than free ALA of the same concentration in treating mouse cutaneous SCC. Conclusion: ALA PLGA NPs provides a promising strategy for delivering ALA and treating cutaneous SCC.

  17. Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation--rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, David M; Harris, Eric S J; Littlefield, Bruce A; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka "ethnomedicines") have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as "detanninized" extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2-3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological activity

  18. Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation — Rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration☆

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, David M.; Harris, Eric S.J.; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C.; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E.; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka “ethnomedicines”) have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as “detanninized” extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2–3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological

  19. Tribal Colleges Gaining Digital Access to Worldwide Library Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the tribal college virtual library project aimed at bringing digital opportunity to American Indian reservations by way of the 32 tribal colleges and universities in the American Indian Higher Education Consortium. Describes Bay Mills Community College's (Michigan) prototype virtual library and the expansion of this virtual library…

  20. Paradise Found: The Huntington Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomeroy, Elizabeth

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of the Huntington Library, the largest and most complete repository in the United States of source material on British and American civilization from the Middle Ages to 1850, noting setting, service to researchers and the public, and collections. (EJS)

  1. Val-->Ala mutations selectively alter helix-helix packing in the transmembrane segment of phage M13 coat protein.

    PubMed Central

    Deber, C M; Khan, A R; Li, Z; Joensson, C; Glibowicka, M; Wang, J

    1993-01-01

    Val-->Ala mutations within the effective transmembrane segment of a model single-spanning membrane protein, the 50-residue major coat (gene VIII) protein of bacteriophage M13, are shown to have sequence-dependent impacts on stabilization of membrane-embedded helical dimeric structures. Randomized mutagenesis performed on the coat protein hydrophobic segment 21-39 (YIGYAWAMV-VVIVGATIGI) produced a library of viable mutants which included those in which each of the four valine residues was replaced by an alanine residue. Significant variations found among these Val-->Ala mutants in the relative populations and thermal stabilities of monomeric and dimeric helical species observed on SDS/PAGE, and in the range of their alpha-helix-->beta-sheet transition temperatures confirmed that intramembranous valine residues are not simply universal contributors to membrane anchoring. Additional analyses of (i) nonmutatable sites in the mutant protein library, (ii) the properties of the double mutant V29A-V31A obtained by recycling mutant V31A DNA through mutagenesis procedures, and (iii) energy-minimized helical dimer structures of wild-type and mutant V31A transmembrane regions indicated that the transmembrane hydrophobic core helix of the M13 coat protein can be partitioned into alternating pairs of potential protein-interactive residues (V30, V31; G34, A35; G38, I39) and membrane-interactive residues (M28, V29; I32, V33; T36, I37). The overall results consitute an experimental approach to categorizing the distinctive contributions to structure of the residues comprising a protein-protein packing interface vs. those facing lipid and confirm the sequence-dependent capacity of specific residues within the transmembrane domain to modulate protein-protein interactions which underlie regulatory events in membrane proteins. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8265602

  2. Photodynamic Detection of Peritoneal Metastases Using 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA)

    PubMed Central

    Yonemura, Yutaka; Endo, Yoshio; Canbay, Emel; Liu, Yang; Ishibashi, Haruaki; Mizumoto, Akiyoshi; Hirano, Masamitu; Imazato, Yuuki; Takao, Nobuyuki; Ichinose, Masumi; Noguchi, Kousuke; Li, Yan; Wakama, Satoshi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Hatano, Koutarou; Shintani, Hiroshi; Yoshitake, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Shun-ichiro

    2017-01-01

    In the past, peritoneal metastasis (PM) was considered as a terminal stage of cancer. From the early 1990s, however, a new comprehensive treatment consisting of cytoreductive surgery and perioperative chemotherapy has been established to improve long-term survival for selected patients with PM. Among prognostic indicators after the treatment, completeness of cytoreduction is the most independent predictors of survival. However, peritoneal recurrence is a main cause of recurrence, even after complete cytoreduction. As a cause of peritoneal recurrence, small PM may be overlooked at the time of cytoreductive surgery (CRS), therefore, development of a new method to detect small PM is desired. Recently, photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) was developed for detection of PM. The objectives of this review were to evaluate whether PDD using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) could improve detection of small PM. PMID:28257041

  3. 5-ALA-assisted photodynamic therapy in canine prostates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Muschter, Rolf; Knuechel, Ruth; Steinbach, Pia; Perlmutter, Aaron P.; Martin, Thomas; Baumgartner, Reinhold

    1996-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and interstitial thermotherapy are well known treatment modalities in urology. The approach of this study is to combine both to achieve a selective treatment procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma. Measurements of thy in-vivo pharmacokinetics of 5-ALA induced porphyrins by means of fiber assisted ratiofluorometry showed a maximum fluorescence intensity at time intervals of 3 - 4 h post administration. Fluorescence microscopy at that time showed bright fluorescence in epithelial cells while in the stroma fluorescence could not be observed. Interstitial PDT using a 635-nm dye laser with an irradiation of 50 J/cm2 resulted in a nonthermic hemorrhagic lesion. The lesion size did not change significantly when an irradiation of 100 J/cm2 was used. The usefulness of PDT for treating BPH as well as prostate carcinoma has to be proven in further studies.

  4. Photodynamic Detection of Peritoneal Metastases Using 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA).

    PubMed

    Yonemura, Yutaka; Endo, Yoshio; Canbay, Emel; Liu, Yang; Ishibashi, Haruaki; Mizumoto, Akiyoshi; Hirano, Masamitu; Imazato, Yuuki; Takao, Nobuyuki; Ichinose, Masumi; Noguchi, Kousuke; Li, Yan; Wakama, Satoshi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Hatano, Koutarou; Shintani, Hiroshi; Yoshitake, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    In the past, peritoneal metastasis (PM) was considered as a terminal stage of cancer. From the early 1990s, however, a new comprehensive treatment consisting of cytoreductive surgery and perioperative chemotherapy has been established to improve long-term survival for selected patients with PM. Among prognostic indicators after the treatment, completeness of cytoreduction is the most independent predictors of survival. However, peritoneal recurrence is a main cause of recurrence, even after complete cytoreduction. As a cause of peritoneal recurrence, small PM may be overlooked at the time of cytoreductive surgery (CRS), therefore, development of a new method to detect small PM is desired. Recently, photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) was developed for detection of PM. The objectives of this review were to evaluate whether PDD using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) could improve detection of small PM.

  5. Reading Ability as a Predictor of Library Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between reading comprehension, reading vocabulary, and five dimensions of library anxiety: barriers with staff, affective barriers, comfort with the library, knowledge of the library, and mechanical barriers. Participants were 45 African American graduate students from various disciplines who were given the Library…

  6. The Relationship between Library Anxiety and Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    This study examined the relationship between reading comprehension and reading vocabulary and five dimensions of library anxiety (i.e., barriers with staff, affective barriers, comfort with the library, knowledge of the library, and mechanical barriers). Participants were 45 African-American graduate students from various disciplines who were…

  7. Colonial American Literature: A Guide to Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte for the study of colonial American literature. The guide is intended to help readers find sources of criticism on colonial and revolutionary literature. It explains important reference sources in the Atkins library reference…

  8. Building a Digital Library: With Comments on Cooperative Grant Projects and the Goals of a Digital Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elaine

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of digital libraries focuses on the development of an image database of Native Americans that would be searchable on the Web. Describes a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services that Montana State University used for the project and discusses collaboration between libraries, museums, and archives. (LRW)

  9. Inducible l-Alanine Exporter Encoded by the Novel Gene ygaW (alaE) in Escherichia coli ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Hatsuhiro; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Tobe, Ryuta; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Katsumata, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    We previously isolated a mutant hypersensitive to l-alanyl-l-alanine from a non-l-alanine-metabolizing Escherichia coli strain and found that it lacked an inducible l-alanine export system. Consequently, this mutant showed a significant accumulation of intracellular l-alanine and a reduction in the l-alanine export rate compared to the parent strain. When the mutant was used as a host to clone a gene(s) that complements the dipeptide-hypersensitive phenotype, two uncharacterized genes, ygaW and ytfF, and two characterized genes, yddG and yeaS, were identified. Overexpression of each gene in the mutant resulted in a decrease in the intracellular l-alanine level and enhancement of the l-alanine export rate in the presence of the dipeptide, suggesting that their products function as exporters of l-alanine. Since ygaW exhibited the most striking impact on both the intra- and the extracellular l-alanine levels among the four genes identified, we disrupted the ygaW gene in the non-l-alanine-metabolizing strain. The resulting isogenic mutant showed the same intra- and extracellular l-alanine levels as observed in the dipeptide-hypersensitive mutant obtained by chemical mutagenesis. When each gene was overexpressed in the wild-type strain, which does not intrinsically excrete alanine, only the ygaW gene conferred on the cells the ability to excrete alanine. In addition, expression of the ygaW gene was induced in the presence of the dipeptide. On the basis of these results, we concluded that YgaW is likely to be the physiologically most relevant exporter for l-alanine in E. coli and proposed that the gene be redesignated alaE for alanine export. PMID:21531828

  10. Callpath Library

    SciTech Connect

    Gamblin, T.

    2013-11-09

    The "Callpath Library" is a software abstraction layer over a number of stack tracing utilities. It allows tool develoopers to conveniently represent and mNipulate call paths gathered fro U. Wisconsin's Stackwalker API and GNU Backtrace.

  11. Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.; Urs, Shalini R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of digital libraries research, practice, and literature. Highlights include new technologies; redefining roles; historical background; trends; creating digital content, including conversion; metadata; organizing digital resources; services; access; information retrieval; searching; natural language processing; visualization;…

  12. Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  13. ALAS2 acts as a modifier gene in patients with congenital erythropoietic porphyria.

    PubMed

    To-Figueras, Jordi; Ducamp, Sarah; Clayton, Jerome; Badenas, Celia; Delaby, Constance; Ged, Cecile; Lyoumi, Said; Gouya, Laurent; de Verneuil, Hubert; Beaumont, Carole; Ferreira, Gloria C; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Herrero, Carmen; Puy, Herve

    2011-08-11

    Mutations in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) gene cause congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), an autosomal-recessive inborn error of erythroid heme biosynthesis. Clinical features of CEP include dermatologic and hematologic abnormalities of variable severity. The discovery of a new type of erythroid porphyria, X-linked dominant protoporphyria (XLDPP), which results from increased activity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2), the rate-controlling enzyme of erythroid heme synthesis, led us to hypothesize that the CEP phenotype may be modulated by sequence variations in the ALAS2 gene. We genotyped ALAS2 in 4 unrelated CEP patients exhibiting the same C73R/P248Q UROS genotype. The most severe of the CEP patients, a young girl, proved to be heterozygous for a novel ALAS2 mutation: c.1757 A > T in exon 11. This mutation is predicted to affect the highly conserved and penultimate C-terminal amino acid of ALAS2 (Y586). The rate of 5-aminolevulinate release from Y586F was significantly increased over that of wild-type ALAS2. The contribution of the ALAS2 gain-of-function mutation to the CEP phenotype underscores the importance of modifier genes underlying CEP. We propose that ALAS2 gene mutations should be considered not only as causative of X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) and XLDPP but may also modulate gene function in other erythropoietic disorders.

  14. Paradox of mistranslation of serine for alanine caused by AlaRS recognition dilemma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Chong, Yeeting E; Shapiro, Ryan; Beebe, Kirk; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Schimmel, Paul

    2009-12-10

    Mistranslation arising from confusion of serine for alanine by alanyl-tRNA synthetases (AlaRSs) has profound functional consequences. Throughout evolution, two editing checkpoints prevent disease-causing mistranslation from confusing glycine or serine for alanine at the active site of AlaRS. In both bacteria and mice, Ser poses a bigger challenge than Gly. One checkpoint is the AlaRS editing centre, and the other is from widely distributed AlaXps-free-standing, genome-encoded editing proteins that clear Ser-tRNA(Ala). The paradox of misincorporating both a smaller (glycine) and a larger (serine) amino acid suggests a deep conflict for nature-designed AlaRS. Here we show the chemical basis for this conflict. Nine crystal structures, together with kinetic and mutational analysis, provided snapshots of adenylate formation for each amino acid. An inherent dilemma is posed by constraints of a structural design that pins down the alpha-amino group of the bound amino acid by using an acidic residue. This design, dating back more than 3 billion years, creates a serendipitous interaction with the serine OH that is difficult to avoid. Apparently because no better architecture for the recognition of alanine could be found, the serine misactivation problem was solved through free-standing AlaXps, which appeared contemporaneously with early AlaRSs. The results reveal unconventional problems and solutions arising from the historical design of the protein synthesis machinery.

  15. Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) from Rosa canina, sacha inchi and chia oils may increase ALA accretion and its conversion into n-3 LCPUFA in diverse tissues of the rat.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela B, Rodrigo; Barrera R, Cynthia; González-Astorga, Marcela; Sanhueza C, Julio; Valenzuela B, Alfonso

    2014-07-25

    Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential n-3 PUFA; its n-3 LCPUFA derivatives EPA and DHA, which have diverse beneficial effects, are scarce in the human diet. In recent years nontraditional vegetable oils rich in ALA (up to 45%) have been developed as new alternatives to increase ALA consumption. This work evaluated the accretion of ALA, EPA and DHA into the phospholipids extracted from erythrocytes, liver, kidney, small intestine, heart, quadriceps and the brain in rats fed sunflower (SFO), canola (CO), Rosa canina (RCO), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, SIO) and chia (Salvia hispánica, ChO) oils. Five experimental groups (n = 12 per group) were fed for 21 days with SFO (1% ALA), CO (10% ALA), RCO (33% ALA), SIO (49% ALA), and ChO (64% ALA). SIO and ChO allowed higher ALA accretion in all tissues, except the brain, and a reduction in the content of arachidonic acid in all tissues except the brain. EPA was increased in erythrocytes, liver, kidney, small intestine, heart and quadriceps, but not in the brain. DHA was increased in the liver, small intestine and brain tissues. Our results demonstrate that ALA, when provided in significant amounts, can be converted into n-3 LCPUFA, mostly DHA in the liver and brain. It is suggested that oils rich in ALA, such as SIO and ChO, are good sources for obtaining higher tissue levels of ALA, also allowing its selective conversion into n-3 LCPUFA in some tissues of the rat.

  16. Polygamy and the Public Library: The Establishment of Public Libraries in Utah before 1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Suzanne M.

    2005-01-01

    Utah's libraries were perceived as instruments for "the establishment of a recognized social order" by each successive group that came to power and were often founded as the result of conflict between Mormon culture and the larger American society. On their arrival, Mormons established libraries primarily to provide access to information…

  17. Fibrinogen residue γAla341 is necessary for calcium binding and 'A-a' interactions.

    PubMed

    Park, Rojin; Ping, Lifang; Song, Jaewoo; Hong, Sung-Yu; Choi, Tae-Youn; Choi, Jong-Rak; Gorkun, Oleg V; Lord, Susan T

    2012-05-01

    The fibrinogen γ-module has several important sites relating to fibrinogen function, which include the high affinity calcium binding site, hole 'a' that binds with knob 'A', and the D:D interface. Residue γAla341, which is located in the vicinity of these sites, is altered in three variant fibrinogens: fibrinogen Seoul (γAla341Asp), Tolaga Bay (γAla341Val), and Lyon III (γAla341Thr). In order to investigate the impaired polymerisation of fibrinogens γAla341Asp and γAla341Val to understand the role of γAla341 in fibrin polymerisation and fibrinogen synthesis, we have expressed γAla341Asp and γAla341Val in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, purified these fibrinogens from the culture media and performed biochemical tests to elucidate their function. Expression in CHO cells was similar for these variants. For both variants the kinetics of thrombin-catalysed FpA release was not different from normal fibrinogen, while FpB release was slower than that of normal. Thrombin-catalysed polymerisation of both variants was dependent on the calcium concentration. At physiologic calcium (1 mM) the variants showed impaired polymerisation with a longer lag period and a slower Vmax than normal fibrinogen. Scanning electron micrographs showed the clots were less organised than normal, having thicker and more twisted fibers, and larger pores. Analysis by SDS-PAGE showed that factor XIIIa-catalysed γ and α chain cross-linking was delayed, and plasmin-catalysed lysis was not reduced by the presence of 5 mM calcium or 5 mM GPRP (Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro). Our data indicate that fibrinogen residue γAla341 is important for the proper conformation of the γ-module, maintaining calcium-binding site and 'A-a' interactions.

  18. 5-ALA fluorescence of cerebral metastases and its impact for the local-in-brain progression

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, Marcel A.; Fischer, Igor; Bühner, Julia; Turowski, Bernd; Cornelius, Jan Frederick; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Rapp, Marion; Slotty, Philipp J.; Sabel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to analyze the oncological impact of 5-ALA fluorescence of cerebral metastases. A retrospective analysis was performed for 84 patients who underwent 5-ALA fluorescence-guided surgery of a cerebral metastasis. Dichotomized fluorescence behavior was correlated to the histopathological subtype and primary site of the metastases, the degree of surgical resection on an early postoperative MRI within 72 hours after surgery, the local in-brain-progression rate and the overall survival. 34/84 metastases (40.5%) showed either strong or faint and 50 metastases (59.5%) no 5-ALA derived fluorescence. Neither the primary site of the cerebral metastases nor their subtype correlated with fluorescence behavior. The dichotomized 5-ALA fluorescence (yes vs. no) had no statistical influence on the degree of surgical resection. Local in-brain progression within or at the border of the resection cavity was observed in 26 patients (30.9%). A significant correlation between 5-ALA fluorescence and local in-brain-progression rate was observed and patients with 5-ALA-negative metastases had a significant higher risk of local recurrence compared to patients with 5-ALA positive metastases. After exclusion of the 20 patients without any form of adjuvant radiation therapy, there was a trend towards a relation of the 5-ALA behavior on the local recurrence rate and the time to local recurrence, although results did not reach significance anymore. Absence of 5-ALA-induced fluorescence may be a risk factor for local in-brain-progression but did not influence the mean overall survival. Therefore, the dichotomized 5-ALA fluorescence pattern might be an indicator for a more aggressive tumor. PMID:27564260

  19. Evaluation of ALA-induced PpIX as a photosensitizer for PDT in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucroy, Michael D.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Peavy, George M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Madewell, Bruce R.

    1998-07-01

    Given exogenously, ALA defeats intrinsic regulatory feedback mechanisms allowing intracellular accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a highly efficient photosensitizer. In vivo, PpIX synthesis in neoplastic mammary tissues averages 20-fold higher than in normal mammary tissues. PpIX is retained intracellularly, unlike perivascular localization of other photosensitizers, and it is then cleared quickly from the body. In vitro, ALA induced PpIX production in our laboratory in 6 cell lines tested, including an established feline kidney cell line and dermal fibroblasts from primary skin biopsy explant, resulting in photosensitization. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed PpIX production in skin adnexae following ALA administration in a normal cat. To evaluate toxicity, three cats were treated with a single i.v. dose of ALA (either 100, 200, of 400 mg/kg) and followed for 7 days. Cats receiving 100 or 200 mg/kg ALA i.v. had elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin within 24 hours. Histopathology revealed hydropic changes in the liver and renal fibrosis. The cat receiving 400 mg/kg ALA intravenously had cutaneous flush, bradycardia and apnea associated with ALA administration; within 24 hours the cat was lethargic, anorectic and icteric. ALT, AST and bilirubin concentrations had increased significantly. At necropsy the liver had a prominent lobular pattern; histopathology revealed severe periportal hepatitis and splenic necrosis. Systemically administered ALA induces PpIX production, but toxicity may preclude its clinical application in the cat. PpIX levels seem to be more time dependent than those dependent at these three ALA doses and they are well beyond the saturation point for adequate PpIX conversion. The literature is scant regarding toxicity associated with parenteral administration of ALA.

  20. Cognitive deficits and ALA-D-inhibition in children exposed to multiple metals.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Sabrina N; Barth, Anelise; Göethel, Gabriela; Baierle, Marília; Charão, Mariele F; Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Bubols, Guilherme B; Sobreira, Johanna S; Sauer, Elisa; Rocha, Rafael; Gioda, Adriana; Dias, Ana Cristina; Salles, Jerusa F; Garcia, Solange C

    2015-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to adverse effects of multiple metals exposure. The aim of this study was to assess some metals concentrations such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in whole blood, serum, hair and drinking water samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in rural and urban children. In addition, evaluate the adverse effects of multiple metals exposure on cognitive function and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The cognitive ability assessment was performed by the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test. The ALA-D activity and ALA-D reactivation index (ALA-RE) activity with DTT and ZnCl2 also were determined. Forty-six rural children and 23 urban children were enrolled in this study. Rural children showed percentile IQ scores in the RCPM test significantly decreased in relation to urban children. According to multiple linear regression analysis, the Mn and Fe in hair may account for the cognitive deficits of children. Manganese and Fe in hair also were positively correlated with Mn and Fe in drinking water, respectively. These results suggest that drinking water is possibly a source of metals exposure in children. ALA-D activity was decreased and ALA-RE with DTT and ZnCl2 was increased in rural children in comparison to urban children. Moreover, ALA-D inhibition was correlated with Cr blood levels and ALA-RE/DDT and ALA-RE/ZnCl2 were correlated with levels of Cr and Hg in blood. Thus, our results indicated some adverse effects of children's exposure to multiple metals, such as cognitive deficits and ALA-D inhibition, mainly associated to Mn, Fe, Cr and Hg.

  1. Personal Virtual Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual libraries are becoming more and more common. Most states have a virtual library. A growing number of public libraries have a virtual presence on the Web. Virtual libraries are a growing addition to school library media collections. The next logical step would be personal virtual libraries. A personal virtual library (PVL) is a collection…

  2. America's Star Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  3. Asians and Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of Asians and Asian-Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within the following subject…

  4. CLA Selection Guidelines: How to Choose Materials for Parish and School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weathers, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    Reviews selection guidelines suggested by the Catholic Library Association (CLA) for parish and school libraries. Highlights include who develops the selection policy; American Library Association selection guidelines for school libraries; criteria for both print and nonprint materials; how to handle censorship challenges; and issues concerning…

  5. Libraries as Agencies of Culture. Print Culture History in Modern America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augst, Thomas, Ed.; Wiegand, Wayne A., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue contains the following articles on libraries as agencies of culture: (1) "American Libraries and Agencies of Culture" (Thomas Augst); (2) "The Sound of the Civic: Reading Noise at the New York Public Library" (Ari Kelman); (3) "High Culture, Low Culture: The Singular Duality of the Library of Congress" (Elizabeth Jane Aikin); (4)…

  6. Standards for Reference Service at the University of Michigan--Dearborn Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galligan, Sara

    Few standards for reference services have appeared in the past, therefore guidelines for reference librarians at the University of Michigan--Dearborn library are offered. The guidelines presented are based upon reference standards prepared by the Reference and Adult Services Division (RASD) Standards Committee for the ALA Centennial Conference in…

  7. Molecular mechanisms associated with ALA-PDT of brain tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqawi, Omar; Espiritu, Myrna; Singh, Gurmit

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that low-dose PDT using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced photoporphyrin IX (PpIX) can induce apoptosis in tumor cells without causing necrosis. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms associated with apoptosis after ALA-PDT treatment in two brain glioma cell lines: human U87, and rat CNS-1cells. We used high energy light at a short time (acute PDT) and low energy light at a long time of exposure (metronomic PDT) to treat both cell lines. The cells were treated with 0.25 mM ALA at 5 joules for energy. We found that CNS-1 cells were more resistant to ALA-PDT than U87 cells when treated by both acute and metronomic PDT. To screen possible apoptosis mechanisms associated with acute and metronomic PDT, microarray analysis of gene expression was performed on RNA from glioblastoma cells treated with either acute or metronomic ALA-PDT. Within the set of genes that were negatively or positively regulated by both treatments are tumor necrosis factor receptors. The expression of TNF receptors was investigated further by RT-PCR and western blotting. The apoptosis mechanism of the cell death occurred through different pathways including BCL-2 and TNF receptors, and in part caused by cleaving caspase 3. Interestingly, metronomic ALA-PDT inhibited the expression of LTβR and the transcription factor NFκB. This inhibition was ALA concentration dependent at low concentrations.

  8. The role of DAMPS in ALA-PDT for skin squamous cell carcinoma (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaojie; Ji, Jie; Zhang, Haiyan; Shi, Lei

    2016-03-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an established local approach for skin squamous cell carcinoma. It is believed that dangerous signals damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) play an important role in ALA-PDT. In this study, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo expressions of major DAMPs, calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70), and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), induced by ALA-PDT using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and ELISA in a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) mouse model. The role of DAMPs in the maturation of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells was detected by FACS and ELISA. Our results showed that ALA-PDT enhanced the expression of CRT, HSP70, and HMGB1. These induced DAMPs played an important role in activating DCs by PDT-treated tumor cells, including phenotypic maturation (upregulation of surface expression of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86) and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secrete IFN-γ and IL-12). Furthermore, injecting ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells into naïve mice resulted in complete protection against cancer cells of the same origin. Our findings indicate that ALA-PDT can upregulate DAMPs and enhance tumor immunogenicity, providing a promising strategy for inducing a systemic anticancer immune response.

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, National Geographic Society Photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, National Geographic Society Photograph, 1971 Courtesy, National Geographic Society LIBRARY, 1971 - Townsend House, 2121 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. The neuroprotective benefit from pioglitazone (PIO) addition on the alpha lipoic acid (ALA)-based treatment in experimental diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Heung Yong; Lee, Kyung Ae; Wu, Jin Zu; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the combined effect of pioglitazone (PIO) with alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on the peripheral nerves of diabetic rats. Animals were divided into 8 groups (N = 6-8) and designated according to ALA (100 mg/kg/day) and PIO (10 mg/kg/day) treatment: Normal, Normal + ALA, Normal + PIO, Normal + ALA + PIO, DM, DM + ALA, DM + PIO, and DM + ALA + PIO. After 24 weeks, current perception threshold, mechanical allodynia, oxidative stresses, intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD), and axonal morphology in the sciatic nerve were compared among groups. IENFD in the DM + ALA + PIO group was significantly less reduced than in other DM groups (7.61 ± 0.52 vs. 5.62 ± 0.96, 5.56 ± 0.60, and 7.10 ± 0.70 for DM, DM + ALA, and DM + PIO, respectively P < 0.05). The mean myelinated axonal area in the sciatic nerves was significantly higher in the DM + ALA + PIO group compared with non-treated DM group (70.2 ± 3.46 vs. 61.1 ± 2.91, P < 0.05) although significant differences were not present between combination therapy and monotherapy independent of ALA or PIO. Our results demonstrated that combination therapy using PIO based on ALA can give an additional benefit in peripheral nerve preservation in diabetes. Moreover, PIO can be preferentially considered when additional glucose-lowering agent is required in DPN patients treated with ALA.

  11. Association between Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD Val-9Ala) genotypes with the risk of generalized aggressive periodontitis disease.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, E; Moradi, M-T; Yari, K; Mousavi, S A R; Kahrizi, D

    2015-12-19

    Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) is a subtype of periodontal diseases that characterized by rapid destruction of periodontal supporting tissues. The MnSOD Val-9Ala mutation of manganese superoxide dismutase gene (MnSOD Val-9Ala) and its correlation with periodontal diseases has been studied in different populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible association of MnSODVal-9Ala polymorphism with periodontitis disease in sample of GAP patients in Iran for the first time. Following a GAP examination, 50 GAP patients and 100 healthy individuals were recruited. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and the MnSODVal-9Ala polymorphismwas detected using PCR-RFLP method. The frequency of Ala/Ala, Ala/Val and Val/Val genotypes in healthy individuals were 25, 66 and 9%, respectively. In periodontitis patients, frequencies were as Ala/Ala (12%), Ala/Val (50%) and Val/Val (38%) genotypes. There was a significant positive association between distribution of MnSOD Val-9Ala genotypes and the risk of periodontitis disease (p<0.05). Our results indicated that MnSOD Val-9Ala gene polymorphism has a positive association with the risk of periodontitis disease.

  12. Underground Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhlrott, Rolf

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of underground buildings constructed primarily during last two decades for various reasons (energy conservation, density of environment, preservation of landscape and historic buildings) notes advantages, disadvantages, and psychological and design considerations. Examples of underground libraries, built mainly in United States, are…

  13. Minnesota Zoological Garden Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norell, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Describes the history and functions of the Minnesota Zoological Garden library. Topics covered include the library collections; library services, including online search capabilities; and the various groups of users served by the library. (three references) (CLB)

  14. InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cell with an AlAs cap layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutu, F. K.; Lam, P.; Wu, J.; Miyashita, N.; Okada, Y.; Lee, K.-H.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J.; Wilson, J.; Liu, H.

    2013-04-01

    We report the effects of the deposition of an AlAs cap layer (CL) over InAs quantum dots (QDs) on the performance of QD solar cells (QDSCs). The growth of AlAs CL over InAs QDs led to the elimination of the wetting layer absorption and hence the enhancement of the open-current voltage, Voc, of a 20-layer InAs/GaAs QDSC from 0.69 V to 0.79 V. Despite a slight reduction in short-circuit current, Jsc, for the QDSC with AlAs CL, the enhancement of the Voc is enough to ensure that its efficiency is higher than the QDSC without AlAs CL.

  15. Conversion of the agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS into JavaScript

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sredojević, Dejan; Vidaković, Milan; Okanović, Dušan; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2016-06-01

    This paper shows generation of JavaScript code from code written in agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS. ALAS is an agent-oriented domain-specific language for writing software agents that are executed within XJAF middleware. Since the agents can be executed on various platforms, they must be converted into a language of the target platform. We also try to utilize existing tools and technologies to make the whole conversion process as simple as possible, as well as faster and more efficient. We use the Xtext framework that is compatible with Java to implement ALAS infrastructure - editor and code generator. Since Xtext supports Java, generation of Java code from ALAS code is straightforward. To generate a JavaScript code that will be executed within the target JavaScript XJAF implementation, Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is used.

  16. Novel development of 5-aminolevurinic acid (ALA) in cancer diagnoses and therapy.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Masahiro; Abe, Fuminori; Sano, Yuki; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Inoue, Katsushi; Nakajima, Motowo; Kohda, Takeo; Komatsu, Naoki; Ogura, Shun-ichiro; Tanaka, Tohru

    2011-03-01

    Early detection and intervention are needed for optimal outcomes in cancer therapy. Improvements in diagnostic technology, including endoscopy, photodynamic diagnosis (PDD), and photodynamic therapy (PDT), have allowed substantial progress in the treatment of cancer. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a natural, delta amino acid biosynthesized by animal and plant mitochondria. ALA is a precursor of porphyrin, heme, and bile pigments, and it is metabolized into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in the course of heme synthesis. PpIX preferentially accumulates in tumor cells resulting in a red fluorescence following irradiation with violet light and the formation of singlet oxygen. This reaction, utilized to diagnose and treat cancer, is termed ALA-induced PDD and PDT. In this review, the biological significance of heme metabolites, the mechanism of PpIX accumulation in tumor cells, and the therapeutic potential of ALA-induced PDT alone and combined with hyperthermia and immunotherapy are discussed.

  17. Tight-binding analysis of the electronic states in AlAs with N isoelectronic impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, M.; Mano, T.; Sakuma, Y.; Sakoda, K.

    2014-03-28

    Incorporation of nitrogen (N) atoms into III–V semiconductors significantly changes their electronic structures. The aim of this study was to assess the electronic states in AlAs that contained N impurities. An sp{sup 3}s{sup *} tight-binding model along with valence-force-field strain calculations were used to obtain the energy levels in N-doped AlAs. The calculations showed that an isolated N atom formed a resonant state above the conduction band edge in AlAs. In contrast, NN{sub 1}[110] and NN{sub 4}[220] pairs formed bound states inside the band gap. The formation of two bound states was consistent with the photoluminescence spectrum of N δ-doped AlAs.

  18. New developments in fluorescence detection of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX for cancer localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Herbert G.; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Betz, Christian; Bise, Karl; Brand, P.; Gamarra, Fernando; Haeussinger, Karl; Hillemanns, Peter; Huber, Rudolf M.; Knuechel, Ruth; Kriegmair, M.; Leunig, Andreas; Pichler, J.; Rick, Kai; Schulz, H.; Stanzel, F.; Stocker, Susanne; Wagner, Simon; Weigandt, H.

    1997-12-01

    After the very promising clinical results for the detection of bladder cancer in urology, preclinical and clinical studies on aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) are preformed in various disciplines now. This paper provides a brief overview of the progress on 5-ALA assisted fluorescence diagnosis in urology, pulmonology, neurosurgery, gynecology and ENT performed in collaboration with the Laser Research Laboratory at the Department of Urology of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich. Five-ALA can be applied either topically or systemically to induce an intracellular accumulation of fluorescing PPIX. With appropriate dosage of 5-ALA, malignant tissue can be stained selectively, and irradiation with violet light excites a bright red fluorescence of the tumor. Optical properties of the tissue tend to hamper the precise identification and demarcation of suspect areas in fluorescence images. Multicolor remission and fluorescence imaging, therefore, seems to be indispensable for a reliable tumor localization.

  19. Latest results of 5-ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis and other medical disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Reinhold

    1999-02-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies on 5-aminolevulinic acid (5- ALA) induced Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) are performed in various departments now following promising clinical results for the detection of bladder cancer in urology. This paper provides an overview on the progress of 5-ALA assisted fluorescence diagnosis in urology, pulmonology, neurosurgery, gynecology and ENT coordinated by the Laser Research Laboratory of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich. 5-ALA can be applied either topically or systematically to induce an intracellular accumulation of fluorescing PPIX. With appropriate dosage of 5-ALA, malignant tissue can be stained selectively, and irradiation with violet light excites a bright red fluorescence of the tumor visible with naked eyes. Optical properties of the tissue tend to hamper the precise identification and demarcation of suspect areas in fluorescence images. Multicolor remission and fluorescence imaging, therefore, should improve tumor localization in future.

  20. Turkish Libraries: Historical Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakin, Irfan

    1984-01-01

    Summary of the development of libraries in Turkey highlights the existence of libraries in the ninth century, the Shamssaddin Altunaba Medrese library in Konya, libraries established during the Ottoman era, reports to reform libraries (1869-70, 1909), and reports and library developments attributed to the Republican Era beginning in 1923. (EJS)

  1. Library Research and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mary Jo; St. Lifer, Evan; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee; Miller, Marilyn L.; Shontz, Marilyn L.

    2001-01-01

    These nine articles discuss research and statistics on libraries and librarianship, including libraries in the United States, Canada, and Mexico; acquisition expenditures in public, academic, special, and government libraries; price indexes; state rankings of public library data; library buildings; expenditures in school library media centers; and…

  2. Paired and LIM class homeodomain proteins coordinate differentiation of the C. elegans ALA neuron.

    PubMed

    Van Buskirk, Cheryl; Sternberg, Paul W

    2010-06-01

    The ancient origin of sleep is evidenced by deeply conserved signaling pathways regulating sleep-like behavior, such as signaling through the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In Caenorhabditis elegans, a sleep-like state can be induced at any time during development or adulthood through conditional expression of LIN-3/EGF. The behavioral response to EGF is mediated by EGFR activity within a single cell, the ALA neuron, and mutations that impair ALA differentiation are expected to confer EGF-resistance. Here we describe three such EGF-resistant mutants. One of these corresponds to the LIM class homeodomain (HD) protein CEH-14/Lhx3, and the other two correspond to Paired-like HD proteins CEH-10/Chx10 and CEH-17/Phox2. Whereas CEH-14 is required for ALA-specific gene expression throughout development, the Prd-like proteins display complementary temporal contributions to gene expression, with the requirement for CEH-10 decreasing as that of CEH-17 increases. We present evidence that CEH-17 participates in a positive autoregulatory loop with CEH-14 in ALA, and that CEH-10, in addition to its role in ALA differentiation, functions in the generation of the ALA neuron. Similarly to CEH-17, CEH-10 is required for the posterior migration of the ALA axons, but CEH-14 appears to regulate an aspect of ALA axon outgrowth that is distinct from that of the Prd-like proteins. Our findings reveal partial modularity among the features of a neuronal differentiation program and their coordination by Prd and LIM class HD proteins.

  3. ALA-PDT of glioma cell micro-clusters in BD-IX rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Steen J.; Angell-Petersen, Even; Spetalen, Signe; Carper, Stephen W.; Ziegler, Sarah A.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2006-02-01

    A significant contributory factor to the poor prognosis of patients with glioblastoma multiforme is the inability of conventional treatments to eradicate infiltrating glioma cells. A syngeneic rat brain tumor model is used to investigate the effects of aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on small clusters of tumor cells sequestered in normal brain. The intrinsic sensitivity of rat glioma cells to PDT was investigated by exposing ALA-incubated cells to a range of radiant exposures and irradiances using 635 nm light. Biodistribution studies were undertaken on tumor-bearing animals in order to determine the tumor selectivity of the photosensitizer following systemic administration (i.p.) of ALA. Effects of ALA-PDT on normal brain and gross tumor were evaluated using histopathology. Effects of PDT on isolated glioma cells in normal brain were investigated by treating animals 48 h after tumor cell implantation: a time when the micro-clusters of cells are protected by an intact blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Rat glioma cells in monolayer are susceptible to ALA-PDT - lower irradiances are more effective than higher ones. Fluorescence microscopy of frozen tissue sections showed that photosensitizer is produced with better than 200:1 tumor-to-normal tissue selectivity following i.p. ALA administration. ALA-PDT resulted in significant damage to both gross tumor and normal brain, however, the treatment failed to prolong survival of animals with newly implanted glioma cells compared to non-treated controls if the drug was delivered either i.p. or directly into the brain. In contrast, animals inoculated with tumor cells pre-incubated in vitro with ALA showed a significant survival advantage in response to PDT.

  4. Increased risk of advanced prostate cancer associated with MnSOD Ala-9-Val gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kucukgergin, Canan; Sanli, Oner; Tefik, Tzevat; Aydın, Makbule; Ozcan, Faruk; Seckin, Sule

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) Ala-9-Val gene polymorphism and the initiation and/or progression of prostate cancer (PCa) as well as to evaluate its potential interactions with advanced age and smoking status. MnSOD Ala-9-Val gene polymorphism was carried out in 134 (mean age 64.1±7.48) PCa patients and 159 (mean age 62.5±7.53) healthy controls with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels (<4 ng/ml) and normal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings in this prospectively designed study. PCa patients were classified as low stage disease (T1 or T2 and N0M0 stages) and high stage disease (T3 or T4 and N0M0 or N1 or M1 stages). Genotypes for MnSOD Ala-9-Val gene polymorphism were identified by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFPL). Despite lack of association between different genotypes of MnSOD Ala-9-Val gene polymorphism and the presence of PCa, patients with Ala/Ala genotype were at an increased risk of high stage disease compared with those with the Val/Val genotype [odds ratio (OR), 3.77; 95% CI, 1.30-10.94; P=0.012]. However, no significant difference was observed in the distribution of each genotype among PCa patients, with respect to tumor grade. On the other hand, smoking status and aging did not seem to change the association between genotypes and PCa risk. Ala/Ala genotype of MnSOD polymorphism may have an effect on adverse features of PCa such as high stage disease.

  5. First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs : numerical supplement.

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2012-04-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz, 'First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in Aluminum Arsenide, AlAs', Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 1370 (2011; SAND2011-2436C), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

  6. Treating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma using ALA PLGA nanoparticle-mediated photodynamic therapy in a mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Tu, Qingfeng; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Peiru; Zhang, Linglin; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Feng; Luan, Hansen

    2015-03-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common skin cancer and its treatment is still difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanoparticle (NP)-assisted ALA delivery for topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cutaneous SCC. Methods: UV-induced cutaneous SCCs were established in hairless mice. ALA loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) NPs were prepared and characterized. The kinetics of ALA PLGA NPs-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence in SCCs, therapeutic efficacy of ALA NP-mediated PDT, and immune responses were examined. Results: PLGA NPs could enhance PpIX production in SCC. ALA PLGA NP mediated topical PDT was more effective than free ALA of the same concentration in treating cutaneous SCC. Conclusion: PLGA NPs provide a promising strategy for delivering ALA in topical PDT of cutaneous SCC.

  7. Whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy using 5-ALA: an experimental study in pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Staveren, Hugo J.; Beek, Johan F.; Verlaan, Cess W.; Edixhoven, Annie; Saarnak, Anne E.; Sterenborg, Dick; de Reijke, Theo M.; de la Riviere, Guy B.; Thomsen, Sharon L.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Star, Willem M.

    1996-01-01

    The agent 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) can be an alternative drug in whole bladder wall (WBW) photodynamic therapy (PDT), as its good tumor selectivity and the short time skin photosensitivity after systemic administration are advantageous for clinical use. To determine the maximum drug and light doses for reversible normal tissue damage, a pre-clinical study was performed using an in vivo normal piglet bladder model. First, the kinetics of PpIX production in 2 pigs was determined in vitro after oral administration of 75 and 150 mg/kg ALA respectively. The concentration of PpIX in plasma, and erythrocytes was determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the maximum was reached at approximately equals 5 hours after the administration of ALA. This provided a guideline for the optimum interval between ALA administration and light application. Next, various ALA doses were either administered orally or instilled in the bladder and different light doses were applied. Bladder biopsies were taken at regular intervals and normal tissue damage was investigated histologically. Reversible tissue damage was obtained using 60 mg/kg of 5-ALA in combination with a light dose of 100 J cm-2 (non-scattered plus scattered 630 nm wavelength light) in the case of oral administration. In the case of intravesical instillation, a drug dose of 2.5 gram and a light dose of 100 J cm-2 are still too high to obtain reversible tissue damage.

  8. Topical application of ALA PDT for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ling-Lin; Su, Lina; Guo, Ming-Xia; Huang, Zheng

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)- medicated photodynamic therapy (ALA PDT) for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Methods: Sixteen Chinese patients with moderate to severe facial acne were treated with 1-3 courses of ALA PDT. ALA cream (3%) was freshly prepared and applied to acne lesions for 3-4 h. The lesions were irradiated by a 635 nm diode laser at dose levels of 60 - 80 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2. Clinical assessments were conducted before and after treatment up to 3 months. Results: All patents showed response to ALA PDT. Complete clearance was seen in 10 patients (62.5%) and partial clearance in 6 patients (37.5%). One case showed recurrence after complete clearance at 2 months and another two showed recurrence after complete clearance at 3 months. However, the number of new lesions were significantly reduced. Adverse effects were minimal. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary clinical study is encouraging. ALA PDT is a simple, safe and useful therapeutic option for the treatment of moderate to severe acne. Further studies to evaluate the treatment with a larger number of patients and for a longer period of follow-up are needed.

  9. ALA-based photodynamic therapy in epithelial tumors: in vivo and in vitro models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Adriana; Fukuda, Haydee; Batlle, Alcira

    2000-03-01

    PDT shows considerable potential as a treatment modality for superficial tumors. PDT is based on the accumulation of a photosensitizer in the target tissue. Subsequent illumination with light of an appropriate wavelength provokes a photochemical reaction that results in tumor destruction. Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a porphyrin precursor, and its administration result in the endogenous production of phototoxic porphyrins, which has been exploited for PDT. We assessed PDT efficacy employing both in vivo and in vitro models. We used papillomas, keratoacanthomas and in situ carcinomas chemically induced in the skin of SENCAR mice. Using ALA lotion and cream formulations, the maximal amount of porphyrin accumulation in papillomas was 5.52 (mu) g/g tissue. An energy of 150 of J/cm2 was delivered by a copper-dye laser tuned at 630 nm. Microscopically, we found several signs of tissue destruction, more markedly in the upper strata of the in situ carcinomas. Papillomas, characterized by hyperkeratinization, were resistant to PDT. In our in vitro studies, we used an epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line. We tested ALA and its hexyl and methyl derivatives with the aim of increasing porphyrin synthesis. We found that hexyl-ALA was the best compound. When cultures incubated 3 hours in 0.6 mM ALA and 0.1 mM hexyl-ALA respectively were irradiated with 3 J/cm2 only 5 percent of cells survived.

  10. Antiproliferative effect of T/Tn specific Artocarpus lakoocha agglutinin (ALA) on human leukemic cells (Jurkat, U937, K562) and their imaging by QD-ALA nanoconjugate.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Urmimala; Bose, Partha Pratim; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Tej P; Chatterjee, Bishnu P

    2008-11-01

    T/Tn specificity of Artocarpus lakoocha agglutinin (ALA), isolated from the seeds of A. lakoocha (Moraceae) fruit and a heterodimer (16 kD and 12 kD) of molecular mass 28 kD, was further confirmed by SPR analysis using T/Tn glycan containing mammalian glycoproteins. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of ALA showed homology at 15, 19-21, 24-27, and 29 residues with other lectin members of Moraceae family viz., Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin) lectin, Artocarpus hirsuta lectin, and Maclura pomifera agglutinin. It is mitogenic to human PBMC and the maximum proliferation was observed at 1 ng/ml. It showed an antiproliferative effect on leukemic cells, with the highest effect toward Jurkat cells (IC(50) 13.15 ng/ml). Synthesized CdS quantum dot-ALA nanoconjugate was employed to detect the expression of T/Tn glycans on Jurkat, U937, and K562 leukemic cells surfaces as well as normal lymphocytes by fluorescence microscopy. No green fluorescence was observed with normal lymphocytes indicating that T/Tn determinants, which are recognized as human tumor associated structures were cryptic on normal lymphocyte surfaces, whereas intense green fluorescent dots appeared during imaging of leukemic cells, where such determinants were present in unmasked form. The above results indicated that QD-ALA nanoconjugate is an efficient fluorescent marker for identification of leukemic cell lines that gives rise to high quality images.

  11. Art Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on art libraries, librarianship, and documentation presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The Tyranny of Distance: Art Libraries in Canada," a description by Mary F. Williamson of Canada's regional art libraries which serve both art students and the general public;…

  12. Strengthening State Library Administrative Agency (Territorial Library).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieves M. Flores Memorial Library, Agana, Guam.

    This document describes the Basic State Plan Amendments for the Library Services and Construction Act in Guam and the regulations promulgated thereunder. The major projects described under the plan are: Strengthening State Library Administrative Agency; Staff Development; Library Collections, Extention Services, Institutional Libraries; and…

  13. Library and Information Science Education in the Americas: Present and Future. Papers from a Conference held in Austin, Texas, February 14, l980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, William Vernon, Ed.

    Four primary papers and additional related reaction papers are presented from a conference sponsored by the Association of American Library Schools, the Organization of American States, and the Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials, which was held to promote a useful dialog between educators from North American library…

  14. The enzymology of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) isoforms from Hordeum vulgare and other organisms, and the HvAlaAT crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Duff, Stephen M G; Rydel, Timothy J; McClerren, Amanda L; Zhang, Wenlan; Li, Jimmy Y; Sturman, Eric J; Halls, Coralie; Chen, Songyang; Zeng, Jiamin; Peng, Jiexin; Kretzler, Crystal N; Evdokimov, Artem

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we describe the expression, purification, kinetics and biophysical characterization of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) from the barley plant (Hordeum vulgare). This dimeric PLP-dependent enzyme is a pivotal element of several key metabolic pathways from nitrogen assimilation to carbon metabolism, and its introduction into transgenic plants results in increased yield. The enzyme exhibits a bi-bi ping-pong reaction mechanism with a K(m) for alanine, 2-oxoglutarate, glutamate and pyruvate of 3.8, 0.3, 0.8 and 0.2 mM, respectively. Barley AlaAT catalyzes the forward (alanine-forming) reaction with a k(cat) of 25.6 s(-1), the reverse (glutamate-forming) reaction with k(cat) of 12.1 s(-1) and an equilibrium constant of ~0.5. The enzyme is also able to utilize aspartate and oxaloacetate with ~10% efficiency as compared to the native substrates, which makes it much more specific than related bacterial/archaeal enzymes (that also have lower K(m) values). We have crystallized barley AlaAT in complex with PLP and l-cycloserine and solved the structure of this complex at 2.7 Å resolution. This is the first example of a plant AlaAT structure, and it reveals a canonical aminotransferase fold similar to structures of the Thermotoga maritima, Pyrococcus furiosus, and human enzymes. This structure bridges our structural understanding of AlaAT mechanism between three kingdoms of life and allows us to shed some light on the specifics of the catalysis performed by these proteins.

  15. Crystallization of tholeiitic basalt in Alae Lava Lake, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, D.L.; Wright, T.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1966-01-01

    The eruption of Kilauea Volcano August 21-23, 1963, left 600,000 cubic meters of basaltic lava in a lava lake as much as 15 meters deep in Alae pit crater. Field studies of the lake began August 27 and include repeated core drilling, measurements of temperature in the crust and melt, and precise level surveys of the lake surface. The last interstitial melt in the lake solidified late in September 1964; by mid August 1965 the maximum temperature was 690??C at a depth of 11.5 meters. Pumice air-quenched from about 1140??C contains only 5 percent crystals - clinopyroxene, cuhedral olivine (Fo 80), and a trace of plagioclase, (An 70). Drill cores taken from the zone of crystallization in the lake show that olivine continued crystallizing to about 1070??C; below that it reacts with the melt, becoming corroded and mantled by pyroxene and plagioclase. Below 1070??C, pyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at a constant ratio. Ilmenite first appeared at about 1070??C and was joined by magnetite at about 1050??C; both increased rapidly in abundance to 1000??C. Apatite first appeared as minute needles in interstitial glass at 1000??C. Both the abundance and index of refraction of glass quenched from melt decreased nearly linearly with falling temperature. At 1070??C the quenched lava contains about 65 percent dark-brown glass with an index of 1.61; at 980??C it contains about 8 percent colorless glass with an index of 1.49. Below 980??C, the percentage of glass remained constant. Progressive crystallization forced exsolution of gases from the melt fraction; these formed vesicles and angular pores, causing expansion of the crystallizing lava and lifting the surface of the central part of the lake an average of 19.5 cm. The solidified basalt underwent pneumatolitic alteration, including deposition of cristobalite at 800??C, reddish alteration of olivine at 700??C, tarnishing of ilmenite at 550??C, deposition of anhydrite at 250??C, and deposition of native sulfur at 100??C

  16. The American Experience: Strength from Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebel, Doris, Comp.; Bange, Stephanie, Comp.; Cooper, Susan A., Comp.; Finkbeiner, Andrew, Comp.; James, Helen Foster, Comp.; Kuharets, Olga, Comp.; Lamb, Jeanne, Comp.; Ng, Janet, Comp.; Nguyen, Holly, Comp.; Phelan, Carolyn, Comp.; Strong, Sunny, Comp.; Sutherland, Zena, Comp.; Voors, Mary, Comp.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 28 children's picture books that celebrate diverse cultures in American society, developed by the International Relations Committee of the Association of Library Services to Children. (LRW)

  17. American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resource Library Brochures and Product Store Career Center DC&R Journal Access Member Directory Educational Resources American ... Care After Colon and Rectal Cancer Crohn’s Disease DC&R Journal Diseases and Conditions Find A Surgeon ...

  18. PPARgamma Pro12Ala polymorphism in HIV-1-infected patients with HAART-related lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Saumoy, Maria; Veloso, Sergi; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Domingo, Pere; Chacón, Matilde R; Miranda, Merce; Aragonès, Gerard; Gutiérrez, Maria Mar; Viladés, Consuelo; Peraire, Joaquim; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; López-Dupla, Miguel; Aguilar, Carmen; Richart, Cristóbal; Vidal, Francesc

    2009-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is involved in obesity and in some components of the metabolic syndrome in unselected population. To determine whether PPARgamma genetic variants are associated with the risk of developing lipodystrophy and its associated metabolic disturbances in HIV-1-infected patients treated with HAART and to assess PPARgamma mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). The study group comprised 278 patients infected with HIV-1 and treated with antiretroviral drugs (139 with lipodystrophy and 139 without) and 105 uninfected controls (UC). The PPARgamma Pro12Ala (C%>G) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was assessed using PCR-RFLPs on white cell DNA. PPARgamma mRNA expression in SAT was assessed in 38 patients (25 with lipodystrophy and 13 without) and in 21 UC by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was based on Student's T tests, Chi(2) tests, Spearman's correlations tests and logistic regression tests. PPARgamma Pro12Ala genotype distribution and allele frequencies were non-significantly different between both HIV-1-infected categories, lipodystrophy vs non-lipodystrophy (p=0.9 and p=0.87, respectively). Lipodystrophic patients harbouring the rare X/Ala genotype (Ala/Ala plus Pro/Ala) had significantly greater plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels compared with carriers of the common Pro/Pro genotype (p=0.029 and p=0.016, respectively) at univariate analyses. At multivariate analyses these associations were no longer significant. There was a near-significant decreased SAT PPARgamma mRNA expression in patients with lipodystrophy compared to UC (p=0.054). PPARgamma Pro12Ala SNP has no effect on the risk of developing lipodystrophy in HIV-1-infected patients treated with HAART. PPARgamma mRNA SAT expression appears decreased in lipodystrophy.

  19. Study of the efficacy of 5-ALA mediated photodynamic therapy on human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line (RD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, M.; Fakhar-e-Alam, M.; Firdous, S.; Zaidi, S. S. Z.; Suleman, R.; Ikram, M.

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of cell death by photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell line. The present study evaluates the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-ALA as photosensitizer using human muscle cancer cells as experimental model. We study the photosensitizer uptake, cytotoxicity, phototoxicity, and cellular viability of the RD cells which was estimated by means of neutral-red spectrophotometric assay. The given experiment was consisted of two steps. For the first one, RD cells were exposed to 5-ALA at concentrations of 0 up to 1000 μg of ALA/ml in minimum essential medium (MEM). The optimal uptake of photosensitizer (5-ALA) in RD cells was investigated by means of spectrometric measurements. Cells viability was determined by means of neutral red assay (NRA). In the second step, 5-ALA exposed RD cells were irradiated with red light (a diode laser, λ = 635 nm) at total light dose of 80 J/cm2. The influence of different incubation times and concentrations of 5-ALA, different irradiation doses and various combinations of photosensitizer and light doses on the viability of RD cells were investigated. It was observed that sensitizer concentration or light doses have no significant effect on cells viability when studied independently. The maximal cellular uptake occurred after 47 hours in vitro incubation. The phototoxic assay showed that ALA-PDT induced killing of 76% of the cells at 250 μg/ml drug dose and 80 J/cm2 light dose.

  20. Harnessing cellular differentiation to improve ALA-based photodynamic therapy in an artificial skin model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward; Anand, Sanjay; Sato, Nobuyuki; Mack, Judith; Ortel, Bernhard

    2005-04-01

    During ALA-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), a pro-drug (aminolevulinic acid; ALA) is taken up by tumor cells and metabolically converted to a photosensitizing intermediate (protoporphyrin IX; PpIX). ALA-based PDT, while an emerging treatment modality, remains suboptimal for most cancers (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma of the skin). Many treatment failures may be largely due to insufficient conversion of ALA to PpIX within cells. We discovered a novel way to increase the conversion of ALA to PpIX, by administering agents that can drive terminal differentiation (i.e., accelerate cellular maturation). Terminally-differentiated epithelial cells show higher levels of intracellular PpIX, apparently via increased levels of a rate-limiting enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO). To study these mechanisms in a three-dimensional tissue, we developed an organotypic model that mimics true epidermal physiology in a majority of respects. A line of rat epidermal keratinocytes (REKs), when grown in raft cultures, displays all the features of a fully-differentiated epidermis. Addition of ALA to the culture medium results in ALA uptake and PpIX synthesis, with subsequent death of keratinocytes upon exposure to blue light. Using this model, we can manipulate cellular differentiation via three different approaches. (1) Vitamin D, a hormone that enhances keratinocyte differentiation; (2) Hoxb13, a nuclear transcription factor that affects the genetically-controlled differentiation program of stratifying cells (3) Hyaluronan, an abundant extracellular matrix molecule that regulates epidermal differentiation. Because the raft cultures contain only a single cell type (no blood, fibroblasts, etc.) the effects of terminal differentiation upon CPO, PpIX, and keratinocyte cell death can be specifically defined.

  1. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  2. Harmony in Diversity: Recommendations for Effective Library Service to Asian Language Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Patty, Comp.

    This document, to provide for effective library service to Asian language speakers, includes information on the culture of Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, Japanese Americans, and Vietnamese Americans. For each group, the following are described: generations, immigration and length of United States residency; family and children; language;…

  3. Designs for Change: Libraries and Productive Aging. Report on the National Library Leaders Forum (Washington, DC, September 26-27, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeisel, William

    2006-01-01

    As the first of the baby boomers turn 60, public libraries are preparing to offer creative alternatives to retirement to a generation notorious for their idealism and activism. This report from the Americans for Libraries Council (ALC) and the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) offers guidelines, demographics, and examples of model…

  4. Graph Library

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Martin; Arnold, Dorian

    2007-06-12

    GraphLib is a support library used by other tools to create, manipulate, store, and export graphs. It provides a simple interface to specifS’ arbitrary directed and undirected graphs by adding nodes and edges. Each node and edge can be associated with a set of attributes describing size, color, and shape. Once created, graphs can be manipulated using a set of graph analysis algorithms, including merge, prune, and path coloring operations. GraphLib also has the ability to export graphs into various open formats such as DOT and GML.

  5. Cell Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA contract led to the development of faster and more energy efficient semiconductor materials for digital integrated circuits. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) conducts electrons 4-6 times faster than silicon and uses less power at frequencies above 100-150 megahertz. However, the material is expensive, brittle, fragile and has lacked computer automated engineering tools to solve this problem. Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) developed a series of GaAs cell libraries for cell layout, design rule checking, logic synthesis, placement and routing, simulation and chip assembly. The system is marketed by Compare Design Automation.

  6. State Virtual Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Virtual library? Electronic library? Digital library? Online information network? These all apply to the growing number of Web-based resource collections managed by consortiums of state library entities. Some, like "INFOhio" and "KYVL" ("Kentucky Virtual Library"), have been available for a few years, but others are just starting. Searching for…

  7. Library Directions in 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, GraceAnne A.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews major library issues and events of 1988, including: (1) the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Library Awareness Program; (2) cooperation with USSR libraries; (3) library finance; (4) preservation; and (5) special programing. News about a number of prominent library professionals is included in a sidebar. (MES)

  8. Genealogy and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carothers, Diane Foxhill; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Ten articles describe genealogical collections of the National Archives and Library of Congress, state archives programs, academic research libraries, Allen County Public Library (Indiana), Newberry Library, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints genealogical library, and New England Historic Genealogical Society, and approaches to Black…

  9. Library Handbook for Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Angelina, Ed.

    Discussions of library resources, services and related activities as well as library materials selection and acquisition are provided for faculty to facilitate and enhance their use of the library. Included in the library resources section are books, periodicals, microforms, and special collections and archives. Instruction in library use,…

  10. Influence of ALA54THR polymorphism of fatty acid-binding protein 2 on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Sagrado, M G; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Conde, R

    2007-11-01

    A transition of G to A at codon 54 of FABP2 results in an amino acid substitution (Ala54 to Thr54). This polymorphism was associated with some cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism in the FABP2 gene on obesity anthropometric parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. A population of 226 obesity (body mass index >30) nondiabetic outpatients were analyzed. An indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance, blood pressure, a serial assessment of nutritional intake with 3 days of written food records, and biochemical analysis (lipid profile, adipocytokines, insulin, CRP, and lipoprotein-a) were performed. The statistical analysis was performed for the combined ALA54/THR54 and THR54/THR54 as a mutant group and wild type ALA54/ALA54 as a second group. Two-hundred and twenty-six patients gave informed consent and were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 44.2+/-16 years and the mean BMI 35.1+/-5.1, with 63 males (28.3%) and 163 females (71.7%). One-hundred and thirteen patients (50%) had the genotype ALA54/ALA54 (wild group) and 113 (50%) patients had the genotype ALA54/THR54 (91 patients, 40.2%) or THR54/THR54 (22 patients, 9.8%) (mutant group). The ANOVA analysis of the three groups ( ALA54/THR54, THR54/THR54 and ALA54/ALA54) shows a higher levels of fat mass in Thr54/Thr54 group (45.6+/-14.6 kg) than Ala54/Ala54 (37.5+/-11.2 kg: p<0.05), without differences with Ala54/Thr54 group (41.2+/-13.5 kg). CRP, IL-6, and lipoprotein-a were higher in mutant group ( ALA54/THR54, THR54/THR54) than in wild group ( ALA54/ALA54). The novel finding of this study is the association of the Thr54/Ala54 and Thr54/Thr54 FABP2 phenotypes with higher levels of C reactive protein, IL6, and lipoprotein-a. Further studies are needed to explain the role of this polymorphism in different populations.

  11. Is the Ala12 variant of the PPARG gene an "unthrifty allele"?

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Narvaez, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: The thrifty genotype hypothesis proposes that genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes results from the positive selection of "thrifty" alleles in the past. A corollary of this hypothesis is that genetic variants protecting against the development of diabetes are "unthrifty" and thus subject to negative selection during human evolution. Methods: It was assessed whether age estimates of the diabetes protective PPARG Ala12 allele indicate effects of natural selection. Based on published data from four populations, the date of origin of the diabetes protective PPARG Ala12 variant was estimated using both allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the C1431T single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 6 of the PPARG gene. Results: The best LD based estimate of the age of the Ala12 allele gave an average of ∼32 000 years with a maximum upper bound of ∼58 000 years. Assuming a population with a growth rate of r = 0.01 per generation, the frequency based estimate of the age of the Ala12 variant gave an average of ∼27 000 years with a maximum upper bound of ∼42 000 years. Discussion: The similarity of both time estimates is consistent with selective equivalence of the diabetes protective PPARG Ala12 allele and the diabetes susceptible PPARG Pro12 allele. PMID:15994875

  12. Simplified and optimized multispectral imaging for 5-ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis of malignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Matsuo, Hisataka; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Harada, Yoshinori; Otsuji, Eigo; Yanagisawa, Akio; Tanaka, Hideo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-based fluorescence diagnosis is now clinically applied for accurate and ultrarapid diagnosis of malignant lesions such as lymph node metastasis during surgery. 5-ALA-based diagnosis evaluates fluorescence intensity of a fluorescent metabolite of 5-ALA, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX); however, the fluorescence of PPIX is often affected by autofluorescence of tissue chromophores, such as collagen and flavins. In this study, we demonstrated PPIX fluorescence estimation with autofluorescence elimination for 5-ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis of malignant lesions by simplified and optimized multispectral imaging. We computationally optimized observation wavelength regions for the estimation of PPIX fluorescence in terms of minimizing prediction error of PPIX fluorescence intensity in the presence of typical chromophores, collagen and flavins. By using the fluorescence intensities of the optimized wavelength regions, we verified quantitative detection of PPIX fluorescence by using chemical mixtures of PPIX, flavins, and collagen. Furthermore, we demonstrated detection capability by using metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes of colorectal cancer patients. These results suggest the potential and usefulness of the background-free estimation method of PPIX fluorescence for 5-ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis of malignant lesions, and we expect this method to be beneficial for intraoperative and rapid cancer diagnosis. PMID:27149301

  13. Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fuxia; Nieman, David C; Sha, Wei; Xie, Guoxiang; Qiu, Yunping; Jia, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Ten postmenopausal women (age 55.6 ± 0.8 years, BMI 24.6 ± 1.1 kg/m²) ingested 25 g/day milled chia seed during a 7-week period, with six plasma samples collected for measurement of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Subjects operated as their own controls with overnight fasted blood samples taken at baseline (average of two samples), and then after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 weeks supplementation. Plasma ALA increased significantly after one week supplementation and was 138 % above baseline levels by the end of the study (overall time effect, P < 0.001). EPA increased 30 % above baseline (overall time effect, P = 0.019) and was correlated across time with ALA (r = 0.84, P = 0.02). No significant change in plasma DPA levels was measured (overall time effect, P = 0.067). Plasma DHA decreased slightly by the end of the study (overall time effect, P = 0.030) and was not correlated with change in ALA. In conclusion, ingestion of 25 g/day milled chia seeds for seven weeks by postmenopausal women resulted in significant increases in plasma ALA and EPA but not DPA and DHA.

  14. Intron 1 GATA site enhances ALAS2 expression indispensably during erythroid differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingchi; Zhang, Jingliao; An, Wenbin; Wan, Yang; Ma, Shihui; Yin, Jie; Li, Xichuan; Gao, Jie; Yuan, Weiping; Guo, Ye; Engel, James Douglas; Shi, Lihong; Cheng, Tao; Zhu, Xiaofan

    2017-01-01

    The first intronic mutations in the intron 1 GATA site (int-1-GATA) of 5-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2) have been identified in X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) pedigrees, strongly suggesting it could be causal mutations of XLSA. However, the function of this int-1-GATA site during in vivo development remains largely unknown. Here, we generated mice lacking a 13 bp fragment, including this int-1-GATA site (TAGATAAAGCCCC) and found that hemizygous deletion led to an embryonic lethal phenotype due to severe anemia resulting from a lack of ALAS2 expression, indicating that this non-coding sequence is indispensable for ALAS2 expression in vivo. Further analyses revealed that this int-1-GATA site anchored the GATA site in intron 8 (int-8-GATA) and the proximal promoter, forming a long-range loop to enhance ALAS2 expression by an enhancer complex including GATA1, TAL1, LMO2, LDB1 and Pol II at least, in erythroid cells. However, compared with the int-8-GATA site, the int-1-GATA site is more essential for regulating ALAS2 expression through CRISPR/Cas9-mediated site-specific deletion. Therefore, the int-1-GATA site could serve as a valuable site for diagnosing XLSA in cases with unknown mutations. PMID:28123038

  15. Does Pro12Ala Polymorphism Enhance the Physiological Role of PPARγ2?

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, A. C.; Oliveira, R.; Castro, A. C.; Fernandes, R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are two major public health problems that have motivated the scientific community to investigate the high contribution of genetic factors to these disorders. The peroxisome proliferator activated by gamma 2 (PPARγ2) plays an important role in the lipid metabolism. Since PPARγ2 is expressed mainly in adipose tissue, a moderate reduction of its activity influences the sensitivity to insulin, diabetes, and other metabolic parameters. The present study aims to contribute to the elucidation of the impact of the Pro12Ala polymorphism associated with T2D and obesity through a meta-analysis study of the literature that included approximately 11500 individuals, from which 3870 were obese and 7625 were diabetic. Statistical evidence supports protective effect in T2D of polymorphism Pro12Ala of PPARγ2 (OR = 0.702 with 95% CI: 0.622; 0.791, P < 0.01). Conversely the same polymorphism Pro12Ala of PPARγ2 seems to favor obesity since 1.196 more chance than nonobese was found (OR = 1.196 with 95% CI: 1.009; 1.417, P < 0.004). Our results suggest that Pro12Ala polymorphism enhances both adipogenic and antidiabetogenic physiological role of PPARγ. Does Pro12Ala polymorphism represent an evolutionary step towards the stabilization of the molecular function of PPARγ transcription factor signaling pathway? PMID:23983677

  16. Flourescence analysis of ALA-induced Protoporphyrin IX in psoriatic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, Mark R.; Robinson, Dominic J.; Collins, P.

    1996-01-01

    The success reported for the treatment of superficial skin carcinomas by photodynamic therapy (PDT), following topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), has therapeutic implications for the treatment of other skin disorders. This presentation describes the accumulation of the photosensitizing agent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in areas of psoriatic plaque, by monitoring the fluorescence emission induced by low-intensity laser excitation at 488 nm. We present the results from 15 patients, with a total of 42 plaques. These results show that PpIX fluorescence increases in intensity within the 6 hour period following application of ALA, which implies there is a potential for PDT. The emission is localized to the area of ALA application and the effect of occlusion appears insignificant. Also, the rate of increase, and maximum intensity of fluorescence emission, is not directly related to the applied quantity of ALA. The variability of the fluorescence intensity is as great between plaques at different sites on the same patient as between different patients. We also present measurements of the depletion in intensity of fluorescence emission during PDT treatment, using white light, at an irradiance of 25 mW cm-2, that is a consequence of the molecular photo-oxidation of PpIX. The use of fluorescence measurements in predicting the therapeutic effect of treating plaque psoriasis by ALA-PDT is discussed.

  17. United States: Reaching out with Library Services for GLBTQ Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Although major strides toward the inclusion of GLBT images in North American libraries have indeed been achieved, censorship is alive and well where children's literature is concerned. It is plain to see that libraries have become a major battleground for the free flow of information about and for GLBTQ children and families. This article…

  18. How Should Privacy Be Protected in the Electronic Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Janet L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses privacy issues related to electronic libraries. Highlights include finding guidance and information on the Web, including the American Library Association, Center for Democracy and Technology, and the Electronic Privacy Information Center; legal responsibilities in maintaining privacy rights of patrons who access the Internet; and…

  19. Campus Partner Collections: Expanding the Boundaries of the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elguindi, Anne C.; Kelshian, Robert; Sandler, Alayne Mundt

    2011-01-01

    At most colleges and universities, there are a number of small, nonlibrary collections across campus, such as those found in student centers or academic departments. Historically, at American University, partnership with these collections was done through absorbing them into the main library collection. Recently, however, the Library has seen…

  20. A Utilitarian Case for Intellectual Freedom in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Outlines the history of censorship and intellectual and expressive freedom in American libraries; discusses the two main types of ethical theory, utilitarianism and deontology; and maintains that libraries have a special role to play in promoting unconditional intellectual freedom. (Author/LRW)

  1. Assistive Technologies for Library Patrons with Visual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunrich, Matthew; Green, Ravonne

    2007-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the various products available for library patrons with blindness or visual impairments. To provide some insight into the status of library services for patrons with blindness, a sample of American universities that are recognized for their programs for students with visual impairments was surveyed to discern…

  2. Marketing and Public Relations in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit 240.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smykla, Evelyn Ortiz, Comp.

    1999-01-01

    This survey was conducted to delineate the growing relationship between marketing and public relations and library funding by identifying: (1) the extent to which North American research libraries have developed organized programs in the areas of marketing and public relations; (2) who holds positions in these areas; and (3) the impact these…

  3. Library Education Bibliographies and Research Guides. How to Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covert-Vail, Lucinda, Ed.; Kennedy, Ann, Ed.

    Designed to be used as part of the library education program of the J. Paul Leonard Library at San Francisco State University, this series includes the following research guides: (1) How to Cite References; (2) Annotated Bibliographies; (3) How to Use American Statistics Index; (4) How to Use Biological Abstracts; (5) How to Use Chemical…

  4. Romantic American Literature: Sources for Criticism. A Research Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte for the criticism of Romantic (19th century) American literature. The guide explains important reference sources in the Atkins library reference collection and how to find biographical and critical information in books and…

  5. African-American Literature: Finding Biographical and Critical Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide is intended to help library patrons of the Atkins Library (at the University of North Carolina Charlotte) find sources of criticism on African-American literature. The guide explains important reference sources in the reference collection of the library and how to find biographical and critical information in books and periodicals. The…

  6. Identification of novel inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (MTB-AlaDH) through structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shalini; Devi, Parthiban Brindha; Soni, Vijay; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan

    2014-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB) survives in the human host for decades evading the immune system in a latent or persistent state. The Rv2780 (ald) gene that codes for L-alanine dehydrogenase (L-AlaDH) enzyme catalyzes reversible oxidative deamination of L-alanine to pyruvate and is overexpressed under hypoxic and nutrient starvation conditions in MTB. At present, as there is no suitable drug available to treat dormant tuberculosis; it is essential to identify drug candidates that could potentially treat dormant TB. Availability of crystal structure of MTB L-AlaDH bound with co-factor NAD+ facilitated us to employ structure-based virtual screening approach to obtain new hits from a commercial library of Asinex database using energy-optimized pharmacophore modeling. The resulting pharmacophore consisted of three hydrogen bond donor sites (D) and two hydrogen bond acceptor sites (A). The database compounds with a fitness score more than 1.0 were further subjected to Glide high-throughput virtual screening and docking. Thus, we report the identification of best five hits based on structure-based design and their in vitro enzymatic inhibition studies revealed IC₅₀ values in the range of 35-80 μM.

  7. Protective Effect of ALA in Crushed Optic Nerve Cat Retinal Ganglion Cells Using a New Marker RBPMS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanling; Wang, Wenyao; Liu, Jessica; Huang, Xin; Liu, Ruixing; Xia, Huika; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Pu, Mingliang; Gao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this study we first sought to determine whether RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) can serve as a specific marker for cat retina ganglion cells (RGCs) using retrograde labeling and immunohistochemistry staining. RBPM was then used as an RGC marker to study RGC survival after optic nerve crush (ONC) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) treatment in cats. ALA treatment yielded a peak density of RBPMS-alpha cells within the peak isodensity zone (>60/mm2) which did not differ from ONC retinas. The area within the zone was significantly enlarged (control: 2.3%, ONC: 0.06%, ONC+ALA: 0.1%). As for the 10-21/mm2 zone, ALA treatment resulted in a significant increase in area (control: 34.5%, ONC: 12.1%, ONC+ALA: 35.9%). ALA can alleviate crush-induced RGC injury. PMID:27504635

  8. Tribal Library Procedures Manual. TRAILS (Training and Assistance for Indian Library Services), September 10, 1985-January 10, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lotsee

    This manual resulted from a 2-year project to improve, develop, and expand public library and information services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. Designed to serve as a guide for tribal and community librarians who may lack professional training, the manual offers descriptions of library services, procedures, and management issues. An…

  9. Intracellular Targeting Signals and Lipid Specificity Determinants of the ALA/ALIS P4-ATPase Complex Reside in the Catalytic ALA α-Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Lisbeth R.; Hanisch, Susanne; Meffert, Katharina; Buch-Pedersen, Morten J.; Jakobsen, Mia K.; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Palmgren, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are believed to catalyze flipping of phospholipids across cellular membranes, in this way contributing to vesicle biogenesis in the secretory and endocytic pathways. P4-ATPases form heteromeric complexes with Cdc50-like proteins, and it has been suggested that these act as β-subunits in the P4-ATPase transport machinery. In this work, we investigated the role of Cdc50-like β-subunits of P4-ATPases for targeting and function of P4-ATPase catalytic α-subunits. We show that the Arabidopsis P4-ATPases ALA2 and ALA3 gain functionality when coexpressed with any of three different ALIS Cdc50-like β-subunits. However, the final cellular destination of P4-ATPases as well as their lipid substrate specificity are independent of the nature of the ALIS β-subunit they were allowed to interact with. PMID:20053675

  10. Assessment of ALA-induced PpIX production in porcine skin pretreated with microneedles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Phamilla Gracielli Sousa; Campos de Menezes, Priscila Fernanda; Fujita, Alessandra Keiko Lima; Escobar, André; Barboza de Nardi, Andrigo; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S

    2015-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for skin treatments of premalignant and cancer lesions and recognized as a non-invasive technique that combines tissue photosensitization and subsequent exposure to light to induce cell death. However, it is limited to the treatment of superficial lesions, mainly due to the low cream penetration. Therefore, the improvement of transdermal distribution of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is needed. In this study, the kinetics and homogeneity of production of ALA-induced PpIX after the skin pre-treatment with microneedles rollers of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm length were investigated. An improvement in homogeneity and production of PpIX was shown in a porcine model. Widefield fluorescence imaging three hours after the topical application of ALA-cream in the combined treatment with microeedles rollers.

  11. Conformations of Gly(n)H+ and Ala(n)H+ peptides in the gas phase.

    PubMed Central

    Hudgins, R R; Mao, Y; Ratner, M A; Jarrold, M F

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution ion mobility measurements and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the conformations of protonated polyglycine and polyalanine (Gly(n)H and Ala(n)H+, n = 3-20) in the gas phase. The measured collision integrals for both the polyglycine and the polyalanine peptides are consistent with a self-solvated globule conformation, where the peptide chain wraps around and solvates the charge located on the terminal amine. The conformations of the small peptides are governed entirely by self-solvation, whereas the larger ones have additional backbone hydrogen bonds. Helical conformations, which are stable for neutral Alan peptides, were not observed in the experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations for Ala(n)H+ peptides suggest that the charge destabilizes the helix, although several of the low energy conformations found in the simulations for the larger Ala(n)H+ peptides have small helical regions. PMID:10049339

  12. Descriptive cataloging of serials: the National Library of Medicine versus the Library of Congress.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, J A

    1980-01-01

    Descriptive cataloging practices for serial differ significantly in some respects between the Library of Congress and the National Library of Medicine. This paper compares some of these differences and indicates the impact they can have on the development of on-line cooperative data bases such as OCLC. Attention is also given to the possible impact of the second edition of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules on serials cataloging. The need for standardization is stressed.

  13. Special Collections in Libraries in the United States. Bulletin, 1912, No. 23. Whole Number 495

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, W. Dawson; Mudge, Isadore G.

    1912-01-01

    This bulletin is virtually a new edition of the work entitled "Special collections of American libraries," by William Coolidge Lane and Charles Knowles Bolton, published in 1892. Since the publication of that most important contribution to American library literature there have been several surveys of a local character published. While these…

  14. Great Explorations: Discovering Science in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Maria, Ed.; And Others

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Library Institute was a project that brought together 28 school and public librarians from the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area to discuss science, mathematics, and technology. education reform and what can be done to bring it about. This book discusses the project in 12 chapters:…

  15. Marketing Your Library with the Big Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Read was developed by the National Endowment for the Arts to revitalize the role of culture in American society and encourage the reading of landmark literature. Each year since 2007, the DeKalb Public Library, Northern Illinois University, and Kishwaukee Community College have partnered to foster literacy in the community. This article…

  16. Federal Support for Education and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Hubert H.

    1970-01-01

    Criticizes cuts in federal budget for education and libraries in view of the needs of society. Urges librarians to challenge these cuts, to speak out for priority of funds for education. Prepared text of address to American Association of School Librarians (AASL) State Assembly Breakfast, June 26, 1969. (JS)

  17. Some Observations on Metadata and Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms, Caroline R.

    This paper describes experiences in gathering together metadata from heterogeneous sources for the American Memory project of the Library of Congress, particularly for the collections digitized and cataloged at other institutions. It also reflects on several initiatives to develop rich structured metadata schemes for specific domains and to find…

  18. Library Censorship and the Permissive Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Howard D.

    1981-01-01

    A nationwide survey of 2,486 American adults, conducted for the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography in 1970, is reanalyzed to permit new comparisons of the large majority who favored library censorship of erotica with the minority who opposed it. Sixteen references are cited. (Author/FM)

  19. Library Program Evaluation: The AASL Planning Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    The word "evaluation" often strikes fear in people, but the author is different. She has always been a person who thought of evaluation, in any form, as a way to make her better and help her strive for excellence. So naturally when her library supervisor announced at a meeting that they were going to do the American Association of School…

  20. Mapping Academic Library Contributions to Campus Internationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Steven W.; Kutner, Laurie; Cooper, Liz

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed academic libraries across the United States to establish baseline data on their contributions to campus internationalization. Supplementing data from the American Council on Education (ACE) on internationalization of higher education, this research measured the level of international activities taking place in academic…

  1. Chilling Tolerance in Arabidopsis Involves ALA1, a Member of a New Family of Putative Aminophospholipid Translocases

    PubMed Central

    Gomès, Eric; Jakobsen, Mia Kyed; Axelsen, Kristian B.; Geisler, Markus; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde

    2000-01-01

    The lipid composition of membranes is a key determinant for cold tolerance, and enzymes that modify membrane structure seem to be important for low-temperature acclimation. We have characterized ALA1 (for aminophospholipid ATPase1), a novel P-type ATPase in Arabidopsis that belongs to the gene family ALA1 to ALA11. The deduced amino acid sequence of ALA1 is homologous with those of yeast DRS2 and bovine ATPase II, both of which are putative aminophospholipid translocases. ALA1 complements the deficiency in phosphatidylserine internalization into intact cells that is exhibited by the drs2 yeast mutant, and expression of ALA1 results in increased translocation of aminophospholipids in reconstituted yeast membrane vesicles. These lines of evidence suggest that ALA1 is involved in generating membrane lipid asymmetry and probably encodes an aminophospholipid translocase. ALA1 complements the cold sensitivity of the drs2 yeast mutant. Downregulation of ALA1 in Arabidopsis results in cold-affected plants that are much smaller than those of the wild type. These data suggest a link between regulation of transmembrane bilayer lipid asymmetry and the adaptation of plants to cold. PMID:11148289

  2. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodiagnosis (PD) using endogenous photosensitization induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA): current clinical and development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Stuart L.; Sobel, Russel S.; Golub, Allyn L.; Carroll, Ronald L.; Lundahl, Scott L.; Shulman, D. Geoffrey

    1996-04-01

    Exogenous provision of ALA to many tissues results in the accumulation of sufficient quantities of the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX, (PpIX), to produce a photodynamic effect. Therefore, ALA may be considered the only current PDT agent in clinical development which is a biochemical precursor of a photosensitizer. Topical ALA application, followed by exposure to activating light (ALA PDT), has been reported effective for the treatment of a variety of dermatologic diseases including cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, superficial basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and actinic (solar) keratoses, and is also being examined for treatment of acne and hirsutism. PpIX induced by ALA application also may serve as a fluorescence detection marker for photodiagnosis (PD) of malignant and pre- malignant conditions of the urinary bladder and other organs. Local internal application of ALA has also been used for selective endometrial ablation in animal model systems and is beginning to be examined in human clinical studies. Systemic, oral administration of ALA has been used for ALA PDT of superficial head and neck cancer, various gastrointestinal cancers, and the condition known as Barrett's esophagus. This brief paper reviews the current clinical and development status of ALA PDT.

  3. OPN gene polymorphism (Ala250) and lower serum OPN levels are associated with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Tugcu, Volkan; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Tarhan, Tugba; Atalar, Fatmahan; Bitkin, Alper; Tasci, Ali Ihsan; Kural, Ali Riza; Altug, Tuncay

    2013-07-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is one of the urinary proteins with an important role in stone formation. Recently, OPN Ala250 (rs1126616) polymorphism and other single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been studied to define their role in urolithiasis. This study was conducted to examine the impact of OPN Ala250 polymorphism on the risk of stone formation and their association with serum OPN levels. OPN Ala250 polymorphism was investigated in 127 urolithiasis patients and 92 healthy controls. Stones were analyzed for their chemical composition by using X-Ray diffraction method. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leucocytes. The study groups were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and serum OPN levels were measured by ELISA. There was a significant difference between urolithiasis patients and controls concerning genotype and allele frequencies of OPN Ala250 (p < 0.05). Separate analysis by BMI greater or less than 25 kg/m(2) showed that the presence of one mutant T-allele was more frequent in patients with higher BMI than patients with BMI less than 25 kg/m(2) (p < 0.05). Serum OPN concentrations were two-fold higher in the control group compared to urolithiasis patients (p < 0.05). But the mean serum levels did not show any significant difference between OPN Ala250 genotypes in both groups. Moreover, we found an association between higher BMI and stone formation. Our findings suggest that OPN Ala250 polymorphism is associated with the correlation between weight gain and urolithiasis. However, the correlation between urolithiasis and obesity needs to be further studied in larger cohorts.

  4. Photodynamic damage study of HeLa cell line using ALA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, M. S.; Atif, M.; AlObiadi, A. A.; Aldwayyan, A. S.

    2011-04-01

    The present study evaluates the photodynamic damage with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) using HeLa as experimental model. HeLa cell line was irradiated with red light (He-Ne laser, λ = 632.8 CW nm). The influence of different incubation times and concentrations of 5-ALA, different irradiation doses and various combinations of photosensitizer and light doses on the cellular viability of HeLa cells were studied. The optimal uptake of photosensitizer ALA in HeLa cells was investigated by means of PpIX fluorescence intensity by exciting the HeLa cell suspension at 450 nm and a detection wavelength set at 690 nm. Cells viability was determined by means of trypan blue solution. The spectrometric measurements showed that the maximal cellular uptake of 5-ALA occurred after 4 h in vitro incubation. We found that the combination with 5-ALA and laser irradiation leads to time/concentration-dependent increase of cells death and also energy doses-dependent enlarge the cells death. The fluorescence intensity after PDD of carcinoma cells reduce when compared with the control group. The fluorescence emission spectral profiles after PDD of carcinoma cells showed a dip around 425-525 nm when compared with the control group. This may be due to the damage of mitochondria component of cells. The percentage of HeLa cells after PDD shows that the percentage of cells survival rate as function of laser dose (power). Hence it is clear that at 200 μg/ml ALA and 20 mW laser irradiation, more than 70% of HeLa cells were dead after 15 min.

  5. Distribution of ALA metabolic products in esophageal carcinoma cells using spectrally resolved confocal laser microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, Jozef; Mateasik, Anton

    2006-08-01

    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an efficient substance used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is a precursor of light-sensitive products that can selectively accumulate in malignant cells following the altered activity of the heme biosynthetic pathway enzymes in such cells. These products are synthesized in mitochondria and distributed to various cellular structures [1]. The localization of ALA products in subcellular structures depends on their chemical characteristics as well as on the properties of the intracellular environment [2]. Characterization of such properties is possible by means of fluorescent probes like JC-1 and carboxy SNARF-1. However, the emission spectra of these probes are overlapped with spectral pattern of typical ALA product -protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Spectral overlap of fluorescence signals prevents to clearly separate a distribution of probes from PpIX distribution what can completely mess the applicability of these probes in characterization of cell properties. The spectrally resolved confocal laser microscopy can be used to overcome this problem. In this study, a distribution of ALA metabolic products in relation to the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular pH was examined. Human cell lines (KYSE-450, KYSE-70) from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were used. Cells were incubated with 1mM solution of ALA for four hours. Two fluorescent probes, carboxy SNARF-1 and JC-1 , were used to monitor intracellular pH levels and to determine membrane potential changes, respectively. The samples were scanned by spectrally resolved laser scanning microscope. Spectral linear unmixing method was used to discriminate and separate regions of accumulation of ALA metabolic products of JC-1 and carboxy SNARF-1.

  6. ALA PDT for high grade dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus: review of a decade's experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bown, Stephen G.; Mackenzie, Gary D.; Dunn, Jason M.; Thorpe, Sally M.; Lovat, Laurence B.

    2009-06-01

    We have been investigating PDT with 5 aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) for the treatment of high grade dysplasia (HGD) in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) for over a decade. This drug has inherent advantages over porfimer sodium (Photofrin), the current approved photosensitiser in the UK and USA, which causes strictures in 18-50% and light sensitivity for up to three months. ALA has a lower rate of oesophageal strictures due to its preferential activity in the mucosa, sparing the underlying muscle, and patients are only light sensitive for 1-2 days. Within a randomised controlled trial, we demonstrated that an ALA dose of 60mg/kg activated by 1000J/cm red laser light is the most effective. Using these values we achieved complete reversal of HGD at 1 year in 89% of 27 patients. A randomised controlled trial of ALA vs porfimer sodium PDT for HGD is currently under way with end points of efficacy and safety. 50 of 66 patients have been recruited. Preliminary data suggest ALA PDT is safer with a trend to higher efficacy. Late relapse can occur in 20% of patients. New prognostic markers, in particular aneuploidy, are helping us to identify and target patients at risk of late relapse. Furthermore optical biopsy techniques such as elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) may allow detection of nuclear abnormalities in vivo and enable us to target areas of interest whilst reducing sampling error. PDT faces new challenges for the treatment of HGD in BO, with the recent introduction of balloon based radiofrequency ablation. This technique appears simpler and as effective as PDT, but follow up is currently short and long term safety data is lacking. In our experience ALA PDT is currently the most effective minimally invasive treatment for HGD in BO. This work was undertaken at UCLH/UCL who received a proportion of funding from the Department of Health's NIHR Biomedical Research Centres funding scheme.

  7. Neurotransmitter transporter family including SLC6A6 and SLC6A13 contributes to the 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin IX and photodamage, through uptake of ALA by cancerous cells.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tai Tien; Mu, Anfeng; Adachi, Yuka; Adachi, Yasushi; Taketani, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    δ-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin accumulation is widely used in the treatment of cancer, as photodynamic therapy (PDT). To clarify the mechanisms of ALA uptake by tumor cells, we have examined the ALA-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin by the treatment of colon cancer DLD-1 and epithelial cancer HeLa cells with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related compounds. When the cells were treated with GABA, taurine and β-alanine, the level of protoporphyrin was decreased, suggesting that plasma membrane transporters involved in the transport of neurotransmitters contribute to the uptake of ALA. By transfection with neurotransmitter transporters SLC6A6, SLC6A8 and SLC6A13 cDNA, the ALA- and ALA methylester-dependent accumulation of protoporphyrin markedly increased in HEK293T cells, dependent on an increase in the uptake of ALA. When ALA-treated cells were exposed to white light, the extent of photodamage increased in SLC6A6- and SLC6A13-expressing cells. Conversely, knockdown of SLC6A6 or SLC6A13 with siRNAs in DLD-1 and HeLa cells decreased the ALA-induced accumulation. The expression of SLC6A6 and SLC6A13 was found in some cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the presence of these transporters was elevated in colon cancerous cells. These results indicated that neurotransmitter transporters including SLC6A6 and SLC6A13 mediate the uptake of ALA and can play roles in the enhancement of ALA-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin in cancerous cells.

  8. Vermont Public Library Almanac: A Compendium of Often-Answered Questions. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Marianne

    This document contains brief answers to some of the most frequently raised issues related to running a small Vermont public library. Areas covered include accessibility, the American Library Association, automation, awards, binding, services for the blind and physically handicapped, the Board of Libraries, the Board of Trustees, book dealers, book…

  9. Our National Monument of Art: Constructing and Debating the National Body at the Library of Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    It is not surprising that the Library of Congress would be defined as our national monument of art given the scale of the project, its federal sponsorship, and its posture as a public library with access to all Americans. Paralleling the assumption of the Library of Congress as not merely a building for housing books but a ritualistic center of…

  10. Tourist Attraction: The Moore Library of Lexington, Michigan, 1903-1953

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This essay challenges traditional assumptions about the small-town American public library and the roles it has played in its community. Conventional thinking and professional rhetoric grounded on a "user in the life of the library" perspective identifies the public library as a neutral agency "essential to democracy" that…

  11. Library Outreach to Juvenile Offenders in Intensive Supervision Probation Programs (Community Centered House Arrest)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumfield, Elizabeth Jean

    2008-01-01

    The American Library Association encourages public libraries to extend their services to people in jails and detention centers, but there is little research that shows exactly how many libraries do so. Research shows that 54% of juveniles arrested are not sent to residential facilities but instead receive court ordered probation into an Intensive…

  12. Army Library Institute V: Product/Marketing/Service - Volume 2, Supplementary Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    TRALINET (TRADOC Library Information Network) The Library’s Product In the Marketing Mix Session 3, Wednesday, 20 May 1981 General Lecture—Anglo-American...Redstone Scientific Information Center (RSIC) Automated System, J. Cooney F TRADOC Regulation 1-2 G The Library’s Product in the Marketing Mix , H

  13. Celebrating 65 Years of a Dynamic Organization for School Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolls, Blanche

    2016-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians (AASL) as an American Library Association division is sixty-five years young in 2016. This article describes the AASL as a division of the American Library Association (ALA). The author presents: (1) Early Days in ALA; (2) AASL as a Division; (3) AASL's Future; and (4) Commemorating the Past by Paying…

  14. The History and Role of Libraries in Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horning, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Illiteracy is a huge problem, socially, economically and educationally. This study of the history and current practices of American public libraries examines their role in supporting the development of human literate abilities and in helping all Americans to be critically literate in order to participate fully and successfully in our society. This…

  15. Reversible cyclic peptide libraries for the discovery of affinity ligands.

    PubMed

    Menegatti, Stefano; Ward, Kevin Lawrence; Naik, Amith Dattatray; Kish, William Stanley; Blackburn, Robert Kevin; Carbonell, Ruben Guillermo

    2013-10-01

    A novel strategy is presented for the identification of cyclic peptide ligands from combinatorial libraries of reversible cyclic depsipeptides. A method for the solid-phase synthesis of individual cyclic depsipeptides and combinatorial libraries of these compounds is proposed, which employs lactic acid (Lact) and the dipeptide ester (Nα-Ac)-Ser(Ala)- as linkers for dilactonization. Upon alkaline treatment of the beads selected by screening a model library, the cyclic depsipeptides are linearized and released from the solid support to the liquid phase, to be sequenced via single-step tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The protocol presented for library synthesis provides for wide structural diversity. Two model sequences, VVWVVK and AAWAAR, were chosen to present different structural examples for depsipeptide libraries and demonstrate the process of sequence determination by mass spectrometry. Further, a case study using the IgG binding cyclic depsipeptide cyclo[(Nα-Ac)-S(A)-RWHYFK-Lact-E] is presented to demonstrate the process of library screening and sequence determination on the selected beads. Finally, a method is shown for synthesis of the irreversible cyclic peptide corresponding to the proposed depsipeptide structure, to make the ligand stable to the aqueous acid and alkaline conditions encountered in affinity chromatographic applications. The cyclic peptide ligand was synthesized on a poly(methacrylate) resin and used for chromatographic binding of the target IgG.

  16. ALA-PDT mediated DC vaccine for skin squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jie; Fan, Zhixia; Zhou, Feifan; Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Peiru; Yang, Degang; Zhang, Linglin; Wang, Xiuli; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) based vaccine has emerged as a promising immunotherapy for cancers. However, most DC vaccines so far have only achieved limited success in cancer treatment. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an established cancer treatment strategy, can cause immunogenic apoptosis to induce an effective antitumor immune response. In this study, we developed a DC-based cancer vaccine using immunogenic apoptotic tumor cells induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT. The maturation of DCs induced by PDT-treated apoptotic cells was evaluated. The anti-tumor immunity of ALA-PDT-DC vaccine was tested with mouse model. We observed the maturations of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT treated tumor cells, including phenotypic maturation (upregulation of surface expression of MHC-II, DC80, and CD86), and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secret INF-Υ and IL-12). ALA-PDT-DC vaccine mediated by apoptotic cells provided protection against tumor in mice, far stronger than that of DC vaccine obtained from freeze/thaw treated tumor cells. Our results indicate that immunogenic apoptotic tumor cells can be more effective in enhancing DC-based cancer vaccine, which could improve the clinical application of PDT- DC vaccines.

  17. Effect of Surfactant on Production of Oxygenated Unsaturated Fatty Acids by Bacillus megaterium ALA2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus megaterium ALA2 NRRL B-21660 was well studied to produce many oxygenated unsaturated fatty acids from linoleic acid. Its major product, 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (12,13,17-THOA) inhibited the growth of many plant pathogenic fungi [1]. We were not able to demonstrate 12,13...

  18. Effect of surfactants on production of oxygenated unsaturated fatty acids by Bacillus megaterium ALA2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus megaterium ALA2 produces many oxygenated unsaturated fatty acids from linoleic acid. Its major product, 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (12,13,17-THOA) inhibits the growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. Because hydrophobic fatty acids need to be evenly dispersed in culture for...

  19. Effect of Surfactants on Production of Oxygenated Unsaturated Fatty Acids by Bacillus megaterium ALA2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus megaterium ALA2 (NRRL B-21660) produces many oxygenated unsaturated fatty acids from linoleic acid. Its major product, 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (12,13,17-THOA), inhibits the growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. Because hydrophobic fatty acids need to be evenly disperse...

  20. Targeted opening of the blood brain barrier by ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Peng, Qian; Uzal, Francisco A.; Chighvinadze, David; Zhang, Michelle J.; Madsen, Steen J.

    2009-06-01

    Background and Objective: We have evaluated the ability of ALA-mediated PDT to selectivly open the BBB in rats. This will permit access of chemotherapeutic agents to brain tumor cells remaining in the resection cavity wall, but limit their penetration into normal brain remote from the site of illumination. Study Design/Materials and Methods: ALA-PDT was performed on non-tumor bearing inbred Fischer rats at increasing fluence levels. Contrast T1-weighted high field (3 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to monitor the degree of BBB disruption. Results: PDT at increasing fluence levels between 9 and 17 J demonstrated an increasing contrast flow rate. The BBB was found to be disrupted 2 h following PDT and 80 - 100 % restored 72 h later at the lowest fluence level. No effect on the BBB was observed if 26 J of light was given in the absence of ALA. Conclusion: ALA-PDT was highly effective in opening the BBB in a localized region of the brain. The degradation of the BBB was temporary in nature at fluence levels of 9 J, opening rapidly following treatment and significantly restored during the next 72 h. No signs of permanent tissue damage were seen on histological sections at this fluence level.

  1. X-linked macrocytic dyserythropoietic anemia in females with an ALAS2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Vijay G.; Ulirsch, Jacob C.; Tchaikovskii, Vassili; Ludwig, Leif S.; Wakabayashi, Aoi; Kadirvel, Senkottuvelan; Lindsley, R. Coleman; Bejar, Rafael; Shi, Jiahai; Lovitch, Scott B.; Bishop, David F.; Steensma, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Macrocytic anemia with abnormal erythropoiesis is a common feature of megaloblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and myelodysplastic syndromes. Here, we characterized a family with multiple female individuals who have macrocytic anemia. The proband was noted to have dyserythropoiesis and iron overload. After an extensive diagnostic evaluation that did not provide insight into the cause of the disease, whole-exome sequencing of multiple family members revealed the presence of a mutation in the X chromosomal gene ALAS2, which encodes 5′-aminolevulinate synthase 2, in the affected females. We determined that this mutation (Y365C) impairs binding of the essential cofactor pyridoxal 5′-phosphate to ALAS2, resulting in destabilization of the enzyme and consequent loss of function. X inactivation was not highly skewed in wbc from the affected individuals. In contrast, and consistent with the severity of the ALAS2 mutation, there was a complete skewing toward expression of the WT allele in mRNA from reticulocytes that could be recapitulated in primary erythroid cultures. Together, the results of the X inactivation and mRNA studies illustrate how this X-linked dominant mutation in ALAS2 can perturb normal erythropoiesis through cell-nonautonomous effects. Moreover, our findings highlight the value of whole-exome sequencing in diagnostically challenging cases for the identification of disease etiology and extension of the known phenotypic spectrum of disease. PMID:25705881

  2. CDC64 Encodes Cytoplasmic Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase, Ala1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, Carolyn; Schmidt, Emmett V.; Polymenis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The cdc64-1 mutation causes G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae corresponding to a type II Start phenotype. We report that CDC64 encodes Ala1p, an alanyl-tRNA synthetase. Thus, cdc64-1 might affect charging of tRNAAla and thereby initiation of cell division. PMID:10601222

  3. ALAS: Achievement for Latinos through Academic Success. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "ALAS," an acronym for "Achievement for Latinos through Academic Success" that means "wings" in Spanish, is a middle school (or junior high school) intervention designed to address student, school, family, and community factors that affect dropping out. Each student is assigned a counselor who monitors attendance,…

  4. Studying Online: Student Motivations and Experiences in ALA-Accredited LIS Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguz, Fatih; Chu, Clara M.; Chow, Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a large scale study of online MLIS students (n = 910), who completed at least one online course and were enrolled in 36 of the 58 ALA-accredited MLIS programs in Canada and the United States. The results indicate that the typical student is female, White, lives in an urban setting, and is in her mid-30s. Online students were…

  5. Holcim, Inc. Receives Gulf Guardian Award for Eliminating Stormwater Discharges from Theodore, Ala.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Gulf of Mexico Program recognized Holcim Inc., which operates a cement plant in Theodore, Ala., with the First Place 2015 Gulf Guardian Award in the Business and Industry Category. The awards cerem

  6. Pathogenic mitochondrial mt-tRNA(Ala) variants are uniquely associated with isolated myopathy.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Diana; Schubert, Kathrin; Joshi, Pushpa R; Hardy, Steven A; Tuppen, Helen A L; Baty, Karen; Blakely, Emma L; Bamberg, Christian; Zierz, Stephan; Deschauer, Marcus; Taylor, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations are associated with a wide range of clinical phenotypes, often involving multiple organ systems. We report two patients with isolated myopathy owing to novel mt-tRNA(Ala) variants. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive histopathological findings including cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibres. Pyrosequencing confirmed mtDNA heteroplasmy for both mutations (m.5631G>A and m.5610G>A) whilst single-muscle fibre segregation studies (revealing statistically significant higher mutation loads in COX-deficient fibres than in COX-positive fibres), hierarchical mutation segregation within patient tissues and decreased steady-state mt-tRNA(Ala) levels all provide compelling evidence of pathogenicity. Interestingly, both patients showed very high-mutation levels in all tissues, inferring that the threshold for impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, as evidenced by COX deficiency, appears to be extremely high for these mt-tRNA(Ala) variants. Previously described mt-tRNA(Ala) mutations are also associated with a pure myopathic phenotype and demonstrate very high mtDNA heteroplasmy thresholds, inferring at least some genotype:phenotype correlation for mutations within this particular mt-tRNA gene.

  7. The New Library Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Stanley

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses what the growing generation gap among library employees mean for academic research libraries and for the profession. Viewed collectively, the members of the under-35 cohort are a harbinger of a new kind of academic library professional, one whose traits bear directly on the ability of libraries to thrive amid the continuing…

  8. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  9. California: Library Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Barbara, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Describes six information technology projects in California libraries, including Internet access in public libraries; digital library developments at the University of California, Berkeley; the World Wide Web home page for the state library; Pacific Bell's role in statewide connectivity; state government initiatives; and services of the state…

  10. The "Integrated Library System."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowlin, Kenneth E.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews internal and external dimensions of library environment that must be taken into account by library managers when choosing an integrated library system. The selection, acquisition, and implementation stages of Maggie III--a computerized library system sensitive to the internal and external organizational environment--are described. (MBR)

  11. Libraries, Ebooks, and Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    People keep writing articles about how valuable libraries are, even with ebooks and the Internet. What people are overlooking is that the reason libraries are having such fits dealing with a changing environment is not that libraries are unrecognized as fountains of value, it's that libraries are so valuable that they attract voracious new…

  12. Association between the Pro12Ala Polymorphism of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene and Strength Athlete Status

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Zarebska, Aleksandra; Sawczyn, Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    Background The 12Ala allele of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma gene (PPARG) Pro12Ala polymorphism produces a decreased binding affinity of the PPARγ2 protein, resulting in low activation of the target genes. The 12Ala allele carriers display a significantly improved insulin sensitivity that may result in better glucose utilisation in working skeletal muscles. We hypothesise that the PPARG 12Ala allele could be associated with strength athlete status in Polish athletes. Methodology The genotype distribution of PPARG Pro12Ala was examined in 660 Polish athletes. The athletes were stratified into four subgroups: endurance, strength-endurance, sprint-strength and strength. Control samples were prepared from 684 unrelated sedentary volunteers. A χ2 test was used to compare the PPARG Pro12Ala allele and genotype frequencies between the different groups of athletes and control subjects. Bonferroni’s correction for multiple testing was applied. Results A statistically significant higher frequency of PPARG 12Ala alleles was observed in the subgroup of strength athletes performing short-term and very intense exertion characterised by predominant anaerobic energy production (13.2% vs. 7.5% in controls; P = 0.0007). Conclusion The PPARG 12Ala allele may be a relevant genetic factor favouring strength abilities in professional athletes, especially in terms of insulin-dependent metabolism, a shift of the energy balance towards glucose utilisation and the development of a favourable weight-to-strength ratio. PMID:23799144

  13. Substitution of the Lys linker with the β-Ala linker dramatically decreased the renal uptake of 99mTc-labeled Arg-X-Asp-conjugated and X-Ala-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptides.

    PubMed

    Flook, Adam M; Yang, Jianquan; Miao, Yubin

    2014-11-13

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the substitution of the Lys linker with the β-Ala could reduce the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-labeled Arg-X-Asp-conjugated and X-Ala-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptides. RSD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (1) {c[Arg-Ser-Asp-dTyr-Asp]-β-Ala-Cys-Cys-Glu-His-dPhe-Arg-Trp-Cys-Arg-Pro-Val-NH2}, RTD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (2), RVD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (3), RAD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (4), NAD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (5), and EAD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (6) peptides were synthesized and evaluated for their melanocortin 1 (MC1) receptor binding affinities in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The biodistribution of their (99m)Tc-conjugates were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The substitution of the Lys linker with β-Ala linker dramatically reduced the renal uptake of all six (99m)Tc-peptides. (99m)Tc-4 exhibited the highest melanoma uptake (15.66 ± 6.19% ID/g) and the lowest kidney uptake (20.18 ± 3.86% ID/g) among these (99m)Tc-peptides at 2 h postinjection. The B16/F1 melanoma lesions could be clearly visualized by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT using (99m)Tc-4 as an imaging probe.

  14. ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy of experimental malignant glioma in the BD-IX rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Angell-Petersen, Even; Peng, Qian; Sun, Chung-Ho; Sorensen, Dag R.; Carper, Steven W.; Madsen, Steen J.

    2005-04-01

    Introduction: Failure of treatment for high grade gliomas is usually due to local recurrence at the site of surgical resec-tion indicating that a more aggressive form of local therapy could be of benefit. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a local form of treatment involving the administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizing drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength The results of in vitro experiments indicated that PDT, given at low fluence rates was substantially more effective at inhibiting glioma spheroid growth than short term high fluence rate regimes. This prompted the initia-tion of in vivo studies of low fluence rate 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) PDT in a rat glioma model. Methods:BT4C cell line tumors were established in the brains of inbred BD- IX rats. Eighteen days following tumor induction the animals were injected with 125 mg/kg ALA ip. and four hours later light treatment at various fluences and fluence rates were given after the introduction of an optical fiber. Tumor histology and animal survival were examined. Results: In vitro experiments verified that the cell line was sensitive to ALA PDT. Microfluorometry of frozen tissue sections showed that PpIX is produced with a greater than 20:1 tumor to normal tissue selectivity ratio four hours after ALA injection. Histological examination demonstrated neutrophil infiltration and tumor central necrosis in low fluence rate treated tumors. Conclusions: Low fluence rate long term ALA mediated PDT had a more pronounced effect on tumor histology than single shot short duration treatments at similar total fluence levels.

  15. Influence of formulation factors on methyl-ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX accumulation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Ryan F; Juzenas, Petras; McCarron, Paul A; Ma, Li-Wei; Woolfson, A David; Moan, Johan

    2006-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical treatment by which a combination of a photosensitising drug and visible light cause the destruction of selected cells. Thick lesions, such as nodular basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), or lesions with overlying keratinous debris, are reported as being difficult to eradicate using 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT). Such treatment failures have been attributed to the shallow penetration of water-soluble drugs like ALA. In addition, the current scarcity of sophisticated drug delivery research centered on PDT applications has meant that accurate comparison of similar clinical studies is difficult. This paper investigates, for the first time, novel drug delivery systems for controlled drug delivery of methyl-ALA (M-ALA). Pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) and bioadhesive patches containing defined M-ALA loadings and a standard cream containing equivalent amounts of drug were applied to the skin of mice for defined periods of time and the fluorescence of the protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced measured over 24h. Of major importance, the PSA patches containing low drug loadings induced high PpIX levels, which were limited to the site of application, after only 1h applications. Such systems have the potential to improve selectivity of PpIX accumulation, increase simplicity of treatment and, due to the low drug loadings required, reduce costs of clinical PDT. PSA patches would be most suitable for application to areas of dry skin, while bioadhesive patches would be suitable for moist areas, such as the mouth or lower female reproductive tract and have been shown here to induce significant PpIX production at the site of application after 4h applications of patches containing high drug loadings.

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha controls hepatic heme biosynthesis through ALAS1.

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Tatjana; Väisänen, Sami; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Kersten, Sander; Carlberg, Carsten

    2009-05-01

    Heme is an essential prosthetic group of proteins involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism and nitric oxide production. ALAS1 (5-aminolevulinate synthase) is the rate-limiting enzyme in heme synthesis in the liver and is highly regulated to adapt to the metabolic demand of the hepatocyte. In the present study, we describe human hepatic ALAS1 as a new direct target for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). In primary human hepatocytes and in HepG2 cells, PPARalpha agonists induced an increase in ALAS1 mRNA levels, which was abolished by PPARalpha silencing. These effects are mediated by two functional PPAR binding sites at positions -9 and -2.3 kb relative to the ALAS1 transcription start site. PPARalpha ligand treatment also up-regulated the mRNA levels of the genes ALAD (5-aminolevulinate dehydratase), UROS (uroporphyrinogen III synthase), UROD (uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase), CPOX (coproporphyrinogen oxidase) and PPOX (protoporphyrinogen oxidase) encoding for enzymes controlling further steps in heme biosynthesis. In HepG2 cells treated with PPARalpha agonists and in mouse liver upon fasting, the association of PPARalpha, its partner retinoid X receptor, PPARgamma co-activator 1alpha and activated RNA polymerase II with the transcription start site region of all six genes was increased, leading to higher levels of the metabolite heme. In conclusion, these data strongly support a role of PPARalpha in the regulation of human ALAS1 and of five additional genes of the pathway, consequently leading to increased heme synthesis.

  17. American and English Literature Reference Sources. Bibliographic Series No. 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salassi, Otto

    Selected information sources for English and American literature and poetry available at the Arkansas University library are listed including style manuals; guides to the literature; indexes to poetry and short stories; English and American literary histories; general, English, and American biographical sources; handbooks, dictionaries, and…

  18. Afro-American Studies: A Research Guide. 1992 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith E., Comp.

    This guide has been prepared to enable students at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte to locate material on topics in Afro-American studies or topics with Afro-American emphasis in the J. Murrey Atkins Library. Although a number of sources listed within the guide relate specifically to Afro-American studies, many others treat the black…

  19. America's Star Libraries, 2010: Top-Rated Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2010-01-01

    The "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2010, "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Ray Lyons and Keith Curry Lance, and based on 2008 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,407 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries, stars or…

  20. Integrated Library System (ILS): Serials Check-In at the Army Library, Pentagon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-02

    notebook sections can and do ci~cilate separately, i.e., articles put out by the Institute for Business Planning . Other notebook services require...IEEE Publications Bulletin Illinois Libraries Index Medicus Institute for Business Planning Inter-American Review of Bibliography Interchange

  1. School Libraries Count! The Second National Survey of School Library Media Programs, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) initiated an annual survey of school library media programs. The development of this longitudinal survey project was mandated by the AASL Board and advocated by the division's Research and Statistics Committee and Independent Schools Section. The launch of the second year of the survey…

  2. Authoritarianism and Censorship: Attitudes and Opinions of Students in the Graduate Library School of Indiana University. A Report of an Exploratory Project Conducted as a Preliminary for a Proposed Nationwide Study of American Public Librarians and Intellectual Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busha, Charles H.

    This study attempts to measure the attitudes toward intellectual freedom held by a group of future librarians and to correlate these findings with certain syndromes of authoritarianism as reported in "The Authoritarian Personality," by T. W. Adorno, and others (New York, Harper, 1950). The hypothesis is that graduate library students who…

  3. Characterization of the Ala62Pro polymorphic variant of human cytochrome P450 1A1 using recombinant protein expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Heon; Kang, Sukmo; Dong, Mi Sook; Park, Jung-Duck; Park, Jinseo; Rhee, Sangkee; Ryu, Doug-Young

    2015-06-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 is a heme-containing enzyme involved in detoxification of hydrophobic pollutants. Its Ala62Pro variant has been identified previously. Ala62 is located in α-helix A of CYP1A1. Residues such as Pro and Gly are α-helix breakers. In this study, the Ala62Pro variant was characterized using heterologous expression. E. coli expressing the Ala62Pro variant, and the purified variant protein, had lower CYP (i.e. holoenzyme) contents than their wild-type (WT) equivalents. The CYP variant from E. coli and mammalian cells exhibited lower 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (EROD) and benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation activities than the WT. Enhanced supplementation of a heme precursor during E. coli culture did not increase CYP content in E. coli expressing the variant, but did for the WT. As for Ala62Pro, E. coli expressing an Ala62Gly variant had a lower CYP content than the WT counterpart, but substitution of Ala62 with α-helix-compatible residues such as Ser and Val partially recovered the level of CYP produced. Microsomes from mammalian cells expressing Ala62Pro and Ala62Gly variants exhibited lower EROD activities than those expressing the WT or Ala62Val variant. A region harboring α-helix A has interactions with another region containing heme-interacting residues. Site-directed mutagenesis analyses suggest the importance of interactions between the two regions on holoenzyme expression. Together, these findings suggest that the Ala62Pro substitution leads to changes in protein characteristics and function of CYP1A1 via structural disturbance of the region where the residue is located. - Highlights: • Ala62 is located in α-helix A of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A1. • Pro acts as an α-helix breaker. • A variant protein of CYP1A1, Ala62Pro, had lower heme content than the wild-type. • The variant of CYP1A1 had lower enzyme activities than the wild-type.

  4. Summer library reading programs.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Carole D

    2007-01-01

    Virtually all public libraries in the United States provide some type of summer library reading program during the traditional summer vacation period. Summer library reading programs provide opportunities for students of many ages and abilities to practice their reading skills and maintain skills that are developed during the school year. Fiore summarizes some of the research in the field and relates it to library programs and usage by students. Several traditional and innovative programs from U.S. and Canadian libraries are described. She concludes with a call for further research related to summer library reading programs.

  5. Preclinical Development of a Subcutaneous ALAS1 RNAi Therapeutic for Treatment of Hepatic Porphyrias Using Circulating RNA Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Amy; Liebow, Abigail; Yasuda, Makiko; Gan, Lin; Racie, Tim; Maier, Martin; Kuchimanchi, Satya; Foster, Don; Milstein, Stuart; Charisse, Klaus; Sehgal, Alfica; Manoharan, Muthiah; Meyers, Rachel; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Simon, Amy; Desnick, Robert J; Querbes, William

    2015-01-01

    The acute hepatic porphyrias are caused by inherited enzymatic deficiencies in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Induction of the first enzyme 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) by triggers such as fasting or drug exposure can lead to accumulation of neurotoxic heme intermediates that cause disease symptoms. We have demonstrated that hepatic ALAS1 silencing using siRNA in a lipid nanoparticle effectively prevents and treats induced attacks in a mouse model of acute intermittent porphyria. Herein, we report the development of ALN-AS1, an investigational GalNAc-conjugated RNAi therapeutic targeting ALAS1. One challenge in advancing ALN-AS1 to patients is the inability to detect liver ALAS1 mRNA in the absence of liver biopsies. We here describe a less invasive circulating extracellular RNA detection assay to monitor RNAi drug activity in serum and urine. A striking correlation in ALAS1 mRNA was observed across liver, serum, and urine in both rodents and nonhuman primates (NHPs) following treatment with ALN-AS1. Moreover, in donor-matched human urine and serum, we demonstrate a notable correspondence in ALAS1 levels, minimal interday assay variability, low interpatient variability from serial sample collections, and the ability to distinguish between healthy volunteers and porphyria patients with induced ALAS1 levels. The collective data highlight the potential utility of this assay in the clinical development of ALN-AS1, and in broadening our understanding of acute hepatic porphyrias disease pathophysiology. PMID:26528940

  6. ALA Inhibits ABA-induced Stomatal Closure via Reducing H2O2 and Ca2+ Levels in Guard Cells

    PubMed Central

    An, Yuyan; Liu, Longbo; Chen, Linghui; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a newly proved natural plant growth regulator, is well known to improve plant photosynthesis under both normal and stressful conditions. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Stomatal closure is one of the major limiting factors for photosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone in provoking stomatal closing. Here, we showed that ALA significantly inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure using wild-type and ALA-overproducing transgenic Arabidopsis (YHem1). We found that ALA decreased ABA-induced H2O2 and cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in guard cells with stomatal bioassay, laser-scanning confocal microscopy and pharmacological methods. The inhibitory effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was similar to that of AsA (an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal), CAT (a H2O2-scavenging enzyme), DPI (an inhibitor of the H2O2-generating NADPH oxidase), EGTA (a Ca-chelating agent), and AlCl3 (an inhibitor of calcium channel). Furthermore, ALA inhibited exogenous H2O2- or Ca2+-induced stomatal closure. Taken together, we conclude that ALA inhibits ABA-induced stomatal closure via reducing H2O2, probably by scavenging, and Ca2+ levels in guard cells. Moreover, the inhibitive effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was further confirmed in the whole plant. Finally, we demonstrated that ALA inhibits stomatal closing, but significantly improves plant drought tolerance. Our results provide valuable information for the promotion of plant production and development of a sustainable low-carbon society. PMID:27148309

  7. Rolled-Up Nanotech: Illumination-Controlled Hydrofluoric Acid Etching of AlAs Sacrificial Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costescu, Ruxandra M.; Deneke, Christoph; Thurmer, Dominic J.; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of illumination on the hydrofluoric acid etching of AlAs sacrificial layers with systematically varied thicknesses in order to release and roll up InGaAs/GaAs bilayers was studied. For thicknesses of AlAs below 10 nm, there were two etching regimes for the area under illumination: one at low illumination intensities, in which the etching and releasing proceeds as expected and one at higher intensities in which the etching and any releasing are completely suppressed. The “etch suppression” area is well defined by the illumination spot, a feature that can be used to create heterogeneously etched regions with a high degree of control, shown here on patterned samples. Together with the studied self-limitation effect, the technique offers a way to determine the position of rolled-up micro- and nanotubes independently from the predefined lithographic pattern.

  8. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of the nuclear spin dynamics in an AlAs quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchepetilnikov, A. V.; Frolov, D. D.; Nefyodov, Yu. A.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Tiemann, L.; Reichl, C.; Dietsche, W.; Wegscheider, W.

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear spin dynamics in an asymmetrically doped 16-nm AlAs quantum well grown along the [001] direction has been studied experimentally using the time decay of the Overhauser shift of paramagnetic resonance of conduction electrons. The nonzero spin polarization of nuclei causing the initial observed Overhauser shift is due the relaxation of the nonequilibrium spin polarization of electrons into the nuclear subsystem near electron paramagnetic resonance owing to the hyperfine interaction. The measured relaxation time of nuclear spins near the unity filling factor is (530 ± 30) min at the temperature T = 0.5 K. This value exceeds the characteristic spin relaxation times of nuclei in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures by more than an order of magnitude. This fact indicates the decrease in the strength of the hyperfine interaction in the AlAs quantum well in comparison with GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures.

  9. [Clinical characterization of allergic patients sensitized to Chamaecyparis obtusa--using AlaSTAT system].

    PubMed

    Okano, M; Nishioka, K; Nagano, T; Ohta, N; Masuda, Y

    1994-09-01

    Clinical characterization of patients with allergy to Chamaecyparis obtusa (Cypress) pollen and their specific IgE antibody was investigated by using AlaSTAT assay, a new method for measurement of antigen-specific IgE antibody. Positive rate of antigen-specific antibody in patients with allergic pollinosis was 83.5% for Japanese cedar pollen and 80.0% for Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen. 76.4% of patients were sensitized both to Japanese cedar and Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen, however, 7.9% were sensitized only to the latter. As for clinical symptoms, duration of attack was short and severity was mild or moderate in the patients sensitized only to Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen. Patients who visited hospital in April, in that Chamaecyparis obtusa pollen disseminated in the air predominantly, showed significant elevation in AlaSTAT scores compared with patients who visited in February and March (p < 0.05).

  10. Photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in the treatment of pathological states of the cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switka-Wieclawska, Iwona; Kecik, Tadeusz; Kwasny, Miroslaw; Graczyk, Alfreda

    2003-10-01

    Each year an increasing amount of research is published on the use of photodynamic therapy in medicine. The most recent research has focused mostly on the use of photosensitizer called vertoporphyrin (Visudyne) is the treatment of subretinal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or myopia, following a substantial amount of ophthalmology research mostly experimental on the application of the method in diagnosis and treatment of some eye tumors. In the Department of Ophthalmology of Polish Medical University in Warsaw, PDT was used as supplementary method in a selected group of patients with chronic virus ulcer of the cornea and keratopathies. During the treatment 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was applied in ointment form as a photosensitizer activated with light wave of 633 nm. It appears, on the basis of the results obtained, that photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) may become in the future a valuable supplement to the methods being used at the present treating pathological states of the cornea.

  11. Endoscopic fluorescence of gastrointestinal neoplasia after sensitization with 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) or Photofrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messmann, Helmut; Mlkvy, Peter; Montan, Sune; Wang-Nordman, Ingrid; Nilsson, Annika M.; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence after photosensitization has the potential to identify lesions not visible on conventional endoscopy. We assessed 12 patients at high risk of or with established GI cancers (u ulcerative colitis, 1 colon polyp, 2 familial polyposis with duodenal polyps, 2 early oesophageal cancers). Fluorescence images (excitation 390 nm) were recorded with endoscopic equipment and additional spot measurements (optical multichannel analyzer). Patients were given 10 - 60 mg/kg ALA orally or 2 mg/kg Photofrin i.v. 60 mg/kg ALA gave high levels of PP IX (proto-porphyrin IX) in all areas, but 10 - 15 mg/kg resulted in selectivity in macroscopically inflamed colon. Photofrin gave oesophageal tumors selectivity at 4 and 48 hours. Photofrin patients subsequently had PDT. Photobleaching was documented in 3. We conclude that these techniques have potential as `optical biopsy tools' and for screening for early neoplastic changes.

  12. Healthy Libraries Develop Healthy Communities: Public Libraries and their Tremendous Efforts to Support the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lydia N.

    2015-01-01

    This article is about the dedication of public library staff and my role as the Consumer Health Coordinator for the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, Middle Atlantic Region (NN/LM MAR) to support outreach efforts for health insurance enrollment under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). ACA was created in order to ensure that all Americans have access to affordable health care. What we didn’t know is that public libraries across the nation would play such an integral role in the health insurance enrollment process. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) worked closely with public libraries in order to assist with this new role. As we approach the second enrollment and re-enrollment periods, public libraries are gearing up once again to assist with ACA. PMID:25798077

  13. Healthy Libraries Develop Healthy Communities: Public Libraries and their Tremendous Efforts to Support the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lydia N

    This article is about the dedication of public library staff and my role as the Consumer Health Coordinator for the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, Middle Atlantic Region (NN/LM MAR) to support outreach efforts for health insurance enrollment under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). ACA was created in order to ensure that all Americans have access to affordable health care. What we didn't know is that public libraries across the nation would play such an integral role in the health insurance enrollment process. The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) worked closely with public libraries in order to assist with this new role. As we approach the second enrollment and re-enrollment periods, public libraries are gearing up once again to assist with ACA.

  14. Library Advocacy Now! Library Advocate's Handbook. [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD.

    Libraries are one of the world's greatest assets. Changes in the political, social, and economic climate in the U.S. mean that people cannot take public access to information for granted. Intense competition for public, private, and institutional dollars makes it more crucial than ever that policymakers understand that libraries--public, school,…

  15. The Virtual Library: Computers in Libraries Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Laverna

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a postconference workshop on virtual libraries that was presented at the third annual Computers in Libraries Canada Conference. Highlights include networks; technological change; administrative issues, including organizational structure, staff training, strategic planning, and financial resources; a case study of the University of…

  16. Art Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on art libraries and information services for the arts, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "'I See All': Information Technology and the Universal Availability of Images" by Philip Pacey (United Kingdom); (2) "Online Databases in the Fine Arts"…

  17. Administrative Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six papers on the theme, "Administrative Libraries in a Technological World: Past, Present, and Future--A General Stocktaking and a State of the Art Report" focus on West German telecommunications and information technology and the use of data processing and other technological aids in West German administrative libraries. These papers,…

  18. Nuclear transcription factors: a new approach to enhancing cellular responses to ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Sato, Nobuyuki; Moore, Brian; Mack, Judith; Gasbarre, Christopher; Keevey, Samantha; Ortel, Bernhard; Sinha, Alok; Khachemoune, Amor

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using aminolevulinic acid (ALA) relies upon the uptake of ALA into cancer cells, where it is converted into a porphyrin intermediate, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) that is highly photosensitizing. For large or resistant tumors, however, ALA/PDT is often not completely effective due to inadequate PpIX levels. Therefore, new approaches to enhance the intracellular production of PpIX are sought. Here, we describe a general approach to improve intracellular PpIX accumulation via manipulations that increase the expression of an enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO), that is rate-determining for PpIX production. We show that nuclear hormones that promote terminal differentiation, e.g. vitamin D or androgens, can also increase the accumulation of PpIX and the amount of killing of the target cells upon exposure to light. These hormones bind to intracellular hormone receptors that translocate to the nucleus, where they act as transcription factors to increase the expression of target genes. We have found that several other transcription factors associated with terminal differentiation, including members of the CCAAT enhancer binding (C/EBP) family, and a homeobox protein named Hoxb13, are also capable of enhancing PpIX accumulation. These latter transcription factors appear to interact directly with the CPO gene promoter, resulting in enhanced CPO transcriptional activity. Our data in several different cell systems, including epithelial cells of the skin and prostate cancer cells, indicate that enhancement of CPO expression and PpIX accumulation represents a viable new approach toward improving the efficacy of ALA/PDT.

  19. Feasibility of Raman spectroscopy in vitro after 5-ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis in the bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; van Moorselaar, R. J. A.; Mahadevan-Jansen, A.,; Stone, N.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) has become popular in bladder cancer detection. Several studies have however shown an increased false positive biopsies rate under PDD guidance compared to conventional cystoscopy. Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that utilizes molecular specific, inelastic scattering of light photons to interrogate biological tissues, which can successfully differentiate epithelial neoplasia from normal tissue and inflammations in vitro. This investigation was performed to show the feasibility of NIR Raman spectroscopy in vitro on biopsies obtained under guidance of 5-ALA induced PPIX fluorescence imaging. Raman spectra of a PPIX solution was measured to obtain a characteristic signature for the photosensitzer without contributions from tissue constituents. Biopsies were obtained from patients with known bladder cancer instilled with 50ml, 5mg 5-ALA two hours prior to trans-urethral resection of tumor (TURT). Additional biopsies were obtained at a fluorescent and non-fluorescent area, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Each biopsy was thawed before measurements (10sec integration time) with a confocal Raman system (Renishaw Gloucestershire, UK). The 830 nm excitation (300mW) source is focused on the tissue by a 20X ultra-long-working-distance objective. Differences in fluorescence background between the two groups were removed by means of a special developed fluorescence subtraction algorithm. Raman spectra from ALA biopsies showed different fluorescence background which can be effectively removed by a fluorescence subtraction algorithm. This investigation shows that the interaction of the ALA induced PPIX with Raman spectroscopy in bladder samples. Combination of these techniques in-vivo may lead to a viable method of optical biopsies in bladder cancer detection.

  20. Scavengers modifying the phototoxicity induced by ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Adriana; Perotti, Christian; Fukuda, Haydee; Batlle, Alcira

    2001-04-01

    The exogenously stimulated formation of intracellularly generated Protoporphyrin IX, a precursor of heme, is becoming one of the fastest developing areas in the field of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). We have examined the degree of protection of several scavengers, aminoacids and compounds related to glutathione metabolism, to the photodamage induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated PDT, employing the LM2 cell line, derived from a mammary murine adenocarcinoma. We have exposed the cells to different concentrations of the scavengers, 24 before PDT, during PDT, and 19 hr after treatment. We defined the protection grade (PG) as the ratio between cell survival after ALA-PDT treatment in the presence of the protector and cell survival after ALA-PDT treatment. We found that L-tryptophan (PG=8.3 at 2mM), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (PG= 7.9 at 30 mM), L-cysteine (PG=7.81 at 8mM), S-adenosyl-L-methionine (PG= 7.86 at 8mM), melatonin (PG=6.81 at 8mM) and glycine (PG=6.8 at 40 mM) are the best protectors to PDT damage, followed by L-methionine (PG=4.38 at 0.8 mM), mannitol (PG=2.32 at 2 mM) and reduced glutathione (PG=3.41 at 0.8 mM), whereas oxidized glutathione does not exert any protection. The implications of these results in the photodamage induced by ALA-PDT is discussed.

  1. Technology for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenix, Katharine; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Five articles discuss information technology in libraries: (1) "Software for Libraries" (Katharine Phenix); (2) "Online Update: European Online Services" (Martin Kesselman); (3) "Connect Time: Online Pricing Breakthroughs" (Barbara Quint); (4) "Microcomputing: Micro Biology Computer Viruses" (James LaRue);…

  2. Community, Library, and Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiser, Leonard H.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the need for greatly expanded community library services, for librarians to accept social responsibility for education and information, and for the library to become a program for getting information to where it is needed. (JS)

  3. Selecting Library Furniture & Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Media & Methods, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Offers suggestions for selecting school library furniture and equipment. Describes various models of computer workstations; reading tables and chairs; and shelving. Sidebar lists names and addresses of library furniture manufactures and distributors. (AEF)

  4. Facility Focus: Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes the designs of the Ferris State University Library for Information, Technology and Education (FLITE), and the Meyer Library and Information Technology Center at Southwest Missouri State University. Includes photographs. (EV)

  5. Small Libraries, Big Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts,Gary

    2005-01-01

    Small libraries don't have the resources to adopt every new technology. It is important that small libraries operate strategically, adopting only those technologies that are the most beneficial to their patrons.

  6. Challenges for Community-Based Forest Management in the KoloAla Site Manompana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urech, Zora Lea; Sorg, Jean-Pierre; Felber, Hans Rudolph

    2013-03-01

    Following the IUCN 5th World Congress on Protected Areas in 2003, the then-President of Madagascar decided to increase the area of Madagascar's protected areas from 1.7 to 6 million ha. To combine the aims of protection and timber production, a new concept was developed through the establishment of community-based forest management (CBFM) sites, called KoloAla. However, experience shows that similar management transfers to communities in Madagascar have only been successful in a very few cases. We aimed to explore the success to be expected of this new approach in the particular case of the Manompana corridor at Madagascar's eastern coast. In a first step, the readiness of the corridor's resource users for CBFM has been analysed according to the seven resource users' attributes developed by Ostrom that predict an effective self-organized resource management. In a second step, we explored how KoloAla addresses known challenges of Madagascar's CBFM. Analyses lead in a rather sober conclusion. Although KoloAla attempts to address the goals of poverty alleviation, biodiversity conservation and timber production under a single umbrella, it does so in a rather non-innovative way. Challenges with regard to the state's environmental governance, agricultural inefficiency and thus deforestation remain unsolved.

  7. Establishment of treatment parameters for ALA-PDT of plaque psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, Mark R.; Robinson, Dominic J.; Collins, P.

    1996-12-01

    We report an investigation into the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT), following topically applied 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), as a treatment for plaque psoriasis. Treatment was performed 4 hours post-ALA, using white light doses of 2 - 16 J cm-2 delivered at 10 - 40 mW cm-2. The fluorescence emission of protoporphyrin IX was used as an indicator of the relative concentration of photosensitizer within each plaque before, during, and after therapy. Results show that the rate of sensitizer photo- oxidation is proportional to both pre-treatment fluorescence intensity and surface irradiance, consistent with a rate- equation analysis. A correlation of fluorescence measurements with clinical response of plaques indicates that the effectiveness of PDT is dominated by the level of PpIX at the onset of treatment, and is much less dependent upon light dose. Using these findings we have established a PDT treatment protocol that involves the delivery of 8 J cm-2 of white light, at a rate of 15 mW cm-2. The possibility of ALA-PDT being established as the therapy of choice is discussed.

  8. Characterization of a TK6-Bcl-xL gly-159-ala Human Lymphoblast Clone

    SciTech Connect

    Chyall, L.: Gauny, S.; Kronenberg, A.

    2006-01-01

    TK6 cells are a well-characterized human B-lymphoblast cell line derived from WIL-2 cells. A derivative of the TK6 cell line that was stably transfected to express a mutated form of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL (TK6-Bcl-xL gly-159- ala clone #38) is compared with the parent cell line. Four parameters were evaluated for each cell line: growth under normal conditions, plating efficiency, and frequency of spontaneous mutation to 6‑thioguanine resistance (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase locus) or trifluorothymidine resistance (thymidine kinase locus). We conclude that the mutated Bcl-xL protein did not affect growth under normal conditions, plating efficiency or spontaneous mutation frequencies at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. Results at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus were inconclusive. A mutant fraction for TK6‑Bcl-xL gly-159-ala clone #38 cells exposed to 150cGy of 160kVp x-rays was also calculated. Exposure to x-irradiation increased the mutant fraction of TK6‑Bcl-xL gly-159-ala clone #38 cells.

  9. Ab-initio study of structural and electronic properties of AlAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munjal, N.; Sharma, G.; Vyas, V.; Joshi, K. B.; Sharma, B. K.

    2012-08-01

    The structural properties, i.e. equilibrium lattice constant, transition pressure, bulk modulus and its pressure derivatives, together with electronic properties, i.e. energy bands, Compton profile and autocorrelation function, of AlAs are presented in this work. The linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method of the CRYSTAL code was applied considering the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof correlation energy functional and Becke's ansatz for the exchange. The total energy of AlAs as a function of primitive cell volume has also been calculated for the zincblende (B3), nickel arsenide (B8), sodium chloride (B1) and cesium chloride (B2) phases. Structural parameters of the B3, B8, B1 and B2 phases are determined. The calculated structural parameters are found to be in good agreement with the results of previous investigations. The spherically averaged theoretical values of Compton profile are in good agreement with an earlier measurement. The LCAO calculation shows an indirect band gap of 1.85 eV, in reasonable agreement with earlier data. On the basis of the equal-valence-electron-density Compton profile, it is found that AlAs is more ionic compared to AlSb.

  10. Structural and morphological features of ultrathin epitaxial InSb films in AlAs matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotovkina, D. A.; Gutakovskii, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents results of the investigation of structural and morphological features of epitaxial InSb layers in the AlAs matrix. Our research group used transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The specimens were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and prepared in the cross section (110) and plan view foils (100). We found a formation of the embedded epitaxial layer of solid solution InxAl1-xSbyAs1-y in the AlAs matrix during precipitation of In and Sb on the AlAs surface. The embedded layer had continuous area (wetting layer) and islands. The study revealed two types of islands in the epitaxial layer the first having coherent interfacing with the matrix lattice and the second a relaxed island. We estimated concentration of In, Sb in the solid solution by the indirect method. We used the method of geometric phase to analyze the distribution of misfit dislocation cores on the interface. Every misfit dislocation was formed by two close 600-dislocations with the Burgers vectors like a /2 <110>. The sum Burgers vector of the dislocation pair was in the plane of the interface.

  11. New York Zoological Society Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steven P.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the institutional setting, history, and services of the New York Zoological Society Library. Topics covered include clientele; library collections and special collections; library staffing and organizational structure; computer applications; and relationships with other libraries. (11 references) (CLB)

  12. Library Community Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correy, Therese; And Others

    Services to the elderly, institutionalized, and physically and mentally exceptional, who are unable to use the public library in its traditional form, are described in this guide to programs at the Inglewood (California) Public Library. Topics include: (1) overall library goals and activities; (2) functional and organizational structure of…

  13. Art for Libraries' Sake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Mark-Elliot

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates the benefits of an aggressive library program of regularly scheduled and professionally curated art exhibitions and related events. Describes the Visual Arts Program at the Pacific Beach branch library (San Diego). A sidebar by Debra Wilcox Johnson discusses libraries' development of cultural programming for adults. (AEF)

  14. School Library Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Instructional Resources Branch.

    The School Library Policy Statement for Manitoba schools begins with the mission statement of Manitoba Education and Training and the Goals of Learning for Manitoba. Statements of Manitoba's School Library Policy and the Philosophy of the School Library Program are also provided, together with an outline of the responsibilities of both Manitoba's…

  15. Virtual Libraries: Service Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of changes in society that have resulted from information and communication technologies focuses on changes in libraries and a new market for library services with new styles of clients. Highlights client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. (Author/LRW)

  16. Technostress and Library Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  17. The Occasional Library Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Chris

    2004-01-01

    An important tool for communication and collaboration is the library newsletter, which the library media specialist writes to the staff, teachers and library media specialist from other schools. The newsletter includes upcoming events teachers can sign up for, information on web sites to be used for projects, curriculum ideas, introduction of a…

  18. Library Studies I Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, William J.

    Developed for use in the Library Studies I component of the Library Studies Program at Bloomsburg University (Pennsylvania), this self-paced workbook is intended to acquaint students with the Harvey A. Andruss Library and help them develop information-seeking skills. The workbook is designed to be used in conjunction with an exercise book, and…

  19. PAL: Positional Astronomy Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, T.; Berry, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    The PAL library is a partial re-implementation of Pat Wallace's popular SLALIB library written in C using a Gnu GPL license and layered on top of the IAU's SOFA library (or the BSD-licensed ERFA) where appropriate. PAL attempts to stick to the SLA C API where possible.

  20. Tomorrow's Library Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penniman, W. David

    1987-01-01

    Presents a model for predicting and shaping the impact of information technologies on libraries and the library role which is based on the effects of computerization in various business applications. The library network at AT&T Bell Laboratories is described as an example of a successful implementation of the model. (CLB)

  1. Place as Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Digital technology is redrawing the library's blueprint. Planners are thinking in new ways about how to design libraries as places for learning rather than primarily as storehouses of information. This thinking has given rise to much discussion--and to many publications--about the "library as place." In this article, the author asks why not also…

  2. Worthington Libraries, OH

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    Worthington, Ohio, has deep library roots. A library has been part of its history since the planning by settlers before the city's birth in 1803. Among the treasures brought by James Kilbourne and the Scioto Company from Connecticut to the new, planned community they built was a collection of books for their new subscription library. The books…

  3. California Library Laws, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    California Library Laws 2009 is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as follows.…

  4. California Library Laws, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "California Library Laws 2008" is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized…

  5. Digital Libraries: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Candy

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the basic components of a digital library. Highlights include library collections; metadata; services, including information seeking and retrieval, reference query fulfillment, and user training; user interaction with digital libraries, including searching, browsing, and navigation; economic support; maintenance;…

  6. Marketing Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  7. Spanish Museum Libraries Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez de Prado, Rosario

    This paper describes the creation of an automated network of museum libraries in Spain. The only way in which the specialized libraries in the world today can continue to be active and to offer valid information is to automate the service they offer, and create network libraries with cooperative plans. The network can be configured with different…

  8. LIBRARY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIEBER, CAROLINE E.; TAYLOR, ROBERT S.

    STEPS THAT THE LIBRARY CAN TAKE IN PREPARING FOR A CHANGE TO AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM WERE INVESTIGATED. THE METHOD DESCRIBED WAS BASED ON AN ANALYSIS OF CLERICAL AND OFFICE WORK CALLED INTEGRATED PROCEDURES OF CONTROL (IPC). THE APPLICATION OF LIBRARY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS (LISA) TO THE LEHIGH UNIVERSITY LIBRARY IS DESCRIBED. THIS PROCESS INVOLVED (1)…

  9. Library Journal Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crunden, Frederick; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes four articles originally published in the 1890s. Highlights include a discussion of freedom of speech, political opinions, and the role of the public library in social reform; the establishment of a congressional or national library; censorship in libraries; and a criticism of a librarian by his assistant. (LRW)

  10. The Library Morphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2008-01-01

    As campus renovation projects go, the Ohio State University's plan to turn its main library into "a library for the 21st century" is ambitious. The author describes the decade-long, $109 million transformation of the William Oxley Thompson Memorial Library. The overhaul calls for a complete replacement of all mechanical and electrical…

  11. Library Building and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David J.; Gordon, Heather; Caddy, Julie; Kahlert, Maureen; Johnson, Carolyn; Holdstock, Fiona

    1997-01-01

    More frequently, community connections are being expressed in library design briefs and reflected in the completed buildings. This collection of brief articles discusses community involvement in library design and services and describes library construction projects in Australia and Malaysia. Also, discusses community art programs, integrating…

  12. Libraries and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRue, James; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three articles address issues that relate to libraries and the environment. Highlights include recycling projects; buying recycled paper products and other ecology-minded purchasing ideas; energy-efficient libraries; indoor pollution problems; a list of environmental information sources; designing library buildings; and activities that libraries…

  13. Summer Library Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Carole D.

    2007-01-01

    Virtually all public libraries in the United States provide some type of summer library reading program during the traditional summer vacation period. Summer library reading programs provide opportunities for students of many ages and abilities to practice their reading skills and maintain skills that are developed during the school year. Fiore…

  14. Changing State Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  15. Concepts of Library Goodness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael K.

    1982-01-01

    Orr's schema for measuring the quality and value of libraries is described and discussed with respect to three paradoxes--the evaluation of catalogs, optimal library size, and Lenin's view of public libraries in the U.S. Seven references are cited. (CHC)

  16. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  17. A Truly Bookless Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolowich, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The difference between the University of Texas at San Antonio's Applied Engineering and Technology Library and other science-focused libraries is not that its on-site collection is also available electronically. It is that its on-site collection is only available electronically. The idea of libraries with no bound books has been a recurring theme…

  18. School Libraries and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    School library programs have measured success by improved test scores. But how do next-generation school libraries demonstrate success as they strive to be centers of innovation and creativity? These libraries offer solutions for school leaders who struggle to restructure existing systems built around traditional silos of learning (subjects and…

  19. State Library Conferences as Professional Development Venues: Unbalanced Support for the AASL-Defined Roles of the School Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreillon, Judi; Cahill, Maria; McKee, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians (AASL) released new guidelines for school library programs in the summer of 2009. Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Programs (AASL 2009a), hereafter referred to as EL, spells out the five roles that school librarians must practice to empower library users. The purpose of this…

  20. The Struggle for Political Autonomy. Papers and Comments from the Newberry Library Conference on Themes in American Indian History (2nd, Chicago, Illinois, February 16-19, 1989). Occasional Papers in Curriculum Series No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry Library, Chicago, IL.

    This proceedings contains 10 papers that examine specific aspects of Indian political history together with commentaries that relate the papers to broader historical themes. All papers were drawn from works in progress. The commentators are senior scholars and Indian political leaders. Papers include "The Context of American Indian Political…

  1. Selective gastrointestinal uptake of ALA and its benefits for laserlight-induced fluorescence diagnostics (LIFD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressmar, Jochen; Stern, Josef; Boehm, J.; Kohl, B.; Gahlen, Johannes

    1997-12-01

    LIFD and PDT are based on the selective uptake of photosensitizers resp. the selective metabolism of their precursors in malignant tissue. Excitation with laserlight results in fluorescence or phototoxic reactions which can be used for the detection or destruction of colorectal carcinoma and dysplasia. General photosensibilization resulting in an increased photosensitivity of the whole body represents the main side and necessitates avoidance of daylight for days up to weeks. Local application of (delta) - aminolevulinic acid (ALA) may reduce systemic uptake. Rats with DMH induced colorectal cancer were photosensitized for LIFD by oral, intravenous or local application of ALA. Urine concentrations of ALA and porphobilinogen (PBG) representing systemic photosensibilization were determined by two-column chromatography. Local colon application of ALA not only increases the quality of LIFD of colorectal cancer, it also provokes three times lower concentrations of PBG in comparison to oral or intravenous administration and reduces in consequence general photosensibilization.

  2. Bilateral nasal ala reconstruction of the cocaine-injured nose with 2 free reverse-flow helical rim flaps.

    PubMed

    Castello, Jose R; Taglialatela Scafati, Salvatore; Sánchez, Olaya

    2014-09-01

    Cocaine abuse can lead to nasal deformity because of local ischemia and subsequent fibrosis. Reconstruction can be challenging. We present a case of bilateral microsurgical nasal ala reconstruction with 2 reverse-flow helical rim flap.

  3. ALA-PDT of the normal rat esophagus: efficiency and safety largely depends on the timing of illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boogert, Jolanda; de Bruin, Ron W. F.; van Staveren, Hugo J.; Siersema, Peter D.; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    1999-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an experimental treatment modality for (pre)malignant oesophageal lesions. 5- Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)- mediated photo-sensitization could be very useful as ALA- induced porphrin accumulation selectively occurs in the oesophageal epithelium. The present study aimed to optimize the time between illumination and the administration of ALA. 200 mg/kg ALA was given orally to 24 rats (allocated to 6 groups of 4 animals each). Four animals served as controls and received phosphate buffered saline orally. The animals were illuminated at various time-points (either 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or 12 hours) after ALA administration. Illumination was performed with a cylindrical diffuser placed in a balloon catheter. The device was originally made for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and consisted of a semi-flexible catheter and an inflatable cylindric optically clear balloon. The diffuser was placed centrally in the catheter. The same illumination parameters (633 nm, 25 J radiant energy/cm diffuser, power output 100 mW/cm diffuser) were used for each animal. During illumination, fluorescence measurements and light dosimetry were performed. The animals were sacrificed at 48 hours after PDT for histological assessment. Highest PpIX fluorescence was found at 2, 3, and 4 hours after ALA administration. Dosimetric measurements showed a 2 - 3 times higher in vivo fluence rate compared to the estimated fluence rate. Histology at 48 hours after PDT showed diffuse epithelial damage at the laser site only in rats illuminated at 2 hours after ALA administration. Illumination at 3, 4, and 6 hours after ALA administration resulted in diffuse epithelial damage in only one of four rats. In none of the rats illuminated at 1 and 12 hours after administration of ALA epithelial damage was found. These results show that illumination at 2 hours after oral ALA administration provides an efficient and safe scheme for ALA-PDT in the

  4. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tasmin, Saira; Furusawa, Hana; Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-15

    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure.

  5. Role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on active oxygen-scavenging system in NaCl-treated spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Eiji; Kondo, Kensuke; Parvez, Mohammad Masud; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Watanabe, Keitaro; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2003-09-01

    ALA is a key precursor in the biosynthesis of porphyrins such as chlorophyll and heme, and was found to induce temporary elevations in the photosynthesis rate, APX, and CAT; furthermore, treatment with ALA at a low concentration might be correlated to the increase of NaCl tolerance of spinach plants. The photosynthetic rate and the levels of active oxygen-scavenging system in the 3rd leaf of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) plants grown by foliar treatment with 0, 0.18, 0.60 and 1.80 mmol/L 5-aminolevulinic acid under 50 and 100 mmol/L NaCl were analyzed. Plants treated with 0.60 and 1.80 mmol/L ALA showed significant increases in the photosynthetic rate at 50 and 100 mmol/L NaCl, while that of 0.18 mmol/L ALA did not show any changes at 50 mmol/L NaCl and a gradual decrease at 100 mmol/L NaCl. In contrast, the rate with 0 mmol/L ALA showed reduction at both concentrations of NaCl. The increase of hydrogen peroxide content by treatment with 0.60 and 1.80 mmol/L ALA were more controlled than that of 0 mmol/L ALA under both NaCl conditions. These ALA-treated spinach leaves also exhibited a lower oxidized/reduced ascorbate acid ratio and a higher reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio than the 0 mmol/L-treated spinach leaves when grown at both NaCl conditions. With regard to the antioxidant enzyme activities in the leaves, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were enhanced remarkably, most notably at day 3, by treatment with 0.60 and 1.80 mmol/L ALA under both NaCl conditions in comparison to that of 0 and 0.18 mmol/L ALA. These data indicate that the protection against oxidative damage by higher levels of antioxidants and enzyme activities, and by a more active ascorbate-glutathione cycle related to the increase of the photosynthesis rate, could be involved in the increased salt tolerance observed in spinach by treatment with 0.60 to 1.80 mmol/L ALA with NaCl.

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey From 'The Sperry Family', p. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey From 'The Sperry Family', p. 17 in the San Francisco Examiner Library Taken about 1900 - Captain William Bushton House, Munras & Webster Streets, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  7. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of: Plate #66 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of: Plate #66 of New Century Atlas, Oneida County, New York (Philadelphia: New Century Map Company, 1907) Courtesy: New York State Library. - Barnes-Mudge House, 115 East Dominick Street, Rome, Oneida County, NY

  8. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, COPY OF AN OLD VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, COPY OF AN OLD VIEW IN THE PHILADELPHIANA COLLECTION, LOGAN SQUARE BRANCH, FREE LIBRARY OF PHILADELPHIA, SHOWING BRIDGE BEFORE THE ROADWAY WAS WIDENED. - Chestnut Street Bridge, Schuykill River, Chestnut Street vicinity, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Mark C. Bisgrove, Photographer 1971 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Mark C. Bisgrove, Photographer 1971 DETAIL OF ORIGINAL STENCIL PAINTING ON NORTH WALL OF SECOND ADDITION - Hubbard Free Library, 115 Second Street, Hallowell, Kennebec County, ME

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey VIEW, ABOUT 1860. CONTRIBUTED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey VIEW, ABOUT 1860. CONTRIBUTED BY MR. ALLEN JAMES FROM THE WASHINGTONIANA COLLECTION OF THE DISTRICT LIBRARY. - Forrest-Marbury House, 3350 M Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy courtesy of Washington Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy courtesy of Washington Room, D.C. Public Library POTOMAC AQUEDUCT, 1879-1887 - Potomac Aqueduct, Georgetown abutment at Georgetown waterfront, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy courtesy of Peabody Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy courtesy of Peabody Room, Georgetown Public Library POTOMAC AQUEDUCT, 1868-1877 - Potomac Aqueduct, Georgetown abutment at Georgetown waterfront, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy courtesy of Peabody Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy courtesy of Peabody Room, Georgetown Public Library POTOMAC AQUEDUCT c. 1865 - Potomac Aqueduct, Georgetown abutment at Georgetown waterfront, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy courtesy of the Peabody ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy courtesy of the Peabody Room, Georgetown Public Library POTOMAC AQUEDUCT c. 1860 SHOWING SOUTH ABUTMENT - Potomac Aqueduct, Georgetown abutment at Georgetown waterfront, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Yale University INTERIOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, Yale University INTERIOR OF NAVE FACING EAST, PRIOR TO 1931 Source: Art Library Art and Architecture Building Yale University - Yale University, Dwight Hall, 69 High Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  16. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer Jan. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Nelson E. Baldwin, Photographer Jan. 16, 1937, View-Fireplace in Library-The Hermitage Linlithgo, Columbia, N Y . - The Hermitage, Linlithgo Hamlet Vicinity, Blue Store, Columbia County, NY

  17. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Original in Indiana Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Original in Indiana Historical Society Library 'BOARD OF SCHOOL COMMISSION BUILDING JANUARY, 1917 AT TECH. GROUNDS' - U. S. Arsenal, Arsenal Building, 1500 East Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  18. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, July 20, 1935 WHITE MARBLE MANTEL AND FIREPLACE N. FRONT ROOM - LIBRARY - Eslava House, 152 Tuthill Lane, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  19. 26. Historic American Buildings Survey, Roy Oglesby, Photographer July 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic American Buildings Survey, Roy Oglesby, Photographer July 9, 1947 DETAIL OF WINDOW #10, WEST ELEVATION OF LIBRARY. - Old Fort Randall Church, Right Bank, Missouri River, Pickstown, Charles Mix County, SD

  20. The Association between RAD23B Ala249Val Polymorphism and Cancer Susceptibility: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiaojiang; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Ruoxin; Li, Zhen; Chen, Hongliang; Ye, Pingjiang; Shen, Yi; Pan, Weihuo; Chen, Zhiliang

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of studies have investigated associations of genetic variation in RAD23B Ala249Val (rs1805329 C>T) with cancer susceptibility; however, the findings are inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to acquire a more precise estimation of the relationship. Method We searched literatures from PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association between Ala249Val polymorphism and cancer risk. Results A total of 23 studies consisting of 10837 cases and 13971 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant associations were found between RAD23B Ala249Val polymorphism and cancer risk (Val/Val vs. Ala/Ala: OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.75–1.25; Ala/Val vs. Ala/Ala: OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.96–1.22; recessive model: OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.76–1.14 and dominant model: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.94–1.20). We did not find any significant associations in the further stratification analyses by cancer type, ethnicity and source of control. Conclusions Despite some limitations, this meta-analysis indicates that it is unlikely that the RAD23B 249Val/Val polymorphism may contribute to the individual susceptibility to cancer risk. However, further advanced designed studies with larger sample size and different ethnicities should be conducted to confirm our results. PMID:24643114

  1. 5-ALA Fluorescence in Native Pituitary Adenoma Cell Lines: Resection Control and Basis for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)?

    PubMed Central

    Poeschke, Stephan; Greve, Burkhard; Prevedello, Daniel; Santacroce, Antonio; Stummer, Walter; Senner, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pituitary adenomas (PA), especially invasive ones, are often not completely resectable. Usage of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for fluorescence guided surgery could improve the rate of total resection and, additionally, open the doors for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in case of unresectable or partially resected PAs. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of 5-ALA and the effect of 5-ALA based PDT in cell lines. Methods: GH3 and AtT-20 cell lines were incubated with different concentrations of 5-ALA, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence was measured by flow cytometry and fluorescencespectrometry. WST-1 assays were performed to determine the surviving fraction of cells after PDT. PPIX fluorescence intensities and PDT effect of the pituitary adenoma cells were compared to U373MG, a well-known glioblastoma cell line. Results: Both cell lines showed a 5-ALA dependent intracellular PPIX fluorescence. Significant differences after 24hrs of incubation were observed in AtT-20 cells in comparison to GH3. Regardless of the incubation or metabolism time, there was a proliferation inhibiting effect after PDT, with no statistical significance. Conclusion: Since GH3 cells showed a heterogenous uptake of 5-ALA in the flow cytometry profile, but not constantly high concentrations they might have a 5-ALA efflux mechanism, which still needs to be determined. In the case of AtT-20, the cells might need a longer time for the uptake due to their size or slow metabolism. We showed that the different cell lines have different uptake and metabolism mechanisms, which needs to be further investigated. The general uptake of 5-ALA allows the possibility of resection control and PDT for pituitary adenomas. But, the role of PDT for unresectable pituitary adenomas deserves further investigations. PMID:27583461

  2. Assessing Library Automation and Virtual Library Development in Four Academic Libraries in Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the level of library automation and virtual library development in four academic libraries. A validated questionnaire was used to capture the responses from academic librarians of the libraries under study. The paper discovers that none of the four academic libraries is fully automated. The libraries make use of librarians with…

  3. Flight Software Math Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  4. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  5. Effects of ALA, EPA and DHA in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Poudyal, Hemant; Panchal, Sunil K; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2013-06-01

    We compared the cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic responses to individual dietary n-3 fatty acids (α-linolenic acid, ALA; eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA; and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) in a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced model of metabolic syndrome in rats. Additionally, we measured fatty acid composition of plasma, adipose tissue, liver, heart and skeletal muscle in these rats. The same dosages of ALA and EPA/DHA produced different physiological responses to decrease the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. ALA did not reduce total body fat but induced lipid redistribution away from the abdominal area and favorably improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and left ventricular dimensions, contractility, volumes and stiffness. EPA and DHA increased sympathetic activation, reduced the abdominal adiposity and total body fat and attenuated insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and left ventricular stiffness but not glucose tolerance. However, ALA, EPA and DHA all reduced inflammation in both the heart and the liver, cardiac fibrosis and hepatic steatosis. These effects were associated with complete suppression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 activity. Since the physiological responses to EPA and DHA were similar, it is likely that the effects are mediated by DHA with EPA serving as a precursor. Also, ALA supplementation increased DHA concentrations but induced different physiological responses to EPA and DHA. This result strongly suggests that ALA has independent effects in metabolic syndrome, not relying on its metabolism to DHA.

  6. Integration of Library Services in the System of Digital Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezdushnyj, A. N.; Kalenov, N. E.; Kouriv, P. M.; Serebryakov, V. A.

    The article is devoted to the functional extension of the Integrated System of Information Resources of RAS (ISIR RAS - RFBR 99-07-90139 project). This extension (Library Subsystem) provides integration of library services in ISIR RAS electronic libraries system. Library Subsystem implements standard library services such as information about free and ordered copies of editions, creation of the library orders for edition etc. The Library Subsystem is an integrated solution; it's based on ISIR data model and technologies.

  7. "Two Souls, Alas, Reside within My Breast": Reflections on German and American Music Education Regarding the Internationalization of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the internationalization of music education has become an important topic. Scholars of various research traditions try to find the best solutions for problems in music education theory and practice by taking a look at what other countries do. English as common language seems to facilitate this recent development. However, in spite…

  8. American Writers: A Research Guide on 19th and 20th Century Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte, intended to help students find sources of criticism on literature (long fiction, short fiction, poetry, and drama) by American authors. The guide explains important reference sources in the Atkins library reference collection…

  9. An Annotated Bibliography of Latin American Military Journals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1965-12-01

    holdings in the Biblioteca Nacional del Peru, the library of the Centro de Estudios Historico-Militares del Peru, both in Lima, the Biblioteca del...American Defense College, the Biblioteca Nacional del Peru, the library of the Centro de Estudios Historico-Militares del Peru, the Biblioteca del

  10. Are the Standards Adequate for Organizing African American Studies Resources?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Dorothy Ann

    Standards of bibliographic organization often are inadequate for those libraries with extensive African American studies collections or those with active user groups. This essay identifies areas where the standards are least effective. The experiences of the staff at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library,…

  11. How to Find Out in: American History. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Jeanne

    This library handbook is a guide for the student of American History. It lists some of the more useful materials and reference books basic to general research and gives their location in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials are listed in seven categories: (1) guides to the literature; (2) encyclopedias and dictionaries; (3)…

  12. Reference Evaluation--What the "Guidelines" Don't Indicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, Bernard

    1979-01-01

    Describes what is happening concerning developmental information service guidelines published by the Reference and Adult Services Division (RASD) of the American Library Association (ALA) in 1976 and discusses evaluation guidelines for reference/information services of libraries. (Author/JD)

  13. Disruption of the blood brain barrier following ALA mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Peng, Qian; Uzal, Francisco A.; Chighvinadze, David; Zhang, Michelle J.; Madsen, Steen J.

    2008-02-01

    Introduction: Failure of treatment for high grade gliomas is usually due to local recurrence at the site of surgical resection indicating that a more aggressive form of local therapy, such as PDT, could be of benefit. PDT causes damage to tumor cells as well as degradation of the blood brain barrier (BBB). We have evaluated the ability of ALA mediated PDT to open the BBB in rats. This will permit access of chemotherapeutic agents to brain tumor cells remaining in the resection cavity wall, but limit their penetration into normal brain remote from the site of illumination. Materials and Methods: ALA-PDT was performed on non tumor bearing inbred Fisher rats at increasing fluence levels. T2 weighted MRI scans were used to evaluate edema formation and post-contrast T I MRI scans were used to monitor the degree BBB disruption which could be inferred from the intensity and volume of the contrast agent visualized. Results. PDT at increasing fluence levels between 9J and 26J demonstrated an increasing contrast flow rate. No effect on the BBB was observed if 26J of light were given in the absence of ALA. A similar increased contrast volume was observed with increasing fluence rates. The BBB was found to be disrupted 2hrs. following PDT and 80-100% restored 72hrs later. Conclusion: PDT was highly effective in opening the BBB in a limited region of the brain. The degradation of the BBB was temporary in nature, opening rapidly following treatment and significantly restored during the next 72 hrs.

  14. Hydrologic Modelling of Katsina-Ala River Basin: AN Emerging Scenario from Lake Nyos Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, J. O.; Babamaaji, R.; Vaatough, M.; Adepoju, K. A.

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the hydrologic system surrounding crater lakes is of great importance for prevention of flooding damages, conservation of ecological environment, and assessment of socio-economic impact of dam failure on the civilians in the downstream regions. Lake Nyos is a crater lake formed by volcanic activities at the Oku volcanic field on the Cameroon Volcanic Line. It is a freshwater lake with a maximum depth of 200 meter. In 1986, a limnic eruption at the lake emitted 1.6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide from the bottom of saturated water into the air and suffocated up to 1,800 people and 3,500 livestock at nearby villages. The lake waters are held in place by a natural dam composed of loosely consolidated volcanic rock, which is now at the verge of collapse due to accelerated erosion. This study was carried out to determine the flood risks and vulnerability of population and infrastructure along Katsina-Ala drainage basins. The project integrated both satellite images and field datasets into a hydrologic model for Katsina-Ala River Basin and its vicinity including the Lake Nyos. ArcHydro was used to construct a hydrologic database as 'data models' and MIKE SHE was employed to conduct hydrologic simulations. Vulnerable infrastructures, population and socio-economic activities were identified to assist the Federal and State governments in disaster mitigation and management plans. The result of the project provides comprehensive knowledge of hydrologic system of Katsina-Ala drainage basin to mitigate potential future disasters from a potential dam failure and manage water resources against such disasters.

  15. α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Reifen, Ram; Karlinsky, Anna; Stark, Aliza H; Berkovich, Zipi; Nyska, Abraham

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest that consumption of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) plays a protective role in inflammatory bowel disease; however, the use of plant-derived oils rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) has not been widely investigated. The aims of this study were to test the effects of two different sources of (n-3) PUFA, fish and plant-derived oils, in two animal models of experimental colitis and to determine whether the (n-3) PUFA-enriched diets could ameliorate the inflammatory status. Rats were fed diets rich in corn, fish or sage oil with or without vitamin A supplementation for 3weeks then colitis was induced by adding dextran sodium sulfate to the drinking water or by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. We show that colitic rats fed the sage oil diets had a lower inflammatory response, improved histological repair and had less necrotic damage in the mucosa when compared to the corn and fish oil groups. Colonic damage and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly lower. Colonic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory genes including interleukin IL-6, cyclooxygenase 2 and tumor necrosis factor α were markedly down-regulated in rats fed fish and sage oils compared to control. These results were supported by experiments in the human colonic epithelial cell line Caco-2, where ALA supplementation was shown to be effective in inhibiting inflammation induced by IL-1β by down-regulating mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory genes including IL-8, COX2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taken together, these results suggest that plant-derived oil rich in ALA could ameliorate the inflammatory damage in colitis.

  16. AT-50ALA-BASED PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY IN RECURRENT MALIGNANT GLIOMA - A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Schroeteler, Juliane; Schipmann, Steffanie; Molina, Eric Suero; Grauer, Oliver; Stummer, Walter; Ewelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recurrent malignant glioma (RMG) is an orphan disease without standard therapeutic recommendation. ALA-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) for malignant gliomas has been investigated in-vivo and in-vitro, suggesting potential efficacy. We report our experience with ALA-PDT in malignant recurrent glioma patients. METHODS: Data of seven patients with diagnosis of RMG, treated by PDT in a compassionate setting between 02/2011-05/2014 were analyzed. All seven patients received 20 mg/kg bodyweight ALA orally 4-6 hours prior to surgery. A stereotactic biopsy was taken followed by PDT administration with a constant tissue power of 200 mW/cm being applied by diode laser into the target area for one hour. RESULTS: Prior to PDT, patients underwent two brain surgeries (median). Six patients received radiotherapy with a minimum of 60 Gy, temozolamide (TMZ) was taken by four patients and two patients were TMZ naive prior to PDT. Histologically, five glioblastomas (GBM), one anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and one anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) were detected. MGMT negative promotor methylation status (PMS) was observed in five cases and positive MGMT-PMS in one tumor. After PDT, three patients received TMZ, one Avastin, one Lomustine, one was given no further chemotherapy, and in one patient data was missing. A median PFS of two and OAS of 13 months after PDT treatment, as well as a median OAS from first diagnosis of 24 months was reached. Brain edema responding to steroids was detected in three patients during first 24 hours after PDT. One patient treated with Bevacizumab showed wound healing complication. No other severe effects occurred. CONCLUSION: PDT was well tolerated and a median OAS of 13 months and complete OAS of 24 months suggest a survival advantage by PDT as an additive surgical treatment option in RMG.

  17. Academic Libraries, 2000. E.D. Tabs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Nancy; Justh, Natalie M.; Williams, Jeffrey W.

    This report discusses the state of academic libraries in 2000. It defines "academic library" as well as discusses library services, library collections, library staff, library expenditures, and electronic services. (Author/AMT)

  18. Anti-allergic effects of His-Ala-Gln tripeptide in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mamoru; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Kozai, Hana; Okamoto, Takeaki

    2017-02-01

    We examined the inhibitory effects of HAQ (His-Ala-Gln) peptide on type-1 allergy in vitro and in vivo. HAQ peptide inhibited β-hexosaminidase release and intracellular Ca(2+) levels of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Oral administration of a HAQ peptide-added diet (1 mg/mouse/administration) to C3H/HeJ mice for 14 days led to significant suppression of allergic symptoms, but did not reduce allergen-specific IgE or IgG1.

  19. Switching in of Ac-(Ala)10-NHMe at a solid surface.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Mark J; Mijajlovic, Milan

    2008-09-01

    Using molecular simulation, we show how Ac-(Ala)(10)-NHMe adsorbed on a solid surface switches between three conformations at distinct surface energies. The first switch is from an alpha-helix to a 3.1(10)-helix. The second involves further stretching to a 2(7)-helix. This switching has several potential applications including memory in molecular computers to motility elements in nanotechnology, and could be relevant to biological activity of proteins near solid surfaces (e.g., nano and aerosol particles) and disease processes induced by such interactions.

  20. A Directory of Library Instruction Programs in Indiana Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Jane, Comp.; Violette, Judith, Comp.

    A survey of 40 reporting academic libraries in Indiana developed this directory of library user instruction programs which provides an index profile of library resources and types of programs within the state. Entries are alphabetical in outline form and provide a library contact person, capsule information about the library instruction program,…