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Sample records for alabama electric marketing

  1. Alabama Magnet School Races toward Job Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Morgan

    2002-01-01

    Describes Alabama's Brewbaker Technology Magnet High School, which was built for only $70 per square foot. Explores the relationship between its school-to-work, collaborative-learning approach and the building's design. (EV)

  2. Marketing Education. Alabama Course of Study. Bulletin 1996, No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This guide, which is intended for classroom teachers, supervisors, and administrators throughout Alabama, contains the minimum required content (core program) for public school instruction in marketing education in grades 7-12. Presented first are the following: introduction examining the mission, purpose, goals, and structure of marketing…

  3. Something for Everyone: The Marketing and Promotion of Alabama Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Recruiters and marketers within the Alabama Community College System are tasked with increasing enrollment at their institutions. The methods of accomplishing this goal include traditional strategies as well as new and emerging ones. Unlike personnel at other institutions of higher learning, however, community college recruiters and marketers have…

  4. Electricity Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the Electricity Market Module as it was used for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. It consists of four submodules: the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) Submodule, the Electricity Fuel Dispatch (EFD) Submodule, the Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP) Submodule, and the Electricity Load and Demand (ELD) Submodule.

  5. Designing competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, H.P.; Huntington, H.

    1998-07-01

    This volume of papers, originally presented at Stanford in March 1997 in a conference sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, examines several questions about the restructuring and deregulation of electricity markets. Its stated goal is to present guiding principles for evaluating proposals to restructure the US electric power industry. While a collection of essays is perhaps not the best place to lay out guiding principles, the volume does contain a great deal of learning about restructuring. The first essay is a reprint of Paul Joskow's excellent article in the ``Journal of Economic Perspectives''. An essay by William Hogan on the debate between zonal and locational pricing is next. Paul Kleindorfer lists the various governance schemes which other countries that have restructured have used to govern system operation, access to the market for power, and transmission ownership and pricing. One difficulty with the book, as well as the debate in the US, is that it fails to draw adequately upon the international experience. Shmuel Oren lays out the potential areas over which an ISO could have authority. The chapter by Stephen Rassenti and Vernon Smith that bilateral trading should never be allowed, implying that a mandatory pool should be established. A reduction in regulation may increase the incentives for technological innovation. Martin Baughman suggests a number of ways by which costs of transmitting and storing electricity may be reduced. Robert Wilson returns to the volume with a chapter on institutional design. To end the volume, Hung-Po Chao and Stephen Peck present an extension of their earlier work in the ``Journal of Regulatory Economics'' showing how markets for transmission rights would work in a transmission grid of three points.

  6. Northeastern Summer Electricity Market Alert

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The National Weather Service declared an excessive-heat warning for much of the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, including major electric markets covering Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, D.C., and New York City. This report highlights the wholesale electricity market activity occurring in response to the higher-than-normal electricity demand caused by the heat wave.

  7. 75 FR 47808 - Alabama Municipal Electric Authority; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene August 2, 2010. On April 29, 2010, Alabama Municipal Electric Authority filed an application for a preliminary permit pursuant to..., Mobile District. The sole purpose of a preliminary permit, if issued, is to grant the permit...

  8. Luminous electrical phenomena in Huntsville, Alabama, tornadoes on April 3, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, O. H., Jr.; Vonnegut, B.

    1976-01-01

    Unusual lightning and varicolored luminous phenomena were observed on the evening of April 3, 1974, when severe tornadoes passed through Madison County, Alabama. Photographs and eyewitness accounts of this electrical activity are related to the trajectories of the tornadoes and the damage areas they produced.

  9. Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System

    2004-10-14

    EMCAS is a model developed for the simulation and analysis of electricity markets. As power markets are relatively new and still continue to evolve, there is a growing need for advanced modeling approaches that simulate the behavior of electricity markets over time and how market participants may act and react to the changing economic, financial, and regulatory environments in which they operate. A new and rather promising approach applied in the EMCAS software is tomore » model the electricity market as a complex adaptive system using an agent-based modeling and simulation scheme. With its unique combination of various novel approaches, the Agent Based Modeling System (ABMS) provides the ability to capture and investigate the complex interactions between the physical infrastructures (generation, transmission, and distribution) and the economic behavior of market participants that are a trademark of the newly emerging markets.« less

  10. The inevitable commoditization of electric power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, B.; Woodley, J.A.C.

    1994-11-01

    As competition grows between electric suppliers it is inevitable that a spot market in electricity will evolve. The impetus is the market demand for greater asset productivity. With prices revealed, a commodity market will follow. With spot and commodity markets will come the power to reallocate risk and make capital investment more productive. Given price volatility, separate markets will develop for near- and long-term hedging instruments.

  11. Electric power market agent design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyungseon

    The electric power industry in many countries has been restructured in the hope of a more economically efficient system. In the restructured system, traditional operating and planning tools based on true marginal cost do not perform well since information required is strictly confidential. For developing a new tool, it is necessary to understand offer behavior. The main objective of this study is to create a new tool for power system planning. For the purpose, this dissertation develops models for a market and market participants. A new model is developed in this work for explaining a supply-side offer curve, and several variables are introduced to characterize the curve. Demand is estimated using a neural network, and a numerical optimization process is used to determine the values of the variables that maximize the profit of the agent. The amount of data required for the optimization is chosen with the aid of nonlinear dynamics. To suggest an optimal demand-side bidding function, two optimization problems are constructed and solved for maximizing consumer satisfaction based on the properties of two different types of demands: price-based demand and must-be-served demand. Several different simulations are performed to test how an agent reacts in various situations. The offer behavior depends on locational benefit as well as the offer strategies of competitors.

  12. Market Model Considering Bilateral Transactions in the Deregulated Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Monroy, José Joaquín; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun

    This paper proposes an algorithm to simulate the transactions that take place in a free market of electricity. The algorithm presented is used for Bilateral Transaction Matrix (BTM) creation assuming that a day ahead load forecast is previously known. Bids can be made by both the generation side and the demand side to determine transaction prices, then the algorithm allocates the transactions according to market rules until the demand is satisfied. This creates feasible BTMs that can be used to study system security and to find future methods to regulate bilateral transactions through market mechanisms like the application of penalties to the transactions that affect the system’s security. Results show that the proposed algorithm is a good option for electricity market analysis. The proposed algorithm provides system planners with a practical tool for data creation to further study the effects of bilateral transactions in a deregulated electricity market.

  13. Electricity Market Manipulation: How Behavioral Modeling Can Help Market Design

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Giulia

    2015-12-18

    The question of how to best design electricity markets to integrate variable and uncertain renewable energy resources is becoming increasingly important as more renewable energy is added to electric power systems. Current markets were designed based on a set of assumptions that are not always valid in scenarios of high penetrations of renewables. In a future where renewables might have a larger impact on market mechanisms as well as financial outcomes, there is a need for modeling tools and power system modeling software that can provide policy makers and industry actors with more realistic representations of wholesale markets. One option includes using agent-based modeling frameworks. This paper discusses how key elements of current and future wholesale power markets can be modeled using an agent-based approach and how this approach may become a useful paradigm that researchers can employ when studying and planning for power systems of the future.

  14. Electricity market module: Electricity capacity planning submodule

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe modifications to the Electricity Capacity Planning Submodule (ECP) for the Annual Energy Outlook 1996. It describes revisions to enhance the representation of planned maintenance, incorporate technological improvements in operating efficiencies, revise the algorithm for determining international firm power imports, and include risk premiums for new plant construction.

  15. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-08

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  16. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  17. Design and analysis of electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen Mehr

    Restructured competitive electricity markets rely on designing market-based mechanisms which can efficiently coordinate the power system and minimize the exercise of market power. This dissertation is a series of essays which develop and analyze models of restructured electricity markets. Chapter 2 studies the incentive properties of a co-optimized market for energy and reserves that pays reserved generators their implied opportunity cost---which is the difference between their stated energy cost and the market-clearing price for energy. By analyzing the market as a competitive direct revelation mechanism we examine the properties of efficient equilibria and demonstrate that generators have incentives to shade their stated costs below actual costs. We further demonstrate that the expected energy payments of our mechanism is less than that in a disjoint market for energy only. Chapter 3 is an empirical validation of a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. By comparing theoretically optimal supply functions and actual generation offers into the Texas spot balancing market, we show the SFE to fit the actual behavior of the largest generators in market. This not only serves to validate the model, but also demonstrates the extent to which firms exercise market power. Chapters 4 and 5 examine equity, incentive, and efficiency issues in the design of non-convex commitment auctions. We demonstrate that different near-optimal solutions to a central unit commitment problem which have similar-sized optimality gaps will generally yield vastly different energy prices and payoffs to individual generators. Although solving the mixed integer program to optimality will overcome such issues, we show that this relies on achieving optimality of the commitment---which may not be tractable for large-scale problems within the allotted timeframe. We then simulate and compare a competitive benchmark for a market with centralized and self commitment in order to bound the efficiency

  18. Modeling and assessment of electricity market initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrian, Pedram

    This body of work is dedicated to the modeling and assessment of initiatives within electricity markets using the underlying hourly market dynamics. The dissertation presents two separate frameworks that take a bottom-up approach for assessing benefits associated with various demand-side initiatives and other emerging interventions in power markets. Models in support of each framework are presented, and numerical results are used to highlight some impacts based on hourly dynamics. The first framework uses stochastic optimization models to explore the economic feasibility of grid-scale energy storage from the perspective of a price taking, profit maximizing firm facing uncertain market dynamics. This model is then extended to incorporate intermittent wind generation, demonstrating how storage can be used as a potential substitute for transmission capacity. The second framework uses a new dynamic market equilibrium simulation model to address broader economic and environmental impacts of various demand-side initiatives including: energy efficiency, distributed generation, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The general model is calibrated for the California electricity market. The model is used to estimate impacts of the various interventions, taking into account varying market adoption levels and natural gas prices.

  19. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  20. Essays on environmental regulations in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanming

    Reducing the Greenhouse Gas pollution and promoting energy efficiency among consumers' energy use have been major public policy issues recently. Currently, both the United States and the European Union have set up explicit percentage requirements that require energy generators or consumers to undertake a certain percentage of their energy production or consumption from renewable sources. To achieve their renewable targets, the Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been introduced in their electricity markets. Moreover, in order to promote energy conservation and achieve energy efficiency targets, price policies and price changes derived from environmental regulations have played a more important role in reducing electricity consumption. My research studies problems associated with these policy implementations. In Chapter 1, I analyze a competitive electricity market with two countries operated under a common TGC system. By using geometric illustrations, I compare the two countries' welfare when the renewable quota is chosen optimally under the common certificate market with three different situations. The policy recommendation is that when the value of damage parameter is sufficiently small, full integration with a TGC market is welfare superior to full integration of an all fossil-fuel based market with an optimal emissions standard. In Chapter 2, by analyzing a stylized theoretical model and numerical examples, I investigate the performance of the optimal renewables policy under full separation and full integration scenarios for two countries' electricity markets operated under TGC systems. In my third chapter, I look at residential electricity consumption responsiveness to increases of electricity price in the U.S. and the different effect of a price increase on electricity use for states of different income levels. My analysis reveals that raising the energy price in the short run will not give consumers much incentive to adjust their appliances and make

  1. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Capacity Planning submodule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-07

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The NEMS produces integrated forecasts for energy markets in the United States by achieving a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand. Currently, for each year during the period from 1990 through 2010, the NEMS describes energy supply, conversion, consumption, and pricing. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The supply of electricity is a conversion activity since electricity is produced from other energy sources (e.g., fossil, nuclear, and renewable). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. The EMM consists of four main submodules: Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP), Electricity Fuel Dispatching (EFD), Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP), and Load and Demand-Side Management (LDSM). The ECP evaluates changes in the mix of generating capacity that are necessary to meet future demands for electricity and comply with environmental regulations. The EFD represents dispatching (i.e., operating) decisions and determines how to allocate available capacity to meet the current demand for electricity. Using investment expenditures from the ECP and operating costs from the EFD, the EFP calculates the price of electricity, accounting for state-level regulations involving the allocation of costs. The LDSM translates annual demands for electricity into distributions that describe hourly, seasonal, and time-of-day variations. These distributions are used by the EFD and the ECP to determine the quantity and types of generating capacity that are required to insure reliable and economical supplies of electricity. The EMM also represents nonutility suppliers and interregional and international transmission and trade. These activities are included in the EFD and the ECP.

  2. Competition in decentralized electricity markets: Three papers on electricity auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbord, David William Cameron

    This thesis consists of three self-contained papers on the analysis of electricity auctions written over a period of twelve years. The first paper models price competition in a decentralized wholesale market for electricity as a first-price, sealed-bid, multi-unit auction. In both the pure and mixed-strategy equilibria of the model, above marginal cost pricing and inefficient despatch of generating units occur. An alternative regulatory pricing rule is considered and it is shown that offering to supply at marginal cost can be induced as a dominant strategy for all firms. The second paper analyses strategic interaction between long-term contracts and price competition in the British electricity wholesale market, and confirms that forward contracts will tend to put downward pressure on spot market prices. A 'strategic commitment' motive for selling forward contracts is also identified: a generator may commit itself to bidding lower prices into the spot market in order to ensure that it will be despatched with its full capacity. The third paper characterizes bidding behavior and market outcomes in uniform and discriminatory electricity auctions. Uniform auctions result in higher average prices than discriminatory auctions, but the ranking in terms of productive efficiency is ambiguous. The comparative effects of other market design features, such as the number of steps in suppliers' bid functions, the duration of bids and the elasticity of demand are analyzed. The paper also clarifies some methodological issues in the analysis of electricity auctions. In particular we show that analogies with continuous share auctions are misplaced so long as firms are restricted to a finite number of bids.

  3. Emissions markets, power markets and market power: A study of the interactions between contemporary emissions markets and deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormady, Noah Christopher

    Chapter 1: A Monte Carlo Approach. The use of auctions to distribute tradeable property rights to firms in already heavily concentrated markets may further exacerbate the problems of market power that exist within those markets. This chapter provides a model of a two-stage emissions market modeled after a contemporary regional permit trading market in the United States, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Inc. (RGGI). It then introduces Oligopsony 1.0, a C# software package constructed in the .NET environment that simulates uniform-price auctions using stochastic Monte Carlo simulation for modeling market power in tradeable property rights auctions. Monte Carlo methods add a probabilistic element to standard auction theoretic equilibria. The results of these simulations indicate that there can be significant non-linearities between profit and market power as exercised through strategic demand reduction. This analysis finds the optimum point of strategic demand reduction that enables the firm to exploit these non-linearities, and it determines the probability distributions of these optima using kernel density analysis. Chapter 2: An Experimental Approach. How will emerging auction-based emissions markets function within the context of today's deregulated auction-based electricity markets? This chapter provides an experimental analysis of a joint energy-emissions market. The impact of market power and collusion among dominant firms is evaluated to determine the extent to which an auction-based tradeable permit market influences performance in an adjacent electricity market. The experimental treatment design controls for a variety of real-world institutional features, including variable demand, permit banking, inter-temporal (multi-round) dynamics, a tightening cap, and resale. Results suggest that the exercise of market power significantly increases electricity auction clearing prices, without significantly increasing emissions

  4. Electricity market design for the prosumer era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parag, Yael; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2016-04-01

    Prosumers are agents that both consume and produce energy. With the growth in small and medium-sized agents using solar photovoltaic panels, smart meters, vehicle-to-grid electric automobiles, home batteries and other ‘smart’ devices, prosuming offers the potential for consumers and vehicle owners to re-evaluate their energy practices. As the number of prosumers increases, the electric utility sector of today is likely to undergo significant changes over the coming decades, offering possibilities for greening of the system, but also bringing many unknowns and risks that need to be identified and managed. To develop strategies for the future, policymakers and planners need knowledge of how prosumers could be integrated effectively and efficiently into competitive electricity markets. Here we identify and discuss three promising potential prosumer markets related to prosumer grid integration, peer-to-peer models and prosumer community groups. We also caution against optimism by laying out a series of caveats and complexities.

  5. Essays on competition in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Salvagno, Ricardo Javier

    The first chapter shows how technology decisions affect entry in commodity markets with oligopolistic competition, like the electricity market. I demonstrate an entry deterrence effect that works through cost uncertainty. Technology's cost uncertainty affects spot market expected profits through forward market trades. Therefore, incentives to engage in forward trading shape firms' decisions on production technologies. I show that high-cost but low-risk technologies are adopted by risk-averse incumbents to deter entry. Strategic technology adoption can end in a equilibrium where high-cost technologies prevail over low-cost but riskier ones. In the case of incumbents who are less risk-averse than entrants, entry deterrence is achieved by choosing riskier technologies. The main results do not depend on who chooses their technology first. Chapter two examines the Chilean experience on auctions for long-term supply contracts in electricity markets from 2006 to 2011. Using a divisible-good auction model, I provide a theoretical framework that explains bidding behavior in terms of expected spot prices and contracting positions. The model is extended to include potential strategic behavior on contracting decisions. Empirical estimations confirm the main determinants of bidding behavior and show heterogeneity in the marginal cost of over-contracting depending on size and incumbency. Chapter three analyzes the lag in capacity expansion in the Chilean electricity market from 2000 to 2004. Regarded as a result of regulatory uncertainty, the role of delays in the construction of a large hydro-power plant has been overlooked by the literature. We argue that those delays postponed projected investment and gave small windows of opportunity that only incumbents could take advantage of. We are able to retrace the history of investments through real-time information from the regulator's reports and a simple model enables us to explain the effect of those delays on suggested and under

  6. Electricity market pricing, risk hedging and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xu

    In this dissertation, we investigate the pricing, price risk hedging/arbitrage, and simplified system modeling for a centralized LMP-based electricity market. In an LMP-based market model, the full AC power flow model and the DC power flow model are most widely used to represent the transmission system. We investigate the differences of dispatching results, congestion pattern, and LMPs for the two power flow models. An appropriate LMP decomposition scheme to quantify the marginal costs of the congestion and real power losses is critical for the implementation of financial risk hedging markets. However, the traditional LMP decomposition heavily depends on the slack bus selection. In this dissertation we propose a slack-independent scheme to break LMP down into energy, congestion, and marginal loss components by analyzing the actual marginal cost of each bus at the optimal solution point. The physical and economic meanings of the marginal effect at each bus provide accurate price information for both congestion and losses, and thus the slack-dependency of the traditional scheme is eliminated. With electricity priced at the margin instead of the average value, the market operator typically collects more revenue from power sellers than that paid to power buyers. According to the LMP decomposition results, the revenue surplus is then divided into two parts: congestion charge surplus and marginal loss revenue surplus. We apply the LMP decomposition results to the financial tools, such as financial transmission right (FTR) and loss hedging right (LHR), which have been introduced to hedge against price risks associated to congestion and losses, to construct a full price risk hedging portfolio. The two-settlement market structure and the introduction of financial tools inevitably create market manipulation opportunities. We investigate several possible market manipulation behaviors by virtual bidding and propose a market monitor approach to identify and quantify such

  7. Alabama SEP Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Elizabeth M.

    2014-06-30

    efficiency, lack of financing options, lack of community support for energy efficiency programs, and lack of trained market actors including contractors and real estate professionals. The programs were able to make progress on addressing all of these barriers and were most successful in offering financing options and training market actors. The most challenging barriers proved to be the act of building a market for energy efficiency where none previously existed, convincing homeowners of the value in investing in energy efficiency (and therefore completing retrofits), engaging electric and natural gas utilities to partner on delivery, and achieving the overall project target of 1,365 completed retrofits. The components that proved to be the most valuable to program success were engaged contractor networks that could promote and endorse the program, partnerships with local business and organizations, and the access to rebates, incentives and financing mechanisms. The programs were successful in building relationships with a variety of community participants including: local contractors, Associations of REALTORS, home builders associations, universities, utilities, local and state governments, and other non-profit organizations. Throughout this program, 933 building audits and 795 building retrofits were completed making homes in Alabama more comfortable, less expensive to operate, more valuable to the marketplace, and safer and healthier for families. Continuing on this momentum, Nexus Energy Center plans to continue operating and expanding operations in Alabama as a Home Performance with ENERGY STAR sponsor and will continue to provide energy services and education to communities in Alabama.

  8. The creation of a global electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    DePinto, D.; Anderson, A.

    1998-07-01

    The global embrace of market-based economics has led to significant growth and prosperity resulting in increased needs for electricity. The burgeoning demand for energy has created requirements for capital investment at time when the state-owned energy companies cannot provide it. Governments, busy trying to find ways to manage already inflated debt burdens, have little capacity for funding the capital needed to expand energy production. In these strategic industries, governments are beginning to embrace the principles of free market capitalism and private ownership, recognizing the significant benefits to be realized: reduced national deficits, a more efficient energy sector, access to foreign capital, greater internal capital generation, and more energy to fuel economic growth. This is driving the governments to embrace privatization and is creating a market for the sale of electric utilities. On the other side of this equation are the fast developing global electric companies that are prepared to expand in both developing and developed countries through significant acquisitions of either companies or strategic assets. This scenario is further enhanced as the Independent Power Developers chase projects from Brazil to China and bring competition to the development of new generation. Never before has there been such a movement to the complete transformation of the energy industry. Countries on every continent are exploring how they can reform and restructure the energy sector. The analysis will address: Global transformation sweeping the various regions of the world; Impact on developers and the strategy required for success; Global electric companies and their impact on the transformation process; and Future of the electric power industry: Will it bring the world closer together?

  9. Financial methods in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shijie

    The restructuring of electric power industry has become a global trend. As reforms to the electricity supply industry spread rapidly across countries and states, many political and economical issues arise as a result of people debating over which approach to adopt in restructuring the vertically integrated electricity industry. This dissertation addresses issues of transmission pricing, electricity spot price modeling, as well as risk management and asset valuation in a competitive electricity industry. A major concern in the restructuring of the electricity industries is the design of a transmission pricing scheme that will ensure open-access to the transmission networks. I propose a priority-pricing scheme for zonal access to the electric power grid that is uniform across all buses in each zone. The Independent System Operator (ISO) charges bulk power traders a per unit ex ante transmission access fee based on the expected option value of the generated power with respect to the random zonal spot prices. The zonal access fee depends on the injection zone and a self-selected strike price determining the scheduling priority of the transaction. Inter zonal transactions are charged (or credited) with an additional ex post congestion fee that equals the zonal spot price difference. The unit access fee entitles a bulk power trader to either physical injection of one unit of energy or a compensation payment that equals to the difference between the realized zonal spot price and the selected strike price. The ISO manages congestion so as to minimize net compensation payments and thus, curtailment probabilities corresponding to a particular strike price may vary by bus. The rest of the dissertation deals with the issues of modeling electricity spot prices, pricing electricity financial instruments and the corresponding risk management applications. Modeling the spot prices of electricity is important for the market participants who need to understand the risk factors in

  10. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  11. Essays in the California electricity reserves markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxoglou, Konstantinos

    This dissertation examines inefficiencies in the California electricity reserves markets. In Chapter 1, I use the information released during the investigation of the state's electricity crisis of 2000 and 2001 by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to diagnose allocative inefficiencies. Building upon the work of Wolak (2000), I calculate a lower bound for the sellers' price-cost margins using the inverse elasticities of their residual demand curves. The downward bias in my estimates stems from the fact that I don't account for the hierarchical substitutability of the reserve types. The margins averaged at least 20 percent for the two highest quality types of reserves, regulation and spinning, generating millions of dollars in transfers to a handful of sellers. I provide evidence that the deviations from marginal cost pricing were due to the markets' high concentration and a principal-agent relationship that emerged from their design. In Chapter 2, I document systematic differences between the markets' day- and hour-ahead prices. I use a high-dimensional vector moving average model to estimate the premia and conduct correct inferences. To obtain exact maximum likelihood estimates of the model, I employ the EM algorithm that I develop in Chapter 3. I uncover significant day-ahead premia, which I attribute to market design characteristics too. On the demand side, the market design established a principal-agent relationship between the markets' buyers (principal) and their supervisory authority (agent). The agent had very limited incentives to shift reserve purchases to the lower priced hour-ahead markets. On the supply side, the market design raised substantial entry barriers by precluding purely speculative trading and by introducing a complicated code of conduct that induced uncertainty about which actions were subject to regulatory scrutiny. In Chapter 3, I introduce a state-space representation for vector autoregressive moving average models that enables

  12. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  13. Market mature 1998 hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1998-07-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again re-evaluated the potential of the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to the high energy density of liquid hydrocarbon (HC) fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort was highlighted finally, in 1997, at the 57th Frankfurt Motor Show, the Audi Duo parallel type hybrid was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. Also at the 1997 32nd Tokyo Motor Show, the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) Prius was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these two 1998 model year production hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the major manufacturers have turned to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to the key EV issues of limited range and heating/air conditioning; and, two, the focus is now on introducing hybrid EV for test marketing domestically.

  14. Marketing and Distributive Education National Research Conference Report (Auburn, Alabama, April 12-14, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, William D., Ed.; And Others

    These proceedings contain the following eight papers: "Identifying Problems that Impede the Operations of a Business and Services that May Help Overcome Them" (William T. Price, Jr.); "A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Traditional Modes of Instruction in Principles of Marketing Classes" (Gerald Crawford, Jack W. Crocker, Margie S.…

  15. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D.

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Experimental Economics for Teaching the Functioning of Electricity Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara-Cedeno, J. Y.; Palma-Behnke, R.; Uribe, R.

    2012-01-01

    In the field of electricity markets, the development of training tools for engineers has been extremely useful. A novel experimental economics approach based on a computational Web platform of an electricity market is proposed here for the practical teaching of electrical engineering students. The approach is designed to diminish the gap that…

  17. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y. C.; Ragazzi, E.

    2006-03-01

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions need to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers.

  18. Managing electricity reliability risk through the futures markets

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2000-10-01

    In competitive electricity markets, the vertically integrated utilities that were responsible for ensuring system reliability in their own service territories, or groups of territories, often cease to exist. Typically, the burden falls to an independent system operator (ISO) to insure that enough ancillary services (AS) are available for safe, stable, and reliable operation of the grid, typically defined, in part, as compliance with officially approved engineering specifications for minimum levels of AS. In order to characterize the behavior of market participants (generators, retailers, and an ISO) in a competitive electricity market with reliability requirements, we model a spot market for electricity and futures markets for both electricity and AS. By assuming that each participant seeks to maximize its expected utility of wealth and that all markets clear, we solve for the optional quantities of electricity and AS traded in each market by all participants, as well as the corresponding market-clearing prices. We show that future prices for both electricity and AS depend on expectations of the spot price, statistical aspects of system demand, and production cost parameters. More important, our model captures the fact that electricity and AS are substitute products for the generators, implying that anticipated changes in the spot market will affect the equilibrium futures positions of both electricity and AS. We apply our model to the California electricity and AS markets to test its viability.

  19. A Study of Central Auction Based Wholesale Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Sofia; Gatti, Nicola

    The deregulation of electricity markets produced significant economic benefits, reducing prices to customers and opening several opportunities for new actors, e.g., new generators and distributors. A prominent scientific and technological challenge is the automation of such markets. In particular, we focus our attention on wholesale electricity markets based on a central auction. In these markets, generators sell electricity by means of a central auction to a public authority. Instead, the distribution of electricity to customers takes part in retail markets. The main works presented in the literature model wholesale markets as oligopolies, neglecting thus the specific auction mechanism. In this paper, we enrich these models by introducing an auction mechanism shaped on that used in the Italian wholesale electricity market, we solve the winner determination problem, and we preliminarily study the problem of searching for equilibria.

  20. Market power in electric power markets: Indications of competitiveness in spatial prices for wholesale electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Michael John

    The issue of market delineation and power in the wholesale electric energy market is explored using three separate approaches: two of these are analyses of spatial pricing data to explore the functional size of the markets, and the third is a series of experimental tests of the effects of different cost structures and market mechanisms on oligopoly strength in those markets. An equilibrium model of spatial network competition is shown to yield linear relationships between spatial prices. A data set comprising two years of spatial weekly peak and off-peak prices and weather for 6 locations in the Western States Coordinating Council and the Southwest Power Pool is subjected to a pairwise cointegration analysis. The use of dummy variables to account the the flow directions is found to significantly improve model performance. The second analytical technique utilizes the extraction of principal components from a spatial price correlation matrix to identify the extent of natural markets. One year of daily price observations for eleven locations within the WSCC is compiled and eigenvectors are extracted and subjected to oblique rotation, each of which is then interpreted as representing a separate geographic market. The results show that two distinct natural markets, correlated at 84%, account for over 96% of the variation in the spatial prices in the WSSC. Together, the findings support the assertion that the wholesale electricity market in the Western U.S. is large and highly competitive. The experimental analysis utilizes a radial three node network in which suppliers located at the outer nodes sell to buyers located at the central node. The parameterization captures the salient characteristics of the existing bulk power markets, and includes cyclical demand, transmission losses, as well as fixed and avoidable fixed costs for all agents. Treatments varied the number of sellers, the avoidable fixed cost structures, and the trading mechanism. Results indicated that

  1. Markets and commercialization scenarios for emerging fuel cells in evolving electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Rastler, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Electricity markets in the United States are undergoing unprecedented structural changes as a result of the confluence of regulatory, competitive, and technological forces. This paper introduces these structural changes and forces and discuss the implications, markets and commercialization scenarios for emerging fuel cells in evolving US electricity markets.

  2. EIA model documentation: Electricity market module - electricity fuel dispatch

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM) as it was used for EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1997. It replaces previous documentation dated March 1994 and subsequent yearly update revisions. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This document serves four purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the model for reviewers and potential users of the EFD including energy experts at the Energy Information Administration (EIA), other Federal agencies, state energy agencies, private firms such as utilities and consulting firms, and non-profit groups such as consumer and environmental groups. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation which details model enhancements that were undertaken for AE097 and since the previous documentation. Last, because the major use of the EFD is to develop forecasts, this documentation explains the calculations, major inputs and assumptions which were used to generate the AE097.

  3. [Space Weather Impact on the Electricity Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SaintCyr, O. Chris

    2007-01-01

    Forbes & St. Cyr (2004, hereafter "FISC") have provided evidence that the electricity market can be impacted by space weather. Our analysis indicated that the estimated market impact for PJM was 3.7 % or approximately $500 million dollars over the 19 month sample period. Kappenman has taken exception to this estimate and contends that we have exaggerated the magnitude of the problem that space weather poses to PJM. There are four specific issues: (1) he claims that we have ignored relevant literature; (2) he asserts that Dst is not an appropriate proxy for GICs in PJM; (3) he charges that our findings are inconsistent with the impact of the 17 September 2000 storm; and (4) he alleges that our discussion of October 2003 storms is misleading. In our article, we have explained our methodology, multivariate regression analysis, with a particular focus on how it compares to correlation analysis. We have also explained the limitations of our analysis. We noted that "...While the Dstlprice relationship was found to be robust, the precise estimate should be treated with a relatively high degree of caution given that econometric modeling is not an exact science as well as the fact that the measure of space weather may be a poor proxy for GICs" (paragraph 96). We have also noted that additional research using local magnetometer data are needed (paragraph 97). We did not claim that that our findings for PJM are representative of the impact of space weather on other power grids. On the contrary, we noted that ... "Only analysis of other power grids will tell. " (paragraph 97). Kappenman inaccurately asserts that we have indicated that our findings . . . "imply much higher total costs are likely across the US and elsewhere in the world." He also inaccurately asserts that we have claimed that " . . . Dst is the most suited proxy for GIC in the PJM grid.. ." Moreover, he inaccurately refers to our analysis as a correlation study that uses Dst as quasi-binary indicator.

  4. Managing total corporate electricity/energy market risks

    SciTech Connect

    Henney, A.; Keers, G.

    1998-10-01

    The banking industry has developed a tool kit of very useful value at risk techniques for hedging risk, but these techniques must be adapted to the special complexities of the electricity market. This paper starts with a short history of the use of value-at-risk (VAR) techniques in banking risk management and then examines the specific and, in many instances, complex risk management challenges faced by electric companies from the behavior of prices in electricity markets and from the character of generation and electric retailing risks. The third section describes the main methods for making VAR calculations along with an analysis of their suitability for analyzing the risks of electricity portfolios and the case for using profit at risk and downside risk as measures of risk. The final section draws the threads together and explains how to look at managing total corporate electricity market risk, which is a big step toward managing total corporate energy market risk.

  5. E-laboratories : agent-based modeling of electricity markets.

    SciTech Connect

    North, M.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Macal, C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.

    2002-05-03

    Electricity markets are complex adaptive systems that operate under a wide range of rules that span a variety of time scales. These rules are imposed both from above by society and below by physics. Many electricity markets are undergoing or are about to undergo a transition from centrally regulated systems to decentralized markets. Furthermore, several electricity markets have recently undergone this transition with extremely unsatisfactory results, most notably in California. These high stakes transitions require the introduction of largely untested regulatory structures. Suitable laboratories that can be used to test regulatory structures before they are applied to real systems are needed. Agent-based models can provide such electronic laboratories or ''e-laboratories.'' To better understand the requirements of an electricity market e-laboratory, a live electricity market simulation was created. This experience helped to shape the development of the Electricity Market Complex Adaptive Systems (EMCAS) model. To explore EMCAS' potential as an e-laboratory, several variations of the live simulation were created. These variations probed the possible effects of changing power plant outages and price setting rules on electricity market prices.

  6. Market opportunities in electric residential cooking. Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bassill, S.

    1996-03-01

    At present, gas ovens and ranges are garnering an increasing share of the electric cooking market. This report evaluates the marketplace and explains the technological and educational reasons that an increasing number of consumers, dealers, builders, contractors, and original equipment manufacturers are opting for gas appliances. The report then identifies opportunities for the electric utility industry to regain residential electric cooking market shares by promoting the development and benefits of new electrotechnologies.

  7. Wind power forecasting in U.S. Electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, Audun; Wang, Jianhui; Miranda, Vladimiro; Bessa, Ricardo J.

    2010-04-15

    Wind power forecasting is becoming an important tool in electricity markets, but the use of these forecasts in market operations and among market participants is still at an early stage. The authors discuss the current use of wind power forecasting in U.S. ISO/RTO markets, and offer recommendations for how to make efficient use of the information in state-of-the-art forecasts. (author)

  8. Adaptive Portfolio Optimization for Multiple Electricity Markets Participation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Praca, Isabel; Faia, Ricardo; Pires, Eduardo Jose Solteiro

    2016-08-01

    The increase of distributed energy resources, mainly based on renewable sources, requires new solutions that are able to deal with this type of resources' particular characteristics (namely, the renewable energy sources intermittent nature). The smart grid concept is increasing its consensus as the most suitable solution to facilitate the small players' participation in electric power negotiations while improving energy efficiency. The opportunity for players' participation in multiple energy negotiation environments (smart grid negotiation in addition to the already implemented market types, such as day-ahead spot markets, balancing markets, intraday negotiations, bilateral contracts, forward and futures negotiations, and among other) requires players to take suitable decisions on whether to, and how to participate in each market type. This paper proposes a portfolio optimization methodology, which provides the best investment profile for a market player, considering different market opportunities. The amount of power that each supported player should negotiate in each available market type in order to maximize its profits, considers the prices that are expected to be achieved in each market, in different contexts. The price forecasts are performed using artificial neural networks, providing a specific database with the expected prices in the different market types, at each time. This database is then used as input by an evolutionary particle swarm optimization process, which originates the most advantage participation portfolio for the market player. The proposed approach is tested and validated with simulations performed in multiagent simulator of competitive electricity markets, using real electricity markets data from the Iberian operator-MIBEL.

  9. 77 FR 41184 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Technical Conferences

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of... regional technical conferences on Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets. The regional... jurisdiction over the rates or terms of service in wholesale electricity markets doing business wholly...

  10. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Direct Energy Marketing, Inc... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and other...

  11. Modifications to incorporate competitive electricity prices in the annual energy outlook 1998 - electricity market module

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe modifications to the Electricity Market Module (EMM) for the Annual Energy Outlook 1998. It describes revisions necessary to derive competitive electricity prices and the corresponding reserve margins.

  12. Equilibrium pricing in electricity markets with wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Ofir David

    Estimates from the World Wind Energy Association assert that world total wind power installed capacity climbed from 18 Gigawatt (GW) to 152 GW from 2000 to 2009. Moreover, according to their predictions, by the end of 2010 global wind power capacity will reach 190 GW. Since electricity is a unique commodity, this remarkable expansion brings forward several key economic questions regarding the integration of significant amount of wind power capacity into deregulated electricity markets. The overall dissertation objective is to develop a comprehensive theoretical framework that enables the modeling of the performance and outcome of wind-integrated electricity markets. This is relevant because the state of knowledge of modeling electricity markets is insufficient for the purpose of wind power considerations. First, there is a need to decide about a consistent representation of deregulated electricity markets. Surprisingly, the related body of literature does not agree on the very economic basics of modeling electricity markets. That is important since we need to capture the fundamentals of electricity markets before we introduce wind power to our study. For example, the structure of the electric industry is a key. If market power is present, the integration of wind power has large consequences on welfare distribution. Since wind power uncertainty changes the dynamics of information it also impacts the ability to manipulate market prices. This is because the quantity supplied by wind energy is not a decision variable. Second, the intermittent spatial nature of wind over a geographical region is important because the market value of wind power capacity is derived from its statistical properties. Once integrated into the market, the distribution of wind will impact the price of electricity produced from conventional sources of energy. Third, although wind power forecasting has improved in recent years, at the time of trading short-term electricity forwards, forecasting

  13. Economic-efficiency considerations in restructuring electric markets

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1996-12-01

    In response to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s subsequent rulemaking on transmission access, many states are exploring options to restructure their electric industries. In their deliberations on restructuring, policymakers should consider (1) the reliability of the electric system; (2) income-distribution effects on ratepayers and utilities; (3) social consequences such as effects on energy conservation, renewable energy, and the environment; and (4) economic efficiency. We address economic-efficiency considerations in this study. Economic efficiency is important because it is one of the primary reasons that policymakers should consider restructuring in the first place: improving the electric-industry`s efficiency lowers costs and, hence, electric prices. In this study, we look at the sources of (in)efficiency in existing and proposed electric markets with the objective of guiding policymakers to design efficient electric markets. The advantages of a competitive market are well known: it leads to lower costs for the utility, lower prices for consumers, more product choices, better customer service, and often the need for less regulation by federal and state agencies. In the short run, firms who cannot produce at the market-clearing price are forced to leave the industry, ensuring that customers have the lowest price possible. In the long run, competition promotes innovation and lower costs. The physical and institutional characteristics of the U.S. electric industry, however, could be impediments to attaining efficiently run, competitive markets. Because of these characteristics, there are multiple sources of efficiencies and inefficiencies in existing electric markets, and there will be multiple sources in restructured ones. The objective of policymakers should not be to trade one set of inefficiencies in existing electric markets for another set in restructured markets.

  14. Converging markets: The first real electric/gas merger

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    Enron`s bid to acquire Portland General heralds a new phase in utility competition. Why the Holding Company Act doesn`t matter. The merger agreement between Enron and Portland General Corp. has reshuffled the electric restructuring deck. It makes electric utilities takeover targets for outside suitors after 60 years of peaceful immunity. It drives home the fact that electric utilities will be thrust squarely into the zero-sum game of head-to-head competition. It demonstrates that market forces will limit the ability of regulators to control restructuring. It brings the convergence of gas and electric markets to center stage.

  15. Electricity market reforms: Institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    The reform trend of the 1990's in electricity markets recreates, to some extent, the institutional framework from which they developed one century ago. Although these reforms do not endeavor to completely remove regulation, the basic objectives of deregulation dwell on limiting central and governmental control over the industry in order to promote free competition at all possible levels. To assess whether the electricity industry is or is not moving back to a 19th century structure is not the goal of this thesis. We will rather try to understand on what grounds deregulation reforms stand and review how different countries and large utilities have reacted to this trend. The special nature of electricity (non-storable basic good, centrally produced) creates different obstacles in the restructuring of electricity markets, compared to other industries like the airline or telecommunication ones. For example, the dominant positions of some utilities, the production structure and the importance of electricity in modern life could transform these reforms in a threatening move for consumers. Another specific issue arising from deregulation, now that national energy policy goals no longer rule the behavior of utilities, is how investment will be coordinated in the new market. A key element to keep in sight is the competition level targeted by these reforms. To which extent full competition can really occur in electricity markets remains an unanswered question. Indeed, the oligopolistic structure of the market could prevent such an outcome. An investigation of the investment dynamics in such a context seems therefore appropriate, and this will be an important theme of the thesis. This work offers an analysis of deregulated electricity markets and studies the oligopolistic market dynamics that could prevail in the new structure. Two complementary approaches are used for these purposes. The first is institutional and presents a thorough illustration of the economic arguments

  16. Measuring efficiency in wholesale electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Nicholas S.

    2009-06-15

    The mechanisms of the bid-based economic dispatch and market power mitigation algorithms which result in the market clearing price epitomize the complexity of the new regulatory regime. The augmented Lerner Index presented here offers a method to objectively assess the efficiency of the new structure. (author)

  17. Modeling EU electricity market competition using the residual supply index

    SciTech Connect

    Swinand, Gregory; Scully, Derek; Ffoulkes, Stuart; Kessler, Brian

    2010-11-15

    An econometric approach to related hourly Residual Supply Index to price-cost margins in the major EU electricity generation markets suggests that market structure, as measured by the RSI, is a significant explanatory factor for markups, even when scarcity and other explanatory variables are included. (author)

  18. Incorporating weather uncertainty in demand forecasts for electricity market planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziser, C. J.; Dong, Z. Y.; Wong, K. P.

    2012-07-01

    A major component of electricity network planning is to ensure supply capability into the future, through generation and transmission development. Accurate forecasts of maximum demand are a crucial component of this process, with future weather conditions having a large impact on forecast accuracy. This article presents an improved methodology for the consideration of weather uncertainty in electricity demand forecasts. Case studies based on the Australian national electricity market are used to validate the proposed methodology.

  19. Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2003-05-01

    The degree to which any deregulated market functions efficiently often depends on the ability of market agents to respond quickly to fluctuating conditions. Many restructured electricity markets, however, experience high prices caused by supply shortages and little demand-side response. We examine the implications for market operations when a risk-averse retailer's end-use consumers are allowed to perceive real-time variations in the electricity spot price. Using a market-equilibrium model, we find that price elasticity both increases the retailers revenue risk exposure and decreases the spot price. Since the latter induces the retailer to reduce forward electricity purchases, while the former has the opposite effect, the overall impact of price responsive demand on the relative magnitudes of its risk exposure and end-user price elasticity. Nevertheless, price elasticity decreases cumulative electricity consumption. By extending the analysis to allow for early settlement of demand, we find that forward stage end-user price responsiveness decreases the electricity forward price relative to the case with price-elastic demand only in real time. Moreover, we find that only if forward stage end-user demand is price elastic will the equilibrium electricity forward price be reduced.

  20. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  1. 75 FR 57912 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing... utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The...

  2. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP... power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  3. 77 FR 20375 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing... directly with Joseph M. Wolfe, Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation, Kirkwood Office Tower, 919 South...

  4. State policy change: Revenue decoupling in the electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Kytson L.

    The study seeks to answer the question, why are states adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market, by investigating the relationship between policy adoption and attributes of the electricity market, the structure of the state utility commissions, and the political climate of the state. The study examines the period 1978-2008. Two econometric models, the marginal risk set model and the conditional risk set model, are estimated to predict the influence of covariates on the probability of the state adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market. The models are both variants of the Cox proportional hazard model and use different underlying assumptions about the nature of adoption of revenue decoupling and when the states are considered to be at risk of adoption. Results suggest that market attributes, such as the source of electricity generation in the state, state energy intensity, and the distribution of non-public and public utilities, significantly influence the adoption of the policy. Also, the method of selecting commissioners and the party affiliation of elected officials in the state are important factors. The study concludes by suggestions to improve the implementation and evaluation of revenue decoupling in the electricity markets.

  5. Misconceptions of Electric Propulsion Aircraft and Their Emergent Aviation Markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.; Fredericks, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years there have been aircraft conceptual design and system studies that have reached conflicting conclusions relating to the feasibility of full and hybrid electric aircraft. Some studies and propulsion discipline experts have claimed that battery technologies will need to improve by 10 to 20 times before electric aircraft can effectively compete with reciprocating or turbine engines. However, such studies have approached comparative assessments without understanding the compelling differences that electric propulsion offers, how these technologies will fundamentally alter the way propulsion integration is approached, or how these new technologies can not only compete but far exceed existing propulsion solutions in many ways at battery specific energy densities of only 400 watt hours per kilogram. Electric propulsion characteristics offer the opportunity to achieve 4 to 8 time improvements in energy costs with dramatically lower total operating costs, while dramatically improving efficiency, community noise, propulsion system reliability and safety through redundancy, as well as life cycle Green House Gas emissions. Integration of electric propulsion will involve far greater degrees of distribution than existing propulsion solutions due to their compact and scale-free nature to achieve multi-disciplinary coupling and synergistic integration with the aerodynamics, highlift system, acoustics, vehicle control, balance, and aeroelasticity. Appropriate metrics of comparison and differences in analysis/design tools are discussed while comparing electric propulsion to other disruptive technologies. For several initial applications, battery energy density is already sufficient for competitive products, and for many additional markets energy densities will likely be adequate within the next 7 years for vibrant introduction. Market evolution and early adopter markets are discussed, along with the investment areas that will fill technology gaps and

  6. Models for electricity market efficiency and bidding strategy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hui

    This dissertation studies models for the analysis of market efficiency and bidding behaviors of market participants in electricity markets. Simulation models are developed to estimate how transmission and operational constraints affect the competitive benchmark and market prices based on submitted bids. This research contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, transmission and operational constraints, which have been neglected in most empirical literature, are considered in the competitive benchmark estimation model. Second, the effects of operational and transmission constraints on market prices are estimated through two models based on the submitted bids of market participants. Third, these models are applied to analyze the efficiency of the Electric Reliability Council Of Texas (ERCOT) real-time energy market by simulating its operations for the time period from January 2002 to April 2003. The characteristics and available information for the ERCOT market are considered. In electricity markets, electric firms compete through both spot market bidding and bilateral contract trading. A linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium (SFE) model with transmission constraints is proposed in this dissertation to analyze the bidding strategies with forward contracts. The research contributes to the literature in several aspects. First, we combine forward contracts, transmission constraints, and multi-period strategy (an obligation for firms to bid consistently over an extended time horizon such as a day or an hour) into the linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium framework. As an ex-ante model, it can provide qualitative insights into firms' behaviors. Second, the bidding strategies related to Transmission Congestion Rights (TCRs) are discussed by interpreting TCRs as linear combination of forwards. Third, the model is a general one in the sense that there is no limitation on the number of firms and scale of the transmission network, which can have

  7. Energy Market Transparency: Analyzing the Impacts of Constraint Relaxation and Out-of-Market Correction Practices in Electric Energy Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abdullah, Yousef Mohammad

    This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have on market outcomes. The practice of constraint relaxations similar to those an Independent System Operator (ISO) might perform in day-ahead market models is implemented. The benefits of these practices are well understood by the industry; however, the implications these practices have on market outcomes and system security have not been thoroughly investigated. By solving a day-ahead market model with and without select constraint relaxations and comparing the resulting market outcomes and possible effects on system security, the effect of these constraint relaxation practices is demonstrated. Proposed market solutions are often infeasible because constraint relaxation practices and approximations that are incorporated into market models. Therefore, the dispatch solution must be corrected to ensure its feasibility. The practice of correcting the proposed dispatch solution after the market is solved is known as out-of-market corrections (OMCs), defined as any action an operator takes that modifies a proposed day-ahead dispatch solution to ensure operating and reliability requirements. The way in which OMCs affect market outcomes is illustrated through the use of different corrective procedures. The objective of the work presented is to demonstrate the implications of these industry practices and assess the impact these practices have on market outcomes.

  8. Basic Studies on Chaotic Characteristics of Electric Power Market Price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Yuya; Miyauchi, Hajime; Kita, Toshihiro

    Recently, deregulation and reform of electric power utilities have been progressing in many parts of the world. In Japan, partial deregulation has been started from generation sector since 1995 and partial deregulation of retail sector is executed through twice law revisions. Through the deregulation, because electric power is traded in the market and its price is always fluctuated, it is important for the electric power business to analyze and predict the price. Although the price data of the electric power market is time series data, it is not always proper to analyze by the linear model such as ARMA because the price sometimes changes suddenly. Therefore, in this paper, we apply the methods of chaotic time series analysis, one of non-linear analysis methods, and investigate the chaotic characteristics of the system price of JEPX.

  9. Load As A Reliability Resource in the Restructured Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, J.D.

    2002-06-10

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. There is a strong need for dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market [1]. Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. Increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. This scoping report provides a three-part assessment of the current status of efforts to enhance the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets with a specific focus on the role of customer loads in enhancing electricity system reliability. First, this report considers the definitions of electricity-reliability-enhancing ancillary services (Section 2) and a preliminary assessment of the ability of customer's loads to provide these services. Second, is a review a variety of programs in which load has been called on as a system reliability resource (Section 3). These experiences, drawn from both past and current utility and ISO programs, focus on programs triggered by system condition (e

  10. Essays on wholesale auctions in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltaduonis, Rimvydas

    2007-12-01

    The early experience in the restructured electric power markets raised several issues, including price spikes, inefficiency, security, and the overall relationship of market clearing prices to generation costs. Unsatisfactory outcomes in these markets are thought to have resulted in part from strategic generator behaviors encouraged by inappropriate market design features. In this dissertation, I examine the performance of three auction mechanisms for wholesale power markets - Offer Cost Minimization auction, Payment Cost Minimization auction and Simple-Offer auction - when electricity suppliers act strategically. A Payment Cost Minimization auction has been proposed as an alternative to the traditional Offer Cost Minimization auction with the intention to solve the problem of inflated wholesale electricity prices. Efficiency concerns for this proposal were voiced due to insights predicated on the assumption of true production cost revelation. Using a game theoretic approach and an experimental method, I compare the two auctions, strictly controlling for the level of unilateral market power. A specific feature of these complex-offer auctions is that the sellers submit not only the quantities and the minimum prices that they are willing to sell at, but also the start-up fees, which are designed to reimburse the fixed start-up costs of the generation plants. I find that the complex structure of the offers leaves considerable room for strategic behavior, which consequently leads to anti-competitive and inefficient market outcomes. In the last chapter of my dissertation, I use laboratory experiments to contrast the performance of two complex-offer auctions against the performance of a simple-offer auction, in which the sellers have to recover all their generation costs - fixed and variable - through a uniform market-clearing price. I find that a simple-offer auction significantly reduces consumer prices and lowers price volatility. It mitigates anti-competitive effects

  11. 76 FR 10492 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... discussed below. \\1\\ Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets, Order No. 741, 75 FR 65942 (Oct.... 888, 61 FR 21540 (May 10, 1996), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,036, at 31,937 (1996) (pro forma OATT, section 11 (Creditworthiness)), order on reh'g, Order No. 888-A, 62 FR 12274 (Mar. 14, 1997), FERC...

  12. The origins of political electricity: Market failure or political opportunism?

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.L. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The current debate over restructuring the electric industry, which includes such issues as displacing the regulatory covenant, repealing the Public Utility Holding Company Act, and privatizing municipal power systems, the Rural Utilities Service (formerly Rural Electrification Administration), and federally owned power systems, makes a look back at the origins of political electricity relevant. The thesis of this essay, that government intervention into electric markets was not the result of market failures but, rather, represented business and political opportunism, suggests that the intellectual and empirical case for market-oriented reform is even stronger than would otherwise be the case. A major theme of applied political economy is the dynamics of government intervention in the marketplace. Because interventions are often related, an analytical distinction can be made between basis point and cumulative intervention. Basis point regulation, taxation, or subsidizaion is the opening government intervention into a market setting; cumulative intervention is further regulation, taxation, or subsidization that is attributable to the effects of prior (basis point or cumulative) intervention. The origins and maturation of political electricity, as will be seen, are interpretable through this theoretical framework.

  13. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, John Timothy

    In the first chapter of this dissertation, I study the effects of a number of policies which affect the electric grid using the SuperOPF, a full AC optimization/simulation framework with optimal investment developed at Cornell University. A 36-node model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council is used to test policies that aim to reduce CO2, other emissions, or otherwise impact the operation of the electric grid: a base case, with no new environmental legislation; enactment of the Kerry-Lieberman CO2 allowance proposal in 2012; following Fukishima, a retirement of all US nuclear plants by 2022 with and without Kerry-Lieberman; marginal damages from SO2 and NOX emissions charged to coal, gas and oil-fired generation; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load filling; wind incentives in place; and two cases which combine these. The cases suggest that alternative policies may have very different outcomes in terms of electricity prices, emissions, and health outcomes. In all cases, however, the optimal strategy for future investment is investment in new natural gas combined cycle plants. Policies can change how much new generation is built, whether other plants are built, or what types of plants are retired. The second chapter of my dissertation utilizes the SuperOPF and the model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council to analyze the issue of carbon leakage. I analyze the effects of a regionally-limited carbon cap and trade program, the Regional Greenhouse Initiative (RGGI), when additional generating assets in non-affected states are included in the analysis. In the face of different carbon prices on generating assets in covered and non-covered states, generation is expected to shift from states bound by RGGI to states outside of RGGI. This carbon leakage may undermine some or all of the benefits of RGGI while simultaneously increasing prices for customers in the area. Even though carbon prices under RGGI are very low, some leakage is occurring, and this leakage

  14. Demand responsive programs - an emerging resource for competitive electricity markets?

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, Grayson C. Dr.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2001-06-25

    The restructuring of regional electricity markets in the U.S. has been accompanied by numerous problems, including generation capacity shortages, transmission congestion, wholesale price volatility, and reduced system reliability. These problems have created significant new opportunities for technologies and business approaches that allow load serving entities and other aggregators, to control and manage the load patterns of their wholesale or retail end-users. These technologies and business approaches for manipulating end-user load shapes are known as Load Management or, more recently, Demand Responsive programs. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is conducting case studies on innovative demand responsive programs and presents preliminary results for five case studies in this paper. These case studies illustrate the diversity of market participants and range of technologies and business approaches and focus on key program elements such as target markets, market segmentation and participation results; pricing scheme; dispatch and coordination; measurement, verification, and settlement; and operational results where available.

  15. Competitive electricity markets, prices and generator entry and exit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ethier, Robert George

    The electric power industry in the United States is quickly being deregulated and restructured. In the past, new electric generation capacity was added by regulated utilities to meet forecasted demand levels and maintain reserve margins. With competitive wholesale generation, investment will be the responsibility of independent private investors. Electricity prices will assume the coordinating function which has until recently been the responsibility of regulatory agencies. Competitive prices will provide the entry and exit signals for generators in the future. Competitive electricity markets have a distinctive price formation process, and thus require a specialized price model. A mean-reverting price process with stochastic jumps is proposed as an appropriate long-run price process for annual electricity prices. This price process is used to develop an analytic real options model for private investment decisions. The required recursive infinite series solutions have not been widely used for real option models. Entry thresholds and asset values for competitive wholesale electricity markets, and exit decisions for plants with significant retirement costs (i.e. nuclear power plants), are examined. The proposed model results in significantly lower trigger prices for both entry and exit decisions, and higher asset values, when compared with other standard models. The model is used to show that the incentives for retiring a nuclear plant are very sensitive to the treatment of decommissioning costs (e.g. if plant owners do not face full decommissioning costs, retirement decisions may be economically premature.) An econometric model of short-run price behavior is estimated by the method of maximum likelihood using daily electricity prices from markets in the USA and Australia. The model specifies two mean reverting price processes with stochastic Markov switching between the regimes, which allows discontinuous jumps in electricity prices. Econometric tests show that a two

  16. Stratum Electricity Markets: Toward Multi-temporal Distributed Risk Management for Sustainable Electricity Provision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiyong (Richard)

    Motivated by the overall challenge of ensuring long-term sustainable electricity service, we view this challenge as a long-term decision making problem under uncertainties. We start by recognizing that, independent of the industry organization, the uncertainties are enormous and often exogenous to the energy service providers. They are multi-dimensional and are result of fundamental drivers, ranging from the supply side, through the demand side, to the regulatory and policy sides. The basic contribution of this thesis comes from the recognition that long-term investments for ensuring reliable and stable electricity service critically depend on how these uncertainties are perceived, valued and managed by the different stakeholders within the complex industry organization such as the electric power industry. We explain several reasons why price signals obtained from current short-term electricity markets alone are not sufficient enough for long-term sustainable provision. Some enhancements are presented in the thesis to improve the short-term electricity market price signals to reflect the true cost of operation. New market mechanisms and instruments are needed to facilitate the stakeholders to better deal with long-term risks. The problems of ensuring long-term stable reliable service in the sense of the traditional resource adequacy requirements are revisited in both the restructuring industry and regulated industry. We introduce a so-called Stratum Electricity Market (SEM) design as the basic market mechanism for solving the problem of long-term reliable electricity service through a series of interactive multi-lateral market exchange platforms for risks communication, management and evaluations over various time horizons and by the different groups of stakeholders. In other words, our proposed SEM is a basic IT-enabled framework for the decision making processes by various parties over different time. Because of the uniqueness of electricity as a commodity, the

  17. Fast Change Point Detection for Electricity Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Berkeley, UC; Gu, William; Choi, Jaesik; Gu, Ming; Simon, Horst; Wu, Kesheng

    2013-08-25

    Electricity is a vital part of our daily life; therefore it is important to avoid irregularities such as the California Electricity Crisis of 2000 and 2001. In this work, we seek to predict anomalies using advanced machine learning algorithms. These algorithms are effective, but computationally expensive, especially if we plan to apply them on hourly electricity market data covering a number of years. To address this challenge, we significantly accelerate the computation of the Gaussian Process (GP) for time series data. In the context of a Change Point Detection (CPD) algorithm, we reduce its computational complexity from O($n^{5}$) to O($n^{2}$). Our efficient algorithm makes it possible to compute the Change Points using the hourly price data from the California Electricity Crisis. By comparing the detected Change Points with known events, we show that the Change Point Detection algorithm is indeed effective in detecting signals preceding major events.

  18. Lithium Battery Power Delivers Electric Vehicles to Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid Technologies Inc., a manufacturer and marketer of lithium-ion battery electric vehicles, based in Las Vegas, Nevada, and with research and manufacturing facilities in Mooresville, North Carolina, entered into a Space Act Agreement with Kennedy Space Center to determine the utility of lithium-powered fleet vehicles. NASA contributed engineering expertise for the car's advanced battery management system and tested a fleet of zero-emission vehicles on the Kennedy campus. Hybrid Technologies now offers a series of purpose-built lithium electric vehicles dubbed the LiV series, aimed at the urban and commuter environments.

  19. 75 FR 45111 - Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ...] Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation; Notice... Order, the Commission directed Strategic Energy Management Corp. and Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation... Energy Management Corp. and Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation) have failed to file their...

  20. 77 FR 11515 - Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ] ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has... would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities and Federal power marketing agencies...

  1. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... applications, Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. (NEMT) has applied for authority to transmit electric..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. NEMT has...

  2. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd... electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States....

  3. Electric power competition & the economic doctrine of contestable markets

    SciTech Connect

    Owan, R.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses electric power competition and ascribes a prototypical market structure for the utility industry. The advent of {open_quotes}limited{close_quotes} competition in the electric utility industry has created interesting market challenges for incumbent companies and those eager to enter the fray. Competition is viewed as limited in the sense that not all aspects of the utility industry have been deregulated. While transmission and distribution remain protected market segments, the metamorphosis is most evident in the generation component of the utility industry. The changes have been orchestrated by favorable actions by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Because of the industry changes, the classical view of the electric utility company as a vertical monopoly is arguable. Welfare considerations not withstanding, part of the rationale for the deregulation of power generation is that the technology and techniques are sufficiently common (i.e. not proprietary) as to allow others to provide the same product or service at competitive prices.

  4. Essays on microgrids, asymmetric pricing and market power in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Prete, Chiara

    This dissertation presents four studies of the electricity industry. The first and second essays use economic-engineering models to assess different aspects of microgrid penetration in regional electricity markets, while the last two studies contain empirical analyses aimed at evaluating the performance of wholesale electricity markets. Chapter 2 develops a framework to quantify economic, environmental, efficiency and reliability impacts of different power production scenarios in a regional system, focusing on the interaction of microgrids with the existing transmission and distribution grid. The setting is the regional network formed by Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands. The study presents simulations of power market outcomes under various policies and levels of microgrid penetration, and evaluates them using a diverse set of metrics. Chapter 3 studies the interaction between a microgrid and a regulated electric utility in a regional electricity market. I consider the interaction among the utility, the microgrid developer and consumers in the framework of cooperative game theory (assuming exchangeable utility), and use regional market models to simulate scenarios in which microgrid introduction may or may not be socially beneficial. Under the assumptions of this chapter, customer participation is essential to the development of socially beneficial microgrids, while the utility has little or no gain from it. Discussed incentives to avoid that utilities block microgrid entry include additional revenue drivers related to microgrid connection, decoupling and performance-based mechanisms targeted at service quality. When prices are below marginal costs of utility provided power, microgrid development may be socially beneficial, but unprofitable for microgrid customers and its developer. By imposing lower charges and higher remuneration for its services, the regulator could ensure that microgrid value is positive, without adversely impacting the utility

  5. Aeromonas hydrophila in 2010: Characteristics of Alabama outbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a second year, epidemics associated with a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size Alabama (AL) catfish. During this period, the Alabama Fish Farming Center diagnosed outbreaks of this strain of A. hydrophila on 25% (28/113) o...

  6. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Kathan, David

    2009-06-01

    Empirical evidence concerning demand response (DR) resources is needed in order to establish baseline conditions, develop standardized methods to assess DR availability and performance, and to build confidence among policymakers, utilities, system operators, and stakeholders that DR resources do offer a viable, cost-effective alternative to supply-side investments. This paper summarizes the existing contribution of DR resources in U.S. electric power markets. In 2008, customers enrolled in existing wholesale and retail DR programs were capable of providing ~;;38,000 MW of potential peak load reductions in the United States. Participants in organized wholesale market DR programs, though, have historically overestimated their likely performance during declared curtailments events, but appear to be getting better as they and their agents gain experience. In places with less developed organized wholesale market DR programs, utilities are learning how to create more flexible DR resources by adapting legacy load management programs to fit into existing wholesale market constructs. Overall, the development of open and organized wholesale markets coupled with direct policy support by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has facilitated new entry by curtailment service providers, which has likely expanded the demand response industry and led to product and service innovation.

  7. 76 FR 19069 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to... authorized CPM to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a...

  8. The value of electricity storage in energy-only electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, D.; Forcey, T.; Sandiford, M.

    2015-12-01

    Price volatility and the prospect of increasing renewable energy generation have raised interest in the potential opportunities for storage technologies in energy-only electricity markets. In this paper we explore the value of a price-taking storage device in such a market, the National Electricity Market (NEM) in Australia. Our analysis suggests that under optimal operation, there is little value in having more than six hours of storage in this market. However, the inability to perfectly forecast wholesale prices, particularly extreme price spikes, may warrant some additional storage. We found that storage devices effectively provide a similar service as peak generators (such as Open Cycle Gas Turbines) and are similarly dependent on and exposed to extreme price events, with revenue for a merchant generator highly skewed to a few days of the year. In contrast to previous studies, this results in the round trip efficiency of the storage being relatively insignificant. Financing using hedging strategies similar to a peak generator effectively reduces the variability of revenue and exposure of storage to extreme prices. Our case study demonstrates that storage may have a competitive advantage over other peaking generators on the NEM, due to its ability to earn revenue outside of extreme peak events. As a consequence the outlook for storage options on the NEM is dependent on volatility, in turn dependent on capacity requirements. Further to this, increased integration of renewable energy may both depend on storage and improve the outlook for storage in technologies in electricity markets.

  9. Market Evolution: Wholesale Electricity Market Design for 21st Century Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Miller, Mackay; Milligan, Michael; Ela, Erik; Arent, Douglas; Bloom, Aaron; Futch, Matthew; Kiviluoma, Juha; Holtinnen, Hannele; Orths, Antje; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Martin-Martinez, Sergio; Kukoda, S.; Garcia, Glycon; Mikkelsen, Kim M.; Yongqiang, Zhao; Sandholt, Kaare

    2013-10-01

    Demand for affordable, reliable, domestically sourced, and low-carbon electricity is on the rise. This growing demand is driven in part by evolving public policy priorities, especially reducing the health and environmental impacts of electricity service and expanding energy access to under-served customers. Consequently, variable renewable energy resources comprise an increasing share ofelectricity generation globally. At the same time, new opportunities for addressing the variability of renewables are being strengthened through advances in smart grids, communications, and technologies that enable dispatchable demand response and distributed generation to extend to the mass market. A key challenge of merging these opportunities is market design -- determining how to createincentives and compensate providers justly for attributes and performance that ensure a reliable and secure grid -- in a context that fully realizes the potential of a broad array of sources of flexibility in both the wholesale power and retail markets. This report reviews the suite of wholesale power market designs in use and under consideration to ensure adequacy, security, and flexibilityin a landscape of significant variable renewable energy. It also examines considerations needed to ensure that wholesale market designs are inclusive of emerging technologies, such as demand response, distributed generation, and storage.

  10. Basic Principles of Electrical Network Reliability Optimization in Liberalised Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.; Mutule, A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose to select long-term solutions to the reliability problems of electrical networks in the stage of development planning. The guide lines or basic principles of such optimization are: 1) its dynamical nature; 2) development sustainability; 3) integrated solution of the problems of network development and electricity supply reliability; 4) consideration of information uncertainty; 5) concurrent consideration of the network and generation development problems; 6) application of specialized information technologies; 7) definition of requirements for independent electricity producers. In the article, the major aspects of liberalized electricity market, its functions and tasks are reviewed, with emphasis placed on the optimization of electrical network development as a significant component of sustainable management of power systems.

  11. Hierarchical dispatch using two-stage optimisation for electricity markets in smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Guoshan; Ma, Kai

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical dispatch method for the electricity markets consisting of wholesale markets and retail markets. In the wholesale markets, the generators and the retailers decide the generation and the purchase according to the market-clearing price. In the retail markets, the retailers set the retail price to adjust the electricity consumption of the consumers. Due to the two-way communications in smart grid, the retailers can decide the electricity purchase from the wholesale markets based on the information on electricity usage of consumers in the retail markets. We establish the hierarchical dispatch model for the wholesale markets and the retail markets and develop distributed algorithms to search for the optimal generation, purchase, and consumption. Numerical results show the balance between the supply and demand, the profits of the retailers, and the convergence of the distributed algorithms.

  12. Multifractal cross-correlation analysis in electricity spot market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qingju; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the multiscale cross-correlations between electricity price and trading volume in Czech market based on a newly developed algorithm, called Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis (MFCCA). The new algorithm is a natural multifractal generalization of the Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and is sensitive to cross-correlation structure and free from limitations of other algorithms. By considering the original sign of the cross-covariance, it allows us to properly quantify and detect the subtle characteristics of two simultaneous recorded time series. First, the multifractality and the long range anti-persistent auto-correlations of price return and trading volume variation are confirmed using Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA). Furthermore, we show that there exist long-range anti-persistent cross-correlations between price return and trading volume variation by MFCCA. And we also identify that the cross-correlations disappear on the level of relative small fluctuations. In order to obtain deeper insight into the dynamics of the electricity market, we analyze the relation between generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent λq. We find that the difference between the generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent is significantly different for smaller fluctuation, which indicates that the multifractal character of cross-correlations resembles more each other for electricity price and trading volume on the level of large fluctuations and weakens for the smaller ones.

  13. Determining the Effects on Residential Electricity Prices and Carbon Emissions of Electricity Market Restructuring in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangir, Junaid Bin

    When electricity restructuring initiatives were introduced in Alberta, and finalized with the institution of retail electricity market competition in 2001, it was argued that the changes would deliver lower electricity prices to residential consumers. However, residential electricity prices in Alberta increased dramatically in 2001, and have never returned to their pre-restructuring levels. Proponents of restructuring argue that electricity prices would have been even higher under continued regulation, citing the effect of considerably higher natural gas prices and the roles of other variables. However, many Alberta residential electricity consumers tend to attribute their higher electricity prices to factors such as market power and manipulation associated with restructuring. Since the effects of restructuring on electricity prices cannot be evaluated by simply comparing prices before and after it occurred, the main objective of this thesis is to determine what electricity prices would have been under continued regulation, and to compare them with what was actually observed. To determine these counterfactual electricity prices, a structural model of the determinants of Alberta residential electricity prices is developed, estimated for the prerestructuring period, and used to forecast (counterfactual) prices in the postrestructuring period. However, in forming these forecasts it is necessary to separately account for changes in explanatory variables that could be viewed as occurring due to the restructuring (endogenous) from those changes that would Since the effects of restructuring on electricity prices cannot be evaluated by simply comparing prices before and after it occurred, the main objective of this thesis is to determine what electricity prices would have been under continued regulation, and to compare them with what was actually observed. To determine these counterfactual electricity prices, a structural model of the determinants of Alberta residential

  14. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  15. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA... utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The...

  16. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc... President of Legal Services and General Counsel, Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc., 480 de la Cite...

  17. Pricing Theory of Derivatives in Financial Engineering and the Problems on the Application to Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Tetsuya

    Recently, the wholesale electric power exchange has been founded in Japan. With the progress of the electricity market, some management schemes of electricity price risk will be necessary. In financial markets or the preceding electricity markets, various “derivatives" on assets in the markets are often used as management tools to hedge the price risk. This paper gives a short commentary on some fundamental concepts of the derivatives and the pricing theory in the financial engineering, and discusses the problems on the financial engineering approach to electricity derivatives.

  18. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  19. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  20. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  1. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  2. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  3. Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepak

    With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the

  4. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    This dissertation presents an equilibrium framework for analyzing the impact of cap-and-trade regulation on transmission-constrained electricity market. The cap-and-trade regulation of greenhouse gas emissions has gained momentum in the past decade. The impact of the regulation and its efficacy in the electric power industry depend on interactions of demand elasticity, transmission network, market structure, and strategic behavior of firms. I develop an equilibrium model of an oligopoly electricity market in conjunction with a market for tradable emissions permits to study the implications of such interactions. My goal is to identify inefficiencies that may arise from policy design elements and to avoid any unintended adverse consequences on the electric power sector. I demonstrate this modeling framework with three case studies examining the impact of carbon cap-and-trade regulation. In the first case study, I study equilibrium results under various scenarios of resource ownership and emission targets using a 24-bus IEEE electric transmission system. The second and third case studies apply the equilibrium model to a realistic electricity market, Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) 225-bus system with a detailed representation of the California market. In the first and second case studies, I examine oligopoly in electricity with perfect competition in the permit market. I find that under a stringent emission cap and a high degree of concentration of non-polluting firms, the electricity market is subject to potential abuses of market power. Also, market power can occur in the procurement of non-polluting energy through the permit market when non-polluting resources are geographically concentrated in a transmission-constrained market. In the third case study, I relax the competitive market structure assumption of the permit market by allowing oligopolistic competition in the market through a conjectural variation approach. A short-term equilibrium

  5. 78 FR 28583 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of... necessary. Commission members will be present. \\1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity...

  6. Unbundling generation and transmission services for competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1998-01-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, and transmit electricity in support of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) defined such services as those `necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.` The nationwide cost of ancillary services is about $12 billion a year, roughly 10% of the cost of the energy commodity. More important than the cost, however, is the necessity of these services for bulk-power reliability and for the support of commercial transactions. FERC`s landmark Order 888 included a pro forma tariff with provision for six key ancillary services. The Interconnected Operations Services Working Group identified another six services that it felt were essential to the operation of bulk-power systems. Several groups throughput the United States have created or are forming independent system operators, which will be responsible for reliability and commerce. To date, the electricity industry (including traditional vertically integrated utilities, distribution utilities, power markets and brokers, customers, and state and federal regulators) has paid insufficient attention to these services. Although the industry had made substantial progress in identifying and defining the key services, much remains to be doe to specify methods to measure the production, delivery, and consumption of these services; to identify the costs and cost-allocation factors for these services; and to develop market and operating rules for their provision and pricing. Developing metrics, determining costs, and setting pricing rules are important because most of these ancillary services are produced by the same pieces of equipment that

  7. Spot pricing of electricity and ancillary services in a competitive California market

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.S.; Marnay, C.; Khavkin, M.

    2000-11-01

    Typically, in competitive electricity markets, the vertically integrated utilities that were responsible for ensuring system reliability in their own service territories, or groups of territories, cease to exist. The burden falls to an independent system operator (ISO) to ensure that enough ancillary services (AS) are available for safe, stable, and reliable operation of the grid, typically defined, in part, as compliance with officially approved engineering specifications for minimum levels of AS. In order to characterize the behavior of market participants (generators, retailers, and an ISO) in a competitive electricity market with reliability requirements, spot markets for both electricity and AS are modeled. By assuming that each participant seeks to maximize its wealth and that all markets clear, we solve for the optimal quantities of electricity and AS traded in the spot market by all participants, as well as the market clearing prices for each.

  8. 76 FR 20651 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202..., 2011, DOE received an application from CPM for authority to transmit electric energy from the...

  9. 78 FR 8511 - Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental... Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000 (December 7, 2012) (Notice Of Request for Comments and...

  10. 77 FR 74180 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Request for Comments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Request... Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, 141 FERC ] 61,125, at P 5 (2012) (November 15 Order)....

  11. 77 FR 43280 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...?fileID=13023450 ); 77 FR 41184 (July 12, 2012) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf/2012... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental... the conferences. \\1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

  12. 78 FR 15719 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Notice of... between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, 141 FERC ] 61,125, at P 11 (2012) (November 15 Order)....

  13. 77 FR 50100 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...?fileID=13023450 ); 77 Fed. Reg. 41184 (July 12, 2012) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental... the conference. \\1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

  14. 77 FR 35374 - Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Independence Electricity's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  15. 77 FR 45600 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...?fileID=13023450 ); 77 FR 41184 (July 12, 2012) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf/2012... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental... the conference. \\1\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No....

  16. An efficient electricity market: Using a pool to support real competition

    SciTech Connect

    Garber, D.; Hogan, B.; Ruff, L.

    1994-09-01

    A pool-based market can reduce the costs of electricity by increasing competition in those parts of the electricity system where market forces can be effective and efficient - including direct access - while regulatory attention focuses on the remaining monopoly parts of the industry and on environmental and social goals that competitive markets cannot be expected to handle. This is a position put forward for consideration by San Diego Gas and Electric Co. (SDG&E). Although SDG&E is confident that an efficient, competitive electricity market can be developed, doing so is inherently difficult in practice and even in theory. Indeed, a major justification for treating electricity supply as a monopoly has been the impossibility of coordinating the actions of competitors by using prices to match supply to demand instantaneously at each of hundreds of locations, as required on an interconnected electricity grid. Recent advances in information technology make it practical not to use competitive markets much more extensively in managing an electricity system, but only by carefully integrating market processes into the still-essential central control and coordination functions. A pool-based wholesale electricity market is complex, not because a pool makes it so, but because a pool recognizes and deals with the real complexities of an electricity system.

  17. Impact of climate change on electricity systems and markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramowli, Shankar N.

    (Section 111 (d)) rules for the U.S. Northeast region. This dissertation applies an analytical model and an optimization model to investigate the implications of co-implementing an emission cap and an RPS policy for this region. A simplified analytical model of LP-CEM is specified and the first order optimality conditions are derived. The results from this analytical model are corroborated by running LP-CEM simulations under different carbon cap and RPS policy assumptions. A combination of these policies is shown to have a long-term beneficial effect for the final ratepayers in the region. This research conceptually explores the future implications of climate change and extreme weather events on the regional electricity market framework. The significant findings from this research and future policy considerations are discussed in the conclusion chapter.

  18. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-09

    Customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States are often compensated at the customer’s underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Calculations of the customer economics of PV, meanwhile, often assume that retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms will not change and that retail electricity prices will increase (or remain constant) over time, thereby also increasing (or keeping constant) the value of bill savings from PV. Given the multitude of potential changes to retail rates and PV compensation mechanisms in the future, however, understanding how such changes might impact the value of bill savings from PV is critical for policymakers, regulators, utilities, the solar industry, and potential PV owners, i.e., any stakeholder interested in understanding uncertainties in and potential changes to the long-term customer economics of PV. This scoping study investigates the impact of, and interactions among, three key sources of uncertainty in the future value of bill savings from customer-sited PV, focusing in particular on residential customers. These three sources of uncertainty are: changes to electricity market conditions that would affect retail electricity prices, changes to the types of retail rate structures available to residential customers with PV, and shifts away from standard net-metering toward other compensation mechanisms for residential PV.

  19. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.2 Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. (a) It shall be unlawful for any entity, directly...

  20. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.2 Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. (a) It shall be unlawful for any entity, directly...

  1. Efficient markets or efficient loads?: Impacts from electric utility restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1996-05-01

    Restructuring of the electric utility industry is underway. This is in response to many influences, including drives to deregulate the industry, new regulatory initiatives, changing power markets, and new technology. The changing utility industry will provide Federal power customers with new opportunities to reduce costs and increase service. However, the instability in the current environment is certain to reduce near-term opportunities to collaborate with local utilities on DSM and other efficiency projects as the economics of these projects are now uncertain. This paper discusses this instability and its impacts on demand side management and other efficiency projects. Historically, electricity services have been provided to consumers through integrated utilities that used their own generation and transmission to distribute power to captive customers as a regulated monopoly. There are municipal and other publicly owned utilities that own no generation or transmission and only distribute power. Similarly, there are publicly owned generation and transmission companies that wholesale power and have no retail customers. Nevertheless, most of the power used in the country is provided by integrated, regulated investor-owned utilities. Competition was introduced in the industry with the Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1976 (PURPA). This legislation opened the door to the development of generation by third parties. The development of third-party generating facilities grew steadily until the mid- 1980s when it finally surpassed utility construction as the norm for new power supplies. The transformation of the power generation business is, in part, a spill over from deregulation of the airline and gas industries. The first resulted in more efficient turbines, which are used for both airplane engines and small generators, and the second resulted in lower natural gas prices, which made gas-fired generation the least cost generating option.

  2. A Q-Learning-Based Supplier Bidding Strategy in Electricity Auction Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Hashiyama, Tomonori; Okuma, Shigeru

    One of the most important issues for power suppliers in the deregulated electric industry is how to bid into the electricity auction market to satisfy their profit-maximizing goals. Based on the Q-Learning algorithm, this paper presents a novel supplier bidding strategy to maximize supplier’s profit in the long run. In this approach, the supplier bidding strategy is viewed as one kind of stochastic optimal control problem and each supplier can learn from experience. A competitive day-ahead electricity auction market with hourly bids is assumed here, where no supplier possesses the market power and all suppliers winning the market are paid based on their own bid prices. The dynamics and the incomplete information of the market are considered. The impact of suppliers’ strategic bidding on the market price is analyzed. Agent-based simulations are presented. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed bidding strategy.

  3. Risk management and market efficiency on the Midwest Independent System Operator electricity exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kevin

    Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) is a non-profit regional transmission organization (RTO) that oversees electricity production and transmission across thirteen states and one Canadian province. MISO also operates an electronic exchange for buying and selling electricity for each of its five regional hubs. MISO oversees two types of markets. The forward market, which is referred to as the day-ahead (DA) market, allows market participants to place demand bids and supply offers on electricity to be delivered at a specified hour the following day. The equilibrium price, known as the locational marginal price (LMP), is determined by MISO after receiving sale offers and purchase bids from market participants. MISO also coordinates a spot market, which is known as the real-time (RT) market. Traders in the real-time market must submit bids and offers by thirty minutes prior to the hour for which the trade will be executed. After receiving purchase and sale offers for a given hour in the real time market, MISO then determines the LMP for that particular hour. The existence of the DA and RT markets allows producers and retailers to hedge against the large fluctuations that are common in electricity prices. Hedge ratios on the MISO exchange are estimated using various techniques. No hedge ratio technique examined consistently outperforms the unhedged portfolio in terms of variance reduction. Consequently, none of the hedge ratio methods in this study meet the general interpretation of FASB guidelines for a highly effective hedge. One of the major goals of deregulation is to bring about competition and increased efficiency in electricity markets. Previous research suggests that electricity exchanges may not be weak-form market efficient. A simple moving average trading rule is found to produce statistically and economically significant profits on the MISO exchange. This could call the long-term survivability of the MISO exchange into question.

  4. The Impact of Market Clearing Time and Price Signal Delay on the Stability of Electric Power Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J; Protopopescu, Vladimir A

    2009-01-01

    We generalize a model, proposed by Alvarado, of the electric power market by including the effects of control and communication. To simulate realistic markets, our model issues control signals only at given times and those signals are delayed during transmission. These two effects transform Alvarado's continuous system into a hybrid system, with consequential effects. The stability analysis of the new system reveals two important properties. First, there is an upper limit on the market clearing time and the delay of the price signal beyond which the system becomes unstable. Second, there is a counter-intuitive relationship between the market clearing time and price signal delay: when the market clearing time is relatively long, delaying the price signal can improve the market's stability while reducing the communication delay can destabilize the market. This counter-intuitive effect shows that the full impact of information technology on power markets can be significant and difficult to anticipate. Therefore, as markets are designed and regulated, careful attention should be paid to the effects of information technology on the market's dynamic behavior.

  5. 76 FR 3881 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: TransAlta Energy Marketing (U... be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and...

  6. Simulation of trading strategies in the electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charkiewicz, Kamil; Nowak, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The main objective of the energy market existence is reduction of the total cost of production, transport and distribution of energy, and so the prices paid by terminal consumers. Energy market contains few markets that are varying on operational rules, the important segments: the Futures Contract Market and Next Day Market are analyzed in presented approach. The computer system was developed to simulate the Polish Energy Market. This system use the multi-agent approach, where each agent is the separate shared library with defined interface. The software was used to compare strategies for players in energy market, where the strategies uses auto-regression, k-nearest neighbours, neural network and mixed algorithm, to predict the next price.

  7. Three essays on pricing and risk management in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsan, Serhiy

    2005-07-01

    A set of three papers forms this dissertation. In the first paper I analyze an electricity market that does not clear. The system operator satisfies fixed demand at a fixed price, and attempts to minimize "cost" as indicated by independent generators' supply bids. No equilibrium exists in this situation, and the operator lacks information sufficient to minimize actual cost. As a remedy, we propose a simple efficient tax mechanism. With the tax, Nash equilibrium bids still diverge from marginal cost but nonetheless provide sufficient information to minimize actual cost, regardless of the tax rate or number of generators. The second paper examines a price mechanism with one price assigned for each level of bundled real and reactive power. Equilibrium allocation under this pricing approach raises system efficiency via better allocation of the reactive power reserves, neglected in the traditional pricing approach. Pricing reactive power should be considered in the bundle with real power since its cost is highly dependent on real power output. The efficiency of pricing approach is shown in the general case, and tested on the 30-bus IEEE network with piecewise linear cost functions of the generators. Finally the third paper addresses the problem of optimal investment in generation based on mean-variance portfolio analysis. It is assumed the investor can freely create a portfolio of shares in generation located on buses of the electrical network. Investors are risk averse, and seek to minimize the variance of the weighted average Locational Marginal Price (LMP) in their portfolio, and to maximize its expected value. I conduct simulations using a standard IEEE 68-bus network that resembles the New York - New England system and calculate LMPs in accordance with the PJM methodology for a fully optimal AC power flow solution. Results indicate that the network topology is a crucial determinant of the investment decision as line congestion makes it difficult to deliver power to

  8. On the battleground of environmental and competition policy: The renewable electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meszaros, Matyas Tamas

    Renewable energy sources have become increasingly important in the efforts to provide energy security and to fight global warming. In the last decade environmental policy has increased the support for renewable electricity. At the same time the electricity sector was often subject of antitrust investigation because of relevant market concentration, and market power. This dissertation looks at the renewable electricity market to analyze the effect of environmental policy on competition. The first chapter provides a short introduction into the regulatory schemes of electricity markets. The second chapter analyzes the demand side of the electricity market. The estimations show that there was no significant change in the income and price elasticity in the electricity consumption of the US households between 1993 an 2001, although there was several policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency and decrease consumption. The third chapter derives a theoretical model where the feed-in tariff and the tradable green certificate system can be analyzed under oligopolistic market structure. The results of the model suggest that the introduction of the environmentally friendly regulatory schemes can decrease the electricity prices compared to the case when there is no support for renewable energy. The other findings of this model is that the price of electricity rises when the requirement for renewable energy increases. In the fourth chapter a simulation model of the UK electricity market is used to test the effect of mergers and acquisitions under the environmental support scheme. The results emphasize the importance of the capacity limit, because it can constrain the strategic action of the electricity producers. The results of the simulation also suggest that the increasing concentration can increase the production and lower the price of electricity and renewable energy certificates in the British Renewable Obligation system.

  9. Study on Stochastic Optimal Electric Power Procurement Strategies with Uncertain Market Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakchai, Siripatanakulkhajorn; Saisho, Yuichi; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji

    The player in deregulated electricity markets can be categorized into three groups of GENCO (Generator Companies), TRNASCO (Transmission Companies), DISCO (Distribution Companies). This research focuses on the role of Distribution Companies, which purchase electricity from market at randomly fluctuating prices, and provide it to their customers at given fixed prices. Therefore Distribution companies have to take the risk stemming from price fluctuation of electricity instead of the customers. This entails the necessity to develop a certain method to make an optimal strategy for electricity procurement. In such a circumstance, this research has the purpose for proposing the mathematical method based on stochastic dynamic programming to evaluate the value of a long-term bilateral contract of electricity trade, and also a project of combination of the bilateral contract and power generation with their own generators for procuring electric power in deregulated market.

  10. Alabama Education Quick Facts, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document is a quick look at general information about Alabama schools. The document contains 11 sections: (1) state statistics; (2) Alabama public schools; (3) Alabama board of education members; (4) financial data; (5) school size and enrollment; (6) transportation and school meals; (7) graduation requirements; (8) additional enrollment;…

  11. The impact of a deregulated European electricity market on Volvo in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Dag, S.

    1998-07-01

    The member countries within the European Union (EU) have agreed to open all national electricity markets for competition, starting January 1, 1999. The electricity market in Sweden is deregulated since January 1, 1996. The deregulation of the electricity markets will gradually shift the electricity price levels in different countries towards an equal price level, which will most likely be close to the levels on the Continental Europe. A deregulated European electricity market may change the competition situation for Swedish industries dramatically. The capacity in electric generation with low operating costs in Sweden has led to very low electricity prices and high usage level compared to other EU countries. The consumption level of electric energy per capita is nearly three times higher in Sweden than the average per capita EU usage. The high level of electricity consumption is typical also of industrial customers in Sweden. Studies of Volvo Car Corporation have shown that the Volvo car plant in Torslanda, Sweden utilizes substantially more electric energy per manufactured car than the Volvo car plant in Gent, Belgium. A method is developed to transform the Torslanda plant from a low energy efficiency state to a higher energy efficiency state by modeling. The method is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) concept and includes optimization models of the two plants with mixed integer linear programming (MILP).

  12. A Supplier Bidding Strategy Through Q-Learning Algorithm in Electricity Auction Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Hashiyama, Tomonori; Okuma, Shigeru

    One of the most important issues for power suppliers in the deregulated electric industry is how to bid into the electricity auction market to satisfy their profit-maximizing goals. Based on the Q-Learning algorithm, this paper presents a novel supplier bidding strategy to maximize supplier’s profit in the long run. In this approach, the supplier bidding strategy is viewed as a kind of stochastic optimal control problem and each supplier can learn from experience. A competitive day-ahead electricity auction market with hourly bids is assumed here, where no supplier possesses the market power. The dynamics and the incomplete information of the market are considered. The impacts of suppliers’ strategic bidding on the market price are analyzed under uniform pricing rule and discriminatory pricing rule. Agent-based simulations are presented. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed bidding strategy.

  13. 78 FR 34373 - Flexible and Local Resources Needed for Reliability in the California Wholesale Electric Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Flexible and Local Resources Needed for Reliability in the California Wholesale Electric Market; Notice of Staff Technical Conference This notice establishes the location and... System Operator Corporation's (CAISO) proposal to implement an interim flexible capacity and...

  14. New Issues on Electric Power Markets and System Operations in Asian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Park, Jong Keun; Sun, Yuanzhang; Wu, Felix F.; Yokoyama, Ryuichi

    As reliable and stable operations have become critical issues in deregulated electric power markets and systems, a growing number of individuals need advanced and timely information that will allow them to understand the major trends and technologies that are moving this dynamic segment of the electric power industry and market ahead. Under such circumstances, Power System Engineering Committee in The Institute of Electrical Engineering of Japan (Chairman: Ryuichi Yokoyama) and The Consortium for Power Technology of Japan (President: Takeshi Taneichi, Secretariat: Waseda University) have organized a special symposium on “New Issues on Electric Power Markets and System Operations in Asian Countries" on May 28th, 2007, at Uchisaiwaicho Hall in Tokyo. The purposes of the symposium were to address and discuss current situations and new issues related to reliable and stable operations of power markets and systems in the competitive environment in Asian countries. This article is a summary of presentations by four prominent speakers in the special symposium.

  15. Corporation Schooling and the Labor Market at General Electric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Rowe, Shan

    1991-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between corporation schooling and the labor market in the early twentieth century in the United States. Follows the beginnings of corporation schools as industry began to provide its own shop training programs to develop a trained labor force. Explores labor market concerns, the effects schools had on earnings, and the…

  16. Greed and Good Intentions: What Really Happened in California's Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.; Grover, Stephen

    2002-03-01

    This article gives a detailed account of the 2000-2001 energy crisis in California. Deregulation of California's electric power industry is described and factors leading up to the failure of retail power markets are explained. The current state of the power market in California is also reported.

  17. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  18. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. 1c.2 Section 1c.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION §...

  19. Social Welfare implications of demand response programs in competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Boisvert, Richard N.; Neenan, Bernard F.

    2003-08-01

    The price volatility exhibited by wholesale electricity markets has stymied the movement to restructure the industry, and may derail it altogether. Market designers argue that prices are superior to regulation for directing long-term investments to the proper location and function, and that price volatility is a natural manifestation of a robustly competitive market. However, episodes of prices that soar to previously unimaginable heights try customers' patience and cause policy makers to reconsider if the prize is worth the consequences.

  20. Analysis of the Pricing Process in Electricity Market using Multi-Agent Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Takahiro; Saisho, Yuichi; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji

    Many electric utilities world-wide have been forced to change their ways of doing business, from vertically integrated mechanisms to open market systems. We are facing urgent issues about how we design the structures of power market systems. In order to settle down these issues, many studies have been made with market models of various characteristics and regulations. The goal of modeling analysis is to enrich our understanding of fundamental process that may appear. However, there are many kinds of modeling methods. Each has drawback and advantage about validity and versatility. This paper presents two kinds of methods to construct multi-agent market models. One is based on game theory and another is based on reinforcement learning. By comparing the results of the two methods, they can advance in validity and help us figure out potential problems in electricity markets which have oligopolistic generators, demand fluctuation and inelastic demand. Moreover, this model based on reinforcement learning enables us to consider characteristics peculiar to electricity markets which have plant unit characteristics, seasonable and hourly demand fluctuation, real-time regulation market and operating reserve market. This model figures out importance of the share of peak-load-plants and the way of designing operating reserve market.

  1. Alabama Water Use, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Susan S.; Littlepage, Thomas M.; Harper, Michael J.; Tinney, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Water is one of Alabama's most precious natural resources. It is a vital component of human existence and essential to the overall quality of life. Wise stewardship of this valuable resource depends on a continuing assessment of water availability and water use. Population growth in many parts of the State has resulted in increased competition for available water resources. This competition includes offstream uses, such as residential, agricultural, and industrial, and instream uses for maintenance of species habitat and diversity, navigation, power generation, recreation, and water quality. Accurate water-use information is required for sound management decisions within this competitive framework and is necessary for a more comprehensive understanding of the link between water use, water supply, and overall water availability. A study of water use during 2005 was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Office of Water Resources, Water Management Branch (ADECA-OWR), to provide water-use data for local and State water managers. The results of the study about the amount of water used, how it was used, and where it was used in Alabama have been published in 'Estimated use of water in Alabama in 2005' by Hutson and others, 2009, and is accessible on the Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5163 and available upon request as a CD-ROM through USGS and ADECA-OWR.

  2. Alabama and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Alabama and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead Goals for Education", which call for the region to lead the…

  3. Homonegativity among Alabama Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satcher, Jamie; Leggett, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Members of the Alabama Counseling Association were surveyed to examine the extent to which they demonstrate homonegativity (prejudicial attitudes toward homosexuality). The majority of the counselors did not appear to approach homosexuality from traditional prejudices, although almost one-third believed homosexuality to be immoral. The counselors…

  4. Academic Standards in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A+ Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…

  5. 77 FR 52020 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice for Mid-Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ....ferc.gov/idmws/common/opennat.asp?fileID=13023450 ); 77 FR 41184 (July 12, 2012) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf/2012-16997.pdf ). \\2\\ Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets;...

  6. 18 CFR 1c.2 - Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Prohibition of electric energy market manipulation. (a) It shall be unlawful for any entity, directly or indirectly, in connection with the purchase or sale of electric energy or the purchase or sale of... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of...

  7. Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin, T.

    2014-09-01

    Variable generation such as wind and photovoltaic solar power has increased substantially in recent years. Variable generation has unique characteristics compared to the traditional technologies that supply energy in the wholesale electricity markets. These characteristics create unique challenges in planning and operating the power system, and they can also influence the performance and outcomes from electricity markets. This report focuses on two particular issues related to market design: revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability and incentivizing flexibility in short-term operations. The report provides an overview of current design and some designs that have been proposed by industry or researchers.

  8. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. AGENCY: Office of... Marketing North America, Inc. (GSEMNA) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  9. 78 FR 64207 - Application To Export Electric Energy; New Brunswick Energy Marketing Corporation (f/k/a New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; New Brunswick Energy Marketing Corporation (f/k/a New Brunswick Power... Power Generation Corporation, has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the... Generation Corporation, to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer...

  10. 75 FR 14342 - Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy... Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by Public Utilities, Order No. 697- C, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,291 (2009). \\2\\ 18 CFR 35.42. \\3\\ Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric...

  11. Alabama Industrial Technician Education Cooperative Demonstration Program (I-TEC). Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John M. Patterson State Technical Coll., Montgomery, AL.

    A cooperative demonstration program between industry (General Electric) and education (John Patterson State Technical College, Alabama) designed and conducted a training program and competency assessment for individuals entering high technology positions related to industrial production in Alabama. The program was designed to develop employees as…

  12. Role of CCTs in the evolving domestic electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Grahame, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes the key points and issues in the role of clean coal technologies in the domestic marketplace. Then suggested solutions to bringing precommercial CCTs to the market are presented. Finally, the outlook for possible actions by government and the private sector are briefly discussed.

  13. Cooling the Campus: Experiences from a Pilot Study to Reduce Electricity Use at Tufts University, USA, Using Social Marketing Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Kristin; Agyeman, Julian; Rappaport, Ann

    2004-01-01

    A community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to reduce student electricity use and greenhouse gas emissions was undertaken at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts. Social marketing methods follow a commercial marketing model and involve market research into the planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and evaluation of methods…

  14. Evaluation of wholesale electric power market rules and financial risk management by agent-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanpeng

    As U.S. regional electricity markets continue to refine their market structures, designs and rules of operation in various ways, two critical issues are emerging. First, although much experience has been gained and costly and valuable lessons have been learned, there is still a lack of a systematic platform for evaluation of the impact of a new market design from both engineering and economic points of view. Second, the transition from a monopoly paradigm characterized by a guaranteed rate of return to a competitive market created various unfamiliar financial risks for various market participants, especially for the Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) and Independent Power Producers (IPPs). This dissertation uses agent-based simulation methods to tackle the market rules evaluation and financial risk management problems. The California energy crisis in 2000-01 showed what could happen to an electricity market if it did not go through a comprehensive and rigorous testing before its implementation. Due to the complexity of the market structure, strategic interaction between the participants, and the underlying physics, it is difficult to fully evaluate the implications of potential changes to market rules. This dissertation presents a flexible and integrative method to assess market designs through agent-based simulations. Realistic simulation scenarios on a 225-bus system are constructed for evaluation of the proposed PJM-like market power mitigation rules of the California electricity market. Simulation results show that in the absence of market power mitigation, generation company (GenCo) agents facilitated by Q-learning are able to exploit the market flaws and make significantly higher profits relative to the competitive benchmark. The incorporation of PJM-like local market power mitigation rules is shown to be effective in suppressing the exercise of market power. The importance of financial risk management is exemplified by the recent financial crisis. In this

  15. The Nordic energy market model an electricity power exchange across national borders

    SciTech Connect

    Randen, H.; Andersen, J.H.

    1998-07-01

    As a first step towards a Nordic Power Exchange the Swedish and the Norwegian electricity market were merged into one free trade area. Norwegian and Swedish participants trade on equal terms on the market. Finnish and Danish participants trade on special terms towards the common Norwegian-Swedish free trade area. Finland will be included in the free trade area in 1998. Nord Pool is responsible for two markets. The Spot Market is the Nordic market for physical delivery power. In this market participants trade power contracts for next-day delivery. A price is determined for each hour based on bids and offer from the participants. The Spot Market serves as reference price for Nord Pool's Futures and Forward Market and reference price in the bilateral wholesale market. The Futures and Forward Markets are financial markets for price hedging and risk management. Through these market the participants can hedge purchase and sale of power within a time horizon of up to three years. In the bilateral wholesale market there is a high trade activity of financial contracts that are standardized in the same manner as Nord Pools forwards. Nord Pool has therefore established a clearing service where contracts that are traded on bilateral basis can be cleared through Nord Pool and with Nord Pool as counterpart. More than 200 participants from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark and England trade through Nord Pool. A general goal is to develop the market to include all four nordic countries in one common free trade area in close co-operation with the power business in the countries. There are different conditions for competition in the four countries, and much coordinating work is therefore still left to be done.

  16. Understanding electricity market reforms and the case of Philippine deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Santiago, Andrea; Roxas, Fernando

    2010-03-15

    The experience of the Philippines offers lessons that should be relevant to any country seeking to deregulate its power industry. Regardless of structure, consumers must face the real price of electricity production and delivery that is closer to marginal cost. Politically motivated prices merely shift the burden from ratepayers to taxpayers. And any reform should work within a reasonable timetable. (author)

  17. Cross-correlation detection and analysis for California's electricity market based on analogous multifractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Liao, Gui-ping; Li, Jian-hui; Zou, Rui-biao; Shi, Wen

    2013-03-01

    A novel method, which we called the analogous multifractal cross-correlation analysis, is proposed in this paper to study the multifractal behavior in the power-law cross-correlation between price and load in California electricity market. In addition, a statistic ρAMF-XA, which we call the analogous multifractal cross-correlation coefficient, is defined to test whether the cross-correlation between two given signals is genuine or not. Our analysis finds that both the price and load time series in California electricity market express multifractal nature. While, as indicated by the ρAMF-XA statistical test, there is a huge difference in the cross-correlation behavior between the years 1999 and 2000 in California electricity markets.

  18. Cross-correlation detection and analysis for California's electricity market based on analogous multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Liao, Gui-ping; Li, Jian-hui; Zou, Rui-biao; Shi, Wen

    2013-03-01

    A novel method, which we called the analogous multifractal cross-correlation analysis, is proposed in this paper to study the multifractal behavior in the power-law cross-correlation between price and load in California electricity market. In addition, a statistic ρAMF -XA, which we call the analogous multifractal cross-correlation coefficient, is defined to test whether the cross-correlation between two given signals is genuine or not. Our analysis finds that both the price and load time series in California electricity market express multifractal nature. While, as indicated by the ρAMF -XA statistical test, there is a huge difference in the cross-correlation behavior between the years 1999 and 2000 in California electricity markets.

  19. Information management in retail market design in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, Elizabeth Florence

    The retail electricity market is no different from any other market in the need to know how much of a good is bought and by whom and when. However what sets the electricity market apart is the time definition of the "when" and therein lies the problem. It is not enough to know how much a customer uses; it is when that use takes place that is important. In an ideal world all customers would have their consumption measured accurately and in real time. Costs however are a problem in the real world and other less costly approaches are needed. Market designers then have to decide which measurement approach to apply to which group of customers. Affordability has been the main criterion used. If the costs of measurement are a small percentage annual outlay on electricity (usually based on a fixed rate) then that measurement approach is deemed appropriate. This dissertation presents a method for determining a solution that is optimal for customer and retailer. Retailers are assumed to maximize profit in providing a fixed rate and a market-based pricing option. The latter has a measurement cost attached. Customers choose the pricing option that minimizes their costs and reflects their ability to respond to market prices. The threshold level determined from this optimization depends not only on the cost of measurement but also on the level and variability of electricity prices, but most importantly it depends on the ability of an individual customer to change the pattern of electricity use across the day. The optimization method does more than replace affordability in the determination of appropriate threshold levels between measurement options. The method: (1) underscores the need to look at threshold levels not on a consumption basis but on an individual customer's ability to modify usage patterns in response to market prices, in other words ability to substitute across time periods; (2) highlights the need for a flexible approach to measurement; there must be a choice of

  20. Generator Bidding Strategies in a Competitive Electricity Market with Derating and Bid-Segment Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Chow, Joe H.; Desrochers, Alan A.

    2009-07-31

    This paper develops optimal generator bidding strategies in a competitive electricity market. Starting from a generator’s cost curve, basic bidding concepts such as the break-even bid curve and the maximum profit bid curve can be readily derived. The maximum profit bid curve can be extended to account for generator availability and derating. In addition, multiple-segment block energy bids can be optimized based on the maximum profit curve and the probabilistic distribution of market clearing prices.

  1. Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Annual Report, 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    This annual report of the Alabama Commission on Higher Education describes new academic programs approved, allied health programs, off-campus instruction, computer-based articulation, rising junior exam, the Academic Common Market, educational technologies, Governor's Conference on Higher Education, Eminent Scholars Program, Meharry Medical…

  2. An analysis of trends in restructuring of electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, Emily A.; Carlson, J. Lon

    2010-06-15

    The transition from traditional rate-of-return regulation to competition in generation in the electricity industry has been a bumpy one. While the outcome has been largely criticized, there is evidence that ratepayers in the majority of restructured states have in fact benefited, albeit less dramatically than was originally predicted, from their state's restructuring initiatives. Nonetheless, as regulated and restructured states move forward, there are lessons from the experience that should inform future restructuring efforts. (author)

  3. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  4. Control Strategies of Thermostatically Controlled Appliances in a Competitive Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2005-06-30

    This paper discusses the setpoint-control strategies for thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs) in a competitive electricity market with electric water heater used as an example. By varying the TCA thermostat settings, the TCA power consumption can be shifted from the high-price period to the low-price period to reduce the peak-load and energy cost. Economic benefits and impacts on distribution feeder load shapes when applying different setpoint-control strategies are studied.

  5. Analyzing interaction of electricity markets and environmental policies using equilibrium models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yihsu

    Around the world, the electric sector is evolving from a system of regulated vertically-integrated monopolies to a complex system of competing generation companies, unregulated traders, and regulated transmission and distribution. One emerging challenge faced by environmental policymakers and electricity industry is the interaction between electricity markets and environmental policies. The objective of this dissertation is to examine these interactions using large-scale computational models of electricity markets based on noncooperative game theory. In particular, this dissertation is comprised of four essays. The first essay studies the interaction of the United States Environmental Protection Agency NOx Budget Program and the mid-Atlantic electricity market. This research quantifies emissions, economic inefficiencies, price distortions, and overall social welfare under various market assumptions using engineering-economic models. The models calculate equilibria for imperfectly competitive markets---Cournot oligopoly---considering the actual landscape of power plants and transmission lines, and including the possibility of market power in the NOx allowances market. The second essay extends the results from first essay and models imperfectly competitive markets using a Stackelberg or leader-follower formulation. A leader in the power and NO x markets is assumed to have perfect foresight of its rivals' responses. The rivals' best response functions are explicitly embedded in the leader's constraints. The solutions quantify the extent to which a leader in the markets can extract economic rents on the expense of its followers. The third essay investigates the effect of implementing the European Union (EU) CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) on wholesale power prices in the Western European electricity market. This research uses theoretical and computational modeling approaches to quantify the degree to which CO2 costs were passed on to power prices, and quantifies the

  6. Capacity withholding in wholesale electricity markets: The experience in England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, James Arnold

    This thesis examines the incentives wholesale electricity generators face to withhold generating capacity from centralized electricity spot markets. The first chapter includes a brief history of electricity industry regulation in England and Wales and in the United States, including a description of key institutional features of England and Wales' restructured electricity market. The first chapter also includes a review of the literature on both bid price manipulation and capacity bid manipulation in centralized electricity markets. The second chapter details a theoretical model of wholesale generator behavior in a single price electricity market. A duopoly model is specified under the assumption that demand is non-stochastic. This model assumes that duopoly generators offer to sell electricity at their marginal cost, but can withhold a continuous segment of their capacity from the market. The Nash equilibrium withholding strategy of this model involves each duopoly generator withholding so that it produces the Cournot equilibrium output. A monopoly model along the lines of the duopoly model is specified and simulated under the assumption that demand is stochastic. The optimal strategy depends on the degree of demand uncertainty. When there is a moderate degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal withholding strategy involves production inefficiencies. When there is a high degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal monopoly quantity is greater than the optimal output level when demand is non-stochastic. The third chapter contains an empirical examination of the behavior of generators in the wholesale electricity market in England and Wales in the early 1990's. The wholesale market in England and Wales is analyzed because the industry structure in the early 1990's created a natural experiment, which is described in this chapter, whereby one of the two dominant generators had no incentive to behave non-competitively. This chapter develops a classification methodology

  7. Regulatory environment and its impact on the market value of investor-owned electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanathan, Raman

    While other regulated industries have one by one been exposed to competitive reform, electric power, for over eighty years, has remained a great monopoly. For all those years, the vertically integrated suppliers of electricity in the United States have been assigned exclusive territorial (consumer) franchises and have been closely regulated. This environment is in the process change because the electric power industry is currently undergoing some dramatic adjustments. Since 1992, a number of states have initiated regulatory reform and are moving to allow retail customers to choose their energy supplier. There has also been a considerable federal government role in encouraging competition in the generation and transmission of electricity. The objective of this research is to investigate the reaction of investors to the prevailing regulatory environment in the electric utility industry by analyzing the market-to-book value for investor-owned electric utilities in the United States as a gauge of investor concern or support for change. In this study, the variable of interest is the market valuation of utilities, as it captures investor confidence to changes in the regulatory environment. Initially a classic regression model is analyzed on the full sample (of the 96 investor-owned utilities for the years 1992 through 1996), providing a total number of 480 (96 firms over 5 years) observations. Later fixed- and random-effects models are analyzed for the same full-sample model specified in the previous analysis. Also, the analysis is carried forward to examine the impact of the size of the utility and its degree of reliability on nuclear power generation on market values. In the period of this study, 1992--1996, the financial security markets downgraded utilities that were still operating in a regulated environment or had a substantial percentage of their power generation from nuclear power plants. It was also found that the financial market was sensitive to the size of

  8. Quantifying the value of hydropower in the electric grid : role of hydropower in existing markets.

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, Verne W.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power industry is facing the prospect of integrating a significant addition of variable generation technologies in the next several decades, primarily from wind and solar facilities. Overall, transmission and generation reserve levels are decreasing and power system infrastructure in general is aging. To maintain grid reliability modernization and expansion of the power system as well as more optimized use of existing resources will be required. Conventional and pumped storage hydroelectric facilities can provide an increasingly significant contribution to power system reliability by providing energy, capacity and other ancillary services. However, the potential role of hydroelectric power will be affected by another transition that the industry currently experiences - the evolution and expansion of electricity markets. This evolution to market-based acquisition of generation resources and grid management is taking place in a heterogeneous manner. Some North American regions are moving toward full-featured markets while other regions operate without formal markets. Yet other U.S. regions are partially evolved. This report examines the current structure of electric industry acquisition of energy and ancillary services in different regions organized along different structures, reports on the current role of hydroelectric facilities in various regions, and attempts to identify features of market and scheduling areas that either promote or thwart the increased role that hydroelectric power can play in the future. This report is part of a larger effort led by the Electric Power Research Institute with purpose of examining the potential for hydroelectric facilities to play a greater role in balancing the grid in an era of greater penetration of variable renewable energy technologies. Other topics that will be addressed in this larger effort include industry case studies of specific conventional and hydro-electric facilities, systemic operating constraints

  9. The role of vibrant retail electricity markets in assuring that wholesale power markets operate effectively

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A.J.; Rufin, C.; Swinand, G.

    1999-12-01

    Barriers to competitive supplier entry such as California's wholesale-price pass-through model can provide an almost insurmountable barrier to effective retail competition. The telecommunications, airline, and software industries provide lessons--positive and negative--on how creating competitive wholesale markets is insufficient to bring the benefits of competition to smaller consumers.

  10. An analysis of electricity price behavior when the market in California was dysfunctional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yoo-Soo

    The electricity market in California worked well for the first two years after restructuring, but in the summer of 2000 there were frequent high price spikes and then persistently high prices during the winter and the spring of 2001. This research develops econometric models to explain the behavior of the spot and forward prices for electricity and the relationship between them when the market in California was dysfunctional. The first results demonstrate that the high spot prices in the day-ahead market during the summer of 2000 were caused by changes in the bid behavior of buyers as well as by the offer behavior of sellers. After the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) declared that these high spot prices were "unjust and unreasonable", the FERC approved the payment of refunds to customers in California but not in other areas within the Western Inter-Connection (WECC). However, the results of a Vector Auto-Regressive model (VAR) show that the high spot prices in California were transferred immediately to other states in the WECC and the spot prices at different trading hubs belong to a single market. After the intervention by FERC in December 2000, spot prices and forward prices of electricity were unusually high. Estimated distributed lag models, using both monthly and daily data, show that there were strong positive relationships between the price shocks for electricity and natural gas in the spot markets and the forward prices for electricity. Risk premiums in the forward prices for electricity were estimated and the results show that the price shocks for electricity after FERC's intervention were the primary cause of the high forward prices. The main conclusions for regulatory policy are (1) it is virtually impossible to contain the effects of a dysfunctional electricity market to a single region because other regions are linked through the electrical grid, and (2) it is essential to intervene immediately and effectively when the spot prices have been

  11. FACTS Devices Cost Recovery During Congestion Management in Deregulated Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Mittapalli, Ram Kumar; Pal, Yash

    2016-09-01

    In future electricity markets, flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices will play key role for providing ancillary services. Since huge cost is involved for the FACTS devices placement in the power system, the cost invested has to be recovered in their life time for the replacement of these devices. The FACTS devices in future electricity markets can act as an ancillary services provider and have to be remunerated. The main contributions of the paper are: (1) investment recovery of FACTS devices during congestion management such as static VAR compensator and unified power flow controller along with thyristor controlled series compensator using non-linear bid curves, (2) the impact of ZIP load model on the FACTS cost recovery of the devices, (3) the comparison of results obtained without ZIP load model for both pool and hybrid market model, (4) secure bilateral transactions incorporation in hybrid market model. An optimal power flow based approach has been developed for maximizing social welfare including FACTS devices cost. The optimal placement of the FACTS devices have been obtained based on maximum social welfare. The results have been obtained for both pool and hybrid electricity market for IEEE 24-bus RTS.

  12. FACTS Devices Cost Recovery During Congestion Management in Deregulated Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Mittapalli, Ram Kumar; Pal, Yash

    2015-07-01

    In future electricity markets, flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices will play key role for providing ancillary services. Since huge cost is involved for the FACTS devices placement in the power system, the cost invested has to be recovered in their life time for the replacement of these devices. The FACTS devices in future electricity markets can act as an ancillary services provider and have to be remunerated. The main contributions of the paper are: (1) investment recovery of FACTS devices during congestion management such as static VAR compensator and unified power flow controller along with thyristor controlled series compensator using non-linear bid curves, (2) the impact of ZIP load model on the FACTS cost recovery of the devices, (3) the comparison of results obtained without ZIP load model for both pool and hybrid market model, (4) secure bilateral transactions incorporation in hybrid market model. An optimal power flow based approach has been developed for maximizing social welfare including FACTS devices cost. The optimal placement of the FACTS devices have been obtained based on maximum social welfare. The results have been obtained for both pool and hybrid electricity market for IEEE 24-bus RTS.

  13. 18 CFR 35.47 - Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets. 35.47 Section 35.47 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS...

  14. 77 FR 50684 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... planned and expanded to meet firm gas delivery contracts between the pipelines and one or more shippers... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets; Supplemental... Thursday, August 23, 2012, from 9:00 a.m. to approximately 4:45 p.m. local time to discuss...

  15. 75 FR 82380 - Connecticut Gas & Electric, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Connecticut Gas & Electric, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization December 22, 2010. This is a supplemental notice in the...

  16. Alabama Education News. Volume 31, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Michael O., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  17. Alabama Education News. Volume 34, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Michael O., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  18. Alabama Education News. Volume 31, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Michael O., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  19. Alabama Education News. Volume 27, Number 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca Leigh, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  20. Alabama Education News. Volume 32, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Michael O., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  1. Alabama Education News. Volume 28, Number 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca Leigh, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  2. Alabama Education News. Volume 28, Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca Leigh, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  3. Alabama Education News. Volume 30, Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Michael O., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  4. Alabama Education News. Volume 27, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca Leigh, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  5. Alabama Education News. Volume 31, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Michael O., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  6. Alabama Education News. Volume 30, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Michael O., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  7. Alabama Education News. Volume 33, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Michael O., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  8. Alabama Education News. Volume 34, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Michael O., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  9. Alabama Education News. Volume 31, Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Michael O., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  10. Alabama Education News. Volume 31, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Michael O., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  11. Alabama Education News. Volume 29, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca Leigh, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  12. Alabama Education News. Volume 28, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca Leigh, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama", as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  13. Benefits and Challenges of Achieving a Mainstream Market for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ungar, Edward; Mueller, Howard; Smith, Brett

    2010-08-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study Final Report identified a range of policies, incentives and regulations designed to enhance the probability of success in commercializing PHEVs as they enter the automotive marketplace starting in 2010. The objective of the comprehensive PHEV Value Proposition study, which encompasses the PHEV Market Introduction Study, is to better understand the value proposition that PHEVs (as well as other plug-in electric vehicle platforms - PEVs) provide to the auto companies themselves, to the consumer and to the public at large as represented by the government and its public policies. In this report we use the more inclusive term PEVs, to include PHEVs, BEVs (battery electric vehicles that operate only on battery) and EREVs (extended range electric vehicles that combine battery electric vehicles with an internal combustion engine that charges the battery as needed). The objective of Taratec's contribution to Phase 2 of the PHEV Value Proposition Study is to develop a clear understanding of the benefits of PEVs to three stakeholders - auto original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), utilities, and the government - and of the technical and commercial challenges and risks to be overcome in order to achieve commercial success for these vehicles. The goal is to understand the technical and commercial challenges in moving from the 'early adopters' at the point of market introduction of these vehicles to a 'sustainable' mainstream market in which PEVs and other PEVs represent a normal, commercially available and attractive vehicle to the mainstream consumer. For the purpose of this study, that sustainable market is assumed to be in place in the 2030 timeframe. The principal focus of the study is to better understand the technical and commercial challenges in the transition from early adopters to a sustainable mainstream consumer market. Effectively, that translates to understanding the challenges to be overcome

  14. Forward and Spot Prices in Multi-Settlement Wholesale Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrieu, Jeremy

    In organized wholesale electricity markets, power is sold competitively in a multi-unit multi-settlement single-price auction comprised of a forward and a spot market. This dissertation attempts to understand the structure of the forward premium in these markets, and to identify the factors that may lead forward and spot prices to converge or diverge. These markets are unique in that the forward demand is price-sensitive, while spot residual demand is perfectly inelastic and must be met in full, a crucial design feature the literature often glosses over. An important contribution of this dissertation is the explicit modeling of each market separately in order to understand how generation and load choose to act in each one, and the consequences of these actions on equilibrium prices and quantities given that firms maximize joint profits over both markets. In the first essay, I construct a two-settlement model of electricity prices in which firms that own asymmetric capacity-constrained units facing convex costs compete to meet demand from consumers, first in quantities, then in prices. I show that the forward premium depends on the costliness of spot production relative to firms' ability to exercise market power by setting quantities in the forward market. In the second essay, I test the model from the first essay with unit-level capacity and marginal cost data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). I show that the model closely replicates observed price formation in the CAISO. In the third essay, I estimate a time series model of the CAISO forward premium in order to measure the impact that virtual bidding has had on forward and spot price convergence in California between April 2009 and March 2014. I find virtual bidding to have caused forward and spot prices to diverge due to the large number of market participants looking to hedge against - or speculate on - the occurrence of infrequent but large spot price spikes by placing virtual demand bids.

  15. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated.

  16. 76 FR 77815 - Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Ethical Electric Benefit Co.'s application for market-based...

  17. 77 FR 73650 - Electricity NH, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electricity NH, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Electricity NH, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  18. 77 FR 62510 - C.N. Brown Electricity, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission C.N. Brown Electricity, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of C.N. Brown Electricity, LLC's application for market-based...

  19. 78 FR 29131 - Electricity MASS, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electricity MASS, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Electricity MASS, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 77 FR 68768 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Commission Meeting Room at 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20426. \\1\\ Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act, Order No. 768, 77 FR 61896 (Oct. 11, 2012), FERC Stats... Energy Regulatory Commission Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the...

  1. Characterization of Iran electricity market indices with pay-as-bid payment mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, N.; Afshar, K.

    2009-04-01

    Market data analysis in Iran’s electricity market as a market with a pay-as-bid payment mechanism has been considered in this paper. The analysis procedure includes both predictability and correlation analysis of the most important load and price indices. The experimental data from Iran’s electricity market has been employed in its real size which is long enough to take properties such as non-stationarity of the market into account. For predictability, the characteristics of the hourly accepted Weighted Average Price ( WAP) as the topmost price index of this market is analyzed. The analysis tools are time series analysis methods such as power spectral density analysis, phase space reconstruction and test of surrogates, the fractional dimension and the slope of integral sums and the recurrence plots. The results indicate a deterministic, un-stationary and seasonal behavior in addition to unstable periodic orbits and even chaotic behavior in WAP time series. These observations imply just short-term predictability of WAP behavior. The interactive behavior of WAP with the hourly required load (RL) is also considered. For this interaction analysis, in addition to the common correlation methods, cross and joint recurrence plot are also employed. The joint behavioral analysis represents an un-stationary mimic correlation between WAP and RL.

  2. Green marketing in the Massachusetts electric company retail competition pilot program

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, S.M.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    With electric industry restructuring initiatives being introduced on the state and federal levels, retail access pilot programs serve an important function for examining competitive market issues, as well as marketing strategies and customer reactions to different power supply options. The experience gained through these pilots provides important insights into future power market operations, including the market for green power. The Massachusetts Electric Company`s (MECo`s) Choice: New England pilot for residential and small-business customers was a voluntary program developed primarily to test the billing and metering logistics that distribution companies will need in the competitive market. The pilot also offered a preview of program implementation and marketing under customer choice. It was the first retail competition pilot to explicitly include green power options in program design. The MECo pilot`s energy suppliers were selected through the issuance of a request for proposals (RFP). Respondents were asked to submit bids in one or more of three energy supply categories-price, green, and other options. These options were developed by the pilot administrator through internal meetings, discussions with state officials and other stakeholders, and a review of information from other similar pilots. For the green option, the pilot administrator did not establish a green standard. Instead, suppliers were allowed to submit offers that promoted environmental stewardship. Customer response to the different green options are reported. The pilot results clearly demonstrate that, in a competitive situation, there is interest in a variety of energy supply options, including green options. 2 tabs.

  3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, Karen; Gross, Thomas; Lin, Zhenhong; Sullivan, John; Cleary, Timothy; Ward, Jake

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  4. Laboratory Safety Manual for Alabama Schools. Bulletin 1975. No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This document presents the Alabama State Department of Education guidelines for science laboratory safety, equipment, storage, chemical safety, rocket safety, electrical safety, safety with radioisotopes, and safety with biologicals. Also included is a brief bibliography, a teacher's checklist, a listing of laser facts and regulations, and a…

  5. Utility cost accounting and market pricing of electricity at the Naval Postgraduate School. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Murdter, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    This thesis demonstrates that significant cost savings may be realized at the Naval Postgraduate School by accounting for utilities costs with market pricing methods instead of engineering estimates of consumption for nonmetered users and by streamlining the current invoice processing procedures. Electricity demand curves for each element of the supplier rate structure were constructed from recent consumption data and price elasticities of demand from the literature. The deadweight losses from overconsumption were calculated and compared to the costs of installing meters capable of recording time-of-use and peak demand. The current invoice processing procedures were analyzed and spreadsheet tools were developed to streamline the processes and avoid interest charges from late payment. The results of the research indicate that market pricing of electricity and accelerated invoice processing would result in significant savings to the Naval Postgraduate School. Utilities, Electricity, Deadweight loss.

  6. Nuclear power and the market value of the shares of electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Joseph T.

    The most basic principle of security valuation is that market prices are determined by investors' expectations of the firm's performance in the future. These expectations are generally understood to be related to the risk that investors will bear by holding the firm's equity. There is considerable evidence that financial statements prepared in accordance with accrual-based accounting standards consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have information content relevant to the establishment of market prices. In 2001, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 143, "Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations," changing the accounting standards that must be used to prepare financial statements. This paper investigates the effect that investment in nuclear power has on the market value of electric utilities and the impact on the securities markets of the significant changes in financial statement presentation mandated by this new standard.

  7. Deregulation of the California electric power industry: An analysis of electric and natural gas corporate mergers and their effect on the California electric power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbuckle, James Dixon

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry in California is moving in a direction that places greater reliance on the market forces of competition. Investor owned utilities (IOU's) are using mergers and acquisitions to improve their ability to compete in this new environment. Two large mergers were proposed in 1996 that could affect the California market. The first is between Enron Corporation, a large power marketer and Portland General Corporation, owner of Portland General Electric. The second is between Pacific Enterprises Inc., owner of Southern California Gas Company, the largest natural gas utility in the U. S., and Enova Corporation, owner of San Diego Gas and Electric Company. Understanding the impact of these mergers on the California electric power market is the focus of this study. This study examines hypotheses dealing with: (1) Merger Strategy, (2) Efficiency, and (3) Market Power. Using the Miles and Snow (1978) typology, I develop a strategic orientation model for the merger participants and their competitors. The results suggest a two-stage strategic orientation: (1) regulated core business stage, where the firms follow a Defender strategy, and (2) unregulated business stage, where the firms follow a Prospector strategy. Further, the results show the mergers are consistent with the strategy of Enron and Pacific Enterprises. Event study methodology, dollar gains/losses and market value weighted returns are used to determine if the mergers support the efficiency hypothesis. The evidence suggests the mergers lead to increased competitive advantage through improved efficiency for the participants. The results also suggest the mergers do not harm the rivals. The results of structural changes made by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) in deregulation of the California market and analysis of the mergers by the CPUC and the Public Utility Commission of Oregon suggest that the exercise of market power is not a significant issue. Finally

  8. Oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets: Large-scale simulation and policy analysis using complementarity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helman, E. Udi

    This dissertation conducts research into the large-scale simulation of oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets. The dissertation has two parts. Part I is an examination of the structure and properties of several spatial, or network, equilibrium models of oligopolistic electricity markets formulated as mixed linear complementarity problems (LCP). Part II is a large-scale application of such models to the electricity system that encompasses most of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, the Eastern Interconnection. Part I consists of Chapters 1 to 6. The models developed in this part continue research into mixed LCP models of oligopolistic electricity markets initiated by Hobbs [67] and subsequently developed by Metzler [87] and Metzler, Hobbs and Pang [88]. Hobbs' central contribution is a network market model with Cournot competition in generation and a price-taking spatial arbitrage firm that eliminates spatial price discrimination by the Cournot firms. In one variant, the solution to this model is shown to be equivalent to the "no arbitrage" condition in a "pool" market, in which a Regional Transmission Operator optimizes spot sales such that the congestion price between two locations is exactly equivalent to the difference in the energy prices at those locations (commonly known as locational marginal pricing). Extensions to this model are presented in Chapters 5 and 6. One of these is a market model with a profit-maximizing arbitrage firm. This model is structured as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC), but due to the linearity of its constraints, can be solved as a mixed LCP. Part II consists of Chapters 7 to 12. The core of these chapters is a large-scale simulation of the U.S. Eastern Interconnection applying one of the Cournot competition with arbitrage models. This is the first oligopolistic equilibrium market model to encompass the full Eastern Interconnection with a realistic network representation (using

  9. A comparison of pay-as-bid and marginal pricing in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yongjun

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal

  10. Next-generation building energy management systems and implications for electricity markets.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, V. M.; Thomas, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Ott, A.

    2011-08-11

    The U.S. national electric grid is facing significant changes due to aggressive federal and state targets to decrease emissions while improving grid efficiency and reliability. Additional challenges include supply/demand imbalances, transmission constraints, and aging infrastructure. A significant number of technologies are emerging under this environment including renewable generation, distributed storage, and energy management systems. In this paper, we claim that predictive energy management systems can play a significant role in achieving federal and state targets. These systems can merge sensor data and predictive statistical models, thereby allowing for a more proactive modulation of building energy usage as external weather and market signals change. A key observation is that these predictive capabilities, coupled with the fast responsiveness of air handling units and storage devices, can enable participation in several markets such as the day-ahead and real-time pricing markets, demand and reserves markets, and ancillary services markets. Participation in these markets has implications for both market prices and reliability and can help balance the integration of intermittent renewable resources. In addition, these emerging predictive energy management systems are inexpensive and easy to deploy, allowing for broad building participation in utility centric programs.

  11. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun; Kiliccote, Sila

    2012-06-01

    In New York State, the default electricity pricing for large customers is Mandatory Hourly Pricing (MHP), which is charged based on zonal day-ahead market price for energy. With MHP, retail customers can adjust their building load to an economically optimal level according to hourly electricity prices. Yet, many customers seek alternative pricing options such as fixed rates through retail access for their electricity supply. Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) is an XML (eXtensible Markup Language) based information exchange model that communicates price and reliability information. It allows customers to evaluate hourly prices and provide demand response in an automated fashion to minimize electricity costs. This document shows how OpenADR can support MHP and facilitate price responsive demand for large commercial customers in New York City.

  12. Electricity system expansion studies to consider uncertainties and interactions in restructured markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shan

    This dissertation concerns power system expansion planning under different market mechanisms. The thesis follows a three paper format, in which each paper emphasizes a different perspective. The first paper investigates the impact of market uncertainties on a long term centralized generation expansion planning problem. The problem is modeled as a two-stage stochastic program with uncertain fuel prices and demands, which are represented as probabilistic scenario paths in a multi-period tree. Two measurements, expected cost (EC) and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR), are used to minimize, respectively, the total expected cost among scenarios and the risk of incurring high costs in unfavorable scenarios. We sample paths from the scenario tree to reduce the problem scale and determine the sufficient number of scenarios by computing confidence intervals on the objective values. The second paper studies an integrated electricity supply system including generation, transmission and fuel transportation with a restructured wholesale electricity market. This integrated system expansion problem is modeled as a bi-level program in which a centralized system expansion decision is made in the upper level and the operational decisions of multiple market participants are made in the lower level. The difficulty of solving a bi-level programming problem to global optimality is discussed and three problem relaxations obtained by reformulation are explored. The third paper solves a more realistic market-based generation and transmission expansion problem. It focuses on interactions among a centralized transmission expansion decision and decentralized generation expansion decisions. It allows each generator to make its own strategic investment and operational decisions both in response to a transmission expansion decision and in anticipation of a market price settled by an Independent System Operator (ISO) market clearing problem. The model poses a complicated tri-level structure

  13. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  14. The role of clean coal technologies in the evolving domestic electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, K.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the following: What will the future electric industry look like; The industry as it has been until recently; The critical factors of price and cost; The movement to allow customer choice in the states; The role of the federal government; Elements of the process, rationales, implications and new requirements. The paper then describes what the restructured market will look like and the transition process to that end.

  15. A Primer on Electric Utilities, Deregulation, and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2002-06-03

    This primer is offered as an introduction to utility restructuring to better prepare readers for ongoing changes in public utilities and associated energy markets. It is written for use by individuals with responsibility for the management of facilities that use energy, including energy managers, procurement staff, and managers with responsibility for facility operations and budgets. The primer was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Federal Energy Management Program. The impetus for this primer originally came from the Government Services Administration who supported its initial development.

  16. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries - reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems - are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  17. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries—reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems—are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  18. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  19. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  20. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  1. Libraries in Alabama: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alabama.html Libraries in Alabama To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Birmingham American Sports Medicine Institute Sports Medicine LIBRARY 833 St. Vincent's Drive Suite 205 Birmingham, AL ...

  2. Contract-based electricity markets in developing countries: Overcoming inefficiency constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, M. N. Susantha

    The electric utility sector throughout the world has been undergoing significant changes. It is changing from its traditional, central-station generation model managed under a vertically integrated monopoly to a more market-dependent business. In the rich industrialized countries, this change has progressed rapidly with the emergence of competitive markets---not only in the area of electricity generation, but also in the extension of such markets down to the level of retail domestic consumer. Developing countries, on the other hand, are trying to attract much-needed investment capital for their power sector expansion activities, particularly for the expansion of generating capacity, through the involvement of the private sector. Unlike their industrialized counterparts, they are facing many limitations in transforming the mostly government-owned monopolies into market-driven businesses, thereby creating an environment that is conducive to private sector participation. Amongst these limitations are the lack of a well-developed, local private sector or domestic financial market that can handle the sophisticated power sector financing; inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks that can address the many complexities of private power development; and numerous risk factors including political risks. This dissertation research addresses an important inefficiency faced by developing countries in the new contract-based market structure that has emerged within these countries. It examines the inefficiencies brought on by restrictions in the contracts, specifically those arising from the guaranteed purchase conditions that are typically included in contracts between the purchasing utility and independent power producers in this new market. The research attempts to provide a solution for this problem and proposes a methodology that enables the parties to conduct their businesses in a cost-efficient manner within a cooperative environment. The situation described above is

  3. Impacts of demand response and renewable generation in electricity power market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhechong

    This thesis presents the objective of the research which is to analyze the impacts of uncertain wind power and demand response on power systems operation and power market clearing. First, in order to effectively utilize available wind generation, it is usually given the highest priority by assigning zero or negative energy bidding prices when clearing the day-ahead electric power market. However, when congestion occurs, negative wind bidding prices would aggravate locational marginal prices (LMPs) to be negative in certain locations. A load shifting model is explored to alleviate possible congestions and enhance the utilization of wind generation, by shifting proper amount of load from peak hours to off peaks. The problem is to determine proper amount of load to be shifted, for enhancing the utilization of wind generation, alleviating transmission congestions, and making LMPs to be non-negative values. The second piece of work considered the price-based demand response (DR) program which is a mechanism for electricity consumers to dynamically manage their energy consumption in response to time-varying electricity prices. It encourages consumers to reduce their energy consumption when electricity prices are high, and thereby reduce the peak electricity demand and alleviate the pressure to power systems. However, it brings additional dynamics and new challenges on the real-time supply and demand balance. Specifically, price-sensitive DR load levels are constantly changing in response to dynamic real-time electricity prices, which will impact the economic dispatch (ED) schedule and in turn affect electricity market clearing prices. This thesis adopts two methods for examining the impacts of different DR price elasticity characteristics on the stability performance: a closed-loop iterative simulation method and a non-iterative method based on the contraction mapping theorem. This thesis also analyzes the financial stability of DR load consumers, by incorporating

  4. An R and D Agenda to enhance electricity system reliability by increasing customer participation in emerging competitive markets

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Marnay, C.; Goldman, C.; Kueck, J.; Kirby, B.; Dagle, J.; Alvarado, F.; Mount, T.; Oren, S.; Martinez, C.

    2000-10-01

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. We submit that dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility is sorely needed. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market (Kirby and Kueck 1999). Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. In effect, today's markets are incomplete; they represent only half of what a truly competitive market requires. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. We submit that increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. Toward this end, this paper outlines an agenda for public-interest R&D in support of this objective.

  5. Cooperative Education: Entrepreneurial Development by Colleges and Universities. A Case Study of Oakwood College, Huntsville, Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Frank

    The entrepreneurial development and experiential education environments of Oakwood College, Huntsville, Alabama, are described. The college-owned industries of the dairy, farm, garment and linen service, bakery, food manufacturing, convenience store, and snack bar are discussed in terms of markets and marketing, permissions and protections,…

  6. 33 CFR 117.101 - Alabama River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alabama River. 117.101 Section 117.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Alabama § 117.101 Alabama River. (a) The...

  7. 33 CFR 117.101 - Alabama River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alabama River. 117.101 Section 117.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Alabama § 117.101 Alabama River. (a) The...

  8. 33 CFR 117.101 - Alabama River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alabama River. 117.101 Section 117.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Alabama § 117.101 Alabama River. (a) The...

  9. 33 CFR 117.101 - Alabama River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alabama River. 117.101 Section 117.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Alabama § 117.101 Alabama River. (a) The...

  10. 33 CFR 117.101 - Alabama River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alabama River. 117.101 Section 117.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Alabama § 117.101 Alabama River. (a) The...

  11. Public Policy and Economic Efficiency in Ontario's Electricity Market: 2002 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmstead, Derek E. H.

    A competitive wholesale electricity market began operation in Ontario in 2002. The institutional features and development process are described, and the outcomes associated with certain features are assessed. First, a six-equation model of the market is specified and estimated. The results are used to undertake analysis of the province's renewable energy program. The impacts of the program on consumers' and producers' surplus, as well as the resulting degree of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission-abatement, are estimated. These results are used to infer the per-unit cost of CO 2 abatement resulting from the program. Under the assumption that the renewable-fuelled energy displaces coal-fuelled energy from the market, the estimated cost is approximately 93/tonne of CO2; under the alternative assumption that natural gas-fuelled generation is displaced, the estimated cost is 207/tonne of CO2. Comparison to costs observed in other markets and jurisdictions reveals the program to cost approximately one order of magnitude greater than elsewhere. It is concluded that Ontario pays substantially more for emission abatement than is necessary or, alternatively, that Ontario achieves substantially less abatement than is feasible for each dollar of economic resources expended. Second, the market model is also used to assess the treatment of electricity exports with respect to the so-called global adjustment charge. The analysis reveals that the current practise of exempting exports from the charge is not socially optimal from a total surplus-maximisation standpoint. That objective would be achieved if global adjustment was allocated to exports at approximately 32% of the rate at which it is applied to Ontario-based consumers, a result consistent with a Ramsey-type inverse elasticity rule. Third, the forward market unbiasedness hypothesis is assessed in the context of the market for financial transmission rights (FTR). Issues related to left-censoring of payouts at $0 and overlapping

  12. Comparisons of auction mechanisms in a multiple unit setting: A consideration for restructuring electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, John Charles

    The objective of this study was to compare the performance of five single sided auctions that could be used in restructured electric power markets across different market sizes in a multiple unit setting. Auction selection would profoundly influence an industry over $200 billion in size in the United States, and the consequences of implementing an inappropriate mechanism would be great. Experimental methods were selected to analyze the auctions. Two rounds of experiments were conducted, the first testing the sealed offer last accepted offer (LAO) and first rejected offer (FRO), and the clock English (ENG) and sealed offer English (SOE) in markets of sizes two and six. The FRO, SOE, and ENG used the same pricing rule. Second round testing was on the LAO, FRO, and the nonuniform price multiple unit Vickrey (MUV) in markets of sizes two, four, and six. Experiments lasted 23 and 75 periods for rounds 1 and 2 respectively. Analysis of variance and contrast analysis were used to examine the data. The four performance measures used were price, efficiency, profits per unit, and supply revelation. Five basic principles were also assessed: no sales at losses, all low cost capacity should be offered and sold, no high cost capacity should sell, and the market should clear. It was expected group size and auction type would affect performance. For all performance measures, group size was a significant variable, with smaller groups showing poorer performance. Auction type was significant only for the efficiency performance measure, where clock auctions outperformed the others. Clock auctions also proved superior for the first four principles. The FRO performed poorly in almost all situations, and should not be a preferred mechanism in any market. The ENG was highly efficient, but expensive for the buyer. The SOE appeared superior to the FRO and ENG. The clock improves efficiency over the FRO while less information kept prices under the ENG. The MUV was superior in revealing costs

  13. The political effects of ideas and markets on China's economic reforms: The case of electrical power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Laura Washington

    This study examines factors influencing contemporary economic policy-making and reform in China's electric power industry. Results of the study suggest that there is an ongoing paradigm change in China's policy-making. However, institutional resistance to changes in the policy process is strong. Policy outcomes in the case of electric power reforms reflect the interaction of both dynamics. In the early 1990s, the central government in Beijing began to consider restructuring the electric power industry to introduce competition and establish markets for electricity supply. Until then, economic policies had resulted from a process of deliberation within the upper echelons of the Communist Party. Although the Party considered the interests of dominant economic actors, particularly the large State-owned sector, its channels for participation in the policy process were closed to most economic actors. Central bureaucratic and provincial interests largely governed policy processes, leading observers to describe the Chinese State as bureaucratic authoritarian. Bureaucracy's heavy role in the economy led to what some called a corporatist State, whereby organs of government infiltrated most aspects of the economy. This institutional arrangement perpetuated bureaucracy's influence in policy-making. This study hypothesizes that transformation in domestic financial markets poses a threat to the entrenched institutions of the electric power industry. The integration of China's economy with foreign firms and markets enabled actors outside of the dominant State-owned economy to improve their positions vis-a-vis the state-owned sector, and eventually to play a role in the policy process. At the same time, Beijing's adaptation of foreign-designed restructuring policies threatened the deep-rooted institutions. The study analyzes the behavior, statements and channels utilized by those actors affected by power sector policies. Based on interviews conducted between 2000 through 2002

  14. Controlling market power and price spikes in electricity networks: Demand-side bidding

    PubMed Central

    Rassenti, Stephen J.; Smith, Vernon L.; Wilson, Bart J.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we report an experiment that examines how demand-side bidding can discipline generators in a market for electric power. First we develop a treatment without demand-side bidding; two large firms are allocated baseload and intermediate cost generators such that either firm might unilaterally withhold the capacity of its intermediate cost generators from the market to benefit from the supracompetitive prices that would result from only selling its baseload units. In a converse treatment, ownership of some of the intermediate cost generators is transferred from each of these firms to two other firms such that no one firm could unilaterally restrict output to spawn supracompetitive prices. Having established a well controlled data set with price spikes paralleling those observed in the naturally occurring economy, we also extend the design to include demand-side bidding. We find that demand-side bidding completely neutralizes the exercise of market power and eliminates price spikes even in the presence of structural market power. PMID:16576750

  15. Participation of the Nuclear Power Plants in the New Brazilian Electric Energy Market

    SciTech Connect

    Mathias, S.G.

    2004-10-06

    A new regulation framework has been established for the Brazilian electric energy market by a law put into effect on March 15,2004. The main overall goals of this new regulation are: to allow the lowest possible tariffs for end users, while providing the necessary economic incentives for the operation of present installations (generating plants, transmission lines, distribution networks) and the expansion of the system; long-term planning of the extension of the installations required to meet the demand growth; separation of the generation, transmission and distribution activities by allocating them into different companies; new contracts between generating and distribution companies must result from bidding processes based on lowest-tariff criteria; and energy from new generating units required to meet the demand growth must be contracted by all distributing companies integrated to the National Interconnected Grid, in individual amounts proportional to their respective markets.

  16. 75 FR 22125 - Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and... Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by Public Utilities, Order No. 697- C, FERC Stats. &...

  17. 76 FR 41239 - L&P Electric, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission L&P Electric, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of L&P Electric,...

  18. 75 FR 59707 - Electric Quarterly Reports; BM2 LLC; DJGW, LLC; Order on Intent To Revoke Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Quarterly Reports, 75 FR 45,111 (Aug. 2, 2010); Electric Quarterly Reports, 75 FR 19,646 (Apr. 15, 2010). 6...] Electric Quarterly Reports; BM2 LLC; DJGW, LLC; Order on Intent To Revoke Market-Based Rate Authority... rate authorizations will be revoked unless they comply with the Commission's requirements within...

  19. 77 FR 11531 - Electric Quarterly Reports, Acacia Energy, Inc., et al.; Notice of Revocation of Market-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    .... 2001, 67 FR 31,043, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,127, reh'g denied, Order No. 2001-A, 100 FERC ] 61,074... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electric Quarterly Reports, Acacia Energy, Inc., et al.; Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Tariff Electric Quarterly Reports....... Docket No. ER02-2001-017...

  20. Nash equilibrium strategy in the deregulated power industry and comparing its lost welfare with Iran wholesale electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of different types of auctions in market designing, modeling of participants' behaviors to evaluate the market structure is one of the main discussions in the studies related to the deregulated power industries. In this article, we apply an approach of the optimal bidding behavior to the Iran wholesale electricity market as a restructured electric power industry and model how the participants of the market bid in the spot electricity market. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept composed of large numbers of players having discrete and very large strategy spaces. Then, we compute and draw supply curve of the competitive market in which all generators' proposed prices are equal to their marginal costs and supply curve of the real market in which the pricing mechanism is pay-as-bid. We finally calculate the lost welfare or inefficiency of the Nash equilibrium and the real market by comparing their supply curves with the competitive curve. We examine 3 cases on November 24 (2 cases) and July 24 (1 case), 2012. It is observed that in the Nash equilibrium on November 24 and demand of 23,487 MW, there are 212 allowed plants for the first case (plants are allowed to choose any quantity of generation except one of them that should be equal to maximum Power) and the economic efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 2.77 times as much as the real market. In addition, there are 184 allowed plants for the second case (plants should offer their maximum power with different prices) and the efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 3.6 times as much as the real market. On July 24 and demand of 42,421 MW, all 370 plants should generate maximum energy due to the high electricity demand that the economic efficiency or social welfare of the Nash equilibrium is about 2 times as much as the real market.

  1. A framework for analyzing the impact of data integrity/quality on electricity market operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dae Hyun

    This dissertation examines the impact of data integrity/quality in the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on real-time locational marginal price (LMP) in electricity market operations. Measurement noise and/or manipulated sensor errors in a SCADA system may mislead system operators about real-time conditions in a power system, which, in turn, may impact the price signals in real-time power markets. This dissertation serves as a first attempt to analytically investigate the impact of bad/malicious data on electric power market operations. In future power system operations, which will probably involve many more sensors, the impact of sensor data integrity/quality on grid operations will become increasingly important. The first part of this dissertation studies from a market participant's perspective a new class of malicious data attacks on state estimation, which subsequently influences the result of the newly emerging look-ahead dispatch models in the real-time power market. In comparison with prior work of cyber-attack on static dispatch where no inter-temporal ramping constraint is considered, we propose a novel attack strategy, named ramp-induced data (RID) attack, with which the attacker can manipulate the limits of ramp constraints of generators in look-ahead dispatch. It is demonstrated that the proposed attack can lead to financial profits via malicious capacity withholding of selected generators, while being undetected by the existing bad data detection algorithm embedded in today's state estimation software. In the second part, we investigate from a system operator's perspective the sensitivity of locational marginal price (LMP) with respect to data corruption-induced state estimation error in real-time power market. Two data corruption scenarios are considered, in which corrupted continuous data (e.g., the power injection/flow and voltage magnitude) falsify power flow estimate whereas corrupted discrete data (e.g., the on/off status of

  2. Individual welfare maximization in electricity markets including consumer and full transmission system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, James Daniel

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation presents a new algorithm that allows a market participant to maximize its individual welfare in the electricity spot market. The use of such an algorithm in determining market equilibrium points, called Nash equilibria, is also demonstrated. The start of the algorithm is a spot market model that uses the optimal power flow (OPF), with a full representation of the transmission system. The OPF is also extended to model consumer behavior, and a thorough mathematical justification for the inclusion of the consumer model in the OPF is presented. The algorithm utilizes price and dispatch sensitivities, available from the Hessian matrix of the OPF, to help determine an optimal change in an individual's bid. The algorithm is shown to be successful in determining local welfare maxima, and the prospects for scaling the algorithm up to realistically sized systems are very good. Assuming a market in which all participants maximize their individual welfare, economic equilibrium points, called Nash equilibria, are investigated. This is done by iteratively solving the individual welfare maximization algorithm for each participant until a point is reached where all individuals stop modifying their bids. It is shown that these Nash equilibria can be located in this manner. However, it is also demonstrated that equilibria do not always exist, and are not always unique when they do exist. It is also shown that individual welfare is a highly nonconcave function resulting in many local maxima. As a result, a more global optimization technique, using a genetic algorithm (GA), is investigated. The genetic algorithm is successfully demonstrated on several systems. It is also shown that a GA can be developed using special niche methods, which allow a GA to converge to several local optima at once. Finally, the last chapter of this dissertation covers the development of a new computer visualization routine for power system analysis: contouring. The contouring algorithm is

  3. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  4. Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Gypsy, Ed.; Elliott, Glenda R., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Communicating ideas and information that will help counselors to implement the counseling role and develop the profession of counseling is the purpose of this journal. The first issue in volume 21 contains the following articles: "Policies and Procedures for Reporting Child Abuse in Alabama: Considerations for Counselors, Teachers, and School…

  5. The market potential for SMES in electric utility applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are potentially attractive in electric utility applications. This study evaluates the potential for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electric energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.

  6. Promoting the Market for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Role of Recharge Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2012-01-01

    Much recent attention has been drawn to providing adequate recharge availability as a means to promote the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market. The possible role of improved recharge availability in developing the BEV-PHEV market and the priorities that different charging options should receive from the government require better understanding. This study reviews the charging issue and conceptualizes it into three interactions between the charge network and the travel network. With travel data from 3,755 drivers in the National Household Travel Survey, this paper estimates the distribution among U.S. consumers of (a) PHEV fuel-saving benefits by different recharge availability improvements, (b) range anxiety by different BEV ranges, and (c) willingness to pay for workplace and public charging in addition to home recharging. With the Oak Ridge National Laboratory MA3T model, the impact of three recharge improvements is quantified by the resulting increase in BEV-PHEV sales. Compared with workplace and public recharging improvements, home recharging improvement appears to have a greater impact on BEV-PHEV sales. The impact of improved recharging availability is shown to be amplified by a faster reduction in battery cost.

  7. A Bidding Methodology by Nash Equilibrium for Finite Generators Participating in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyaramesh, P. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of finite n-person non-cooperative game theory for analyzing bidding strategies of generators in a deregulated energy marketplace with Pool Bilateral contracts so as to maximize their net profits. A new methodology to build bidding methodology for generators participating in oligopoly electricity market has been proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each generator bids a supply function. This methodology finds out the coefficients in the supply function of generators in order to maximize benefits in an environment of competing rival bidders. A natural choice for developing strategies is Nash Equilibrium (NE) model incorporating mixed strategies, for solving the bidding problem of electrical market. Associated optimal profits are evaluated for a combination of set of pure strategies of bidding of generators, and payoff matrix has been constructed. The optimal payoff is calculated by using NE. An attempt has also been made to minimize the gap between the optimal payoff and the payoff obtained by a possible mixed strategies combination. The algorithm is coded in MATLAB. A numerical example is used to illustrate the essential features of the approach and the results are proved to be the optimal values.

  8. Design and market considerations for axial flux superconducting electric machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, M. D.; George, A.; Shaw, R.; Dawson, L.; Winfield, A.; Steketee, M.; Stockley, S.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate a number of design and market considerations for an axial flux superconducting electric machine design that uses high temperature superconductors. The axial flux machine design is assumed to utilise high temperature superconductors in both wire (stator winding) and bulk (rotor field) forms, to operate over a temperature range of 65-77 K, and to have a power output in the range from 10s of kW up to 1 MW (typical for axial flux machines), with approximately 2-3 T as the peak trapped field in the bulk superconductors. The authors firstly investigate the applicability of this type of machine as a generator in small- and medium-sized wind turbines, including the current and forecasted market and pricing for conventional turbines. Next, a study is also carried out on the machine's applicability as an in-wheel hub motor for electric vehicles. Some recommendations for future applications are made based on the outcome of these two studies. Finally, the cost of YBCO-based superconducting (2G HTS) wire is analysed with respect to competing wire technologies and compared with current conventional material costs and current wire costs for both 1G and 2G HTS are still too great to be economically feasible for such superconducting devices.

  9. Three Essays on Renewable Energy Policy and its Effects on Fossil Fuel Generation in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Eric

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effectiveness of renewable policies and consider their impact on electricity markets. The common thread of this research is to understand how renewable policy incentivizes renewable generation and how the increasing share of generation from renewables affects generation from fossil fuels. This type of research is crucial for understanding whether policies to promote renewables are meeting their stated goals and what the unintended effects might be. To this end, I use econometric methods to examine how electricity markets are responding to an influx of renewable energy. My dissertation is composed of three interrelated essays. In Chapter 1, I employ recent scholarship in spatial econometrics to assess the spatial dependence of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), a prominent state-based renewable incentive. In Chapter 2, I explore the impact of the rapid rise in renewable generation on short-run generation from fossil fuels. And in Chapter 3, I assess the impact of renewable penetration on coal plant retirement decisions.

  10. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  11. Should electricity markets have a capacity requirement? If so, how should it be priced?

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, A.B.; Felder, F.A.

    1996-12-01

    The possibility of non-market-clearing situations in power systems implies that there is a positive social externality associated with construction of capacity or reduction in peak load. In deciding whether and how to internalize this externality, the policy debate should focus on determining the optimal level of reliability and the best way to achieve it. An economic system is functioning efficiently when the price signals sent to consumers reflect the costs of serving those consumers, when the prices received by producers reflect the value of the goods or services being produced, and when the costs of producing those goods and services are at their feasible minimum. Economic principles suggest, and practical experience confirms, that competition is a powerful force promoting such efficiency. It is now widely agreed that this competitive paradigm provides an appropriate model for the generation sector of the electricity industry. Most observers believe that a generation market governed by competition rather than regulation would, in the long run, deliver the electricity services consumers want at lower prices and with greater value than can be achieved by regulation. This view is based not only on the exhaustion of economies of scale in generation, but also on lessons learned regarding the benefits of competition in the telecommunication, natural gas, railroad, banking, airline, stock brokerage and trucking industries.

  12. Modeling strategic competition in hydro-thermal electricity generation markets with cascaded reservoir-hydroelectric generation plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluca, Basak

    This dissertation aims to achieve two goals. The first is to model the strategic interactions of firms that own cascaded reservoir-hydro plants in oligopolistic and mixed oligopolistic hydrothermal electricity generation markets. Although competition in thermal generation has been extensively modeled since the beginning of deregulation, the literature on competition in hydro generation is still limited; in particular, equilibrium models of oligopoly that study the competitive behavior of firms that own reservoir-hydro plants along the same river in hydrothermal electricity generation markets are still under development. In competitive markets, when the reservoirs are located along the same river, the water released from an upstream reservoir for electricity generation becomes input to the immediate downstream reservoir, which may be owned by a competitor, for current or future use. To capture the strategic interactions among firms with cascaded reservoir-hydro plants, the Upstream-Conjecture approach is proposed. Under the Upstream-Conjecture approach, a firm with an upstream reservoir-hydro plant assumes that firms with downstream reservoir-hydro plants will respond to changes in the upstream firm's water release by adjusting their water release by the same amount. The results of the Upstream Conjecture experiments indicate that firms that own upstream reservoirs in a cascade may have incentive to withhold or limit hydro generation, forcing a reduction in the utilization of the downstream hydro generation plants that are owned by competitors. Introducing competition to hydroelectricity generation markets is challenging and ownership allocation of the previously state-owned cascaded reservoir-hydro plants through privatization can have significant impact on the competitiveness of the generation market. The second goal of the dissertation is to extract empirical guidance about best policy choices for the ownership of the state-owned generation plants, including the

  13. Secure provision of reactive power ancillary services in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samahy, Ismael

    The research work presented in this thesis discusses various complex issues associated with reactive power management and pricing in the context of new operating paradigms in deregulated power systems, proposing appropriate policy solutions. An integrated two-level framework for reactive power management is set forth, which is both suitable for a competitive market and ensures a secure and reliable operation of the associated power system. The framework is generic in nature and can be adopted for any electricity market structure. The proposed hierarchical reactive power market structure comprises two stages: procurement of reactive power resources on a seasonal basis, and real-time reactive power dispatch. The main objective of the proposed framework is to provide appropriate reactive power support from service providers at least cost, while ensuring a secure operation of the power system. The proposed procurement procedure is based on a two-step optimization model. First, the marginal benefits of reactive power supply from each provider, with respect to system security, are obtained by solving a loadability-maximization problem subject to transmission security constraints imposed by voltage and thermal limits. Second, the selected set of generators is determined by solving an optimal power flow (OPF)-based auction. This auction maximizes a societal advantage function comprising generators' offers and their corresponding marginal benefits with respect to system security, and considering all transmission system constraints. The proposed procedure yields the selected set of generators and zonal price components, which would form the basis for seasonal contracts between the system operator and the selected reactive power service providers. The main objective of the proposed reactive power dispatch model is to minimize the total payment burden on the Independent System Operator (ISO), which is associated with reactive power dispatch. The real power generation is

  14. Electricity without carbon dioxide: Assessing the role of carbon capture and sequestration in United States electric markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Lawrence

    2002-09-01

    Stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will likely require significant cuts in electric sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The ability to capture and sequester CO2 in a manner compatible with today's fossil-fuel based power generating infrastructure offers a potentially low-cost contribution to a larger climate change mitigation strategy. This thesis fills a niche between economy-wide studies of CO 2 abatement and plant-level control technology assessments by examining the contribution that carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) might make toward reducing US electric sector CO2 emissions. The assessment's thirty year perspective ensures that costs sunk in current infrastructure remain relevant and allows time for technological diffusion, but remains free of assumptions about the emergence of unidentified radical innovations. The extent to which CCS might lower CO2 mitigation costs will vary directly with the dispatch of carbon capture plants in actual power-generating systems, and will depend on both the retirement of vintage capacity and competition from abatement alternatives such as coal-to-gas fuel switching and renewable energy sources. This thesis therefore adopts a capacity planning and dispatch model to examine how the current distribution of generating units, natural gas prices, and other industry trends affect the cost of CO2 control via CCS in an actual US electric market. The analysis finds that plants with CO2 capture consistently provide significant reductions in base-load emissions at carbon prices near 100 $/tC, but do not offer an economical means of meeting peak demand unless CO2 reductions in excess of 80 percent are required. Various scenarios estimate the amount by which turn-over of the existing generating infrastructure and the severity of criteria pollutant constraints reduce mitigation costs. A look at CO2 sequestration in the seabed beneath the US Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) complements this model

  15. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001) higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices. PMID:26844138

  16. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E.; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001) higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices. PMID:26844138

  17. Water use in Alabama, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooty, Will S.; Richardson, Joanne R.

    1998-01-01

    During 1995, the amount of water withdrawn from ground- and surface- water sources in Alabama was estimated to be about 7,100 million gallons per day. Of this amount, about 6,650 million gallons per day were from surface-water sources and about 445 million gallons per day were from ground-water sources. Total withdrawals in Alabama in 1995 for nine withdrawal categories were as follows: thermoelectric power, 5,200 million gallons per day; public supply, 813 million gallons per day; self-supplied industry, 733 million gallons per day; irrigation, 139 million gallons per day; aquaculture, 93.9 million gallons per day; self-supplied domestic, 61.9 million gallons per day; livestock, 34.9 million gallons per day; mining, 20.0 million gallons per day; and self-supplied commercial, 4.88 million gallons per day. Total withdrawals in Alabama decreased about 12 percent from 1990 to 1995, despite an increase of about 5 percent in the State's total population during the same period. Total withdrawals have increased about 135 percent since 1955, however, because of greater than normal usage for generation of thermoelectric power in 1975, withdrawals peaked in that year.

  18. Determination of the potential market size and opportunities for biomass to electricity projects in China

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.

    1995-08-01

    Efforts are currently underway to assess the market potential and prospects for the US private sector in biomass energy development in Yunnan Province. Among the specific objectives of the study are to: estimate the likely market size and competitiveness of biomass energy, assess the viability of US private sector ventures; assess non-economic factors (e.g., resource, environmental, social, political, institutional) that could affect the viability of biomass energy; and recommend appropriate actions to help stimulate biomass initiatives. Feasibility studies show that biomass projects in Yunnan Province are financially and technically viable. Biomass can be grown and converted to electricity at costs lower than other alternatives. These projects if implemented can ease power shortages and help to sustain the region`s economic growth. The external environmental benefits of integrated biomass projects are also potentially significant. This paper summarizes a two-step screening and rank-ordering process that is being used to identify the best candidate projects for possible US private sector investment. The process uses a set of initial screens to eliminate projects that are not technically feasible to develop. The remaining projects are then rank-ordered using a multicriteria technique.

  19. Evaluating the potential impact of transmission constraints on the operation of a competitive electricity market in Illinois.

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Koritarov, V.; Conzelmann, G.; Macal, C.; Boyd, G.; North, M.; Overbye, T.; Cheng, X.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois

    2006-04-30

    Despite the current adequacy of the generation and transmission system in Illinois, there is concern that the uncertainties of electricity restructuring warrant a more detailed analysis to determine if there might be pitfalls that have not been identified under current conditions. The problems experienced elsewhere in the country emphasize the need for an evaluation of how Illinois might fare under a restructured electricity market. The Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) commissioned this study to be undertaken as a joint effort by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the Illinois situation in the 2007 period when restructuring is scheduled to be fully implemented in the State. The purpose of this study is to make an initial determination if the transmission system in Illinois and the surrounding region would be able to support a competitive electricity market, would allow for effective competition to keep prices in check, and would allow for new market participants to effectively compete for market share. The study seeks to identify conditions that could reasonably be expected to occur that would enable a company to exercise market power in one or more portions of the State and thereby create undue pressure on the prices charged to customers and/or inhibit new market participants from entering the market. The term 'market power' has many different definitions, and there is no universal agreement on how to measure it. For the purposes of this study, the term is defined as the ability to raise prices and increase profitability by unilateral action. A more complete definition is provided later. With this definition, the central question of this analysis becomes: 'Can a company, acting on its own, raise electricity prices and increase its profits?' It should be noted that the intent of the study is not to predict whether or not such market power would be exercised by any company. Rather, it is designed to determine

  20. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, David Masaki

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated with DR, the impact DR can have on the sizing of distributed energy resource (DER) systems and how to accommodate and price PEV charging is necessary to advance microgrid technologies. This work characterizes building based DR for a model microgrid, calculates the DER systems for a model microgrid under DR through a minimization of total cost, and determines pricing methods for a PEV charging station integrated with an individual building on the model microgrid. It is shown that DR systems which consist only of HVAC fan reductions provide potential economic benefits to the microgrid through participation in utility DR programs. Additionally, peak shaving DR reduces the size of power generators, however increasing DR capacity does not necessarily lead to further reductions in size. As it currently stands for a microgrid that is an early adopter of PEV charging, current installation costs of PEV charging equipment lead to a system that is not competitive with established commercial charging networks or to gasoline prices for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

  1. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care). PMID:20836416

  2. Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets in a Cabon-Constrained Electricity Sector

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-31

    The benchmark goal that drives the report is to achieve a 20 percent reduction in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Colorado's electricity sector below 2005 levels by 2020. We refer to this as the '20 x 20 goal.' In discussing how to meet this goal, the report concentrates particularly on the role of utility-scale renewable energy and high-voltage transmission. An underlying recognition is that any proposed actions must not interfere with electric system reliability and should minimize financial impacts on customers and utilities. The report also describes the goals of Colorado's New Energy Economy5 - identified here, in summary, as the integration of energy, environment, and economic policies that leads to an increased quality of life in Colorado. We recognize that a wide array of options are under constant consideration by professionals in the electric industry, and the regulatory community. Many options are under discussion on this topic, and the costs and benefits of the options are inherently difficult to quantify. Accordingly, this report should not be viewed as a blueprint with specific recommendations for the timing, siting, and sizing of generating plants and high-voltage transmission lines. We convened the project with the goal of supplying information inputs for consideration by the state's electric utilities, legislators, regulators, and others as we work creatively to shape our electricity sector in a carbon-constrained world. The report addresses various issues that were raised in the Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets report, also known as the SB07-91 Report. That report was produced by the Senate Bill 2007-91 Renewable Resource Generation Development Areas Task Force and presented to the Colorado General Assembly in 2007. The SB07-91 Report provided the Governor, the General Assembly, and the people of Colorado with an assessment of the capability of Colorado's utility-scale renewable resources to contribute electric

  3. 47 CFR 2.924 - Marketing of electrically identical equipment having multiple trade names and models or type...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... having multiple trade names and models or type numbers under the same FCC Identifier. 2.924 Section 2.924... type numbers under the same FCC Identifier. The grantee of an equipment authorization may market... Commission, provided that such devices are electrically identical and the equipment bears an FCC...

  4. 75 FR 70738 - AP Gas & Electric (PA), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (PA), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization November 9, 2010. This is a supplemental notice in the...

  5. 75 FR 9203 - Guidance on Preparation of Market-Based Rate Filings and Electric Quarterly Reports by Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Guidance on Preparation of Market-Based Rate Filings and Electric Quarterly... held on March 3, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. (EST) in the Commission Meeting Room at the Federal...

  6. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  7. Alabama Allied Health Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.

    This study assessed the supply of and demand for allied health professionals in Alabama, focusing on the relationship between supply and demand in various workplace settings in the context of Alabama's demographics, current educational programs, and projected changes in health care. The health care professions included in the study were all fields…

  8. Alabama Department of Education Quick Facts, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure presents state statistics; Alabama public schools 2007-08; Alabama State Board of Education members; financial data; public school size and enrollment; transportation; school meals; school personnel, 2007-2008; graduation requirements; student assessment; additional enrollment; and dropouts, 2006-07.

  9. 2008-2009 Alabama Education Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Year after year, the goal of educators, parents, and concerned citizens throughout Alabama is to provide this state's children with the highest level of quality education possible. The future of Alabama's businesses, industries, commerce, labor force, arts, humanities, and countless other areas are determined by the education that is provided to…

  10. Alabama Public Library Service Annual Report, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

    This annual report highlights the accomplishments of the Alabama Public Library Service (APLS) during 1989. Introductory materials include a map of Alabama's Congressional districts, photographs of the executive board of APLS, and comments from the chairman of the executive board and from APLS' director. The following accomplishments are then…

  11. Alabama Public Education at a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Thomas; West, Jill; Mitchell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A+ Education Partnership is a statewide, non-partisan, non-profit organization that works to shape policy, improve teaching and learning, and engage communities in ongoing conversations about the best ways to create great schools for every child and build a bright future for Alabama. "Alabama Public Education at a Glance" provides in…

  12. Alabama Education Quick Facts, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This brochure presents state statistics; Alabama public schools 2009-10; Alabama State Board of Education members; financial data; public school size and enrollment, 2009-10 school year; transportation; school meals; school personnel, 2009-2010; graduation requirements; student assessment; additional enrollment; and dropouts in school year 2008-09.

  13. Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Sandy, Ed.; Norem, Ken, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of the "Alabama Counseling Association Journal" that make up volume 24. Articles in Issue 1 include: (1) "Learning Comes in Many Forms" (Holly Forester-Miller); (2) "Legislative, Legal, and Sociological Aspects of Alabama's Mental Health System" (David Gamble; Jamie S. Satcher); (3) "Peer Supervision: A…

  14. Alabama Education Quick Facts: Plan 2020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This brochure presents state statistics for the following categories; Alabama public schools, 2012-13; Alabama State Board of Education members; financial data, FY 2012; public school size and enrollment, 2012-13 school year; transportation, 2012-13; school meals, 2011-12; school personnel, 2012-13; graduation rates, 2010-11; graduation…

  15. Alabama Public Library Service Annual Report, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

    This annual report highlights the accomplishments of the Alabama Public Library Service (APLS) during 1990. Introductory materials include a map of Alabama's Congressional districts, photographs of the executive board of APLS, and comments from the chairman of the executive board and from APLS' director. Accomplishments are reported under the…

  16. AWARE (Alabama Working at Reading Excellence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa. Coll. of Education.

    The selected material from the Right-to-Read Institute consists of: (1) Goals of the Institute and Specific Objectives, (2) Alabama Working at Reading Excellence Program, (3) What is the Right to Read?, (4) Objectives, (5) Activities - Studies, (6) Inventory, (7) Recommendations, (8) Alabama Population Characteristics and (9) Sounds and Light for…

  17. Optimal operational strategies for a day-ahead electricity market in the presence of market power using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, Deepal

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation introduces a novel approach for optimally operating a day-ahead electricity market not only by economically dispatching the generation resources but also by minimizing the influences of market manipulation attempts by the individual generator-owning companies while ensuring that the power system constraints are not violated. Since economic operation of the market conflicts with the individual profit maximization tactics such as market manipulation by generator-owning companies, a methodology that is capable of simultaneously optimizing these two competing objectives has to be selected. Although numerous previous studies have been undertaken on the economic operation of day-ahead markets and other independent studies have been conducted on the mitigation of market power, the operation of a day-ahead electricity market considering these two conflicting objectives simultaneously has not been undertaken previously. These facts provided the incentive and the novelty for this study. A literature survey revealed that many of the traditional solution algorithms convert multi-objective functions into either a single-objective function using weighting schemas or undertake optimization of one function at a time. Hence, these approaches do not truly optimize the multi-objectives concurrently. Due to these inherent deficiencies of the traditional algorithms, the use of alternative non-traditional solution algorithms for such problems has become popular and widely used. Of these, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) have received wide acceptance due to their solution quality and robustness. In the present research, three distinct algorithms were considered: a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II), a multi-objective tabu search algorithm (MOTS) and a hybrid of multi-objective tabu search and genetic algorithm (MOTS/GA). The accuracy and quality of the results from these algorithms for applications similar to the problem investigated here

  18. Does More international transmission capacity increase competition in the Belgian electricity market?

    SciTech Connect

    Kuepper, Gerd; Delarue, Erik; Delvaux, Bram; Meeus, Leonardo; Bekaert, David; Willems, Bert; Proost, Stef; D'haeseleer, William; Deketelaere, Kurt; Belmans, Ronnie

    2009-01-15

    From a national market perspective, taking transmission capacity into account reduces current concentration measures, although they remain fairly high even after substantial capacity increases. From an international perspective, a more efficient use of current transmission capacity by coupling regional markets can increase competition. That suggests it may not be appropriate to assess market concentration using national market shares. (author)

  19. Alabama's Appalachian overthrust amid exploratory drilling resurgence

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D. ); Epsman, M.L.

    1991-06-24

    Oil and gas exploration has been carried out sporadically in the Appalachian overthrust region of Alabama for years, but recently interest in the play has had a major resurgence. The Appalachian overthrust region of Alabama is best exposed in the valley and ridge physiographic province in the northeast part of the state. Resistant ridges of sandstone and chert and valleys of shales and carbonate have been thrust toward the northwest. Seismic data show that this structural style continues under the Cretaceous overlap. The surface and subsurface expression of the Alabama overthrust extends for more than 4,000 sq miles. Oil and gas have been produced for many years from Cambro-Ordovician, Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian rocks in the nearby Black Warrior basin in Alabama and Mississippi and the Cumberland plateau in Tennessee. The same zones are also potential producing horizons in the Alabama overthrust region.

  20. Customer Strategies for Responding to Day-Ahead Market HourlyElectricity Pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Chuck; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Boisvert, Dick; Cappers, Peter; Pratt, Donna; Butkins, Kim

    2005-08-25

    Real-time pricing (RTP) has been advocated as an economically efficient means to send price signals to customers to promote demand response (DR) (Borenstein 2002, Borenstein 2005, Ruff 2002). However, limited information exists that can be used to judge how effectively RTP actually induces DR, particularly in the context of restructured electricity markets. This report describes the second phase of a study of how large, non-residential customers' adapted to default-service day-ahead hourly pricing. The customers are located in upstate New York and served under Niagara Mohawk, A National Grid Company (NMPC)'s SC-3A rate class. The SC-3A tariff is a type of RTP that provides firm, day-ahead notice of hourly varying prices indexed to New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) day-ahead market prices. The study was funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC)'s PIER program through the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC). NMPC's is the first and longest-running default-service RTP tariff implemented in the context of retail competition. The mix of NMPC's large customers exposed to day-ahead hourly prices is roughly 30% industrial, 25% commercial and 45% institutional. They have faced periods of high prices during the study period (2000-2004), thereby providing an opportunity to assess their response to volatile hourly prices. The nature of the SC-3A default service attracted competitive retailers offering a wide array of pricing and hedging options, and customers could also participate in demand response programs implemented by NYISO. The first phase of this study examined SC-3A customers' satisfaction, hedging choices and price response through in-depth customer market research and a Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) demand model (Goldman et al. 2004). This second phase was undertaken to answer questions that remained unresolved and to quantify price response to a higher level of granularity. We accomplished these objectives with a second customer

  1. Stranded cost recovery: Reregulating the electricity markets in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, Pushkar Ghanashyam

    2000-10-01

    For the past few years, Stranded Cost recovery has been one of the most contentious issues regarding the restructuring of electricity markets among the regulators, researchers, and the other interested parties. Among the states that have moved towards retail competition, some have already made decisions regarding the levels of the stranded cost recovery. So the question is: how have these states handled the "stranded cost problem"? Following the introduction and the historical perspective of the industry in the first chapter, the second chapter takes a broad view for understanding the overall process of deregulation. It attempts to analyze why some states have made a rapid transition to competition in the electric utility industry, while other states are just beginning to consider the issue. White (1996) and Ando & Palmer (1998) have conducted a similar exercise. We present a more comprehensive and theoretically informed econometric analysis that sheds light over some of the crucial issues involved in restructuring, such as, stranded cost recovery, regulation of transmission and distribution sectors, and establishment of Independent System Operator, etc. This chapter offers the rationale for alternative econometric techniques, and extends the political economy analysis to incorporate actual timings of retail competition. Once we have identified the role of stranded cost in restructuring and the theoretical foundations, we study empirically the political economy of states' decisions to grant stranded cost recovery. This constitutes the third chapter. Here, we concentrate on California and Pennsylvania, two states that are at the frontiers of deregulation, and compare their respective treatments of the stranded cost. We probe the reasons behind Pennsylvania's lead over California on the path towards deregulation.

  2. Final Technical Report. Upgrades to Alabama Power Company Hydroelectric Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Crew, James F.; Johnson, Herbie N.

    2015-03-31

    From 2010 to 2014, Alabama Power Company (“Alabama Power”) performed upgrades on four units at three of the hydropower developments it operates in east-central Alabama under licenses issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”). These three hydropower developments are located on the Coosa River in Coosa, Chilton, and Elmore counties in east-central Alabama.

  3. Direct participation of electrical loads in the California independent system operator markets during the Summer of 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Khavkin, Mark; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-04-01

    California's restructured electricity markets opened on 1 April 1998. The former investor-owned utilities were functionally divided into generation, transmission, and distribution activities, all of their gas-fired generating capacity was divested, and the retail market was opened to competition. To ensure that small customers shared in the expected benefit of lower prices, the enabling legislation mandated a 10% rate cut for all customers, which was implemented in a simplistic way that fossilized 1996 tariff structures. Rising fuel and environmental compliance costs, together with a reduced ability to import electricity, numerous plant outages, and exercise of market power by generators drove up wholesale electricity prices steeply in 2000, while retail tariffs remained unchanged. One of the distribution/supply companies entered bankruptcy in April 2001, and another was insolvent. During this period, two sets of interruptible load programs were in place, longstanding ones organized as special tariffs by the distribution/supply companies and hastily established ones run directly by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). The distribution/supply company programs were effective at reducing load during the summer of 2000, but because of the high frequency of outages required by a system on the brink of failure, customer response declined and many left the tariff. The CAISO programs failed to attract enough participation to make a significant difference to the California supply demand imbalance. The poor performance of direct load participation in California's markets reinforces the argument for accurate pricing of electricity as a stimulus to energy efficiency investment and as a constraint on market volatility.

  4. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    DOE PAGES

    McHenry, Mark P.; Johnson, Jay; Hightower, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG) exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the networkmore » characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.« less

  5. Acquiring competitive power supplies in the new restructured electricity markets -- Aggregation opportunities, choosing the right supplier, and negotiating contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, K.L.

    1999-07-01

    While demand-side and energy efficiency measures conventionally bring more substantive cost savings than procuring competitive energy supplies, the new opportunity to create added electricity savings has been gaining momentum as deregulated electricity markets mature from their infancy to adolescence. As these markets evolve, more and more small and medium sized facilities are being approached by new entrants to switch electricity providers. Many of these new providers seem to have come from nowhere, while other don't seem any different than the current utility. Managers struggle to find an easy way to validate the claims and promises that often seem too good to be true; no matter how much assistance the incumbent utility offers. This paper will discuss the impact of Customer Choice for electricity as a commodity and will present the key issues that energy decisionmakers will contend with when deciding whether or not to switch. It will also address critical elements vital to contract negotiations that will protect a business' financial risk in the new deregulated market.

  6. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in

  7. United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-01

    The Market Assessment is designed to be of value to manufacturers, distributors, engineers, and others in the supply channels for motor systems. It provides a detailed and highly differentiated portrait of their end-use markets.

  8. 78 FR 43198 - Flexible and Local Resources Needed for Reliability in the California Wholesale Electric Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... market informed that a resource is at risk-of- retirement? How should local capacity needs and potential... regarding a market-based means of addressing forward- looking system, local and flexible needs, including... preferred market-based solutions that could be used to address the forward flexible and local...

  9. Summary of Market Opportunities for Electric Vehicles and Dispatchable Load in Electrolyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Eichman, Joshua; Markel, Tony; Ma, Ookie

    2015-05-19

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and electrolyzers are potentially significant sources of new electric loads. Both are flexible in that the amount of electricity consumed can be varied in response to a variety of factors including the cost of electricity. Because both EVs and electrolyzers can control the timing of electricity purchases, they can minimize energy costs by timing the purchases of energy to periods of lowest costs.

  10. DOE: Integrating Southwest Power Pool Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Daniel, EPRI; Tuohy, Aidan, EPRI; Deb, Sidart, LCG Consulting; Jampani, Srinivas, LCG Consulting; Kirby, Brendan, Consultant; King, Jack, Consultant

    2011-11-29

    Wind power development in the United States is outpacing previous estimates for many regions, particularly those with good wind resources. The pace of wind power deployment may soon outstrip regional capabilities to provide transmission and integration services to achieve the most economic power system operation. Conversely, regions such as the Southeastern United States do not have good wind resources and will have difficulty meeting proposed federal Renewable Portfolio Standards with local supply. There is a growing need to explore innovative solutions for collaborating between regions to achieve the least cost solution for meeting such a renewable energy mandate. The DOE-funded project 'Integrating Southwest Power Pool Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets' aims to evaluate the benefits of coordination of scheduling and balancing for Southwest Power Pool (SPP) wind transfers to Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) Balancing Authorities (BAs). The primary objective of this project is to analyze the benefits of different balancing approaches with increasing levels of inter-regional cooperation. Scenarios were defined, modeled and investigated to address production variability and uncertainty and the associated balancing of large quantities of wind power in SPP and delivery to energy markets in the southern regions of the SERC. The primary analysis of the project is based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED) simulations of the SPP-SERC regions as modeled for the year 2022. The UC/ED models utilized for the project were developed through extensive consultation with the project utility partners, to ensure the various regions and operational practices are represented as accurately as possible realizing that all such future scenario models are quite uncertain. SPP, Entergy, Oglethorpe Power Company (OPC), Southern Company, and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) actively participated in the project providing input data for the models

  11. Wholesale electricity market design with increasing levels of renewable generation: Revenue sufficiency and long-term reliability

    DOE PAGES

    Milligan, Michael; Frew, Bethany A.; Bloom, Aaron; Ela, Erik; Botterud, Audun; Townsend, Aaron; Levin, Todd

    2016-03-22

    This paper discusses challenges that relate to assessing and properly incentivizing the resources necessary to ensure a reliable electricity system with growing penetrations of variable generation (VG). The output of VG (primarily wind and solar generation) varies over time and cannot be predicted precisely. Therefore, the energy from VG is not always guaranteed to be available at times when it is most needed. This means that its contribution towards resource adequacy can be significantly less than the contribution from traditional resources. Variable renewable resources also have near-zero variable costs, and with production-based subsidies they may even have negative offer costs.more » Because variable costs drive the spot price of energy, this can lead to reduced prices, sales, and therefore revenue for all resources within the energy market. The characteristics of VG can also result in increased price volatility as well as the need for more flexibility in the resource fleet in order to maintain system reliability. Furthermore, we explore both traditional and evolving electricity market designs in the United States that aim to ensure resource adequacy and sufficient revenues to recover costs when those resources are needed for long-term reliability. We also investigate how reliability needs may be evolving and discuss how VG may affect future electricity market designs.« less

  12. Accounting for the effects of power system controllers and stability on power dispatch and electricity market prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodsi, Sameh K. M.

    Recently, the widespread use of power system controllers, such as PSS and FACTS controllers, has led to the analysis of their effect on the overall stability of power systems. Many studies have been conducted to allocate FACTS controllers so that they achieve optimal power flow conditions in the context of Optimal Power Flow (OPF) analysis. However, these studies usually do not examine the effect of these controllers on the voltage and angle stability of the entire system, considering that the types of these controllers and their control signals, such as reactive power, current, or voltage, have significant effect on the entire system stability. Due to the recent transition from government controlled to deregulated electricity markets, the relationship between power system controllers and electricity markets has added a new dimension, as the effect of these controllers on the overall power system stability has to be seen from an economic point of view. Studying the effect of adding and tuning these controllers on the pricing of electricity within the context of electricity markets is a significant and novel research area. Specifically, the link among stability, FACTS controllers and electricity pricing should be appropriately studied and modelled. Consequently, in this thesis, the focus is on proposing and describing of a novel OPF technique which includes a new stability constraint. This technique is compared with respect to existent OPF techniques, demonstrating that it provides an appropriate modelling of system controllers, and thus a better understanding of their effects on system stability and energy pricing. The proposed OPF technique offers a new methodology for pricing the dynamic services provided by the system's controllers. Moreover, the new OPF technique can be used to develop a novel tuning methodology for PSS and FACTS controllers to optimize power dispatch and price levels, as guaranteeing an adequate level of system security. All tests and

  13. Alabama Power Company HVAC Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Lovvorn, N.

    1996-06-01

    Alabama Power Company`s (APCo`s) HVAC training Center began in 1986 and serves people from around the country. The staff has a combined field experience of over 75 years. This paper describes the training facility and program.

  14. 76 FR 9700 - Alabama Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Alabama program in the May 20, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 22030). You can also find later actions..., deletes the language where a license becomes null and void and replaces it with the issuance of...

  15. Generation cost frontier analysis, dynamic market adjustment, and strategic gaming: Integrated tools for benchmarking, competitive market analysis, and strategy formulation under conditions of uncertainty in the transition to a competitive electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Corio, M.R.; Bellucci, J.W.; Boyd, G.A.; Perl, K.E.

    1998-07-01

    The authors describe a three dimensional frontier consisting of: spending, availability/reliability, and utilization/heat rate. To determine optimal behavior in a future deregulated market, one must also find the optimal adjustment path from present to long-run frontier operation, and the optimal strategic action/response as determined by game theory. One can also perform more limited optimizations along either the two dimensional spending/reliability or spending/utilization frontiers. Although the authors mainly discuss optimizing existing domestic plants, frontier analysis could easily be applied to an electric producer's plants or acquisition targets internationally. Efficient operation saves money even in countries where electric markets are still regulated and can also confer indirect environmental benefits. AER is also applying these frontier analysis and game theory techniques to environmental decision-making, specifically to environmental retrofit decisions.

  16. Electric power grid control using a market-based resource allocation system

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.

    2015-07-21

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  17. Electric power grid control using a market-based resource allocation system

    DOEpatents

    Chassin, David P

    2014-01-28

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. In one exemplary embodiment, a plurality of requests for electricity are received from a plurality of end-use consumers. The requests indicate a requested quantity of electricity and a consumer-requested index value indicative of a maximum price a respective end-use consumer will pay for the requested quantity of electricity. A plurality of offers for supplying electricity are received from a plurality of resource suppliers. The offers indicate an offered quantity of electricity and a supplier-requested index value indicative of a minimum price for which a respective supplier will produce the offered quantity of electricity. A dispatched index value is computed at which electricity is to be supplied based at least in part on the consumer-requested index values and the supplier-requested index values.

  18. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

  20. Clean Coal Technology: Region 4 Market Description, South Atlantic. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Region 4 Market Description Summary provides information that can be used in developing an understanding of the potential markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs) in the South Atlantic Region. This region (which geographically is Federal Region 4) consists of the following eight states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. In order to understand the potential market. A description is provided of the region`s energy use, power generation capacity, and potential growth. Highlights of state government activities that could have a bearing on commercial deployment of CCTs are also presented. The potential markets characterized in this summary center on electric power generation by investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal electric utilities and involve planned new capacity additions and actions taken by utilities to comply with Phases I and II of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Regulations, policies, utility business strategies, and organizational changes that could impact the role of CCTs as a utility option are identified and discussed. The information used to develop the Region 4 Market Description is based mainly on an extensive review of plans and annual reports of 29 investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal coal-using electric utilities and public information on strategies and actions for complying with the CAAA of 1990.

  1. 75 FR 2896 - Alabama Disaster Number AL-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Only for the State of Alabama (FEMA-1870-DR), dated 12/31/2009. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Alabama, dated 12/31/2009, is hereby amended to...

  2. 2. ALABAMA GATES LOOKING SOUTHEAST ALONG LINED CHANNEL, NOTE CHEMICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ALABAMA GATES LOOKING SOUTHEAST ALONG LINED CHANNEL, NOTE CHEMICAL PURIFICATION TANK IN DISTANCE FOR KEEPING DOWN GROWTH OF ALGAE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Alabama Gates, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 26. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN) WITH SAILS SET Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN) WITH SAILS SET Original 2-3/4'x2-1/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  4. Customer response to day-ahead wholesale market electricity prices: Case study of RTP program experience in New York

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, C.; Hopper, N.; Sezgen, O.; Moezzi, M.; Bharvirkar, R.; Neenan, B.; Boisvert, R.; Cappers, P.; Pratt, D.

    2004-07-01

    There is growing interest in policies, programs and tariffs that encourage customer loads to provide demand response (DR) to help discipline wholesale electricity markets. Proposals at the retail level range from eliminating fixed rate tariffs as the default service for some or all customer groups to reinstituting utility-sponsored load management programs with market-based inducements to curtail. Alternative rate designs include time-of-use (TOU), day-ahead real-time pricing (RTP), critical peak pricing, and even pricing usage at real-time market balancing prices. Some Independent System Operators (ISOs) have implemented their own DR programs whereby load curtailment capabilities are treated as a system resource and are paid an equivalent value. The resulting load reductions from these tariffs and programs provide a variety of benefits, including limiting the ability of suppliers to increase spot and long-term market-clearing prices above competitive levels (Neenan et al., 2002; Boren stein, 2002; Ruff, 2002). Unfortunately, there is little information in the public domain to characterize and quantify how customers actually respond to these alternative dynamic pricing schemes. A few empirical studies of large customer RTP response have shown modest results for most customers, with a few very price-responsive customers providing most of the aggregate response (Herriges et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 2002). However, these studies examined response to voluntary, two-part RTP programs implemented by utilities in states without retail competition.1 Furthermore, the researchers had limited information on customer characteristics so they were unable to identify the drivers to price response. In the absence of a compelling characterization of why customers join RTP programs and how they respond to prices, many initiatives to modernize retail electricity rates seem to be stymied.

  5. A novel coefficient for detecting and quantifying asymmetry of California electricity market based on asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρ D X A , contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.

  6. A novel coefficient for detecting and quantifying asymmetry of California electricity market based on asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect and quantify asymmetry of two time series, a novel cross-correlation coefficient is proposed based on recent asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (A-DXA), which we called A-DXA coefficient. The A-DXA coefficient, as an important extension of DXA coefficient ρDXA, contains two directional asymmetric cross-correlated indexes, describing upwards and downwards asymmetric cross-correlations, respectively. By using the information of directional covariance function of two time series and directional variance function of each series itself instead of power-law between the covariance function and time scale, the proposed A-DXA coefficient can well detect asymmetry between the two series no matter whether the cross-correlation is significant or not. By means of the proposed A-DXA coefficient conducted over the asymmetry for California electricity market, we found that the asymmetry between the prices and loads is not significant for daily average data in 1999 yr market (before electricity crisis) but extremely significant for those in 2000 yr market (during the crisis). To further uncover the difference of asymmetry between the years 1999 and 2000, a modified H statistic (MH) and ΔMH statistic are proposed. One of the present contributions is that the high MH values calculated for hourly data exist in majority months in 2000 market. Another important conclusion is that the cross-correlation with downwards dominates over the whole 1999 yr in contrast to the cross-correlation with upwards dominates over the 2000 yr.

  7. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  8. Alabama's Education Report Card, 2011-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Educational progress has been moving in the right direction for several years in Alabama. Now, with the implementation of Alabama's own Plan 2020, an even higher level of accountability for students, teachers, administrators, support systems, and schools/school systems, Alabama is poised to experience unprecedented growth. Add to that, the…

  9. Graptemys pulchra Baur 1893: Alabama Map Turtle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Godwin, James C.; McCoy, C.J.; Rhodin, A. G. J.; Pritchard, P. C. H.; van Dijk, P. P.; Saumure, R.A.; Buhlmann, K.A.; Iverson, J.B.; Mittermeier, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    The Alabama Map Turtle, Graptemys pulchra (Family Emydidae), is a moderately large riverine species endemic to the Mobile Bay drainage system of Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Sexual size dimorphism is pronounced, with adult females (carapace length [CL] to 273 mm) attaining more than twice the size of adult males (CL to 117 mm). The species is an inhabitant of relatively large, swift creeks and rivers, often with wide sandbars. Stream sections open to the sun and with abundant basking sites in the form of logs and brush are preferred. Six to seven clutches of 4–7 eggs are laid each year on river sandbars. Although the species is locally abundant, populations are threatened by habitat destruction, declines in their prey base, commercial collection, and vandalism. It is listed as a Species of Special Concern in Alabama.

  10. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    Many countries--reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems--are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy (RE) on the grid. Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Colorado and Texas), for example, have effectively integrated variable RE utilizing diverse approaches. Analysis of the results from these case studies reveals a wide range of mechanisms that can be used to accommodate high penetrations of variable RE (e.g., from new market designs to centralized planning). Nevertheless, the myriad approaches collectively suggest that governments can best enable variable RE grid integration by implementing best practices in five areas of intervention: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations.

  11. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  12. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  13. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  14. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  15. Ground-water program in Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMoreaux, P.E.

    1955-01-01

    Several recent years of drought have emphasized the importance of Alabama's ground-water supplies, a matter of concern to us all.  So far we have been blessed in Alabama with ample ground-water, although a combination of increased use, waste, pollution, and drought has brought about critical local water shortages.  These problems serve as a fair warning of what lies ahead if we do not take the necessary steps to obtan adequate knowledge of our ground-water resources.

  16. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  17. An implementation of particle swarm optimization to evaluate optimal under-voltage load shedding in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Bioki, M. M.; Rashidinejad, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Load shedding is a crucial issue in power systems especially under restructured electricity environment. Market-driven load shedding in reregulated power systems associated with security as well as reliability is investigated in this paper. A technoeconomic multi-objective function is introduced to reveal an optimal load shedding scheme considering maximum social welfare. The proposed optimization problem includes maximum GENCOs and loads' profits as well as maximum loadability limit under normal and contingency conditions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a heuristic optimization technique, is utilized to find an optimal load shedding scheme. In a market-driven structure, generators offer their bidding blocks while the dispatchable loads will bid their price-responsive demands. An independent system operator (ISO) derives a market clearing price (MCP) while rescheduling the amount of generating power in both pre-contingency and post-contingency conditions. The proposed methodology is developed on a 3-bus system and then is applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in implementing the optimal load shedding satisfying social welfare by maintaining voltage stability margin (VSM) through technoeconomic analyses.

  18. 76 FR 24187 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... as the type of rate by which the price in the transaction or contract was set (i.e., fixed price... for a transaction, if applicable; and report electronic tag (e-Tag) ID data in EQRs. The Commission... information in the EQR would improve market participants' ability to assess supply and demand fundamentals...

  19. Consumer cost effectiveness of CO2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2014-10-01

    We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongly dependent on the price of natural gas and on the characteristics of the generators in the dispatch stack. If gas prices are low (˜4/MMBTU), a technology-agnostic, rational consumer seeking to minimize costs would prefer a carbon price over an RPS in both regions. Expensive gas (˜7/MMBTU) requires a high carbon price to induce fuel switching and this leads to wealth transfers from consumers to low carbon producers. The RPS may be more cost effective for consumers because the added energy supply lowers market clearing prices and reduces CO2 emissions. We find that both policies have consequences in capacity markets and that the RPS can be more cost effective than a carbon price under certain circumstances: continued excess supply of capacity, retention of nuclear generators, and high natural gas prices.

  20. 76 FR 66211 - Enhancement of Electricity Market Surveillance and Analysis Through Ongoing Electronic Delivery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... manipulative or other anti-competitive strategies may be created. A. Market Monitoring and Surveillance 29. To... policies and regulations and will enhance Commission efforts to detect anti-competitive or manipulative... regulations and will enhance Commission efforts to detect anti- competitive or manipulative behavior,...

  1. Assessment of the geothermal/geopressure potential of the Gulf Coastal Plan of Alabama. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.V.; Wang, G.C.; Mancini, E.A.; Benson, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Geothermal and geopressure as well as geologic and geophysical data were studied to evaluate the potential for future development of geothermal resources underlying the Alabama Coastal Plain. Wire-line log data compiled and interpreted from more than 1300 oil and gas test wells included maximum recorded temperatures, mud weights, rock resistivities as related to geopressure, formation tops, fault locations, and depths to basement rock. The Alabama Coastal Plain area is underlain by a conduction dominated, deep sedimentary basin where geothermal gradients are low to moderate (1.0 to 1.8/sup 0/F/100 feet). In some areas of southwest Alabama, abnormally high temperatures are found in association with geopressured zones within the Haynesville Formation of Jurassic age; however, rocks of poor reservoir quality dominate this formation, with the exception of a 200-square-mile area centered in southernmost Clarke County where a porous and permeable sand unit is encased within massive salt deposits of the lower Haynesville. The results of a petrograhic study of the Smackover Formation, which underlies the Haynesville, indicate that this carbonate rock unit has sufficient porosity in some areas to be considered a potential geothermal reservoir. Future development of geothermal resources in south Alabama will be restricted to low or moderate temperature, non-electric applications, which constitute a significant potential energy source for applications in space heating and cooling and certain agricultural and industrial processes.

  2. Multi-period equilibrium/near-equilibrium in electricity markets based on locational marginal prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Bertrand, Raquel

    In this dissertation we propose an equilibrium procedure that coordinates the point of view of every market agent resulting in an equilibrium that simultaneously maximizes the independent objective of every market agent and satisfies network constraints. Therefore, the activities of the generating companies, consumers and an independent system operator are modeled: (1) The generating companies seek to maximize profits by specifying hourly step functions of productions and minimum selling prices, and bounds on productions. (2) The goals of the consumers are to maximize their economic utilities by specifying hourly step functions of demands and maximum buying prices, and bounds on demands. (3) The independent system operator then clears the market taking into account consistency conditions as well as capacity and line losses so as to achieve maximum social welfare. Then, we approach this equilibrium problem using complementarity theory in order to have the capability of imposing constraints on dual variables, i.e., on prices, such as minimum profit conditions for the generating units or maximum cost conditions for the consumers. In this way, given the form of the individual optimization problems, the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions for the generating companies, the consumers and the independent system operator are both necessary and sufficient. The simultaneous solution to all these conditions constitutes a mixed linear complementarity problem. We include minimum profit constraints imposed by the units in the market equilibrium model. These constraints are added as additional constraints to the equivalent quadratic programming problem of the mixed linear complementarity problem previously described. For the sake of clarity, the proposed equilibrium or near-equilibrium is first developed for the particular case considering only one time period. Afterwards, we consider an equilibrium or near-equilibrium applied to a multi-period framework. This model embodies binary

  3. Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Generation on the Electricity Market Prices and on the Profitability of New Wind Investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, A. J.; Saraiva, J. T.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a Dynamic Model of the electricity sector that can be used to simulate the evolution of some key variables on the long term, namely the evolution of the electricity price, of the demand and of the capacity factors of the technologies in the generation mix. This model can be used in different ways and by several agents, for instance to estimate the impact on the electricity price of the increasing presence of renewable power stations, namely using wind power and PV systems. In several countries these stations are paid feed-in tariffs with a fixed price but in some cases this scheme is under discussion and there are opinions that payments determined by the market price are more adequate and would bring fewer costs to final consumers. Such a change has to be carefully evaluated given that the presence of renewable stations bidding at an infra marginal price will affect the price itself. The model described in this paper can be used in a profitable way both by governmental agencies when preparing or studying alternative remuneration schemes to renewable stations or by promoters themselves to get more insight to the profitability of their investments, namely if the fixed feed-in tariffs in force in several countries are changed.

  4. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  5. Short-term load forecasting using generalized regression and probabilistic neural networks in the electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, M.M.; Upadhyay, K.G.; Singh, S.N.

    2008-11-15

    For the economic and secure operation of power systems, a precise short-term load forecasting technique is essential. Modern load forecasting techniques - especially artificial neural network methods - are particularly attractive, as they have the ability to handle the non-linear relationships between load, weather temperature, and the factors affecting them directly. A test of two different ANN models on data from Australia's Victoria market is promising. (author)

  6. Two essays on electricity markets: Entry into hydroelectric generation industry and the political cycle of regulated prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moita, Rodrigo Menon Simoes

    This dissertation is about the electricity industry and the problems that arise with the liberalization and de-regulation of the industry. Characteristics intrinsic to the electricity market create problems that can compromise an efficient functioning of this market. Each of the two chapters of this dissertation focus on a specific aspect of this industry. The first chapter analyzes entry in the hydroelectric generation industry. The operation of a generator upstream regularizes the river flow for generators located downstream on the same river, increasing the production capacity of the latter. This positive externality increases the attractiveness of the locations downstream whenever a generator decides to enter upstream. Therefore, the entry decision of a generator in a given location may affect all entry decisions in potential locations for plants located downstream. I first model the problem of generators located in cascade on the same river and show the positive effect of the externality. Second, I use a panel of data on investment decisions of hydro-generation firms to estimate an entry model that takes into account the effect of the externality generated by entry upriver. The results show a positive incentive to locate downstream from existing plants and from locations where entry is likely to occur. Location characteristics also play an important role on the entrants' decisions. The model provides estimates of the average expected market price across the different years covered by the sample and shows that it rose one year before the energy crisis of 2001, evidencing that the market anticipated the crisis. This result has important implications on the evaluation of the Brazilian market design. It shows that entry responded to a rise in expectations about excess demand in the future, contradicting the argument that the crisis was a consequence of mis-designed market institutions. The second chapter deals with the problem of the political cycle in regulated

  7. New technology N products in alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of high fertilizer N prices, growers are interested in using less expensive sources of N and using fertilizer additives to reduce ammonia volatilization losses from urea sources. An experiment on a Lucedale fine sandy loam in Central Alabama (Prattville Research Unit) was conducted in 2007 ...

  8. New technology N products in alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of high fertilizer N prices, growers are interested in using less expensive sources of N and using fertilizer additives to reduce ammonia volatilization losses from urea sources. An experiment on a Lucedale fine sandy loam in Central Alabama (Prattville Research Unit) was conducted in 2007 t...

  9. Alabama Public Library Service Annual Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

    This annual report summarizes activities of the Alabama Public Library Service for the fiscal year 1992. The following general areas are discussed: (1) agency services, including agency restructuring and personnel lay-offs, children's summer library program, the state union list of serials, automated systems, and production of a second edition of…

  10. Implementation of Alabama Resources Information System, ARIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, B. E.

    1978-01-01

    Development of ARIS - Alabama Resources Information System is summarized. Development of data bases, system simplification for user access, and making information available to personnel having a need to use ARIS or in the process of developing ARIS type systems are discussed.

  11. 75 FR 60371 - Alabama Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Register (47 FR 22030). You can also find later actions concerning the Alabama program and program... hearing until 4 p.m., c.d.t. on October 15, 2010. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments, identified by SATS No. AL-075-FOR by any of the following methods: E-mail: swilson@osmre.gov . Include ``SATS No....

  12. 76 FR 9642 - Alabama Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Alabama program in the May 20, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 22030). You can also find later actions... the proposed amendment in the September 30, 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 60371). In the same document... the racial, gender, geographic, urban/rural and economic diversity of the state. This seven...

  13. Chemical Technician Manpower Survey: State of Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Donald; And Others

    The study was undertaken to assess the needs of Alabama's industry for chemical technicians and to determine the kinds and levels of skills required by major employers. Of the 75 organizations responding to the questionnaire with usable data, 62 were private industries, 6 were testing laboratories, and 7 were federal agencies. Generally, the study…

  14. Alabama Kids Count 2002 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being of Alabamas children. The statistical portrait is based on 18 indicators in the areas of child health, education, safety, and security: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention; (6) school…

  15. Financial Reporting for Alabama Public Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    Guidelines for preparing year-end financial reports are provided for Alabama public university staff to insure that reporting formats produce comparable financial reports and to keep up with recent developments in college accounting and financial reporting. The public institutions comply with two publications issued by the American Institute of…

  16. The University of Alabama's Integrated Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Larry; Mitrook, Kim

    This program, supported by the Center for Communication and Educational Technology at the University of Alabama, incorporates the perspectives of biology, earth/space science, chemistry, and physics into an innovative science curriculum for the middle grades. Students are engaged for 20 minutes 3 times a week by an on-air instructor who is doing…

  17. Alabama Public Library Service. Annual Report, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

    This report on Alabama public and regional libraries and their services includes brief discussions of the year's state and federal aid, public library development, interlibrary cooperation, library automation, summer reading programs, services for the blind and physically handicapped, planning and research, library services to institutions,…

  18. Continuing Education in Alabama after One Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donnie; And Others

    Statistical data are presented on the attitudes, opinions, and participation patterns of 291 Alabama public health workers involved during the 1967-68 in statewide professional continuing education programs. Reactions to program components (instructional television, study manuals, group discussion sessions) and specific topics are summarized. Item…

  19. 78 FR 11577 - Alabama Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Alabama program in the May 20, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 22030). You can also find later actions... initiative. We announced receipt of the proposed amendment in the September 5, 2012, Federal Register (77 FR... competition, herbaceous ground cover on areas planted with woody vegetation or planted to food plots shall...

  20. Exploratory Programs in Alabama Middle Grades Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Louis L.; Allen, Michael G.; McKenna, Beverly

    Many educators believe that middle grades schools have a responsibility to capitalize on the natural curiosity of young adolescents through the use of an exploratory curriculum to help students understand the world in which they live. This study examined the status of middle grades exploratory programs in Alabama. A 22-item questionnaire was sent…

  1. 40 CFR 81.301 - Alabama.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Birmingham area is a maintenance area for the 1-hour NAAQS for purposes of 40 CFR part 51 subpart X. Alabama... affecting § 81.301 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... County Choctaw County Clarke County Clay County Cleburne County Coffee County Colbert County...

  2. Significance of selected lineaments in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drahovzal, J. A.; Neathery, T. L.; Wielchowsky, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    Four lineaments in the Alabama Appalachians that appear on ERTS-1 imagery have been geologically analysed. Two of the lineaments appear to have regional geologic significance, showing relationships to structural and stratigraphic frameworks, water and mineral resources, geophysical anomalies, and seismicity. The other two lineaments are of local geologic significance, but, nevertheless, have important environmental implications.

  3. Alabama Public Library Service Annual Report, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

    This annual report summarizes activities of the Alabama Public Library Service (APLS) for the fiscal year 1995. The APLS is charged with improving library services throughout the state to ensure that all citizens have access to quality library and information services. During fiscal year 1995, major building renovations were completed with the…

  4. Alabama Kids Count 2001 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Apreill; Bogie, Don

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in well-being for Alabama's children. The statistical portrait is based on 17 indicators in the areas of health, education, safety, and security. The indicators are: (1) infant mortality rate; (2) low weight births; (3) child health index; (4) births to unmarried teens; (5) first grade retention;…

  5. Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Sandy, Ed.; Norem, Ken, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of the "Alabama Counseling Association Journal" published during 1997. The focus of the journal is on communicating ideas and information that will help counselors to implement the counseling role and develop the profession of counseling. The following articles are contained in issue 1: "Management and…

  6. Application of Neural Network Technologies for Price Forecasting in the Liberalized Electricity Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerikh, Valentin; Kolosok, Irina; Kurbatsky, Victor; Tomin, Nikita

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies concerning calculation of electricity prices in different price zones in Russia and Europe. The calculations are based on the intelligent software "ANAPRO" that implements the approaches based on the modern methods of data analysis and artificial intelligence technologies.

  7. Implementation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Elementary Science Study of Nature (LESSON) in North Alabama elementary and middle schools

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.Y. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01

    The Alabama A M University - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Elementary Science Study of Nature (ALALESSON) was designed to improve elementary and middle school science in North Alabama by involving teachers in two-week summer workshop as well as other follow-up activities. The purpose of the activities was to increase the science knowledge of the teachers and to provide them with materials and activities for hands-on science lessons. The summer workshops, conducted during the summers of 1984 and 1985, provided instruction and materials for activities in the area of biology, chemistry, physics, and electricity and magnetism. The materials included equipment thats total value was over $400.00. Additionally, a manual containing 43 lessons which induced background information, experiments and activities for classroom and home use was provided to each teacher. During the course of the project activities, the teachers interacted with fourteen scientists from Alabama A M University, four scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, eight staff members from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, three staff members from the University of Alabama at Huntsville Johnson Environmental Education Center, two North Alabama teachers who served as presenters, and one NASA Teacher in Space Finalist, Kathleen Beres. This report will thus detail activities during the period July 1984--June 1989.

  8. Introducing Creativity in a Design Laboratory for a Freshman Level Electrical and Computer Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Susan L.; Kotru, Sushma; Lusth, John C.; McCallum, Debra; Dunlap, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Dunlap, The University of Alabama, USA ABSTRACT In the electrical and computer engineering (ECE) curriculum at The University of Alabama, freshmen are introduced to fundamental electrical concepts and units, DC circuit analysis techniques, operational amplifiers, circuit simulation, design, and professional ethics. The two credit course has both…

  9. Anti-correlation and multifractal features of Spain electricity spot market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzzadeh, P.; Dullaert, W.; Rahmani, B.

    2007-07-01

    We use multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) to numerically investigate correlation, persistence, multifractal properties and scaling behavior of the hourly spot prices for the Spain electricity exchange-Compania O Peradora del Mercado de Electricidad (OMEL). Through multifractal analysis, fluctuations behavior, the scaling exponents and generalized Hurst exponents are studied. Moreover, contribution of fat-tailed probability distributions and nonlinear temporal correlations to multifractality is studied.

  10. Electricity end-use efficiency: Experience with technologies, markets, and policies throughout the world

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.; Price, L.; Geller, H.; Nadel, S.

    1992-03-01

    In its August meeting in Geneva, the Energy and Industry Subcommittee (EIS) of the Policy Response Panel of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified a series of reports to be produced. One of these reports was to be a synthesis of available information on global electricity end-use efficiency, with emphasis on developing nations. The report will be reviewed by the IPCC and approved prior to the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Brazil, June 1992. A draft outline for the report was submitted for review at the November 1991 meeting of the EIS. This outline, which was accepted by the EIS, identified three main topics to be addressed in the report: status of available technologies for increasing electricity end-use efficiency; review of factors currently limiting application of end-use efficiency technologies; and review of policies available to increase electricity end-use efficiency. The United States delegation to the EIS agreed to make arrangements for the writing of the report.

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Wholesale Electricity Market Design. Understanding the Missing Money Problem. December 2013 - January 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Papalexopoulos, A.; Hansen, C.; Perrino, D.; Frowd, R.

    2015-05-31

    This project examined the impact of renewable energy sources, which have zero incremental energy costs, on the sustainability of conventional generation. This “missing money” problem refers to market outcomes in which infra-marginal energy revenues in excess of operations and maintenance (O&M) costs are systematically lower than the amortized costs of new entry for a marginal generator. The problem is caused by two related factors: (1) conventional generation is dispatched less, and (2) the price that conventional generation receives for its energy is lower. This lower revenue stream may not be sufficient to cover both the variable and fixed costs of conventional generation. In fact, this study showed that higher wind penetrations in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system could cause many conventional generators to become uneconomic.

  12. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  13. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  14. Approach to market-penetration analysis for advanced electric-power-generation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lamontagne, J.; Love, P.; Queirolo, A.

    1980-12-01

    If commercialization of new technologies is the primary objective of the Department of Energy's Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) programs, the ultimate measure of benefit from RD and D programs is the extent of commercial acceptance of the developed technologies. Uncertainty about barriers to commercialization - government policy, fuel supply, etc. - make the task of estimating this acceptance very difficult. However, given that decisions must be made regarding allocation of RD and D funds, the best information available, with due regard for uncertainty, should serve as input to these decisions. An approach is presented for quantifying the range of market potential for new technologies (specifically in the utility sector) based on historical information and known plans for the future.

  15. Energy storage for the electricity grid : benefits and market potential assessment guide : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, James M.; Corey, Garth P.

    2010-02-01

    This guide describes a high-level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric-utility-related applications. The overarching theme addressed is the concept of combining applications/benefits into attractive value propositions that include use of energy storage, possibly including distributed and/or modular systems. Other topics addressed include: high-level estimates of application-specific lifecycle benefit (10 years) in $/kW and maximum market potential (10 years) in MW. Combined, these criteria indicate the economic potential (in $Millions) for a given energy storage application/benefit. The benefits and value propositions characterized provide an important indication of storage system cost targets for system and subsystem developers, vendors, and prospective users. Maximum market potential estimates provide developers, vendors, and energy policymakers with an indication of the upper bound of the potential demand for storage. The combination of the value of an individual benefit (in $/kW) and the corresponding maximum market potential estimate (in MW) indicates the possible impact that storage could have on the U.S. economy. The intended audience for this document includes persons or organizations needing a framework for making first-cut or high-level estimates of benefits for a specific storage project and/or those seeking a high-level estimate of viable price points and/or maximum market potential for their products. Thus, the intended audience includes: electric utility planners, electricity end users, non-utility electric energy and electric services providers, electric utility regulators and policymakers, intermittent renewables advocates and developers, Smart Grid advocates and developers, storage technology and project developers, and energy storage advocates.

  16. 77 FR 124 - Biological Processors of Alabama; Decatur, Morgan County, AL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Biological Processors of Alabama; Decatur, Morgan County, AL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Biological Processors of Alabama Superfund Site located in Decatur, Morgan County, Alabama. DATES: The...

  17. COMPUTATION OF UNSTEADY FLOWS IN THE ALABAMA RIVER.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffcoat, Hillary H.; Jennings, Marshall E.

    1987-01-01

    An application is described of the branch-network flow model, BRANCH, to the upper Alabama River system in central Alabama. The model is used to simulate one-dimensional unsteady flows and water surface elevations in approximately 60 river miles of the Alabama River system. Preliminary calibration was made using 72 hours of observed data. Simulated discharges are about 10 percent lower than observed discharges at higher discharge rates and computer flows lag observed flows by about 30 minutes.

  18. Georgia/Alabama Regional Seismographic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Long, L.T. . School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1990-11-01

    Data from the Georgia/Alabama network have contributed to a better understanding of the seismicity in the Southeast. Based on these data, a new theory explaining intraplate earthquakes was developed. The theory predicts that a decrease in strength of the lower crust (e.g. through a change in the fluid regime) leads to weakening and deformation of the stress channel in the mid-crustal zone. The weakening and stress concentration may lead to major earthquakes. Earthquake focal mechanisms in southeastern Tennessee are consistent with such a model. Conclusions reached from this and other studies suggest that major earthquakes have happened or could happen in southeastern Tennessee. Earthquakes in the Piedmont are of a different type, being mostly shallow, consistent with failure along joints and predominantly associated with reservoir impoundment. This mechanism may leave an upper magnitude limit of 5.7. In Alabama, except near southeastern Tennessee, the seismicity is largely induced by coal mine collapses. 3 figs.

  19. Development of Alabama Resources Information System (ARIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, B. E.; Vachon, R. I.

    1976-01-01

    A formal, organized set of information concerning the development status of the Alabama Resources Information System (ARIS) as of September 1976 is provided. A series of computer source language programs, and flow charts related to each of the computer programs to provide greater ease in performing future change are presented. Listings of the variable names, and their meanings, used in the various source code programs, and copies of the various user manuals which were prepared through this time are given.

  20. Hydrologic characterization of the unconfined aquifer at the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center, Tuscaloosa, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.H.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves storing thermal energy such as winter chill, summer heat, and industrial waste heat for future use in heat and/or cooling buildings or for industrial processes. Widespread development and implementation of STES would significantly reduce the need to generate primary energy in the United States. Recent data indicate that STES is technically suitable for providing 5% to 10% of the nation's energy, with major contributions in the commercial and industrial sectors and in district heating and cooling applications. This report describes aquifer characterization at the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The purpose of the testing is to provide design data for the University's use in modifying and expanding an existing ATES well field. The aquifer characterization work was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program) in cooperation with the University of Alabama as part of efforts to assess the use of chill ATES for space cooling.

  1. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  2. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  3. Does social approval stimulate prosocial behavior? Evidence from a field experiment in the residential electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoeli, Erez

    At least since Veblen (1899), economists have proposed that people do good because they desire "social approval" and want to look good in front of others. Evidence from the laboratory supports this claim, but is difficult to generalize due to the unrealistic degree of scrutiny in a laboratory environment. I administer a field experiment to test the potency of social approval in a realistic and policy relevant setting. In the experiment I solicit 7893 customers of a large electric utility for a program that helps prevent blackouts. I vary whether their decision to participate in the program is revealed to their neighbors. Customers whose decision is revealed are 1.5% more likely to sign up than those whose decision is anonymous when their decision is framed as a contribution to a public good. Social approval increases participation more than offering subjects a $25 incentive, and its effect is large relative to the mean sign-up rate of 4.1%. I explore whether social approval contributes to crowding out and conditionally cooperative behavior, but the evidence is inconclusive.

  4. Alabama's Education Report Card, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In a more consistent and viable manner than ever before, education in Alabama is moving toward its ultimate goal of providing every student with a quality education, thereby preparing them for work, college, and life after high school. Alabama's graduation rates from 2002 to 2008 increased significantly, tripling the national average increase…

  5. 76 FR 77995 - Southcross Alabama Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southcross Alabama Pipeline LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 7, 2011, Southcross Alabama Pipeline LLC (SAP) submitted a revised Statement of...

  6. The Alabama High School Graduation Examination Experience: Technical Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Robert E.

    A technical advisory committee assisted the Alabama State Department of Education in establishing passing scores and equating test forms of the Alabama High School Graduation Examination (AHSGE). The committee examined four methods of setting cutting scores: (1) Jensen's theoretical method--probability theory is used to set standards that are…

  7. Alabama's Education Report Card 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Public education in Alabama is moving in the right direction and is poised to be a national model for the college and career readiness of its students. Through some of the most challenging financial circumstances, public education in Alabama has continued to show great promise in many areas, including reading, math, and science. The success of…

  8. 14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at Epes Alabama Great Southern RR bridge. View from S. Copy of photo taken in 1922 by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms., Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  9. The Rural Alabama Pregnancy and Infant Health (RAPIH) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeper, J. D.; And Others

    The impact of the Rural Alabama Pregnancy and Infant Health (RAPIH) Program was evaluated in relation to prenatal care, birth outcome measures, and several child health and home environment outcomes. Begun in 1983, RAPIH targets poor rural blacks in three of west-central Alabama's poorest counties, where economic conditions and infant mortality…

  10. 76 FR 32982 - Alabama; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Alabama; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential declaration of an emergency for the State of Alabama (FEMA-3319-EM), dated April 27, 2011, and...

  11. Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Occasional Papers on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    Two papers on the funding formula of the Alabama Commission for Higher Education are presented. The first paper, by John F. Porter, Jr., "The Origins and Evolutions of the Funding Formula Model Utilized by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education, 1973-82," presents the historical antecedents for the existing formula elements and notes…

  12. Alabama Linkage: An Innovative Higher Education Consortium Maximizing Statewide Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Charles L.; And Others

    In the late 1960's and early 1970's, attracting physicians to areas of rural Alabama was virtually impossible because of the lack of professional health care workers available to become part of the necessary health care team. To address this problem, the University of Alabama (UA) adopted a plan to create a consortium of higher education…

  13. Trends in Tobacco Use by Alabama Youth (1995-1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Feng; Bruess, Clint

    To examine changes in tobacco use among high school students in Alabama from 1995 to 1999, Alabama Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS) survey data were analyzed. The survey has been used since 1990 to examine the health practices of adolescents and to monitor priority health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of…

  14. Inservice Education at a Distance: A Rural Consortium in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addleton, Robert L.; Edmonds, Charles; Gamble, Lanny; Watkins, J. Foster

    1983-01-01

    The articles describes the efforts of seven rural systems in northeast Alabama to respond in a cooperative manner to new initiatives from the State Department of Education to improve their inservice/staff development programs. The University of Alabama, primarily through its Gadsden Center, provided professional support and coordinating…

  15. A Study of School Size among Alabama's Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Ronald A.; Cain, Patrick M., Sr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the size of Alabama's public high schools, selected school quality and financial indicators, and their students' performance on standardized exams. When the socioeconomic level of the student bodies is held constant, the size of high schools in Alabama has relatively little…

  16. Alabama University Professor's View of the Birmingham Bombing Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents the views of Alabama university scholars regarding the historical significance of the 2001 trial of Thomas Blanton for his role in the Ku Klux Klan bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist church in Birmingham, Alabama thet killed four girls. Their discussions note the need to examine the American judicial system, the weak case against Mr.…

  17. Phorid Flies in Alabama: A tale of two species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of phorid fly have been released at 11 sites in Alabama and have been recovered from 9 sites. Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier (Diptera: Phoridae) was released in South Alabama in populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Pseudacteon...

  18. 23. VIEW FROM STARBOARD BOW OF ALABAMA AS 'ALABAMIAN.' Uncopyrighted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW FROM STARBOARD BOW OF ALABAMA AS 'ALABAMIAN.' Uncopyrighted 3-1/2'x5-5/8' postcard; image taken on station in Gulf of Mexico, c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  19. 24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON STATION IN GULF OF MEXICO WITH MOTOR BOAT TIED AT STERN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  20. 25. VIEW OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN) FROM OFF PORT BOW; VESSEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN) FROM OFF PORT BOW; VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON STATION IN GULF OF MEXICO WITH MOTOR BOAT TIED AT STERN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  1. 77 FR 41132 - Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alabama; Attainment Plan for the Alabama Portion of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... for the 1997 PM 2.5 NAAQS (72 FR 20586). This rule describes the CAA framework and requirements for... portion of the Chattanooga Area on February 8, 2012 (77 FR 6469). EPA has determined that Alabama's PM 2.5... for EPA's proposed action? A. Designation History On July 18, 1997 (62 FR 38652), EPA established...

  2. 77 FR 60904 - Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alabama; Attainment Plan for the Alabama Portion of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... October 7, 2009, SIP revision regarding reasonably available control technology (RACT) and reasonably... the mobile source contribution to ambient PM 2.5 levels for the Alabama portion of the Chattanooga... insignificance determination for mobile direct PM 2.5 and NO X emissions for transportation conformity...

  3. Alabama Bound: Identifying Factors Associated with Secondary Education Students' Choice of Attending The University of Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Jon Charles; Hughes, William W.; Fendley, William R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Alabama's primary competitor in recruiting is in-state rival Auburn University which lures away roughly one in eight of UA's admitted students. Two factors stand above all others in attracting students to UA--academic reputation and social activities reputation. Factors following distantly are a visit to the UA campus, financial assistance and the…

  4. Groundwater quality at Alabama Plating and Vincent Spring, Vincent, Alabama, 2007–2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Michael W.; Gill, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The former Alabama Plating site in Vincent, Alabama, includes the location where the Alabama Plating Company operated an electroplating facility from 1956 until 1986. The operation of the facility generated waste containing cyanide, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc, and other heavy metals. Contamination resulting from the site operations was identified in groundwater, soil, and sediment. Vincent Spring, used as a public water supply by the city of Vincent, Alabama, is located about ½ mile southwest of the site. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted an investigation at Vincent Spring and the Alabama Plating site, Vincent, Alabama, during 2007–2008 to evaluate the groundwater quality and evaluate the potential effect of contaminated groundwater on the water quality of Vincent Spring. The results of the investigation will provide scientific data and information on the occurrence, fate, and transport of contaminants in the water resources of the area and aid in the evaluation of the vulnerability of the public water supply to contamination. Samples were analyzed to evaluate the water quality at the former plating site, investigate the presence of possible contaminant indicators at Vincent Spring, and determine the usefulness of stable isotopes and geochemical properties in understanding groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the area. Samples collected from 16 monitor wells near the plating site and Vincent Spring were analyzed for major constituents, trace metals, nutrients, and the stable isotopes for hydrogen (2H/H) and oxygen (18O/16O). Groundwater collected from Vincent Spring was characterized as a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate water type with total dissolved solids concentrations ranging from 110 to 120 milligrams per liter and pH ranging from about 7.5 to 7.9 units. Groundwater chemistry at the monitor wells at the Alabama Plating site was highly variable by location and depth

  5. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  6. Soil Sampling Techniques For Alabama Grain Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. N.; Shaw, J. N.; Mask, P. L.; Touchton, J. T.; Rickman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the spatial variability of nutrients facilitates precision soil sampling. Questions exist regarding the best technique for directed soil sampling based on a priori knowledge of soil and crop patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate zone delineation techniques for Alabama grain fields to determine which method best minimized the soil test variability. Site one (25.8 ha) and site three (20.0 ha) were located in the Tennessee Valley region, and site two (24.2 ha) was located in the Coastal Plain region of Alabama. Tennessee Valley soils ranged from well drained Rhodic and Typic Paleudults to somewhat poorly drained Aquic Paleudults and Fluventic Dystrudepts. Coastal Plain s o i l s ranged from coarse-loamy Rhodic Kandiudults to loamy Arenic Kandiudults. Soils were sampled by grid soil sampling methods (grid sizes of 0.40 ha and 1 ha) consisting of: 1) twenty composited cores collected randomly throughout each grid (grid-cell sampling) and, 2) six composited cores collected randomly from a -3x3 m area at the center of each grid (grid-point sampling). Zones were established from 1) an Order 1 Soil Survey, 2) corn (Zea mays L.) yield maps, and 3) airborne remote sensing images. All soil properties were moderately to strongly spatially dependent as per semivariogram analyses. Differences in grid-point and grid-cell soil test values suggested grid-point sampling does not accurately represent grid values. Zones created by soil survey, yield data, and remote sensing images displayed lower coefficient of variations (8CV) for soil test values than overall field values, suggesting these techniques group soil test variability. However, few differences were observed between the three zone delineation techniques. Results suggest directed sampling using zone delineation techniques outlined in this paper would result in more efficient soil sampling for these Alabama grain fields.

  7. Paleocene lignite deposits of southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.

    1984-04-01

    In southwest Alabama, lignite having economic potential occurs in the Oak Hill Member of the Naheola Formation. This middle Paleocene lignite generally consists of a single bed of 1-14 ft (0.5-4 m) in thickness and is the most extensive lignite in the southwest Alabama region. The Oak Hill lignite deposit accumulated in lower delta plain coastal marshes in interchannel areas behind a barrier system. The source area for the deltaic sediments was probably to the west and/or northwest of Choctaw County, Alabama. The lignite occurs in a clay-dominated sequence. Oak Hill interdistributary bay ripple-laminated clays are interbedded with ripple-laminated, crevasse splay sands generally less than 15 ft (5 m) thick. The glauconitic sands of the overlying Coal Bluff Marl Member of the Naheola Formation represent times of marine encroachment into the interchannel basin area. Lignite having subeconomic value at present occurs in the upper part of the Tuscahoma Sand. This upper Paleocene lignite is irregular in its outcrop pattern and apparently is not represented over extensive areas. It is locally persistent with one or more beds less than 3 ft (1 m) thick. The Tuscahoma may contain up to 6 lignite seams that may exceed a total thickness of 5 ft (1.5 m). These lignite beds were deposited in lower delta-plain coastal marshes adjacent to high constructive deltaic bar finger sands. Tuscahoma marsh clays are interbedded with ripple-laminated and cross-bedded bar finger sands. The Tuscahoma Sand is overlain by the Bashi Marl Member of the Hatchetigbee Formation. The Bashi contains a diverse lower Eocene marine fossil assemblage.

  8. Paleocene lignite deposits of southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.

    1984-04-01

    In southwest Alabama, lignite having economic potential occurs in the Oak Hill Member of the Naheola Formation. This middle Paleocene lignite generally consists of a single bed of 1-14 ft (0.5-4 m) in thickness and is the most extensive lignite in the southwest Alabama region. The Oak Hill lignite deposit accumulated in lower delta plain coastal marshes in interchannel areas behind a barrier system. The source area for the deltaic sediments was probably to the west and/or northwest of Choctaw County, Alabama. The lignite occurs in a clay-dominated sequence. Oak Hill interdistributary bay ripple-laminated clays are interbedded with ripple-laminated, crevasse splay sands generally less than 15 ft (5 m) thick. The glauconitic sands of the overlying Coal Bluff Marl Member of the Naheola Formation represent times of marine encroachment into the interchannel basin area. Lignite haing subeconomic value at present occurs in the upper part of the Tuscahoma Sand. This upper Paleocene lignite is irregular in its outcrop pattern and apparently is not represented over extensive areas. It is locally persistent with one or more beds less than 3 ft (1 m) thick. The Tuscahoma may contain up to 6 lignite seams that may exceed a total thickness of 5 ft (1.5 m). These lignite beds were deposited in lower delta-plain coastal marshes adjacent to high constructive deltaic bar finger sands. Tuscahoma marsh clays are interbedded with ripple-laminated and cross-bedded bar finger sands. The Tuscahoma Sand is overlain by the Bashi Marl Member of the Hatchetigbee Formation. The Bashi contains a diverse lower Eocene marine fossil assemblage.

  9. 2012 Alabama Lunabotics Systems Engineering Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Justin; Ricks, Kenneth; Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    Excavation will hold a key role for future lunar missions. NASA has stated that "advances in lunar regolith mining have the potential to significantly contribute to our nation's space vision and NASA space exploration operations." [1]. The Lunabotics Mining Competition is an event hosted by NASA that is meant to encourage "the development of innovative lunar excavation concepts from universities which may result in clever ideas and solutions which could be applied to an actual lunar excavation device or payload." [2]. Teams entering the competition must "design and build a remote controlled or autonomous excavator, called a lunabot, that can collect and deposit a minimum of 10 kilograms of lunar simulant within 10 minutes." [2]. While excavation will play an important part in lunar missions, there will still be many other tasks that would benefit from robotic assistance. An excavator might not be as well suited for these tasks as other types of robots might be. For example a lightweight rover would do well with reconnaissance, and a mobile gripper arm would be fit for manipulation, while an excavator would be comparatively clumsy and slow in both cases. Even within the realm of excavation it would be beneficial to have different types of excavators for different tasks, as there are on Earth. The Alabama Lunabotics Team at the University of Alabama has made it their goal to not only design and build a robot that could compete in the Lunabotics Mining Competition, but would also be a multipurpose tool for future NASA missions. The 2010-2011 resulting robot was named the Modular Omnidirectional Lunar Excavator (MOLE). Using the Systems Engineering process and building off of two years of Lunabotics experience, the 20ll-2012 Alabama Lunabotics team (Team NASACAR) has improved the MOLE 1.0 design and optimized it for the 2012 Lunabotics Competition rules [I]. A CAD model of MOLE 2.0 can be seen below in Fig. 1.

  10. Migrant Children in Alabama. A Survey to Identify Children of Migrant Workers and Certain Former Migrant Workers in Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa. Coll. of Education.

    A 1-year study was completed in August of 1969 by the University of Alabama on procedures to identify the children of migrant workers and of former migrant workers in 6 school systems in Alabama (Blount, Cullman, Pike, and Washington County School Systems and Demopolis and Elba City School Systems). The report of this study (1) includes detailed…

  11. Flood of April 13, 1980, Mobile, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hannum, Curtis H.; Nelson, George H.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents basic data collected during the flood of April 13, 1980, in Mobile, Alabama. The data consists of high-water marks, accumulative rainfall, peak discharge at local gaging stations, hydrographs of discharge and rainfall, and photographs at various locations taken during and immediately after the flood. The report presented in map-series and lists data that are readily usable by local planners and developers. During th afternoon of April 13, 1980, the National Weather Service at Mobile recorded a total of 10.4 inches of rainfall. Immediately after the flood approximately 60 to 70 percent of the roads in the Mobile area were impassable. (USGS)

  12. 76 FR 48879 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General... endangered Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) in Baldwin County, Alabama. The GCP analyzes... availability of the proposed GCP and the dEIS. These documents analyze the take of the Alabama beach...

  13. 30 CFR 901.25 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land... STATE ALABAMA § 901.25 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... publication Citation/description June 15, 1987 July 7, 1988 Alabama policies and procedures for...

  14. 30 CFR 901.25 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land... STATE ALABAMA § 901.25 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... publication Citation/description June 15, 1987 July 7, 1988 Alabama policies and procedures for...

  15. 30 CFR 901.25 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land... STATE ALABAMA § 901.25 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The... publication Citation/description June 15, 1987 July 7, 1988 Alabama policies and procedures for...

  16. Alabama Education News. Volume 28, Number 4, November-December 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca Leigh, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama," as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  17. 75 FR 43964 - Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC; Notice of Compliance Filing July 20, 2010. Take notice that on July 19, 2010, Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC (Enterprise Alabama) pursuant to a July 8, 2010, Letter Order which required Enterprise Alabama to file within 30 days of...

  18. 75 FR 27340 - Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval May 6, 2010. Take notice that on May 3, 2010, Enterprise Alabama Intrastate, LLC (Enterprise Alabama.... Enterprise Alabama states it is filing to justify its current system-wide transportation rate of 47.93...

  19. Alabama Education News. Volume 29, Number 3, November-December 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca Leigh, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Alabama Education News" is published monthly except for June, July, and December by the Alabama Department of Education. This publication, authorized by Section 16-2-4 of the "Code of Alabama," as recompiled in 1975, is a public service of the Alabama Department of Education designed to inform citizens and educators about programs and goals of…

  20. An Agent-Based Optimization Framework for Engineered Complex Adaptive Systems with Application to Demand Response in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghnevis, Moeed

    The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated method to study emergent behavior and consequences of evolution and adaptation in engineered complex adaptive systems (ECASs). A multi-layer conceptual framework and modeling approach including behavioral and structural aspects is provided to describe the structure of a class of engineered complex systems and predict their future adaptive patterns. The approach allows the examination of complexity in the structure and the behavior of components as a result of their connections and in relation to their environment. This research describes and uses the major differences of natural complex adaptive systems (CASs) with artificial/engineered CASs to build a framework and platform for ECAS. While this framework focuses on the critical factors of an engineered system, it also enables one to synthetically employ engineering and mathematical models to analyze and measure complexity in such systems. In this way concepts of complex systems science are adapted to management science and system of systems engineering. In particular an integrated consumer-based optimization and agent-based modeling (ABM) platform is presented that enables managers to predict and partially control patterns of behaviors in ECASs. Demonstrated on the U.S. electricity markets, ABM is integrated with normative and subjective decision behavior recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The approach integrates social networks, social science, complexity theory, and diffusion theory. Furthermore, it has unique and significant contribution in exploring and representing concrete managerial insights for ECASs and offering new optimized actions and modeling paradigms in agent-based simulation.

  1. RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN MYASTHENIA GRAVIS IN ALABAMA

    PubMed Central

    OH, SHIN J.; MORGAN, MARLA B.; LU, LIANG; HATANAKA, YUKI; HEMMI, SHOJI; YOUNG, ANGELA; CLAUSSEN, GWENDOLYN C.

    2010-01-01

    Demographic, clinical, and laboratory features were compared in 235 white and African-American (AA) patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Neuromuscular Disease Clinic from May 2003 to January 2008. Seventy nine percent of patients were white. Acetylcholine receptor antibody was positive in 71% of white patients and in 59% of AA. In patients with seronegative generalized MG, the rate of positive muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibody (MuSK-Ab) was significantly higher in AA than it was in whites (50% in AA vs. 17% in whites). Ocular MG was seronegative in 75% of AA patients. In AA, MG occurred earlier and more frequently in females, whereas, in whites, disease onset was later and more common in males. Another significant difference was a higher percentage of abnormality on repetitive nerve stimulation in AA. There was also a tendency for more severe forms of MG in AA. There are racial differences in MG between whites and AA in Alabama. These racial differences highlight the need to study biological factors in the pathogenesis of MG and to assess different approaches in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19127534

  2. Water Resources Data, Alabama, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearman, J.L.; Stricklin, V.E.; Psinakis, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Alabama consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, for 41 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations; (2) stage and content records for 14 lakes and reservoirs and stage at 47 stations; (3) water-quality records for 12 streamflow-gaging stations, for 17 ungaged streamsites, and for 2 precipitation stations; (4) water temperature at 14 surfacewater stations; (5) specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at 12 stations; (6) turbidity at 3 stations; (7) sediment data at 6 stations; (8) water-level records for 2 recording observation wells; and (9) water-quality records for 21 ground-water stations. Also included are lists of active and discontinued continuous-record surface-water-quality stations, and partial-record and miscellaneous surface-water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Alabama.

  3. Unconventional gas - exploratory drilling, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    BF Goodrich owns and operates a large tire manufacturing plant located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. This plant consumes approximately 3000 MCF of natural gas daily in generating steam for the manufacturing process. In addition, Goodrich has other facilities with requirements for gaseous fuels. Because of increased costs for gas and oil, and forecasted shortages of gas, Goodrich is investigating alternative sources for energy. In the Tuscaloosa vicinity, Goodrich studied in depth the possibility of obtaining methane gas from coal beds. In this process, BF Goodrich worked with the Unites States Bureau of Mines, the University of Alabama School of Mines and Energy Development and various other companies having experience in coalbed degasification. The information available to Goodrich led to the conclusion that degasification may have the potential of meeting the Company's energy and financial objectives. With DOE funding, a test well was drilled and various analyses necessary to verify this potential were made. BF Goodrich management would contemplate investing Goodrich capital to develop production wells if the test well analyses indicated such development to be feasible and the economics of production were consistent with corporate objectives for return on investment. The completed analyses, however, indicate that investment in this program is not justified at this time. 20 figures, 13 tables.

  4. Inventory of Alabama greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chumeng; Herz, W.J.; Griffin, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere have been increasing since the industrial revolution. Worldwide efforts are being made to study anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This study quantified the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in Alabama in 1990. Alabama anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks from 13 sources were studied. 1990 Alabama total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were estimated to be 153.42 and 21.66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. As a result, the net total greenhouse gas emissions were estimated to be 131.76 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. Fossil fuel combustion is the major source of emissions, representing approximately 78 percent. Coal mining and landfills are other two significant emission sources, representing approximately 10 and 6 percent of the total emissions respectively. Forests in Alabama represent the major sink, offsetting approximately 14 percent of the total emissions. On a per capita basis, Alabama`s emission rate is 32.3 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per capita in 1990, compared to the national per capita average of 23.4 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. The high emission rate is attributed to higher emissions than the national average from fossil fuel combustion, from coal mining and landfills in Alabama.

  5. Geoscience research databases for coastal Alabama ecosystem management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hummell, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    Effective management of complex coastal ecosystems necessitates access to scientific knowledge that can be acquired through a multidisciplinary approach involving Federal and State scientists that take advantage of agency expertise and resources for the benefit of all participants working toward a set of common research and management goals. Cooperative geostatic investigations have led toward building databases of fundamental scientific knowledge that can be utilized to manage coastal Alabama's natural and future development. These databases have been used to assess the occurrence and economic potential of hard mineral resources in the Alabama EFZ, and to support oil spill contingency planning and environmental analysis for coastal Alabama.

  6. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    SciTech Connect

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  7. Prospects for the medium- and long-term development of China`s electric power industry and analysis of the potential market for superconductivity technology

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.

    1998-05-01

    First of all, overall economic growth objectives in China are concisely and succinctly specified in this report. Secondly, this report presents a forecast of energy supply and demand for China`s economic growth for 2000--2050. In comparison with the capability of energy construction in China in the future, a gap between supply and demand is one of the important factors hindering the sustainable development of Chain`s economy. The electric power industry is one of China`s most important industries. To adopt energy efficiency through high technology and utilizing energy adequately is an important technological policy for the development of China`s electric power industry in the future. After briefly describing the achievements of China`s electric power industry, this report defines the target areas and policies for the development of hydroelectricity and nuclear electricity in the 2000s in China, presents the strategic position of China`s electric power industry as well as objectives and relevant plans of development for 2000--2050. This report finds that with the discovery of superconducting electricity, the discovery of new high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, and progress in materials techniques, the 21st century will be an era of superconductivity. Applications of superconductivity in the energy field, such as superconducting storage, superconducting transmission, superconducting transformers, superconducting motors, its application in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD), as well as in nuclear fusion, has unique advantages. Its market prospects are quite promising. 12 figs.

  8. 75 FR 63167 - San Diego Gas and Electric Company v. Sellers of Energy and Ancillary Services Into Markets...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Services Into Markets Operated by the California Independent System Operator Corporation and the California Power Exchange; Investigation of Practices of the California Independent System Operator and...

  9. Hydrologic characterization of the unconfined aquifer at the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center, Tuscaloosa, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.H.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves storing thermal energy such as winter chill, summer heat, and industrial waste heat for future use in heat and/or cooling buildings or for industrial processes. Widespread development and implementation of STES would significantly reduce the need to generate primary energy in the United States. Recent data indicate that STES is technically suitable for providing 5% to 10% of the nation`s energy, with major contributions in the commercial and industrial sectors and in district heating and cooling applications. This report describes aquifer characterization at the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The purpose of the testing is to provide design data for the University`s use in modifying and expanding an existing ATES well field. The aquifer characterization work was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program) in cooperation with the University of Alabama as part of efforts to assess the use of chill ATES for space cooling.

  10. Topographic data of selected areas along the Alabama River near Montgomery, Alabama, collected using mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging (T-LiDAR) technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrow, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Topographic data at selected areas within the Alabama River flood plain near Montgomery, Alabama, were collected using a truck-mounted mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging system. These data were collected for inclusion in a flood inundation model developed by the National Weather Service in Birmingham, Alabama. Data are presented as ArcGIS point shapefiles with the extension .shp.

  11. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: "Mobile electricity" technologies, early California household markets, and innovation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brett David

    Starting from the premise that new consumer value must drive hydrogen-fuel-cell-vehicle (H2FCV) commercialization, a group of opportunities collectively called "Mobile Electricity" (Me-) is characterized. Me- redefines H2 FCVs as innovative products able to provide home recharging and mobile power, for example for tools, mobile activities, emergencies, and electric-grid-support services. To characterize such opportunities, this study first integrates and extends previous analyses of H2FCVs, plug-in hybrids, and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power. It uses a new model to estimate zero-emission-power vs. zero-emission-driving tradeoffs, costs, and grid-support revenues for various electric-drive vehicle types and levels of infrastructure service. Next, the initial market potential for Me- enabled vehicles, such as H2FCVs and plug-in hybrids, is estimated by eliminating unlikely households from consideration for early adoption. 5.2 million of 33.9 million Californians in the 2000 Census live in households pre-adapted to Me-, 3.9 million if natural gas is required for home refueling. The possible sales base represented by this population is discussed. Several differences in demographic and other characteristics between the target market and the population as a whole are highlighted, and two issues related to the design of H2FCVs and their supporting infrastructure are discussed: vehicle range and home hydrogen refueling. These findings argue for continued investigation of this and similar target segments-which represent more efficient research populations for subsequent study by product designers and other decision-makers wishing to understand the early market dynamics facing Me- innovations. Next, Me-H2FCV commercialization issues are raised from the perspectives of innovation, product development, and strategic marketing. Starting with today's internalcombustion hybrids, this discussion suggests a way to move beyond the battery vs. fuel-cell zero-sum game and towards the

  12. 8. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of U.S. 11, N of Epes Southern RR. lift span, from SW. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  13. 11. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of U.S. 11 N of Epes Southern RR. lift span, S tower. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, MS. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  14. 46. LINED SECTION OF AQUEDUCT LOOKING NORTH TO ALABAMA HILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. LINED SECTION OF AQUEDUCT LOOKING NORTH TO ALABAMA HILLS - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 76 FR 38264 - Alabama Disaster Number AL-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ..., Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 04/15/2011 through 05/31/2011. Effective Date: 06/22... major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Alabama, dated...

  16. 76 FR 33805 - Alabama Disaster Number AL-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ..., Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 04/15/2011 and continuing. Effective Date: 06/01/2011... disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Alabama, dated 04/28/2011,...

  17. 76 FR 32982 - Alabama; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... certain areas of the State of Alabama resulting from severe storms, tornadoes, straight-line winds, and... State, and any other forms of assistance under the Stafford Act that you deem appropriate subject...

  18. A reliable solar-heating system--Huntsville, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Final report on solar-heating demonstration project in Huntsville, Alabama, is rich in technical data, planning considerations, test and maintenance data, and other information. It can be useful reference for those planning similar systems.

  19. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Ehret, Dana J; Ebersole, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world's oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon). Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis. PMID:25332848

  20. Alabama: A Successful Home-Based Business Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centrallo, Carol B.

    1999-01-01

    The Alabama Cooperative Extension Service transformed a traditional textile/clothing program into a home-based business program. It was delivered by multiple methods including meetings, printed materials, audiovisual resources, and, in the second phase, videoconferencing. (SK)

  1. 78 FR 56980 - Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment, Colbert County, Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment, Colbert County, Alabama AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA... its final environmental impact statement (EIS) for the redevelopment of the Muscle Shoals Reservation... Statement for the Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment was published in the Federal Register on...

  2. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, CAMPUS OF UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA IN TUSCALOOSA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, CAMPUS OF UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA IN TUSCALOOSA. SOUTH LOCK WALL, LOCK NO. 3 (LATER NO. 12). - Warrior River, Lock No. 3 Wall, River Road at University Park, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  3. Description and Status of the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Christian, Hugh J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Hall, John M.; McCaul, Eugene W.; Stano, Geoffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) is a network LMA detectors that detects and maps lightning using VHF radiation (TV Channel 5) in a region centered about Huntsville, Alabama that includes North Alabama, Central Tennessee and parts of Georgia and Mississippi. The North Alabama LMA has been in operation since late 2001, and has been providing real time data to regional National Weather Service (NSF) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) since mid 2003 through the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) center. Data from this network (as well as other from other LMA systems) are now being used to create proxy Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) data sets for GOES-R risk reduction and algorithm development activities. In addition, since spring 2009 data are provided to the Storm Prediction Center in support of Hazardous Weather Testbed and GOES-R Proving Ground activities during the Spring Program. Description, status and plans will be discussed.

  4. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing on a county by county basis the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes and industrial wastes of Alabama that are potential biomass energy sources.

  5. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Ehret, Dana J; Ebersole, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world's oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon). Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis.

  6. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world’s oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon). Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis. PMID:25332848

  7. 77 FR 67660 - Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge, Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Bibb County, Alabama. We provide this notice in compliance... boundary. The refuge currently contains 3,608 acres in Bibb County. The refuge was established to:...

  8. Configuring load as a resource for competitive electricity markets--Review of demand response programs in the U.S. and around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, Grayson C.

    2002-09-01

    The restructuring of regional and national electricity markets in the U.S. and around the world has been accompanied by numerous problems, including generation capacity shortages, transmission congestion, wholesale price volatility, and reduced system reliability. These problems have created new opportunities for technologies and business approaches that allow load serving entities and other aggregators to control and manage the load patterns of wholesale and retail end-users they serve. Demand Response Programs, once called Load Management, have re-emerged as an important element in the fine-tuning of newly restructured electricity markets. During the summers of 1999 and 2001 they played a vital role in stabilizing wholesale markets and providing a hedge against generation shortfalls throughout the U.S.A. Demand Response Programs include ''traditional'' capacity reservation and interruptible/curtailable rates programs as well as voluntary demand bidding programs offered by either Load Serving Entities (LSEs) or regional Independent System Operators (ISOs). The Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) has been monitoring the development of new types of Demand Response Programs both in the U.S. and around the world. This paper provides a survey and overview of the technologies and program designs that make up these emerging and important new programs.

  9. Investigation using data in Alabama from ERTS-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, H. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Brief summaries are presented of accomplishments by the state of Alabama in the areas of: (1) investigation of environmental factors; (2) land use compilation; (3) data processing for land use compilation; (4) photo-reproduction and unsupervised land use classification from digital tape; (5) data collection buoys; and (6) activities of the Geological Survey of Alabama.

  10. The impossible dream? How Nuclear Electric, Ltd. pulled itself out of the ashes of government ownership and became highly competitive in a privatized and deregulating British power market

    SciTech Connect

    Maycock, P.

    1998-12-31

    The day was dark for Nuclear Electric plc. when the British government decided it would privatize and deregulate the electric utility industry. For years, Nuclear Electric and other UK-based fossil power producers had been operating in a regulated market where the state set and guaranteed the price of electricity. All that was changing in Britain as the government introduced competition and as customers looked forward to purchasing power from the lowest bidder. Essentially the situation in England was much the same as it is now in the US: there was major momentum toward deregulation. The reality of competition in Britain came as good news to many power producers--in particular those who kept the lights on cost effectively. Others, However, weren`t so optimistic, especially nuclear plants that traditionally bear higher safety and maintenance costs than their fossil counterparts. Taking its cues from the City (Britain`s Wall Street), the British government simply considered nuclear generators to be unreliable, high cost, unprofitable organizations incapable of surviving in a privatized environment. It therefore left its nuclear power plants off the docket when selling (privatizing) its generating capacity. This paper describes how Nuclear Electric Ltd. became competitive in a deregulated environment.

  11. Carbon monoxide poisonings after two major hurricanes--Alabama and Texas, August-October 2005.

    PubMed

    2006-03-10

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the U.S. Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, and September 24, 2005, respectively, causing widespread damage and leaving approximately 4 million households without electrical power. Despite public health measures to prevent carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings after major power outages, multiple CO poisonings were reported in Gulf Coast states in the wake of these hurricanes. The Alabama Department of Public Health and Texas Department of State Health Services asked CDC to assist in investigating the extent and causes of these hurricane-related CO poisonings. The investigation identified 27 incidents of CO poisoning resulting in 78 nonfatal cases and 10 deaths in hurricane-affected counties in Alabama and Texas, nearly all of which were caused by gasoline-powered generators. Most of the generators involved were placed outside but close to the home to power window air conditioners (ACs) or connect to central electric panels. Few homes had functioning CO detectors. CDC continues to recommend that generators be placed far from homes, away from window ACs, and that CO detectors be used by all households operating gasoline-powered appliances (e.g., generators and gas furnaces), with batteries replaced yearly. Although the risk for CO poisoning likely decreases as generators are placed further from the home, additional studies are needed to establish a safe distance for generator placement.

  12. Electricity from fossil fuels without CO2 emissions: assessing the costs of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration in U.S. electricity markets.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T L; Keith, D W

    2001-10-01

    The decoupling of fossil-fueled electricity production from atmospheric CO2 emissions via CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) is increasingly regarded as an important means of mitigating climate change at a reasonable cost. Engineering analyses of CO2 mitigation typically compare the cost of electricity for a base generation technology to that for a similar plant with CO2 capture and then compute the carbon emissions mitigated per unit of cost. It can be hard to interpret mitigation cost estimates from this plant-level approach when a consistent base technology cannot be identified. In addition, neither engineering analyses nor general equilibrium models can capture the economics of plant dispatch. A realistic assessment of the costs of carbon sequestration as an emissions abatement strategy in the electric sector therefore requires a systems-level analysis. We discuss various frameworks for computing mitigation costs and introduce a simplified model of electric sector planning. Results from a "bottom-up" engineering-economic analysis for a representative U.S. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region illustrate how the penetration of CCS technologies and the dispatch of generating units vary with the price of carbon emissions and thereby determine the relationship between mitigation cost and emissions reduction.

  13. Ancillary services market in California

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, T.; Marnay, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Liew, L.; Khavkin, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report includes sections on the following topics: (1) California restructured electricity system overview; (2) Reliability criteria; (3) Design of the California ISO ancillary services market; (4) Operation of ancillary services markets; (5) Ancillary services markets redesign; and (6) Conclusions.

  14. 78 FR 2383 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Marketing, LLC, New Mexico Electric Marketing, LLC, Tenaska Gateway Partners, Ltd., Alabama Electric.... Applicants: Coso Geothermal Power Holdings, LLC. Description: Coso Geothermal Power Holdings, LLC...

  15. Market assessment overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.

    1981-01-01

    Market assessment, refined with analysis disaggregated from a national level to the regional level and to specific market applications, resulted in more accurate and detailed market estimates. The development of an integrated set of computer simulations, coupled with refined market data, allowed progress in the ability to evaluate the worth of solar thermal parabolic dish systems. In-depth analyses of both electric and thermal market applications of these systems are described. The following market assessment studies were undertaken: (1) regional analysis of the near term market for parabolic dish systems; (2) potential early market estimate for electric applications; (3) potential early market estimate for industrial process heat/cogeneration applications; and (4) selection of thermal and electric application case studies for fiscal year 1981.

  16. Analysis of implementation of Tradable Green Certificates system in a competitive electricity market: a game theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Meysam; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates three models to implement Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system with aid of game theory approach. In particular, the competition between thermal and renewable power plants is formulated in three models: namely cooperative, Nash and Stackelberg game models. The price of TGC is assumed to be determined by the legislative body (government) which is fixed. Numerical examples presented in this paper include sensitivity analysis of some key parameters and comparison of the results of different models. In all three game models, the parameters that influence pricing of the TGC based on the optimal amounts are obtained. The numerical examples demonstrate that in all models: there is a reverse relation between the price of electricity and the TGC price, as well as a direct relation between the price of electricity and the share of green electricity in total electricity generation. It is found that Stackelberg model is an appropriate structure to implement the TGC system. In this model, the supply of electricity and the production of green electricity are at the highest level, while the price of electricity is at the lowest levels. In addition, payoff of the thermal power plant is at the highest levels in the Nash model. Hence this model can be an applicatory structure for implementation of the TGC system in developing countries, where the number of thermal power plants is significantly greater than the number of renewable power plants.

  17. 75 FR 57412 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Alabama: Volatile Organic Compounds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Alabama: Volatile Organic... ``volatile organic compounds'' (VOCs) found at Alabama Administrative Code section...

  18. Geology of the Huntsville quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, T.H.; Malmberg, G.T.; West, L.R.

    1961-01-01

    The 7 1/2-minute Huntsville quadrangle is in south-central Madison County, Ala., and includes part of the city of Hunstville. The south, north, east, and west boundaries of the quadrangle are about 3 miles north of the Tennessee River, 15 1/2 miles south of the Tennessee line, 8 miles west of the Jackson County line, and 9 miles east of the Limestone County line. The bedrock geology of the Huntsville quadrangle was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Hunstville and the Geological Survey of Alabama as part of a detailed study of the geology and ground-water resources of Madison County, with special reference to the Huntsville area. G. T. Malmberg began the geologic mapping of the county in July 1953, and completed it in April 1954. T. H. Sanford, Jr., assisted Malmberg in the final phases of the county mapping, which included measuring geologic sections with hand level and steel tape. In November 1958 Sanford, assisted by L. R. West, checked contacts and elevations in the Hunstville quadrangle; made revisions in the contact lines; and wrote the text for this report. The fieldwork for this report was completed in April 1959.

  19. Paleocene sequence stratigraphy of southwestern Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Tew, B.H.

    1988-09-01

    In southwestern Alabama, the Paleocene consists of about 1300 ft (396 m) of marginal marine and marine terrigenous and carbonate sediments. Based on regional stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and paleontologic data, up to seven unconformity-bounded depositional sequences resulting from relative changes in coastal onlap during the Paleocene are recognized in these strata. These sequences are, in ascending order, the TP1.1a, comprised of the Pine Barren Member of the Clayton Formation; the TP1.1b, comprised of the Turritella rock beds of the Pine Barren and the McBryde Limestone Member of the Clayton Formation, and the clays and marls of the lower member of the Porters Creek Formation; the TP1.2, comprised of the cross-bedded sands of the lower member and the Matthews Landing Marl Member of the Porters Creek Formation, and Oak Hill Member of the Naheola Formation; the TP1.3, comprised of the Coal Bluff Marl Member of the Naheola Formation; the TP2.1, comprised of the Gravel Creek Sand, Ostrea thirsae beds, and Grampian Hills Members of the Nanafalia Formation, and the lower beds of the Tuscahoma Sand; the TP2.2, comprised of the Greggs Landing Marl Member and the middle beds of the Tuscahoma Sand; and the TP2.3, comprised of the Bells Landing Marl Member and the upper beds of the Tuscahoma Sand.

  20. Sedimentation profiles in Lake Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricklin, Victor E.

    2001-01-01

    Lake Tuscaloosa, created in 1969 by the impoundment of North River, is the primary water supply for the cities of Tuscaloosa and Northport, Alabama, and surrounding areas. In 1982, 17 cross-sections were established in the principal tributaries of the lake, which include North River, Dry Creek, Turkey Creek, Binion Creek, Tierce Creek, Carroll Creek, and Brush Creek. These cross-sections were resurveyed in 1986 to determine the amount of sedimentation or scour occurring in the lake at these areas. In May 2000, 14 of the 17 cross-sections were located for resurveying to determine the amount of sedimentation or scour since 1986. The maximum amount of sediment deposition determined from the 2000 survey occurred in the upper end of the Carroll Creek tributary at cross-section CC8 (3.0 feet). The maximum amount of scour occurred in the Turkey Creek tributary at cross-section TRC2 (7.0 feet). Of the 14 cross-sections, 6 indicated increased amounts of sediment deposition, 5 indicated scouring of bottom sediments, and 3 indicated little or no change.

  1. An optimization-based approach for facility energy management with uncertainties, and, Power portfolio optimization in deregulated electricity markets with risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun

    Topic 1. An Optimization-Based Approach for Facility Energy Management with Uncertainties. Effective energy management for facilities is becoming increasingly important in view of the rising energy costs, the government mandate on the reduction of energy consumption, and the human comfort requirements. This part of dissertation presents a daily energy management formulation and the corresponding solution methodology for HVAC systems. The problem is to minimize the energy and demand costs through the control of HVAC units while satisfying human comfort, system dynamics, load limit constraints, and other requirements. The problem is difficult in view of the fact that the system is nonlinear, time-varying, building-dependent, and uncertain; and that the direct control of a large number of HVAC components is difficult. In this work, HVAC setpoints are the control variables developed on top of a Direct Digital Control (DDC) system. A method that combines Lagrangian relaxation, neural networks, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed to predict the system dynamics and uncontrollable load, and to optimize the setpoints. Numerical testing and prototype implementation results show that our method can effectively reduce total costs, manage uncertainties, and shed the load, is computationally efficient. Furthermore, it is significantly better than existing methods. Topic 2. Power Portfolio Optimization in Deregulated Electricity Markets with Risk Management. In a deregulated electric power system, multiple markets of different time scales exist with various power supply instruments. A load serving entity (LSE) has multiple choices from these instruments to meet its load obligations. In view of the large amount of power involved, the complex market structure, risks in such volatile markets, stringent constraints to be satisfied, and the long time horizon, a power portfolio optimization problem is of critical importance but difficulty for an LSE to serve the

  2. Estimation of the Unregistered Inflow of Electrical and Electronic Equipment to a Domestic Market: A Case Study on Televisions in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ha Phuong; Wang, Feng; Dewulf, Jo; Huynh, Trung-Hai; Schaubroeck, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) constitutes one of the most problematic waste streams worldwide, and accurately estimating the scale of WEEE can assist in tackling its associated issues. However, obtaining an accurate estimation of WEEE remains a challenge because a share of the waste is difficult to calculate. This share stems from the administratively unregistered (so-called "invisible") inflow of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) into the domestic market. As a first attempt to qualitatively and quantitatively investigate this invisible inflow, this study discusses the nature of this flow in detail and proposes a calculation pathway for quantifying its magnitude. The size of the invisible inflow to a domestic market (assumed equal to invisible sales) is calculated by subtracting the registered, also called "visible", sales from the total sales. The total sales are modeled, whereas the visible sales are derived from statistical data. The method is illustrated by a case study on televisions (TVs) in Vietnam. The results show that from 2002 to 2013, the invisible TV inflow contributed, on average, 15% to the total TV sales (coefficient of variation: 0.21). This average share would increase by approximately 1.0% when the maximum number of TVs used per household increased by 1.0%. However, it would decrease by 1.7% when the visible sales increased by 1.0%. Additionally, the average share of the invisible TV inflow would change from 15% to 27% when an unadjusted constant instead of an adjusted time-varying lifespan is employed. This first estimation of the invisible EEE inflow to the domestic market can be improved with additional knowledge and data in the future.

  3. 75 FR 23264 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama AGENCY: Environmental... of Alabama is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Alabama has adopted the following rules: Arsenic Rule, Lead and Copper Minor Revisions Rule, and Radionuclides Rule. EPA...

  4. 30 CFR 901.20 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land... § 901.20 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on May 29, 1981, and revised on August 13,...

  5. 30 CFR 901.20 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land... § 901.20 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on May 29, 1981, and revised on August 13,...

  6. 30 CFR 901.20 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land... § 901.20 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on May 29, 1981, and revised on August 13,...

  7. 30 CFR 901.20 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land... § 901.20 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on May 29, 1981, and revised on August 13,...

  8. The Technology Scholarship Program for Alabama Teachers at Jacksonville State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Franklin L.; And Others

    The Alabama Commission on Higher Education (ACHE) recently established the "Technology Scholarship Program for Alabama Teachers" (TSPAT). Jacksonville State University (JSU) is one of the state institutions participating in the program, which was funded by Act 93-636 of the Alabama Legislature. The program addresses technological literacy,…

  9. Today's Students, Tomorrow's Citizens: Pathways for Learning, Science. Alabama High School Graduation Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Instructional Services.

    This document introduces the Alabama Graduation Examination Program (AGEP) which provides learning opportunities for high school students to meet the minimum competency requirements to earn a high school diploma in the state of Alabama. The Alabama High School Graduation Examination (AHSGE) content includes the subject areas of reading…

  10. 30 CFR 901.15 - Approval of Alabama regulatory program amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Alabama regulatory program..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ALABAMA § 901.15 Approval of Alabama regulatory program amendments. The following is a list of the...

  11. 76 FR 72495 - Alabama Metal Coil Securement Act; Petition for Determination of Preemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Alabama Metal Coil Securement Act; Petition for... determination that the State of Alabama's Metal Coil Securement Act is preempted by Federal law. FMCSA requests comments on what effect, if any, Alabama's metal coil load securement certification requirements may...

  12. Opening the Schoolhouse Doors: Tax Credits and Educational Access in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II.; Erickson, Angela C.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, Alabama adopted the Alabama Accountability Act, an education reform measure that includes two new school choice programs that extend a lifeline to Alabama students trapped in failing public schools. One program offers a tax credit to help offset the cost of tuition for families who move their children from public schools designated as…

  13. 77 FR 36274 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... of Alabama is revising its approved Public Water System Supervision Program. Alabama has adopted the following rules: Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Alabama AGENCY:...

  14. 78 FR 54640 - Alabama Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission, Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alabama Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the... Major License. b. Project No.: 2203-015. c. Date Filed: August 16, 2013. d. Applicant: Alabama Power Company (Alabama Power). e. Name of Project: Holt Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The project...

  15. 78 FR 4844 - Alabama Power Company; Notice Rejecting Request for Rehearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alabama Power Company; Notice Rejecting Request for Rehearing On March 31, 2010, the Commission issued a new license to Alabama Power Company (Alabama Power) for the continued operation and maintenance of the...

  16. Evaluation of Alabama Public School Wellness Policies and State School Mandate Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Alisha B.; Lonis-Shumate, Steven R.; Gropper, Sareen S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated wellness policies created by Alabama public school districts and progress made in the implementation of Alabama State Department of Education (ALSDE) school food and nutrition mandates. Methods: Wellness policies from Alabama public school districts were compared to minimum requirements under the Child Nutrition…

  17. Alabama Student Assistance Program. Third Annual Report. 1977-78. Academic Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    The Alabama Student Assistance Program, a state/federal cooperative aid program to provide financial assistance to residents of the State of Alabama for undergraduate postsecondary education at institutions within the State of Alabama, is described in this annual report for the 1977-78 academic year. A total of 15,710 applications for aid were…

  18. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  19. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  20. Current water resources activities in Alabama, fiscal year 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, L.J.; Meadows, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current (as of 1986) water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alabama. The responsibilities and objectives of the Survey; organization of the Alabama District; sources of funding; current projects; hydrologic data program; and a selected bibliography of hydrologic reports are presented. Water resources projects are undertaken usually at the request of and with partial funding from another agency, provided: they are high priority problems and generally identified to fall within the mission of the Water Resources Division and they are consistent with the Program Management Plan developed by the Water Resources Division in Alabama to meet the long range plan for hydrologic data in the State. (USGS)

  1. ATM Coastal Topography-Alabama 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that

  2. A comprehensive solar energy system analysis data base in Huntsville, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The history of a comprehensive solar energy system analysis data base developed by NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama is presented, along with its current status. The Marshall Information Retrieval and Data Storage (MIRADS) system was chosen for the data base, and feedback systems were arranged to cope with changes in the needs of the program management for the type of data gathered. The final structure of the data base consists of 22 files divided into 6 topical sections: summaries, climatological, utility rates, architectural, equipment, and economics. The data base offers help to the solar industry in two ways: it provides information and it serves as a model for users trying to establish the climatic and socioeconomic variables they should take into account when they examine a potential market for solar energy equipment.

  3. Integrated Distribution Management System for Alabama Principal Investigator

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, Joe

    2013-03-31

    Southern Company Services, under contract with the Department of Energy, along with Alabama Power, Alstom Grid (formerly AREVA T&D) and others moved the work product developed in the first phase of the Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) from “Proof of Concept” to true deployment through the activity described in this Final Report. This Project – Integrated Distribution Management Systems in Alabama – advanced earlier developed proof of concept activities into actual implementation and furthermore completed additional requirements to fully realize the benefits of an IDMS. These tasks include development and implementation of a Distribution System based Model that enables data access and enterprise application integration.

  4. Oak Park Middle School and General Electric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Anita

    1987-01-01

    Describes a partnership between Oak Park Middle School in Decatur, Alabama, and the General Electric Company that features the use of the quality circle approach. Not only were teachers, administrators, and parents organized into school quality circles, but students also formed quality circles to solve problems at the school. (CH)

  5. Perception of Alabama Science and Career Technology Teachers Concerning Teaching the Alabama Aquaculture Course of Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, David John

    The purpose of this study was to improve teachers' ability to effectively use aquaculture as a tool to teach math and science. The study population included Alabama science and career tech teachers that were certified to teach the Alabama aquaculture course of study. The teachers were electronically surveyed regarding their perceptions of the importance of the aquascience elective and aquaculture science course content standards, their knowledge of those topics and how they perceived the quality of available teaching materials. While all of the content standards were rated above average in importance, aquaculture career awareness and safety concerns were rated the highest by teachers. Teachers were most knowledgeable about career opportunities, categorization of aquaculture species, and the adaptations of aquatic organisms. The average materials ratings were below average for all content standards. The highest rated materials were for career opportunities, categorization of species and safety topics. Using Borich's (1980) model of mean weighted discrepancy scores, the control of diseases and pests in the aquatic environment and concepts associated with health management of aquacrops were identified as top priorities for in-service teacher training. Aquaculture industry infrastructure and the effects of the fishing industry were also identified as priority training topics. Teachers were self-divided into 3 categories those that taught science (SCI), career tech (CTE) and those that taught both (BOTH). They were further divided by their level of experience. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed a significant effect between teacher types but there was no significant interaction effect between (a) teacher type and experience level or (b) the two levels of experience. A follow-up analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the science teachers thought significantly less of the available materials than either the CTE or BOTH groups.

  6. Identification, virulence, and mass spectrometry of toxic ECP fractions of West Alabama isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila obtained from a 2010 disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Song, Lin; Zhang, Dunhua; Kojima, Kyoko; Mobley, James A

    2013-06-28

    In West Alabama, disease outbreaks in 2009 caused by Aeromonas hydrophila have led to an estimated loss of more than $3 million. In 2010, disease outbreak occurred again in West Alabama, causing losses of hundreds of thousands of pounds of market size channel catfish. During the 2010 disease outbreak in West Alabama, four isolates of A. hydrophila were cultured from the kidney tissues of diseased channel catfish. Both analytical profile index (API) 20 E biochemical tests and 16S-23S rRNA sequencing results confirmed the four isolates as A. hydrophila. Virulence studies revealed that the four isolates were highly virulent to channel catfish by intraperitoneal injection, with LD50 value of ≈ 1.3 × 10(5)CFU/fish. Extracellular proteins (ECPs) of A. hydrophila are well known to be toxic to fish. Therefore, ECPs of the four 2010 West Alabama isolates of A. hydrophila were characterized in this study. The ECPs of the four 2010 isolates were found to be toxic to channel catfish fingerlings, with LD50 value of 16 μg/fish. Thirty ECP fractions were obtained from the ECPs of the 2010 isolates of A. hydrophila by cation-exchange chromatography, of which nine fractions were found to be toxic to catfish gill cells and channel catfish fingerlings. Mass spectrometry identified 228 proteins from the nine toxic fractions, of which 23 were shared by toxic fractions, including well known virulence factors such as hemolysin, aerolysin, elastase (metalloprotease), nuclease, and 5'-nucleotidase. Hemolytic activity, protease activity, and nuclease activity of the four isolates were found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of a reference A. hydrophila strain AL98-C1B. Our results might shed light on the possible virulence factors of the highly virulent West Alabama isolates of A. hydrophila.

  7. Smoking, Sociodemographic Determinants, and Stress in the Alabama Black Belt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuaib, Faisal; Foushee, H. R.; Ehiri, John; Bagchi, Suparna; Baumann, Angela; Kohler, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In the Alabama Black Belt, poverty is high, and the educational level is low. Studies have found increased tobacco use among individuals exposed to high levels of stress. Few studies have been conducted in this region to measure smoking status, its sociodemographic determinants, and how smoking status relates to stressful environmental…

  8. 76 FR 31388 - Alabama Disaster Number AL-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Only for the State of Alabama (FEMA--1971--DR), dated 04/28/2011 . Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, straight-line winds, and flooding. Incident Period: 04/15/2011 and continuing. Effective Date: 05/20/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 06/27/2011 Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline...

  9. 76 FR 34121 - Alabama Disaster Number AL-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Only for the State of Alabama (FEMA-1971-DR), dated 04/28/2011. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes, straight-line winds, and flooding. Incident Period: 04/15/2011 through 05/31/2011. Effective Date: 05/31... continuing through 05/31/2011. All other information in the original declaration remains unchanged....

  10. 76 FR 28842 - Alabama Disaster Number AL-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... disaster for the State of Alabama (FEMA-1971-DR), dated 04/28/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 04/15/2011 and continuing. Effective Date: 05/06/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 06/27/2011. Eidl Loan Application Deadline Date:...

  11. Day Care Training in Alabama: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddowes, E. Anne; Martin, Kathleen

    This study reports information gathered from 82 of the 1,056 child care workers who participated in the Alabama Statewide Day Care Training Project, the first comprehensive training program for child care providers in the state. The project sponsored training workshops in four regions of the state and included correspondence study as an option.…

  12. 12. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of U.S. 11 N of Epes Southern RR. lift span, wide angle side view from SE. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  13. 9. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of U.S. 11 N of Epes Southern RR. lift span, view from S approach. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  14. 10. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Just N of U.S. 11 of Epes Wouthern RR. lift span, wide=angle view from SW. bank. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  15. Alabama Public Library Service Library Directory and 1996 Statistical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

    This publication presents library contact information and statistics for Alabama public libraries for fiscal year 1996 (October 1, 1995-September 30, 1996). The library directory is arranged by type of library: public libraries, single-county public library systems, multi-county public library systems, and multitype library systems. Entries…

  16. Training Teachers to Use Technology: The Alabama Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Anna C.; Johnson, Eddie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the need for teacher training in media use and describes a plan developed in Alabama consisting of a three-course sequence in technology for teacher education that can be incorporated into a master's degree program. Required primary computer skills and primary instructional design skills are listed. (Contains three references.) (LRW)

  17. Three Alabama Teen Parent Programs: Perspectives from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Cynthia Ivey

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many programs that concentrate on reducing the overall rate of teen pregnancy, there are few programs designed to assist teen parents. The purpose of this study was to determine how and to what extent three teen parenting programs in Alabama met the needs of teen parents with a positive environment and assisted them in…

  18. Retention Issues: A Study of Alabama Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plash, Shawn; Piotrowski, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated issues that impact attrition, migration and retention of special education teachers in Alabama. The sample comprised 70 teachers designated as "highly-qualified" who responded to a job satisfaction instrument, with a focus on retention issues, developed by Levine (2001). The results indicated that the major reasons for…

  19. 76 FR 27139 - Alabama Disaster Number AL-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S... INFORMATION: The notice of the Presidential disaster declaration for the State of Alabama, dated 04/28/2011 is..., Jackson, Limestone, Madison, Morgan, Washington, Winston. Contiguous Counties: (Economic Injury Loans...

  20. 75 FR 2882 - Alabama; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Alabama; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  1. Alabama and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Alabama's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  2. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Alabama. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater,…

  3. Back to the Basics: Birmingham, Alabama, Measurement and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Lockwood, Catherine M.; Handley, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    "Back to the Basics: Birmingham, Alabama" is the fourth in a series of workshops that focus on teaching foundational map reading and spatial differentiation skills. It is the second published exercise from the Back to the Basics series developed by the Wetland Education through Maps and Aerial Photography (WETMAAP) Program (see "Journal of…

  4. Cardboard Houses with Wings: The Architecture of Alabama's Rural Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botz-Bornstein, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    The Rural Studio, an outreach program of Auburn University, designs innovative houses for poor people living in Alabama's Hale County by using "junk" such as car windshields, carpet tiles, baled cardboard, and old license plates. The article theorizes this particular architecture in terms of Critical Regionalism, developed by Tzonis/Lefaivre and…

  5. Parables and Politics: Clergy Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickersham, Mary Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…

  6. Exceptional Child Education in Alabama: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Greg

    The monograph describes the progress that has been made in exceptional child education in Alabama during the last decade and addresses needed areas of improvement. Brief sections focus on the following items: financing special education programs, instructional programing in local education agencies, individualized education plans, diagnosis of…

  7. 77 FR 29924 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Alabama River, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR... modify the operating schedule that governs the Meridian and Bigbee Railroad (MNBR) swing span bridge.... C. Basis and Purpose The MNBR swing span bridge crosses the Alabama River at mile 205.9, at...

  8. 77 FR 57022 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Alabama River, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Sec. Section Symbol U.S.C... Register (77 FR 29924). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested, and... governing the Meridian and Bigbee Railroad (MNBR) swing span bridge across the Alabama River at...

  9. Foraminifera from Paleocene Clayton Formation lithostratotype, Barbour Count, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Fluegeman, R.H. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    A detailed search of the Clayton lithostratotype for microfossils has produced the first significant foraminifera fauna from the section and only the second occurrence of foraminifera in the Clayton Formation in eastern Alabama. The fauna is well preserved, but low in abundance and diversity; all assemblages are dominated by species of Anomalinoides. No planktonic species were identified in the studied samples. The benthic assemblages bear little resemblance to the more diverse foraminifera faunas of the Pine Barren and McBryde Members of the Clayton in western Alabama. The fauna from the Clayton lithostratotype closely resembles an assemblage collected from a sand unit within the middle part of the Porters Creek Formation of Butler County, Alabama. Biostratigraphic information is presently unavailable for the Clayton Formation in eastern Alabama; therefore, the authors cannot determine whether the Clayton and Porters Creek are time-equivalent units. However, occurrences of like foraminiferal assemblages imply equivalent paleoecologic conditions, and similarities in lithology are found between the Clayton Formation at its stratotype and the Porters Creek in Butler County, both of which indicate that both units represent the same depositional aspect of the early Paleocene transgressive-regressive cycle.

  10. Floods of July 1956 in Clarke County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peirce, L.B.

    1957-01-01

    A weak tropical disturbance formed just off the coast of Alabama on July 5, 1956. Moving inland over the southeastern part of the State, the storm produced heavy rains on the 7th and the morning of the 8th before it dissipated and moved out toward the north.

  11. The Alabama Space and Rocket Center: The Second Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckbee, Edward O.

    1983-01-01

    The Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, the world's largest rocket and space museum, includes displays illustrating American rocket history, exhibits and demonstrations on rocketry principles and experiences, and simulations of space travel. A new project includes an integrated recreational-educational complex, described in the three…

  12. Alabama State Lodging Tax: A Lesson for All Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieckmann, Amy

    2003-01-01

    A dispute between an Alabama business conference center and a nearby camp prompted the state's revenue department to charge camps an old lodging tax that had never been applied to them before. The state camping association members worked together to have the tax law and regulations amended so that nonprofit camps were exempt from the tax in most…

  13. Statistical Abstract: Higher Education in Alabama, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    This report provides data and reference information on Alabama's public institutions of higher education and private universities and colleges. After an institutional data summary (public four-year institutions, public two-year institutions, and private institutions), the first section examines current enrollment data (e.g., general…

  14. Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Annual Report 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    Activities of the Alabama State Commission on Higher Education are described. Three sections discuss the following: (1) planning and coordination activities (unified budget recommendation, statewide planning process, research and service program inventory, new program approval, off-campus instruction, non-resident institutional review, conference…

  15. Agribusiness Education. Alabama Course of Study. Bulletin 1990, No. 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This course of study provides a framework for the content of a program in agribusiness education as part of the Alabama vocational education program. The course of study was designed to assist educators in developing and maintaining high quality vocational programs and to ensure uniformity of vocational programs. Following a description of the…

  16. 77 FR 8942 - Alabama Disaster Number AL-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster Number AL-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E....

  17. The Social Stratification of /aI/ in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, L. Ben

    This study is a sociolinguistic analysis of the variant pronunciation of /aI/, a selected phonological variable, by white informants in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Through a purposive sampling procedure, 56 informants were interviewed to determine their pronunciation of /aI/. Informants were ranked according to education, income, and occupation to…

  18. Arts Education. Alabama Course of Study. Bulletin 1998, No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This curriculum guide provides the framework for K-12 arts education program in Alabama's public schools. Content standards in the guide are minimum and required, and fundamental and specific but not exhaustive. School systems may include additional content standards and add implementation guidelines, resources, and/or activities. In response to…

  19. Aeromonas hydrophila: Observations of the Alabama industry in 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2009, the Alabama catfish industry experienced widespread mortality from infection by the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. As soon as pond water temperatures warmed above 26 degrees centigrade (80 degrees fahrenheit) in 2010, epidemics have again occurred across the industry. This talk, which is a...

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning after hurricane Katrina--Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi, August-September 2005.

    PubMed

    2005-10-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall on August 29, 2005, on the Gulf Coast of the United States, causing loss of life, widespread property damage, and power outages. After hurricanes, some residents use portable generators and other gasoline-powered appliances for electrical power and cleanup. These devices produce carbon monoxide (CO), and improper use can cause CO poisoning. During August 29-September 24, a total of 51 cases of CO poisoning were reported by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) facilities in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. This report describes these cases and the rapidly implemented reporting system that identified them. CO poisoning can be prevented by reducing exposure to CO through appropriate placement and ventilation of gasoline-powered engines.