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Sample records for alachlor metolachlor atrazine

  1. Comparative sensitivity of five species of macrophytes and six species of algae to atrazine, metribuzin, alachlor, and metolachlor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, James F.; Ruessler, Shane; Carlson, A. Ron

    1998-01-01

    This study determined the relative sensitivity of five species of aquatic macrophytes and six species of algae to four commonly used herbicides (atrazine, metribuzin, alachlor, and metolachlor). Toxicity tests consisted of 96-h (duckweed and algae) or 14-d (submerged macrophytes) static exposures. The triazine herbicides (atrazine and metribuzin) were significantly more toxic to aquatic plants than were the acetanilide herbicides (alachlor and metolachlor). Toxicity studies ranked metribuzin > atrazine > alachlor > metolachlor in decreasing order of overall toxicity to aquatic plants. Relative sensitivities of macrophytes to these herbicides decreased in the order of Ceratophyllum > Najas > Elodea > Lemna > Myriophyllum. Relative sensitivities of algae to herbicides decreased in the order of Selenastrum > Chlorella > Chlamydomonas > Microcystis > Scenedesmus > Anabaena. Algae and macrophytes were of similar overall sensitivities to herbicides. Data indicated that Selenastrum, a commonly tested green alga, was generally more sensitive compared to other plant species. Lemna minor, a commonly tested floating vascular plant, was of intermediate sensitivity, and was fivefold less sensitive than Ceratophyllum, which was the most sensitive species tested. The results indicated that no species was consistently most sensitive, and that a suite of aquatic plant test species may be needed to perform accurate risk assessments of herbicides.

  2. Simultaneous determination of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, and simazine in water and soil by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.Q.

    1989-03-01

    A multiresidue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of low parts per billion (ppb) concentrations of the herbicides alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, and simazine in water and soil using isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Known amounts of /sup 15/N,/sup 13/C-alachlor and /sup 2/H/sub 5/-atrazine were added to each sample as internal standards. The samples were then prepared by a solid phase extraction with no further cleanup. A high resolution GC/low resolution MS system with data acquisition in selected ion monitoring mode was used to quantitate herbicides in the extract. The limit of detection was 0.05 ppb for water and 0.5 ppb for soil. Accuracy greater than 80% and precision better than 4% was demonstrated with spiked samples.

  3. Biodegradation of the acetanilide herbicides alachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor.

    PubMed

    Stamper, D M; Tuovinen, O H

    1998-01-01

    Alachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor are detoxified in biological systems by the formation of glutathione-acetanilide conjugates. This conjugation is mediated by glutathione-S-transferase, which is present in microorganisms, plants, and mammals. Other organic sulfides and inorganic sulfide also react through a nucleophilic attack on the 2-chloro group of acetanilide herbicides, but the products are only partially characterized. Sorption in soils and sediments is an important factor controlling the migration and bioavailability of these herbicides, while microbial degradation is the most important factor in determining their overall fate in the environment. The biodegradation of alachlor and metolachlor is proposed to be only partial and primarily cometabolic, and the ring cleavage seems to be slow or insignificant. Propachlor biodegradation has been reported to proceed to substantial (> 50%) mineralization of the ring structure. Reductive dechlorination may be one of the initial breakdown mechanisms under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic and anaerobic transformation products vary in their polarity and therefore in soil binding coefficient. A catabolic pathway for chloroacetanilide herbicides has not been presented in the literature because of the lack of mineralization data under defined cultural conditions.

  4. Metolachlor and alachlor breakdown product formation patterns in aquatic field mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, W.H.; Graham, D.W.; DeNoyelles, F.; Smith, V.H.; Larive, C.K.; Thurman, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The transformation of metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)- N-(2-methoxy-1-methyl)ethyl)acetamide] and alachlor [2-chloro-N-(2,6- diethylphenyl)-N-methoxymethyl)acetamide] in aquatic systems was investigated using outdoor tank mesocosms. Metolachlor and alachlor levels and their ethane sulfonic acid (ESA) and oxanillic acid breakdown products were monitored over time under five experimental treatments (each in quadruplicate). Background water conditions were identical in all treatments with each treatment differing based on the level and type(s) of herbicide present. Treatments included a noherbicide control, 10 ??g/L metolachlor, 25 ??g/L metolachlor, 25 ??g/L alachlor, and 25 ??g/L alachlor plus 25 ??g/L metolachlor in combination. The experiment was initiated by adding herbicide(s) to the units to the target concentrations; herbicide and breakdown product levels and other chemical parameters were then monitored for 85 days. In general, metolachlor half-lives were longer than alachlor half-lives under all treatments, although the differences were not statistically significant. Metolachlor half-lives (??95% confidence limits) ranged from 33.0 d (??14.1 d) to 46.2 d (??40.0 d), whereas alachlor half- lives ranged from 18.7 d (??3.5 d) to 21.0 d (??6.5 d) for different treatments. Formation patterns of ESA were similar in all treatments, whereas oxanillic acid formation differed for the two herbicides. Alachlor oxanillic acid was produced in larger quantities than metolachlor oxanillic acid and either ESA under equivalent conditions. Our results suggest that the transformation pathways for alachlor and metolachlor in aquatic systems are similar and resemble the acetochlor pathway in soils proposed by Feng (Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 1991, 34, 136); however, the oxanillic acid branch of the pathway is favored for alachlor as compared with metolachlor.The transformation of metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N- (2-methoxy-1-methylethy

  5. Formation and transport of the sulfonic acid metabolites of alachlor and metolachlor in soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    Alachlor and metolachlor are dechlorinated and transformed into their corresponding ethane sulfonic acid (ESA) metabolites in soil. In a field-disappearance study, it was shown that alachlor ESA was formed at a faster rate and at concentrations 2-4 times higher than metolachlor ESA, conforming with the observed longer disappearance half-life of metolachlor (15.5 d) in the field as compared to alachlor (8 d). Runoff data also showed higher concentrations of alachlor ESA as compared to metolachlor ESA, even though they were applied at the same levels. Data from soil cores showed transport of the ESA compounds in soil to as far down as 75-90 cm below the surface, at concentrations ranging from less than 0.5 ??g/L to about 50 ??g/L. In contrast, no parent herbicide was detected at these depths. This observation correlates with the higher log KOC values for alachlor (3.33) and metolachlor (3.01) relative to their corresponding ESA metabolites, alachlor ESA (2.26), and metolachlor ESA (2.29).

  6. Biodegradation and mineralization of metolachlor and alachlor by Candida xestobii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metolachlor (2-chloro-6’-ethyl-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) aceto-o-toluidide) is a pre-emergent chloroacetanilide herbicide used to control broadleaf and annual grassy weeds in a variety of crops. The S enantiomer of metolachlor, S-metolachlor, is the most effective form for weed control. While the ...

  7. Atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine in a large agricultural river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schottler, S.P.; Eisenreich, Steven J.; Capel, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Atrazine, alachlor, and cyanazine exhibited maximum concentrations of about 1000-6000 ng/L in the Minnesota River in 1990 and 1991, resulting from precipitation and runoff following the application period. Transport of these herbicides to the river occurs via overland flow or by infiltration to tile drainage networks. Suspended sediment, SO42-, and Cl- concentrations were used as indicators of transport mechanisms. The atrazine metabolite, DEA, was present in the river throughout the year. The ratio of DEA to atrazine concentration was used to calculate an apparent first-order soil conversion rate of atrazine to DEA. Half lives of 21-58 d were calculated for 1990 and 1991, respectively. The longer conversion rate in 1991 results from rapid flushing from the soil and minimum exposure to soil microorganisms. Total flux of herbicide to the river was 1-6.5 t, with over 60% of this loading occurring during the month of June. Loading to the river accounts for less than 1.5% of applied herbicide. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  8. Potential impacts of seasonal variation on atrazine and metolachlor persistence in andisol soil.

    PubMed

    Jaikaew, Piyanuch; Boulange, Julien; Thuyet, Dang Quoc; Malhat, Farag; Ishihara, Satoru; Watanabe, Hirozumi

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the potential effect of seasonal variation on the fate of herbicides in andisol soil, atrazine and metolachlor residues were investigated through the summer and winter seasons during 2013 and 2014 under field condition. The computed half-lives of atrazine and metolachlor in soil changed significantly through the two seasons of the trial. The half-lives were shorter in summer season with 16.0 and 23.5 days for atrazine and metolachlor, respectively. In contrast, the half-lives were longer during the winter season with 32.7 and 51.8 days for atrazine and metolachlor, respectively. The analysis of soil water balance suggested that more pesticide was lost in deeper soil layers through infiltration in summer than in winter. In addition, during the summer season, metolachlor was more likely to leach into deeper soil layer than atrazine possibly due to high water solubility of metolachlor.

  9. Relative mobilities of atrazine, atrazine degradates, metolachlor, and simazine in five soils from Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, J.R.; Kruger, E.L.; Beilei Zhu

    1995-12-31

    The relative mobilities of atrazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, didealkylatrazine, hydroxyatrazine, ammeline, metolachlor and simazine were determined in soils from five locations in Iowa by soil thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Surface (0 to 30 cm) and subsurface (65 to 90 cm) soils taken from Ames, Treynor, Fruitland, Nashua, and Chariton were used to make soil TLC plates. Uniformly ring-labeled {sup 14}C chemicals were spotted on plates which were then developed by ascending chromatography using water as the solvent. Preliminary results from Ames, Treynor, and Fruitland soils indicate four groups based on relative mobilities. Deethylatrazine was the most mobile compound studied. The intermediate mobility group included atrazine, didealkylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. The less mobile group included metolachlor and simazine, however, metolachlor was, in some soils, in the intermediate mobility group. The immobile group included ammeline and hydroxyatrazine. Additional results from Nashua and Chariton soils, as well as correlations of mobility with soil characteristics will also be presented.

  10. Field-scale mobility and persistence of commercial and stargh-encapusulated atrazine and alachlor

    SciTech Connect

    Gish, T.J.; Shirmohammadi, A.; Wienhold, B.J.

    1994-03-01

    Recent laboratory studies have shown that starch-encapsulation (SE) may reduce leachate losses of certain pesticides. This study compares field-scale mobility and persistence of SE-atrazine [2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine] and alachlor [2-chloro-N(2,6 diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide] to that of a commerciall formulation (CF) of atrazine and alachlor. The research site consisted of four (0.25 ha) fields. Two fields were under no-tillage management (NT) and two were under conventional tillage (CT). One field in each tillage system received SE-formulated atritzine and alachlor, while the others received CF-atrazine and alachlor. Chemical movement and persistence was determined by analysis of surface samples ({approximately}3 cm) taken immediately after application and 1.1-m soil cores collected seven times over 2 yr. No significant difference in herbicide residue levels was observed between NT and CT, but there was a herbicide formulation effect. Soil residue analysis suggests that SE-atrazine was more persistent and less mobile than CF-atrazine. Starch- encapsulated-alachlor was slightly more persistent than CF-alachlor, but no differences in mobility between formulations was observed. The differential field behavior between SE-herbicides is attributed to the faster release of alachlor from the starch granules. Increased atrazine persistence was attributed to the reduction of leachate losses. The reduction in atrazine leaching is likely due to the slow release from the starch granules and subsequent diffusion into the son matrix where it is less subject to preferential flow processes. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, s-metolachlor and permethrin to Typha latifolia (Linneaus) germination and seedling growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytotoxicity assessments were performed to compare responses of Typha latifolia (L.) seeds to atrazine (only) and atrazine + S-metolachlor exposure concentrations of 0.03, 0.3, 3, and 30 mg L-1, as well as permethrin exposure concentrations of 0.008, 0.08, 0.8, and 8 mg L-1. All atrazine + S-metol...

  12. Cytogenetic effects of alachlor and/or atrazine in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, L.F.; Roloff, B.D. ); Belluck, D.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cytogenetic effects of two commonly used herbicides, alachlor and atrazine, which are often found together in groundwater. Chromosome damage was examined in bone marrow cells of mice drinking water containing 20 ppm alachlor and/or 20 ppm atrazine, with an immunosuppressive dose of cyclophosphamide used as a positive control. Chromosome damage was also quantified in human lymphocytes. The in vitro study demonstrated dose related cytogenetic damage not associated with mitotic inhibition or cell death, with damage due to the alachlor-atrazine combination suggesting an additive model. The fact that the elevated mitotic index was associated with immune suppresion in the cyclophosphamide group suggests that death of cells with accumulated chromosomal aberrations resulted in increased bone marrow proliferation, so a higher fraction of cells examined were newer with less damage.

  13. Metolachlor and atrazine fate in surface water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.J.; Anderson, T.A.; Coats, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    The detection of pesticides in surface water and ground water provokes concern involving human health risks associated with pesticide exposure. Monitoring studies of surface waters have detected concentrations of herbicides that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contamination level (MCL) for drinking water. Conventional water treatment processes do not remove many herbicides. Tap water drawn from surface-water sources has been reported to contain levels of herbicides above the regulatory limits. There is current interest in the use of artificial wetlands and macrophyte-cultured ponds in waste-water-treatment systems. Aquatic plant-based water treatment systems improve waste water effluent by solid filtration and nutrient assimilation. Various aquatic plants have been shown to accumulate metals, absorb inorganic ions, and accelerate the biodegradation of complex organics. Our research evaluates the fate of metolachlor and atrazine in surface water, surface water/sediment, and surface water/aquatic plant incubation systems to study the influence of sediment and aquatic plants in the removal and biotransformation of herbicides from contaminated waters. Aquatic macrophyte systems may prove to be useful in the remediation of herbicide contaminated surface waters in water treatment facilities or in the reduction of herbicide concentrations from tile drain effluents prior to entering watersheds.

  14. Alachlor

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Alachlor ; CASRN 15972 - 60 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  15. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural field. For the first 5 years, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(1-methyl...

  16. Effects of Atrazine, Metolachlor, Carbaryl and Chlorothalonil on Benthic Microbes and Their Nutrient Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Daniel; Bernot, Melody J.

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, metolachlor, carbaryl, and chlorothalonil are detected in streams throughout the U.S. at concentrations that may have adverse effects on benthic microbes. Sediment samples were exposed to these pesticides to quantify responses of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate uptake by the benthic microbial community. Control uptake rates of sediments had net remineralization of nitrate (−1.58 NO3 µg gdm−1 h−1), and net assimilation of phosphate (1.34 PO4 µg gdm−1 h−1) and ammonium (0.03 NH4 µg gdm−1 h−1). Metolachlor decreased ammonium and phosphate uptake. Chlorothalonil decreased nitrate remineralization and phosphate uptake. Nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate uptake rates are more pronounced in the presence of these pesticides due to microbial adaptations to toxicants. Our interpretation of pesticide availability based on their water/solid affinities supports no effects for atrazine and carbaryl, decreasing nitrate remineralization, and phosphate assimilation in response to chlorothalonil. Further, decreased ammonium and phosphate uptake in response to metolachlor is likely due to affinity. Because atrazine target autotrophs, and carbaryl synaptic activity, effects on benthic microbes were not hypothesized, consistent with results. Metolachlor and chlorothalonil (non-specific modes of action) had significant effects on sediment microbial nutrient dynamics. Thus, pesticides with a higher affinity to sediments and/or broad modes of action are likely to affect sediment microbes' nutrient dynamics than pesticides dissolved in water or specific modes of action. Predicted nutrient uptake rates were calculated at mean and peak concentrations of metolachlor and chlorothalonil in freshwaters using polynomial equations generated in this experiment. We concluded that in natural ecosystems, peak chlorothalonil and metolachlor concentrations could affect phosphate and ammonium by decreasing net assimilation, and nitrate uptake rates by decreasing remineralization

  17. Effectiveness of Integrated Best Management Practices on Mitigation of Atrazine and Metolachlor in an Agricultural Lake Watershed.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, Richard; Locke, Martin; Bingner, Ronald; Steinriede, R Wade; Smith, Sammie

    2017-04-01

    The study examined the influence of land-use (cropping patterns) and integrated agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on spring herbicide levels in an agricultural watershed. Atrazine and metolachlor were applied for weed control during spring of 1998-2002, 2005, and 2007-2013. Watershed-wide mass of applied herbicides ranged from 12.7 to 209.2 g atrazine and 10.9-302.2 g metolachlor with greatest application during 1998, 2009-2010 (atrazine) and 2007-2013 (metolachlor). Spring herbicide concentrations in Beasley Lake water ranged from below detection to 3.54 μg atrazine/L and 3.01 μg metolachlor/L. Multiple linear regression analyses with cropping patterns, BMPs, rainfall and time as independent variables, showed atrazine applications were associated with increases in cotton acreage and quail buffer, while metolachlor applications increased over time. Multiple linear regressions showed lake atrazine concentrations were associated with conservation tillage, rainfall, and corn, while lake metolachlor concentrations were associated with the cumulative metolachlor application and sediment retention pond installation.

  18. Aqueous-phase disappearance of atrazine, metolachlor, and chlorpyrifos in laboratory aquaria and outdoor macrocosms.

    PubMed

    Mazanti, L; Rice, C; Bialek, K; Sparling, D; Stevenson, C; Johnson, W E; Kangas, P; Rheinstein, J

    2003-01-01

    Dissipation processes are described for a combination of commonly used pesticides-atrazine (6-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino- s-triazine), metolachlor (2-chloro- N-[2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl]- N-[2-methoxy-1-methylethyl] acetamide), and chlorpyrifos ( O-O diethyl O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl] phosphorothioate)-in a laboratory and outdoor pond systems. Dosing rates and timing were designed to duplicate those common in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA. Treatments ranged from 2 and 2.5 mg/L to 0.2 and 0.25 mg/L respectively for atrazine and metolachlor, and chlorpyrifos was added at 1.0 and 0.1 mg/L in the aquaria and at 0.1 mg/L in the outdoor macrocosms. Chlorpyrifos disappearance was rapid in all of the systems and followed a two-phase sequence. Initial half-lives varied from 0.16 day to 0.38 day and showed similar rates in the aquaria and the outdoor systems. The second phase of the chlorpyrifis loss pattern was slower (18-20 days) in all the treatments except for the low herbicide treatment in the outdoor test, where it was 3.4 days. Compared to the outdoor system, herbicide losses were much slower in the aquaria, e.g., 150 days for atrazine and 55 days for metolachlor, and no appreciable loss of herbicide was apparent in the high-treated aquaria. In the outdoor systems, the half-lives for the low herbicide treatment were 27 days and 12 days, respectively, for atrazine and metolachlor, and 48 and 20 days, respectively for the high herbicide-treated pond. Very low levels of CIAT (6-amino-2-chloro-4-iso-propylamino- s-triazine) and CEAT (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-ethylamino- s-triazine), degradation products of atrazine, were observed in the outdoor studies.

  19. Aqueous-phase disappearance of atrazine, metolachlor, and chlorpyrifos in laboratory aquaria and outdoor macrocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazanti, L.; Rice, C.; Bialek, K.; Sparling, D.; Stevenson, C.; Johnson, W.E.; Kangas, P.; Rheinstein, J.

    2003-01-01

    Dissipation processes are described for a combination of commonly used pesticides--atrazine (6-chloro-4--ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), metolachlor (2-chloro-N-[2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl]-N-[2-methoxy-l-methylethyl] acetamide), and chlorpyrifos (O-O diethyl O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl] phosphorothioate)--in a laboratory and outdoor pond systems. Dosing rates and timing were designed to duplicate those common in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA. Treatment ranged from 2 and 2.5 mg/L to 0.2 and 0.25 mg/L respectively for atrazine and metolachlor, and chlorpyrifos was added at 1.0 and 0.1 mg/L in the aquaria and at 0.1 mg/L in the outdoor macrocosms. Chlorpyrifos disappearance was rapid in all of the systems and followed a two-phase sequence. Initial half-lives varied from 0.16 da), to 0.38 day and showed similar rates in the aquaria and the outdoor systems. The second phase of the chlorpyrifos loss pattern was slower (18-20 days) in all the treatments except for the low herbicide treatment in the outdoor test, where it was 3.4 days. Compared to the outdoor system, herbicide losses were much slower in the aquaria, e.g., 150 days for atrazine and 55 days for metolachlor, and no appreciable loss of herbicide was apparent in the high-treated aquaria. In the outdoor systems, the half-lives for the low herbicide treatment were 27 days and 12 days, respectively, for atrazine and metolachlor, and 48 and 20 days, respectively for the high herbicide-treated pond. Very low levels of CIAT (6-amino-2-chloro-4-iso-propylamino-s-triazine) and CEAT (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine), degradation products of atrazine, were observed in the outdoor studies.

  20. Transport of Alachlor, Atrazine, Dicamba, and Bromide through Silt and Loam Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindall, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The herbicides alachlor, atrazine, and dicamba, as well as bromide were applied to soils overlying the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska, to both macropore and non-macropore sites. Three of 6 study areas (exhibiting a high percentage of macropores) were used for analysis of chemical transport. Twelve intact soil cores (30 cm diameter; 40 cm height), were excavated (two each from 0-40 cm and 40-80 cm depths). The first three study areas and soil cores were used to study preferential flow characteristics using dye staining and to determine hydraulic properties; the remaining cores were treated the same as field macropore sites. Two undisturbed experimental field plots, each with a 1 m2 surface area, were established in each of the three macropore study areas. Each preferential plot was instrumented with suction lysimeters, tensiometers, and neutron access tubes - 10 cm increments to 80 cm - and planted in corn. Three study areas that did not exhibit macropores had alachlor, atrazine, and dicamba and bromide disked into the top 15 cm of soil; concentrations were tracked for 120 days - samples were collected on a grid, distributed within 3 plots measuring 50 m x 50 m each. Core samples were collected prior to and immediately after application, and then at 30, 60, and 120 days after application. Each lab core sample was in 15-cm lengths from 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 45-60 cm, and 75-90 cm. For areas exhibiting macropores, herbicides had begun to move between 10-15 days after application with concentrations peaking at various depths after heavy rainfall events. Field lysimeter samples showed increases in concentrations of herbicides at depths where laboratory data indicated greater percentages of preferential flowpaths. Concentrations of atrazine, alachlor and dicamba exceeding 0.30, 0.30, and 0.05 μg m1-1 respectively were observed with depth (10-30 cm and 50-70 cm) after two months following heavy rainfall events indicating that preferential flowpaths were a significant

  1. RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

  2. Adsorption-desorption of metolachlor and atrazine in Indian soils: effect of fly ash amendment.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rakesh K; Singh, Neera

    2013-02-01

    The effect of two fly ashes as soil amendment on the adsorption-desorption of metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylphenyl)] and atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) was studied in alluvial and laterite soils. The adsorption data for both the herbicides fitted well the Freundlich equation, and Freundlich adsorption coefficient (K (f)) increased with an increase of fly ash amount. Both the fly ashes differed in their extent to increase herbicide sorption, and the effect was different in different soils. Atrazine was sorbed more in the soils/soils + fly ash mixtures than the metolachlor. The K (f) values showed significant correlation with the amount of fly ash amendment (correlation coefficient, R > 0.982). The desorption isotherms also fitted the Freundlich equation, and desorption showed hysteresis which increased with an increase in the content of fly ash amendment. The free energy change (ΔG) indicated that the sorption process is exothermic, spontaneous, and physical in nature. The study has shown that fly ash as soil amendment significantly increased the sorption of metolachlor and atrazine, but the effect is soil- and fly ash-specific.

  3. Atrazine and metolachlor occurrence in shallow ground water of the United States, 1993 to 1995: Relations to explanatory factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Barbash, J.E.; Gilliom, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to determine the quality of the Nation's water resources. In an effort to obtain a better understanding of why pesticides are found in shallow ground water on a national scale, a set of factors likely to affect the fate and transport of two herbicides in the subsurface were examined. Atrazine and metolachlor were selected for this discussion because they were among the most frequently detected pesticides in ground water during the first phase of the NAWQA Program (1993 to 1995), and each was the most frequently detected compound in its chemical class (triazines and acetanilides, respectively). The factors that most strongly correlated with the frequencies of atrazine detection in shallow ground-water networks were those that provided either: (1) an indication of the potential susceptibility of ground water to atrazine contamination, or (2) an indication of relative ground-water age. The factors most closely related to the frequencies of metolachlor detection in ground water, however, were those that estimated or indicated the intensity of the agricultural use of metolachlor. This difference is probably the result of detailed use estimates for these compounds being available only for agricultural settings. While atrazine use is relatively extensive in nonagricultural settings, in addition to its widespread agricultural use, metolachlor is used almost exclusively for agricultural purposes. As a result, estimates of agricultural applications provide a less reliable indication of total chemical use for atrazine than for metolachlor. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors of interest explained about 50 percent of the variance in atrazine and metolachlor detection frequencies among the NAWQA land-use studies examined. The inclusion of other factors related to pesticide fate and transport in ground water, or improvements in the quality and

  4. Metolachlor

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Metolachlor ; CASRN 51218 - 45 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Effects of an atrazine, metolachlor, and fipronil mixture on Hyalella azteca (Saussure) in a modified backwater wetland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the toxicity mitigation efficiency of a hydrologically modified backwater wetland amended with a mixture of three pesticides, atrazine, metolachlor, and fipronil, using 96 h survival bioassays with Hyalella azteca. Significant H. azteca 96 h mortality occurred within the first two hours...

  6. Relation of Landscape Position and Irrigation to Concentrations of Alachlor, Atrazine, and Selected Degradates in Regolith in Northeastern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Lewis, D.T.; McCallister, D.L.; Parkhurst, A.; Thurman, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of alachlor, its ethanesulfonic acid degradate, atrazine and its degradates, deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, in the upper regolith and associated shallow aquifers were determined in relation to landscape position (floodplains, terraces, and uplands) and irrigation (nonirrigated and irrigated corn cropland) in 1992. Irrigated and nonirrigated sites were located on each landscape position. Samples were collected from three depths. Canonical discriminant and multivariate analyses were used to interpret data. Herbicides and their degradation products tended to be present in soils with high percent organic matter, low pH, and low sand content. Atrazine was present more frequently on the floodplain at all depths than the other compounds. Atrazine (maximum 17.5 ??g/kg) and ethanesulfonic acid (maximum 10 ??g/kg) were associated with landscape position, but not with irrigation. Alachlor (maximum 24 ??g/kg), deethylatrazine (maximum 1.5 ??g/kg), and deisopropylatrazine (maximum 3.5 ??g/kg) were not significantly associated with either landscape position or irrigation. Ground-water analytical results suggested that concentrations of these herbicides and degradates in ground water did not differ among landscape position or between irrigated and nonirrigated corn cropland.

  7. Sorption of acetochlor, S-metolachlor, and atrazine in surface and subsurface soil horizons of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bedmar, Francisco; Daniel, Peter E; Costa, José L; Giménez, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Understanding herbicide sorption within soil profiles is the first step to predicting their behavior and leaching potential. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the influence of surface and subsurface soil properties on acetochlor, atrazine, and S-metolachlor sorption. Soil samples were taken from horizons A, B, and C of two loamy soils of the humid pampas of Argentina under no-till management; horizon A was divided into two layers, A(0) (0-5 cm) and A(1) (5 cm to the full thickness of an A horizon). Sorption isotherms were determined from each sampled horizon using the batch equilibrium method and seven concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg L(-1)). Sorption affinity of herbicides was approximated by the Freundlich equation. The sorption strength K(f) (mg(1 - 1/n) kg(-1) L(1/n) ) over the soils and horizons studied followed the order S-metolachlor (16.51-29.19) > atrazine (4.85-12.34) ≥ acetochlor (5.17-11.97), which was closely related to the hydrophobicity of herbicides expressed as octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW) ). The K(f) values of the three herbicides were positively correlated with soil organic carbon, with a significance of p < 0.01. Values of K(f) for the three herbicides decreased with depth in the two soils, indicating greater sorption onto surficial soil horizons and possibly a delayed transport toward subsurface soils and subsequent pollution of groundwater.

  8. Effects of an atrazine, metolachlor and fipronil mixture on Hyalella azteca (Saussure) in a modified backwater wetland.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, Richard E; Knight, Scott S; Shields, F Douglas; Bryant, Charles T

    2009-12-01

    We examined the toxicity mitigation efficiency of a hydrologically modified backwater wetland amended with a pesticide mixture of atrazine, metolachlor, and fipronil, using 96 h survival bioassays with Hyalella azteca. Significant H. azteca 96 h mortality occurred within the first 2 h of amendment at the upstream amendment site but not at any time at the downstream site. H. azteca survival varied spatially and temporally in conjunction with measured pesticide mixture concentrations. Hyalella azteca 96 h survival pesticide mixture effects concentrations ranges were 10.214–11.997, 5.822–6.658, 0.650–0.817, and 0.030–0.048 μg L−1 for atrazine, metolachlor, fipronil, and fipronil-sulfone, respectively.

  9. Screening for the Pesticides Atrazine, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Metolachlor, and Simazine in Selected Michigan Streams, March-November 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2007-01-01

    From March through November 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), did a statewide screening to aid in understanding the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides in Michigan streams. Stream-water samples were collected from 23 sites throughout Michigan. In all, 320 water samples were analyzed by use of rapid immunoassay methods for the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and simazine and the insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. On one occasion (June, 2005), atrazine concentrations exceeded the Michigan water-quality value (7.3 micrograms per liter) at the Black River in St. Clair County. Neither chlorpyrifos nor diazinon was detected during April through September. MDEQ detected chlorpyrifos in streams throughout the state in November. Herbicide concentrations were highest in samples influenced by intensive agriculture; however, median herbicide concentrations were similar among agricultural and urban sites. Concentrations of herbicides were very low to undetected in undeveloped areas. Seasonal patterns were also evident during the sampling period. Increased concentrations generally occurred in late spring to early summer. At 11 sites, daily sampling was done every day for 5 days following a rainfall after herbicide application in the area. Substantial changes in concentrations of herbicides - greater than tenfold from the previous day - were observed during the daily sampling. No consistent relation was found between concentration and streamflow. Results of this study may be used to aid in the development of a more comprehensive pesticide monitoring study for the State of Michigan.

  10. Phytoremediation of the herbicides atrazine and metolachlor by transgenic rice plants expressing human CYP1A1, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Sakiko; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ohkawa, Yasunobu

    2006-04-19

    This study evaluated the expression of human cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19 in rice plants (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare) introduced using the plasmid pIKBACH. The transgenic rice plants (pIKBACH rice plants) became more tolerant toward various herbicides than nontransgenic Nipponbare rice plants. Rice plants expressing pIKBACH grown in soil showed tolerance to the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and norflurazon and to a mixture of the three herbicides. The degradation of atrazine and metolachlor by pIKBACH rice plants was evaluated to confirm the metabolic activity of the introduced P450s. Although both pIKBACH and nontransgenic Nipponbare rice plants could decrease the amounts of the herbicides in plant tissue and culture medium, pIKBACH rice plants removed greater amounts in greenhouse experiments. The ability of pIKBACH rice plants to remove atrazine and metolachlor from soil was confirmed in large-scale experiments. The metabolism of herbicides by pIKBACH rice plants was enhanced by the introduced P450 species. Assuming that public and commercial acceptance is forthcoming, pIKBACH rice plants may become useful tools for the breeding of herbicide-tolerant crops and for phytoremediation of environmental pollution by organic chemicals.

  11. Spatial variability of atrazine and metolachlor dissipation on dryland no-tillage crop fields in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An area of interest in precision farming is variable rate application of herbicides to optimize herbicide use efficiency and minimize negative off-site and non-target effects. Two commonly used soil applied herbicides in dryland corn production are atrazine (6-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-isopropylamin...

  12. Comparison of fate and transport of isoxaflutole to atrazine and metolachlor in 10 Iowa rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, M.T.; Scribner, E.A.; Kalkhoff, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Isoxaflutole (IXF), a newer low application rate herbicide, was introduced for weed control in corn (Zea mays) to use as an alternative to widely applied herbicides such as atrazine. The transport of IXF in streamwater has not been well-studied. The fate and transport of IXF and two of its degradation products was studied in 10 Iowa rivers during 2004. IXF rapidly degrades to the herbicidally active diketonitrile (DKN), which degrades to a biologically inactive benzoic acid (BA) analogue. IXF was detected in only four, DKN in 56, and BA in 43 of 75 samples. The concentrations of DKN and BA were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than those of the commonly detected triazine and acetamide herbicides and their degradation products. Concentrations of IXF, DKN, and BA were highest during the May through June postplanting period. The concentration ratio of BA/DKN was similar to the deethylatrazine/atrazine ratio with smaller ratios occurring during May and June. The relative temporal variation of DKN and BA was similar to that observed for atrazine and deethylatrazine. This study shows that low application rate herbicides can have similar temporal transport patterns in streamwater as compared to more widely applied herbicides but at lower concentrations.

  13. Effects of realistic doses of atrazine, metolachlor, and glyphosate on lipid peroxidation and diet-derived antioxidants in caged honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Helmer, Stephanie Hedrei; Kerbaol, Anahi; Aras, Philippe; Jumarie, Catherine; Boily, Monique

    2015-06-01

    The decline in the population of pollinators is a worrying phenomenon worldwide. In North America, the extensive use of herbicides in maize and soya crops may affect the health of nontarget organisms like the honey bee. In this study, caged honey bees were exposed to realistic doses of atrazine, metolachlor, and glyphosate for 10 days via contaminated syrup. Peroxidation of lipids was evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) test, and diet-derived antioxidants-carotenoids, all-trans-retinol (at-ROH) and α-tocopherol-were detected and quantified using reversed-phase HPLC techniques. Significant increases in syrup consumption were observed in honey bees exposed to metolachlor, and a lower TBARS value was recorded for the highest dose. No relationship was observed between the peroxidation of lipids and the levels of antioxidants. However, β-carotene, which was found to be the most abundant carotenoid, and at-ROH (derived from β-carotene) both decreased with increasing doses of atrazine and glyphosate. In contrast, metolachlor increased levels of at-ROH without any effects on β-carotene. These results show that the honey bee carotenoid-retinoid system may be altered by sublethal field-realistic doses of herbicides.

  14. A High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Based Screening Method for the Analysis of Atrazine, Alachlor, and Ten of Their Transformation Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroyer, B.R.; Capel, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    A high-performance liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method is presented for the for the fast, quantitative analysis of the target analytes in water and in low organic-carbon, sandy soils that are known to be contaminated with the parent herbicides. Speed and ease of sample preparation was prioritized above minimizing detection limits. Soil samples were extracted using 80:20 methanol:water (volume:volume). Water samples (50 ??L) were injected directly into the HPLC without prior preparation. Method quantification limits for soil samples (10 g dry weight) and water samples ranged from 20 to 110 ng/g and from 20 to 110 ??g/L for atrazine and its transformation products and from 80 to 320 ng/g and from 80 to 320 ??g/L for alachlor and its transformation products, respectively.

  15. Does S-Metolachlor Affect the Performance of Pseudomonas sp. Strain ADP as Bioaugmentation Bacterium for Atrazine-Contaminated Soils?

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Cristina A.; Costa, Catarina; André, Sandra; Viana, Paula; Ribeiro, Rui; Moreira-Santos, Matilde

    2012-01-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) and S-metolachlor (S-MET) are two herbicides widely used, often as mixtures. The present work examined whether the presence of S-MET affects the ATZ-biodegradation activity of the bioaugmentation bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP in a crop soil. S-MET concentrations were selected for their relevance in worst-case scenarios of soil contamination by a commercial formulation containing both herbicides. At concentrations representative of application of high doses of the formulation (up to 50 µg g−1 of soil, corresponding to a dose approximately 50× higher than the recommended field dose (RD)), the presence of pure S-MET significantly affected neither bacteria survival (∼107 initial viable cells g−1 of soil) nor its ATZ-mineralization activity. Consistently, biodegradation experiments, in larger soil microcosms spiked with 20× or 50×RD of the double formulation and inoculated with the bacterium, revealed ATZ to be rapidly (in up to 5 days) and extensively (>96%) removed from the soil. During the 5 days, concentration of S-MET decreased moderately to about 60% of the initial, both in inoculated and non-inoculated microcosms. Concomitantly, an accumulation of the two metabolites S-MET ethanesulfonic acid and S-MET oxanilic acid was found. Despite the dissipation of almost all the ATZ from the treated soils, the respective eluates were still highly toxic to an aquatic microalgae species, being as toxic as those from the untreated soil. We suggest that this high toxicity may be due to the S-MET and/or its metabolites remaining in the soil. PMID:22615921

  16. Mineralization of the s-triazine ring of atrazine by stable bacterial mixed cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Mandelbaum, R T; Wackett, L P; Allan, D L

    1993-01-01

    Enrichment cultures containing atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) at a concentration of 100 ppm (0.46 mM) as a sole nitrogen source were obtained from soils exposed to repeated spills of atrazine, alachlor, and metolachlor. Bacterial growth occurred concomitantly with formation of metabolites from atrazine and subsequent biosynthesis of protein. When ring-labeled [14C]atrazine was used, 80% or more of the s-triazine ring carbon atoms were liberated as 14CO2. Hydroxyatrazine may be an intermediate in the atrazine mineralization pathway. More than 200 pure cultures isolated from the enrichment cultures failed to utilize atrazine as a nitrogen source. Mixing pure cultures restored atrazine-mineralizing activity. Repeated transfer of the mixed cultures led to increased rates of atrazine metabolism. The rate of atrazine degradation, even at the elevated concentrations used, far exceeded the rates previously reported in soils, waters, and mixed and pure cultures of bacteria. PMID:8328795

  17. Atrazine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Atrazine ; CASRN 1912 - 24 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  18. Probability of detecting atrazine/desethyl-atrazine and elevated concentrations of nitrate in ground water in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Draft Federal regulations may require that each State develop a State Pesticide Management Plan for the herbicides atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and simazine. Maps were developed that the State of Colorado could use to predict the probability of detecting atrazine and desethyl-atrazine (a breakdown product of atrazine) in ground water in Colorado. These maps can be incorporated into the State Pesticide Management Plan and can help provide a sound hydrogeologic basis for atrazine management in Colorado. Maps showing the probability of detecting elevated nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (nitrate) concentrations in ground water in Colorado also were developed because nitrate is a contaminant of concern in many areas of Colorado. Maps showing the probability of detecting atrazine and(or) desethyl-atrazine (atrazine/DEA) at or greater than concentrations of 0.1 microgram per liter and nitrate concentrations in ground water greater than 5 milligrams per liter were developed as follows: (1) Ground-water quality data were overlaid with anthropogenic and hydrogeologic data using a geographic information system to produce a data set in which each well had corresponding data on atrazine use, fertilizer use, geology, hydrogeomorphic regions, land cover, precipitation, soils, and well construction. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Relations were observed between ground-water quality and the percentage of land-cover categories within circular regions (buffers) around wells. Several buffer sizes were evaluated; the buffer size that provided the strongest relation was selected for use in the logistic regression models. (3) Relations between concentrations of atrazine/DEA and nitrate in ground water and atrazine use, fertilizer use, geology, hydrogeomorphic regions, land cover, precipitation, soils, and well-construction data were evaluated, and several preliminary multivariate models with various

  19. METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR ALACHLOR ESA AND OTHER ACENTANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Acetanilide herbicides are frequently applied in the U.S. on crops (corn, soybeans, popcorn, etc.) to control broadleaf and annual weeds. The acetanilide and acetamide herbicides currently registered for use in the U.S. are alachlor, acetochlor, metolachlor, propa...

  20. Phytoremediation of metolachlor by transgenic rice plants expressing human CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Sakiko; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ohkawa, Yasunobu

    2005-11-16

    We introduced the human cytochrome P450 gene CYP2B6 into rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare), and the CYP2B6-expressing rice plants became more tolerant to various herbicides than nontransgenic Nipponbare rice plants. In particular, CYP2B6 rice plants grown in soil showed tolerance to the chloroacetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor. We evaluated the degradation of metolachlor by CYP2B6 rice plants to confirm the metabolic activity of the introduced CYP2B6. Although both CYP2B6 and nontransgenic Nipponbare rice plants could decrease the amount of metolachlor in plant tissue and culture medium, CYP2B6 rice plants could remove much greater amounts. In a greenhouse, the ability of CYP2B6 rice plants to remove metolachlor was confirmed in large-scale experiments, in which these plants appeared able to decrease residual quantities of metolachlor in water and soil.

  1. Water Quality Conditions at Tributary Projects in the Omaha District: 2006 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    pesticide scan (GCMS) includes: acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, benfluralin, butylate, chlorpyrifos , cyanazine, cycloate, EPTC, hexazinone...Immunoassay analysis. **** The pesticide scan (GCMS) includes: acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, benfluralin, butylate, chlorpyrifos , cyanazine...alachlor, atrazine, benfluralin, butylate, chlorpyrifos , cyanazine, cycloate, EPTC, hexazinone, isopropalin, metribuzin, metolachlor, molinate, oxadiazon

  2. Occurrence of alachlor and its sulfonated metabolite in rivers and reservoirs of the midwestern United States: The importance of sulfonation in the transport of chloroacetanilide herbicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Goolsby, D.A.; Aga, D.S.; Pomes, M.L.; Meyer, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    Alachlor and its metabolite, 2-[(2',6'-diethylphenyl)- (methoxymethyl)amino]-2-oxoethanesulfonate (ESA), were identified in 76 reservoirs in the midwestern United States using immunoassay, liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The median concentration of ESA (0.48 ??g/L) exceeded the median concentration of alachlor (<0.05 ??g/L), with highest values in the upper Midwest. ESA also was detected in the Mississippi River from the mouth to the headwaters at concentrations of 0.2-1.5 ??g/L, exceeding the concentration of alachlor. In a field runoff study, alachlor rapidly formed ESA. It is hypothesized that a glutathione conjugate forms, which later oxidizes in soil to ESA. The removal of the chlorine atom lessens the toxicity of the parent compound and increases runoff potential. It is hypothesized further that sulfonic acid metabolites of other chloroacetanilides, including acetochlor, butachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor, also occur in surface water.

  3. Improving alachlor biodegradability by ferrate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Hang; Yan, Xi-Luan; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Bao

    2006-07-31

    Alachlor can be recalcitrant when present at high concentrations in wastewater. Ferrate oxidation was used as a pretreatment to improve its biodegradability and was evaluated by monitoring alachlor elimination and removal of COD(Cr) (chemical oxygen demand determined by potassium dichromate) during the oxidation process up to a value compatible with biological treatment. Ferrate oxidation resulted in elimination of alachlor followed by degradation of its intermediates. High pH suppressed alachlor removal and COD(Cr) removal due to the low redox potential of ferrate ions. Although alachlor can be totally eliminated within 10 min under optimized conditions (alachlor, 40 mg l(-1); ferrate:alachlor molar ratio, 2; and pH 7.0), its complete mineralization cannot be achieved by ferrate oxidation alone. Alachlor solution treated by ferrate for 10 min inhibited an up-flow biotreatment with activated sludge. The biodegradability of ferrate-pretreated solution improved when the treatment was increased to 20 min, at the point of which BOD(5)/COD(Cr) ratio of the treated solution was increased to 0.87 from 0.35 after 10 min treatment. Under optimized conditions, ferrate oxidation for 20 min resulted in total elimination of alachlor, partial removal of COD(Cr) and the ferrate-treated solution could be effectively treated by the up-flow activated sludge process.

  4. Comparative toxicity of racemic metolachlor and S-metolachlor to Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Xiong, Mingyu

    2009-06-28

    The toxicity of the chiral herbicides rac-metolachlor and S-metolachlor to Chlorella pyrenoidosa was determined and compared in this study, based on four different test endpoints: the growth inhibition rate, the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b concentration, the catalase activity, and the ultrastructural morphology of cells. The 24, 48, 72, and 96h EC(50) values of rac-metolachlor were 0.196, 0.241, 0.177 and 0.152mgL(-1), respectively; these values were higher than those of S-metolachlor, which were 0.116, 0.106, 0.081 and 0.068mgL(-1), respectively. This indicates that S-metolachlor was more toxic to C. pyrenoidosa than rac-metolachlor. The Chla and Chlb concentration of C. pyrenoidosa treated by rac-metolachlor was higher than that treated by S-metolachlor. In general, the catalase activity of C. pyrenoidosa treated by S-metolachlor was higher than that exposed to rac-metolachlor, and catalase activity was inhibited at high concentrations of both herbicides. The ultrastructural morphology of cells grown in the two herbicides was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The cell wall separated from the cell membrane, accumulated starch granules were observed in the chloroplast, and some lipid droplets and unknown electron-opaque deposits were also observed in the cytoplasm. The mechanism of the toxicity of rac- and S-metolachlor toxicity to C. pyrenoidosa was explored, and the enantioselective toxicity of rac- and S-metolachlor to C. pyrenoidosa was determined. These results will help to develop an understanding of the biologically mediated environmental processes of rac- and S-metolachlor.

  5. Metolachlor stereoisomers: Enantioseparation, identification and chiral stability.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingqian; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhao, Lu; Tang, Qiaozhi; Liu, Kai; Liu, Weiping

    2016-09-09

    Metolachlor is a chiral herbicide consisting of four stereoisomers, which is typically used as a racemic mixture or is enriched with the herbicidally active 1'S-isomers. Because studies on the enantioselective behavior of phyto-biochemical processes and the environmental fate of metolachlor have become significant, a practical method for analyzing and separating metolachlor stereoisomers must be developed. In the present study, the enantiomeric separation of metolachlor was achieved using OD-H, AS-H, OJ-H and AY-H chiral columns. The effects of different organic modifiers in an n-hexane-based mobile phase were investigated, and various temperatures and flow rates, which may influence metolachlor separation, were also explored. The optimal resolution was obtained using an AY-H column with n-hexane/EtOH (96/4) as the mobile phase at a rate and temperature of 0.6mLmin(-1) and 25°C, respectively. The absolute configuration of the four stereoisomers was identified as αSS, αRS, αSR, αRR using computed and experimentally measured ECD and VCD spectra. Thermal interconversion and solvent stability experiments were also performed. Pure metolachlor stereoisomers in different organic solvents and water at 4°C or 30°C were stable. These results were used to establish a sound method for analyzing, preparing, characterizing, and preserving individual metolachlor stereoisomers in most natural environments.

  6. Enantioselectivity of racemic metolachlor and S-metolachlor in maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fei; Liu, Hui J; Cai, Wei D

    2010-11-01

    Chiral herbicides may have enantioselective effects on plants. In this study, we assessed and compared the enantioselectivity of the chiral herbicides rac-metolachlor and S-metolachlor to maize seedlings. The superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) activity of roots and stem leaves treated by rac-metolachlor was 1.38 and 1.99 times that of roots and stem leaves treated by S-metolachlor. The peroxidase activity (POD) activity of roots and stem leaves was 1.48 and 2.79 times that of roots and stem leaves treated by S-metolachlor, respectively, while the catalase activity (CAT) activity was 4.77 and 8.37 times greater, respectively. The Hill reaction activity of leaves treated by rac-metolachlor were 1.45, 1.33, and 1.14 times those treated by S-metolachlor with treatments of 18.6, 37.2, and 74.4 μM. The differences observed between treatments of rac- and S-metolachlor were significant. Significant differences in maize seedling morphology were also observed between rac- and S-metolachlor treatments. The degradation rate of S-metolachlor in roots was greater than that of rac-metolachlor. The half-lives of rac- and S-metolachlor were 80.6 and 60.3 h at 18.6 μM; 119.5 and 90 h at 37.2 μM; and 169 and 164.8 h at 74.4 μM, respectively. Using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method, hydroxymetolachlor, deschlorometolachlor and deschlorometolachlor propanol were considered to be possible metabolites. We determined the enantioselective toxicity of rac- and S-metolachlor to maize and speculated on the proposed metabolic pathway of metolachlor in maize roots. These results will help to develop an understanding of the proper application of rac- and S-metolachlor in crops, and give some information for environmental safety evaluation of rac- and S-metolachlor.

  7. Indicators: Atrazine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Atrazine is an herbicide widely used for control of broadleaf and grassy weeds. It is sprayed on row crops such as corn, sorghum and sugarcane, and in some areas is used on residential lawns. It also been used on highway and railroad rights-of-way.

  8. Atrazine - Background and Updates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide that can be applied before and after planting to control broadleaf and grassy weeds. Atrazine is part of the triazine chemical class which includes simazine and propazine due to their common mechanism of toxicity.

  9. 40 CFR 180.249 - Alachlor; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., calculated as alachlor in or on the following raw agricultural commodities. Commodity Parts per million Beans, dry 0.1 Beans, succulent lima 0.1 Cattle, fat 0.02 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.02 Cattle, meat 0.02...

  10. 40 CFR 180.249 - Alachlor; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., calculated as alachlor in or on the following raw agricultural commodities. Commodity Parts per million Beans, dry 0.1 Beans, succulent lima 0.1 Cattle, fat 0.02 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.02 Cattle, meat 0.02...

  11. 40 CFR 180.249 - Alachlor; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., calculated as alachlor in or on the following raw agricultural commodities. Commodity Parts per million Beans, dry 0.1 Beans, succulent lima 0.1 Cattle, fat 0.02 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.02 Cattle, meat 0.02...

  12. 40 CFR 180.249 - Alachlor; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., calculated as alachlor in or on the following raw agricultural commodities. Commodity Parts per million Beans, dry 0.1 Beans, succulent lima 0.1 Cattle, fat 0.02 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.02 Cattle, meat 0.02...

  13. Evaluation of mortality and cancer incidence among alachlor manufacturing workers.

    PubMed Central

    Acquavella, J F; Riordan, S G; Anne, M; Lynch, C F; Collins, J J; Ireland, B K; Heydens, W F

    1996-01-01

    Alachlor is the active ingredient in a family of preemergence herbicides. We assessed mortality rates from 1968 to 1993 and cancer incidence rates from 1969 to 1993 for manufacturing workers with potential alachlor exposure. For workers judged to have high alachlor exposure, mortality from all causes combined was lower than expected [23 observed, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.4-1.0], cancer mortality was similar to expected (6 observed, SMR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.3-1.6), and there were no cancer deaths among workers with 5 or more years high exposure and 15 or more years since first exposure (2.3 expected, SMR = 0, 95% CI, 0-1.6). Cancer incidence for workers with high exposure potential was similar to the state rate [18 observed, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.2, 95% CI, 0.7-2.0], especially for workers exposed for 5 or more years and with at least 15 years since first exposure (4 observed, SIR = 1.0, 95% CI, 0.3-2.7). The most common cancer for these latter workers was colorectal cancer (2 observed, SIR 3.9, 95% CI, 0.5-14.2 among workers). Despite the limitations of this study with respect to small size and exposure estimating, the findings are useful for evaluating potential alachlor-related health risks because past manufacturing exposures greatly exceeded those characteristic of agricultural operations. These findings suggest no appreciable effect of alachlor exposure on worker mortality or cancer incidence rates during the study period. PMID:8841758

  14. Metolachlor and its metabolites in tile drain and stream runoff in the canajoharie creek watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Wall, G.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Eckhardt, D.A.; Vanhoesen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples collected during April-November 1997 from tile drains beneath cultivated fields in central New York indicate that two metabolites of the herbicide metolachlor-metolachlor ESA (ethanesulfonic acid) and OA (oxanilic acid) can persist in agricultural soils for 4 or more years after application and that fine-grained soils favor the transport of metolachlor ESA over metolachlor and metolachlor OA. Concentrations of metolachlor ESA from the tile drains ranged from 3.27 to 23.4 ??g/L (200 1800 times higher than those of metolachlor), metolachlor OA concentrations ranged from 1.14 to 13.5 ??g/L, and metolachlor concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.1 ??g/L. In the receiving stream, concentrations of metolachlor ESA were always below 0.6 ??g/L except during a November storm, when concentrations reached 0.85 ??g/L. Concentrations of metolachlor ESA in the stream were 2 45 times higher than those of metolachlor, reflecting the greater relative concentrations of metolachlor in surface water runoff than in tile drain runoff. These results are consistent with findings in other studies that acetanilide herbicide degredates are found in much higher concentrations than parent compounds in both surface water and groundwater.Water samples collected during April-November 1997 from tile drains beneath cultivated fields in central New York indicate that two metabolites of the herbicide metolachlor-metolachlor ESA (ethanesulfonic acid) and OA (oxanilic acid)-can persist in agricultural soils for 4 or more years after application and that fine-grained soils favor the transport of metolachlor ESA over metolachlor and metolachlor OA. Concentrations of metolachlor ESA from the tile drains ranged from 3.27 to 23.4 ??g/L (200-1800 times higher than those of metolachlor), metolachlor OA concentrations ranged from 1.14 to 13.5 ??g/L, and metolachlor concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 to 0.1 ??g/L. In the receiving stream, concentrations of metolachlor ESA were

  15. KINETICS OF ALACHLOR TRANSFORMATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF METABOLITES UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS. (R825549C037)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alachlor is one of the two most commonly used herbicides in the United States. In the environment, little mineralization of this compound has been found to occur, and metabolites of alachlor may be formed and could accumulate. The objectives of this study were to determine the...

  16. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatilization of pesticides can detrimentally affect the environment by contaminating soil and surface waters far away from where the pesticides were applied. A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural f...

  17. Mitigation of atrazine, S-metolachlor, and diazinon using common aquatic emergent vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on current population rates, by the year 2050, the population of the United States will reach over 418 million, while the global population will reach 9.6 billion. To continue providing safe food and fiber for this population increase, agriculture must balance the mixture of natural resources...

  18. Enantioselective toxicity of metolachlor to Scenedesmus obliquus in the presence of cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui J; Cai, Wei D; Huang, Ruo N; Xia, Hui L; Wen, Yue Z

    2012-02-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) possess a variety of chiral centers and are capable of recognizing enantiomeric molecules through the formation of inclusion complexes. Two types of CDs, α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), were selected to evaluate the effects of the enantioselective ecotoxicity of racemic metolachlor (Rac-metolachlor) and its S-enantiomer (S-metolachlor) on the freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) by acute toxicity test. The results showed that the aquatic toxicity of S-metolachlor was higher than Rac-metolachlor and that CDs enhanced the toxicity of metolachlor enantioselectively by increasing the aquatic toxicity of Rac-metolachlor rather than that of S-metolachlor to S. obliquus. The equilibrium constant for Rac-metolachlor-CD complexes was higher than that of S-metolachlor-CDs, which was responsible for the greater aquatic toxicity shift effect of Rac-metolachlor. Thermodynamic studies of CD complexes showed that inclusion for all of the complexes was primarily a spontaneous, enthalpy-driven process. These results will help to understand the preliminary mechanism of shifting aquatic toxicity of metolachlor by CDs and the CDs mediated environmental processes of metolachlor, to correctly apply CDs to chiral pesticides formulation and environmental remediation of chiral contaminants.

  19. Temperature dependence of Henry's law constants of metolachlor and diazinon.

    PubMed

    Feigenbrugel, Valérie; Le Calvé, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe

    2004-10-01

    A dynamic system based on the water/air equilibrium at the interface within the length of a microporous tube has been used to determine experimentally the Henry's law constants (HLC) of two pesticides: metolachlor and diazinon. The measurements were conducted over the temperature range 283-301 K. At 293 K, HLCs values are (42.6+/-2.8) x 10(3) (in units of M atm(-1)) for metolachlor and (3.0+/-0.3)x10(3) for diazinon. The obtained data were used to derive the following Arrhenius expressions: HLC=(3.0+/-0.4) x 10(-11) exp((10,200+/-1,000)/T) for metolachlor and (7.2+/-0.5) x 10(-15) exp((11,900+/-700)/T) for diazinon. At a cumulus cloud temperature of 283 K, the fractions of metolachlor and diazinon in the atmospheric aqueous phase are about 57% and 11% respectively. In order to evaluate the impact of a cloud on the atmospheric chemistry of both studied pesticides, we compare also their atmospheric lifetimes under clear sky (tau(gas)), and cloudy conditions (tau(multiphase)). The calculated multiphase lifetimes (in units of hours) are significantly lower than those in gas phase at a cumulus temperature of 283 K (in parentheses): metolachlor, 0.4 (2.9); diazinon, 1.9 (5.0).

  20. [Toxicity effects of Rac- and S-metolachlor on two algaes].

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei-Dan; Liu, Hui-Jun; Fang, Zhi-Guo

    2012-02-01

    The enantioselective toxicity of the chiral herbicides Rac- and S-metolachlor to Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris was determined, and the effect of humic acid was studied by using acute toxicity testing method. The results indicated that the toxicity of Rac- and S-metolachlor increased with increasing concentration and exposure time. The EC(50, 96 h) ratio of Rac-metolachlor to S-metolachlor was 2.25 for C. vulgaris and 1.81 for S. obliquus, indicating that S-metolachlor had higher effect on two algaes, and S. obliquus was more sensitive to Rac- and S-metolachlor. Linear correlation between toxicity on S. obliquus and C. vulgaris was observed. The toxicity of Rac- and S-metolachlor changed with humic acid, with more significant change was observed in S-metolachlor (P<0.05).

  1. Storm flow export of metolachlor from a coastal plain watershed.

    PubMed

    Watts, D W; Novak, J M; Johnson, M H; Stone, K C

    2000-03-01

    During an 18-month (1994-1995) survey of the surface water in an Atlantic Coastal Plain watershed, metolachlor was most frequently detected during storm flow events. Therefore, a sampling procedure, focused on storm flow, was implemented in June of 1996. During 1996, three tropical cyclones made landfall within 150 km of the watershed. These storms, as well as several summer thunderstorms, produced six distinct storm flow events within the watershed. Metolachlor was detected leaving the watershed during each event. In early September, Hurricane Fran produced the largest storm flow event and accounted for the majority of the metolachlor exports. During the storm event triggered by Hurricane Fran, the highest daily average flow (7.5 m2 s-1) and highest concentration (5.1 micrograms L-1) ever measured at the watershed outlet were recorded. Storm flow exports leaving the watershed represented 0.1 g ha-1 or about 0.04% of active ingredient applied.

  2. Enantioselective binding interaction of the metolachlor pesticide enatiomers with bovine serum albumin - A spectroscopic analysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yongnian; Zhang, Fangyuan; Kokot, Serge

    2012-11-01

    Enantioselective binding interaction of the pesticides, metolachlor (RAC-metolachlor) and its S-enantiomer (S-metolachlor), with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Both RAC- and S-metolachlors quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via a static mechanism, and various binding parameters indicated that electrostatic forces were involved in the binding of both of these compounds. Site marker competitive experiments demonstrated that S-metolachlor bound to site I of BSA, while R-metolachlor bound to site II, indicating the importance of enantiomeric factors for binding site selection. Further experiments showed that S-metolachlor had a higher binding affinity to BSA than R-metolachlor. The obtained spectral data were resolved with use of the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares method (MCR-ALS), and the extracted concentration profiles of the reacting species in the interaction were obtained. These profiles indicated that S-metolachlor was the main active constituent of RAC-metolachlor for binding with BSA, and these findings have significant implications in providing an explanation why S-metolachlor is the preferred herbicide in practice than RAC-metolachlor.

  3. Chiral separation of metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid as a groundwater dating tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have studied the hydrologic fate of metolachlor and its two predominant metabolites, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid, in groundwater and base flows of streams for several years. These two metabolites are excellent markers for groundwater processes related to...

  4. Using chiral identification of metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid as a groundwater dating tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have studied the hydrologic fate of metolachlor and its two predominant metabolites, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid, in groundwater and base flows of streams for several years. These two metabolites are excellent markers for groundwater processes related to...

  5. Dissipation and leaching of pyroxasulfone and s-metolachlor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyroxasulfone dissipation and mobility in the soil was evaluated and compared to S-metolachlor in 2009 and 2010 at two field sites in northern Colorado, on a Nunn fine clay loam, and Olney fine sandy loam soil. Pyroxasulfone dissipation half-life (DT50) values varied from 47 to 134 d, and those of S...

  6. Effects of soil type upon metolachlor losses in subsurface drainage.

    PubMed

    Novak, S M; Portal, J M; Schiavon, M

    2001-01-01

    A field experiment at La Bouzule (Lorraine, France) investigated metolachlor movement to subsurface drains in two soil types, a silt loam and a heavy clay soil, under identical agricultural management practices and climatic conditions. Drainage volumes and concentrations of metolachlor in the soil plough layer and drainwater were monitored after herbicide application from May 1996 to February 1997, and from May to August 1998. Total losses in drainwater were 0.08% and 0.18% of the amount applied to the silt loam compared with 0.59% and 0.41% for the clay soil, in 1996/97 and 1998, respectively. In 1996/97, 32% of total metolachlor loss from the silt loam and 91% from the clay soil occurred during the spring/summer period following treatment. Peak concentrations were 18.5 and 171.6 microg l(-1) for the silt loam and 130.6 and 395.3 microg l(-1) for the clay soil during the spring/summer periods of 1996/97 and 1998, respectively. During the autumn/winter period, concentrations did not exceed 2.2 microg l(-1) for the silt loam and 2.6 microg l(-1) for the clay soil. The experimental results indicate that metolachlor losses in drainwater were primarily caused by preferential flow (macropore flow) which was greater in the clay soil than in the silt loam, and occurring mainly during the spring/summer periods.

  7. 77 FR 48902 - S-Metolachlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... physical, chemical, and fate/transport characteristics of S-metolachlor. Further information regarding EPA... Model/Exposure Analysis Modeling System (PRZM/ EXAMS) Screening Concentration in Ground Water (SCI-GROW... chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe.'' Section...

  8. Biodegradation of Metolachlor by Soil Bacteria and Yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metolachlor (2-chloro-6’-ethyl-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) aceto-o-toluidide) is a pre-emergent chloroacetanilide herbicide used to control broadleaf and annual grassy weeds of corn, soybean, peanuts, sorghum, potatoes, cotton, and woody ornamental plants. It has been estimated that 15-24 and 20-24 ...

  9. The Metolachlor Herbicide: An Exercise in Today's Stereochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannschreck, Albrecht; von Angerer, Erwin

    2009-01-01

    Metolachlor is one of the most widely used agents registered for the protection of many cultivated plants against weeds. Because of axial and central chirality, this molecule forms four stereoisomers, the investigation of which by [superscript 1]H NMR and chromatography is described. It is shown that the isomers do not interconvert at room…

  10. A reconnaissance study of herbicides and their metabolites in surface water of the midwestern united states using immunoassay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, Thurman E.; Goolsby, D.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Mills, M.S.; Pomes, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Preemergent herbicides and their metabolites, particularly atrazine, deethylatrazine, and metolachlor, persisted from 1989 to 1990 in the majority of rivers and streams in the midwestern United States. In spring, after the application of herbicides, the concentrations of atrazine, alachlor, and simazine were frequently 3-10 times greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL). The concentration of herbicides exceeded the MCLs both singly and in combination. Two major degradation products of atrazine (deisopropylatrazine and deethylatrazine) also were found in many of the streams. The order of persistence of the herbicides and their metabolites in surface water was atrazine > deethylatrazine > metolachlor > alachlor > deisopropylatrazine > cyanazine. Storm runoff collected at several sites exceeded the MCL multiple times during the summer months as a function of stream discharge, with increased concentrations during times of increased streamflow. It is proposed that metabolites of atrazine may be used as indicators of surface-water movement into adjacent alluvial aquifers.

  11. Identification of a new sulfonic acid metabolite of metolachlor in soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.; Yockel, M.E.; Zimmerman, L.R.; Williams, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    An ethanesulfonic acid metabolite of metolachlor (metolachlor ESA) was identified in soil-sample extracts by negative-ion, fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) and FAB tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-MS/MS). Production fragments from MS/MS analysis of the deprotonated molecular ion of metolachlor ESA in the soil extract can be reconciled with the structure of the synthesized standard. The elemental compositions of the (M - H)- ions of the metolachlor ESA standard and the soil-sample extracts were confirmed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. A dissipation study revealed that metolachlor ESA is formed in soil under field conditions corresponding to a decrease in the concentration of the parent herbicide, metolachlor. The identification of the sulfonated metabolite of metolachlor suggests that the glutathione conjugation pathway is a common detoxification pathway shared by chloroacetanilide herbicides.

  12. ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR ALACHLOR ESA AND OTHER ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1998, USEPA published a Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) of 50 chemicals and 10 microorganisms. "Alachlor ESA and other acetanilide herbicide degradation products" is listed on the the 1998 CCL. Acetanilide degradation products are generally more water soluble...

  13. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column.

  14. Glutathione conjugation: atrazine detoxication mechanism in corn.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, R H; Swanson, H R; Walsh, W C

    1970-07-01

    Glutathione conjugation (GS-atrazine) of the herbicide, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (atrazine) is another major detoxication mechanism in leaf tissue of corn (Zea mays, L.). The identification of GS-atrazine is the first example of glutathione conjugation as a biotransformation mechanism of a pesticide in plants. Recovery of atrazine-inhibited photosynthesis was accompanied by a rapid conversion of atrazine to GS-atrazine when the herbicide was introduced directly into leaf tissue. N-De-alkylation pathway is relatively inactive in both roots and shoots. The nonenzymatic detoxication of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine is negligible in leaf tissue. The hydroxylation pathway contributed significantly to the total detoxication of atrazine only when the herbicide was introduced into the plant through the roots. The metabolism of atrazine to GS-atrazine may be the primary factor in the resistance of corn to atrazine.

  15. Effect of chiral differences of metolachlor and its (S)-isomer on their toxicity to earthworms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongmei; Wen, Yuezhong; Wang, Kaixiong

    2010-11-01

    The effects of (Rac)-metolachlor and (S)-metolachlor on the avoidance behavior, bodyweight change and in vivo enzyme activity of earthworms (Eisenia foetida) were determined and compared in this study. The effects of (Rac)-metolachlor on the enzyme activities of E. foetida and bodyweight were more significant than those of (S)-metolachlor at the same concentrations. In the short term (2 d, 7 d), (S)-metolachlor had faster effects on cellulase and catalase activities of E. foetida. However, in the relatively long term (14 d, 28 d), (Rac)-metolachlor had higher toxic effects on cellulase and catalase activities. The inter-group difference between (Rac)-metolachlor and (S)-metolachlor on E. foetida enzyme activities was the most significant for catalase, and the least significant for cellulase. The test of avoidance behavior shows that earthworms are more sensitive to the stimulation of (Rac)-metolachlor than to that of (S)-metolachlor. The results will help to develop an understanding of the biologically mediated environmental processes of these two herbicides.

  16. [Influence of the coexistence of Zn2+ on the enantioselective toxicity of metolachlor to Scenedesmus obliquus].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Shu-Xian; Chen, Cai-Dong; Liu, Hui-Jun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the enantioselective toxicity of chiral pesticide coexisting with heavy metal, the enantioselective toxicity of Rac-, S-metolachlor alone and coexisting with Zn2+ on Scenedesmus obliquus was studied by using standard toxic testing method. The results showed that the trend of the enantioselective toxicity of Rac- and S-metolachlor coexisting with Zn2+ was similar to that of Rac- and S-metolachlor alone. The growth inhibition rate of Scenedesmus obliquus was decreased by the coexistence of Zn2+ with high concentrations of metolachlor. The inhibition rates with 0.30 mg x L(-1) Rac- and S-metolachlor alone at 24 h were 49.61% and 59.73%, and in the coexistence of Zn2+ the values were 38.41% and 42.52%, respectively. The enantioselective toxicity of Rac- and S-metolachlor was expanded and the toxicity of S-metolachlor increased greater than that of Rac-metolachlor. The coexistence of Zn2+ showed partial increase in toxicity of metolachlor in low concentrations, while there was antagonistic effect in high content of metolachlor. The trend of Chlorophyll content of Scenedesmus obliquus at 96 h was in accordance with the growth inhibition.

  17. Hydrologic data for a study of pre-Illinoian glacial till in Linn County, Iowa, water year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    Herbicide concentrations in rainfall ranged from 0.05 to 1.3 micrograms per liter. Herbicides detected in the largest concentrations included alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor. Metribuzin was the only herbicide detected in ground-water samples at a concentration of 0.10 micrograms per liter in water from one observation well.

  18. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an "Atrazine Benefits Team" (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of nonchemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers' revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies.

  19. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an “Atrazine Benefits Team” (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of non-chemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers’ revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340

  20. Occurrence and load of selected herbicides and metabolites in the lower Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.; Goolsby, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of water samples collected from the Mississippi River at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, during 1991–1997 indicate that hundreds of metric tons of herbicides and herbicide metabolites are being discharged annually to the Gulf of Mexico. Atrazine, metolachlor, and the ethane-sulfonic acid metabolite of alachlor (alachlor ESA) were the most frequently detected herbicides and, in general, were present in the largest concentrations. Almost 80% of the annual herbicide load to the Gulf of Mexico occurred during the growing season from May to August. The concentrations and loads of alachlor in the Mississippi River decreased dramatically after 1993 in response to decreased use in the basin. In contrast, the concentrations and loads of acetochlor increased after 1994, reflecting its role as a replacement for alachlor. The peak annual herbicide load occurred in 1993, when approximately 640 metric tons (t) of atrazine, 320 t of cyanazine, 215 t of metolachlor, 53 t of simazine, and 50 t of alachlor were discharged to the Gulf of Mexico. The annual loads of atrazine and cyanazine were generally 1–2% of the amount annually applied in the Mississippi River drainage basin; the annual loads of acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor were generally less than 1%. Despite a reduction in atrazine use, historical data do not indicate a long-term downward trend in the atrazine load to the Gulf of Mexico. Although a relation (r2=0.62) exists between the atrazine load and stream discharge during May to August, variations in herbicide use and rainfall patterns within subbasins can have a large effect on herbicide loads in the Mississippi River Basin and probably explain a large part of the annual variation in atrazine load to the Gulf of Mexico.

  1. Occurrence and load of selected herbicides and metabolites in the lower Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, G.M.; Goolsby, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of water samples collected from the Mississippi River at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, during 1991-1997 indicate that hundreds of metric tons of herbicides and herbicide metabolites are being discharged annually to the Gulf of Mexico. Atrazine, metolachlor, and the ethane-sulfonic acid metabolite of alachlor (alachlor ESA) were the most frequently detected herbicides and, in general, were present in the largest concentrations. Almost 80% of the annual herbicide load to the Gulf of Mexico occurred during the growing season from May to August. The concentrations and loads of alachlor in the Mississippi River decreased dramatically after 1993 in response to decreased use in the basin. In contrast, the concentrations and loads of acetochlor increased after 1994, reflecting its role as a replacement for alachlor. The peak annual herbicide load occurred in 1993, when approximately 640 metric tons (t) of atrazine, 320 t of cyanazine, 215 t of metolachlor, 53 t of simazine, and 50 t of alachlor were discharged to the Gulf of Mexico. The annual loads of atrazine and cyanazine were generally 1-2% of the amount annually applied in the Mississippi River drainage basin; the annual loads of acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor were generally less than 1%. Despite a reduction in atrazine use, historical data do not indicate a long-term downward trend in the atrazine load to the Gulf of Mexico. Although a relation (r2=0.62) exists between the atrazine load and stream discharge during May to August, variations in herbicide use and rainfall patterns within subbasins can have a large effect on herbicide loads in the Mississippi River Basin and probably explain a large part of the annual variation in atrazine load to the Gulf of Mexico. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Accelerated metolachlor degradation in soil by zerovalent iron and compost amendments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Chul; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeff; Kim, Dong-Guk; Joo, Jin-Ho

    2010-04-01

    Soil incubation and germination tests were conducted to assess zerovalent iron (ZVI), organic compost, moisture and their combinations on metolachlor degradation in soil. The ZVI alone degraded 91% of metolachlor in soil within 40 days following bi-phasic kinetics. Organic amendment alone facilitated metolachlor degradation in soil up to 60% after 40 days depending on the amendment rate. However, the combination of ZVI with compost amendment at 30 ton ha(-1) and 30% moisture content accelerated metolachlor degradation to 90% after 3 days and 98% after 40 days. The half life (t (1/2)) of metolachlor degradation with ZVI, compost at 30 ton ha(-1), and 30% moisture was about 1 day, which was faster than ZVI treatment alone and 98% faster than controls. Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L. Scop.) were severely inhibited in unamended metolachlor-contaminated soils but when these soils were amended with ZVI, germination and growth was comparable to controls (metolachlor free soil). Metolachlor degradation was greatest when ZVI, compost and moisture were used together, suggesting that these treatments will maximize in situ remediation of metolachlor-contaminated soils in the field.

  3. Modulation of 2,6-dinitrotoluene genotoxicity by alachlor treatment of Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    George, S E; Allison, J C; Brooks, L R; Eischen, B T; Kohan, M J; Warren, S H; King, L C

    1998-01-01

    Due to its widespread use as a preemergent herbicide, alachlor has been detected as a groundwater contaminant. The procarcinogen, 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT), a by-product of the munitions industry and a precursor to polyurethane production, is found in the manufacturing waste stream. This study explores the effect of alachlor treatment on the bioactivation of DNT by examining urine mutagenicity, intestinal enzymes, and hepatic DNA adducts to detect changes in metabolism. Five-week-old male rats were treated daily by gavage with 50 mg/kg of alachlor for up to 5 weeks while control animals received an equal volume of peanut oil. At 1, 3, and 5 weeks following the initial alachlor dose, animals were administered p.o. 75 mg/kg DNT or DMSO. Urine was collected for 24 hr in metabolism cages. Following incubation with sulfatase and beta-glucuronidase, urines were individually concentrated by C-18 solid phase extraction, dried under N2, and prepared for bioassay in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 with and without metabolic activation. Urine from peanut oil- and alachlor-treated rots was not mutagenic. Even though calf thymus DNA-alachlor adducts formed in vitro, no hepatic DNA adducts were detected in vivo in these two treatment groups. Interestingly, a significant increase in excretion of mutagenic urine from DNT-treated rats was observed following 3 weeks of alachlor treatment in the absence of S9 (690 +/- 130 vs. 339 +/- 28 revertants/ml) which corresponded to increased DNT-related hepatic DNA adduct formation (5.90 +/- 0.88 adducts/10(8) nucleotides vs. 10.56 x +/- 0.59 adducts/10(8) nucleotides [relative adduct level (RAL)]). Elevation in the production of mutagenic urine from control and treated animals was linked to increases in intestinal nitroreductase and beta-glucuronidase activities; however, the only significant alachlor-related effects were an increase in small intestinal 1-week beta-glucuronidase and 5-week dehydrochlorinase activities. The increased urine

  4. Occurrence and distribution of pesticides in streams of the Eastern Iowa Basins, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Becher, Kent D.

    2001-01-01

    Occurrence of pesticide compounds varied by landform region. The triazine herbicides, atrazine and cyanazine and their degradates were present in significantly greater concentrations in the Southern Iowa Drift Plain (predominantly loess soils) than either the Des Moines Lobe or the Iowan Surface (predominantly till soils). Less atrazine and cyanazine are applied to till soils because of pH and organic carbon content. Alachlor, metolachlor, and acetochlor have often been used to offset triazine pesticide reductions in area with till soils.

  5. Alachlor transformation patterns in aquatic field mesocosms under variable oxygen and nutrient conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, D.W.; Miley, M.K.; Denoyelles, F.; Smith, V.H.; Thurman, E.M.; Carter, R.

    2000-01-01

    Alachlor is one of the most commonly used herbicides in both Europe and North America. Because of its toxic properties, its fate and attenuation in natural waters is practically important. This paper assesses factors that affect alachlor decay rate in aquatic systems using field-scale experimental units. In particular, we used field mesocosms (11.3 m3 outdoor fiberglass tanks) to examine the affect of oxygen level and other factors on decay rate in water columns. This is one of the first studies ever performed where diverse water column conditions have been successfully simulated using common mesocosm-scale facilities. Four treatments were assessed, including aerobic systems (aerobic); low nutrient, oxygen-stratified systems (stratified-LN); moderate nutrient, oxygen-stratified systems (stratified-HN); and anaerobic systems (anaerobic). The lowest half-lives were observed in the anaerobic units (9.7 days) followed by the aerobic (21 days), stratified-HN (22 days), and stratified-LN (46 days) units. Our results indicate that alachlor is transformed most rapidly under anaerobic conditions, although the ambient phosphorus level also appears to influence decay rate. In this study, two common alachlor breakdown products, ethane sulfonic acid (ESA) and oxanilic acid, were also monitored. Oxanilic acid was produced in greater quantities than ESA under all treatments with the highest levels being produced in the stratified-HN units. In general, our results suggest that previous laboratory data, which indicated that high rates of alachlor decay can occur under oxygen-free methanogenic conditions, is translatable to field-scale applications. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.Alachlor is one of the most commonly used herbicides in both Europe and North America. Because of its toxic properties, its fate and attenuation in natural waters is practically important. This paper assesses factors that affect alachlor decay rate in aquatic systems using field-scale experimental

  6. Biodegradation of alachlor in liquid and soil cultures under variable carbon and nitrogen sources by bacterial consortium isolated from corn field soil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alachlor, an aniline herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on isolating bacterial consortium capable of alachlor biodegradation, assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on alachlor biodegradation and evaluating the feasibility of using bacterial consortium in soil culture. Kavar corn field soil with a long history of alachlor application in Fars province of Iran has been explored for their potential of alachlor biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds (glucose, sodium citrate, sucrose, starch and the combination of these compounds), the effect of nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate and urea) and different pH (5.5-8.5) on alachlor removal efficiency by the bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. After a multi-step enrichment program 100 days of acclimation, a culture with the high capability of alachlor degradation was obtained (63%). Glucose and sodium citrate had the highest alachlor reduction rate (85%). Alachlor reduction rate increased more rapidly by the addition of ammonium nitrate (94%) compare to urea. Based on the data obtained in the present study, pH of 7.5 is optimal for alachlor biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of alachlor reduction were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (74%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (17.67%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of alachlor degradation in a polluted soil. PMID:23452801

  7. Interaction of flumioxazin with dimethenamid or metolachlor in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in various peanut growing regions of Texas and Georgia to study peanut response to flumioxazin alone or in combination with dimethenamid or metolachlor. In southern Texas during 1997, flumioxazin plus metolachlor resulted in greater than 45% peanut stunt, while flumioxaz...

  8. Analysis of metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid chirality in groundwater: A tool for dating groundwater movement in agricultural settings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical chirality of pesticides can be a useful tool for studying environmental processes. The chiral forms of metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA), an abundant metabolite of metolachlor, and metolachlor were examined over a 6 year period in groundwater and a groundwater-fed stream in a riparia...

  9. Substrate Specificity of Atrazine Chlorohydrolase and Atrazine-Catabolizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gilbert; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial atrazine catabolism is initiated by the enzyme atrazine chlorohydrolase (AtzA) in Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Other triazine herbicides are metabolized by bacteria, but the enzymological basis of this is unclear. Here we begin to address this by investigating the catalytic activity of AtzA by using substrate analogs. Purified AtzA from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP catalyzed the hydrolysis of an atrazine analog that was substituted at the chlorine substituent by fluorine. AtzA did not catalyze the hydrolysis of atrazine analogs containing the pseudohalide azido, methoxy, and cyano groups or thiomethyl and amino groups. Atrazine analogs with a chlorine substituent at carbon 2 and N-alkyl groups, ranging in size from methyl to t-butyl, all underwent dechlorination by AtzA. AtzA catalyzed hydrolytic dechlorination when one nitrogen substituent was alkylated and the other was a free amino group. However, when both amino groups were unalkylated, no reaction occurred. Cell extracts were prepared from five strains capable of atrazine dechlorination and known to contain atzA or closely homologous gene sequences: Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, Rhizobium strain PATR, Alcaligenes strain SG1, Agrobacterium radiobacter J14a, and Ralstonia picketti D. All showed identical substrate specificity to purified AtzA from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Cell extracts from Clavibacter michiganensis ATZ1, which also contains a gene homologous to atzA, were able to transform atrazine analogs containing pseudohalide and thiomethyl groups, in addition to the substrates used by AtzA from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. This suggests that either (i) another enzyme(s) is present which confers the broader substrate range or (ii) the AtzA itself has a broader substrate range. PMID:11010866

  10. Spectral characterization and chiral interactions of plant microsomal cytochrome P450 with metolachlor and herbicide safeners.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun

    2010-01-01

    The content and spectral characteristics of cytochrome P450 (Cyt P450) and cytochrome b(5) (Cyt b(5)) extracted from shoots of etiolated maize and rice seedlings were studied by using ultraviolet (UV) difference spectrophotometry. The results showed that fenclorim, rac-metolachlor and S-metolachlor may induce the same P450 isoenzyme with lambda(max) at 453 nm, while naphthalic anhydride (NA) induced another one with lambda(max) at 447 nm. The microsomal Cyt P450 and Cyt b(5) content of maize seedlings was higher than that of rice, and the Cyt b(5) content was higher than that of Cyt P450. Maize and rice microsomal Cyt P450 and Cyt b(5) were induced at different levels by the four chemicals, with the order as follows: NA > fenclorim > rac-metolachlor > S-metolachlor with p < 0.05. When induced by NA, fenclorim, rac-metolachlor and S-metolachlor, the maize Cyt P450 content was, respectively, 5.63-, 3.30-, 3.02- and 2.48-fold that of the control, the rice Cyt P450 content was 8.54-, 2.20-, 1.91- and 1.33-fold that of the control, the maize Cyt b(5) content was 9.89-, 5.49-, 4.69- and 3.40-fold that of the control, and the rice Cyt b(5) content was 7.76-, 4.56-, 2.60- and 1.82-fold that of the control. An enantio-difference existed when rac- and S-metolachlor combined with plant Cyt P450. The interaction of microsomal Cyt P450 with S-metolachlor is higher than that with rac-metolachlor, which may be one of the reasons why S-metolachlor is superior at killing weeds compared with rac-metolachlor. These results will help to develop an understanding of the tolerance for and selectivity of rac- and S-metolachlor.

  11. An evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of the herbicide alachlor to man.

    PubMed

    Heydens, W F; Wilson, A G; Kier, L D; Lau, H; Thake, D C; Martens, M A

    1999-06-01

    Chronic bioassays have revealed that alachlor caused nasal, thyroid, and stomach tumours in rats but was not carcinogenic in mice. Significant increases in thyroid and stomach tumours were observed only at doses that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). While nasal tumours were found at doses below the MTD, they were small and benign in nature. This publication describes the work undertaken by Monsanto to understand the carcinogenic mode of action of alachlor in the rat and to investigate the relevance to humans. The genetic toxicity of alachlor has been investigated in an extensive battery of in vitro and in vivo test systems. In addition, target-specific mutagenicity tests, such as the COMET assay and DNA binding in nasal tissue, were carried out to investigate any possible in-situ genotoxic action. The weight-of-evidence analysis of all available data clearly demonstrates that alachlor exerts its carcinogenicity in the rat by non-genotoxic mechanisms. In the rat, alachlor is initially metabolised primarily in the liver through the P-450 pathway and by glutathione conjugation. The glutathione conjugates and their metabolites undergo enterohepatic circulation with further metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and then nasal tissue where they can be converted to a diethyliminoquinone metabolite (DEIQ). This electrophilic species binds to the cysteine moiety of proteins leading to cell damage and increased cell turnover. When comparisons of in vitro nasal metabolic capability were made, the rat's capacity to form DEIQ from precursor metabolites was 38 times greater than for the mouse, 30-fold higher than monkey, and 751 times greater than that of humans. This data is consistent with the results of studies showing in vivo formation of DEIQ-protein adducts in the nasal tissue of rats but not mice or monkeys. The lack of DEIQ nasal adducts in mice is consistent with the lack of nasal tumours in that species. When the differences between rat and humans

  12. Introduction of atrazine degrader to enhance rhizodegradation of atrazine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introducing atrazine (ATR) degraders into riparian vegetative buffer strips (VBS) can be a promising bioremediation approach to accelerate the degradation of ATR and its degradation products deposited into VBS by surface runoff. A growth chamber study was conducted to investigated the synergistic ef...

  13. Comparative responses of sperm cells and embryos of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) to exposure to metolachlor and its degradation products.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huong; Gonzalez, Patrice; Pardon, Patrick; Tapie, Nathalie; Budzinski, Hélène; Cachot, Jérôme; Morin, Bénédicte

    2014-02-01

    Metolachlor is one of the most intensively used chloroacetanilide herbicides in agriculture. Consequently, it has been frequently detected in coastal waters as well as its major degradation products, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOA) which are encountered at higher concentrations than metolachlor. Although a few studies of metolachlor toxicity have been conducted on marine organisms, little is known about the environmental toxicity of metolachlor degradation products. In this study, the deleterious effects of metolachlor and its degradation products on spermatozoa and embryos of Crassostrea gigas have been compared using biomarkers of developmental defects, DNA damage and gene transcription levels. After 24h exposure, significant increases in the percentage of abnormal D-larvae and DNA damage were observed from 0.01 μg L(-1) for S-metolachlor and 0.1 μg L(-1) for MESA and MOA. Results showed that S-metolachlor was more embryotoxic and genotoxic than its degradation products. Oyster sperm was also very sensitive to metolachlor exposure and followed the pattern: metolachlor (0.01 μg L(-1))>MOA (0.1 μg L(-1))>MESA (1 μg L(-1)). Metolachlor and MESA mainly triggered variations in the transcription level of genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative stress responses (mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and catalase). Overall, no significant variation in transcription levels could be detected in C. gigas embryos exposed to MOA. This study demonstrates that metolachlor and its main degradation products have the potential to impact several steps of oyster development and therefore recruitment in coastal areas exposed to chronic inputs of pesticides.

  14. [Prolonged convulsion after intoxication of alachlor herbicide (Lasso): a case report].

    PubMed

    Naito, Hiromichi; Nagae, Masaharu; Okahara, Shuji; Maeyama, Hiroki; Okada, Daisuke; Hagioka, Shingo; Morimoto, Naoki

    2011-03-01

    We experienced a case of alachlor herbicide (Lasso) intoxication. A 57-year-old man was transported to our hospital by ambulance after ingesting 450 mL of Lasso. He was unconscious and had difficulty in breathing. Gastric lavage was performed after tracheal intubation and the patient was placed on mechanical ventilation. Activated charcoal and laxative were administrated. Even after admission, disturbance of consciousness persisted. He had liver and kidney disorders but these did not progress to multiple organ failure. He experienced convulsions from day 4 and was administered anticonvulsants. Convulsion was intractable and needed long-term treatment. His general condition improved until discharge. He was weaned from mechanical ventilation and recovered consciousness, but he still displayed tremors. The herbicide (Lasso) is a combination of alachlor and monochlorobenzene. Studies have shown that alachlor is neurotoxic and monochlorobenzene accumulates in the brain. In case of intoxication with the herbicide Lasso, treatment is required for ameliorating neurotoxic effects and intractable convulsion as well as liver and kidney disorders, gastrointestinal mucosal damage, hematopoietic disorder, and acute circulatory failure.

  15. Atrazine leaching from biochar-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Delwiche, Kyle B; Lehmann, Johannes; Walter, M Todd

    2014-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine is used extensively throughout the United States, and is a widespread groundwater and surface water contaminant. Biochar has been shown to strongly sorb organic compounds and could be used to reduce atrazine leaching. We used lab and field experiments to determine biochar impacts on atrazine leaching under increasingly heterogeneous soil conditions. Application of pine chip biochar (commercially pyrolyzed between 300 and 550 °C) reduced cumulative atrazine leaching by 52% in homogenized (packed) soil columns (p=0.0298). Biochar additions in undisturbed soil columns did not significantly (p>0.05) reduce atrazine leaching. Mean peak groundwater atrazine concentrations were 53% lower in a field experiment after additions of 10 t ha(-1) acidified biochar (p=0.0056) relative to no biochar additions. Equivalent peat applications by dry mass had no effect on atrazine leaching. Plots receiving a peat-biochar mixture showed no reduction, suggesting that the peat organic matter may compete with atrazine for biochar sorption sites. Several individual measurement values outside the 99% confidence interval in perched groundwater concentrations indicate that macropore structure could contribute to rare, large leaching events that are not effectively reduced by biochar. We conclude that biochar application has the potential to decrease peak atrazine leaching, but heterogeneous soil conditions, especially preferential flow paths, may reduce this impact. Long-term atrazine leaching reductions are also uncertain.

  16. Melamine-based organoclay to sequester atrazine.

    PubMed

    Neitsch, Susan L; McInnes, Kevin J; Senseman, Scott A; White, G Norman; Simanek, Eric E

    2006-07-01

    Sequestration of aqueous atrazine by organoclays prepared from the surfactant 6-piperazin-1-yl-N,N'-bis-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-butyl)-(1,3,5)triazine-2,4-diamine and Gonzales bentonite was assessed using 14C-labeled atrazine. Organoclays with varying ratios of surfactant to clay were evaluated with respect to their ability to sequester atrazine from an aqueous solution. Organoclays containing 100-200 g kg-1 surfactant on a total weight basis provided the most efficient adsorption of atrazine, with apparent KOC values exceeding 5000 l kg-1 at these loading fractions. Less than 12% of sequestered atrazine was released during four sequential day long washings, supporting our expectation that the majority of the reaction of atrazine with the surfactant lead to irreversible chemical bond formation through nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

  17. Soil mesocosm studies on atrazine bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Nousiainen, Aura; Shaligram, Shraddha; Björklöf, Katarina; Lindström, Kristina; Jørgensen, Kirsten S; Kapley, Atya

    2014-06-15

    Accumulation of pesticides in the environment causes serious issues of contamination and toxicity. Bioremediation is an ecologically sound method to manage soil pollution, but the bottleneck here, is the successful scale-up of lab-scale experiments to field applications. This study demonstrates pilot-scale bioremediation in tropical soil using atrazine as model pollutant. Mimicking field conditions, three different bioremediation strategies for atrazine degradation were explored. 100 kg soil mesocosms were set-up, with or without atrazine application history. Natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation were tested, where augmentation with an atrazine degrading consortium demonstrated best pollutant removal. 90% atrazine degradation was observed in six days in soil previously exposed to atrazine, while soil without history of atrazine use, needed 15 days to remove the same amount of amended atrazine. The bacterial consortium comprised of 3 novel bacterial strains with different genetic atrazine degrading potential. The progress of bioremediation was monitored by measuring the levels of atrazine and its intermediate, cyanuric acid. Genes from the atrazine degradation pathway, namely, atzA, atzB, atzD, trzN and trzD were quantified in all mesocosms for 60 days. The highest abundance of all target genes was observed on the 6th day of treatment. trzD was observed in the bioaugmented mesocosms only. The bacterial community profile in all mesocosms was monitored by LH-PCR over a period of two months. Results indicate that the communities changed rapidly after inoculation, but there was no drastic change in microbial community profile after 1 month. Results indicated that efficient bioremediation of atrazine using a microbial consortium could be successfully up-scaled to pilot scale.

  18. Degradation mechanism of alachlor during direct ozonation and O(3)/H(2)O(2) advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhimin; Liu, Chao; Dong, Bingzhi; Zhang, Yalei

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of alachlor by direct ozonation and advanced oxidation process O(3)/H(2)O(2) was investigated in this study with focus on identification of degradation byproducts. The second-order reaction rate constant between ozone and alachlor was determined to be 2.5+/-0.1M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7.0 and 20 degrees C. Twelve and eight high-molecular-weight byproducts (with the benzene ring intact) from alachlor degradation were identified during direct ozonation and O(3)/H(2)O(2), respectively. The common degradation byproducts included N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-methyleneamine, 8-ethyl-3,4-dihydro-quinoline, 8-ethyl-quinoline, 1-chloroacetyl-2-hydro-3-ketone-7-acetyl-indole, 2-chloro-2',6'-diacetyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetanilide, 2-chloro-2'-acetyl-6'-ethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide, and two hydroxylated alachlor isomers. In direct ozonation, four more byproducts were also identified including 1-chloroacetyl-2,3-dihydro-7-ethyl-indole, 2-chloro-2',6'-ethyl-acetanilide, 2-chloro-2',6'-acetyl-acetanilide and 2-chloro-2'-ethyl-6'-acetyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide. Degradation of alachlor by O(3) and O(3)/H(2)O(2) also led to the formation of low-molecular-weight byproducts including formic, acetic, propionic, monochloroacetic and oxalic acids as well as chloride ion (only detected in O(3)/H(2)O(2)). Nitrite and nitrate formation was negligible. Alachlor degradation occurred via oxidation of the arylethyl group, N-dealkylation, cyclization and cleavage of benzene ring. After O(3) or O(3)/H(2)O(2) treatment, the toxicity of alachlor solution examined by the Daphnia magna bioassay was slightly reduced.

  19. Accelerated degradation of 14C-atrazine in an atrazine adapted field soil from Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Georg; Jablonowski, Nicolai David; Martinazzo, Rosane; Accinelli, Cesare; Köppchen, Stephan; Langen, Ulrike; Linden, Andreas; Krause, Martina; Burauel, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine] is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Atrazine is considered to be mobile in soil and has often been characterized as a rather recalcitrant compound in the environment. In the present study the accelerated atrazine degradation in an agriculturally used soil was examined. Soil samples were collected from a Belgian field which was used for corn-plantations and was regularly treated with atrazine during the last 30 years. The experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions (GLP) using 14C-labelled and unlabelled atrazine in accordance to the reported field application dose of 1 mg kg-1. Triplicates of treated subsamples were incubated at 50% WHCmax and under slurry conditions (1:4 soil:solution ratio, using distilled water) in the dark at 20° C. Control samples were collected at an adjacent pear orchard where no atrazine or other triazine pesticides application was reported. After 92 days of incubation, the mineralized amount of atrazine reached 83% of the initially applied 14C-activity in the atrazine treated soil for the slurry setup. A maximum of atrazine mineralization was observed in the treated field soil between 6 and 7 days of incubation for both, 50% WHCmax and slurry setups. The total 14C-atrazine mineralization was equally high for 50% WHCmax in the atrazine treated soil. After an extended lag-phase in comparison to the treated soil the overall mineralization of 14C-atrazine of 81% was observed in the atrazine untreated soil under slurry conditions. This observation might be due to a possible cross adaption of the microflora. These results could be attributed to an atrazine drift during application since the control samples were taken in an adjacent pear orchard with no atrazine application history. These results demonstrate an adaption of the microflora to mineralize atrazine rapidly. The formation of desorbable metabolites as well as the formation of

  20. Experimental design approach to the optimization of ultrasonic degradation of alachlor and enhancement of treated water biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ricardo A; Mosteo, Rosa; Pétrier, Christian; Pulgarin, Cesar

    2009-03-01

    This work presents the application of experimental design for the ultrasonic degradation of alachlor which is pesticide classified as priority substance by the European Commission within the scope of the Water Framework Directive. The effect of electrical power (20-80W), pH (3-10) and substrate concentration (10-50mgL(-1)) was evaluated. For a confidential level of 90%, pH showed a low effect on the initial degradation rate of alachlor; whereas electrical power, pollutant concentration and the interaction of these two parameters were significant. A reduced model taking into account the significant variables and interactions between variables has shown a good correlation with the experimental results. Additional experiments conducted in natural and deionised water indicated that the alachlor degradation by ultrasound is practically unaffected by the presence of potential *OH radical scavengers: bicarbonate, sulphate, chloride and oxalic acid. In both cases, alachlor was readily eliminated ( approximately 75min). However, after 4h of treatment only 20% of the initial TOC was removed, showing that alachlor by-products are recalcitrant to the ultrasonic action. Biodegradability test (BOD5/COD) carried out during the course of the treatment indicated that the ultrasonic system noticeably increases the biodegradability of the initial solution.

  1. Degradation of alachlor in natural and sludge-amended soils, studied by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and HPLC-MS).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Sonia; Lacorte, Silvia

    2005-11-30

    Alachlor [2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide] is an herbicide used worldwide. The relative rates of disappearance of alachlor, the formation kinetics of alachlor ethane sulfonic acid (ESA), and the formation of other degradation products in two different soils (a soil with natural organic matter and a sludge-amended soil) has been studied. For such a purpose, soil samples were spiked with alachlor at 2.5 mg kg(-1), concentration generally applied in agricultural soils, and were submitted to sunlight, simulating natural field conditions. Extracts were analyzed by GC-MS and HPLC-MS in scan mode. A good correlation was observed between both techniques, and HPLC-MS allowed the determination of two eluting peaks corresponding to the two stereoisomeric forms of alachlor ESA. Degradation of alachlor in the two soils followed first-order kinetics. Half-life in the natural soil was 4.2 +/- 0.1 days, and half-life in the sludge-amended soil was 5.8 +/- 0.8 days. The higher half-life observed in the sludge-amended soil was attributed to the higher sorption of alachlor to this soil compared to the natural soil. The degradation of alachlor in both soils gave rise to the production of alachlor ESA. Its concentration increased during the incubation period, and after 27 days, its concentration was about 0.59 mg kg(-1) in the natural soil and 0.37 mg kg(-1) in the sludge-amended soil. The other two alachlor transformation products were identified using GC-MS, and the abundance of these degradation products increased while alachlor was degraded.

  2. Enhanced retention of linuron, alachlor and metalaxyl in sandy soil columns intercalated with wood barriers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cruz, M S; Ordax, J M; Arienzo, M; Sánchez-Martín, M J

    2011-03-01

    A study has been made of the effect a reactive barrier made of pine (softwood) or oak (hardwood) wood intercalated in a sandy soil column has on the retention of linuron, alachlor and metalaxyl (pesticides with contrasting physicochemical characteristics). The leaching of pesticides has been carried out under a saturated flow regime and breakthrough curves (BTCs) have been obtained at flow rates of 1 m Lmin(-1) (all pesticides) and 3 m Lmin(-1) (linuron). The cumulative curves in the unmodified soil indicate a leaching of pesticides >80% of the total amount of compound added. After barrier intercalation, linuron leaching decreases significantly and a modification of the leaching kinetics of alachlor and metalaxyl has been observed. The theoretical R factors increased ∼2.6-3.3, 1.2-1.6-fold, and 1.4-1.7-fold and the concentration of the maximum peak decreased ∼6-12-fold, 2-4-fold and 1.2-2-fold for linuron, alachlor and metalaxyl, respectively. When considering the three pesticides, significant correlations have been found between the theoretical retardation factor (R) and the pore volume corresponding to the maximum peaks of the BTCs (r=0.77; p<0.05) or the total volume leached (r=-0.78; p<0.05). The results reveal the efficacy of reactive wood barriers to decrease the leaching of pesticides from point sources of pollution depends on the type of wood, the hydrophobicity of the pesticide and the adopted water flow rate. Pine was more effective than oak in decreasing the leaching of hydrophobic pesticide linuron or in decreasing the maximum peak concentration of the less hydrophobic pesticides in soils. Efficacy of these wood barriers was limited for the least hydrophobic pesticide metalaxyl.

  3. Indirect photolysis promoted by natural and engineered wetland water constituents: processes leading to alachlor degradation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Penney L; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2005-06-15

    Wetland surface waters that received drainage from agricultural fields were probed for constituents that would promote the photodegradation of agriculture herbicides. Alachlor proved to be a good chemical probe for examining indirect photolysis due to its lack of reactivity by either direct photolysis or dark reaction pathways and its ubiquity as an agricultural herbicide. Water samples were taken from natural (Old Woman Creek) and engineered wetlands in Ohio that receive copious amounts of agricultural runoff. Possible photosensitizers including dissolved organic matter (DOM), iron, and nitrate were measured in the samples. In alkaline waters (pH > 7.8), the photochemical degradation of alachlor became important only in the presence of high nitrate levels (approximately equal to 1 mM). In pH-adjusted (approximately 4) samples, the observed degradation rate coefficient increased 3-18 times of that measured at the natural pH. Methanol quenching experiments and kinetics modeling suggest that hydroxyl radical is the principal reactant. The promotion of the reaction at the lower pH was apparently related to the activation of the photochemical pathways associated with the DOM and possibly iron-DOM complexes. The rate coefficients measured for the photodegradation of alachlor in reconstituted DOM isolates (cation-exchanged material with very low iron levels) were similar in magnitude to those measured in natural waters containing low amounts of nitrate and high amounts of DOM. Moreover, these reactions also exhibited a pH dependency. Thus, these results suggest that DOM plays a role in promoting an indirect photolytic mechanism that is highly pH dependent.

  4. BIODEGRADATION OF ATRAZINE IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pesticide atrazine is frequently detected in ground water, including ground water used as drinking water. Little information is available on the fate of atrazine in the subsurface, including its biodegradability. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the biodegradabil...

  5. Effects of the organic matter from swine wastewater on the adsorption and desorption of alachlor in soil.

    PubMed

    Dal Bosco, Tatiane C; Sampaio, Silvio C; Coelho, Silvia R M; Cosmann, Natássia J; Smanhotto, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The application of swine wastewater to the soil for agricultural purposes results in the addition of total and dissolved organic matter to the soil, which may interfere with the dynamics of pesticides in the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of total and dissolved organic matter from a biodigester and a treatment lagoon of swine wastewater in the adsorption and desorption of alachlor [2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N(methoxymethyl acetamide)]. The assay was performed by the batch equilibrium method, and the results were fitted to the Freundlich model. The curve comparison test revealed a greater adsorption of alachlor in the soil treated with swine wastewater from the biodigester. The adsorption and desorption of alachlor increased in the soils where swine wastewater was added, and hysteresis was observed in all of the treatments.

  6. Occurrence, distribution, and loads of selected pesticides in streams in the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair basin, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frey, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Loads and yields of selected pesticides were calculated. The highest loads calculated were those for atrazine and metolachlor in the Maumee River at Waterville, Ohio, with 47,000 and 44,000 pounds per year, respectively. Of the row-crop basins, either the St. Joseph River near Newville, Ind., or the Auglaize River near Fort Jennings, Ohio, had the highest yields for the herbicides acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine. The Cuyahoga River at Cleveland, Ohio, had the highest yields for diazinon and prometon?pesticides that typically are applied heavily in urban areas. The percentage of the applied atrazine that was calculated in the stream was determined for each basin in 1997. The export of atrazine ranged from 0.10 percent at the River Raisin near2 Manchester, Mich., to 10.6 percent at the St. Joseph River near Newville, Ind.

  7. Pesticides in ground water: Do atrazine metabolites matter?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, S.; Yen, S.T.; Kolpin, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Atrazine and atrazine-residue (atrazine + two metabolites - deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine) concentrations were examined to determine if consideration of these atrazine metabolites substantially adds to our understanding of the distribution of this pesticide in groundwater of the midcontinental United States. The mean of atrazine.residue concentrations was 53 percent greater than that of atrazine alone for those observations above the detection limit (> 0.05 μg/l). Furthermore, a censored regression analysis using atrazine-residue concentrations revealed significant factors not identified when only atrazine concentrations were used. Thus, knowledge of concentrations of these atrazine metabolites is required to obtain a true estimation of risk of using these aquifers as sources for drinking water, and such knowledge also provides information that ultimately may be important for future management policies designed to reduce atrazine concentrations in ground water.

  8. Fungicide dissipation and impact on metolachlor aerobic soil degradation and soil microbial dynamics.

    PubMed

    White, Paul M; Potter, Thomas L; Culbreath, Albert K

    2010-02-15

    Pesticides are typically applied as mixtures and or sequentially to soil and plants during crop production. A common scenario is herbicide application at planting followed by sequential fungicide applications post-emergence. Fungicides depending on their spectrum of activity may alter and impact soil microbial communities. Thus there is a potential to impact soil processes responsible for herbicide degradation. This may change herbicide efficacy and environmental fate characteristics. Our study objective was to determine the effects of 4 peanut fungicides, chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile), tebuconazole (alpha-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-alpha-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol), flutriafol (alpha-(2-fluorophenyl)-alpha-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol), and cyproconazole (alpha-(4-chlorophenyl)-alpha-(1-cyclopropylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol) on the dissipation kinetics of the herbicide, metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(6-ethyl-o-tolyl)-N-[(1RS)-2-methoxy-1-methylethyl]acetamide), and on the soil microbial community. This was done through laboratory incubation of field treated soil. Chlorothalonil significantly reduced metolachlor soil dissipation as compared to the non-treated control or soil treated with the other fungicides. Metolachlor DT(50) was 99 days for chlorothalonil-treated soil and 56, 45, 53, and 46 days for control, tebuconazole, flutriafol, and cyproconazole-treated soils, respectively. Significant reductions in predominant metolachlor metabolites, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOA), produced by oxidation of glutathione-metolachlor conjugates were also observed in chlorothalonil-treated soil. This suggested that the fungicide impacted soil glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. Fungicide DT(50) was 27-80 days but impacts on the soil microbial community as indicated by lipid biomarker analysis were minimal. Overall study results indicated that

  9. Soil microbial community toxic response to atrazine and its residues under atrazine and lead contamination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinglin; Yang, Baoshan; Wang, Hui; He, Fei; Gao, Yongchao; Scheel, Ryan A

    2015-01-01

    Intensive use of atrazine and extensive dispersal of lead (Pb) have occurred in farmland with chemical agriculture development. However, the toxicological effect of their presence on soil microorganism remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of atrazine or Pb on the soil microbiota, soil net nitrogen mineralization, and atrazine residues over a 28-day microcosm incubation. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index, typical microbe species, and a Neighbor-joining tree of typical species from sequencing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands were determined across periodical sampling times. The results showed that the existence of atrazine or Pb (especially high concentration) in soils reduced microbial diversity (the lowest H value is 2.23) compared to the control (H = 2.59) after a 28-day incubation. The species richness reduced little (from 17~19 species to 16~17 species) over the research time. But soil microbial community was significantly affected by the incubation time after the exposure to atrazine or Pb. The combination of atrazine and Pb had a significant inhibition effect on soil net nitrogen nitrification. Atrazine and Pb significantly stimulated soil cumulative net nitrogen mineralization and nitrification. Pb (300 and 600 mg kg(-1)) accelerated the level of atrazine dissipation. The exposure might stimulate the significant growth of the autochthonous soil degraders which may use atrazine as C source and accelerate the dissipation of atrazine in soils.

  10. [Experimental poisoning of carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio L.) with the herbicidal preparation, lasagrin (alachlor)].

    PubMed

    Doĭcheva, L A

    1978-01-01

    The acute intoxication of K1 carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with the herbicide preparation lassagrin (alachlor) was studied under experimental conditions in a laboratory. Used were a total of 360 young carps of 10 g each, measuring 9-10 cm. The experiments were carried out in 30-1 glass aquariums that were preliminary filled with water that was adequately heated and deprived of chlorine at pH = 6.9, T0C = 18-20 degrees C, O2 = 10.4 mg/1; hardness = 1.5 German degrees. The preparation was directly placed in the aquariums in eleven concentrations. The following characteristic symptoms of intoxication were established: higher irritability of the nervous system with superactivity, lack of coordination and orientation, depression in later hours, loss of sight, disturbed pigmentation. No morphologic changes were found at necropsy. Determined was the concentration at which 50% of the test material died at the 96th hour of exposure: LC50/TLm/=4.67 mg, the interval of dependability at 95% probability being 4.04-5.30. Both toxicometry data and intoxication symptoms with the use of lassagrin (alachlor, lasso) made it reasonable to believe that the preparation could be referred to poisons having resorptive action so far as carps are concerned.

  11. Atrazine mineralization potential in two wetlands.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristen L; Wheeler, Kevin A; Robinson, Jayne B; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2002-11-01

    The fate of atrazine in agricultural soils has been studied extensively but attenuation in wetland systems has received relatively little attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mineralization of atrazine in two wetlands in central Ohio. One was a constructed wetland, which is fed by Olentangy River water from an agricultural catchment area. The other was a natural fen (Cedar Bog) in proximity to atrazine-treated cornfields. Atrazine mineralization potential was measured by 14CO2 evolution from [U-ring-14C]-atrazine in biometers. The constructed wetland showed 70-80% mineralization of atrazine within 1 month. Samples of wetland water that were pre-concentrated 200-fold by centrifugation also mineralized 60-80% of the added atrazine. A high extent of atrazine mineralization (75-81% mineralized) was also associated with concentrated water samples from the Olentangy River that were collected upstream and downstream of the wetland. The highest levels of mineralization were localized to the top 5 cm zone of the wetland sediment, and the activity close to the outflow at the Olentangy wetland was approximately equal to that near the inflow. PCR amplification of DNA extracted from the wetland sediment samples showed no positive signals for the atzA gene (atrazine chlorohydrolase), while Southern blots of the amplified DNA showed positive bands in five of the six Olentangy wetland sediment samples. Amplification with the trzD (cyanuric acid amidohydrolase) primers showed a positive PCR signal for all Olentangy wetland sediment samples. There was little mineralization of atrazine in any of the Cedar Bog samples. DNA extracted from Cedar Bog samples did not yield PCR products, and the corresponding Southern hybridization signals were absent. The data show that sediment microbial communities in the Olentangy wetland mineralize atrazine. The level of activity may be related to the seasonality of atrazine runoff entering the wetland. Comparable activity was not

  12. Simulated fate and transport of metolachlor in the unsaturated zone, Maryland, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayless, E.R.; Capel, P.D.; Barbash, J.E.; Webb, R.M.T.; Hancock, T.L.C.; Lampe, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    An unsaturated-zone transport model was used to examine the transport and fate of metolachlor applied to an agricultural site in Maryland, USA. The study site was instrumented to collect data on soil-water content, soil-water potential, ground water levels, major ions, pesticides, and nutrients from the unsaturated zone during 2002-2004. The data set was enhanced with site-specific information describing weather, soils, and agricultural practices. The Root Zone Water Quality Model was used to simulate physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in the unsaturated zone. Model calibration to bromide tracer concentrations indicated flow occurred through the soil matix. Simulated recharge rates were within the measured range of values. The pesticide transport model was calibrated to the intensive data collection period (2002-2004), and the calibrated model was then used to simulate the period 1984 through 2004 to examine the impact of sustained agricultural management practices on the concentrations of metolachlor and its degradates at the study site. Simulation results indicated that metolachlor degrades rapidly in the root zone but that the degradates are transported to depth in measurable quantities. Simulations indicated that degradate transport is strongly related to the duration of sustained use of metolachlor and the extent of biodegradation. 

  13. Assessment of best management practice effects on metolachlor mitigation in an agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beasley Lake watershed in the Mississippi Delta is a 915 ha intensively cultivated watershed (49-78% in row crop production) that was monitored for the herbicide metolachlor from 1998-2009. As part of the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), the watershed was assessed for the effecti...

  14. Occurrence of metolachlor and trifluralin losses in the Save river agricultural catchment during floods.

    PubMed

    Boithias, Laurie; Sauvage, Sabine; Taghavi, Lobat; Merlina, Georges; Probst, Jean-Luc; Pérez, José Miguel Sánchez

    2011-11-30

    Rising pesticide levels in streams draining intensively managed agricultural land have a detrimental effect on aquatic ecosystems and render water unfit for human consumption. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate daily pesticide transfer at the outlet from an agriculturally intensive catchment of 1110 km(2) (Save river, south-western France). SWAT reliably simulated both dissolved and sorbed metolachlor and trifluralin loads and concentrations at the catchment outlet from 1998 to 2009. On average, 17 kg of metolachlor and 1 kg of trifluralin were exported at outlet each year, with annual rainfall variations considered. Surface runoff was identified as the preferred pathway for pesticide transfer, related to the good correlation between suspended sediment exportation and pesticide, in both soluble and sorbed phases. Pesticide exportation rates at catchment outlet were less than 0.1% of the applied amount. At outlet, SWAT hindcasted that (i) 61% of metolachlor and 52% of trifluralin were exported during high flows and (ii) metolachlor and trifluralin concentrations exceeded European drinking water standards of 0.1 μg L(-1) for individual pesticides during 149 (3.6%) and 17 (0.4%) days of the 1998-2009 period respectively. SWAT was shown to be a promising tool for assessing large catchment river network pesticide contamination in the event of floods but further useful developments of pesticide transfers and partition coefficient processes would need to be investigated.

  15. Weed management in transplanted lettuce with Pendimethalin and S-metolachlor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few herbicides are available for use in lettuce and hand weeding is required for commercially acceptable weed control. More effective herbicides are needed. Here we report field evaluations of pendimethalin and S-metolachlor for weed control in transplanted lettuce. Pendimethalin was evaluated PRE a...

  16. Enantiomeric separation of metolachlor and its metabolites using LC-MS and CZE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, C. John; Schneider, R.J.; Meyer, M.T.; Aga, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    The stereoisomers of metolachlor and its two polar metabolites [ethane sulfonic acid (ESA) and oxanilic acid (OXA)] were separated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), respectively. The separation of metolachlor enantiomers was achieved using a LC-MS equipped with a chiral stationary phase based on cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate) and an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated under positive ion mode. The enantiomers of ESA and OXA were separated using CZE with gamma-cyclodextrin (??-CD) as chiral selector. Various CZE conditions were investigated to achieve the best resolution of the ESA and OXA enantiomers. The optimum background CZE electrolyte was found to consist of borate buffer (pH = 9) containing 20% methanol (v/v) and 2.5% ??-CD (w/v). Maximum resolution of ESA and OXA enantiomers was achieved using a capillary temperature of 15??C and applied voltage of 30 kV. The applicability of the LC-MS and CZE methods was demonstrated successfully on the enantiomeric analysis of metolachlor and its metabolites in samples from a soil and water degradation study that was set up to probe the stereoselectivity of metolachlor biodegradation. These techniques allow the enantiomeric ratios of the target analytes to be followed over time during the degradation process and thus will prove useful in determining the role of chirality in pesticide degradation and metabolite formation. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enantiomeric separation of metolachlor and its metabolites using LC-MS and CZE.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christine; Schneider, Rudolf J; Meyer, Michael T; Aga, Diana S

    2006-03-01

    The stereoisomers of metolachlor and its two polar metabolites [ethane sulfonic acid (ESA) and oxanilic acid (OXA)] were separated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), respectively. The separation of metolachlor enantiomers was achieved using a LC-MS equipped with a chiral stationary phase based on cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate) and an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated under positive ion mode. The enantiomers of ESA and OXA were separated using CZE with gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD) as chiral selector. Various CZE conditions were investigated to achieve the best resolution of the ESA and OXA enantiomers. The optimum background CZE electrolyte was found to consist of borate buffer (pH=9) containing 20% methanol (v/v) and 2.5% gamma-CD (w/v). Maximum resolution of ESA and OXA enantiomers was achieved using a capillary temperature of 15 degrees C and applied voltage of 30 kV. The applicability of the LC-MS and CZE methods was demonstrated successfully on the enantiomeric analysis of metolachlor and its metabolites in samples from a soil and water degradation study that was set up to probe the stereoselectivity of metolachlor biodegradation. These techniques allow the enantiomeric ratios of the target analytes to be followed over time during the degradation process and thus will prove useful in determining the role of chirality in pesticide degradation and metabolite formation.

  18. Biodegradation of atrazine by three transgenic grasses and alfalfa expressing a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase gene.

    PubMed

    Vail, Andrew W; Wang, Ping; Uefuji, Hirotaka; Samac, Deborah A; Vance, Carroll P; Wackett, Lawrence P; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The widespread use of atrazine and other s-triazine herbicides to control weeds in agricultural production fields has impacted surface and groundwater in the United States and elsewhere. We previously reported the cloning, sequencing, and expression of six genes involved in the atrazine biodegradation pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, which is initiated by atzA, encoding atrazine chlorohydrolase. Here we explored the use of enhanced expression of a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase, p-AtzA, in transgenic grasses (tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, and switchgrass) and the legume alfalfa for the biodegradation of atrazine. Enhanced expression of p-AtzA was obtained by using combinations of the badnavirus promoter, the maize alcohol dehydrogenase first intron, and the maize ubiquitin promoter. For alfalfa, we used the first intron of the 5'-untranslated region tobacco alcohol dehydrogenase gene and the cassava vein mosaic virus promoter. Resistance of plants to atrazine in agar-based and hydroponic growth assays was correlated with in vivo levels of gene expression and atrazine degradation. The in planta expression of p-atzA enabled transgenic tall fescue to transform atrazine into hydroxyatrazine and other metabolites. Results of our studies highlight the potential use of transgenic plants for bioremediating atrazine in the environment.

  19. Contribution of hydroxylated atrazine degradation products to the total atrazine load in midwestern streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerch, R.N.; Blanchard, P.E.; Thurman, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of hydroxylated atrazine degradation products (HADPs) to the total atrazine load (i.e., atrazine plus stable metabolites)in streams needs to be determined in order to fully assess the impact of atrazine contamination on stream ecosystems and human health. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the contribution of HADPs to the total atrazine load in streams of nine midwestern states and (2) to discuss the mechanisms controlling the concentrations of HADPs in streams. Stream samples were collected from 95 streams in northern Missouri at preplant and postplant of 1994 and 1995, and an additional 46 streams were sampled in eight midwestern states at postplant of 1995. Samples were analyzed for atrazine, deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), and three HADPs. Overall, HADP prevalence (i.e., frequency of detection) ranged from 87 to 100% for hydroxyatrazine (HA), 0 to 58% for deethylhydroxyatrazine (DEHA), and 0% for deisopropylhydroxyatrazine (DIHA) with method detection limits of 0.04-0.10 ??g L-1. Atrazine metabolites accounted for nearly 60% of the atrazine load in northern Missouri streams at preplant, with HA the predominant metabolite present. Data presented in this study and a continuous monitoring study are used to support the hypothesis that a combination of desorption from stream sediments and dissolved-phase transport control HADP concentrations in streams.The contribution of hydroxylated atrazine degradation products (HADPs) to the total atrazine load (i.e., atrazine plus stable metabolites) in streams needs to be determined in order to fully assess the impact of atrazine contamination on stream ecosystems and human health. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the contribution of HADPs to the total atrazine load in streams of nine midwestern states and (2) to discuss the mechanisms controlling the concentrations of HADPs in streams. Stream samples were collected from 95 streams in northern Missouri at

  20. Bacterial communities in batch and continuous-flow wetlands treating the herbicide S-metolachlor.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, O F; Maillard, E; Vuilleumier, S; Imfeld, G

    2014-11-15

    Knowledge of wetland bacterial communities in the context of pesticide contamination and hydrological regime is scarce. We investigated the bacterial composition in constructed wetlands receiving Mercantor Gold(®) contaminated water (960 g L(-1) of the herbicide S-metolachlor, >80% of the S-enantiomer) operated under continuous-flow or batch modes to evaluate the impact of the hydraulic regime. In the continuous-flow wetland, S-metolachlor mass removal was >40%, whereas in the batch wetland, almost complete removal of S-metolachlor (93-97%) was observed. Detection of ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradation products further indicated S-metolachlor biodegradation in the two wetlands. The dominant bacterial populations were characterised by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial profiles evolved during the first 35 days of the experiment, starting from a composition similar to that of inlet water, with the use of nitrate and to a lesser extent sulphate and manganese as terminal electron acceptors for microbial metabolism. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum, with Beta-, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria representing 26%, 19% and 17% respectively of total bacterial abundance. Bacterial composition in wetland water changed gradually over time in continuous-flow wetland and more abruptly in the batch wetland. Differences in overall bacterial water structure in the two systems were modest but significant (p=0.008), and S-metolachlor, nitrate, and total inorganic carbon concentrations correlated with changes in the bacterial profiles. Together, the results highlight that bacterial composition profiles and their dynamics may be used as bioindicators of herbicide exposure and hydraulic disturbances in wetland systems.

  1. Fate and efficacy of metolachlor granular and emulsifiable concentrate formulations in a conservation tillage system.

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Gerstl, Zev; White, Paul W; Cutts, George S; Webster, Theodore M; Truman, Clint C; Strickland, Timothy C; Bosch, David D

    2010-10-13

    Use of genetically modified cultivars resistant to the herbicide glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) is strongly associated with conservation-tillage (CsT) management for maize ( Zea mays L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.), and cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivation. Due to the emergence of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes, alternate weed management practices are needed to sustain CsT use. This work focused on metolachlor use (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide) in a CsT system. The fate and efficacy of granular and emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulations or an EC surrogate were compared for CsT cotton production in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region of southern Georgia (USA). The granular formulation, a clay-alginate polymer, was produced in the authors' laboratory; EC was a commercial product. In field and laboratory dissipations the granular metolachlor exhibited 8-fold greater soil persistence. Rainfall simulation runoff assessments indicated that use of the granular formulation in a common CsT system, strip-tillage (ST), may reduce metolachlor runoff loss when compared to conventional tillage (CT) management or when EC formulations are used in the ST system. Metolachlor leaching assessments using field-deployed lysimeters showed some tillage (ST > CT) and formulation (EC > granular) differences. Overall leaching was generally small when compared to runoff loss. Finally, greenhouse bioassays showed control of two weed species with the granular was greater than or equal to that of the EC formulation; however, the granular formulation suppressed cotton growth to a greater extent. In sum, this metolachlor granular formulation has advantages for CsT cotton production; however, additional research is needed to assess impacts on crop injury.

  2. Solar radiation, relative humidity, and soil water effects on metolachlor volatilization.

    PubMed

    Prueger, John H; Gish, Timothy J; McConnell, Laura L; Mckee, Lynn G; Hatfield, Jerry L; Kustas, William P

    2005-07-15

    Pesticide volatilization is a significant loss pathway that may have unintended consequences in nontarget environments. Field-scale pesticide volatilization involves the interaction of a number of complex variables. There is a need to acquire pesticide volatilization fluxes from a location where several of these variables can be held constant. Accordingly, soil properties, tillage practices, surface residue management, and pesticide formulations were held constant while fundamental information regarding metolachlor volatilization (a pre-emergent pesticide) was monitored over a five-year period as influenced by meteorological variables and soil water content. Metolachlor vapor concentrations were measured continuously for 120 h after each application using polyurethane foam plugs in a logarithmic profile above the soil surface. A flux gradient technique was used to compute volatilization fluxes from metolachlor concentration profiles and turbulent fluxes of heat and water vapor (as determined from eddy covariance measurements). Differences in meteorological conditions and surface soil water contents resulted in variability of the volatilization losses over the years studied. The peak volatilization losses for each year occurred during the first 24 h after application with a maximum flux rate in 2001 (1500 ng m(-2) s(-1)) associated with wet surface soil conditions combined with warm temperatures. The cumulative volatilization losses for the 120-hour period following metolachlor application varied over the years from 5 to 25% of the applied active ingredient, with approximately 87% of the losses occurring during the first 72 h. In all of the years studied, volatilization occurred diurnally and accounted for between 43 and 86% during the day and 14 and 57% during the night of the total measured loss. The results suggest that metolachlor volatilization is influenced by multiple factors involving meteorological, surface soil, and chemical factors.

  3. Determination of alachlor and its sulfonic acid metabolite in water by solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.; Pomes, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were combined for the trace analysis of the herbicide alachlor and its major soil metabolite, ethanesulfonic acid (ESA). The anti-alachlor antibody cross-reacted with ESA, which produced false-positive detections of alachlor in water samples by immunoassay screens. Alachlor and ESA were isolated from water by SPE on a C18 resin and eluted sequentially with ethyl acetate and methanol. Alachlor is soluble in ethyl acetate while the anionic ESA is not. Thus ESA remained adsorbed on the C18 resin and was eluted later with methanol. The combination of SPE with ELISA effectivety separated and quantified both alachlor and ESA using the same antibody for two ELISA methods. The general method may have applicability for the separation of other herbicides and their ionic metabolites. The SPE-ELISA method has a, detection limit of 0.01 ??g/L for alachlor and 0.05 ??g/L for ESA, with a precision of ?? 10%. Analyses of surface and ground water samples were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. Results showed widespread occurrence of ESA in surface and ground water of the midwestern United States, with concentrations ranging from 10 ??g/L.

  4. Ascorbate-Promoted Surface Iron Cycle for Efficient Heterogeneous Fenton Alachlor Degradation with Hematite Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaopeng; Hou, Xiaojing; Jia, Falong; Song, Fahui; Zhao, Jincai; Zhang, Lizhi

    2017-03-15

    This study reports the H2O2 activation with different hematite nanocrystals and ascorbate ions for the herbicide alachlor degradation at pH 5. We found that hematite nanoplates (HNPs) exposed with {001} facets exhibited better catalytic performance than hematite nanocubes (HNCs) exposed with {012} facets, which was attributed to the formation of inner-sphere iron-ascorbate complexes on the hematite facets. The 3-fold undercoordination Fe cations of {001} facet favors the formation of inner-sphere iron-ascorbate complexes, while the 5-fold undercoordination Fe cations of {012} facet has stereo-hindrance effect, disfavoring the complex formation. The surface area normalized alachlor degradation rate constant (23.3 × 10(-4) min(-1) L m(-2)) of HNPs-ascorbate Fenton system was about 2.6 times that (9.1 × 10(-4) min(-1) L m(-2)) of HNCs-ascorbate counterpart. Meanwhile, the 89.0% of dechlorination and 30.0% of denitrification in the HNPs-ascorbate Fenton system were also significantly higher than those (60.9% and 13.1%) of the HNCs-ascorbate one. More importantly, the reductive dissolution of hematite by ascorbate was strongly coupled with the subsequent H2O2 decomposition by surface bound ferrous ions through surface iron cycle on the hematite facets in the hematite-ascorbate Fenton systems. This coupling could significantly inhibit the conversion of surface bound ferrous ions to dissolved ones, and thus account for the stability of hematite nanocrystals. This work sheds light on the internal relationship between iron geochemical cycling and contaminants degradation, and also inspires us to utilize surface iron cycle of widely existent hematite for environmental remediation.

  5. Biodegradation of atrazine by three transgenic grasses and alfalfa expressing a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use of atrazine and other s-triazine herbicides to control weeds in agricultural production fields has impacted surface and ground water in the United States and elsewhere. We previously reported the cloning, sequencing, and expression of six genes involved in the atrazine biodegradat...

  6. Atrazine removal from aqueous solutions using submerged biological aerated filter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Atrazine is widely used in the agriculture as an herbicide. Due to its high mobility, Atrazine leaks into the groundwaters, surface waters, and drinking water wells. Many physical and chemical methods have been suggested for removing Atrazine from aquatic environments. However, these methods are very costly, have many performance problems, produce a lot of toxic intermediates which are very harmful and dangerous, and cannot completely mineralize Atrazine. In this study, biodegradation of Atrazine by microbial consortium was evaluated in the aquatic environment. In order to assess the Atrazine removal from the aquatic environment, submerged biological aerated filter (SBAF) was fed with synthetic wastewater based on sucrose and Atrazine at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The maximum efficiencies for Atrazine and Soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (SCOD) removal were 97.9% and 98.9%, respectively. The study findings showed that Stover-Kincannon model had very good fitness (R2 > 99%) in loading Atrazine in the biofilter and by increasing the initial concentration of Atrazine, the removal efficiency increased. Aerobic mixed biofilm culture was observed to be suitable for the treatment of Atrazine from aquatic environment. There was no significant inhibition effect on mixed aerobic microbial consortia. Atrazine degradation depended on the strength of wastewater and the amount of Atrazine in the influent. PMID:24499572

  7. Assessment of human exposure to atrazine through the determination of free atrazine in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Catenacci, G. ); Maroni, M. ); Cottica, D. ); Pozzoli, L.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on metabolism and excretion of atrazine in man are not available in the literature. The present study has investigated human exposure to atrazine during its industrial production by means of assessment of ambient exposure and determination of free atrazine in urine. Four workers exposed to atrazine during its manufacture and packaging in a production plant, volunteered for the study. Atrazine was determined in airborne dust of the working environment obtained by personal sampling, on skin pads according to the WHO standard method, and on the skin of the hands of the workers by means of a washing procedure. Urine was collected before, during, and after exposure. A 24 hr collection before the first workshift, all the urine voided during the monitoring period, subdivided in 8 hr fractions; and one or more 12 hr samples after the end of the exposure period were collected.

  8. Spectroscopic investigations of the chiral interactions of metolachlor and its (S)-isomer with lipase and phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yue Z; Yuan, Yu L; Chen, Hui; Wang, He L; Liu, Hui J; Kang, Xiao D; Fu, Liu S

    2010-04-01

    Metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] is a chiral acetanilide herbicide. We investigated its enantioselective interactions, and that of its (S)-isomer, with Penicillium expansum alkaline lipase and phosphatase. UV differential spectroscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometry studies were conducted in phosphate buffered solution at pH 7. Chiral differences in the UV absorption and fluorescence spectra of lipase and phosphatase with metolachlor and its (S)-isomer were detected. The results showed that the interactions of metolachlor and its (S)-isomer with lipase and phosphatase occur statically through complex formation, and enantioselectivity was clearly observed. In addition, both UV absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometry showed that the (S)-isomer interacted more strongly with lipase and phosphatase than metolachlor.

  9. Infiltration and adsorption of dissolved atrazine and atrazine metabolites in buffalograss filter strips.

    PubMed

    Krutz, L J; Senseman, S A; Dozier, M C; Hoffman, D W; Tierney, D P

    2003-01-01

    Vegetated filter strips (VFS) potentially reduce the off-site movement of herbicides from adjacent agricultural fields by increasing herbicide mass infiltrated (Minf) and mass adsorbed (Mas) compared with bare field soil. However, there are conflicting reports in the literature concerning the contribution of Mas to the VFS herbicide trapping efficiency (TE). Moreover, no study has evaluated TE among atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-isopropyl-[1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamine) and atrazine metabolites. This study was conducted to compare TE, Minf, and Mas among atrazine, diaminoatrazine (DA, 6-chloro[1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamine), deisopropylatrazine (DIA, 6-chloro-N-ethyl-[1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamine), desethylatrazine (DEA, 6-chloro-N-isopropyl-[1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamine), and hydroxyatrazine (HA, 6-hydroxy-N-ethyl-N'-isopropyl-[1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamine) in a buffalograss VFS. Runoff was applied as a point source upslope of a 1- x 3-m microwatershed plot at a rate of 750 L h(-1). The point source was fortified at 0.1 microg mL(-1) atrazine, DA, DIA, DEA, and HA. After crossing the length of the plot, water samples were collected at 5-min intervals. Water samples were extracted by solid phase extraction and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) photodiode array detection. During the 60-min simulation, TE was significantly greater for atrazine (22.2%) compared with atrazine metabolites (19.0%). Approximately 67 and 33% of the TE was attributed to Minf and Mas, respectively. These results demonstrate that herbicide adsorption to the VFS grass, grass thatch, and/or soil surface is an important retention mechanism, especially under saturated conditions. Values for Mas were significantly higher for atrazine compared with atrazine's metabolites. The Mas data indicate that atrazine was preferentially retained by the VFS grass, grass thatch, and/or soil surface compared with atrazine's metabolites.

  10. Factors Affecting Atrazine Concentration and Quantitative Determination in Chlorinated Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the herbicide atrazine has been reported to not react measurably with free chlorine during drinking water treatment, this work demonstrates that at contact times consistent with drinking water distribution system residence times, a transformation of atrazine can be obser...

  11. ATRAZINE AND REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION: MODE AND MECHANISM OF ACTION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine, a chlorotriazine herbicide, is used to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. In this review, we summarize our laboratory's work evaluating the neuroendocrine toxicity of atrazine (and related chlorotriazines) from an historic perspective. We provide the rationale ...

  12. GC-ECD analysis of S-metolachlor (Dual Gold) in cotton plant and soil in trial field.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengying; Liu, Fengmao; Wang, Suli; Wang, Yuhong; Han, Lijun

    2008-08-01

    The analytical method of S-metolachlor residue and its degradation in cotton and soil in trial field were investigated. S-metolachlor EC (96% w/w) was applied as pre-emergence at dosages of 1,500 and 2,250 ml ha(-1) 3 days after sowing of the cottonseeds in the field. The soil and the plant samples were collected at different intervals and the residues of S-metolachlor were analyzed by GC-ECD. The results showed that the degradation of S-metolachlor in cotton leaves in Beijing and Nanjing coincides with C = 0.1113e(-0.1050t) and C = 0.1177e(-0.1580t), respectively; the half-lives were about 6.6 and 4.4 days. The degradation of S-metolachlor in soil in Beijing and Nanjing coincides with C = 1.0621e(-0.0475) (t), and C = 0.9212e(-0.0548) (t), respectively; the half-lives were about 14.6 and 12.6 days,. At harvest time, the S-metolachlor in cotton seeds and soil samples were detected by GC-ECD and confirmed by GC/MS. The results showed that the residues in cottonseeds were lower than the USA EPA's maximum residue limit of 0.1 mg kg(-1) in cottonseed. It could be considered as safe to human beings and environment.

  13. Influence of chemical treatments on glutathione S-transferases of maize with activity towards metolachlor and cinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, C K; Hatzios, K K; Meredith, S

    1998-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity extracted from shoots of 3-day-old etiolated seedlings of maize (Zea mays L., Northrup-King 9283 hybrid) and the induction of soluble and membrane-bound GST activity by the safener benoxacor, the herbicide metolachlor and their combination (CGA-180937) were investigated. GST activity extracted from maize shoots was detected in both cytosolic and microsomal fractions and utilized 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), metolachlor, and trans-cinnamic acid (CA) as substrates. Soluble GST activity extracted from maize shoots was greater than microsomal with CDNB or metolachlor as substrate. Membrane-bound GST activity was greater than soluble with cinnamic acid as substrate. Washing the microsomal preparations from maize shoots with Triton X-100 increased GST(CA) activity. Pretreatment with the safener benoxacor or a formulated combination of the herbicide metolachlor with benoxacor induced soluble GST(CDNB), GST(metolachlor) and GST(CA) activities in maize shoots. Benoxacor and CGA-180937 induced also membrane-bound GST(CDNB) and GST(CA) activities in maize shoots, but did not affect membrane-bound GST(metolachlor) activity. These results confirm that maize contains multiple GST isozymes that differ in their substrate specificity and inducibility by safeners or other chemicals.

  14. Determining potential for microbial atrazine degradation in agricultural drainage ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Passage of agricultural runoff through vegetated drainage ditches has been shown to reduce the amount of pesticides, such as atrazine, exiting agricultural watersheds. Previous studies found that microbial communities in soil from fields treated with atrazine display enhanced rates of atrazine degr...

  15. Detecting and Confirming Accelerated Atrazine Degradation in Illinois Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical abstract: Enhanced degradation of atrazine has been documented in many parts of the world where the herbicide has been extensively used. Atrazine is widely used in corn in Illinois, but enhanced degradation in the field has not been documented. In this study, the dissipation of atrazine...

  16. Oxidation of atrazine by photoactivated potassium persulfate in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandarkhaeva, M. S.; Aseev, D. G.; Sizykh, M. R.; Batoeva, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    General laws of the photochemical oxidation of atrazine by inorganic peroxo compounds under the impact of solar radiation are studied. It is found that almost complete conversion of atrazine can be achieved via photochemical oxidation with persulfate after 120 min, but no deep mineralization is observed. The effect an aqueous matrix has on the processes of atrazine degradation in combined oxidation systems is considered.

  17. Biochar characteristics produced from rice husks and their sorption properties for the acetanilide herbicide metolachlor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lan; Huang, Yufen; Li, Yanliang; Huang, Lianxi; Mar, Nyo Nyo; Huang, Qing; Liu, Zhongzhen

    2017-02-01

    Rice husk biochar (RHBC) was prepared for use as adsorbents for the herbicide metolachlor. The characteristics and sorption properties of metolachlor adsorbed by the RHBC prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures were determined by analysis of physico-chemical characteristics, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Boehm titration, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermodynamics and kinetics adsorption. With increasing pyrolysis temperature, the RHBC surface area greatly increased (from 2.57 to 53.08 m(2) g(-1)). RHBC produced at the highest temperature (750 °C) had the greatest surface area; SEM also showed the formation of a porous surface on RH-750 biochar. The sorption capacity of RHBC also increased significantly with increasing pyrolysis temperature and was characterized by the Freundlich constant K f for the adsorption capacity increasing from 125.17-269.46 (pyrolysis at 300 °C) to 339.94-765.24 (pyrolysis at 750 °C). The results indicated that the surface area and pore diameter of RHBC produced with high pyrolysis temperature (i.e., 750 °C) had the greatest impact on the adsorption of metolachlor. The FTIR, Boehm titration, and SEM analysis showed that the greatest number of surface groups were on RHBC produced at the lowest temperature (300 °C). The biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had different mechanisms of adsorbing metolachlor, which exhibited a transition from hydrogen bonds dominant at low pyrolytic temperature to pore-filling dominant at higher pyrolytic temperature.

  18. Occurrence of pesticides in ground water in the White River Basin, Indiana, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Moore, Rhett C.

    1996-01-01

    Pesticides (herbicides and insecticides) are used extensively in the White River Basin. Application of herbicides to corn and soybeans accounts for most of the use. The U.S. Geological Survey collected samples from four networks of monitoring wells in the White River Basin during 1994-95. The most frequently detected compounds in ground water were desethyl atrazine (a breakdown product of atrazine) and the commonly used herbicides, atrazine and metolachlor. Insecticides commonly used in urban and agricultural areas were not found. The highest concentration of any pesticide detected was alachlor at 0.19 micrograms per liter. Most detections of atrazine and desethyl atrazine were in agricultural areas overlying fluvial deposits, which are vulnerable to pesticide contamination, but the concentrations were small (less than 0.1 microgram per liter).

  19. Atrazine tolerance mechanism(s) in photoautotrophic potato cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smeda, R.J.; Hasegawa, P.M.; Weller, S.C. )

    1989-04-01

    A photoautotrophic potato cell line (variant) was isolated and is capable of sustained growth in media containing in the herbicide atrazine at concentration up to 100 x greater than the lethal concentration for the unselected (wild type) cell line (1.0 {mu}M). Fresh weight doubling times of variant cells in the presence or absence of 1.0 {mu}M atrazine were identical to wild type cells grown in the absence of atrazine. Maintenance of variant cells up to 10 passages in the absence of atrazine resulted in a reduction in the concentration of atrazine necessary to inhibit fresh weight gain by 99% (ID{sub 99}) from 100 to 80 {mu}M. Comparison of {sup 14}C-atrazine uptake indicated wild type cells accumulated up to 2.5-fold more atrazine than varient cells within 72h of exposure but no differences were detected thereafter. Electron transport of both isolated chloroplasts and intact cells were significantly inhibited in the wild type cell line by 1.0 {mu}M atrazine but unaffected in the variant cell line by atrazine concentrations up to 10 {mu}M. After 30 days in the presence of 1.0 {mu}M atrazine, wild type cells did not significantly metabolize atrazine, however, variant cells reduced atrazine concentrations to <0.05 {mu}M regardless if the initial atrazine concentration was 1.0 or 10.0 {mu}M. Both metabolism of atrazine and alterations within the chloroplast (potentially a reduction in atrazine binding affinity) appear to be important components of tolerance within variant cells.

  20. Effect of controlled release formulations of diuron and alachlor herbicides on the biochemical activity of agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Manuel; Morillo, Esmeralda; Gómez, Isidoro; Madrid, Fernando; Undabeytia, Tomás

    2017-01-15

    The use of pesticides in agriculture is essential because it reduces the economic losses caused by pests, improving crop yields. In spite of the growing number of studies concerning the development and application of controlled release formulations (CRFs) of pesticides in agricultural soils, there are no studies about the effects of such formulations on the biochemical properties. In this paper the dissipation of diuron and alachlor in three agricultural soils for 127days, applied either as commercial or CRFs, was determined as well as their concomitant effects on soil biochemical properties. Dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities were measured thought the experimental period. The application of alachlor as CRF increases its half-life time in soils, whereas no differences were noticed between diuron formulations due to its slower degradation, which takes longer than its release from the CRF. At the end of the incubation period, the enzymatic activities were the same after the use of diuron either as commercial or CRF, recovering the soil previous status. For alachlor formulations, no differences in enzymatic activities were again observed between both formulations, but their levels in soils were enhanced. Therefore, the use of these CRFs does not adversely affect the soil biochemical properties.

  1. Heteroplasmy and atrazine resistance in Chenopodium album and Senecio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Michaela; Bogenrieder, Arno; Sandermann, Heinrich; Ernst, Dieter

    Atrazine-resistant weeds are well known, and the resistance is primarily caused by a point mutation in the psbA chloroplast gene encoding the photosystem II D1 protein. Heteroplasmy, the presence of different types of chloroplasts in an individual plant, is also very common. Thus, atrazine-resistant weeds may also partly possess the atrazine-binding sequence and vice versa. The region of the psbA gene containing the mutation was sequenced from atrazine-resistant and atrazine-sensitive Chenopodium album and Senecio vulgaris plants. In atrazine-sensitive C. album plants, the expected AGT triplet was found. The atrazine-resistant plants contained the expected base substitution (AGT to GGT); however, in addition the AGT triplet was found. The atrazine-resistant S. vulgaris plants contained the expected GGT sequence, whereas the atrazine-sensitive plants contained both the AGT and GGT sequences. This clearly indicates that in addition to Gly264 also Ser264 is present in atrazine-resistant plants, and vice versa in atrazine-sensitive plants, indicating heteroplasmy in these weeds.

  2. Sorption and transport of atrazine in an agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakan Akyol, Nihat

    2014-05-01

    Sorption and transport of atrazine in an agricultural soil Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides in large quantity worldwide. The objective of this study was to perform some batch and column experiments to examine the transport of atrazine in an agricultural soil from Turkey. Batch experiments indicated that sorption isotherm was nonlinear with a freundlich isotherm over a range of concentration (0.2-10 mg/L) examined. Column experiments showed that transport of atrazine in the soil was moderately retarded compared to non-reactive tracer (R = 2.9-4.0). The degree of retardation decreased with increasing atrazine concentration and residance time had negligable impact on degree of sorption. Flow interruption tests in the column experiments indicated that the rate-limited desorption of atrazine mainly controlled the non-ideal transport of atrazine due to the presence of organic matter fraction (0.83 %) in the soil. Sorption and desorption behavior of atrazine in such soils could have important impacts for risk assessment of atrazine-contaminated soil and should be taken into account in the regulation, management, and remediation of atrazine-contaminated sites. Keywords: Atrazine, Agricultural soil, Batch, Column, Desorption, Rate-limited desorption, Sorption, Transport.

  3. Isolation and identification of the metolachlor stereoisomers using high-performance liquid chromatography, polarimetric measurements, and enantioselective gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Müller, M D; Poiger, T; Buser, H

    2001-01-01

    Because of the presence of two chiral elements (an asymmetrically substituted carbon and a chiral axis), the herbicide metolachlor consists of four stereoisomers stable at ambient temperature with aSS-, aRS-, aSR-, and aRR-configurations (aSS, the isomer with aS,1'S-configuration, etc.). Metolachlor, initially introduced into the market as the racemic product containing all four stereoisomers, is currently being replaced worldwide by S-metolachlor, the product enantiomerically enriched with the herbicidally active 1'S-isomers (aSS, aRS). The isomer-specific analysis of metolachlor requires not only enantioselective ("chiral") analytical techniques but also suitable reference compounds. In this study, two of the four metolachlor isomers were isolated from rac-metolachlor in enantio- (ee > 98%) and diastereomerically pure forms by a combination of achiral and chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The two isomers were identified as the aSS- and the aRR-isomers by polarimetric measurements, in reference to previous data. The two isomers were then thermally equilibrated to 1:1 mixtures of the aSS/aRS and aRR/aSR diastereomers, respectively, so that analytical data of all four metolachlor isomers became available; they were then used to identify these isomers in technical products by chiral high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The kinetics of the thermally induced interconversion of the atropisomers was studied and the consequences, such as for GC analysis, are discussed. A comparison of on-column and split/splitless injection indicated that the latter technique results in significant isomerization prior to separation and, therefore, cannot be used for accurate isomer analysis.

  4. Single-step uncalcined N-TiO2 synthesis, characterizations and its applications on alachlor photocatalytic degradations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannaruang, Totsaporn; Wantala, Kitirote

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this research were to synthesize nitrogen doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) photocatalysts produced by hydrothermal technique and to test the degradation performance of alachlor by photocatalytic process under UV irradiations in the effect of aging temperature and time in the preparation process. The characterizations of synthesized TiO2 such as specific surface area, particle size, phase structure and elements were analyzed by using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), respectively. The Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to design the experiment to determine the optimal condition, main effects and their interactions by using specific surface area, percent alachlor removal and observed first-order rate constant as responses. The kinetic reactions of alachlor degradation were explained by using Langmuir-Hinshelwood expression to confirm the reaction took place on the surface of photocatalyst. The results showed that the effect of aging temperatures was significant on surface area, whereas aging time was insignificant. Additionally, the square term of aging temperature and interaction term were shown significant on the specific surface area as well. The highest specific surface area from response surface at aging temperature between 150-175 °C and aging time between 6-13 h was found in a range of 100-106 m2/g. The average particle size of TiO2 was similar to crystallite size. Therefore, it can be concluded that one particle has only one crystal. The element analysis has shown 10% of nitrogen in TiO2 structure that the energy band-gap about 2.95 eV was found. Although, the effects of aging temperature and time on percent alachlor removal and observed first-order rate constants were insignificant, both terms were significant in term of the square for alachlor photocatalytic degradation. The optimal condition of both responses was achieved at an

  5. Historical review (1983-1992) surface water monitoring for the herbicide metolachlor in midwestern rivers and lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, D.P.; Newby, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    Metolachlor monitoring data from six studies involving 84 rivers, streams and lakes at 106 locations in the central and southeastern United States in 15 states were summarized. These studies cover a ten-year period (1983-1992). The surface water bodies were chosen because most drained agricultural watersheds with a hi-story of metolachlor use. Metolachlor was detected in 57% of 6,125 samples. Only one sample exceeded the 100 ppb lifetime drinking water health advisory level, while 71% of all samples were below 1.0 ppb and 87% were below 5.0 ppb; less than 1.0% of the samples exceeded 30.0 ppb. Spring mean values for all sites and years ranged from non-detectable to 15.63 ppb. Annual means at all locations were below 5.0 ppb, while 76.9% were below 1.00 ppb and 14.5% had non-detectable residues. Metolachlor individual, spring and annual mean concentrations in the 84 surface water bodies were compared to the EPA drinking water Health Advisories (HAL). None of the spring and annual mean concentrations exceeded the lifetime metolachlor HAL of 100 ppb. The concentrations measured in rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs and presented in this report are not expected to pose any acute or chronic health risks to populations who are using these waters.

  6. ATRAZINE ALTERS STEROIDOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that atrazine (ATR, 200 mg/kg x 30 d) causes increased serum estrone (E) and estradiol (E2) in male wistar rats (Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 58:50-59). This study evaluates the short-term effects of ATR on E, E2 and their precursors in the steroidogenic pathway. Sixty-da...

  7. Nitrogen limited biobarriers remove atrazine from contaminated water: laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Hunter, William J; Shaner, Dale L

    2009-01-07

    Atrazine is one of the most frequently used herbicides. This usage coupled with its mobility and recalcitrant nature in deeper soils and aquifers makes it a frequently encountered groundwater contaminant. We formed biobarriers in sand filled columns by coating the sand with soybean oil; after which, we inoculated the barriers with a consortium of atrazine-degrading microorganisms and evaluated the ability of the barriers to remove atrazine from a simulated groundwater containing 1 mg L(-1) atrazine. The soybean oil provided a carbon rich and nitrogen poor substrate to the microbial consortium. Under these nitrogen-limiting conditions it was hypothesized that bacteria capable of using atrazine as a source of nitrogen would remove atrazine from the flowing water. Our hypothesis proved correct and the biobarriers were effective at removing atrazine when the nitrogen content of the influent water was low. Levels of atrazine in the biobarrier effluents declined with time and by the 24th week of the study no detectable atrazine was present (limit of detection<0.005 mg L(-1)). Larger amounts of atrazine were also removed by the biobarriers; when biobarriers were fed 16.3 mg L(-1) atrazine 97% was degraded. When nitrate (5 mg L(-1) N), an alternate source of nitrogen, was added to the influent water the atrazine removal efficiency of the barriers was reduced by almost 60%. This result supports the hypothesis that atrazine was degraded as a source of nitrogen. Poisoning of the biobarriers with mercury chloride resulted in an immediate and large increase in the amount of atrazine in the barrier effluents confirming that biological activity and not abiotic factors were responsible for most of the atrazine degradation. The presence of hydroxyatrazine in the barrier effluents indicated that dehalogenation was one of the pathways of atrazine degradation. Permeable barriers might be formed in-situ by the injection of innocuous vegetable oil emulsions into an aquifer or sandy soil

  8. Changes in herbicide concentrations in Midwestern streams in relation to changes in use, 1989-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, E.A.; Battaglin, W.A.; Goolsby, D.A.; Thurman, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples were collected from Midwestern streams in 1994-1995 and 1998 as part of a study to help determine if changes in herbicide use resulted in changes in herbicide concentrations since a previous reconnaissance study in 1989-1990. Sites were sampled during the first significant runoff period after the application of pre-emergent herbicides in 1989-1990, 1994-1995, and 1998. Samples were analyzed for selected herbicides, two atrazine metabolites, three cyanazine metabolites, and one alachlor metabolite. In the Midwestern USA, alachlor use was much greater in 1989 than in 1995, whereas acetochlor was not used in 1989 but was commonly used in 1995. The use of atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor was approximately the same in 1989 and 1995. The median concentrations of atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and metolachlor were substantially higher in 1989-1990 than in 1994-1995 or 1998. The median acetochlor concentration was higher in 1998 than in 1994 or 1995. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Atrazine reduces reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Papoulias, D.M.; Whyte, J.J.; Richter, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Atrazine, the widely used herbicide, has shown to affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in certain vertebrate species, but few studies have examined reproductive effects of this chemical on fish. Our study was designed to evaluate a population endpoint (egg production) in conjunction with histological (e.g., gonad development) and biochemical (e.g., hormone production) phenotypes associated with atrazine exposure in fathead minnows. Adult virgin breeding groups of 1 male and 2 females were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5.0, and 50 ??g/L of atrazine in a flow-through diluter for 14 or 30 days. Total egg production was lower (19-39%) in all atrazine-exposed groups as compared to the controls. The decreases in cumulative egg production of atrazine treated fish were significant by 17-20 days of exposure. Reductions in egg production in atrazine treatment groups were most attributable to reduced numbers of spawning events with increased atrazine exposure concentrations. Gonad abnormalities were observed in both male and female fish of atrazine-exposed fish. Our results also indicate that atrazine reduces egg production through alteration of final maturation of oocytes. The reproductive effects observed in this study warrant further investigation and evaluation of the potential risks posed by atrazine, particularly feral populations of fish from streams in agricultural areas with high use of this herbicide. ?? 2010.

  10. Microwave-induced degradation of atrazine sorbed in mineral micropores.

    PubMed

    Hu, Erdan; Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2012-05-01

    The herbicide atrazine is a common pollutant in reservoirs and other sources of drinking water worldwide. The adsorption of atrazine from water onto zeolites CBV-720 and 4A, mesoporous silica MCM-41, quartz sand, and diatomite, and its microwave-induced degradation when sorbed on these minerals, were studied. Dealuminated HY zeolite CBV-720 exhibited the highest atrazine sorption capacity among the mineral sorbents because of its high micropore volume, suitable pore sizes, and surface hydrophobicity. Atrazine sorbed on the minerals degraded under microwave irradiation due to interfacial selective heating by the microwave, while atrazine in aqueous solution and associated with PTFE powder was not affected. Atrazine degraded rapidly in the micropores of CBV-720 under microwave irradiation and its degradation intermediates also decomposed with further irradiation, suggesting atrazine could be fully mineralized. Two new degradation intermediates of atrazine, 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole and guanidine, were first identified in this study. The evolution of degradation intermediates and changes in infrared spectra of CBV-720 after microwave irradiation consistently indicate the creation of microscale hot spots in the micropores and the degradation of atrazine following a pyrolysis mechanism. These results indicate that microporous mineral sorption coupled with microwave-induced degradation could serve as an efficient treatment technology for removing atrazine from drinking water.

  11. Label-free disposable immunosensor for detection of atrazine.

    PubMed

    Belkhamssa, Najet; Justino, Celine I L; Santos, Patrícia S M; Cardoso, Susana; Lopes, Isabel; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This work reports the construction of a fast, disposable, and label-free immunosensor for the determination of atrazine. The immunosensor is based on a field effect transistor (FET) where a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) acts as the conductor channel, constituting carbon nanotubes field effect transistors (CNTFETs). Anti-atrazine antibodies were adsorbed onto the SWCNTs and subsequently the SWCNTs were protected with Tween 20 to prevent the non-specific binding of bacteria or proteins. The principle of the immunoreaction consists in the direct adsorption of atrazine specific antibodies (anti-atrazine) to SWCNTs networks. After exposed to increasing concentrations of atrazine, the CNTFETs could be used as useful label-free platforms to detect atrazine. Under the optimal conditions, a limit of detection as low as 0.001 ng mL(-1) was obtained, which is lower than that of other methods for the atrazine detection, and in a working range between 0.001 and 10 ng mL(-1). The average recoveries obtained for real water samples spiked with atrazine varied from 87.3% to 108.0%. The results show that the constructed sensors display a high sensitivity and could be useful tools for detecting pesticides like atrazine at low concentrations. They could be also applied to the determination of atrazine in environmental aqueous samples, such as seawater and riverine water.

  12. Accumulation and toxicological response of atrazine in rice crops.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia Jun; Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Jin Jin; Tan, Li Rong; Yang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides for controlling weeds and grasses. Due to its intensive use, it has become a serious contaminant in soil and water. To evaluate impact of atrazine on graminaceous crops, experiments focusing on atrazine accumulation and toxic response in rice (Oryza sativa) were carried out. Treatment with atrazine at 0.05-0.8 mg L(-1) for 6 d reduced elongation of shoot and root. Compared with a mock treatment, the elongation of shoot with atrazine was 67.1 percent of the control, whereas that of root was 79.5 percent, indicating that the shoot was more affected than the root. Atrazine was readily absorbed by rice from media. Although the quantitative absorption of atrazine was positively correlated with the external supply of the herbicide, translocation of atrazine from roots to the above-ground was reduced from 39.88±6.26 (at 0.05 mg L(-1)) to 9.25±0.27 (0.8 mg L(-1)). While accumulation of atrazine in rice plants led to toxic responses such as over-generation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions, it triggered the plant defense system against the herbicide-induced oxidative stress. This was best presented by the enhanced activities of several antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) and expression of genes responsible for the tolerance to atrazine toxicity.

  13. Ammonia impacts on atrazine leaching through undisturbed soil columns

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.; Clay, S.A.; Clay, D.E.

    1995-11-01

    Ammonia-based fertilizers such as anhydrous ammonia, aqua ammonia, and urea, initially increase soil pH, reducing atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) sorption and increasing atrazine desorption. Increased amounts of atrazine in soil solution may increase atrazine`s leaching potential. This laboratory study investigated atrazine leaching behavior when ammonia and atrazine applications overlap. Nondisturbed 15-cm diam. by 15-cm depth soil columns were excavated from a Brandt silty clay loam (fine silty, Pachic Udic Haploboroll) and a Ves clay loam (fine silty, mixed mesic Typic Hapludalf). Concentrated NH{sub 4}OH was applied to the soil surface at 0 or 220 kg N ha{sup -1}. Immediately after fertilizer application, 1.9 kg atrazine (spiked with ring-labeled {sup 14}C-atrazine) ha{sup -1} was applied. One day after chemical application, soil columns were leached with 5.4 L of water. The ammonia application increased leachate and surface soil pH by about 2.5 and 3.5 pH units, respectively. The amount of {sup 14}C collected in leachate from ammonia-treated columns was 60 and 30% greater for the Brandt and Ves soils, respectively, compared with untreated columns. Less {sup 14}C remained in the surface of the ammonia-treated columns than in the surface of the untreated columns. These data indicate that the interaction between ammonia-based fertilizers and atrazine must be considered when evaluating atrazine movement through soil. Applications of atrazine and ammonia-based fertilizers that increase pH should be physically separated to limit the leaching potential of atrazine. 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Atrazine degradation by bioaugmented sediment from constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Runes, H B; Jenkins, J J; Bottomley, P J

    2001-10-01

    The potential to establish pesticide biodegradation in constructed wetland sediment was investigated. Under microcosm conditions, bioaugmentation of sediment with small quantities of an atrazine spill-site soil (1:100 w/w) resulted in the mineralization of 25-30% of 14C ethyl atrazine (1-10 microg g(-1) sediment) as 14CO2 under both unsaturated and water-saturated conditions; atrazine and its common metabolites were almost undetectable after 30 days incubation. By comparison, unbioaugmented sediment supplemented with organic amendments (cellulose or cattail leaves) mineralized only 2-3% of 14C ethyl atrazine, and extractable atrazine and its common metabolites comprised approximately 70% of the original application. The population density of atrazine-degrading microorganisms in unbioaugmented sediment was increased from approximately 10(2)/g to 10(4)/g by bioaugmentation (1:100 w/w), and increased by another 60-fold (6.0x10(5) g(-1)) after incubation with 10 microg g(-1) of atrazine. A high population of atrazine degraders (approximately 10(6) g(-1)) and enhanced rates of atrazine mineralization also developed in bioaugmented sediment after incubation in flooded mesocosms planted with cattails (Typha latifolia) and supplemented with atrazine (3.2 mg l(-1), 1 microg g(-1) sediment). In the absence of atrazine, neither the population of atrazine degraders, nor the atrazine mineralizing potential of bioaugmented sediment increased, regardless of the presence or absence of cattails. Bioaugmentation might be a simple method to promote pesticide degradation in nursery run-off channeled through constructed wetlands, if persistence of degraders in the absence of pesticide is not a serious constraint.

  15. Metolachlor Sorption and Degradation in Soil Amended with Fresh and Aged Biochars.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Carmen; Spokas, Kurt A; Hall, Kathleen E; Cox, Lucia; Koskinen, William C

    2016-04-27

    Addition of organic amendments such as biochar to soils can influence pesticide sorption-desorption processes and, in turn, the amount of pesticide readily availability for transport and biodegradation. Sorption-desorption processes are affected by both the physical and chemical properties of soils and pesticides, as well as soil-pesticide contact time, or aging. Changes in sorption-desorption of metolachlor with aging in soil amended with three macadamia nut shell biochars aged 0 (BCmac-fr), 1 year (BCmac-1yr), and 2 years (BCmac-2yr) and two wood biochars aged 0 (BCwood-fr) and 5 years (BCwood-5yr) were determined. Apparent sorption coefficient (Kd-app) values increased with incubation time to a greater extent in amended soil as compared to unamended soils; Kd-app increased by 1.2-fold for the unamended soil, 2.0-fold for BCwood-fr, 1.4-fold for BCwood-5yr, 2.4-fold for BCmac-fr, 2.5-fold for BCmac-1yr, and 1.9-fold for BCmac-4yr. The increase in calculated Kd-app value was the result of a 15% decrease in the metolachlor solution concentration extractable with CaCl2 solution with incubation time in soil as compared to a 50% decrease in amended soil with very little change in the sorbed concentration. Differences could possibly be due to diffusion to less accessible or stronger binding sites with time, a faster rate of degradation (in solution and on labile sites) than desorption, or a combination of the two in the amended soils. These data show that transport models would overpredict the depth of movement of metolachlor in soil if effects of aging or biochar amendments are not considered.

  16. Derived Reference Doses (RfDs) for the environmental degradates of the herbicides alachlor and acetochlor: results of an independent expert panel deliberation.

    PubMed

    Gadagbui, Bernard; Maier, Andrew; Dourson, Michael; Parker, Ann; Willis, Alison; Christopher, John P; Hicks, Lebelle; Ramasamy, Santhini; Roberts, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    An independent peer expert panel was convened under the auspices of the Alliance for Risk Assessment (ARA) to review toxicology data and derive oral Reference Doses (RfDs) for four environmental degradates of the acetanilide herbicides, alachlor and acetochlor. The degradates included in this evaluation were (1) alachlor tertiary-ethanesulfonic acid (ESA), (2) alachlor tertiary-oxanilic acid (OXA), (3) acetochlor ESA, and (4) acetochlor OXA. Each degradate was judged to have sufficient data for developing low to medium confidence RfD, with use of an additional uncertainty factor (UF) to cover data gaps. Body weight decreases were identified as the most sensitive treatment-related adverse effect for RfD development. A composite UF of 1000 (10 for human variability in sensitivity, 10 for interspecies differences in sensitivity, and 10 for subchronic to chronic and database deficiency combined; i.e., 10(A)x10(H)x10(S&D)) for each degradate was considered reasonable, while noting that an argument could be made for an UF of 3000 (10(A)x10(H)x30(S&D)). Based on the available data, an oral RfD of 0.2 mg/kg-day is recommended for both acetochlor ESA and acetochlor OXA and an oral RfD of 0.8 mg/kg-day is recommended for both alachlor ESA and alachlor OXA.

  17. Monitoring stereoselective degradation of metolachlor in a constructed wetland: use of statistically valid enantiomeric and diastereomeric fractions as opposed to ratios.

    PubMed

    Aboul Eish, Mohamed Y Z; Wells, Martha J M

    2008-03-01

    Environmentally contaminated aqueous samples are examined for evidence of stereoselective degradation of metolachlor. The unique chemical structure of metolachlor, a chloroacetamide herbicide, consists of four stereoisomers due to axial and/or C-chirality. The degradation of metolachlor is monitored over time in agricultural runoff water that is applied to a subsurface flow constructed wetland. Metolachlor stereoisomers are isolated from aqueous samples by achiral reversed-phase solid-phase extraction and analyzed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a chiral stationary phase. The analyses of 64 post-application samples, collected over a period of four weeks, are reported. The samples are filtered (0.45 microm) prior to analysis and thereby represent metolachlor in solution and/or associated with dissolved organic carbon. Sixteen samples demonstrate total racemic metolachlor concentrations greater than 10 ppb. Of these 16 samples, one sample is determined statistically to demonstrate enantioselective degradation. Significant contributions made by this study include the evaluation of stereoselectivity based on mathematically derived fractions, rather than ratios, and statistical evaluation of precision establishing the variability resulting from chromatographic processes versus metabolic processes. The research demonstrates that distribution of metolachlor between the solid phase composed of chemical and/or biological particulates and the aqueous phase is not primarily stereoselective, and that stereoselectively enriched metolachlor does not dominate in the aqueous phase.

  18. Enhanced microbial degradation of deethylatrazine in atrazine-history soils

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, E.L.; Chaplin, J.A.; Anderson, T.A.

    1995-12-01

    Persistence and degradation of deethylatrazine, the primary metabolite of atrazine, was measured in soil with atrazine history (15 consecutive years of atrazine application) and no atrazine history (no atrazine application for 15 consecutive years). Uniformly ring-labeled {sup 14}C-deethylatrazine was applied to surface and subsurface soils for metabolism studies. After 60 d of incubation, mineralization of deethylatrazine to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the atrazine-history surface soil was twice that in the no-history surface soils (34% and 17% of the applied {sup 14}C, respectively). In surface soils, 25% of the applied {sup 14}C remained as deethylatrazine in the atrazine-history soil, compared with 35% in the no-history soil. Microbial plate counts indicated an increase in numbers of bacteria and fungi in soils incubated with deethylatrazine compared to control soils. Total microbial biomass of soils incubated with deethylatrazine, as determined by CO{sub 2} efflux using an infrared (IR) gas analyzer, showed no significant difference between atrazine-history, and no-history soil, but did show an increase above untreated control soils. Prior to treating soils with deethylatrazine, specific deethylatrazine degraders were quantified using a {sup 14}C-most-probable-number procedure. Deethylatrazine degraders were more numerous in atrazine-history surface soil compared to no-history surface soil. After incubation of soils with deethylatrazine, deethylatrazine degraders were more numerous in both history soils as compared to control soils. From these studies, it appears that deethylatrazine is degraded microbially to a greater extent in soils that have had long-term exposure to atrazine at field application rates compared to soils with no long-term exposure. Decreased persistence of this major metabolite of atrazine in atrazine-history soils is important in that there will be less available for movement in surface runoff and to groundwater.

  19. Atrazine reduces reproduction in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Papoulias, Diana M; Tillitt, Donald E; Talykina, Melaniya G; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Richter, Catherine A

    2014-09-01

    Atrazine is an effective broadleaf herbicide and the second most heavily used herbicide in the United States. Effects along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in a number of vertebrate taxa have been demonstrated. Seasonally elevated concentrations of atrazine in surface waters may adversely affect fishes, but only a few studies have examined reproductive effects of this chemical. The present study was designed to evaluate a population endpoint (egg production) in conjunction with histological (reproductive stage, gonad pathology) and biochemical (aromatase activity, sex hormone production) phenotypes associated with atrazine exposure in Japanese medaka. Adult virgin breeding groups of one male and four females were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5.0, and 50 μg/L (0, 2.3, 23.2, 231 nM) of atrazine in a flow-through diluter for 14 or 38 days. Total egg production was lower (36-42%) in all atrazine-exposed groups as compared to the controls. The decreases in cumulative egg production of atrazine-treated fish were significant by exposure day 24. Reductions in total egg production in atrazine treatment groups were most attributable to a reduced number of eggs ovulated by females in atrazine-treated tanks. Additionally, males exposed to atrazine had a greater number of abnormal germ cells. There was no effect of atrazine on gonadosomatic index, aromatase protein, or whole body 17 β-estradiol or testosterone. Our results suggest that atrazine reduces egg production through alteration of final maturation of oocytes. The reduced egg production observed in this study was very similar to our previously reported results for fathead minnow. This study provides further information with which to evaluate atrazine's risk to fish populations.

  20. Atrazine reduces reproduction in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Talyknia, Melaniya G.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Richter, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine is an effective broadleaf herbicide and the second most heavily used herbicide in the United States. Effects along the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonad axis in a number of vertebrate taxa have been demonstrated. Seasonally elevated concentrations of atrazine in surface waters may adversely affect fishes, but only a few studies have examined reproductive effects of this chemical. The present study was designed to evaluate a population endpoint (egg production) in conjunction with histological (reproductive stage, gonad pathology) and biochemical (aromatase activity, sex hormone production) phenotypes associated with atrazine exposure in Japanese medaka. Adult virgin breeding groups of one male and four females were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5.0, and 50 μg/L (0, 2.3, 23.2, 231 nM) of atrazine in a flow-through diluter for 14 or 38 days. Total egg production was lower (36–42%) in all atrazine-exposed groups as compared to the controls. The decreases in cumulative egg production of atrazine-treated fish were significant by exposure day 24. Reductions in total egg production in atrazine treatment groups were most attributable to a reduced number of eggs ovulated by females in atrazine-treated tanks. Additionally, males exposed to atrazine had a greater number of abnormal germ cells. There was no effect of atrazine on gonadosomatic index, aromatase protein, or whole body 17 β-estradiol or testosterone. Our results suggest that atrazine reduces egg production through alteration of final maturation of oocytes. The reduced egg production observed in this study was very similar to our previously reported results for fathead minnow. This study provides further information with which to evaluate atrazine's risk to fish populations.

  1. Bioavailability of organoclay formulations of atrazine in soil.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Carmen; Koskinen, William C; Celis, Rafael; Sadowsky, Michael J; Hermosín, María C; Cornejo, Juan

    2010-11-24

    Pesticide formulations based on organoclays have been proposed to prolong the efficacy and reduce the environmental impact of pesticides in soil. This research addressed the question of whether atrazine in organoclay-based formulations is irreversibly sorbed or is bioavailable for bacterial degradation in soil. Different cations of l-carnitine (CAR), tyramine (TYRAM), hexadimethrine (HEXADIM), phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), and Fe(III) were incorporated into Na-rich Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-2) and Ca-rich Arizona montmorillonite (SAz-1) at 100% of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the clays as a strategy to enhance the affinity of the clay minerals for atrazine. A Buse loam soil from Becker, MN, was treated with three organoclay-based formulations of 14C-atrazine or free herbicide and incubated for 2 weeks. To determine the bioavailability of 14C-atrazine, the soil was inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, which rapidly mineralizes atrazine. At day 0, and after a 2 week incubation, mineralization and the amount of 14C-atrazine residues distributed between the aqueous-extractable, methanol-extractable, and bound fractions in the soil were determined to characterize the availability of nonaged and aged atrazine residues. By the end of the 2 week incubation, the microorganisms had mineralized >80% of the initial readily available (water-extractable) and >70% of the less readily available (methanol-extractable) 14C-atrazine in the soil. Bound residues increased from <4% at day 0 to ∼17% after the 2 week incubation for both the formulated and free forms of atrazine. The results of these incubation experiments show that the bioavailabilities of atrazine were similar in the case of the organoclay formulations and as free atrazine. This indicated that whereas more atrazine was sorbed and less likely to be transported in soil, when formulated as organoclay complexes, it was ultimately accessible to degrading bacteria, so

  2. Accurate mass analysis of ethanesulfonic acid degradates of acetochlor and alachlor using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Ferrer, Imma; Parry, R.

    2002-01-01

    Degradates of acetochlor and alachlor (ethanesulfonic acids, ESAs) were analyzed in both standards and in a groundwater sample using high-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The negative pseudomolecular ion of the secondary amide of acetochlor ESA and alachlor ESA gave average masses of 256.0750+/-0.0049 amu and 270.0786+/-0.0064 amu respectively. Acetochlor and alachlor ESA gave similar masses of 314.1098+/-0.0061 amu and 314.1153+/-0.0048 amu; however, they could not be distinguished by accurate mass because they have the same empirical formula. On the other hand, they may be distinguished using positive-ion electrospray because of different fragmentation spectra, which did not occur using negative-ion electrospray.

  3. Accurate mass analysis of ethanesulfonic acid degradates of acetochlor and alachlor using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Ferrer, I.; Parry, R.

    2002-01-01

    Degradates of acetochlor and alachlor (ethanesulfonic acids, ESAs) were analyzed in both standards and in a groundwater sample using high-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The negative pseudomolecular ion of the secondary amide of acetochlor ESA and alachlor ESA gave average masses of 256.0750??0.0049 amu and 270.0786??0.0064 amu respectively. Acetochlor and alachlor ESA gave similar masses of 314.1098??0.0061 amu and 314.1153??0.0048 amu; however, they could not be distinguished by accurate mass because they have the same empirical formula. On the other hand, they may be distinguished using positive-ion electrospray because of different fragmentation spectra, which did not occur using negative-ion electrospray.

  4. A novel function of sanshools: the alleviation of injury from metolachlor in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinke; Zhou, Xiaomao; Wu, Jing; Li, Jingbo; Bai, Lianyang

    2014-03-01

    Szechuan peppers are extensively used as a spice and in traditional medicine in Asia, primarily because of its active compounds, sanshools (S). However, there is only limited mention in agriculture, and there are no papers reporting its use as an herbicide safener. In this study, we provide the first evidence that S can effectively alleviate rice-seedling injury from metolachlor (M). We observed that the M-treated (0.25 μM) rice seedlings, which were 56.0%, 66.0%, and 57.0% of the non-treated control in shoot height, root length, and fresh biomass, respectively, were recovered by S to 93.1%, 97.6%, and 94.8%, respectively. The emergence rate was enhanced to over 80% in the M+S treatment, whereas it was below 60% in the M treatment. This M+S mixture elevated the rice-seedling root activity to higher than 87.0% of the value for the non-treated control. The activity of glutathione transferases in the combined treatments approximately doubles that of the M treatment and quadruples that of the non-treated controls. This effect was positively correlated with the induced expression of OsGSTU3. Our results suggest that S may represent a new group of safeners and enable the possibility of using these compounds for improving plant production or protecting rice from the phytotoxicity of metolachlor.

  5. DEGRADATION OF ATRAZINE, METOLACHLOR, AND PENDIMETHALIN IN PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOILS: EFFECTS OF AGED RESIDUES ON SOIL RESPIRATION AND PLANT SURVIVAL. (R825549C045)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Stability of isoproturon, bentazone, terbuthylazine and alachlor in natural groundwater, surface water and soil water samples stored under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Mouvet, C; Jeannot, R; Riolland, H; Maciag, C

    1997-09-01

    The stability of isoproturon, bentazone, terbuthylazine and alachlor was investigated in groundwater (GrW), surface water (SuW) and soil water from the unsaturated zone (SoW). Samples fortified with a low spiking level (LSL) of about 0.3-0.5 microgram/L and a high spiking level (HSL) of about 0.9-1.3 micrograms/L were stored for 1, 2, 14 (GrW) and 30 days (SuW and SoW) at 4 degrees C in amber glass bottles without biological inhibition. The initial pesticide concentration played a significant role, the lowest concentrations being the least stable for all pesticides. Nevertheless, after 14 days of storage, no concentration had decreased significantly compared to day 0 values, except for bentazone LSL in the GrW and SuW. Significant losses of alachlor were observed only after 30 days. Terbuthylazine and isoproturon were stable for 30 days, except for a slight loss of terbuthylazine HSL in the SoW. The very poor recovery of bentazone from the SoW gave poor results for interpretation. Overall, the stability of the molecules was highest in the GrW and lowest in the SoW. For SoW, the variability of triplicate determinations at a given storage time was, in some cases, as great as the changes in mean concentrations observed over the total 30 day storage period.

  7. Surfactant-modified bentonite clays: preparation, characterization, and atrazine removal.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anirban; Singh, Neera

    2015-03-01

    Bentonite clay was modified using quaternary ammonium cations, viz. phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), trioctylmethylammonium (TOMA) [100 % of cation exchange capacity of clay], and stearylkonium (SK) [100 % (SK-I) and 250 % (SK-II) of cation exchange capacity of clay]. The organoclays were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Atrazine adsorption on modified clays was studied using a batch method. Bentonite clay was a poor adsorbent of atrazine as 9.4 % adsorption was observed at 1 μg mL(-1) atrazine concentration. Modification of clay by PTMA cation did not improve atrazine adsorption capacity. However, atrazine adsorption in HDTMA-, TOMA-, and SK-bentonites varied between 49 and 72.4 % and data fitted well to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm (R > 0.96). Adsorption of atrazine in organoclays was nonlinear and slope (1/n) values were <1. The product of Freundlich adsorption constants, K f(1/n) in HDTMA-, TOMA-, and SK-I-bentonites was 239.2, 302.4, and 256.6, respectively, while increasing the SK cation loading in the clay (SK-II) decreased atrazine adsorption [K f(1/n) - 196.4]. Desorption of atrazine from organoclays showed hysteresis and TOMA- and SK-I-bentonites were the best organoclays to retain the adsorbed atrazine. Organoclays showed better atrazine removal from wastewater than an aqueous solution. The synthesized organoclays may find application in soil and water decontamination and as a carrier for atrazine-controlled released formulations.

  8. Effect of atrazine on potential denitrification in aquifer sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Jagucki, M.L.; McMahon, P.B.

    1994-01-01

    Agriculturaf use of fertilizers and herbicides has often resulted in nitrate and atrazine contamination of the shallow aquifers that underlay cultivated fields. In several cases, the concentrations of atrazine and nitrate dissolved in ground water are positively correlated (Spalding ef al., 1979; Chen and Druliner, 1987; Spalding et al., 1989). Because simultaneous application of nitrate fertilizers and the herbicide, atrazine, is common, the co-occurrence of these contaminants in ground water is not entirely unexpected. However, the possibility also exists that this co-occurrence may ret&t interactions of atrazine with nitrate in the subsurface environment. R&ton and Cervelh (1980), McElhannon ei al. (1984) and Mills (1984) have reported that atrazine inhibits denitrification in‘soil’lf this i‘s indeed the case, atrazine contamination may contribute to nitrate preservation and accumulation in anaerobic aquifers by inhibiting denitrification, the principal mechanism for nitrate removal in anaerobic systems. Huwever, the effect of atrazine on the rate of denit~ficat~on in soils remains controversial, because atrazine has been reported variously to enhance denitrification (Cervelli and Ralston, 1983) or to have no effect on denitrification in soils (Bollag and Henninger, 1976; Yeomans and Bremner, IQ85, 1987). Moreover, the effect of dissolved atrazine concentrations on the rate of denitrification in aquifer sediments has not been reported. Our purpose was to determine the elects of dissolved atrazine concentrations on potential rates ofdenitri~~t~on in aquifer sediments from two different agricultural areas to evaluate the hypothesis that, by inhibiting denitrification, atrazine contributes to nitrate preservation in anaerobic aquifer systems.

  9. Runoff and Leaching of Metolachlor from Mississippi River Alluvial Soil during Seasons of Average and Below-Average Rainfall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The movement of metolachlor via runoff and leaching from plots planted to corn on Mississippi River alluvial soil (Commerce silt loam) was measured for a six-year period, 1995-2000. The first three years were characterized by normal rainfall volume, the second three years by reduced rainfall. The ...

  10. Uptake, translocation, and metabolism of oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and their influence on metolachlor metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yenne, S.P.; Hatzios, K.K.; Meredith, S.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The uptake, translocation, and metabolism of the oxime ether safeners oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, var. Funk G-522-DR) were investigated. Following application of ({sup 14}C)oxabetrinil and ({sup 14}C)CGA-133205 to imbibed seeds, it appears that the safeners are conferring protection to grain sorghum by increasing the rate of metolachlor metabolism.

  11. Occurrence of herbicides, nitrite plus nitrate, and selected trace elements in ground water from northwestern and northeastern Missouri, July 1991 and 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Maley, Randall D.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Missouri Department of Health collected water samples for analysis of nitrite plus nitrate and herbicides from rural domestic wells in northwestern and northeastern Missouri in 1991 and 1992. In July 1991, samples were collected from 130 wells in Caldwell, Clinton, Daviess, Gentry, and Nodaway Counties in northwestern Missouri. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations as nitrogen ranged from less than 0.05 to 63 milligrams per liter. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations exceeded the State drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter in water samples from 28 wells. One or more of the herbicides--alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine; metribuzin, metolachlor, and trifluralin--were detected at concentrations greater than or equal to 0.05 micrograms per liter in 19 samples. Atrazine was detected in water samples from 16 wells. In July 1992, water samples were collected from 147 wells in Audrain, Clark, Lewis, Monroe, Scotland, and Shelby Counties in northeastern Missouri. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in samples ranged from less than 0.05 to 60 milligrams per liter and exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in samples from 28 wells. One or more of the herbicides-alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metribuzin, and metolachlor-were detected at concentrations greater than 0.10 microgram per liter in water samples from 19 of the wells sampled. Atrazine was detected in water from 18 wells.

  12. Herbicide concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin - The importance of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rebich, R.A.; Coupe, R.H.; Thurman, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    The proportion of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradates, specifically the ethane sulfonic (ESA) and oxanilic (OA) acids, averaged 70% of the total herbicide concentration in samples from the Upper Mississippi River. In samples from the Missouri River and the Ohio River, the proportion of chloroacetanilide degradates in the total herbicide concentration was much less, 24% and 41%, respectively. The amount of tile drainage throughout the Mississippi River Basin appeared to be related to the occurrence and distribution of chloroacetanilide degradates in water samples. Pesticide concentrations in streams of the Mississippi River Basin have been well characterized. However, recent research demonstrates that in order to more fully understand the fate and transport of pesticides, the major pesticide degradates need to be included in the analysis. From March 1999 through May 2001, water samples from four major junctures of the Mississippi River Basin were collected and analyzed for a suite of herbicides and their degradate compounds. Each sampling site was selected to represent a major part of the Mississippi River: upper and lower Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio Rivers. Each basin has unique landscape variables, geology, hydrology, precipitation, and land use, which is reflected in the pesticide content at the most downstream sample site near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Atrazine was the most frequently detected herbicide (detected in 97% of the samples), followed by metolachlor (60%), and acetochlor (31%). The most frequently detected degradates were metolachlor ESA (69%), followed by deethylatrazine (62%), metolachlor OA (37%), and alachlor ESA (37%). Metolachlor ESA was detected more frequently than its parent compound (69 vs. 60%), as was alachlor ESA (37 vs. 9%). After an improvement was made in the analytical method, metolachlor ESA was detected in every sample, metolachlor OA in 89% of the samples, alachlor ESA in 84%, acetochlor ESA in 71%, and acetochlor

  13. Herbicide concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin-the importance of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradates.

    PubMed

    Rebich, R A; Coupe, R H; Thurman, E M

    2004-04-05

    The proportion of chloroacetanilide herbicide degradates, specifically the ethane sulfonic (ESA) and oxanilic (OA) acids, averaged 70% of the total herbicide concentration in samples from the Upper Mississippi River. In samples from the Missouri River and the Ohio River, the proportion of chloroacetanilide degradates in the total herbicide concentration was much less, 24% and 41%, respectively. The amount of tile drainage throughout the Mississippi River Basin appeared to be related to the occurrence and distribution of chloroacetanilide degradates in water samples. Pesticide concentrations in streams of the Mississippi River Basin have been well characterized. However, recent research demonstrates that in order to more fully understand the fate and transport of pesticides, the major pesticide degradates need to be included in the analysis. From March 1999 through May 2001, water samples from four major junctures of the Mississippi River Basin were collected and analyzed for a suite of herbicides and their degradate compounds. Each sampling site was selected to represent a major part of the Mississippi River: upper and lower Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio Rivers. Each basin has unique landscape variables, geology, hydrology, precipitation, and land use, which is reflected in the pesticide content at the most downstream sample site near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Atrazine was the most frequently detected herbicide (detected in 97% of the samples), followed by metolachlor (60%), and acetochlor (31%). The most frequently detected degradates were metolachlor ESA (69%), followed by deethylatrazine (62%), metolachlor OA (37%), and alachlor ESA (37%). Metolachlor ESA was detected more frequently than its parent compound (69 vs. 60%), as was alachlor ESA (37 vs. 9%). After an improvement was made in the analytical method, metolachlor ESA was detected in every sample, metolachlor OA in 89% of the samples, alachlor ESA in 84%, acetochlor ESA in 71%, and acetochlor

  14. Enantioselective induction of a glutathione-S-transferase, a glutathione transporter and an ABC transporter in maize by Metolachlor and its (S)-isomer.

    PubMed

    Pang, Sen; Ran, Zhaojin; Liu, Zhiqian; Song, Xiaoyu; Duan, Liusheng; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Chengju

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of chiral herbicides in plants remains poorly understood. Glutathione conjugation reactions are one of the principal mechanisms that plants utilize to detoxify xenobiotics. The induction by rac- and S-metolachlor of the expression of three genes, ZmGST27, ZmGT1 and ZmMRP1, encoding respectively a glutathione-S-transferase, a glutathione transporter and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was studied in maize. The results demonstrate that the inducing effect of rac- and S-metolachlor on the expression of ZmGST27 and ZmGT1 is comparable. However, the inducing effect of rac-metolachlor on ZmMRP1 expression is more pronounced than that of S-metolachlor. Furthermore, vanadate, an ABC transporter inhibitor, could greatly reduce the difference in herbicidal activity between rac- and S-metolachlor. These results suggest that the ABC transporters may preferentially transport conjugates of rac-metolachlor, leading to a faster metabolism of the latter. Through comparing the expression of ZmGST27, ZmMRP1 and ZmGT1 after treatment by rac- and S-metolachlor, we provide novel insights into the metabolic processes of chiral herbicides in plants.

  15. Enantioselective Induction of a Glutathione-S-Transferase, a Glutathione Transporter and an ABC Transporter in Maize by Metolachlor and Its (S)-Isomer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqian; Song, Xiaoyu; Duan, Liusheng; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Chengju

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of chiral herbicides in plants remains poorly understood. Glutathione conjugation reactions are one of the principal mechanisms that plants utilize to detoxify xenobiotics. The induction by rac- and S-metolachlor of the expression of three genes, ZmGST27, ZmGT1 and ZmMRP1, encoding respectively a glutathione-S-transferase, a glutathione transporter and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was studied in maize. The results demonstrate that the inducing effect of rac- and S-metolachlor on the expression of ZmGST27 and ZmGT1 is comparable. However, the inducing effect of rac-metolachlor on ZmMRP1 expression is more pronounced than that of S-metolachlor. Furthermore, vanadate, an ABC transporter inhibitor, could greatly reduce the difference in herbicidal activity between rac- and S-metolachlor. These results suggest that the ABC transporters may preferentially transport conjugates of rac-metolachlor, leading to a faster metabolism of the latter. Through comparing the expression of ZmGST27, ZmMRP1 and ZmGT1 after treatment by rac- and S-metolachlor, we provide novel insights into the metabolic processes of chiral herbicides in plants. PMID:23144728

  16. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gas chromatography procedures for the detection of cyanazine and metolachlor in surface water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schraer, S.M.; Shaw, D.R.; Boyette, M.; Coupe, R.H.; Thurman, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) data from surface water reconnaissance were compared to data from samples analyzed by gas chromatography for the pesticide residues cyanazine (2-[[4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-methylpropanenitrile ) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide). When ELISA analyses were duplicated, cyanazine and metolachlor detection was found to have highly reproducible results; adjusted R2s were 0.97 and 0.94, respectively. When ELISA results for cyanazine were regressed against gas chromatography results, the models effectively predicted cyanazine concentrations from ELISA analyses (adjusted R2s ranging from 0.76 to 0.81). The intercepts and slopes for these models were not different from 0 and 1, respectively. This indicates that cyanazine analysis by ELISA is expected to give the same results as analysis by gas chromatography. However, regressing ELISA analyses for metolachlor against gas chromatography data provided more variable results (adjusted R2s ranged from 0.67 to 0.94). Regression models for metolachlor analyses had two of three intercepts that were not different from 0. Slopes for all metolachlor regression models were significantly different from 1. This indicates that as metolachlor concentrations increase, ELISA will over- or under-estimate metolachlor concentration, depending on the method of comparison. ELISA can be effectively used to detect cyanazine and metolachlor in surface water samples. However, when detections of metolachlor have significant consequences or implications it may be necessary to use other analytical methods.

  17. LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE PROJECT: ATRAZINE MODELLING RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The triazine herbicide, atrazine, is used worldwide to control broadleaf and grassy weeds in agricultural regions. Atrazine is extensively used for corn crops in the midwestern US, the Great Lakes region, and in the Lake Michigan basin and has been cited as an emerging pollutant ...

  18. Alternatives to atrazine for weed management in processing sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atrazine has been the most widely used herbicide in North American processing sweet corn for decades; however, increased restrictions in recent years have reduced or eliminated atrazine use in certain production areas. The objective of this study was to identify the best stakeholder-derived weed man...

  19. Using less atrazine in sweet corn: challenges to overcome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the near future, growers may see further restrictions on their most widely used weed control tactic - atrazine. Studies were conducted throughout the major processing sweet corn growing areas in North America to determine the impact of using less atrazine postemergence on sweet corn production. I...

  20. Response of reservoir atrazine concentrations following regulatory and management changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 1990s, atrazine concentrations in United States drinking water supplies exceeding the drinking water standard of 3 parts per billion (ppb) have been identified as a costly and major water quality concern. Atrazine levels in Columbus, Ohio tap water reached 8.74 ppb in the early 1990s...

  1. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE ON STEROID PRODUCTION IN RAT GRANULOSA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States. Introduced in the 1950s, atrazine is a broad spectrum herbicide with current total annual use of approximately 76 million pounds of active ingredient. Frogs exhibit gonadal malformations and/or variations ...

  2. ATRAZINE EFFECTS ON EARLY PREGNANCY AND IMPLANATION IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine Effects on Early Pregnancy and Implantation in the Rat.
    A.M. Cummings, B.E. Rhodes*, and R.L. Cooper*.
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC
    Atrazine (ATR), an herbicide, can induce mammary tumors in rats. ATR can also sup...

  3. The Effect of Atrazine on Louisiana Gulf Coast Estuarine Phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Starr, Alexis V; Bargu, Sibel; Maiti, Kanchan; DeLaune, Ronald D

    2017-02-01

    Pesticides may enter water bodies in areas with a high proportion of agricultural land use through surface runoff, groundwater discharge, and erosion and thus negatively impact nontarget aquatic organisms. The herbicide atrazine is used extensively throughout the Midwest and enters the Mississippi River through surface runoff and groundwater discharge. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of atrazine contamination in Louisiana's estuaries from Mississippi River water under different flow and nutrient regimes (spring and summer) and its effect on the biomass and oxygen production of the local phytoplankton community. The results showed that atrazine was consistently present in these systems at low levels. Microcosm experiments exposed to an atrazine-dilution series under low and high nutrient conditions to determine the phytoplankton stress response showed that high atrazine levels greatly decreased phytoplankton biomass and oxygen production. Phytoplankton exposed to low and moderate atrazine levels under high nutrient conditions were able to recover after an extended acclimation period. Communities grown under high nutrient conditions grew more rapidly and produced greater levels of oxygen than the low nutrient treatment groups, thus indicating that atrazine exposure may induce a greater stress response in phytoplankton communities under low-nutrient conditions. The native community also experienced a shift from more sensitive species, such as chlorophytes, to potentially more resilient species such as diatoms. The phytoplankton response to atrazine exposure at various concentrations can be especially important to greater trophic levels because their growth and abundance can determine the potential productivity of the entire ecosystem.

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF ATRAZINE METABOLITES IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we have shown that atrazine, a commonly used herbicide, causes full-litter resorption (FLR) in Fischer 344 rats at 50 mg/kg. In this study, we tested four atrazine metabolites for their potential to cause FLR and developmental toxicity. Desethylatrazine (DEA), desis...

  5. EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON OVARIAN FUNCTION IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of the chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine, on ovarian function was studied in Long-Evans hooded (LE-hooded) and SpragucDawley (SD) rats. Atrazine was administered by gavage for 21 d to females displaying regular 4-d estrous cycles. In both sfrains, 75 mg/kg/d disrupted...

  6. Temporal trends of selected agricultural chemicals in Iowa's groundwater, 1982-1995: Are things getting better?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Sneck-Fahrer, D.; Hallberg, G.R.; Libra, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1982, the Iowa Groundwater Monitoring (IGWM) Program has been used to sample untreated groundwater from Iowa municipal wells for selected agricultural chemicals. This long-term database was used to determine if concentrations of select agricultural chemicals in groundwater have changed with time. Nitrate, alachlor [2-chloro-2′-6′-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)-acetanilide], atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), cyanazine [2-[[4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-methylpropionitrile)], and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] were selected for this temporal analysis of the data. Conclusive temporal changes in frequency of detection and median chemical concentrations were found only for atrazine (decrease) and metolachlor (increase). The greatest temporal chemical changes occurred in the shallowest wells and in alluvial aquifers—both relating to groups of wells generally having the youngest groundwater age. The temporal patterns found for atrazine and metolachlor are consistent with their patterns of chemical use and/or application rates and are suggestive of a causal relation. Only continued data collection, however, will indicate if the trends in chemical concentrations described here represent long-term temporal patterns or only short-term changes in groundwater. No definitive answers could be made in regards to the question of overall improvements in groundwater quality with respect to agricultural chemical contamination and time, due to the inherent problems with the simplistic measurement of overall severity (summation of alachlor + atrazine + cyanazine + metolachlor concentrations) examined for this study. To adequately determine if there is an actual decreasing trend in the overall severity of contamination (improving groundwater quality), the collection of additional water-chemistry data and the investigation of other measures of severity are needed.

  7. Atrazine Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    1989-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine (2chloro4ethylamino6isopropylamino1,3,5triazine) is the most heavily used agricultural pesticide in North America. Domestically, more than 50 million kg are applied yearly to more than 25 million ha, primarily to control weeds in corn and sorghum crops. Atrazine residues have been detected in runoff from treated fields in lakes and streams at phytotoxic levels. Birds and mammals were comparatively resistant, with a low probability for atrazine accumulation and retention. Data are lacking on indirect effects of atrazine on wildlife granivores and insectivores. Direct effects to aquatic fauna occur at 94 micrograms/l, and higher; however, indirect effects may occur at 20 micrograms/l, and higher, partly through reduction of the food supply of herbivores, and partly through loss of macrophyte habitat. Ecological and toxicological aspects of atrazine in the environment are briefly reviewed, with special emphasis on fishery and wildlife resources.

  8. Atrazine and cancer: a review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Adami, Hans-Olov; Berry, Sir Colin; Mandel, Jack S

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the conflicting reports from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Scientific Advisory Panel (Panel) on the carcinogenicity of atrazine in order to determine whether the results from epidemiologic studies support a causal relationship between atrazine and any specific cancer. We reviewed the Environmental Protection Agency and Panel reports in the context of all the epidemiologic studies on the specific cancers of interest. A weight-of-evidence approach leads to the conclusion that there is no causal association between atrazine and cancer and that occasional positive results can be attributed to bias or chance. Atrazine appears to be a good candidate for a category of herbicides with a probable absence of cancer risk. Atrazine should be treated for regulatory and public health purposes as an agent unlikely to pose a cancer risk to humans.

  9. INTRODUCTION OF ATRAZINE-DEGRADING PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN ADP TO ENHANCE PHYTOREMEDIATION OF ATRAZINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atrazine (ATR) has been widely applied in the US and Mid Western states. Recently, public health and ecological concerns have been raised about contamination of surface and ground water by ATR and its chlorinated metabolites, due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenic or endocrinology effects....

  10. Introduction of Atrazine-Degrading Pseudomonas SP. Strain ADP to Enhance Phytoremediation of Atrazine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atrazine (ATR) has been widely applied in the US Midwestern states. Public health and ecological concerns have been raised about contamination of surface and ground water by ATR and its chlorinated metabolites, due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenic or endocrinology effects. Phytoremediati...

  11. Introduction of Atrazine-Degrading Pseudomonas sp. Strain ADP to Enhance Rhizodegradation of Atrazine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The herbicide atrazine (ATR) has been widely applied to fields in the U.S. and Midwestern states, resulting in contamination of surface and ground waters. Public health and ecological concerns have been raised due to the toxicity and potential carcinogenic or endocrine disrupting effects of ATR and ...

  12. Pesticide fate and transport throughout unsaturated zones in five agricultural settings, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hancock, T.C.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Vogel, J.R.; Webb, R.M.T.; Bayless, E.R.; Barbash, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide transport through the unsaturated zone is a function of chemical and soil characteristics, application, and water recharge rate. The fate and transport of 82 pesticides and degradates were investigated at five different agricultural sites. Atrazine and metolachlor, as well as several of the degradates of atrazine, metolachlor, acetochlor, and alachlor, were frequently detected in soil water during the 2004 growing season, and degradates were generally more abundant than parent compounds. Metolachlor and atrazine were applied at a Nebraska site the same year as sampling, and focused recharge coupled with the short time since application resulted in their movement in the unsaturated zone 9 m below the surface. At other sites where the herbicides were applied 1 to 2 yr before sampling, only degradates were found in soil water. Transformations of herbicides were evident with depth and during the 4-mo sampling time and reflected the faster degradation of metolachlor oxanilic acid and persistence of metolachor ethanesulfonic acid. The fraction of metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid relative to metolachlor and metolachlor oxanilic acid increased from 0.3 to > 0.9 at a site in Maryland where the unsaturated zone was 5 m deep and from 0.3 to 0.5 at the shallowest depth. The flux of pesticide degradates from the deepest sites to the shallow ground water was greatest (3.0–4.9 μmol m−2 yr−1) where upland recharge or focused flow moved the most water through the unsaturated zone. Flux estimates based on estimated recharge rates and measured concentrations were in agreement with fluxes estimated using an unsaturated-zone computer model (LEACHM).

  13. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND AN ATRAZINE METABOLITE MIXTURE ON DIFFERENTIATED MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL MILK PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Atrazine and an Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on Differentiated Mammary Epithelial Cell Milk Protein Production in Culture

    E.P. Hines, R. Barbee, M. Blanton, M.S. Pooler, and S.E. Fenton. US EPA, ORD/NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC, 27711, USA.

    Previous studies have ...

  14. PITUITARY AND ADRENAL HORMONE RELEASE FOLLOWING in vitro EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE AND ITS METABOLITE DEISOPROPYL-ATRAZINE (DIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States, with current total annual use of approximately 76 million pounds of active ingredient. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that ATR and its metabolite deisopropyl-atrazine (DIA) induce a dose-dep...

  15. The effects of the herbicide atrazine on freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Kyle D; Belden, Jason B; Bolek, Matthew G

    2015-07-01

    Atrazine has been shown to affect freshwater snails from the subcellular to community level. However, most studies have used different snail species, methods, endpoints, and atrazine exposure concentrations, resulting in some conflicting results and limiting our understanding. The goal of this study was to address these concerns by (1) investigating the acute and chronic effects of atrazine on four species of freshwater snails (Biomphalaria glabrata, Helisoma trivolvis, Physa acuta, and Stagnicola elodes) using the same methods, endpoints, and concentrations, and (2) summarizing the current literature pertaining to the effects of atrazine on freshwater snails. We conducted a 48 h acute toxicity test with an atrazine concentration higher than what typically occurs in aquatic environments (1000 µg/L). Additionally, we exposed snails to environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations (0, 0.3, 3, and 30 µg/L) for 28 days and assessed snail survival, growth, and reproduction. We also summarized all known literature pertaining to atrazine effects on freshwater snails. The literature summary suggests snails are often affected by environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations at the subcellular and cellular levels. These effects are typically not transitive to effects on survival, growth, or reproduction at the same concentrations. Our acute exposures corroborate the general trend of no direct effect on snail populations as atrazine did not directly affect the survival of any of the four snail species. Similarly, environmentally relevant concentrations did not significantly affect the survival, growth, or reproduction of any snail species. These results indicate that, in the absence of other possible stressors, the direct effects of environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations may not be realized at the snail population level.

  16. Use of enzyme immunoassay for large water-quality surveys of major herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, E.M.; Aga, D.S.; Zimmerman, L.R.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1996-10-01

    Commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of major herbicides in several large water-quality surveys of surface water, rainwater, and ground water throughout the United States. The ELISA results were compared with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for accuracy and cross reactivity. In total, five compounds were analyzed: alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D). Results indicated that the ELISA and GC/MS results were comparable for cyanazine and metolachlor. The atrazine ELISA correlated well with GC/MS for surface- and ground-water samples from the central United States but did not correlate with samples from Texas where the cotton triazine, prometryn, is used. Results using the alachlor ELISA were poor because of cross reactivity with the metabolite, alachlor ethane-sulfonic acid. The ELISA for (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid was insensitive at concentrations that occur in most surface water.

  17. Atrazine Residues in Northern Ohio 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AD-A09A 279 HEIDELBERG COLL TIFFIN OH WATER QUALITY LAS F/G 13/2 ATRAZINE RESIDUES IN NORTHERN OHIO 1980.(Ul SE P AG J V SETZLER DACW49-79-C0020 F...NUMBERS Water Quality Laboawtry Heidelberg College Tiff in, Ohio 44883 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Water Quality Section NCBED-HQ ebwwW U.S...are available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161 It. KEY WORDS (Continue On revere. side if necessren d identify by

  18. Runoff and leaching of metolachlor from Mississippi River alluvial soil during seasons of average and below-average rainfall.

    PubMed

    Southwick, Lloyd M; Appelboom, Timothy W; Fouss, James L

    2009-02-25

    The movement of the herbicide metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] via runoff and leaching from 0.21 ha plots planted to corn on Mississippi River alluvial soil (Commerce silt loam) was measured for a 6-year period, 1995-2000. The first three years received normal rainfall (30 year average); the second three years experienced reduced rainfall. The 4-month periods prior to application plus the following 4 months after application were characterized by 1039 +/- 148 mm of rainfall for 1995-1997 and by 674 +/- 108 mm for 1998-2000. During the normal rainfall years 216 +/- 150 mm of runoff occurred during the study seasons (4 months following herbicide application), accompanied by 76.9 +/- 38.9 mm of leachate. For the low-rainfall years these amounts were 16.2 +/- 18.2 mm of runoff (92% less than the normal years) and 45.1 +/- 25.5 mm of leachate (41% less than the normal seasons). Runoff of metolachlor during the normal-rainfall seasons was 4.5-6.1% of application, whereas leaching was 0.10-0.18%. For the below-normal periods, these losses were 0.07-0.37% of application in runoff and 0.22-0.27% in leachate. When averages over the three normal and the three less-than-normal seasons were taken, a 35% reduction in rainfall was characterized by a 97% reduction in runoff loss and a 71% increase in leachate loss of metolachlor on a percent of application basis. The data indicate an increase in preferential flow in the leaching movement of metolachlor from the surface soil layer during the reduced rainfall periods. Even with increased preferential flow through the soil during the below-average rainfall seasons, leachate loss (percent of application) of the herbicide remained below 0.3%. Compared to the average rainfall seasons of 1995-1997, the below-normal seasons of 1998-2000 were characterized by a 79% reduction in total runoff and leachate flow and by a 93% reduction in corresponding metolachlor movement via these routes

  19. Herbicide concentrations in and loads transported by the Conestoga River and Pequea Creek, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Lloyd A.; Koerkle, Edward H.; Takita, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    Water samples were collected from four streams in Lancaster County from 1992 through 1995 and analyzed for selected herbicides. Samples were collected from the Little Conestoga Creek near Churchtown, Mill Creek (a tributary to the Conestoga River) at Elshelman Mill Road near Lyndon, the Conestoga River at Conestoga, and Pequea Creek at Martic Forge. Most samples were collected from stormflow that occurred during the growing season. Samples were analyzed for alachlor, aldrin, atrazine, chlordane, cyanazine, dieldrin, malathion, metolachlor, propazine, simazine, and toxaphene. Most samples had detectable concentrations of alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, and simazine, and the loads of these constituents that were transported during each of the 4 years were computed. Of the samples collected from each of the streams?Little Conestoga Creek, Mill Creek, Conestoga River, and Pequea Creek?10, 12, 15, and 18 percent, respectively, had atrazine concentrations greater than 3.0 micrograms per liter, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level. Loads of atrazine, metolochlor, and simazine were greater than loads of any other herbicides. The largest loads were transported during 1994. Loads of atrazine transported by the four streams during periods of storm- flow from May to September 1994 totaled 3.46, 28.3, 263, and 46.8 pounds, respectively. The total loads of atrazine transported by the four streams?Little Conestoga Creek, Mill Creek, Conestoga River, and Pequea Creek?during calendar year 1994 were 6.48, 54.1, 498, and 102 pounds, respectively. A little less than half the atrazine load transported by each stream?45, 39, 42, and 42 percent, respectively?was transported during storms that occurred from May through September. Average annual yields of atrazine for the period 1992-95 were 0.59, 0.64, 0.68, and 0.51 pounds per square mile from the Little Conestoga Creek, Mill Creek, Conestoga River, and Pequea Creek, respectively. Average annual yields of

  20. Determination of the 1'S and 1'R diastereomers of metolachlor and S-metolachlor in water by chiral liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Kabler, A Kent; Chen, Sunmao

    2006-08-23

    An enantioselective method for the separation and quantification of the diastereomer pairs of metolachlor and S-metolachlor in surface and ground waters is presented. Samples are purified and concentrated using a C18 (octadecyl silica) solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure and analyzed by chiral column liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) interfaced with either atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APcI) or atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. The overall mean percent procedural recoveries (percent relative standard deviations) are 89% (10.6%) for surface water and 80% (9.1%) for ground water. The method limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 0.10 ppb. The method validation was conducted under U.S. EPA FIFRA Good Laboratory Practice Guidelines 40 CFR 160.

  1. Atrazine increases ranavirus susceptibility in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum.

    PubMed

    Forson, Diane Denise; Storfer, Andrew

    2006-12-01

    Pathogenic diseases and environmental contaminants are two of the leading hypotheses for global amphibian declines, yet few studies have examined the influence of contaminants on disease susceptibility. In this study, we examined effects of ecologically relevant doses of atrazine (0, 1.6, 16, and 160 microg/L), sodium nitrate (0, 6.8, 68 mg/L), and their interactions on susceptibility of four laboratory-bred tiger salamander families to Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV), a pathogen implicated in global amphibian die-offs. Salamanders were from Arizona populations where a coevolutionary history with ATV is supported, and thus cofactors rather than recent introduction may contribute to disease epizootics. Use of atrazine and nitrogenous fertilizers are ubiquitous; therefore, the impact of these cofactors on disease susceptibility is an important consideration. Atrazine and sodium nitrate significantly decreased peripheral leukocyte levels, suggesting an impact of these contaminants on the immune system. As expected from this result, atrazine significantly increased susceptibility of larvae to ATV infection. In contrast, nitrate had a marginally significant main effect and significantly decreased infection rate at the highest level. However, neither atrazine nor sodium nitrate had significant effects on viral copy number per individual. These results suggest that ecologically relevant concentrations of atrazine and nitrates have immunosuppressive effects, and atrazine may contribute to ATV epizootics, raising concerns about the influence of contaminants on diseases in general.

  2. Atrazine dissipation in s-Triazine-adapted and Non-adapted soil from Coloroado and Mississippi: Implications of enhanced degradation on atrazine fate and transport parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modelers and regulatory agencies typically use default atrazine half-life values of 60 to 120 d to predict the herbicide’s transport; however, if atrazine persistence is reduced in soils exhibiting enhanced degradation, but modelers continue to use historic atrazine persistence estimates, then accur...

  3. Dissipation of hydrological tracers and the herbicide S-metolachlor in batch and continuous-flow wetlands.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Elodie; Lange, Jens; Schreiber, Steffi; Dollinger, Jeanne; Herbstritt, Barbara; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide dissipation in wetland systems with regard to hydrological conditions and operational modes is poorly known. Here, we investigated in artificial wetlands the impact of batch versus continuous-flow modes on the dissipation of the chiral herbicide S-metolachlor (S-MET) and hydrological tracers (bromide, uranine and sulforhodamine B). The wetlands received water contaminated with the commercial formulation Mercantor Gold(®) (960 g L(-1) of S-MET, 87% of the S-enantiomer). The tracer mass budget revealed that plant uptake, sorption, photo- and presumably biodegradation were prominent under batch mode (i.e. characterized by alternating oxic-anoxic conditions), in agreement with large dissipation of S-MET (90%) under batch mode. Degradation was the main dissipation pathway of S-MET in the wetlands. The degradate metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOXA) mainly formed under batch mode, whereas metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (MESA) prevailed under continuous-flow mode, suggesting distinct degradation pathways in each wetland. R-enantiomer was preferentially degraded under batch mode, which indicated enantioselective biodegradation. The release of MESA and MOXA by the wetlands as well as the potential persistence of S-MET compared to R-MET under both oxic and anoxic conditions may be relevant for groundwater and ecotoxicological risk assessment. This study shows the effect of batch versus continuous modes on pollutant dissipation in wetlands, and that alternate biogeochemical conditions under batch mode enhance S-MET biodegradation.

  4. Buffer strip effect on terbuthylazine, desethyl-terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor runoff from maize fields in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Milan, Marco; Vidotto, Francesco; Piano, Serenella; Negre, Michèle; Ferrero, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 6 m wide vegetative buffer strip for reducing runoff of S-metolachlor, terbuthylazine and desethyl-terbuthylazine was studied in 2007-2008 in Northern Italy. Two cultivated fields, with and without the buffer strip, were compared. Residues of the chemicals were investigated in runoff water collected after runoff events and their dissipation in the soil was studied. The highest concentration of the chemicals in water occurred in samples collected from the unbuffered field at the first runoff events. Losses of terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor in runoff waters were particularly high in 2007 (2.6% and 0.9% of the amount applied, respectively). Soil half-life of terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor ranged between 12.1 and 8.9 days and 16 and 7 days, respectively. The presence of desethyl-terbuthylazine was related to parent compound degradation. The buffer strip allowed an important reduction of chemical content in water (> 90%), in particular during the first runoff events.

  5. Herbicides in the Pecatonica, Trempealeau, and Yahara Rivers in Wisconsin, May 1997-July 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Vanden Brook, James P.; Rheineck, Bruce D.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, Wisconsin farmers applied 8.7 million pounds of herbicides on corn. The five most commonly applied herbicides (in lb (pounds) of active ingredient per acre) on corn in 1997 were atrazine, metolachlor, acetochlor, alachlor and cyanazine. A 1996 study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) found that the most heavily applied agricultural herbicides were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in the Pecatonica and Yahara Rivers in southern Wisconsin than the less heavily applied herbicides (Graczyk and Vanden Brook, 1997). The calculated herbicide loads a from May 15 to July 15, 1996 at the Pecatonica River ranged from 47.2 lb of alachlor to 484 lb of atrazine. For the Yahara River, loads ranged from 36.1 lb of alachlor to 289 lb of atrazine. The yields b (load per square mile) for atrazine were similar in the two water- sheds. This result was unexpected because the use of atrazine is prohibited on 94 percent of the Yahara River Watershed, but on only 4 percent of the Pecatonica River watershed. The unexpected atrazine result led to a continuation of the study in 1997 and 1998, when samples were collected again at the two sites sampled in 1996, and at a site in the upper third of the Yahara River Watershed that is entirely under atrazine use prohibition. For comparison purposes, a site in west-central Wisconsin also was sampled to determine herbicide loads and yields in another geographic area in the state

  6. Laboratory and quality assurance protocols for the analysis of herbicides in ground water from the Management Systems Evaluation Area, Princeton, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, S.J.; Capel, P.D.; VanderLoop, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory and quality assurance procedures for the analysis of ground-water samples for herbicides at the Management Systems Evaluation Area near Princeton, Minnesota are described. The target herbicides include atrazine, de-ethylatrazine, de-isopropylatrazine, metribuzin, alachlor, 2,6-diethylaniline, and metolachlor. The analytical techniques used are solid-phase extraction, and analysis by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection. Descriptions of cleaning procedures, preparation of standard solutions, isolation of analytes from water, sample transfer methods, instrumental analysis, and data analysis are included.

  7. Synthetic organic agrochemicals in the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries: Distribution, transport and fate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.; ,

    1992-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its major tributaries transport herbicides and their degradation products from agricultural areas in the mid-western U.S.A. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products (desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine), simazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products (2-chloro-2',6'-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2',6'-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline). These compounds were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Loads of these compounds were determined during five sampling trips in 1987-1989. Stream loads of these compounds indicated that atrazine and metolachlor were relatively conservative in downstream transport. Alachlor and its degradation products were generated from point and non-point sources. Seasonal variations and hydrologic conditions controlled the loads of these compounds in the Mississippi River. Cross-channel mixing was slow downstream from major river confluences, possibly requiring several hundred kilometers of downriver transit for completion. The annual transport of these compounds into the Gulf of Mexico was estimated to be < 2% of the annual application of each herbicide in the Midwest.The Mississippi River and its major tributaries transport herbicides and their degradation products from agricultural areas in the mid-western U.S.A. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products (desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine), simazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products (2-chloro-2???,6???-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2???,6???-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline). These compounds were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Loads of these compounds were determined during five sampling trips in 1987-1989. Stream loads of these compounds indicated that atrazine and metolachlor were relatively conservative in downstream transport. Alachlor and its degradation products

  8. Nonpoint source contamination of the Mississippi river and its tributaries by herbicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the Mississippi River and its tributaries during July-August 1991, October-November 1991, and April-May 1992 has indicated that the entire navigable reach of the river is contaminated with a complex mixture of agrochemicals and their transformation products derived from nonpoint sources. Twenty-three compounds were identified, including triazine, chloroacetanilide, thiocarbamate, phenylurea, pyridazine, and organophosphorus pesticides. The upper and middle Mississippi River Basin farm lands are major sources of herbicides applied to corn, soybeans, and sorghum. Farm lands in the lower Mississippi River Basin are a major source of rice and cotton herbicides. Inputs of the five major herbicides atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, alachlor, and simazine to the Mississippi River are mainly from the Minnesota, Des Moines, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Ratios of desethylatrazine/atrazine potentially are useful indicators of groundwater and surface water interactions in the Mississippi River. These ratios suggested that during baseflow conditions, there is a significant groundwater contribution to the river. The Mississippi River thus serves as a drainage channel for pesticide-contaminated surface and groundwater from the midwestern United States. Conservative estimates of annual mass transport indicated that about 160 t of atrazine, 71 t of cyanazine, 56 t of metolachlor, and 18 t of alachlor were discharged into the Gulf of Mexico in 1991.

  9. Molecular Basis of a Bacterial Consortium: Interspecies Catabolism of Atrazine

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Mervyn L.; Newcombe, David; Alvey, Sam; Crowley, David E.; Hay, Anthony; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    1998-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP contains the genes, atzA, -B, and -C, that encode three enzymes which metabolize atrazine to cyanuric acid. Atrazine-catabolizing pure cultures isolated from around the world contain genes homologous to atzA, -B, and -C. The present study was conducted to determine whether the same genes are present in an atrazine-catabolizing bacterial consortium and how the genes and metabolism are subdivided among member species. The consortium contained four or more bacterial species, but two members, Clavibacter michiganese ATZ1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain CN1, collectively mineralized atrazine. C. michiganese ATZ1 released chloride from atrazine, produced hydroxyatrazine, and contained a homolog to the atzA gene that encoded atrazine chlorohydrolase. C. michiganese ATZ1 stoichiometrically metabolized hydroxyatrazine to N-ethylammelide and contained genes homologous to atzB and atzC, suggesting that either a functional AtzB or -C catalyzed N-isopropylamine release from hydroxyatrazine. C. michiganese ATZ1 grew on isopropylamine as its sole carbon and nitrogen source, explaining the ability of the consortium to use atrazine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. A second consortium member, Pseudomonas sp. strain CN1, metabolized the N-ethylammelide produced by C. michiganese ATZ1 to transiently form cyanuric acid, a reaction catalyzed by AtzC. A gene homologous to the atzC gene of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP was present, as demonstrated by Southern hybridization and PCR. Pseudomonas sp. strain CN1, but not C. michiganese, metabolized cyanuric acid. The consortium metabolized atrazine faster than did C. michiganese individually. Additionally, the consortium metabolized a much broader set of triazine ring compounds than did previously described pure cultures in which the atzABC genes had been identified. These data begin to elucidate the genetic and metabolic bases of catabolism by multimember consortia. PMID:16349478

  10. Spatial variability of atrazine dissipation in an allophanic soil.

    PubMed

    Müller, Karin; Smith, Roger E; James, Trevor K; Holland, Patrick T; Rahman, Anis

    2003-08-01

    The small-scale variability (0.5 m) of atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) concentrations and soil water contents in a volcanic silt loam soil (Haplic Andosol, FAO system) was studied in an area of 0.1 ha. Descriptive and spatial statistics were used to analyse the data. On average we recovered 102% of the applied atrazine 2 h after the herbicide application (CV = 35%). An increase in the CV of the concentrations with depth could be ascribed to a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Both variables, atrazine concentrations and soil water content, showed a high horizontal variability. The semivariograms of the atrazine concentrations exhibited the pure nugget effect, no pattern could be determined along the 15.5-m long transects on any of the seven sampling days over a 55-day period. Soil water content had a weak spatial autocorrelation with a range of 6-10 m. The dissipation of atrazine analysed using a high vertical sampling resolution of 0.02 m to 0.2 m showed that 70% of the applied atrazine persisted in the upper 0.02-m layer of the soil for 12 days. After 55 days and 410 mm of rainfall the centre of the pesticide mass was still at a soil depth of 0.021 m. The special characteristics of the soil (high organic carbon content, allophanic clay) had a strong influence on atrazine sorption and mobility. The mass recovery after 55 days was low. The laboratory degradation rate for atrazine, determined in a complementary incubation study and corrected for the actual field temperature using the Arrhenius equation, only accounted for about 35% of the losses that occurred in the field. Results suggest field degradation rates to be more changeable in time and much faster than under controlled conditions. Preferential flow is discussed as a component of the field transport process.

  11. Assessing atrazine persistence in soil following a severe drought

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, R.A.; Kells, J.J.; Bunkelmann, J.R.; Hollingworth, R.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Much of the corn production region in the US, including Michigan, experienced a severe drought during the 1988 growing season. The very little rainfall coupled with temperatures above normal created extremely dry soil conditions during the period when soil moisture is usually adequate in Michigan raised concern about herbicide carryover. Atrazine (2-chloro-40(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) is the most widely used herbicide with potential to persist in sufficient quantity to injure sensitive rotational crops. Atrazine is degraded in soil by both chemical hydrolysis and microbial breakdown with these processes occurring much more rapidly under conditions of adequate soil moisture and relatively warm temperature. It is generally accepted that the risk of atrazine carryover is greater following a year of low rainfall, since microbial activity is favored by adequate soil moisture. The 1988 drought created a critical need for an assessment of atrazine concentration in soil to advise producers on crop management options related to atrazine sensitive crops. The objectives of this study were to assess: (1) atrazine residue levels in Michigan soils following the 1988 drought, and (2) the suitability of the immunoassay technique over a wide variety of soils.

  12. Impact of atrazine on aneuploidy in pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Bouilly, Karine; Leitão, Alexandra; McCombie, Helen; Lapègue, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    Aneuploidy has previously been described and studied in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and has been shown to be negatively correlated with growth. The present study investigated the effect of atrazine on the level of aneuploidy in this species. Crassostrea gigas adults and juveniles were subjected to different concentrations of atrazine representing a peak value found in a polluted environment (46.5 nM) and a value 10 times higher (465 nM). Although atrazine did not show any effect on the oyster mortality, significant differences in aneuploidy level were observed between the different treatments (9% for the control, 16% for 46.5 nM and 20% for 465 nM atrazine). Moreover, the same levels of aneuploidy were observed at adult and juvenile stages. This is the first reported evidence for an environmental effect on aneuploidy in C. gigas. These results will be useful for the oyster aquaculture industry and management of resources. The lowest atrazine level in the current study represents realistic potential exposure, and the results suggest that studies should be made on other aquatic species at risk of exposure to atrazine in the wild. This widely used compound may be an important factor causing damage to genetic material.

  13. Sulcotrione versus atrazine transport and degradation in soil columns.

    PubMed

    Cherrier, Richard; Boivin, Arnaud; Perrin-Ganier, Corinne; Schiavon, Michel

    2005-09-01

    A soil column experiment under outdoor conditions was performed to monitor the fate of 14C-ring-labelled sulcotrione, 2-(2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione and atrazine, 6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine, in water leachates and in the ploughed horizon of a sandy loam soil. Two months after treatment, the cumulative amounts of herbicide residues leached from the soil were 14.5% and 7% of the applied radioactivity for sulcotrione and atrazine, respectively. Maximum leachate concentrations for each herbicide were observed during the first month following application: 120 and 95 microg litre(-1) for sulcotrione and atrazine respectively. After 2 weeks, 78% of the sulcotrione and atrazine was extractable from the soil, whereas after two months only 10 and 4%, respectively, could be extracted. The maximum sulcotrione content in the first 10 cm of soil was identical with that of atrazine. For both molecules, the content of non-extractable residues was low, being around 15%. Sulcotrione seems to be more mobile than atrazine but the consequences for water contamination are similar since lower doses are used.

  14. Reconnaissance data for glyphosate, other selected herbicides, their degradation products, and antibiotics in 51 streams in nine midwestern states, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Battaglin, William A.; Dietze, Julie E.; Thurman, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted periodic reconnaissance studies of streams in the Midwestern United States to determine the geographic and seasonal distribution of herbicide compounds. These studies have documented that large amounts of acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and their degradation products are flushed into streams during post-application runoff. Additional studies show that peak herbicide concentrations tend to occur during the first runoff after herbicide application and that herbicide flushes can occur during runoff for several weeks to months following application. Since the first stream study conducted in 1989, several significant changes in herbicide use have occurred. The most substantial change is the tripling in the use of glyphosate during the past 5 years. Over this same time period (1997-2001), usage of acetochlor and atrazine increased slightly, whereas alachlor, cyanazine, and metolachlor usage decreased. During 2002, 154 samples were collected from 51 streams in nine Midwestern States during three periods of runoff. This report provides a compilation of the analytical results of five laboratory methods. Results show that glyphosate was detected in 55 (36 percent) of the samples, and aminomethylphosphonic acid (a degradation product of glyphosate) was detected in 107 (69 percent) of the samples. Atrazine, the most frequently detected herbicide, was found in 93 percent of the samples, followed by metolachlor, found in 73 percent of the samples; metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) and oxanilic acid (OXA) were the most frequently detected herbicide degradation products, both being found in more than 95 percent of the samples. The data presented here are valuable for comparison with results from the earlier reconnaissance studies.

  15. Modeling the environmental fate of atrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Devillers, J.; Bintein, S.; Domine, D.

    1996-10-01

    Modeling the environmental distribution of organic pollutants from their physicochemical properties is essential for hazard assessment. For this purpose, biosphere is generally divided into a given number of compartments (e.g., air, water, soil) and the physical, chemical, and biological processes involved in the environmental fate of pollutants are defined in terms of mathematical equations. Models are then computed so that an easy and rapid handling is offered. Based on this strategy, CHEMFRANCE, a regional fugacity level III model allowing to calculate the environmental distribution of organic chemicals in France or any user-defined region is well suited for rapid screening analyses. In this study, CHEMFRANCE was used for modeling the environmental fate of atrazine. The simulations were compared with field and laboratory results recorded in Europe and North-America.

  16. Ground-water quality in northeastern St. Joseph County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, J.M.; Bayless, E. Randall; Watson, Lee R.

    1995-01-01

    No industrial organic compounds were detected in the water samples. Four pesticides - alachlor, carbofuran, metolachlor, and triazines - were detected in water samples; the highest pesticide concentration in a water sample was 1.0 microgram per liter of alachlor.

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF ATRAZINE IN PC12 CELLS AND MODULATION OF CATECHOLAMINE SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine disrupts ovarian function by altering hypothalamic catecholamine (CA) concentrations and the consequent regulation of pituitary LH release and prolactin secretion in the young female rat. We also showed that atrazine directly interacts with t...

  18. GESTATIONAL ATRAZINE EXPOSURE IN THE RAT: EFFECTS ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION IN MULTIPLE GENERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chlorotriazine herbicides currently represent the most heavily used of all agricultural pesticides, with atrazine being the most common of these chemicals. Rodent toxicology studies indicate that atrazine can disrupt endocrine function and among its effects is an increased in...

  19. Effect of soil moisture on the release of alachlor from alginate-based controlled-release formulations.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Ahmed; Mingelgrin, Uri; Gerstl, Zev

    2008-02-27

    The release of alachlor from controlled-release formulations (CRFs) based on alginate-montmorillonite matrices into aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions of different concentrations and into a soil at different moisture contents was studied. In distilled water and in PEG-containing solutions displaying -0.1 MPa potential and up, the beads imbibe water and swell. The ensuing increase in weight is about 5%, and the increase in the bead's diameter is about 10%. At water potentials of -0.5 MPa and lower, loss of weight and shrinkage of the beads were observed. The changes in weight and diameter of the alginate-clay beads incubated in a Hamra loamy sand soil at 26.5% moisture content (w/w; -0.18 MPa) were similar to those observed in PEG solutions of >-0.5 MPa moisture potential. The weight and diameter losses observed in the drier soils (12.0 and 7.1% water content; -0.49 and -1.11 MPa) were similar to those in the more concentrated PEG solutions. A decrease in the rate of release of the active ingredient from the beads into soil was observed as the water potential decreased (drier soils). The release of the active ingredient from the investigated CRFs displayed a linear relationship to the square root of time, suggesting a diffusion-controlled-release rate. Data extracted from this relationship enabled the formulation of a mathematical model that correlates rate of release to water content.

  20. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of an Alachlor and Endosulfan Degrading Micrococcus sp. strain 2385 Isolated from Ochlockonee River, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ashish; Chauhan, Ashvini; Ewida, Ayman Y.I.; Stothard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We recently isolated Micrococcus sp. strain 2385 from Ochlockonee River, Florida and demonstrated potent biodegradative activity against two commonly used pesticides- alachlor [(2-chloro-2`,6`-diethylphenyl-N (methoxymethyl)acetanilide)] and endosulfan [(6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9methano-2,3,4-benzo(e)di-oxathiepin-3-oxide], respectively. To further identify the repertoire of metabolic functions possessed by strain 2385, a draft genome sequence was obtained, assembled, annotated and analyzed. The genome sequence of Micrococcus sp. strain 2385 consisted of 1,460,461,440 bases which assembled into 175 contigs with an N50 contig length of 50,109 bases and a coverage of 600x. The genome size of this strain was estimated at 2,431,226 base pairs with a G+C content of 72.8 and a total number of 2,268 putative genes. RAST annotated a total of 340 subsystems in the genome of strain 2385 along with the presence of 2,177 coding sequences. A genome wide survey indicated that that strain 2385 harbors a plethora of genes to degrade other pollutants including caprolactam, PAHs (such as naphthalene), styrene, toluene and several chloroaromatic compounds. PMID:27672405

  1. Evaluation of atrazine degradation applied to different energy systems.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ailton J; Pinheiro, Bianca S; Araújo, André F; Freschi, Gian P G

    2016-09-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide widely used in crops and has drawn attention due to potential pollution present in soil, sediment, water, and food. Since conventional methods are not potentially efficient to persistent degradation of organic compounds, new technology has been developed to remove them, especially practices utilizing advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This work aims to evaluate the use of different energies (ultraviolet (UV), microwaves (MW), and radiations (MW-UV)) to the herbicide atrazine through the process of photo-oxidation. These systems found degradation rates of around 12 % (UV), 28 % (MW), and 83 % (MW-UV), respectively, with time intervals of 120 s. After the photolytic processes, the samples were analyzed at a wavelength scanning the range of 190 to 300 nm, where the spectral analysis of the signal was used to evaluate the degradation of atrazine and the appearance of some other peaks (degradation products). The spectrum evaluation resulting from photolytic processes gave rise to a new signal which was confirmed by chromatography. This spectrum indicated the possible pathway of atrazine degradation by the process of photolytic MW-UV, generating atrazine-2-hydroxy, atrazine-desethyl-2-hidroxy, and atrazine-desisopropyl-2-hydroxy. The process indicated that in all situations, chloride was present in the analytic structure and was substituted by a hydroxyl group, which lowered the toxicity of the compound through the photolytic process MW-UV. Chromatographic analysis ascertained these preliminary assessments using spectrophotometry. It was also significantly observed that the process can be optimized by adjusting the pH of the solution, which was evident by an improvement of 10 % in the rate of degradation when subjected to a pH solution equal to 8.37.

  2. Manganese dioxide as a catalyst for oxygen-independent atrazine dealkylation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.; Shin, J.J.; Cheney, M.; Sposito, G.; Spiro, T.

    1999-09-16

    The herbicide atrazine is widely distributed in the environment, and its reactivity with soil minerals is an important issue. We have studied atrazine degradation on the surface of synthetic {delta}-MnO{sub 2}(birnessite) using UV resonance raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The products are mainly mono and didealkyl atrazine. Atrazine disappearance is rapid {tau}1/2 {approx} 5 h at 30C and independent of whether O{sub 2} is present or not.

  3. Toxicity and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products: A literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority`s Environmental Research Center has been developing a means of detoxifying atrazine waste waters using TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. The toxicity and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products will probably be required information in obtaining permits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency for the demonstration of any photocatalytic treatment of atrazine waste waters. The following report is a literature survey of the toxicological and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products.

  4. Atrazine Biodegradation in a Cisne Soil Exposed to a Major Spill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional soil tests, culture-based microbial methods, and the novel method of 15N-DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) were employed to illustrate atrazine biodegradation as related to the physiochemical properties of an atrazine-exposed Cisne soil. This soil exhibited enhanced atrazine degradation...

  5. Significance of atrazine as a tank-mix partner with tembotrione

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manufacturers of several postemergence corn herbicides recommend tank-mixing the herbicide with atrazine to improve performance; however, regulatory changes in atrazine use are possible. The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of postemergence atrazine on effectiveness of tembotrione i...

  6. Experimental and modeling of the unsaturated transports of S-metolachlor and its metabolites in glaciofluvial vadose zone solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidoli, Pauline; Lassabatere, Laurent; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Baran, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    The transport of pesticides to groundwater is assumed to be impacted by flow processes and geochemical interactions occurring in the vadose zone. In this study, the transport of S-metolachlor (SMOC) and its two metabolites ESA-metolachlor (MESA) and OXA-metolachlor (MOXA) in vadose zone materials of a glaciofluvial aquifer is studied at laboratory scale. Column experiments are used to study the leaching of a conservative tracer (bromide) and SMOC, MESA and MOXA under unsaturated conditions in two lithofacies, a bimodal gravel (Gcm,b) and a sand (S-x). Tracer experiments showed water fractionation into mobile and immobile compartments more pronounced in bimodal gravel columns. In both lithofacies columns, SMOC outflow is delayed (retardation factor > 2) and mass balance reveals depletion (mass balance of 0.59 and 0.77 in bimodal gravel and sand, respectively). However, complete mass elution associated with retardation factors close to unity shows that there is no adsorption of MESA and MOXA in either lithofacies. SMOC transport is characterized by non-equilibrium sorption and sink term in both bimodal gravel and sand columns. Batch experiments carried out using agitation times consistent with column water residence times confirmed a time-dependence of SMOC sorption and high adsorption rates (> 80%) of applied concentrations. Desorption experiments confirm the irreversibility of a major part of the SMOC adsorption onto particles, corresponding to the sink term in columns. In the bimodal gravel column, SMOC adsorption occurs mainly on reactive particles in contact with mobile water because of flow regionalization whereas in the sand column, there is pesticide diffusion to the immobile water. Such results clearly show that sorption mechanisms in the vadose zone solids below the soil are both solute and contact-time-dependent and are impacted by hydrodynamic conditions. The more rapid transport of MESA and MOXA to the aquifer would be controlled mainly by water flow

  7. Selection and analysis of sites highly vulnerable to groundwater contamination in southwestern Michigan. Final technical report, 1 April 1991-31 March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, J.L.; Lusch, D.P.

    1992-04-01

    An ongoing study in central Cass County has demonstrated extensive nitrate contamination of the glacial drift aquifer in the Donnell Lake watershed. In addition, about 20% of 121 wells sampled showed detectable herbicides (atrazine, alachlor/metolachlor, and/or alachlor soil metabolite). Monthly monitoring of these wells in 1991 demonstrated stable water quality in the deeper wells, with some shallow wells showing from 30 to 300% increases in nitrate concentration over the summer. One well showed an 80% decrease in nitrate concentration. Herbicide concentrations were quite stable and consistent with previous findings. Generally the deeper wells (over 50 feet) demonstrated less contamination, but one 80 foot deep well demonstrated substantial nitrate and herbicide concentrations.

  8. Kinetics and spectroscopic observations of atrazine dealkylation on manganese oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Malengreau, N.; Sposito, G.; Cheney, M.A.; Crowley, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    Abiotic transformations of organic pollutants are often neglected in remediation scenarios but nonetheless can contribute significantly to detoxification. Mn oxide minerals are capable of degrading organic pollutants adsorbed to their surfaces by both redox and proton-promoted mechanisms. Concurrently with calorimetric, gas-pressure, chromatographic, and ESR methods, we used ICP, DRS, DRIFT, and FTIR spectroscopies to investigate atrazine degradation on three Mn oxides. We found that N-dealkylation can occur abiotically, leading to the formation of deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine. The Mn extractability after degradation of atrazine was highly dependent on the Mn oxide. Extractable Mn increased with time for cryptomelane, was constant for pyrolusite, and remained very low for birnessite. The extractable Mn is Mn(II). UV signatures of atrazine by-products were different from one another and were used to trace degradation products at the Mn oxide surface. Mechanistic interpretation of the in situ reaction kinetics and thermodynamics will be discussed.

  9. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma induced degradation of aqueous atrazine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingwei; Jiang, Lin; Zhu, Dan; Su, Kuizu; Zhao, Dayong; Zhang, Jibiao; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Degradation of herbicide atrazine in aqueous solution was investigated using a plate type dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor. DBD plasma was generated at the gas-liquid interface of the formed water film. At discharge time of 14 min, atrazine was degradated effectively with a degradation rate of 99 % at the discharge power of 200 W. The experimental data fitted well with first-order kinetics and the energy efficiency for 90 % degradation of atrazine (G value) was calculated, obtaining a rate constant of 0.35 min(-1) and a G value of 1.27 × 10(-10) mol J(-1) (98.76 mg kW(-1) h(-1)) at a discharge power of 200 W, respectively. The addition of Fe(2+) increased the rate constant and G value dramatically, and a significant decrease of the rate constant and G value was observed with the addition of radical scavengers (tert-butyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, or Na2CO3). The generated aqueous O3 and H2O2 were determined, which promoted the degradation of herbicide atrazine. Dechlorination was observed and the experimentally detected Cl(-) was 1.52 mg L(-1) at a discharge time of 14 min. The degradation intermediates of atrazine were detected by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; dechlorination, hydroxylation, dealkylation, and alkyl oxidation processes were involved in the degradation pathways of atrazine.

  10. Atrazine sorption-desorption hysteresis by sugarcane mulch residue.

    PubMed

    Selim, H M; Zhu, H

    2005-01-01

    Sorption and desorption kinetics are essential components for modeling the movement and retention of applied agricultural chemicals in soils and the fraction of chemicals susceptible to runoff. In this study, we investigated the retention characteristics of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) mulch residue for atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) based on studies of sorption-desorption kinetics. A sorption kinetic batch method was used to quantify retention of the mulch residue for a wide range of atrazine concentrations and reaction times. Desorption was performed following 504 h of sorption using successive dilutions, followed by methanol extraction. Atrazine retention by the mulch residue was well described using a linear model where the partitioning coefficient (K(d)) increased with reaction time from 10.40 to 23.4 cm3 g(-1) after 2 and 504 h, respectively. Values for mulch residue K(d) were an order of magnitude higher than those found for Commerce silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) where the sugarcane crop was grown. A kinetic multireaction model was successful in describing sorption behavior with reaction time. The model was equally successful in describing observed hysteretic atrazine behavior during desorption for all input concentrations. The model was concentration independent where one set of model parameters, which was derived from all batch results, was valid for the entire atrazine concentration range. Average atrazine recovery following six successive desorption steps were 63.67 +/- 4.38% of the amount adsorbed. Moreover, a hysteresis coefficient based on the difference in the area between sorption and desorption isotherms was capable of quantifying hysteresis of desorption isotherms.

  11. Estimation of the Potential for Atrazine Transport in a Silt Loam Soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, D.A.V.; Wagenet, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The transport potential of the herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethyl-6-isopropyl-s-triazine) through a 1-meter-thick root zone of corn (Zea mays L.) in a silty-loam soil in Kansas was estimated for a 22-year period (1972-93) using the one-dimensional water-flow and solute-transport model LEACHM. Results demonstrate that, for this soil, atrazine transport is directly related to the amount and timing of rain that follows spring applications of atrazine. Two other critical transport factors were important in wet years - [1] variability in atrazine application rate, and [2] atrazine degradation rates below the root zone. Results demonstrate that the coincidence of heavy rain soon after atrazine application can cause herbicide to move below the rooting zone into depths at which biodegradation rates are assumed to be low but are often unknown. Atrazine that reaches below the rooting zone and persists in the underlying soil can subsequently be transported into ground water as soil water drains, typically after the growing season. A frequency analysis of atrazine concentrations in subsurface drainage, combined with field data, demonstrates the relative importance of critical transport factors and confirms a need for definitive estimates of atrazine-degradation rates below the root zone. The analysis indicates that periodic leaching of atrazine can be expected for this soil when rainfall that exceeds 20 cm/mo coincides with atrazine presence in soil.

  12. Chemical modification and degradation of atrazine in Medicago sativa through multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing Jing; Lu, Yi Chen; Yang, Hong

    2014-10-08

    Atrazine is a member of the triazine herbicide family intensively used to control weeds for crop production. In this study, atrazine residues and its degraded products in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were characterized using UPLC-TOF-MS/MS. Most of atrazine absorbed in plants was found as chemically modified derivatives like deisopropylated atrazine (DIA), dehydrogenated atrazine (DHA), or methylated atrazine (MEA), and some atrazine derivatives were conjugated through different functional groups such as sugar, glutathione, and amino acids. Interestingly, the specific conjugates DHA+hGSH (homoglutathione) and MEA-HCl+hGSH in alfalfa were detected. These results suggest that atrazine in alfalfa can be degraded through different pathways. The increased activities of glycosyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase were determined to support the atrazine degradation models. The outcome of the work uncovered the detailed mechanism for the residual atrazine accumulation and degradation in alfalfa and will help to evaluate whether the crop is suitable to be cultivated in the atrazine-polluted soil.

  13. Photolytic treatment of atrazine-contaminated water: products, kinetics, and reactor design.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuejun; Chen, Daniel; Li, Kuyen; Wang, Bin; Hopper, Jack

    2007-08-01

    This study investigates the products, kinetics, and reactor design of atrazine photolysis under 254-nm ultraviolet-C (UVC) irradiation. With an initial atrazine concentration of 60 microg/L (60 ppbm), only two products remain in detectable levels. Up to 77% of decomposed atrazine becomes hydroxyatrazine, the major product. Both atrazine and hydroxyatrazine photodecompose following the first-order rate equation, but the hydroxyatrazine photodecomposition rate is significantly slower than that of atrazine. For atrazine photodecomposition, the rate constant is proportional to the square of UVC output, but inversely proportional to the reactor volume. For a photochemical reactor design, a series of equations are proposed to calculate the needed UVC output power, water treatment capacity, and atrazine outlet concentration.

  14. Linking ground-water age and chemistry data along flow paths: Implications for trends and transformations of nitrate and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Saad, D.A.; Burow, K.R.; Frick, E.A.; Puckett, L.J.; Barbash, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Tracer-based ground-water ages, along with the concentrations of pesticides, nitrogen species, and other redox-active constituents, were used to evaluate the trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals along flow paths in diverse hydrogeologic settings. A range of conditions affecting the transformation of nitrate and pesticides (e.g., thickness of unsaturated zone, redox conditions) was examined at study sites in Georgia, North Carolina, Wisconsin, and California. Deethylatrazine (DEA), a transformation product of atrazine, was typically present at concentrations higher than those of atrazine at study sites with thick unsaturated zones but not at sites with thin unsaturated zones. Furthermore, the fraction of atrazine plus DEA that was present as DEA did not increase as a function of ground-water age. These findings suggest that atrazine degradation occurs primarily in the unsaturated zone with little or no degradation in the saturated zone. Similar observations were also made for metolachlor and alachlor. The fraction of the initial nitrate concentration found as excess N2 (N2 derived from denitrification) increased with ground-water age only at the North Carolina site, where oxic conditions were generally limited to the top 5??m of saturated thickness. Historical trends in fluxes to ground water were evaluated by relating the times of recharge of ground-water samples, estimated using chlorofluorocarbon concentrations, with concentrations of the parent compound at the time of recharge, estimated by summing the molar concentrations of the parent compound and its transformation products in the age-dated sample. Using this approach, nitrate concentrations were estimated to have increased markedly from 1960 to the present at all study sites. Trends in concentrations of atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor, and their degradates were related to the timing of introduction and use of these compounds. Degradates, and to a lesser extent parent compounds, were detected

  15. A Qualitative Meta-Analysis Reveals Consistent Effects of Atrazine on Freshwater Fish and Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Jason R.; McCoy, Krista A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The biological effects of the herbicide atrazine on freshwater vertebrates are highly controversial. In an effort to resolve the controversy, we conducted a qualitative meta-analysis on the effects of ecologically relevant atrazine concentrations on amphibian and fish survival, behavior, metamorphic traits, infections, and immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Data sources We used published, peer-reviewed research and applied strict quality criteria for inclusion of studies in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis We found little evidence that atrazine consistently caused direct mortality of fish or amphibians, but we found evidence that it can have indirect and sublethal effects. The relationship between atrazine concentration and timing of amphibian metamorphosis was regularly nonmonotonic, indicating that atrazine can both accelerate and delay metamorphosis. Atrazine reduced size at or near metamorphosis in 15 of 17 studies and 14 of 14 species. Atrazine elevated amphibian and fish activity in 12 of 13 studies, reduced antipredator behaviors in 6 of 7 studies, and reduced olfactory abilities for fish but not for amphibians. Atrazine was associated with a reduction in 33 of 43 immune function end points and with an increase in 13 of 16 infection end points. Atrazine altered at least one aspect of gonadal morphology in 7 of 10 studies and consistently affected gonadal function, altering spermatogenesis in 2 of 2 studies and sex hormone concentrations in 6 of 7 studies. Atrazine did not affect vitellogenin in 5 studies and increased aromatase in only 1 of 6 studies. Effects of atrazine on fish and amphibian reproductive success, sex ratios, gene frequencies, populations, and communities remain uncertain. Conclusions Although there is much left to learn about the effects of atrazine, we identified several consistent effects of atrazine that must be weighed against any of its benefits and the costs and benefits of alternatives to atrazine use. PMID

  16. Synthetic organic agrochemicals in the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries--Distribution, transport and fate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its major tributaries transport herbicides and their degradation products from agricultural areas in the mid-western U.S.A. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products (desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine), simazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products (2-chloro-2′,6′-diethylacetanilide 2-hydroxy-2′,6′-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline). These compounds were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Loads of these compounds were determined during five sampling trips in 1987–1989. Stream loads of these compounds indicated that atrazine and metolachlor were relatively conservative in downstream transport. Alachlor and its degradation products were generated from point and non-point sources. Seasonal variations and hydrologic conditions controlled the loads of these compounds in the Mississippi River. Cross-channel mixing was slow downstream from major river confluences, possibly requiring several hundred kilometers of downriver transit for completion. The annual transport of these compounds into the Gulf of Mexico was estimated to be < 2% of the annual application of each herbicide in the Midwest.

  17. Agricultural chemicals in ground and surface water in a small watershed in Clayton County, Iowa, 1988-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.; Schaap, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen was present in all water samples from Deer Creek. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.70 to 17 mg/L. Alachlor was detected in 11 percent of the samples, atrazine in 69 percent, cyanazine in 19 percent, and metolachlor in 33 percent. Alachlor concentrations ranged from less than 0.10 to 0.53 ug/L, atrazine ranged from less than 0.10 to 55 ug/L, cyanazine ranged from less than 0.10 to 12 ug/L, and metolachlor ranged from less than 0.10 to 69 ug/L. Herbicide detections occurred most frequently in late spring and early summer during or just following chemical application. Overland flow is an important source of nitrogen and herbicides to Deer Creek. Substantial amounts of agricultural chemicals are transported from the watershed. As much as 4,700 pounds, or 6.7 pounds per acre, of nitrogen were estimated to be transported from the watershed in 1 year. Nitrogen loads transported from the Deer Creek watershed were less during dry years than during years with average or greater than average rainfall.

  18. Source, extent, and degradation of herbicides in a shallow aquifer near Hesston, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, metolachlor, and metribuzin were detected in water from a domestic well completed in a shallow aquifer underlying the Harvey County Experiment Field near Hesston, Kansas. The study described in this report investigated the source, extent, and degradation of these five herbicides. Hydrogeologic analysis of the site enabled estimation of the degradation half-lives of the herbicides in the saturated zone. The most probable source of the contamination was back- siphonage or spillage of herbicides from a sprayer tank into a trench backfilled with sand. The herbicides moved downgradient to the domestic well and then moved into the aquifer via the annular space in the well. Once in the aquifer, the contaminants remained nearly stationary with very little lateral movement away from the point of injection. Decreases in herbicide concentrations were caused mainly by degradation of the parent compounds and to a lesser degree, by extensive pumping of the well. Estimated herbicide degradation half-lives in the saturated environment were 1,000 days for atrazine, 400 days for alachlor, 250 days for cyanazine, 350 days for metolachlor, and 350 days for metribuzin. The herbicides will likely be eliminated from the soil and groundwater at the experiment field by continued natural degradation at the land surface and by degradation in and continued pumping of water from the aquifer. Pumping will remove any degradation products as well as the remaining parent compounds. (USGS)

  19. Synthetic organic agrochemicals in the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries: Distribution, transport and fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, W. E.; Rostad, C. E.; Leiker, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its major tributaries transport herbicides and their degradation products from agricultural areas in the mid-western U.S.A. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products (desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine), simazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products (2-chloro-2',6'-diethylacetanilide 2-hydroxy-2',6'-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline). These compounds were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Loads of these compounds were determined during five sampling trips in 1987-1989. Stream loads of these compounds indicated that atrazine and metolachlor were relatively conservative in downstream transport. Alachlor and its degradation products were generated from point and non-point sources. Seasonal variations and hydrologic conditions controlled the loads of these compounds in the Mississippi River. Cross-channel mixing was slow downstream from major river confluences, possibly requiring several hundred kilometers of downriver transit for completion. The annual transport of these compounds into the Gulf of Mexico was estimated to be < 2% of the annual application of each herbicide in the Midwest.

  20. Weed Management and Crop Response with Glyphosate, S-metolachlor, Trifloxysulfuron, Prometryn, and MSMA in Glyphosate-Resistant Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in five states at six locations from 2002 through 2003 to evaluate weed control and cotton response to EPOST, POST, and LAYBY systems utilizing glyphosate-TM (trimethylsulfonium salt), s-metolachlor, trifloxysulfuron, prometryn, and MSMA. Early-season cotton injury and ...

  1. Veterinary antibiotic effects on atrazine degradation and soil microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in manure applied to agricultural lands may change agrichemical degradation by altering soil microbial community structure or function. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of two VAs, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and oxytetracycline (OTC), on atrazine ...

  2. SORPTION OF VINCLOZOLIN AND ATRAZINE ON FOUR GEOSORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the magnitude and kinetics of vinclozolin and atrazine sorption on one surface soil and three freshwater sediments using batch and column techniques. Data from miscible displacement column studies were analyzed using a two-domain, fir...

  3. Catalytic Improvement and Evolution of Atrazine Chlorohydrolase ▿

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Colin; Jackson, Colin J.; Coppin, Chris W.; Mourant, Roslyn G.; Hilton, Margaret E.; Sutherland, Tara D.; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The atrazine chlorohydrolase AtzA has evolved within the past 50 years to catalyze the hydrolytic dechlorination of the herbicide atrazine. It is of wide research interest for two reasons: first, catalytic improvement of the enzyme would facilitate its application in bioremediation, and second, because of its recent evolution, it presents a rare opportunity to examine the early stages in the acquisition of new catalytic activities. Using a structural model of the AtzA-atrazine complex, a region of the substrate-binding pocket was targeted for combinatorial randomization. Identification of improved variants through this process informed the construction of a variant AtzA enzyme with 20-fold improvement in its kcat/Km value compared with that of the wild-type enzyme. The reduction in Km observed in the AtzA variants has allowed the full kinetic profile for the AtzA-catalyzed dechlorination of atrazine to be determined for the first time, revealing the hitherto-unreported substrate cooperativity in AtzA. Since substrate cooperativity is common among deaminases, which are the closest structural homologs of AtzA, it is possible that this phenomenon is a remnant of the catalytic activity of the evolutionary progenitor of AtzA. A catalytic mechanism that suggests a plausible mechanistic route for the evolution of dechlorinase activity in AtzA from an ancestral deaminase is proposed. PMID:19201959

  4. Determination of the atrazine migration parameters in Vertisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymundo-Raymundo, E.; Hernandez-Vargas, J.; Nikol'Skii, Yu. N.; Guber, A. K.; Gavi-Reyes, F.; Prado-Pano, B. L.; Figueroa-Sandoval, B.; Mendosa-Hernandez, J. R.

    2010-05-01

    The parameters of the atrazine migration in columns with undisturbed Vertisol sampled from an irrigated plot in Guanajuato, Mexico were determined. A model of the convection-dispersion transport of the chemical compounds accounting for the decomposition and equilibrium adsorption, which is widely applied for assessing the risk of contamination of natural waters with pesticides, was used. The model parameters were obtained by solving the inverse problem of the transport equation on the basis of laboratory experiments on the transport of the 18O isotope and atrazine in soil columns with an undisturbed structure at three filtration velocities. The model adequately described the experimental data at the individual selection of the parameters for each output curve. Physically unsubstantiated parameters of the atrazine adsorption and degradation were obtained when the parameter of the hydrodynamic dispersion was determined from the data on the 18O migration. The simulation also showed that the use of parameters obtained at water content close to saturation in the calculations for an unsaturated soil resulted in the overestimation of the leaching rate and the maximum concentration of atrazine in the output curve compared to the experimental data.

  5. Study of atrazine effects on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, B; Renault, T; Bouilly, K; Lapegue, S; Thomas-Guyon, H

    2003-01-01

    Shellfish farming is an important economic activity around the world. This activity often takes place in areas subjected to various recurring pollutions. The recrudescent use of herbicides in agriculture including atrazine implies pollutant transfer towards aquatic environment in estuarine areas. Harmful effects of such substances on animals in marine environment, particularly on cultured bivalves, are poorly documented. Bivalve molluscs such as mussels and oysters have been postulated as ideal indicator organisms because of their way of life. They filter large volumes of seawater and may therefore accumulate and concentrate contaminants within their tissues. Moreover, development of techniques allowing effect analysis of such compounds on bivalve biology may lead to the development of diagnosis tools adapted to analyze pollutant transfer towards estuarine areas. In this context, influence of atrazine on defence mechanisms was analyzed in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas. Atrazine was tested in vitro and in vivo on oyster haemocytes, and its effects were analyzed by flow cytometry. Haemocyte viability, cell cycle and cellular activities were monitored. Atrazine induced no significant effect in oyster under tested conditions except for peroxidase activity.

  6. REGIONAL MODELING OF THE ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model has been developed by the U.S. EPA that is capable of addressing the atmospheric fate, transport and deposition of some common trace toxics. An initial, 36-km rectangular grid-cell application for atrazine has been...

  7. Glufosinate and Ammonium Sulfate Inhibits Atrazine Degradation in Adapted Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The co-application of glufosinate with nitrogen fertilizers may alter atrazine co-metabolism, thereby extending the herbicide’s residual weed control in adapted soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of glufosinate, ammonium sulfate, and the combination of glufosinate and ammo...

  8. Lichen microalgae are sensitive to environmental concentrations of atrazine.

    PubMed

    Traba, Helena Moreno; Domínguez-Morueco, Noelia; Barreno, Eva; Catalá, Myriam

    2017-04-03

    The identification of new organisms for environmental toxicology bioassays is currently a priority, since these tools are strongly limited by the ecological relevance of taxa used to study global change. Lichens are sensitive bioindicators of air quality and their microalgae are an untapped source for new low-cost miniaturized bioassays with ecological importance. In order to increase the availability of a wider range of taxa for bioassays, the sensitivity of two symbiotic lichen microalgae, Asterochloris erici and Trebouxia sp. TR9, to atrazine was evaluated. To achieve this goal, axenic cultures of these phycobionts in suspension were exposed to a range of environmental concentrations of the herbicide atrazine, a common water pollutant. Optical density and chlorophyll autofluorescence were used as endpoints of ecotoxicity and ecophysiology on cell suspensions. Results show that lichen microalgae show high sensitivity to very low doses of atrazine, being higher in Asterochloris erici than in Trebouxia sp. TR9. We conclude that environmental concentrations of atrazine could modify population dynamics probably through a shift in reproduction strategies of these organisms. This seminal work is a breakthrough in the use of lichen microalgae in the assessment of micropollution effects on biodiversity.

  9. ATRAZINE DISRUPTS THE HYPOTHALAMIC CONTROL OF PITUITARY-OVARIAN FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chloro-S-triazine herbicides (i.e., atrazine, simazine, cyanazine) constitute the largest group of herbicides sold in the United States. Despite their extensive usage, relatively little is known about the possible human-health effects and mechanism(s) of action of these compo...

  10. Toxoxity characteristics of the 2-chlorotriazines atrazine and simazine

    SciTech Connect

    Hauswirth, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    Atrazine and simazine are herbicides used broadly in agriculture to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. An extensive database on the toxicity of these triazines has been developed to support their use in agriculture. Atrazine and simazine have very low levels of acute toxicity with oral LD{sub 50}s of >3000 mg/kg in rats. A total of 37 mutagenicity studies have been conducted on atrazine and 34 on simazine. A weight-of-the-evidence evaluation of the mutagenicity data leads to the conclusion that neither triazine possesses genotoxic activity. Oncogenicity studies in three strains of mice are negative for both atrazine and simazine. Neither triazine is oncogenic to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats or to male and female Fischer 344 rats. However, in female SD rats both triazines induce the early occurrence and/or increased incidence of mammary gland tumors. Results of additional studies suggest that endocrinologic changes related to triazine administration are likely responsible for the mammary gland effects in female SD rats and that a threshold exists for these effects.

  11. ATRAZINE DISPOSITION IN PREGNANT AND LACTATING LONG-EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used herbicide shown to delay early mammary development in female offspring of gestationally exposed rats. The effects of ATR can be induced by in utero exposure and/or suckling from a dam exposed during late pregnancy, but ATR is reported to have a hal...

  12. Bioavailability of organoclay formulations of atrazine in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide formulations based on organoclays have been proposed to prolong the efficacy and reduce the environmental impact of pesticides in soil. This research addressed the question of whether organoclay-based formulations of atrazine are irreversibly sorbed or are bioavailable for bacterial degrad...

  13. THE LOADINGS, TRANSPORT, AND FATE OF ATRAZINE IN LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A lake wide atrazine model was developed to gain insight into the transport and fate of the herbicide in Lake Michigan. An important part of the analysis was the preparation of historical loading estimates from both tributaries and the atmosphere. Historical tributary loading est...

  14. Occurrence, distributions, and transport of herbicides and their degradation products in the lower Mississippi river and its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its tributaries drain extensive agricultural regions of the midcontinental United States, where large amounts of herbicides are applied as weed control agents on crops such as corn and soybeans. Studies being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey along the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries, representing a 1930-km river reach, have confirmed that several triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides and their degradation products are present in this riverine system. These herbicides include atrazine, and its degradation products, desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine; cyanazine; simazine; metolachlor; and alachlor and its degradation products, 2-chloro-2???,6???-diethylacetanilide, and 2-hydroxy-2???,6???-diethylacetanilide. Loads of these compounds were determined at 17 different sampling stations under various seasonal and hydrologic conditions, during five sampling trips from July 1987 to June 1989. Stream loads of herbicides were relatively small during the drought of 1987 and 1988. Stream loads were much greater during the relatively wet year of 1989. Trace levels of atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor also were associated with suspended sediments. Distribution coefficients (Koc) of these compounds varied considerably between sites and were much larger than Koc values reported in the literature. The annual transport of atrazine into the Gulf of Mexico was estimated to be less than 2% of the amount of atrazine applied each year in the midwest.

  15. Environmental concentrations of irgarol, diuron and S-metolachlor induce deleterious effects on gametes and embryos of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huong; Morin, Bénédicte; Pardon, Patrick; Gonzalez, Patrice; Budzinski, Hélène; Cachot, Jérôme

    2013-08-01

    Irgarol and diuron are the most representative "organic booster biocides" that replace organotin compounds in antifouling paints, and metolachlor is one of the most extensively used chloroacetamide herbicides in agriculture. The toxicity of S-metolachlor, irgarol and diuron was evaluated in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) gametes or embryos exposed to concentrations of pesticides ranging from 0.1× to 1000×, with 1× corresponding to environmental concentrations of the three studied pesticides in Arcachon Bay (France). Exposures were performed on (1) spermatozoa alone (2) oocytes alone and (3) both spermatozoa and oocytes, and adverse effects on fertilization success and offspring development were recorded. The results showed that the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa was significantly affected after gamete exposure to pesticide concentrations as low as 1× of irgarol and diuron and 10× of metolachlor. The offspring obtained from pesticide-exposed spermatozoa displayed a dose-dependent increase in developmental abnormalities. In contrast, treating oocytes with pesticide concentrations up to 10× did not alter fertilization rate and offspring quality. However, a significant decline in fertilization success and increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence were observed at higher concentrations 10× (0.1 μg L(-1)) for S-metolachlor and 100× for irgarol (1.0 μg L(-1)) and diuron (4.0 μg L(-1)). Irgarol, diuron and S-metolachlor also induced a dose-dependent increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence when freshly fertilized embryos were treated with pesticide concentrations as low as concentration of 1× (0.01 μg L(-1) for irgarol or S-metolachlor, and 0.04 μg L(-1) for diuron). The two bioassays on C. gigas spermatozoa and embryos displayed similar sensitivities to the studied pesticides while oocytes were less sensitive. Diuron, irgarol and S-metolachlor induced spermiotoxicity and embryotoxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations and therefore might be

  16. Bioremediation strategies for removal of residual atrazine in the boreal groundwater zone.

    PubMed

    Nousiainen, Aura O; Björklöf, Katarina; Sagarkar, Sneha; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Kapley, Atya; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2015-12-01

    Strategies for bioremediation of atrazine, a pesticide commonly polluting groundwater in low concentrations, were studied in two boreal nonagricultural soils. Atrazine was not mineralized in soil without bioremediation treatments. In biostimulation treatment with molasses, up to 52% of atrazine was mineralized at 10 °C, even though the degradation gene copy numbers did not increase. Incubations with radioactively labeled atrazine followed by microautoradiographic analysis revealed that bioremediation strategies increased the relative proportion of active degraders from 0.3 up to 1.9% of the total bacterial count. These results indicate that atrazine degradation might not solely be facilitated by atzA/trzN-atzB genes. In combined biostimulation treatment using citrate or molasses and augmentation with Pseudomonas citronellolis ADP or Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1, up to 76% of atrazine was mineralized at 30 °C, and the atrazine degradation gene numbers increased up to 10(7) copies g(-1) soil. Clone libraries from passive samplers in groundwater monitoring wells revealed the presence of phylogenetic groups formerly shown to include atrazine degraders, and the presence of atrazine degradation genes atzA and atzB. These results show that the mineralization of low concentrations of atrazine in the groundwater zone at low temperatures is possible by bioremediation treatments.

  17. Exploring bacterial community structure and function associated with atrazine biodegradation in repeatedly treated soils.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hua; Lian, Jianjun; Wang, Huifang; Cai, Lin; Yu, Yunlong

    2015-04-09

    Substantial application of the herbicide atrazine in agriculture leads to persistent contamination, which may damage the succeeding crops and pose potential threats to soil ecology and environmental health. Here, the degradation characteristics of atrazine and dynamic change of soil bacterial community structure and function as well as their relations were studied during three repeated treatments at the recommended, double, and five-fold doses. The results showed that the degradation half-life of atrazine obviously decreased with increased treatment frequency. Soil microbial functional diversity displayed a variation trend of suppression-recovery-stimulation, which was associated with increased degradation rate of atrazine. 16S amplicon sequencing was conducted to explore bacterial community structure and correlate the genus to potential atrazine degradation. A total of seven potentially atrazine-degrading bacterial genera were found including Nocardioides, Arthrobacter, Bradyrhizobium, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium, Mycobacterium, and Clostridium. These bacterial genera showed almost complete atrazine degradation pathways including dechlorination, dealkylation, hydroxylation, and ring cleavage. Furthermore, the relative abundance of four of them (i.e., Nocardioides, Arthrobacter, Methylobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium) increased with treatment frequency and atrazine concentration, suggesting that they may participate in atrazine degradation during repeated treatments. Our findings reveal the potential relationship between atrazine degradation and soil bacterial community structure in repeatedly treated soils.

  18. Toxicity of atrazine and its bioaccumulation and biodegradation in a green microalga, Chlamydomonas mexicana.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Akhil N; Ji, Min-Kyu; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Jung Rae; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of herbicide atrazine, along with its bioaccumulation and biodegradation in the green microalga Chlamydomonas mexicana. At low concentration (10 μg L(-1)), atrazine had no profound effect on the microalga, while higher concentrations (25, 50, and 100 μg L(-1)) imposed toxicity, leading to inhibition of cell growth and chlorophyll a accumulation by 22 %, 33 %, and 36 %, and 13 %, 24 %, and 27 %, respectively. Atrazine 96-h EC50 for C. mexicana was estimated to be 33 μg L(-1). Microalga showed a capability to accumulate atrazine in the cell and to biodegrade the cell-accumulated atrazine resulting in 14-36 % atrazine degradation at 10-100 μg L(-1). Increasing atrazine concentration decreased the total fatty acids (from 102 to 75 mg g(-1)) and increased the unsaturated fatty acid content in the microalga. Carbohydrate content increased gradually with the increase in atrazine concentration up to 15 %. This study shows that C. mexicana has the capability to degrade atrazine and can be employed for the remediation of atrazine-contaminated streams.

  19. Distribution of atrazine and its phytoremediation by submerged macrophytes in lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mengjie; Li, Huidong; Li, Na; Liu, Guanglong; Zhao, Jianwei; Hua, Yumei; Zhu, Duanwei

    2017-02-01

    We investigated sediments with high atrazine accumulation capability from 6 eutrophic lakes in Hubei Province of central China. Almost all lakes have atrazine in their sediments because of human activities. Honghu Lake and Liangzihu Lake were found to have higher levels of atrazine in sediment: 0.171 and 0.114 mg kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that lake sediments could adsorb atrazine six times faster than soils. The equilibrium partition coefficient of atrazine desorption (KPd) is much larger than the adsorption equilibrium partition coefficient (KPa) of atrazine, indicating that the residue of atrazine in water is easily immobilized by the sediments. Meanwhile, the incubation experiment showed that the removal rateof atrazine in Potamogeton crispus-planted and Myriophyllum spicatum-planted sediments reached >90%, while the rate in unplanted sediments was 77.2 ± 2.12% over 45 d. In unplanted sediment, the half-life of atrazine dissipation was 14.30 d, which was strongly enhanced by P. crispus and M. spicatum, greatly reducing the half-life to 8.60 and 9.72 d, respectively. These two submerged macrophytes are considered to be potential tools in the remediation of atrazine-contaminated sediments.

  20. Inoculation of an atrazine-degrading strain, Chelatobacter heintzii Cit1, in four different soils: effects of different inoculum densities.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, S; Hartmann, A; Lagacherie, B; Piutti, S; Andreux, F; Soulas, G

    2003-05-01

    The possibility to improve atrazine degradation in soils by bioaugmentation was studied. The atrazine-mineralizing strain, Chelatobacter heintzii Cit1, was inoculated in four sterile and four non-sterile soils, at varying inoculum densities. Two soils, which had shown enhanced atrazine mineralization, were used to determine which inoculum density was capable of restoring their original mineralizing capacity after sterilization. The two other soils, with intermediate and low capacity to mineralize atrazine, were used in order to demonstrate that atrazine mineralization in such soils could be improved by inoculation. Mineralization kinetics were fitted using the Gompertz model. In the case of soils adapted to atrazine mineralization, inoculation of C. heintzii did not accelerate the rate of atrazine mineralization, which was essentially performed by the indigenous microflora. However, with soils that did not mineralize atrazine, the introduction of 10(4) cfug(-1) resulted in a 3-fold increase of atrazine mineralization capacity.

  1. Modelling the effect of exposing algae to pulses of S-metolachlor: How to include a delay to the onset of the effect and in the recovery.

    PubMed

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Perronet, Léa; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2016-01-15

    In agriculture, herbicides are applied to improve crop productivity. During and after rain event, herbicides can be transported by surface runoff in streams and rivers. As a result, the exposure pattern in creeks is time-varying, i.e., a repeated pollution of aquatic system. In previous studies, we developed a model to assess the effects of pulse exposure patterns on algae. This model was validated for triazines and phenylureas, which are substances that induce effects directly after exposure with no delay in recovery. However, other herbicides display a mode of action characterized by a time-dependency effect and a delay in recovery. In this study, we therefore investigate whether this previous model could be used to assess the effects of pulse exposure by herbicides with time delay in effect and recovery. The current study focuses on the herbicide S-metolachlor. We showed that the effect of the herbicide begins only after 20 h of exposure for the alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus based on both the optical density and algal cells size measurements. Furthermore, the duration of delay of the recovery for algae previously exposed to S-metolachlor was 20 h and did not depend on the pulse exposure duration or the height of the peak concentration. By accounting for these specific effects, the measured and predicted effects were similar when pulse exposure of S-metolachlor is tested on the alga S. vacuolatus. However, the sensitivity of the alga is greatly modified after being previously exposed to a pulse of S-metolachlor. In the case of scenarios composed of several pulses, this sensitivity should be considered in the modelling. Therefore, modelling the effects of any pulse scenario of S-metolachlor on an alga is feasible but requires the determination of the effect trigger, the delay in recovery and the possible change in the sensitivity of the alga to the substance.

  2. Sorption-desorption of alachlor and linuron in a semiarid soil as influenced by organic matter properties after 16 years of periodic inputs.

    PubMed

    Dorado, José; López-Fando, Cristina; Zancada, María-Cristina; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2005-06-29

    The effect of management practices on soil potential for regulating the residual concentration of pesticides was examined in samples from a Calcic Haploxeralf in Toledo (central Spain). Sorption-desorption of alachlor and linuron was found to depend on inputs of lignocelullosic wastes or cattle manure for the past 16 years. For a given herbicide, the soil sorption capacity (K(f)) follows the order control < crop residues < manure, which is consistent with the organic C content in the soil samples. Some structural characteristics of the soil humic acid as revealed by visible and infrared spectroscopies and analytical pyrolysis were useful to forecast the sorption-desorption intensity. Simple and multiple linear correlation analyses illustrate enhanced sorption of alachlor and linuron in soil plots where slightly altered soil organic matter accumulated (positive correlations with the intensity of infrared lignin signature band and with the methoxyphenol yields after pyrolysis of the humic acids and negative correlation with the aromaticity as pointed out by the optical density at 465 nm). Linuron showed a preference for soils with humic acids of low molecular weight and low degree of internal cross-linking, as inferred from the positive correlation with the ratio between optical densities at 465 and 665 nm. Under the conditions of the present experiment, agricultural practices including organic amendments seem to have a beneficial effect in the control of leaching and sorption of pesticides.

  3. EVALUATION OF PITUITARY AND ADRENAL HORMONE RELEASE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE AND ITS METABOLITE DEISOPROPYL-ATRAZINE (DIA), USING TISSUE PERIFUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States, with current total annual use of approximately 76 million pounds of active ingredient. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that ATR and its metabolite deisopropyl-atrazine (DIA) induce a dose-dep...

  4. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine toward maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Halley C.; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia B. R.; Sousa, Gustavo F. M.; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo B.; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL−1), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL−1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth

  5. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  6. In Vitro Selection of a Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Element against Atrazine

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ryan M.; Crihfield, Cassandra L.; Gattu, Srikanth; Holland, Lisa A.; Sooter, Letha J.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of the chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine, has led to serious environmental and human health consequences. Current methods of detecting atrazine contamination are neither rapid nor cost-effective. In this work, atrazine-specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecular recognition elements (MRE) were isolated. We utilized a stringent Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) methodology that placed the greatest emphasis on what the MRE should not bind to. After twelve rounds of SELEX, an atrazine-specific MRE with high affinity was obtained. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of the ssDNA sequence is 0.62 ± 0.21 nM. It also has significant selectivity for atrazine over atrazine metabolites and other pesticides found in environmentally similar locations and concentrations. Furthermore, we have detected environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations in river water using this MRE. The strong affinity and selectivity of the selected atrazine-specific ssDNA validated the stringent SELEX methodology and identified a MRE that will be useful for rapid atrazine detection in environmental samples. PMID:25196435

  7. Atrazine and its degradates have little effect on the corticosteroid stress response in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Van Der Kraak, Glen; Matsumoto, Jacquie; Kim, Myoungwoo; Hosmer, Alan J

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the effects of atrazine on basal and forced swimming induced changes in whole body cortisol content in adult zebrafish. Zebrafish were exposed to graded concentrations of atrazine or the atrazine degradates deisopropylatrazine (DIA), deethylatrazine (DEA) and diamino-s-chlorotriazine (DACT) for up to 10 days. Some fish were sampled for the measurement of whole body cortisol levels under basal conditions while others were sampled after being subjected to a 20 min swimming challenge in order to quantify stress induced cortisol levels. In one experiment, zebrafish were subjected to two bouts of forced swimming 3h apart to test whether prior atrazine exposure affects the ability of the fish to respond appropriately to a repeated stressor. The results demonstrated that controls not exposed to atrazine and zebrafish exposed to atrazine or the atrazine degradates at nominal concentrations of up to 100 μg/L consistently exhibited increased whole body cortisol content in response to the swimming challenge. Separate analyses revealed few changes in basal or stress induced cortisol levels following atrazine exposure. Overall, these data suggest that atrazine and some of its degradates at the concentrations tested have minimal effects on the cortisol mediated stress response in the zebrafish.

  8. Nanoencapsulation Enhances the Post-Emergence Herbicidal Activity of Atrazine against Mustard Plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Halley Caixeta; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia Bueno Reis; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been recently developed as a modified release system for atrazine, an herbicide that can have harmful effects in the environment. Here, the post-emergence herbicidal activity of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine was evaluated using mustard (Brassica juncea) as target plant species model. Characterization of atrazine-loaded PCL nanocapsules by nanoparticle tracking analysis indicated a concentration of 7.5 x 10(12) particles mL(-1) and an average size distribution of 240.7 nm. The treatment of mustard plants with nanocapsules carrying atrazine at 1 mg mL(-1) resulted in a decrease of net photosynthesis and PSII maximum quantum yield, and an increase of leaf lipid peroxidation, leading to shoot growth inhibition and the development of severe symptoms. Time course analysis until 72 h after treatments showed that nanoencapsulation of atrazine enhanced the herbicidal activity in comparison with a commercial atrazine formulation. In contrast to the commercial formulation, ten-fold dilution of the atrazine-containing nanocapsules did not compromise the herbicidal activity. No effects were observed when plants were treated with nanocapsules without herbicide compared to control leaves sprayed with water. Overall, these results demonstrated that atrazine-containing PCL nanocapsules provide very effective post-emergence herbicidal activity. More importantly, the use of nanoencapsulated atrazine enables the application of lower dosages of the herbicide, without any loss of efficiency, which could provide environmental benefits.

  9. Atrazine and glyphosate dynamics in a lotic ecosystem: the common snapping turtle as a sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Douros, Derrick L; Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M

    2015-03-01

    Atrazine and glyphosate are two of the most common pesticides used in the US Midwest that impact water quality via runoff, and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is an excellent indicator species to monitor these pesticides especially in lotic systems. The goals of this study were to (1) quantify atrazine, the atrazine metabolite diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), and glyphosate burdens in common snapping turtle tissue from individuals collected within the Embarras River in Illinois; (2) quantify atrazine, DACT, and glyphosate loads in water from the aquatic habitats in which common snapping turtles reside; and (3) investigate tissue loads based on turtle morphology and habitat choice. Concentrations of atrazine, DACT, and glyphosate in tissue did not show any relationship with lake habitat, carapace length, width, or mass. Both atrazine and glyphosate tissue samples varied as a function of site (river vs. lake), but DACT did not. Atrazine and glyphosate concentrations in water samples showed a linear effect on distance from the reservoir spillway and a deviation from linearity. Water column concentrations of all three contaminants varied across capture sites, but atrazine water concentration did not influence DACT water concentration nor did it exhibit a site interaction. Water atrazine and glyphosate concentrations were greater than tissue concentrations, whereas DACT water and tissue concentrations did not differ. This study showed that turtles are useful in long-term pesticide monitoring, and because DACT as a metabolite is less sensitive to variation, it should be considered as a preferred biomarker for pesticide runoff.

  10. Nanoencapsulation Enhances the Post-Emergence Herbicidal Activity of Atrazine against Mustard Plants

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Halley Caixeta; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia Bueno Reis; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been recently developed as a modified release system for atrazine, an herbicide that can have harmful effects in the environment. Here, the post-emergence herbicidal activity of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine was evaluated using mustard (Brassica juncea) as target plant species model. Characterization of atrazine-loaded PCL nanocapsules by nanoparticle tracking analysis indicated a concentration of 7.5 x 1012 particles mL-1 and an average size distribution of 240.7 nm. The treatment of mustard plants with nanocapsules carrying atrazine at 1 mg mL-1 resulted in a decrease of net photosynthesis and PSII maximum quantum yield, and an increase of leaf lipid peroxidation, leading to shoot growth inhibition and the development of severe symptoms. Time course analysis until 72 h after treatments showed that nanoencapsulation of atrazine enhanced the herbicidal activity in comparison with a commercial atrazine formulation. In contrast to the commercial formulation, ten-fold dilution of the atrazine-containing nanocapsules did not compromise the herbicidal activity. No effects were observed when plants were treated with nanocapsules without herbicide compared to control leaves sprayed with water. Overall, these results demonstrated that atrazine-containing PCL nanocapsules provide very effective post-emergence herbicidal activity. More importantly, the use of nanoencapsulated atrazine enables the application of lower dosages of the herbicide, without any loss of efficiency, which could provide environmental benefits. PMID:26186597

  11. Mineralization and degradation of glyphosate and atrazine applied in combination in a Brazilian Oxisol.

    PubMed

    Bonfleur, Eloana J; Lavorenti, Arquimedes; Tornisielo, Valdemar L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the association between atrazine and glyphosate in the soil through mineralization and degradation tests. Soil treatments consisted of the combination of a field dose of glyphosate (2.88 kg ha⁻¹) with 0, ½, 1 and 2 times a field dose of atrazine (3.00 kg ha⁻¹) and a field dose of atrazine with 0, ½, 1 and 2 times a field dose of glyphosate. The herbicide mineralization rates were measured after 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63 days of soil application, and degradation rates after 0, 7, 28 and 63 days. Although glyphosate mineralization rate was higher in the presence of 1 (one) dose of atrazine when compared with glyphosate alone, no significant differences were found when half or twice the atrazine dose was applied, meaning that differences in glyphosate mineralization rates cannot be attributed to the presence of atrazine. On the other hand, the influence of glyphosate on atrazine mineralization was evident, since increasing doses of glyphosate increased the atrazine mineralization rate and the lowest dose of glyphosate accelerated atrazine degradation.

  12. Degradation of atrazine in soil through induced photocatalytic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Pelizzetti, E. ); Carlin, V.; Maurino, V.; Minero, C.; Dolci, M. ); Marchesini, A. )

    1990-08-01

    The authors observed photocatalytic degradation of atrazine in the presence of semiconductor metal oxide particulates (TiO{sub 2}, ZnO) suspended in aqueous solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. The half-life for the process is ca. 5 and 80 min for TiO{sub 2} and ZnO, respectively (at an initial atrazine concentration of 25 mg/liter with 0.5 g of semiconductor per liter and with a photon flux of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} einstein/min, and over a cell cross section of 4 cm{sup 2}). The authors investigated the catalytic activity of different soils. The weak photocatalytic activity of the soils (2 g/liter) is dramatically increased by the addition of 0.5 g of the semiconductor per liter. Half-lives are 10 to 40 minutes, depending on the nature of the soil.

  13. POTENTIAL ROLE OF TUBERO-INFUNDIBULAR DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS IN THE DISRUPTION OF PITUITARY HORMONE SECRETION BY ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we demonstrated that atrazine suppressed the ovulatory surge of luteininzing hormone and disrupted estrous cycles in the female rat. We also reported that this disruption of ovulation is likely the result of atrazine's effect on hypothalamic gonadotropin hormone rele...

  14. PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS OF ATRAZINE-INDUCED EFFECTS UPON GONADAL DIFFERENTIATION IN RIVULUS MARMORATUS, A NATURALLY HERMAPHRODITIC FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The commonly used agricultural herbicide atrazine has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical. In amphibians and reptiles, atrazine has been reported to alter sexual differentiation and induce secondary sexual characteristics that have been attributed to enhanced arom...

  15. Contribution of subsoil and aquifer microorganisms to ground-water quality. Technical report, 1 July 1988-30 June 1989. (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Turco, R.F.; Konopka, A.E.

    1989-06-01

    Little information about the microbiology of the subsurface environment is available. The study was conducted to better understand the microbiology and microbial processes that occur in the subsurface under a typical midwestern agricultural soil. A 26-meter bore was installed in November of 1988. Sterile collections of soils were made at 17 different depths. A physical as well as biological investigation of the subsurface materials was conducted. Among the measured parameters were particle-size analysis, carbon, carbonates, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and water-holding capacity. The level of three pesticides, atrazine, metolachlor, and alachlor, was determined. Microbial biomass was assessed using direct counts, phospholipid content, and plate counts. The ability of microbial populations resident in the strata to use glucose, phenol, aniline, (14)C-ring labeled 2-methyl-6-ethyl-aniline, (14)C-ring labeled metolachlor, (14)C-carbonyl labeled metolachlor, and atrazine was assessed. Physical analysis indicated that the site contained up to 17 different strata. The site materials were primarily glacial tills with high carbonate content. Microbial numbers and activity in the tills was much lower than either in the surface materials or the aquifer located at 25 m.

  16. Effects of carbon nanotubes on atrazine biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengdong; Li, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Liu, Na

    2015-04-28

    The environmental risks of engineered nanoparticles have attracted attention. However, little is known regarding the effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the biodegradation and persistence of organic contaminants in water. We investigated the impacts of pristine and oxidized multiwalled CNTs on the atrazine biodegradation rate and efficiency using Arthrobacter sp. At a concentration of 25mg/L, the CNTs enhanced the biodegradation rate by up to 20%; however, at a concentration of 100mg/L, the CNTs decreased the biodegradation rate by up to 50%. The stimulation effects resulted from enhanced bacterial growth and the overexpression of degradation genes. The inhibitory effects resulted from the toxicity of the CNTs at high concentrations. The differences between the two CNTs at tested concentrations were not significant. The biodegradation efficiency was not impacted by adsorption, and the pre-adsorbed atrazine on the CNTs was fully biodegraded when the CNT concentration was ≤25mg/L. This finding was consistent with the lack of observable desorption hysteresis for atrazine on the tested CNTs. Our results indicate that CNTs can enhance or inhibit biodegradation through a balance of two effects: the toxic effects on microbial activity and the effects of the changing bioavailability that result from adsorption and desorption.

  17. Experimental in situ chemical peroxidation of atrazine in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, Roberta; Di Palma, Luca; Merli, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    Lab-scale experiments of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), were performed on soil contaminated with 100 mg kg(-1) of atrazine (CIET). The oxidant used was hydrogen peroxide catalysed by naturally occurring minerals or by soluble Fe(II) sulphate, added in aqueous solution. The oxidation conditions were: CIET:H2O2=1:1100, 2 PV or 3 PV reaction volume, Fe(II):H2O2=0, 1:22, 1:11. Stabilized (with KH2PO4 at a concentration of 16 g l(-1)) or non-stabilized hydrogen peroxide was used. The pH of the reagents was adjusted to pH=1 with sulphuric acid, or was not altered. Results showed that the addition of soluble Fe(II) increased the temperature of the soil slurry and the use of stabilized hydrogen peroxide resulted in a lower heat generation. The treatment reduced the COD of the soil of about 40%, pH was lowered and natural organic matter became less hydrophobic. The highest atrazine conversion (89%) was obtained in the conditions: 3 PV, Fe(II):H2O2=1:11 with stabilized hydrogen peroxide added in two steps. The stabilizer only increased H2O2 life-time significantly when soluble Fe(II) was added. Results indicate as preferential degradation pathway of atrazine in soil dechlorination instead of dealkylation.

  18. Flow-through fluorescence immunosensor for atrazine determination.

    PubMed

    Turiel, E; Fernández, P; Pérez-Conde, C; Gutiérrez, A M; Cámara, C

    1998-12-01

    A new flow-through fluoroimmunosensor for atrazine determination based on the use of protein A immobilized on controlled pore glass as immunoreactor is reported. The support, placed in the optical path of the flow cell, allows the 'in situ' quantification of atrazine by on-line antigen-antibody binding upon successive injections of both substances. The immunosensor has a detection limit of 2.1 mug l(-1), a sample speed of about 10 samples per hour, and provides high reproducibility both within-day (3.2% for 5 mug l(-1) and 2.2% for 30 mug l(-1)) and between days. The optimum working concentration range was 2.1-50 mug l(-1). Possible interferences of other triazines like simazine, desethylatrazine (DEA) and desisopropylatrazine (DIA) were evaluated. Simazine and DIA were not cross-reactive; however, the cross-reactivity for DEA was CR=7.7%. The proposed immunosensor was successfully applied to the determination of atrazine in drinking water and citrus fruits.

  19. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of atrazine and cyanazine by chemometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guowen; Pan, Junhui

    2011-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of two herbicides, atrazine and cyanazine, is described for the first time based on their reaction with p-aminoacetophenone in the presence of pyridine in hydrochloric acid medium. The absorption spectra were measured in the wavelength range of 400-600 nm. The optimized method indicated that individual analytes followed Beer's law in the concentration ranges for atrazine and cyanazine were 0.2-3.5 mg L -1 and 0.3-5.0 mg L -1, and the limits of detection for atrazine and cyanazine were 0.099 and 0.15 mg L -1, respectively. The original and first-derivative absorption spectra of the binary mixtures were performed as a pre-treatment on the calibration matrices prior to the application of chemometric models such as classical least squares (CLS), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS). The analytical results obtained by using these chemometric methods were evaluated on the basis of percent relative prediction error and recovery. It was found that the application of PCR and PLS models for first-derivative absorbance data gave the satisfactory results. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the two herbicides in several food samples.

  20. Atrazine and total triazines: Exposure patterns in midwestern surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, R.P.; Baker, D.B.

    1996-10-01

    Distributions of atrazine and total triazine exposures for aquatic organisms in the midwestern United States and Canada were characterized using the most complete datasets available, with attention to the sampling pattern used in obtaining the data. Distributions were established form stantaneous concentrations and for 96-hour and 21-day running averages. Time weighting and annualization were important to avoid distorted estimates of exposure concentrations; failure to use appropriate procedures can lead to order-of-magnitude errors in estimates of benchmarks such as the 90th percentile concentration. Atrazine and total triazine concentrations are characterized by strong seasonality, with elevated concentrations for a period of 6 to 10 weeks following application in May or June. Concentrations decline during July, August, and September, and for the rest of the year are near detection limit. Concentrations in running water are strongly influenced by storm runoff, with much higher concentrations during run off than during low-flow periods between run off events. Thus aquatic organisms in running waters experience pulsed exposures interspersed with recovery periods. 90th percentile concentrations were calculated for a number of rivers, streams, lakes, and reservoirs for comparison with ecological effects data. Total triazine concentrations are only slightly higher than atrazine concentrations in those waters for which comparisons were possible.

  1. Macroporosity and manure influence on atrazine transport through soil.

    PubMed

    Rudra, R P; Abu-Zreig, M; Asare, S N

    2001-09-01

    The influence of soil macro-porosity and manure on atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) transport was investigated under laboratory conditions using disturbed and undisturbed soil columns. The macro-porosity in the soil column was obtained with CT scanning technique. Liquid manure was applied at the surface of soil column, 19 cm long and 8 cm in diameter, at a rate of 60 m3/ha. Experimental results revealed that atrazine moves faster through the soils in the presence of manure compared to soil without application of manure. The average time for elusion and the relative peak concentration in the disturbed soil column without manure was 14.5 h and 3.1%, respectively compared to 11.0 h and 6.9% in the presence of manure, respectively. Similar behavior was observed in the case of disturbed soil columns. Soil macro-porosity has shown large impact on atrazine transport, especially in the presence of manure.

  2. In vitro atrazine exposure affects the phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Lesya M.; Lee, Sang-Ryul; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2007-09-15

    Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in the presence of growth factors and selected maturational stimuli in vitro. Next, we exposed the DC cell line to a concentration range of atrazine and examined its effects on phenotypic and functional maturation of DC. Atrazine exposure interfered with the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Among the phenotypic changes caused by atrazine exposure was a dose-dependent removal of surface MHC-I with a significant decrease being observed at 1 {mu}M concentration. In addition, atrazine exposure decreased the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 and it downregulated the expression of the CD11b and CD11c accessory molecules and the myeloid developmental marker CD14. When, for comparative purposes, we exposed primary thymic DC to atrazine, MHC-I and CD11c expression was also decreased. Phenotypic changes in JAWSII DC maturation were associated with functional inhibition of maturation as, albeit at higher concentrations, receptor-mediated antigen uptake was increased by atrazine. Thus, our data suggest that atrazine directly targets DC maturation and that toxicants such as atrazine that efficiently remove MHC-I molecules from the DC surface are likely to contribute to immune evasion.

  3. Atrazine contamination in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China and associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Sun, J T; Pan, L L; Zhan, Yu; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhu, L Z; Li, X D

    2017-04-01

    Atrazine is one of the most widely applied and persistent herbicides in the world. In view of limited information on the regional contamination of atrazine in soils in China, this study investigated the spatial distribution and environmental impacts of atrazine in agricultural soils collected from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) as an illustrative analysis of rapidly developing regions in the country. The results showed that the concentrations of atrazine in the YRD agricultural soils ranged from <1.0 to 113 ng/g dry weight, with a mean of 5.7 ng/g, and a detection rate of 57.7 % in soils. Pesticide factory might be a major source for the elevated levels of atrazine in Zhejiang Province. The contamination of atrazine was closely associated with land use types. The concentrations and detection rates of atrazine were higher in corn fields and mulberry fields than in rice paddy fields. There was no significant difference in compositions of soil microbial phospholipids fatty acids among the areas with different atrazine levels. Positive relationship (R = 0.417, p < 0.05, n = 30) was observed between atrazine and total microbial biomass. However, other factors, such as soil type and land management practice, might have stronger influences on soil microbial communities. Human health risks via exposure to atrazine in soils were estimated according to the methods recommended by the US EPA. Atrazine by itself in all the soil samples imposed very low carcinogenic risks (<10(-6)) and minimal non-cancer risks (hazard index <1) to adults and children.

  4. Evaluation of volcanic pumice stone as media in fixed bed sequence batch reactor for atrazine removal from aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Derakhshan, Zahra; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Faramarzian, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Mehdi; Mazloomi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a component of S-triazine. Its characteristics make it a pollutant of ecosystems and a probable human carcinogen. The present study evaluated volcanic pumice stone as a suitable media for biological growth and biofilm development in a fixed-bed sequencing batch reactor (FBSBR) for atrazine removal from aquatic environments. The FBSBR was fed with synthetic wastewater containing sucrose and atrazine at four hydraulic retention times to assess biodegradation of atrazine by a microbial consortium for removal from aquatic environments. The maximum efficiency for atrazine and soluble chemical oxygen demand removal were 97.9% and 98.9%, respectively. The results of this research showed that the Stover-Kincannon model was a very good fit (R(2) > 99%) for loading atrazine onto the FBSBR. Increasing the initial concentration of atrazine increased the removal efficiency. There was no significant inhibition of the mixed aerobic microbial consortia by the atrazine. Atrazine degradation depended on its initial concentration in the wastewater and the amount of atrazine in the influent. Although this system shows good potential for atrazine removal from aqueous environments, that remaining in the effluent does not yet meet international standards. Further research is required to make this system effective for removal of atrazine from the environment.

  5. Major herbicides in ground water: results from the National Water-Quality Assessment.

    PubMed

    Barbash, J E; Thelin, G P; Kolpin, D W; Gilliom, R J

    2001-01-01

    To improve understanding of the factors affecting pesticide occurrence in ground water, patterns of detection were examined for selected herbicides, based primarily on results from the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The NAWQA data were derived from 2,227 sites (wells and springs) sampled in 20 major hydrologic basins across the USA from 1993 to 1995. Results are presented for six high-use herbicides--atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), cyanazine (2-[4-chloro-6-ethylamino-1,3,5triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-methylpropionitrile), simazine (2-chloro-4,6-bis-[ethylamino]-s-triazine), alachlor (2-chloro-N-[2,6-diethylphenyl]-N-[methoxymethyl]acetamide), acetochlor (2-chloro-N-[ethoxymethyl]-N-[2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl]acetamide), and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-[2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl]-N-[2-methoxylethyl]acetamide)--as well as for prometon (2,4-bis[isopropylamino]-6-methoxy-s-triazine), a nonagricultural herbicide detected frequently during the study. Concentrations were <1 microg L(-1) at 98% of the sites with detections, but exceeded drinking-water criteria (for atrazine) at two sites. In urban areas, frequencies of detection (at or above 0.01 microg L(-1)) of atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, alachlor, and metolachlor in shallow ground water were positively correlated with their nonagricultural use nationwide (P < 0.05). Among different agricultural areas, frequencies of detection were positively correlated with nearby agricultural use for atrazine, cyanazine, alachlor, and metolachlor, but not simazine. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that for these five herbicides, frequencies of detection beneath agricultural areas were positively correlated with their agricultural use and persistence in aerobic soil. Acetochlor, an agricultural herbicide first registered in 1994 for use in the USA, was detected in shallow ground water by 1995, consistent with previous field-scale studies indicating that some pesticides may be detected in ground

  6. Major herbicides in ground water: Results from the National Water-Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, J.E.; Thelin, G.P.; Kolpin, D.W.; Gilliom, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    To improve understanding of the factors affecting pesticide occurrence in ground water, patterns of detection were examined for selected herbicides, based primarily on results from the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The NAWQA data were derived from 2227 sites (wells and springs) sampled in 20 major hydrologic basins across the USA from 1993 to 1995. Results are presented for six high-use herbicides - atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-iso-propylamino-s-triazine), cyanazine (2-[4-chloro-6-ethylamino-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-methylpropionitrile), simazine (2-chloro-4,6-bis[ethylamino]-s-triazine), alachlor (2-chloro-N-[2,6-diethylphenyl]-N-[methoxymethyl]acetamide), acetochlor (2-chloro-N-[ethoxymethyl]. N-[2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl]acetamide), and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-[2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl]-N-[2-methoxy-l- methylethyl]acetamide) - as well as for prometon (2,4-bis[isopropylamino]-6-methoxy-s-triazine), a nonagricultural herbicide detected frequently during the study. Concentrations were <1 ??g L-1 at 98% of the sites with detections, but exceeded drinking-water criteria (for atrazine) at two sites. In urban areas, frequencies of detection (at or above 0.01 ??g L-1) of atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, alachlor, and metolachlor in shallow ground water were positively correlated with their nonagricultural use nationwide (P < 0.05). Among different agricultural areas, frequencies of detection were positively correlated with nearby agricultural use for atrazine, cyanazine, alachlor, and metolachlor, but not simazine. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that for these five herbicides, frequencies of detection beneath agricultural areas were positively correlated with their agricultural use and persistence in aerobic soil. Acetochlor, an agricultural herbicide first registered in 1994 for use in the USA, was detected in shallow ground water by 1995, consistent with previous field-scale studies indicating that some pesticides may be detected in ground

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF 14C-ATRAZINE FOLLOWING AN ACUTE LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE IN THE WISTAR RAT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the distribution of atrazine in the lactating dam and suckling neonate following an acute exposure to either 2 or 4 mg/kg 14C-atrazine (14C-ATR) by gavage. 14C-ATR was administered to the nursing dam on postnatal day 3 by oral gavag...

  8. Microwave green synthesis of biopolymer-stabilized silver nanoparticles and their adsorption behavior for atrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Jolly; Deb, Manas Kanti; Sircar, Jayanta Kumar; Agnihotri, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-06-01

    The application of silver nanoparticles for the removal of atrazine has been investigated. The silver nanoparticles beads were used as an adsorbent in the present study. Silver nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory by a microwave irradiation method. The effect of initial concentration on the removal of atrazine was studied by varying the initial concentration of atrazine from 5 to 30 ppm. It was found that the percent removal of atrazine decreases on increasing the initial atrazine concentrations. A contact time of 14 h was found to be sufficient for maximum removal and was recorded as the equilibration time. The pH 6.0 ± 0.6 for atrazine was found most favorable and at this pH the percentage removal is high at room temperature (27 °C). Batch experiments demonstrated that a 2 gm adsorbent dosage is capable of removing maximum amount of atrazine from aqueous solution. Resulting data at room temperature were analyzed by the Freundlich and Langmuir models using linearized equations. Resultant data were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. Desorption studies were made to elucidate recovery of the adsorbate and adsorbent for the economic competitiveness of the removal system. Findings of the present study revealed that silver nanoparticles beads can be an effective adsorbent for the removal of atrazine from aqueous solution.

  9. Ecology of Atrazine Natural Attenuation in Soil From a Major Spill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodegradation of atrazine was examined in soil from a recent major atrazine spill site in Illinois. The site had been excavated to a depth of 2 meters and the soil stored under cover for future land application (land farming), a form of remediation by natural attenuation. We examined some of the ...

  10. Model Forecasts of Atrazine in Lake Michigan in Response to Various Sensitivity and Potential Management Scenarios

    EPA Science Inventory

    For more than forty years, the herbicide atrazine has been used on corn crops in the Lake Michigan basin to control weeds. It is usually applied to farm fields in the spring before or after the corn crop emerges. A version of the WASP4 mass balance model, LM2-Atrazine, was used...

  11. Predicting Atrazine Levels in Water Utility Intake Water for MCL Compliance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To protect human health, atrazine concentrations in drinking water must not exceed its maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 3 ug/L. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) mandates that municipal water providers sample quarterly to determine MCL compliance. Atrazine levels were mon...

  12. Response of ligninolytic macrofungi to the herbicide atrazine: dose-response bioassays.

    PubMed

    Cupul, Wilberth Chan; Abarca, Gabriela Heredia; Vázquez, Refugio Rodríguez; Salmones, Dulce; Hernández, Rigoberto Gaitán; Gutiérrez, Enrique Alarcón

    2014-01-01

    The effect of atrazine concentrations on mycelial growth and ligninolytic enzyme activities of eight native ligninolytic macrofungi isolated in Veracruz, México, were evaluated in a semi-solid culture medium. Inhibition of mycelial growth and growth rates were significantly affected (p=0.05) by atrazine concentrations (468, 937, 1875, and 3750 mg/l). In accordance with the median effective concentration (EC50), Pleurotus sp. strain 1 proved to be the most tolerant isolate to atrazine (EC50=2281.0 mg/l), although its enzyme activity was not the highest. Pycnoporus sanguineus strain 2, Daedalea elegans and Trametes maxima showed high laccase activity (62.7, 31.9, 29.3 U mg/protein, respectively) without atrazine (control); however, this activity significantly increased (p<0.05) (to 191.1, 83.5 and 120.6 U mg/protein, respectively) owing to the effect of atrazine (937 mg/l) in the culture medium. Pleurotus sp. strain 2 and Cymatoderma elegans significantly increased (p<0.05) their manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities under atrazine stress at 468 mg/l. The isolates with high EC50 (Pleurotus sp. strain 1) and high enzymatic activity (P. sanguineus strain 2 and T. maxima) could be considered for future studies on atrazine mycodegradation. Furthermore, this study confirms that atrazine can increase laccase and MnP activities in ligninolytic macrofungi.

  13. Identification of an atrazine-degrading benzoxazinoid in Eastern gamagrass (tripsacum dactyloides)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was part of a broader effort to identify and characterize promising atrazine-degrading phytochemicals in Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides; EG) roots for the purpose of mitigating atrazine transport from agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify atrazi...

  14. Effect of compost age and composition on the atrazine removal from solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.; Roy, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Compost samples from two composting facilities, the Urbana (Illinois) Landscape Recycling Center (ULRC) and Illinois State University (ISU), were selected to examine the effect of compost age on atrazine removal from solution. The ULRC samples were made from yard waste without an additional nitrogen source. The ISU samples were made from yard waste or sawdust with the addition of manure. The 6-month-old ULRC compost had the greater capacity to remove atrazine from solution, which we attributed to its greater organic carbon content. The addition of nitrate into ULRC compost could influence the extent of atrazine removal, but did not have a significant impact on atrazine removal when applied to ISU compost, probably because manure was added to the yard waste to produce the compost. For both ULRC and ISU samples, the presence of sodium azide inhibited atrazine removal, suggesting that microbial activity contributed to the atrazine removal. Metabolic analysis demonstrated that hydroxyatrazine was the major identified metabolite that accumulated in solution before significant ring mineralization could occur. When compared with the ISU compost, the ULRC compost sample had a greater capacity to remove atrazine from solution during the 120 days of study because of the larger humic acid content. The experimental results suggested that less-mature compost may be better suited for environmental applications such as removing atrazine from tile-drainage waters. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adsorption and removal at low atrazine concentration in an MBR pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Buttiglieri, G; Migliorisi, L; Malpei, F

    2011-01-01

    Atrazine is a persistent organic pollutant and it has been widely used in agriculture and forestry in the world for more than fifty years. Atrazine shows ecotoxicity effects in aquatic ecosystems even at very low level concentrations with endocrine disruptor activity. Few studies were carried out on atrazine removal performances in drinking and waste-water by biological treatments, especially in membrane bio-reactors (MBRs). MBR technology might be more efficient than the conventional one in the removal of micro-pollutants. The fate of atrazine in wastewater treatment plants and its influence on the biomass activity was evaluated in this study. The experimental work was divided in three different phases: inhibition studies on different types of biomass (by means of microcalorimetry); adsorption studies on different sludges (conventional activated sludge (CAS) - and MBR) calculating adsorption isotherms and, finally, atrazine removal in an MBR pilot plant (simulating a treatment of atrazine and nitrate contaminated groundwater). The absence of significant inhibition was observed; higher atrazine adsorption on MBR sludge was detected for lower atrazine concentration (<50 µg L(-1)); the removal efficiency in the MBR pilot plant was lower than 25% but higher than the theoretical one (based on adsorption isotherms).

  16. Atrazine promotes RM1 prostate cancer cell proliferation by activating STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kebang; Tian, Yong; Du, Yanwei; Huang, Liandi; Chen, Junyu; Li, Na; Liu, Wei; Liang, Zuowen; Zhao, Lijing

    2016-05-01

    Atrazine, a widely used pesticide, is frequently detected in soil and surface water, which alarms epidemiologists and medical professionals because of its potential deleterious effects on health. Indeed, atrazine is a potent endocrine disruptor that increases aromatase expression in some human cancer cell lines. Both animal and human studies have suggested that atrazine is possibly carcinogenic, although discrepant results have been reported. In this study, RM1 cells were used to explore the atrazine effects on prostate cancer. Proliferation, migration and invasion of RM1 cells were assessed by colony formation, wound-healing and invasion assays, respectively, after in vitro exposure to atrazine. In addition, an RM1 cell xenograft model was generated to evaluate the effects of atrazine in vivo. To explore the molecular mechanisms, qRT‑PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analyses were employed to detect mRNA and protein levels of STAT3 signaling and cell cycle related proteins, including p53, p21, cyclin B1 and cyclin D1. Interestingly, RM1 cell proliferation was increased after treatment with atrazine, concomitantly with STAT3 signaling activation. These results suggest that atrazine promotes RM1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo by activating STAT3 signaling.

  17. Atrazine and its metabolites degradation in mineral salts medium and soil using an enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anup; Singh, Neera

    2016-03-01

    An atrazine-degrading enrichment culture was used to study degradation of atrazine metabolites viz. hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine in mineral salts medium. Results suggested that the enrichment culture was able to degrade only hydroxyatrazine, and it was used as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Hydroxyatrazine degradation slowed down when sucrose and/or ammonium hydrogen phosphate were supplemented as the additional sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The enrichment culture could degrade high concentrations of atrazine (up to 110 μg/mL) in mineral salts medium, and neutral pH was optimum for atrazine degradation. Further, except in an acidic soil, enrichment culture was able to degrade atrazine in three soil types having different physico-chemical properties. Raising the pH of acidic soil to neutral or alkaline enabled the enrichment culture to degrade atrazine suggesting that acidic pH inhibited atrazine-degrading ability. The study suggested that the enrichment culture can be successfully utilized to achieve complete degradation of atrazine and its persistent metabolite hydroxyatrazine in the contaminated soil and water.

  18. THE ENDOCRINE PROFILE OF INTACT FEMALE RATS ON THE DAY OF PROESTRUS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Endocrine Profile of Intact Female Rats on the Day of Proestrus Following Exposure to Atrazine.
    RL Cooper, A Buckalew, SC Laws and TE Stoker
    Endocrinology Branch, RTD, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, 27711.

    The chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine, has been sho...

  19. The HR96 activator, atrazine, reduces sensitivity of D. magna to triclosan and DHA.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Namrata; Litoff, Elizabeth J; Baldwin, William S

    2015-06-01

    HR96 is a CAR/PXR/VDR ortholog in invertebrates, and a promiscuous endo- and xenobiotic nuclear receptor involved in acclimation to toxicants. Daphnia HR96 is activated by chemicals such as atrazine and linoleic acid (LA) (n-6 fatty acid), and inhibited by triclosan and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (n-3 fatty acid). We hypothesized that inhibitors of HR96 may block the protective responses of HR96 based on previously performed luciferase assays. Therefore, we performed acute toxicity tests with two-chemical mixtures containing a HR96 inhibitor (DHA or triclosan) and a HR96 activator (LA or atrazine). Surprisingly, results demonstrate that triclosan and DHA are less toxic when co-treated with 20-80 μM atrazine. Atrazine provides concentration-dependent protection as lower concentrations have no effect and higher concentrations cause toxicity. LA, a weaker HR96 activator, did not provide protection from triclosan or DHA. Atrazine's protective effects are presumably due to its ability to activate HR96 or other toxicologically relevant transcription factors and induce protective enzymes. Atrazine did not significantly induce glucosyltransferase, a crucial enzyme in triclosan detoxification. However, atrazine did increase antioxidant activities, crucial pathways in triclosan's toxicity, as measured through GST activity and the TROLOX equivalence assay. The increase in antioxidant capacity is consistent with atrazine providing protection from a wide range of toxicants that induce ROS, including triclosan and unsaturated fatty acids predisposed to lipid peroxidation.

  20. Embryo-larval exposure to atrazine reduces viability and alters oxidative stress parameters in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Aguiar, Lais Mattos de; Rosa, Carlos Eduardo da

    2017-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine has been used worldwide with subsequent residual contamination of water and food, which may cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Animal exposure to this herbicide may affect development, reproduction and energy metabolism. Here, the effects of atrazine regarding survival and redox metabolism were assessed in the fruit fly D. melanogaster exposed during embryonic and larval development. The embryos (newly fertilized eggs) were exposed to different atrazine concentrations (10μM and 100μM) in the diet until the adult fly emerged. Pupation and emergence rates, developmental time and sex ratio were determined as well as oxidative stress parameters and gene expression of the antioxidant defence system were evaluated in newly emerged male and female flies. Atrazine exposure reduced pupation and emergence rates in fruit flies without alterations to developmental time and sex ratio. Different redox imbalance patterns were observed between males and females exposed to atrazine. Atrazine caused an increase in oxidative damage, reactive oxygen species generation and antioxidant capacity and decreased thiol-containing molecules. Further, atrazine exposure altered the mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (keap1, sod, sod2, cat, irc, gss, gclm, gclc, trxt, trxr-1 and trxr-2). Reductions in fruit fly larval and pupal viability observed here are likely consequences of the oxidative stress induced by atrazine exposure.

  1. Perturbation of Organogenesis by the Herbicide Atrazine in the Amphibian Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Lenkowski, Jenny R.; Reed, J. Michael; Deininger, Lisa; McLaughlin, Kelly A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to anthropogenic chemicals during development can disrupt the morphogenesis of organ systems. Use of the herbicide atrazine has been debated in recent years because of its implicated, but poorly characterized, effects on vertebrates. Previous studies primarily examined the effects of atrazine exposure during metamorphosis or early developmental stages of amphibians. Objectives We sought to identify and characterize the susceptibility during the often-overlooked developmental stage of organ morphogenesis. Methods We used a static renewal experimental treatment to investigate the effects of 10, 25, and 35 mg/L atrazine from early organ morphogenesis through the onset of tadpole feeding in the aquatic amphibian model system, Xenopus laevis. We quantified malformations of the body axis, heart, and intestine, as well as apoptosis in the midbrain and pronephric kidney. Results We found a significant dose-dependent increase in the percentage of atrazine-exposed tadpoles with malformations of multiple tissues including the main body axis, circulatory system, kidney, and digestive system. Incidence of apoptotic cells also increased in the both midbrain and kidney of atrazine-exposed tadpoles. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that acute atrazine exposure (10–35 mg/L for ≤ 48 hr) during early organ morphogenesis disrupts proper organ development in an amphibian model system. The concurrent atrazine-induced apoptosis in the pronephric kidney and midbrain begins to elucidate a mechanism by which atrazine may disrupt developmental processes in nontarget organisms. PMID:18288322

  2. Metabolic ability and individual characteristics of an atrazine-degrading consortium DNC5.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Cao, Bo; Jiang, Zhao; Dong, Xiaonan; Hu, Miao; Wang, Zhigang

    2012-10-30

    A stable four-member bacterial consortium, DNC5 that was capable of metabolizing atrazine was isolated from corn-planted soil. The main objective of this paper is to characterize the individual metabolic characteristics and the mutualism of the cultivable members in the consortium DNC5. Substrates utilizing character of each community member indicate that the primary organism in this consortium is Arthrobacter sp. DNS10, which was the only strain capable of mineralizing atrazine to cyanuric acid. Two secondary strains (Bacillus subtilis DNS4 and Variovorax sp. DNS12) utilized cyanuric acid during the atrazine degradation process. Meanwhile, we found that a metabolite (isopropylamine) inhibited the atrazine degrading species Arthrobacter sp. DNS10. The last strain (Arthrobacter sp. DNS9) of this consortium played a role in reducing this inhibition by utilizing isopropylamine for its growth. Altogether this is a new combination of isolates in an atrazine degrading consortium. The growth and the degradation rate of consortium DNC5 were faster than that of the single strain DNS10. The high degradation ability of the consortium showed good potential for atrazine biodegradation. This study will contribute toward a better understanding about metabolic activities of atrazine degrading consortium, which are generally considered to be responsible for atrazine mineralization in the natural environment.

  3. Uptake of C(14)-atrazine by prairie grasses in a phytoremediation setting.

    PubMed

    Khrunyk, Yuliya; Schiewer, Silke; Carstens, Keri L; Hu, Dingfei; Coats, Joel R

    2017-02-01

    Agrochemicals significantly contribute to environmental pollution. In the USA, atrazine is a widely used pesticide and commonly found in rivers, water systems, and rural wells. Phytoremediation can be a cost-effective means of removing pesticides from soil. The objective of this project was to investigate the ability of prairie grasses to remove atrazine. (14)C-labeled atrazine was added to sterilized sand and water/nutrient cultures, and the analysis was performed after 21 days. Switchgrass and big bluestem were promising species for phytoremediation, taking up about 40% of the applied [(14)C] in liquid hydroponic cultures, and between 20% and 33% in sand cultures. Yellow Indiangrass showed low resistance to atrazine toxicity and low uptake of [(14)C] atrazine in liquid hydroponic cultures. Atrazine degradation increased progressively from sand to roots and leaves. Most atrazine taken up by prairie grasses from sand culture was degraded to metabolites, which accounted for 60-80% of [(14)C] detected in leaves. Deisopropylatrazine (DIA) was the main metabolite detected in sand and roots, whereas in leaves further metabolism took place, forming increased amounts of didealkylatrazine (DDA) and an unidentified metabolite. In conclusion, prairie grasses achieved high atrazine removal and degradation, showing a high potential for phytoremediation.

  4. Simulations of Flow Circulations and Atrazine Concentrations in a Midwest U.S. Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xianggui; Gu, Roy R.; Guo, Chuling; Wang, Kui; Li, Shijie

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the spring for pre-emergent weed control in the corn cropping area in the Midwestern United States. A frequent high level of herbicide concentrations in reservoirs is a great concern for public health and aquatic ecosystems. In this study, a two-dimensional hydrodynamics and toxic contaminant transport model was applied to Saylorville Reservoir, Iowa, USA. The model simulates physical, chemical, and biological processes and predicts unsteady vertical and longitudinal distributions of a toxic chemical. Model results were validated by measured temperatures and atrazine concentrations. Simulated flow velocities, water temperatures, and chemical concentrations demonstrated that the spatial variation of atrazine concentrations was largely affected by seasonal flow circulation patterns in the reservoir. In particular, the simulated fate and transport of atrazine showed the effect of flow circulation on spatial distribution of atrazine during summer months as the river flow formed an underflow within the reservoir and resulted in greater concentrations near the surface of the reservoir. Atrazine concentrations in the reservoir peaked around the end of May and early June. A thorough understanding of the fate and transport of atrazine in the reservoir can assist in developing operation and pollution prevention strategies with respect to timing, amount, and depth of withdrawal. The responses of atrazine transport to various boundary conditions provide useful information in assessing environmental impact of alternative upstream watershed management practices on the quality of reservoir water.

  5. Catalytic effect of transition metals on microwave-induced degradation of atrazine in mineral micropores.

    PubMed

    Hu, Erdan; Cheng, Hefa

    2014-06-15

    With their high catalytic activity for redox reactions, transition metal ions (Cu(2+) and Fe(3+)) were exchanged into the micropores of dealuminated Y zeolites to prepare effective microporous mineral sorbents for sorption and microwave-induced degradation of atrazine. Due to its ability to complex with atrazine, loading of copper greatly increased the sorption of atrazine. Atrazine sorption on iron-exchanged zeolites was also significantly enhanced, which was attributed to the hydrolysis of Fe(3+) polycations in mineral micropores and electrostatic interactions of protonated atrazine molecules with the negatively charged pore wall surface. Copper and iron species in the micropores also significantly accelerated degradation of the sorbed atrazine (and its degradation intermediates) under microwave irradiation. The catalytic effect was attributed to the easy reducibility and high oxidation activity of Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) species stabilized in the micropores of the zeolites. It was postulated that the surface species of transition metals (monomeric Cu(2+), Cu(2+)-O-Cu(2+) complexes, FeO(+), and dinuclear Fe-O-Fe-like species) in the mineral micropores were thermally activated under microwave irradiation, and subsequently formed highly reactive sites catalyzing oxidative degradation of atrazine. The transition metal-exchanged zeolites, particularly the iron-exchanged ones, were relatively stable when leached under acidic conditions, which suggests that they are reusable in sorption and microwave-induced degradation. These findings offer valuable insights on designing of effective mineral sorbents that can selectively uptake atrazine from aqueous solutions and catalyze its degradation under microwave irradiation.

  6. Evaluation of the capacity of the cyanobacterium Microcystis novacekii to remove atrazine from a culture medium.

    PubMed

    Campos, Marcela M C; Faria, Vanessa H F; Teodoro, Taciane S; Barbosa, Francisco A R; Magalhães, Sérgia M S

    2013-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of atrazine and its toxicity were evaluated for the cyanobacterium Microcystis novacekii. Cyanobacterial cultures were grown in WC culture medium with atrazine at 50, 250 and 500 μg L(-1). After 96 hours of exposure, 27.2% of the atrazine had been removed from the culture supernatant. Spontaneous degradation was found to be insignificant (< 9% at 500 μg L(-1)), indicating a high efficiency for the bioaccumulation of atrazine by M. novacekii. There were no atrazine metabolites detected in the culture medium at any of the doses studied. The acute toxicity (EC(50)) of atrazine to the cyanobacterium was 4.2 mg L(-1) at 96 hours demonstrating the potential for M. novacekii to tolerate high concentrations of this herbicide in fresh water environments. The ability of M. novacekii to remove atrazine combined with its tolerance of the pesticide toxicity showed in this study makes it a potential biological resource for the restoration of contaminated surface waters. These findings support continued studies of the role of M. novacekii in the bioremediation of fresh water environments polluted by atrazine.

  7. Soybean Oil Based Biobarriers Remove Atrazine from Contaminated Water: Laboratory Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US almost 35 million kg of atrazine are used annually. This usage coupled with its mobility and recalcitrant nature in deeper soils and aquifers makes atrazine a frequent groundwater contaminant. We formed biobarriers in sand filled columns by coating the sand with soybean oil, inoculated...

  8. Predicting atrazine levels in water utility intake water for MCL compliance.

    PubMed

    Pappas, E A; Huang, C

    2008-10-01

    To protect human health, atrazine concentrations in finished municipal drinking water must not exceed a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 3 microg/L, as determined by a specific monitoring regime mandated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Atrazine levels were monitored along tile-fed drainage ditches draining to a major drinking water source and used to predict MCL exceedance frequencies of intake and finished drinking water. Water samples were collected daily at eight monitoring sites located at the outlets of subbasins draining 298-19 341 ha (736-47 794 ac). Flow-weighted average (FWA) atrazine concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 9.8 microg/L, and were above 3 microg/L for the majority of sites, including the largest site, which represents water quality at the intake of the local municipal water treatment plant. However, a relatively low percentage of samples near the water utility intake exceeding 3 microg/L atrazine (10.4%) made this problem difficult to detect. In order to have a 95% probability of detecting any intake sample exceeding 3 microg/L atrazine in a drainage system exceeding 3 microg/L atrazine on a FWA basis, sampling frequency would need to be every 7 days or more often during the second quarter when the potentials for field atrazine losses and temporal variability of atrazine concentrations are highest.

  9. Influence of microbial and synthetic surfactant on the biodegradation of atrazine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-02-01

    The present study reports the effect of surfactants (rhamnolipids and triton X-100) on biodegradation of atrazine herbicide by strain A6, belonging to the genus Acinetobacter. The strain A6 was able to degrade nearly 80 % of the 250-ppm atrazine after 6 days of growth. The bacterium degraded atrazine by de-alkylation process. Bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity as well as atrazine solubility increased in the presence of surfactant. However, addition of surfactant to the mineral salt media reduced the rate and extent of atrazine degradation by decreasing the bioavailability of herbicide. On the contrary, addition of surfactant to atrazine-contaminated soil increased the rate and extent of biodegradation by increasing the bioavailability of herbicide. As compared to triton X-100, rhamnolipids were more efficient in enhancing microbial degradation of atrazine as a significant amount of atrazine was removed from the soil by rhamnolipids. Surfactants added for the purpose of hastening microbial degradation may have an unintended inhibitory effect on herbicide degradation depending upon contiguous condition, thus highlighting the fact that surfactant must be judiciously used in bioremediation of herbicides.

  10. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE ON THE REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS IN THE MARINE FISH, CUNNER(TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine, the most widely used herbicide in the world, leaches into ground water and surface runoff after agricultural and forestry applications. It has been detected in concentrations in the ppb range in ground water, surface waters, rivers, streams, and precipitation. Atrazin...

  11. Isolation and Characterization of a Pseudomonas sp. That Mineralizes the s-Triazine Herbicide Atrazine

    PubMed Central

    Mandelbaum, R. T.; Allan, D. L.; Wackett, L. P.

    1995-01-01

    A bacterium that was capable of metabolizing atrazine at very high concentrations (>1,000 ppm) was isolated from a herbicide spill site. The organism was differentiated by observing clearing zones on indicator agar plates containing 1,000 ppm atrazine. Detailed taxonomic studies identified the organism as a Pseudomonas sp., designated ADP, that was dissimilar to currently known species. Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP metabolized atrazine as its sole nitrogen source. Nongrowing suspended cells also metabolized atrazine rapidly; for example, 9 x 10(sup9) cells per ml degraded 100 ppm of atrazine in 90 min. Atrazine was metabolized to hydroxyatrazine, polar metabolites, and carbon dioxide. When uniformly ring-labeled [(sup14)C]atrazine was used, 80% of the radioactivity was liberated as (sup14)CO(inf2). These data indicated the triazine ring was completely mineralized. The isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP may contribute to efforts on atrazine bioremediation, particularly in environments containing very high pesticide levels. PMID:16534995

  12. Atrazine fate and transport within the coastal zone in southeastern Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide transport from crop-land to coastal waters may adversely impact water quality. This work examined potential atrazine impact from use on a farm field adjacent to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve on Puerto Rico’s southeastern coast. Atrazine application was linked to residu...

  13. Interactions of earthworms with Atrazine-degrading bacteria in an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Kersanté, Anne; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Soulas, Guy; Binet, Françoise

    2006-08-01

    In the last 10 years, accelerated mineralization of Atrazine (2-chloro-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) has been evidenced in agricultural soils repeatedly treated with this herbicide. Here, we report on the interaction between earthworms, considered as soil engineers, and the Atrazine-degrading community. The impact of earthworm macrofauna on Atrazine mineralization was assessed in representative soil microsites of earthworm activities (gut contents, casts, burrow linings). Soil with or without earthworms, namely the anecic species Lumbricus terrestris and the endogenic species Aporrectodea caliginosa, was either inoculated or not inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. ADP, an Atrazine-degrading strain, and was either treated or not treated with Atrazine. The structure of the bacterial community, the Atrazine-degrading activity and the abundance of atzA, B and C sequences in soil microsites were investigated. Atrazine mineralization was found to be reduced in representative soil microsites of earthworm activities. Earthworms significantly affected the structure of soil bacterial communities. They also reduced the size of the inoculated population of Pseudomonas sp. ADP, thereby contributing to the diminution of the Atrazine-degrading genetic potential in representative soil microsites of earthworm activities. This study illustrates the regulation produced by the earthworms on functional bacterial communities involved in the fate of organic pollutants in soils.

  14. Atrazine acts as an endocrine disrupter by inhibiting cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4

    SciTech Connect

    Kucka, Marek; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Fa, Svetlana; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Kovacevic, Radmila

    2012-11-15

    Atrazine, one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide, acts as an endocrine disruptor, but the mechanism of its action has not been characterized. In this study, we show that atrazine rapidly increases cAMP levels in cultured rat pituitary and testicular Leydig cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but less effectively than 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, a competitive non-specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In forskolin (an activator of adenylyl cyclase)- and probenecid (an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide transporters)-treated cells, but not in 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine-treated cells, atrazine further increased cAMP levels, indicating that inhibition of PDEs accounts for accumulation of cAMP. In contrast to cAMP, atrazine did not alter cGMP levels, further indicating that it inhibits cAMP-specific PDEs. Atrazine-induced changes in cAMP levels were sufficient to stimulate prolactin release in pituitary cells and androgen production in Leydig cells, indicating that it acts as an endocrine disrupter both in cells that secrete by exocytosis of prestored hormones and in cells that secrete by de novo hormone synthesis. Rolipram abolished the stimulatory effect of atrazine on cAMP release in both cell types, suggesting that it acts as an inhibitor of PDE4s, isoforms whose mRNA transcripts dominate in pituitary and Leydig cells together with mRNA for PDE8A. In contrast, immortalized lacto-somatotrophs showed low expression of these mRNA transcripts and several fold higher cAMP levels compared to normal pituitary cells, and atrazine was unable to further increase cAMP levels. These results indicate that atrazine acts as a general endocrine disrupter by inhibiting cAMP-specific PDE4s. -- Highlights: ► Atrazine stimulates cAMP accumulation in pituitary and Leydig cells. ► Atrazine also stimulates PRL and androgens secretion. ► Stimulatory effects of atrazine were abolished in cells with IBMX-inhibited PDEs. ► Atrazine specificity toward c

  15. Occurrence of atrazine and degradates as contaminants of subsurface drainage and shallow groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Jayachandran, K.; Steinheimer, T.R.; Moorman, T.B.

    1994-03-01

    Atrazine is a commonly used herbicide in corn (Zea mays L.) growing areas of the USA. Because of its heavy usage, moderate persistence, and mobility in soil, monitoring of atrazine movement under field conditions is essential to assess its potential to contaminate groundwater. Concentrations of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine (DIA), and deethlatraaine (DEA) were measured in subsurface drainage and shallow groundwater beneath continuous, no-till corn. Water samples were collected from the subsurface drain (tile) outlets and suction lysimeters in the growing seasons of 1990 and 1991, and analyzed for atrazine and two principle degradates won solid-phase extraction and HPLC. In 1990, atrazine concentration ranged from 1.3 to 5.1{mu}g L{sup -1} in tile-drain water and from 0.5 to 20.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} in lysimeter water. In general, concentrations of parent and degradates in solution were atrazine > DEA > DIA. Lesser levels of atrazine were measured in 1991 from Plots 2 and 4; however, greater concentrations of atrazine (6.0-8.4 {mu}g L{sup -1}) were measured from plot 5. Throughout the two growing seasons, atrazine concentration in Plot 5 tile-drain water was greater than that of Plots 2 and 4, suggesting a preferential movement of atrazine. Concentrations of DIA and DEA ranged from 0.1 to 2.2 and 0.9 to 3.2 {mu}g L{sup -1} respectively, indicating that the degradation products by themselves or in combination with parent atrazine can exceed the maximum contaminant level (mcl) of 3 {mu}g L{sup -1} even though atrazine by itself may be <3 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) is an indicator of residence time in soil during transport of atrazine to groundwater. In Plots 2 and 4, DAR values for tile-drain water ranged from 0.43 to 2.70 and 0.50 to 2.66 respectively. By comparison, a DAR of 0.38 to 0.60 was observed in Plot 5, suggesting less residence time in the soil. 38 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Detoxification of Atrazine by Endophytic Streptomyces sp. Isolated from Sugarcane and Detection of Nontoxic Metabolite.

    PubMed

    Mesquini, Josiane A; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F; López, Begonã G C; Oliveira, Valéria M; Miyasaka, Natalia R S

    2015-12-01

    Atrazine is still one of the most used agricultural pesticides worldwide and it has been recognized as a major contaminant of surface and ground water. The aims of this research were to isolate an endophytic microorganism from leaves of sugarcane, evaluate its ability to degrade atrazine, and investigate the formation of metabolites. By sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the endophytic isolate atz2 was identified as Streptomyces sp. The reduction in atrazine concentration by Streptomyces sp. atz2 was 98 % and UHPLC-MS/MS analyses showed the appearance of an unknown metabolite observed as m/z 311. Ecotoxicity tests with an aquatic organism, Daphnia similis, confirmed that this metabolite was nontoxic. This mechanism of detoxification of atrazine is different from the ones of other free-living microorganisms that inhabit the soil or rhizosphere. The results show new aspects of atrazine detoxification, highlighting a new role of endophytic bacteria in plants.

  17. Degradation and transformation of atrazine under catalyzed ozonation process with TiO2 as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yixin; Cao, Hongbin; Peng, Pai; Bo, Hongmiao

    2014-08-30

    Degradation of atrazine by heterogeneously catalyzed ozonation was carried out with TiO2 in the form of rutile as the catalyst. Some experimental factors such as catalyst dose, ozone dose and initial concentration of atrazine were investigated for their influence on catalyzed ozonation process. Although atrazine was effectively removed from aqueous solution by catalyzed ozonation process, the mineralization degree only reached 56% at the experimental conditions. Five transformation products were identified by GC/MS analysis. The degradation of atrazine involved de-alkylation, de-chlorination and de-amination. Diaminotriazine and 5-azauracil were the de-chlorinated and de-aminated products, respectively. The evolution of concentration of transformation products during catalyzed ozonation process was compared with uncatalyzed ozonation to show the degradation pathway. Toxicity tests based on the inhibition of the luminescence emitted by Vibrio fisheri indicated the detoxification of atrazine by catalyzed ozonation.

  18. Atrazine reduces reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas): raw data report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Richter, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The herbicide, atrazine, routinely is observed in surface and groundwaters, particularly in the “corn belt” region, a high-use area of the United States. Atrazine has demonstrated effects on reproduction in mammals and amphibians, but the characterization of endocrine-related effects in fish has received only limited attention. Peak concentrations of atrazine in surface water of streams from these agricultural areas coincide with annual spawning events of native fishes. Consequently, there was an unacceptable level of uncertainty in our understanding of the risks associated with the periods of greatest atrazine exposure and greatest vulnerability of certain species of fishes. For this reason, a study of the effects of atrazine on fathead minnow reproduction was undertaken (Tillitt and others, 2010). This report provides the raw data from that study.

  19. [High throughput screening atrazine chlorohydrolase mutants with enhanced activity through Haematococcus pluvialis expression system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Huizhuan; Chen, Xiwen; Hao, Xiaohua; Chen, Defu

    2011-04-01

    Developing a high-throughput screening method is of great importance for directed evolution of atrazine chlorohydrolase. A mutagenesis library of atzA from Pseudomonas sp. ADP and Arthrobacter sp. AD1 was constructed using error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling. Candidate mutants were screened through Haematococcus pluvialis expression system, using atrazine as selection pressure. Sequence analysis showed that mutations in the obtained 12 mutants with enhanced activity were all point-substitutions and scattered throughout the gene. Enzymatic activity analysis showed that the mutants all had higher activities than that of the wild type. The activities were 1.8-3.6 fold of the wild-type enzyme when cultured in BBM medium with 1 mg/L atrazine, whereas 1.8-2.6 fold with 2 mg/L atrazine. These results indicated that Haematococcus pluvialis expression system is an ideal high throughput screening system for directed evolution of atrazine chlorohydrolase.

  20. Quantum efficiencies of the photo-Fenton degradation of atrazine in water.

    PubMed

    Benzaquén, T B; Isla, M A; Alfano, O M

    2012-01-01

    An experimental work in a well-stirred batch recycling reactor for the photo-Fenton degradation of atrazine in water is presented. A study of the quantum efficiency is performed to assess the effectiveness of the photo-Fenton process on the atrazine degradation and total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization. Apparent and absolute quantum efficiencies of degradation and mineralization of an atrazine-based commercial herbicide are determined under different experimental conditions. Higher apparent efficiencies were found for both atrazine degradation and TOC mineralization when the ferric ion and hydrogen peroxide concentrations are increased. Because of the well known stability of the triazine ring, atrazine was not completely mineralized by the photo-Fenton process. However, a TOC reduction of 40% was achieved, being 62.5% of the maximum value that can be reached.

  1. Pesticides and their metabolites in wells of Suffolk County, New York, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Eckhardt, D.A.; Terracciano, S.A.; Rosenmann, Larry

    1999-01-01

    Five insecticide residues and 20 herbicide residues were detected in water samples collected from 50 shallow wells screened in the surficial sand and gravel aquifer in Suffolk County, Long Island in areas with known or suspected residues. Laboratory analytical methods with extremely low detection limits - from 0.001 to 0.2 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) - were used to analyze the samples for 60 pesticide residues. Forty-four of the samples contained at least one pesticide residue, and some samples contained as many as 11 different pesticides or pesticide metabolites. Only four water- quality standards were exceeded in the samples collected in this study. Dieldrin exceeded the New York State Class GA standard (0.004 ?g/L) in samples from eight wells. The Federal and New York State Maximum Contaminant Level for simazine (4 ?g/L) was exceeded in samples from two wells, and the State Class GA standard for simazine (0.5 ?g/L) was exceeded in samples from six wells. Federal water-quality standards have not been established for many of the compounds detected in this study, including herbicide metabolites. Maximum concentrations of four herbicide metabolites -metolachlor ESA (ethanesulfonic acid), metolachlor OA (oxanilic acid), and the alachlor metabolites alachlor ESA and alachlor OA -exceeded 20 ?g/L. The maximum concentration of one herbicide (tebuthiuron) exceeded 10 ?g/L, and the maximum concentration of three herbicides (simazine, metolachlor, and atrazine) and one herbicide metabolite (deisopropylatrazine) ranged from 1 to 10 ?g/L. The herbicide metolachlor, which is used on potato fields in Suffolk County, and its metabolites (metolachlor ESA and metolachlor OA) were most frequently detected in samples from agricultural areas. The herbicides simazine and tebuthiuron, which were used in utility rights-of-way, and the simazine metabolite deisopropylatrazine were detected at concentrations greater than 0.05 ?g/L most frequently in samples from residential and mixed land

  2. Distinct detoxification mechanisms confer resistance to mesotrione and atrazine in a population of waterhemp.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rong; Kaundun, Shiv S; Tranel, Patrick J; Riggins, Chance W; McGinness, Daniel L; Hager, Aaron G; Hawkes, Tim; McIndoe, Eddie; Riechers, Dean E

    2013-09-01

    Previous research reported the first case of resistance to mesotrione and other 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) herbicides in a waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) population designated MCR (for McLean County mesotrione- and atrazine-resistant). Herein, experiments were conducted to determine if target site or nontarget site mechanisms confer mesotrione resistance in MCR. Additionally, the basis for atrazine resistance was investigated in MCR and an atrazine-resistant but mesotrione-sensitive population (ACR for Adams County mesotrione-sensitive but atrazine-resistant). A standard sensitive population (WCS for Wayne County herbicide-sensitive) was also used for comparison. Mesotrione resistance was not due to an alteration in HPPD sequence, HPPD expression, or reduced herbicide absorption. Metabolism studies using whole plants and excised leaves revealed that the time for 50% of absorbed mesotrione to degrade in MCR was significantly shorter than in ACR and WCS, which correlated with previous phenotypic responses to mesotrione and the quantity of the metabolite 4-hydroxy-mesotrione in excised leaves. The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitors malathion and tetcyclacis significantly reduced mesotrione metabolism in MCR and corn (Zea mays) excised leaves but not in ACR. Furthermore, malathion increased mesotrione activity in MCR seedlings in greenhouse studies. These results indicate that enhanced oxidative metabolism contributes significantly to mesotrione resistance in MCR. Sequence analysis of atrazine-resistant (MCR and ACR) and atrazine-sensitive (WCS) waterhemp populations detected no differences in the psbA gene. The times for 50% of absorbed atrazine to degrade in corn, MCR, and ACR leaves were shorter than in WCS, and a polar metabolite of atrazine was detected in corn, MCR, and ACR that cochromatographed with a synthetic atrazine-glutathione conjugate. Thus, elevated rates of metabolism via distinct detoxification mechanisms contribute to

  3. Atrazine and its metabolites as indicators of stream-aquifer interaction in Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Townsend, M.A.; Young, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of atrazine and its metabolites in Kansas ground water indicated that ground-water quality was impacted by stream-aquifer interaction between rivers in the Kansas River basin and their adjacent alluvial aquifers. Atrazine was detected in 19 of the 78 samples. The most common metabolite, deethylatrazine, was detected in 25 samples, 18 of which also had atrazine. The deethylatrazine/atrazine ratio (DAR) of < 1.0 indicates rapid movement of agricultural chemicals to ground water. In this study, 12 of 18 samples had DAR values < 1.0, suggesting rapid recharge to the aquifers. Hydroxyatrazine is seldom detected in ground water. In this study hydroxyatrazine was detected primarily in wells sited in alluvium of rivers. These rivers contain atrazine in varying concentrations. Results of the study suggest that stream-aquifer interaction is a process contributing to the presence of both atrazine and its metabolites in ground water in these areas.A survey of atrazine and its metabolites in Kansas ground water indicated that ground water quality was impacted by stream-aquifer interaction between rivers in the Kansas River basin and their adjacent alluvial aquifers. Atrazine was detected in 19 of the 78 samples. The most common metabolite, deethylatrazine, was detected in 25 samples, 18 of which also had atrazine. The deethylatrazine/attrazine ratio (DAR) of < 1.0 indicates rapid movement of agricultural chemicals to ground water. In this study, 12 of 18 samples had DAR values < 1.0, suggesting rapid recharge to the aquifers. Hydroxyatrazine is seldom detected in ground water. In this study hydroxyatrazine was detected primarily in wells sited in alluvium of rivers. These rivers contain atrazine in varying concentration. Results of the study suggest that stream-aquifer interaction is a process contributing to the presence of both attrazine and its metabolites in ground water in these areas.

  4. Acute Atrazine Exposure has Lasting Effects on Chemosensory Responses to Food Odors in Crayfish (Orconectes virilis).

    PubMed

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Mooney, Lauren N; Nguyen, Hung M; Abraham, Noor K; Peters, Tyler J; Kana, Maria A; May, Lauren A

    2016-02-01

    The herbicide atrazine is known to impact negatively olfactory-mediated behaviors in aquatic animals. We have shown that atrazine exposure has deleterious effects on olfactory-mediated behavioral responses to food odors in crayfish; however, recovery of chemosensory abilities post-atrazine exposure has not been investigated. We examined whether crayfish (Orconectes virilis) recovered chemosensory abilities after a 96-h exposure to sublethal, environmentally relevant concentrations of 80 ppb (µg/L) atrazine. Following treatment, we analyzed the ability of the crayfish to locate a food source using a Y-maze with one arm containing fish-flavored gelatin and the other containing unflavored gelatin. We compared the time spent in the food arm of the Y-maze, near the food source, as well as moving and walking speed of control and atrazine-treated crayfish. We also compared the number of crayfish that handled the food source and the amount of food consumed. Following 24-, 48-, and 72-h recovery periods in fresh water, behavioral trials were repeated to determine if there was any observable recovery of chemosensory-mediated behaviors. Atrazine-treated crayfish spent less time in the food arm, at the odor source, and were less successful at finding the food odor source than control crayfish for all times tested. Additionally, atrazine-treated crayfish consumed less fish-flavored than control crayfish; however, treatment did not affect locomotion. Overall, we found that crayfish are not able to recover chemosensory abilities 72 h post-atrazine exposure. Because crayfish rely heavily on their chemosensory abilities to acquire food, the negative impacts of atrazine exposure could affect population size in areas where atrazine is heavily applied.

  5. Pesticide and transformation product detections and age-dating relations from till and sand deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, K.L.; Morrow, W.S.

    2007-01-01

    Pesticide and transformation product concentrations and frequencies in ground water from areas of similar crop and pesticide applications may vary substantially with differing lithologies. Pesticide analysis data for atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor, acetochlor, and cyanazine and their pesticide transformation products were collected at 69 monitoring wells in Illinois and northern Indiana to document occurrence of pesticides and their transformation products in two agricultural areas of differing lithologies, till, and sand. The till is primarily tile drained and has preferential fractured flow, whereas the sand primarily has surface water drainage and primary porosity flow. Transformation products represent most of the agricultural pesticides in ground water regardless of aquifer material - till or sand. Transformation products were detected more frequently than parent pesticides in both the till and sand, with metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid being most frequently detected. Estimated ground-water recharge dates for the sand were based on chlorofluorocarbon analyses. These age-dating data indicate that ground water recharged prior to 1990 is more likely to have a detection of a pesticide or pesticide transformation product. Detections were twice as frequent in ground water recharged prior to 1990 (82%) than in ground water recharged on or after 1990 (33%). The highest concentrations of atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and their transformation products, also were detected in samples from ground water recharged prior to 1990. These age/pesticide detection relations are opposite of what would normally be expected, and may be the result of preferential flow and/or ground-water mixing between aquifers and aquitards as evident by the detection of acetochlor transformation products in samples with estimated ground-water ages predating initial pesticide application. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  6. Herbicide and degradate flux in the Yazoo River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coupe, R.H.; Welch, H.L.; Pell, A.B.; Thurman, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    During 1996-1997, water samples were collected from five sites in the Yazoo River Basin and analysed for 14 herbicides and nine degradates. These included acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, metribuzin, molinate, norflurazon, prometryn, propanil, propazine, simazine, trifluralin, three degradates of fluometuron, two degradates of atrazine, one degradate of cyanazine, norflurazon, prometryn, and propanil. Fluxes generally were higher in 1997 than in 1996 due to a greater rainfall in 1997 than 1996. Fluxes were much larger from streams in the alluvial plain (an area of very productive farmland) than from the Skuna River in the bluff hills (an area of small farms, pasture, and forest). Adding the flux of the atrazine degradates to the atrazine flux increased the total atrazine flux by an average of 14.5%. The fluometuron degradates added about 10% to the total fluometuron flux, and adding the norflurazon degradate flux to the norflurazon flux increased the flux by 82% in 1996 and by 171% in 1997. ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis.

  7. Enhanced degradation of atrazine under field conditions correlates with a loss of weed control in the glasshouse.

    PubMed

    Krutz, L Jason; Zablotowicz, Robert M; Reddy, Krishna N; Koger, Clifford H; Weaver, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Enhanced degradation of atrazine has been reported in the literature, indicating the potential for reduced residual weed control with this herbicide. Experiments were conducted to determine the field dissipation of atrazine in three cropping systems: continuous Zea mays L. (CC) receiving atrazine applications each year, Gossypium hirsutum L.-Z. mays rotation (CCR) receiving applications of atrazine once every 2 years and a no atrazine history soil (NAH). Subsequent laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted with soil collected from these cropping systems to determine atrazine degradation, mineralization and residual weed control. Field dissipation of atrazine followed first-order kinetics, and calculated half-life values for atrazine combined over 2003 and 2005 increased in the order of CC (9 d) = CCR (10 d) < NAH (17 d). Greenhouse studies confirmed that the persistence of atrazine was approximately twofold greater in NAH soil than in CC or CCR soil. Biometer flask mineralization studies suggested that enhanced degradation of atrazine was due to rapid catabolism of the s-triazine ring. Glasshouse efficacy studies revealed a loss of residual weed control in CC and CCR soil compared with NAH soil. These data indicate that, under typical Mississippi Delta field conditions and agronomic practices, the persistence of atrazine may be reduced by at least 50% if the herbicide is applied more than once every 24 months. Glasshouse studies suggest that under these conditions a loss of residual weed control is possible.

  8. Atrazine-induced hermaphroditism at 0.1 ppb in American leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): laboratory and field evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Tyrone; Haston, Kelly; Tsui, Mable; Hoang, Anhthu; Haeffele, Cathryn; Vonk, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the United States and probably the world. Atrazine contamination is widespread and can be present in excess of 1.0 ppb even in precipitation and in areas where it is not used. In the current study, we showed that atrazine exposure (> or = to 0.1 ppb) resulted in retarded gonadal development (gonadal dysgenesis) and testicular oogenesis (hermaphroditism) in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). Slower developing males even experienced oocyte growth (vitellogenesis). Furthermore, we observed gonadal dysgenesis and hermaphroditism in animals collected from atrazine-contaminated sites across the United States. These coordinated laboratory and field studies revealed the potential biological impact of atrazine contamination in the environment. Combined with reported similar effects in Xenopus laevis, the current data raise concern about the effects of atrazine on amphibians in general and the potential role of atrazine and other endocrine-disrupting pesticides in amphibian declines. PMID:12676617

  9. Competitive fluorescence assay for specific recognition of atrazine by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer based on Fe3O4-chitosan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangyang; Li, Tengfei; Yang, Xin; She, Yongxin; Wang, Miao; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shanshan; Jin, Fen; Jin, Maojun; Shao, Hua; Jiang, Zejun; Yu, Hailong

    2016-02-10

    A novel fluorescence sensing strategy for determination of atrazine in tap water involving direct competition between atrazine and 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (5-DTAF), and which exploits magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP), has been developed. The MMIP, based on Fe3O4-chitosan nanoparticles, was synthesized to recognize specific binding sites of atrazine. The recognition capability and selectivity of the MMIP for atrazine and other triazine herbicides was investigated. Under optimal conditions, the competitive reaction between 5-DTAF and atrazine was performed to permit quantitation. Fluorescence intensity changes at 515 nm was linearly related to the logarithm of the atrazine concentration for the range 2.32-185.4 μM. The detection limit for atrazine was 0.86μM (S/N=3) and recoveries were 77.6-115% in spiked tap water samples.

  10. Transport of atrazine and dicamba through silt and loam soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tindall, James A.; Friedel, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the role of preferential flow paths in the transport of atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) and dicamba (3-6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) through silt and loam soils overlying the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska. In a previous study, 3 of 6 study areas demonstrated high percentages of macropores; those three areas were used in this study for analysis of chemical transport. As a subsequent part of the study, 12 intact soil cores (30-cm diameter by 40-cm height), were excavated sequentially, two from each of the following depths: 0-40cm and 40-80cm. These cores were used to study preferential flow characteristics using dye staining and to determine hydraulic properties. Two undisturbed experimental field plots, each with a 3-m2 surface area, were installed in three study areas in Nebraska. Each was instrumented with suction lysimeters and tensiometers at depths of 10cm to 80cm in 10-cm increments. Additionally, each plot was planted with corn (Zea mays). A neutron probe access tube was installed in each plot to determine soil w ater content at 15-cm intervals. All plots were enclosed w ith a raised frame (of 8-cm height) to prevent surface runoff. All suction lysimeters were purged monthly for three months and were sampled immediately prior to pre-plant herbicide application to obtain background chemical concentrations. Atrazine and dicamba moved rapidly through the soil, but only after a heavy rainfall event, probably owing to the presence of preferential flow paths and lack of microbial degradation in these soil areas. Staining of laboratory cores showed a positive correlation between the percent area stained by depth and the subsequent breakthrough of Br- in the laboratory and leaching of field-applied herbicides owing to large rainfall events. Suction lysimeter samples in the field showed increases in concentrations of herbicides at depths where laboratory data indicated greater

  11. Atrazine and metribuzin sorption in soils of the Argentinean humid pampas.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Peter E; Bedmar, Francisco; Costa, José L; Aparicio, Virginia C

    2002-12-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the influence of surface and subsurface properties of three representative soils of the humid pampas of Argentina on atrazine and metribuzin sorption. Atrazine and metribuzin sorption isotherms were constructed for each soil at four depths. Sorption affinity of herbicides was approximated by the Freundlich constant (K(f)), distribution coefficient (Kd), and the normalized Kd based on organic carbon content (K(oc)). Multiple regression of the sorption constants against selected soil properties indicated that organic carbon content (OC) and silt were related positively and negatively, respectively, to atrazine K(f) coefficient (r2 = 0.93), while Kd coefficient of atrazine was related positively to organic carbon content and negatively to both silt and cation exchange capacity (CEC) (r2 = 0.96). For metribuzin, only organic matter content was related positively to Kr coefficient (r2 = 0.51). Lower K(f) values for atrazine were obtained for all soils with increasing depth, indicating lesser sorption at greater depths. Metribuzin sorption was quite similar across all depths. Sorption constant K(f) of atrazine ranged from 2.06 to 7.82, while metribuzin K(f) values ranged from 1.8 to 3.52 and were lower than atrazine for all soils and depths, indicating a greater leaching potential across the soil profile.

  12. Adsorption and desorption of atrazine and deethylatrazine by low organic carbon geologic materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.

    1994-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6- isopropylamino-s-triazine) and a primary metabolite, deethylatrazine (2- amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine; DEA), by low organic C (??? 3.3 g kg-1) materials were measured by batch-equilibrium techniques. The adsorbents were samples of glacial outwash sand, till, and stream sediments. The adsorption of both atrazine and DEA conformed to linear isotherms. The adsorption of atrazine by most of the adsorbents yielded apparent K(oc) values that were in excess of those based on surface agricultural soils. Adsorption correlated with only the pH of the sand-water suspensions. The desorption of atrazine was hysteretic under the conditions of the measurement. DEA had a lower affinity for the same adsorbents; the mean ratio of K(d) values of DEA to those of atrazine was 0.37 ?? 0.20. DEA adsorption did not correlate with organic C, surface area, clay content of the adsorbents, or with the pH of the suspensions. DEA adsorption, unlike atrazine, tended to be reversible. There was a linear relationship between the adsorption constants of atrazine and those of DEA.

  13. Gonadal development of larval male Xenopus laevis exposed to atrazine in outdoor microcosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jooste, A.M.; Du Preez, L.H.; Carr, J.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.; Kendall, R.J.; Smith, E.E.; Van Der Kraak, G. L.; Solomon, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    The potential effects of atrazine on gonadal development in metamorphs and subadults of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) were studied under conditions of natural photoperiod and temperatures in outdoor microcosms from August 2002 to June 2003 in South Africa. Triplicate 1100 L microcosms for each nominal concentration of 0.0, 1, 10, and 25 ??g of atrazine/L were used. Measured atrazine concentrations varied <25% throughout the study, and no atrazine was detected in the control microcosms. Tadpoles developed well at all concentrations. On the basis of histological examination of testes of recently metamorphosed stage 66 frogs, 57% of the individuals in the reference group exhibited testicular oocytes as compared with 57, 59, and 39% of the 1, 10, and 25 ??g/L atrazine groups, respectively. The average prevalence of testicular oocytes for all of the treatments including the controls was 54% in a single testis, while, in 35% of individuals, testicular oocytes were observed in both testes. The number of testicular oocytes per individual ranged from 0 to 58 with means of 9.5, 9.8, 8.5, and 11.1 for the 0.0, 1, 10, and 25 ??g of atrazine/L groups, respectively. Ten months after metamorphosis, another subset of juveniles was examined, and the maximum number of testicular oocytes observed was five in one animal. The presence of testicular oocytes was not related to exposure to atrazine and may be a natural phenomenon during ontogeny. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  14. Atrazine biodegradation to deisopropylatrazine and deethylatrazine in coastal sediments of different land uses.

    PubMed

    Aelion, C M; Mathur, P P

    2001-11-01

    Atrazine, a triazine herbicide widely used in the United States, contributes to surface-water and groundwater contamination, as can deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA), two of its microbial degradation products. Production of DIA and DEA by native bacteria in aquatic sediments has not been investigated thoroughly. We assessed atrazine and production of DIA and DEA over time in coastal aquatic sediments associated with different land uses including creeks from an undeveloped preserve and a suburban development, a golf course drainage ditch, and a contaminated commercial harbor. Sediments were incubated in microcosms, spiked with U-14C-atrazine, extracted, and analyzed for 14C in a liquid scintillation counter. Atrazine, DIA, and DEA also were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The amount of 14C recovered varied at each site as a function of the sediment organic carbon content and decreased significantly over time. Both DEA and DIA were measured primarily in the aqueous phase. Transformation was more extensive to DIA than to DEA. The ratio of DIA to atrazine recovered from the undeveloped preserve was as high as 0.13. In contrast, the golf course had limited biotransformation, and had the greatest atrazine recoveries so atrazine, not DEA and DIA, may have a greater impact at this site.

  15. Wire-cylinder dielectric barrier discharge induced degradation of aqueous atrazine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Jiang, Lin; Liu, Run-Long; Chen, Pei; Lang, Lin; Feng, Jing-Wei; Yuan, Shou-Jun; Zhao, Da-Yong

    2014-12-01

    The wire-cylinder dielectric barrier discharge reactor was adopted for removal of aqueous atrazine. The effect of different parameters on the degradation efficiency of atrazine was investigated, and the degradation mechanism of atrazine was studied. The experimental results showed that when the discharge power was 50 W and the air flow rate was 140 L h(-1), 93.7% of atrazine was degraded after 18 min of discharge time. The concentrations of generated O3 and H2O2 increased with increasing discharge time. The pH decreased from 6.80 to 2.50, 12.7% of TOC was removed after 18 min. The concentrations of generated Cl(-) and NO3(-) increased significantly during the degradation process of atrazine, and the decreasing toxicity trend was observed for the treated atrazine solution. The degradation byproducts of atrazine were identified using liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS), which might be formed mainly in dechlorination hydroxylation, alkyl oxidation, dechlorination hydroxylation combined with alkyl oxidation and demethylation oxidation reactions.

  16. Atrazine affects phosphoprotein and protein expression in MCF-10A human breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Song, Qisheng

    2014-10-01

    Atrazine, a member of the 2-chloro-s-triazine family of herbicides, is the most widely used pesticide in the world and often detected in agriculture watersheds. Although it was generally considered as an endocrine disruptor, posing a potential threat to human health, the molecular mechanisms of atrazine effects remain unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we identified a panel of differentially expressed phosphoproteins and total proteins in human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells after being exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine. Atrazine treatments for 6 h resulted in differential expression of 4 phosphoproteins and 8 total-proteins as compared to the control cells (>1.5-fold, p<0.05). MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins belong to various cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, membrane) and varied in function, including those regulating the stress response such as peroxiredoxin I, HSP70 and HSP27; structural proteins such as tropomyosin and profilin 1; and oncogenesis proteins such as ANP32A. Six of the 12 identified proteins were verified by quantitative PCR for their transcript levels. The most up-regulated phosphoprotein by atrazine treatment, ANP32A, was further analyzed for its expression, distribution and cellular localization using Western blot and immunocytochemical approaches. The results revealed that ANP32 expression after atrazine treatment increased dose and time dependently and was primarily located in the nucleus. This study may provide new evidence on the potential toxicity of atrazine in human cells.

  17. An altered Q sub B polypeptide as the basis for atrazine resistance in photoautotrophic potato cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smeda, R.J.; Hasegawa, P.M.; Weller, S.C. )

    1990-05-01

    A photoautotrophic potato cell line (variant) was isolated and is capable of sustained growth in media containing the herbicide atrazine at concentrations up to 100-fold greater than the lethal concentration (1.0 {mu}M) for the unselected (wild type) cell line. The basis for atrazine resistance could not be identified by differential uptake or metabolism. Photosynthetic electron transport rates for both intact cell and isolated thylakoid membranes from chloroplasts were unaffected in variant cells at atrazine concentrations up to 100-fold greater than for wild type cells. Photoaffinity labeling of isolated thylakoid membranes from both cell lines with {sup 14}C-azidoatrazine revealed an altered Q{sub B} polypeptide in variant cells resulting in low or no affinity for atrazine. A portion of the chloroplast psbA gene, encoding the Q{sub B} polypeptide, was sequenced for both cell lines. The basis for atrazine resistance in variant cells was identified as a single base change resulting in the alteration of serine to threonine at position 264 of the Q{sub B} polypeptide. In addition to atrazine resistance, variant cells exhibit enhanced tolerance to the herbicides DCMU and metribuzin, but greater sensitivity to bentazon. No reductions in variant cell growth and photosynthetic efficiency in the absence of atrazine were observed.

  18. Twenty years of long-term Atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in Western Germany (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Vonberg, D.; Putz, T.; Vanderborght, J.

    2013-12-01

    Atrazine, one of the most frequent applied pesticides worldwide, was banned in Germany in 1991 due to exceeded threshold values in ground- and drinking waters. Monitoring of atrazine was hence introduced in the Zwischenscholle aquifer, exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells were monitored since 1991, of which 11 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the 'regression on order statistics' (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the concentrations in groundwater are on a constant level without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with observation wells exhibiting constantly concentrations above the threshold on the one hand and observation wells where concentrations are frequently below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the monitoring dataset and relationships of triazine compounds became obvious. Accordingly the metabolite desisopropylatrazine was exclusively associated with the occurrence of the parent compound simazine and not atrazine, whereas deethylatrazine was clearly related to atrazine.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of Glomus mosseae/Medicago sativa mycorrhiza on atrazine stress

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fuqiang; Li, Jize; Fan, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Quan; Chang, Wei; Yang, Fengshan; Geng, Gui

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) protect host plants against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, and promote biodegradation of various contaminants. In this study effect of Glomus mosseae/Medicago sativa mycorrhiza on atrazine degradation was investigated. It was observed that the atrazine degradation rates with any addition level in mycorrhizal treatments were all significantly higher than those in non- mycorrhizal treatments. When atrazine was applied at 20 mg kg−1, the removal efficiency was up to 74.65%. Therefore, G. mosseae can be considered as ideal inhabitants of technical installations to facilitate phytoremediation. Furthermore, a total of 10.4 Gb was used for de novo transcriptome assembly, resulting in a comprehensive data set for the identification of genes corresponding to atrazine stress in the AM association. After comparative analysis with edgeR, a total of 2,060 differential expressed genes were identified, including 570 up-regulated genes and 1490 down-regulated genes. After excluding ‘function unknown’ and ‘general function predictions only’ genes, 172 up-regulated genes were obtained. The differentially expressed genes in AM association with and without atrazine stress were associated with molecular processes/other proteins, zinc finger protein, intracellular/extracellular enzymes, structural proteins, anti-stress/anti-disease protein, electron transport-related protein, and plant growth associated protein. Our results not only prove AMF has important ecological significance on atrazine degradation but also provide evidence for the molecular mechanisms of atrazine degradation by AMF. PMID:26833403

  20. Proteomics analysis of Xenopus laevis gonad tissue following chronic exposure to atrazine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Jiamei; Zhu, Haojun; Ding, Jiatong; Peng, Yufa

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant in ground and surface water. Previous studies have shown that atrazine is an endocrine disruptor owing to its adverse effects on the male reproductive system in several vertebrates, but very few molecular mechanisms for these effects have been revealed. In the present study, Xenopus laevis were exposed to 100 ppb of atrazine for 120 d, and then the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique was used to detect global changes in protein profiles of the testes and ovaries. The results showed that 100 ppb of atrazine exposure adversely affected the growth of X. laevis and did not induce hermaphroditism but delayed or prevented the development of male seminiferous tubules. Proteomic analysis showed that atrazine altered expression of 143 and 121 proteins in the testes and ovaries, respectively, and most of them are involved in cellular and metabolic processes and biological regulation based on their biological processes. In addition, apoptosis, tight junctions, and metabolic pathways were significantly altered in the atrazine-treated gonads. Based on the above results, it is postulated that the reproductive toxicity of atrazine may be the result of disruption of tight junctions and metabolic signaling pathways and/or induction of apoptosis in germ cells.

  1. The HR96 activator, atrazine, reduces sensitivity of D. magna to triclosan and DHA

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Namrata; Litoff, Elizabeth J.; Baldwin, William S.

    2015-01-01

    HR96 is a CAR/PXR/VDR ortholog in invertebrates, and a promiscuous endo- and xenobiotic nuclear receptor involved in acclimation to toxicants. Daphnia HR96 is activated by chemicals such as atrazine and linoleic acid (LA) (n-6 fatty acid), and inhibited by triclosan and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)(n-3 fatty acid). We hypothesized that inhibitors of HR96 may block the protective responses of HR96 based on previously performed luciferase assays. Therefore, we performed acute toxicity tests with two-chemical mixtures containing a HR96 inhibitor (DHA or triclosan) and a HR96 activator (LA or atrazine). Surprisingly, results demonstrate that triclosan and DHA are less toxic when co-treated with 20–80 μM atrazine. Atrazine provides concentration-dependent protection as lower concentrations have no effect and higher concentrations cause toxicity. LA, a weaker HR96 activator, did not provide protection from triclosan or DHA. Atrazine’s protective effects are presumably due to its ability to activate HR96 or other toxicologically relevant transcription factors and induce protective enzymes. Atrazine did not significantly induce glucosyltransferase, a crucial enzyme in triclosan detoxification. However, atrazine did increase antioxidant activities, crucial pathways in triclosan’s toxicity, as measured through GST activity and the TROLOX equivalence assay. The increase in antioxidant capacity is consistent with atrazine providing protection from a wide range of toxicants that induce ROS, including triclosan and unsaturated fatty acids predisposed to lipid peroxidation. PMID:25747156

  2. Adsorption and desorption of atrazine and deethylatrazine by low organic carbon geologic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.

    1994-05-01

    The adsorption and desorption of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6- isopropylamino-s-triazine) and a primary metabolite, deethylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine; DEA), by low organic C ({le} 3.3 g kg{sup -1}) materials were measured by batch-equilibrium techniques. The adsorbents were samples of glacial outwash sand, till, and stream sediments. The adsorption of both atrazine and DEA conformed to linear isotherms. The adsorption of atrazine by most of the absorbents yielded apparent K, values that were in excess of those based on surface agricultural soils. Adsorption correlated with only the pH of the sand-water suspensions. The desorption of atrazine was hysteretic under the conditions of the measurement. DEA had a lower affinity for the same adsorbents; the mean ratio of Kd values of DEA to those of atrazine was 0.37 {+-} 0.20. DEA adsorption did not correlate with organic C, surface area, clay content of the adsorbents, or with the pH of the suspensions. DEA adsorption, unlike atrazine, tended to be reversible. There was a linear relationship between the adsorption constants of atrazine and those of DEA. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of Glomus mosseae/Medicago sativa mycorrhiza on atrazine stress.

    PubMed

    Song, Fuqiang; Li, Jize; Fan, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Quan; Chang, Wei; Yang, Fengshan; Geng, Gui

    2016-02-02

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) protect host plants against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, and promote biodegradation of various contaminants. In this study effect of Glomus mosseae/Medicago sativa mycorrhiza on atrazine degradation was investigated. It was observed that the atrazine degradation rates with any addition level in mycorrhizal treatments were all significantly higher than those in non-mycorrhizal treatments. When atrazine was applied at 20 mg kg(-1), the removal efficiency was up to 74.65%. Therefore, G. mosseae can be considered as ideal inhabitants of technical installations to facilitate phytoremediation. Furthermore, a total of 10.4 Gb was used for de novo transcriptome assembly, resulting in a comprehensive data set for the identification of genes corresponding to atrazine stress in the AM association. After comparative analysis with edgeR, a total of 2,060 differential expressed genes were identified, including 570 up-regulated genes and 1490 down-regulated genes. After excluding 'function unknown' and 'general function predictions only' genes, 172 up-regulated genes were obtained. The differentially expressed genes in AM association with and without atrazine stress were associated with molecular processes/other proteins, zinc finger protein, intracellular/extracellular enzymes, structural proteins, anti-stress/anti-disease protein, electron transport-related protein, and plant growth associated protein. Our results not only prove AMF has important ecological significance on atrazine degradation but also provide evidence for the molecular mechanisms of atrazine degradation by AMF.

  4. 20 years of long-term atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in western Germany.

    PubMed

    Vonberg, David; Vanderborght, Jan; Cremer, Nils; Pütz, Thomas; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine was banned in Germany in 1991 due to findings of atrazine concentrations in ground- and drinking waters exceeding threshold values. Monitoring of atrazine concentrations in the groundwater since then provides information about the resilience of the groundwater quality to changing agricultural practices. In this study, we present results of a monitoring campaign of atrazine concentrations in the Zwischenscholle aquifer. This phreatic aquifer is exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells (OWs) have been monitored since 1991, of which 15 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the "regression on order statistics" (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the groundwater concentrations of sampled OWs remain on a level close to the threshold value of 0.1 μg l(-1) without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with OWs exhibiting permanently concentrations above the regulatory threshold on the one hand and OWs were concentrations are mostly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the monitoring dataset demonstrated relationships between the metabolite desisopropylatrazine, which was found to be exclusively associated with the parent compound simazine but not with atrazine, and between deethylatrazine, atrazine, nitrate, and the specific electrical conductivity. These parameters indicate agricultural impacts on groundwater quality. The findings presented in this study point at the difficulty to estimate mean concentrations

  5. Degradation of atrazine by UV/chlorine: Efficiency, influencing factors, and products.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiujuan; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yi; Liu, Weili; Liu, Yulei

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the degradation of atrazine by the combination of UV and chlorine (UV/chlorine) due to the formation of radicals during chlorine photolysis was systematically investigated in terms of efficiency, factors that influence the degradation kinetics, as well as oxidation products. It was found that the degradation efficiency of atrazine was enhanced by UV/chlorine compared to UV or chlorine alone. The degradation efficiency of atrazine was favorable at a lower pH, but was inhibited in the presence of natural organic matters. Meanwhile, the initial chlorine dosage, alkalinity, and chloride barely influenced the degradation efficiency under neutral pH conditions. The degradation of atrazine by UV/chlorine was inhibited in real waters (i.e., surface water and ground water) compared to in deionized water but was still more effective than UV alone. The oxidation products of atrazine resulting from de-alkylation, dechlorination-hydroxylation, alkylic-hydroxylation, alkylic-oxidation, alkylic-hydroxylation-dehydration, deamination-hydroxylation, and dechlorination-hydrogenation in UV/chlorine process were detected, which were slightly different from those formed in UV/H2O2 (commonly used UV-based advanced oxidation process). Particularly, the yields of three primary transformation products (desethyl-atrazine (DEA), desisopropyl-atrazine (DIA), and desethyl-desisopropyl-atrazine (DEIA)) were comparatively quantified in these two processes. The different trend of them formed in UV/chlorine system (DEA:DIA≈4) compared to that formed in UV/H2O2 system (DEA:DIA≈1) could be ascribed to the different reaction reactivities and mechanisms between HO• and Cl• with atrazine.

  6. Hydrologic data for the Big Spring basin, Clayton County, Iowa, water year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Stream discharge, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were monitored continuously, and monthly water-quality samples were collected at a site on Roberts Creek and at Big Spring. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in 27 samples from Roberts Creek at the point where it leaves the study area ranged from 1.8 to 22 mg/L. Herbicide concentrations in 26 samples from the Roberts Creek site ranged from less than 0.10 μg/L (micrograms per liter) to 43 μg/L. Alachlor was detected in 42 percent of the samples; atrazine in 92 percent; and cyanazine and metolachlor in 35 percent of the samples. The total suspended-sediment load discharged in Roberts Creek was about 160,000 tons. At Big Spring, the ground-water discharge point, the daily mean specific conductance ranged from 414 to 788 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, the daily median pH ranged from 6.7 to 7.1, and the daily mean water temperature ranged from 8.5 to 13.0 degrees Celsius. Concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen in 23 samples ranged from 4.2 to 17 mg/L. The total measured suspended-sediment discharged from Big Spring was about 17,000 tons. Alachlor was detected in 26 percent; atrazine in 100 percent; cyanazine in 26 percent, and metolachlor in 9 percent of the samples. The maximum atrazine concentration was 16 μg/L.

  7. Stimulated rhizodegradation of atrazine by selected plant species.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Ho; Lerch, Robert N; Kremer, Robert J; Garrett, Harold E

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of vegetative buffer strips (VBS) in removing herbicides deposited from surface runoff is related to the ability of plant species to promote rapid herbicide degradation. A growth chamber study was conducted to compare C-atrazine (ATR) degradation profiles in soil rhizospheres from different forage grasses and correlate ATR degradation rates and profiles with microbial activity using three soil enzymes. The plant treatments included: (i) orchardgrass ( L.), (ii) smooth bromegrass ( Leyss.), (iii) tall fescue ( Schreb.), (iv) Illinois bundle flower (), (v) perennial ryegrass ( L.), (vi) switchgrass ( L.), and (vii) eastern gamagrass (). Soil without plants was used as the control. The results suggested that all plant species significantly enhanced ATR degradation by 84 to 260% compared with the control, but eastern gamagrass showed the highest capability for promoting biodegradation of ATR in the rhizosphere. More than 90% of ATR was degraded in the eastern gamagrass rhizosphere compared with 24% in the control. Dealkylation of atrazine strongly correlated with increased enzymatic activities of β-glucosidase (GLU) ( = 0.96), dehydrogenase (DHG) ( = 0.842), and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis ( = 0.702). The incorporation of forage species, particularly eastern gamagrass, into VBS designs will significantly promote the degradation of ATR transported into the VBS by surface runoff. Microbial parameters widely used for assessment of soil quality, e.g., DHG and GLU activities, are promising tools for evaluating the overall degradation potential of various vegetative buffer designs for ATR remediation.

  8. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics of atrazine on surface oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-Cai; Shan, Xiao-Quan; Zhou, Yi-Quan; Shen, Xiu-e; Huang, Hong-Lin; Khan, Shahamat U

    2009-09-30

    The adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic of atrazine on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) containing 0.85%, 2.16%, and 7.07% oxygen was studied. Kinetic analyses were performed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. The regression results showed that the pseudo-second-order law fit the adsorption kinetics. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that adsorption of atrazine on MWCNTs was spontaneous and exothermic. Standard free energy (DeltaG(0)) became less negative when the oxygen content of MWCNTs increased from 0.85% to 7.07% which is consistent with the low adsorption affinity of MWCNTs for atrazine.

  9. Estimating contributions of nitrate and herbicides from groundwater to headwater streams, northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott; Denver, Judith M.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater transport often complicates understanding of surface-water contamination. We estimated the regional flux of nitrate and selected herbicides from groundwater to nontidal headwater streams of the Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) based on late-winter or spring base-flow samples from 174 streams. Sampled streams were selected randomly, and flux estimates are based on resulting population estimates rather than on empirical models, which have been used previously for similar estimates. Base-flow flux in the estimated 8,834 headwater streams of the study area are an estimated 21,200 kg/day of nitrate (as N) and 5.83, 0.565, and 20.7 kg/day of alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor (and selected degradates), respectively. Base-flow flux of alachlor and metolachlor is <3% of the total base-flow flux of those compounds plus degradates. Base-flow flux of nitrate and herbicides as a percentage of applications is typically highest in well-drained areas and lowest in areas with abundant poor drainage and anoxic conditions. In Coastal Plain watersheds of Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, <2% of applied nitrogen reaches headwater streams as base flow. On the Delmarva Peninsula part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, however, more than 10% of such applications are transported through groundwater to streams, and base-flow nitrate flux represents 70% of total nitrogen flux in headwater streams.

  10. Sorption and mineralization of S-metolachlor and its ionic metabolites in soils and vadose zone solids: consequences on groundwater quality in an alluvial aquifer (Ain Plain, France).

    PubMed

    Baran, Nicole; Gourcy, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    This study characterizes the transfer of S-metolachlor (SMOC) and its metabolites, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOXA) to the alluvial aquifer. Sorption and mineralization of SMOC and its two ionic metabolites were characterized for cultivated soils and solids from the vadose (unsaturated) zone in the Ain Plain (France). Under sterile soil conditions, the absence of mineralization confirms the importance of biotic processes in SMOC degradation. There is some adsorption and mineralization of the parent molecule and its metabolites in the unsaturated zone, though less than in soils. For soils, the MESA adsorption constant is statistically higher than that of MOXA and the sorption constants of the two metabolites are significantly lower than that of SMOC. After 246 days, for soils, maximums of 26% of the SMOC, 30% of the MESA and 38% of the MOXA were mineralized. This partly explains the presence of these metabolites in the groundwater at concentrations generally higher than those of the parent molecule for MESA, although there is no statistical difference in the mineralization of the 3 molecules. The laboratory results make it possible to explain the field observations made during 27 months of groundwater quality monitoring (monthly sampling frequency). The evolution of both metabolite concentrations in the groundwater is directly related to recharge dynamics; there is a positive correlation between concentrations and the groundwater level. The observed lag of several months between the signals of the parent molecule and those of the metabolites is probably due to greater sorption of the parent molecule than of its metabolites and/or to degradation kinetics.

  11. Photocatalysis of S-metolachlor in aqueous suspension of magnetic cerium-doped mTiO2 core-shell under simulated solar light.

    PubMed

    Mermana, J; Sutthivaiyakit, P; Blaise, C; Gagné, F; Charnsethikul, S; Kidkhunthod, P; Sutthivaiyakit, S

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic cerium-doped mesoporous titanium dioxide was synthesized by combining sol-gel method and calcination using tetrabutanate and ammonium cerium nitrate as precursors and Pluronic P123 as a template coating on iron oxide covered with carbon in ethanol. The magnetic Ce-doped catalyst showed only anatase structure with a slight increase in lattice parameters compared to the undoped catalyst. The Ce LIII-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) spectra showed Ce(3+), and the cerium substitution doping into titanium dioxide was proposed. Degradation of S-metolachlor in aqueous magnetic photocatalyst suspension followed (pseudo) first-order kinetics in the presence of 0.5 g L(-1) of γ-Fe2O3@C@0.16 mol% Ce-mTiO2 with a half-life of 55.18 ± 1.63 min. Fifteen degradation products were identified, and their transformation routes of the photocatalytic degradation were then proposed. Complementary toxicity assessment of the treated S-metolachlor solution was undertaken with Environment Canada's algal microplate assay measuring growth inhibition (72-h IC50) in the freshwater chlorophyte Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This test method revealed a significant decrease in toxicity (1.7-fold reduction after 180 min of irradiation treatment), thereby confirming that the by-products formed following photocatalysis would be less harmful from an environmental point of view. Photocatalytic degradation of S-metolachlor thus appears to hold promise as a cost-effective treatment technology to diminish the presence of this herbicide in aquatic systems.

  12. Characterization of bacterial diversity in an atrazine degrading enrichment culture and degradation of atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret in industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anirban; Vasudevan, Venugopal; Nain, Lata; Singh, Neera

    2016-01-01

    An enrichment culture was used to study atrazine degradation in mineral salt medium (MSM) (T1), MSM+soil extract (1:1, v/v) (T2) and soil extract (T3). Results suggested that enrichment culture required soil extract to degrade atrazine, as after second sequential transfer only partial atrazine degradation was observed in T1 treatment while atrazine was completely degraded in T2 and T3 treatments even after fourth transfer. Culture independent polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique confirmed selective enrichment of genus Bacillus along with Pseudomonas and Burkholderia. Degradation of atrazine/metabolites in the industrial wastewater was studied at different initial concentrations of the contaminants [wastewater-water (v/v) ratio: T1, 1:9; T2, 2:8; T3, 3:7; T4, 5:5 and T5, undiluted effluent]. The initial concentrations of atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret ranged between 5.32 and 53.92 µg mL(-1), 265.6 and 1805.2 µg mL(-1) and 1.85 and 16.12 µg mL(-1), respectively. The enrichment culture was able to completely degrade atrazine, cyanuric acid and biuret up to T4 treatment, while no appreciable degradation of contaminants was observed in the undiluted effluent (T5). Inability of enrichment culture to degrade atrazine/metabolites might be due to high concentrations of cyanuric acid. Therefore, a separate study on cyanuric acid degradation suggested: (i) no appreciable cyanuric acid degradation with accumulation of an unidentified metabolite in the medium where cyanuric acid was supplemented as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen; (ii) partial cyanuric acid degradation with accumulation of unidentified metabolite in the medium containing additional nitrogen source; and (iii) complete cyanuric acid degradation in the medium supplemented with an additional carbon source. This unidentified metabolite observed during cyanuric acid degradation and also detected in the enrichment culture inoculated wastewater samples

  13. Phytotoxicity assessment of atrazine on growth and physiology of three emergent plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghai; Que, Xiaoe; Zheng, Ruilun; Pang, Zuo; Li, Cui; Xiao, Bo

    2015-07-01

    The emergent plants Acorus calamus, Lythrum salicaria, and Scirpus tabernaemontani were exposed to atrazine for 15, 30, 45, and 60 days in a hydroponic system. Effects were evaluated investigating plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, peroxidase (POD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Results showed that selected plants survived in culture solution with atrazine ≤8 mg L(-1), but relative growth rates decreased significantly in the first 15-day exposure. Chla content decreased, but MDA increased with increasing atrazine concentration. S. tabernaemontani was the most insensitive species, followed by A. calamus and L.salicaria. The growth indicators exhibited significant changes in the early stage of atrazine exposure; subsequently, the negative impacts weakened and disappeared. Plant growth may be more representative of emergent plant fitness than physiological endpoints in toxicity assessment of herbicides to emergent plants.

  14. Potiential role of the adrenal axis on the reproductive effects of Atrazine

    EPA Science Inventory

    We and others reported that atrazine (ATR) disrupts the regulation of the ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and the hormonal control of other reproductive functions in the rat. In addition, administration of ATR or the intermediate metabolite deisopropylatrazine (DIA) stim...

  15. Determination of growth rate depression of some green algae by atrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Hersh, C.M.; Crumpton, W.G.

    1987-12-01

    A common contaminant of surface waters of agricultural regions is the triazine herbicide, atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isoproplyamino-s-triazine). Atrazine effectively inhibits growth and photosynthesis of most plants, including freshwater algae. Both depression of growth rate and reduced yield have been used as parameters in studies of the effects of atrazine on algal growth. Considerable variation exists among algal toxicity methods despite attempts at standardization. Experimental endpoints range from percent inhibitions to EC50s. Algae from two different Iowa springs were the subjects of a study of naturally occurring atrazine tolerance. The authors report here the results of two aspects of that study: development of a quick method of assessing toxin effects on algal growth, and investigation of a ecologically meaningful endpoint for toxin-growth experiments.

  16. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells adjust the metabolism to maintain viability in response to atrazine stress.

    PubMed

    Esperanza, Marta; Seoane, Marta; Rioboo, Carmen; Herrero, Concepción; Cid, Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells were exposed to a sublethal concentration of the widespread herbicide atrazine for 3 and 24h. Physiological parameters related to cellular energy status, such as cellular activity and mitochondrial and cytoplasmic membrane potentials, monitored by flow cytometry, were altered in microalgal cells exposed to 0.25μM of atrazine. Transcriptomic analyses, carried out by RNA-Seq technique, displayed 12 differentially expressed genes between control cultures and atrazine-exposed cultures at both tested times. Many cellular processes were affected, but the most significant changes were observed in genes implicated in amino acid catabolism and respiratory cellular process. Obtained results suggest that photosynthesis inhibition by atrazine leads cells to get energy through a heterotrophic metabolism to maintain their viability.

  17. INFILTRATION OF ATRAZINE AND METABOLOTES FROM A STREAM TO AN ALLUVIAL AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The infiltration of atrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine from Walnut Creek, a tributary stream, to the alluvial valley aquifer along the South Skunk River in central Iowa occurred where the stream transects the river's flood plain. A preliminary estimate indicated t...

  18. Characterization of an atrazine molecularly imprinted polymer prepared by a cooling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royani, Idha; Widayani, Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2014-03-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for atrazine was successfully prepared. Atrazine molecules as templates were incorporated into the pre-polymerization solution containing a functional monomer (methacrylic acid), a cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), and an initiator (benzoyl peroxide). The placement of a tube containing the pre-polymerization solution into a freezer was done to replace nitrogen pouring into the pre-polymerization solution. The sensing characteristic of the obtained MIP was examined and it was found that the amount of atrazine bound to the cavities in the MIP increases with increasing the initial concentration of atrazine. From Scatchard plots, it was found that the equilibrium dissociation constant KD and the apparent maximum number of binding sites Bmax, which are written as (KD, Bmax), are (6.4 μM, 13.41 mmol/g) and (6.5 μM, 4.55 mmol/g) for the 10 and 30 mg of MIP, respectively.

  19. Pesticides in ground water in selected agricultural land-use areas and hydrogeologic settings in Pennsylvania, 2003-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loper, Connie A.; Breen, Kevin J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Clune, John W.

    2009-01-01

    absence of bacteria only for the 10 wells representing the Blue Ridge crystalline and Triassic Lowland siliciclastic setting. Results of Spearman’s rank test showed strong positive correlations in the Devonian-Silurian carbonate setting between 1) the number of pesticides above the MRLs and nitrate concentration, and 2) concentrations of atrazine and nitrate. Atrazine concentration and nitrate concentration also showed a statistically significant positive correlation in the Great Valley siliciclastic setting. An additional component of baseline monitoring was to evaluate changes in pesticide concentration in water from wells representing hydrogeologic settings most vulnerable to contamination from pesticides. In 2003, 16 wells originally sampled in the 1990s were resampled—4 each in the Appalachian Mountain carbonate, Triassic Lowland siliciclastic, Great Valley carbonate, and Piedmont carbonate settings. Nine of these wells, where pesticide concentrations from 1993 and 2003 were analyzed at the NWQL, were chosen for a paired-sample analysis using concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor. A statistically significant decrease in atrazine concentration was identified using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p = 0.004); significant temporal changes in metolachlor concentrations were not observed (p = 0.625). Monitoring in three areas of special ground-water protection, where selected pesticide concentrations in well water were at or above the PPGWS action levels, was done at wells BE 1370 (Berks County, Oley Township), BA 437 (Blair County, North Woodbury Township), and LN 1842 (Lancaster County, Earl Township). Co-occurrence of pesticide-degradation products with parent compounds was documented for the first time in ground-water samples collected from these three wells. Degradation products of atrazine, cyanazine, acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor were commonly at larger concentrations than the parent compound in the same water sample. Pesticide occurrence in water

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of atrazine using TiO{sub 2}-impregnated mesh

    SciTech Connect

    Kiserow, D.J.; Pugh, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis is investigated is a potential means for the disposal of pesticide rinsate waste at agrochemical dealerships. The focus is an evaluation of parameters that affect the rate and mechanism of atrazine degradation using formulated atrazine (ca. 20-25 ppm), TiO{sub 2} mesh, a high-pressure mercury-vapor lamp, and solar irradiation. The UV transmission of a variety of transparent materials was measured and atrazine photocatalysis was carried out using several materials as reactor covers. The pseudo-first-order rate constants were calculated and compared to determine which cover results in the most efficient atrazine degradation. A clear acrylic gave results nearly identical to Pyrex and was chosen for future photocatalytic experiments. UV intensity and photocatalytic rate were studied as a function of different numbers of layers of TiO{sub 2} mesh. It was found that five layers give the optimum rate of degradation without employing excess mesh. In order to assess the general effect of impurities present in water on the rate of atrazine degradation, water from five different sources was obtained and each sample was analyzed for purity and used to prepare aqueous atrazine for photocatalytic degradation. The results show that contaminants specific to different locations are likely to inhibit the rate of photocatalysis to different degrees. While working to maximize the rate of atrazine degradation, studies are concurrently in progress to elucidate the mechanism of degradation for the experimental conditions employed herein. Initial results indicate that the overall degradation of atrazine to the reported end product, cyanuric acid, occurs by two distinct pathways of similar importance.

  1. Chemical fate and transport of atrazine in soil gravel materials at agrichemical distribution facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.; Chou, S.-F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The gravel commonly used to cover parking lots and roadways at retail agrichemical facilities may contain relatively large concentrations of pesticides that resulted from past management problems. These pesticides may threaten groundwater quality. Previous studies, however, suggested that the pesticides had not moved from the gravel in several sample profiles. Excavations at a closed facility revealed tremendous variability in pesticide distribution within the site. Pesticides were present below the gravel in two profiles, but the mechanism(s) for their movement were not clear. The objectives of this study were to investigate how the physical and chemical properties of the gravel influence the environmental fate of atrazine. All of the gravel samples collected and characterized contained atrazine and sufficient organic C to adsorb significant amounts of atrazine, thus retarding its movement through the gravel. Laboratory column leaching experiments, however, suggested that much of the atrazine should leach from the gravel within a year or two. A field-scale test plot was constructed to study how atrazine moves through the gravel under controlled conditions. Atrazine was "spilled" in the test plot. Atrazine moved from the gravel both vertically and horizontally. It appears that formulated product spilled on gravel will leach. A single discrete spill can give rise to phantom spills whose occurrence and distribution is not related to any specific pesticide-management practice. The apparent lack of atrazine leaching from gravel appeared to be a transient phenomenon and/or the result of sampling limitations in previous studies. The contaminated gravel clearly poses a risk to groundwater quality.

  2. Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: Consistent effects across vertebrate classes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Tyrone B.; Anderson, Lloyd L.; Beasley, Val R.; de Solla, Shane R.; Iguchi, Taisen; Ingraham, Holly; Kestemont, Patrick; Kniewald, Jasna; Kniewald, Zlatko; Langlois, Valerie S.; Luque, Enrique H.; McCoy, Krista A.; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Oka, Tomohiro; Oliveira, Cleida A.; Orton, Frances; Ruby, Sylvia; Suzawa, Miyuki; Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Willingham, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground water, surface water, and precipitation. Atrazine is also an endocrine disruptor that, among other effects, alters male reproductive tissues when animals are exposed during development. Here, we apply the nine so-called “Hill criteria” (Strength, Consistency, Specificity, Temporality, Biological Gradient, Plausibility, Coherence, Experiment, and Analogy) for establishing cause–effect relationships to examine the evidence for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes the gonads of male vertebrates. We present experimental evidence that the effects of atrazine on male development are consistent across all vertebrate classes examined and we present a state of the art summary of the mechanisms by which atrazine acts as an endocrine disruptor to produce these effects. Atrazine demasculinizes male gonads producing testicular lesions associated with reduced germ cell numbers in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, and induces partial and/or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These effects are strong (statistically significant), consistent across vertebrate classes, and specific. Reductions in androgen levels and the induction of estrogen synthesis – demonstrated in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals – represent plausible and coherent mechanisms that explain these effects. Biological gradients are observed in several of the cited studies, although threshold doses and patterns vary among species. Given that the effects on the male gonads described in all of these experimental studies occurred only after atrazine exposure, temporality is also met here. Thus the case for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male vertebrates meets all nine of the “Hill criteria”. PMID:21419222

  3. Atrazine exposure causes mitochondrial toxicity in liver and muscle cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Gandhi, Deepa; Devi, S. Saravana; Sakharkar, Amul; Kapley, Atya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Chronic exposure to atrazine and other pesticides is reported to cause metabolic disorders, yet information on effects of atrazine on expression of genes relevant to mitochondrial function is largely missing. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the expression of a battery of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in human liver (HepG2) and rat muscle (L6) cell lines due to short-term atrazine exposure. Materials and Methods: We have determined the EC50 values of atrazine for cytotoxicity and mitochondrial toxicity (mitotoxicity) in terms of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content in HepG2 and L6 cells. Further, the mRNA expression of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The EC50 value of atrazine for mitotoxicity in HepG2 and L6 cells was found to be about 0.162 and 0.089 mM, respectively. Mitochondrial toxicity was indicated by reduction in ATP content following atrazine exposure. Atrazine exposure resulted in down-regulation of many OXPHOS subunits expression and affected biogenesis factors’ expression. Most prominently, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expressions were up-regulated in HepG2 cells, whereas SIRT3 expression was alleviated in L6 cells, without significant changes in SOD levels. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and SIRT1 expression were significantly down-regulated in both cell lines. Conclusion: Results suggest that TFAM and SIRT1 could be involved in atrazine-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and further studies can be taken up to understand the mechanism of mitochondrial toxicity. Further study can also be taken up to explore the possibility of target genes as biomarkers of pesticide toxicity. PMID:27114639

  4. Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: consistent effects across vertebrate classes.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Tyrone B; Anderson, Lloyd L; Beasley, Val R; de Solla, Shane R; Iguchi, Taisen; Ingraham, Holly; Kestemont, Patrick; Kniewald, Jasna; Kniewald, Zlatko; Langlois, Valerie S; Luque, Enrique H; McCoy, Krista A; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Oka, Tomohiro; Oliveira, Cleida A; Orton, Frances; Ruby, Sylvia; Suzawa, Miyuki; Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E; Trudeau, Vance L; Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Willingham, Emily

    2011-10-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground water, surface water, and precipitation. Atrazine is also an endocrine disruptor that, among other effects, alters male reproductive tissues when animals are exposed during development. Here, we apply the nine so-called "Hill criteria" (Strength, Consistency, Specificity, Temporality, Biological Gradient, Plausibility, Coherence, Experiment, and Analogy) for establishing cause-effect relationships to examine the evidence for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes the gonads of male vertebrates. We present experimental evidence that the effects of atrazine on male development are consistent across all vertebrate classes examined and we present a state of the art summary of the mechanisms by which atrazine acts as an endocrine disruptor to produce these effects. Atrazine demasculinizes male gonads producing testicular lesions associated with reduced germ cell numbers in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, and induces partial and/or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These effects are strong (statistically significant), consistent across vertebrate classes, and specific. Reductions in androgen levels and the induction of estrogen synthesis - demonstrated in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals - represent plausible and coherent mechanisms that explain these effects. Biological gradients are observed in several of the cited studies, although threshold doses and patterns vary among species. Given that the effects on the male gonads described in all of these experimental studies occurred only after atrazine exposure, temporality is also met here. Thus the case for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male vertebrates meets all nine of the "Hill criteria".

  5. Menstrual cycle characteristics and reproductive hormone levels in women exposed to atrazine in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Cragin, Lori A; Kesner, James S; Bachand, Annette M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Meadows, Juliana W; Krieg, Edward F; Reif, John S

    2011-11-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and a wide-spread groundwater contaminant. Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence exists that atrazine disrupts reproductive health and hormone secretion. We examined the relationship between exposure to atrazine in drinking water and menstrual cycle function including reproductive hormone levels. Women 18-40 years old residing in agricultural communities where atrazine is used extensively (Illinois) and sparingly (Vermont) answered a questionnaire (n=102), maintained menstrual cycle diaries (n=67), and provided daily urine samples for analyses of luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol and progesterone metabolites (n=35). Markers of exposures included state of residence, atrazine and chlorotriazine concentrations in tap water, municipal water and urine, and estimated dose from water consumption. Women who lived in Illinois were more likely to report menstrual cycle length irregularity (odds ratio (OR)=4.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58-13.95) and more than 6 weeks between periods (OR=6.16; 95% CI: 1.29-29.38) than those who lived in Vermont. Consumption of >2 cups of unfiltered Illinois water daily was associated with increased risk of irregular periods (OR=5.73; 95% CI: 1.58-20.77). Estimated "dose" of atrazine and chlorotriazine from tap water was inversely related to mean mid-luteal estradiol metabolite. Atrazine "dose" from municipal concentrations was directly related to follicular phase length and inversely related to mean mid-luteal progesterone metabolite levels. We present preliminary evidence that atrazine exposure, at levels below the US EPA MCL, is associated with increased menstrual cycle irregularity, longer follicular phases, and decreased levels of menstrual cycle endocrine biomarkers of infertile ovulatory cycles.

  6. Transgenic rice plants expressing human CYP1A1 remediate the triazine herbicides atrazine and simazine.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Sakiko; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ohkawa, Yasunobu

    2005-11-02

    The human cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 gene was introduced into rice plants (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare). One-month-old CYP1A1 plants grown in soil clearly showed a healthy growth and tolerance to 8.8 microM atrazine and 50 microM simazine, but nontransgenic plants were completely killed by the herbicides. Although transgenic and nontransgenic plants metabolized the two herbicides into the same sets of compounds, CYP1A1 plants metabolized atrazine and simazine more rapidly than did control plants. In small-scale experiments, residual amounts of atrazine and simazine in the culture medium of CYP1A1 plants were 43.4 and 12.3% of those in control medium; those of nontransgenic Nipponbare were 68.3 and 57.2%, respectively. When cultivated in soil with 2.95 microM atrazine and 3.15 microM simazine for 25 days, CYP1A1 plants eliminated 1.3 times more atrazine and 1.4 times more simazine from the soil than did control plants. Thus, CYP1A1 rice plants make it possible to remove atrazine and simazine more rapidly from the culture medium and soil than can nontransgenic Nipponbare.

  7. Microwave assisted rapid and complete degradation of atrazine using TiO(2) nanotube photocatalyst suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zhanqi, Gao; Shaogui, Yang; Na, Ta; Cheng, Sun

    2007-07-16

    A technology, microwave-assisted photocatalysis on TiO(2) nanotubes, which can be applied to degrade atrazine rapidly and completely, was investigated. TiO(2) nanotubes were prepared, and confirmed by XRD, TEM and ESR. Microwave-assisted photocatalytic degradation of atrazine in aqueous solution was investigated. The result indicates that atrazine is completely degraded in 5min and the mineralization efficiency is 98.5% in 20min, which is obviously more efficient than that by the traditional photocatalytic degradation methods. It may be attributed to the intense UV radiation generated by electrodeless discharge lamps under microwave irradiation, the increased number of OH, additional defect sites on TiO(2) under the irradiation of microwave and larger specific surface area of TiO(2) nanotubes which could adsorb more organic substances to degrade than TiO(2) nanoparticles. Along with the degradation of atrazine, the concentrations of Cl(-) and NO(3)(-) increase gradually. In 20min [Cl(-)] and [NO(3)(-)] are 3, 27.8mg/L, respectively, which are close to their stoichiometric values. The major intermediates of atrazine were identified by HPLC/MS and possible degradation pathways of atrazine in microwave-assisted photocatalysis on TiO(2) nanotubes were proposed.

  8. Plastic antibody based surface plasmon resonance nanosensors for selective atrazine detection.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Erkut; Özgür, Erdoğan; Bereli, Nilay; Türkmen, Deniz; Denizli, Adil

    2017-04-01

    This study reports a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based affinity sensor system with the use of molecular imprinted nanoparticles (plastic antibodies) to enhance the pesticide detection. Molecular imprinting based affinity sensor is prepared by the attachment of atrazine (chosen as model pesticide) imprinted nanoparticles onto the gold surface of SPR chip. Recognition element of the affinity sensor is polymerizable form of aspartic acid. The imprinted nanoparticles were characterized via FTIR and zeta-sizer measurements. SPR sensors are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and contact angle measurements. The imprinted nanoparticles showed more sensitivity to atrazine than the non-imprinted ones. Different concentrations of atrazine solutions are applied to SPR system to determine the adsorption kinetics. Langmuir adsorption model is found as the most suitable model for this affinity nanosensor system. In order to show the selectivity of the atrazine-imprinted nanoparticles, competitive adsorption of atrazine, simazine and amitrole is investigated. The results showed that the imprinted nanosensor has high selectivity and sensitivity for atrazine.

  9. Effects of atrazine exposure on male reproductive performance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Andrea; Jocque, Harper; Sirot, Laura K.; Fiumera, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine is a commonly utilized herbicide to control broadleaf weeds in the agricultural setting. It can, however, have negative effects on male reproductive performance in a variety of vertebrate species. Much less is known, however, about the effects of atrazine on invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the effects of several different concentrations of larval atrazine exposure on measures of reproductive performance in adult male Drosophila melanogaster. Atrazine exposure had significant effects on a male’s mating ability and the number of eggs his partner lays when he was successful at mating. Exposed males also sired a smaller proportion of the offspring under competitive conditions when they were the first male to mate to a doubly mated female. Atrazine exposure had no measurable effect on a male’s ability to prevent a mated female from mating to another male or on the proportion of offspring sired when the exposed males were the second male to mate. Exposure upregulated expression of one male reproductive gene, ovulin, but had no effect on expression of another, sex peptide. Exposed males produced and transferred more sex peptide protein to the female during mating but ovulin protein levels were not affected. In general, we observed non-monotonic responses such that the intermediate exposure levels showed the largest reduction in male reproductive performance. This study suggests that atrazine exposure affects male reproductive performance in insects and future studies should aim to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the fitness effects of exposure. PMID:25445663

  10. Atrazine and increased male production by Daphnia: the importance of combining field and laboratory approaches.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, James A; González, María J; Oris, James T; Kovach, Mathew J; Mace, Kimberly M

    2008-11-01

    Atrazine is one of the most commonly applied herbicides in North America and annually pulses through many midwestern stream and reservoir systems. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the ability of atrazine to stimulate male production by Daphnia, an effect hypothesized to lower population growth rates during a period of intense larval fish predation. In the present study, populations of Daphnia parvula and Daphnia ambigua exhibited high proportions of males but no ephippial females when atrazine pulsed into Acton Lake, a small midwestern reservoir. Field results thus supported the hypothesis of excess male production by Daphnia during the spring herbicide pulse. In laboratory studies, dose-response studies, and population-level assays revealed no effect of atrazine on male production or population growth rate of multiple clones differing in reproductive strategy and exposure history. However, D. parvula increased male production in response to an endogenous crustacean hormone (methyl farnesoate). Excess male production observed in the field population was therefore not likely caused by atrazine, although we cannot rule out the possibility of interactive effects of atrazine and some other stressor. Apparent signs of endocrine disruption in the presence of high concentrations of a suspected agent should be viewed with caution in the absence of parallel laboratory studies involving individuals from the populations of interest.

  11. Atrazine Contamination in Water and the Impact on Amphibian Populations: A Bioassay That Measures Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, T. B.

    2001-12-01

    In recent laboratory studies, we showed that atrazine, a common herbicide, can inhibit metamorphosis, produce hermaphrodites, and inhibit male development in amphibians. In part, these effects are due to a decrease in androgen levels. These effects occur at ecologically relevant low doses (0.1 ppb), and the effective levels are below the current drinking level standard and below contaminant levels found even in rainfall in some areas. Thus, the impact of this widespread compound on free-ranging amphibians is a concern. We undertook a large-scale study to examine atrazine levels in a variety of habitats (temporary pools, rivers, lakes and ponds, and field runoff) across the US where atrazine is used and areas that report no atrazine use. Also, we collected amphibians at each site to examine them for developmental abnormalities. These ongoing studies will help determine the extent of atrazine contamination and its potential impact on amphibian populations. The concern for atrazine's impact is increased, because the mechanism through which the compound produces this effect (inhibition of androgen production) is commonly observed in fish, reptiles and mammals in addition to amphibians, although amphibians appear to sensitive at much lower doses. Thus, effects on amphibians may indicate a much broader impact.

  12. Effects of atrazine exposure on male reproductive performance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Andrea; Jocque, Harper; Sirot, Laura K; Fiumera, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine is a commonly utilized herbicide to control broadleaf weeds in the agricultural setting. It can, however, have negative effects on male reproductive performance in a variety of vertebrate species. Much less is known, however, about the effects of atrazine on invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the effects of several different concentrations of larval atrazine exposure on measures of reproductive performance in adult male Drosophila melanogaster. Atrazine exposure had significant effects on a male's mating ability and the number of eggs his partner laid when he was successful at mating. Exposed males also sired a smaller proportion of the offspring under competitive conditions when they were the first male to mate to a doubly mated female. Atrazine exposure had no measurable effect on a male's ability to prevent a mated female from mating to another male or on the proportion of offspring sired when the exposed males were the second male to mate. Exposure upregulated expression of one male reproductive gene, ovulin, but had no effect on expression of another, sex peptide. Exposed males produced and transferred more sex peptide protein to the female during mating but ovulin protein levels were not affected. In general, we observed non-monotonic responses such that the intermediate exposure levels showed the largest reduction in male reproductive performance. This study suggests that atrazine exposure affects male reproductive performance in insects and future studies should aim to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the fitness effects of exposure.

  13. Determining in situ periphyton community responses to nutrient and atrazine gradients via pigment analysis.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Rebecca L; Boutin, Céline; Pick, Frances R

    2015-05-15

    Agrochemicals, including fertilizers and herbicides, are significant contributors of non-point source pollution to surface waters and have the potential to negatively affect periphyton. We characterized periphyton communities using pigment markers to assess the effects of nutrient enrichment and the herbicide atrazine with in situ experimental manipulations and by examining changes in community structure along existing agrochemical gradients. In 2008, the addition of nutrients (20 mg/L nitrate and 1.25 mg/L reactive phosphate), atrazine (20 μg/L) and a combination of both nutrients and atrazine had no significant effect on periphyton biomass or community structure in a stream periphytometer experiment. In 2009, similar experiments with higher concentrations of atrazine (200 μg/L) at two stream sites led to some minor effects. In contrast, at the watershed scale (2010) periphyton biomass (mg/m(2) chlorophyll a) increased significantly along correlated gradients of nitrate and atrazine but no direct effects of reactive phosphate were observed. Across the watershed, the average periphyton community was composed of Bacillariophyceae (60.9%), Chlorophyceae (28.1%), Cryptophyceae (6.9%) and Euglenophyceae (4.1%), with the Bacillariophyceae associated with high turbidity and the Chlorophyceae with nitrate enrichment. Overall, effects of nitrate on periphyton biomass and community structure superseded effects of reactive phosphate and atrazine.

  14. Degradation of atrazine in two soils as a function of concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, J.; Becker, R.L.; Buhler, D.D.; Koskinen, W.C.

    1996-09-01

    Dissipation of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) in a Webster clay loam soil (fine loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Haplaquoll), and Estherville sandy loam (sandy, mixed, mesic typic Hapludoll) was determined over a concentration range of 5 to 5000 mg kg{sup -1} in field and laboratory experiments. Over the first 6 mo in the clay loam soil, the persistance of atrazine (based on percent of applied) was greater for the high-rate treatments than the low-rate treatments. However, in the laboratory, there was no effect of concentration on dissipation; the amount of atrazine degraded increased proportionally with the increase of concentration. In the sandy loam, persistance was greater at high concentration in both field and laboratory studies. Mineralization was the most important pathway for the dissipation of atrazine at all concentrations in the clay loam soil and from 5 to 500 mg kg{sup -1} may have increased soil microbial growth and activity and thus increased the degradation of atrazine based on the increase in soil respiration in the clay loam soil. Degradation pathways in both soils apparently were not influenced by concentration. Ring cleavage and hydrolysis were the major metabolic pathways in both soils, with dealkylation of less importance. Addition of a dairy manure amendment increased the rate of atrazine mineralization, while corn mean decreased and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} amendments prevented mineralization. 41 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Kinetics of aerobic and anaerobic biomineralization of atrazine in surface and subsurface agricultural soils in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Olli H; Deshmukh, Vaidehi; Özkaya, Bestamin; Radosevich, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess atrazine mineralization in surface and subsurface samples retrieved from vertical cores of agricultural soils from two farm sites in Ohio. The Defiance site (NW-Ohio) was on soybean-corn rotation and Piketon (S-Ohio) was on continuous corn cultivation. Both sites had a history of atrazine application for at least a couple of decades. The clay fraction increased at the Defiance site and the organic matter and total N content decreased with depth at both sites. Mineralization of atrazine was assessed by measurement of (14)CO2 during incubation of soil samples with [U-ring-(14)C]-atrazine. Abiotic mineralization was negligible in all soil samples. Aerobic mineralization rate constants declined and the corresponding half-lives increased with depth at the Defiance site. Anaerobic mineralization (supplemented with nitrate) was mostly below the detection at the Defiance site. In Piketon samples, the kinetic parameters of aerobic and anaerobic biomineralization of atrazine displayed considerable scatter among replicate cores and duplicate biometers. In general, this study concludes that data especially for anaerobic biomineralization of atrazine can be more variable as compared to aerobic conditions and cannot be extrapolated from one agricultural site to another.

  16. Combined effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on susceptibility of the tiger salamander to Ambystoma tigrinum virus.

    PubMed

    Kerby, Jacob L; Storfer, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Several hypotheses have been examined as potential causes of global amphibian declines, including emerging infectious diseases and environmental contaminants. Although these factors are typically studied separately, animals are generally exposed to both stressors simultaneously. We examined the effects of the herbicide atrazine and the insecticide chlorpyrifos on the susceptibility of tiger salamander larvae, Ambystoma tigrinum, to a viral pathogen, Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV). Environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine (0, 20, 200 microg/L) and chlorpyrifos (0, 2, 20, 200 microg/L) were used along with ATV in a fully factorial experimental design whereby individually housed, 4-week-old larvae were exposed for 2 weeks. Atrazine alone was not lethal to larvae, and chlorpyrifos alone was lethal only at the highest concentration. When combined with ATV, chlorpyrifos increased susceptibility to viral infection and resulted in increased larval mortality. A significant interactive effect between atrazine and ATV was detected. Atrazine treatments slightly decreased survival in virus-exposed treatments, yet slightly increased survival in the virus-free treatments. These findings corroborate earlier research on the impacts of atrazine, in particular, on disease susceptibility, but exhibit greater effects (i.e., reduced survival) when younger larvae were examined. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate decreases in amphibian survival with the combination of pesticide and a viral disease. Further examination of these multiple stressors can provide key insights into potential significance of environmental cofactors, such as pesticides, in disease dynamics.

  17. Leaching and persistence of ametryn and atrazine in red-yellow latosol.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Rodrigo T; de Abreu, Adley Bergson G; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana L R; Neves, Antônio A; da Silva, Antônio A

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the mobility and persistence of atrazine and ametryn in red-yellow latosols using polyvinyl chloride columns with a diameter of 100 mm and a height of 15 cm. The assays simulated 60-mm rainfall events at 10-day intervals for 70 days. The persistence and leaching were evaluated for these two herbicides. The analytes obtained from the samples were quantified by gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. Compared with ametryn, atrazine showed a greater potential to reach depths below 15 cm over 30 days of simulated rain. Ametryn, however, showed greater persistence in soil at 70 days after application. The persistence of atrazine and ametryn in soil under sunlight was 10 and 144 days respectively. Atrazine was more susceptible to sunlight than ametryn because sunlight favored atrazine degradation in hydroxyatrazine. The results indicate that in red-yellow latosol, atrazine has a high leaching potential in short term, but that ametryn is more persistent and has a high leaching potential in long term.

  18. Response of larval Xenopus laevis to atrazine: assessment of growth, metamorphosis, and gonadal and laryngeal morphology.

    PubMed

    Carr, James A; Gentles, Angie; Smith, Ernest E; Goleman, Wanda L; Urquidi, Lina J; Thuett, Kerry; Kendall, Ronald J; Giesy, John P; Gross, Tim S; Solomon, Keith R; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2003-02-01

    Larval Xenopus laevis were exposed to one of four concentrations of atrazine (0, 1, 10, or 25 microg/L, 11 replicate tanks per treatment, 60-65 larvae per replicate) dissolved in an artificial pond water (frog embryo teratogenesis assay- Xenopus [FETAX]) medium beginning 48 h after hatching until the completion of metamorphosis. Separate groups of larvae (six replicate tanks per treatment, 60-65 larvae per replicate) were exposed to estradiol (100 microg/L), dihydrotestosterone (100 microg/L), or ethanol vehicle control dissolved in FETAX medium. None of the treatments affected posthatch mortality, larval growth, or metamorphosis. There were no treatment effects on sex ratios except for estradiol, which produced a greater percentage of female offspring. Exposure to either estradiol or 25 microg atrazine/L increased the incidence of intersex animals based on assessment of gonadal morphology. Atrazine did not reduce the size of the laryngeal dilator muscle, a sexually dimorphic muscle in this species. We conclude that environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine do not influence metamorphosis or sex ratios and do not inhibit sexually dimorphic larynx growth in X. laevis. The incidence of atrazine-induced intersex animals was small (<5%) and occurred only at the greatest concentration of atrazine tested, a concentration that is rarely observed in surface waters in the United States.

  19. Treatment of atrazine in nursery irrigation runoff by a constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Runes, Heather B; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Moore, James A; Bottomley, Peter J; Wilson, Bruce D

    2003-02-01

    To investigate the treatment capability of a surface flow wetland at a container nursery near Portland, Oregon, atrazine was introduced during simulated runoff events. Treatment efficiency was evaluated as the percent atrazine recovered (as percent of applied) in the water column at the wetland's outlet. Atrazine treatment efficiency at the outlet of the constructed wetland during a 7-d period ranged from 18-24% in 1998 (experiments 1-3) and 16-17% in 1999 (experiments 4 and 5). Changes in total flow, or frequency and intensity of runoff events did not affect treatment. For experiment 6 in 1999, where the amount, frequency, and duration of runoff events exceeded all other experiments, treatment was compromised. For all experiments, deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) accounted for 13-21% of the initial application. Hydroxyatrazine (HA) was rarely detected in the water. Organic carbon adsorption coefficients (Koc) were determined from batch equilibrium sorption isotherms with wetland sediment, and they decreased in the order of HA > DIA > atrazine > DEA. Static water-sediment column experiments indicated that sorption is an important mechanism for atrazine loss from water passing through the constructed wetland. The results of the MPN assay indicated the existence in the wetland of a low-density population of microorganisms with the potential to mineralize atrazine's ethyl side chain.

  20. Effects of atrazine on growth and sex differentiation, in juveniles of the freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Mac Loughlin, Camila; Canosa, Ivana S; Silveyra, Gabriela R; López Greco, Laura S; Rodríguez, Enrique M

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the herbicide atrazine was assayed in early juveniles of the redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Four cohorts of juveniles (a total of 280 animals) were exposed for 4 wk to each one of three atrazine concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 2.5mg/L) or a control (0mg/L), from a commercial formulation having 90% of active principle. At the end of the exposure, no significant (p>0.05) differences in either mortality or molting were noted. However, the weight gain and the protein content of abdominal muscle decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the highest atrazine concentration as compared to control, indicating that atrazine acted as a relevant stressor, although at a concentration higher than those reported in the environment. Besides, the proportion of females increased progressively as the atrazine concentration increases, being significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of controls at the highest concentration assayed. Both macroscopic and histological analysis revealed a normal architecture of gonopores and gonads in both control and exposed animals. The obtained results strongly suggest that atrazine could be causing an endocrine disruption on the hormonal system responsible for the sexual differentiation of the studied species, increasing the proportion of female proportion without disturbing the gonad structure.

  1. Response of phytoplankton community to low-dose atrazine exposure combined with phosphorus fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Pannard, Alexandrine; Le Rouzic, Bertrand; Binet, Françoise

    2009-07-01

    The effects of atrazine on a controlled phytoplankton community derived from a natural freshwater wetland exposed to low doses of this photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide were examined. The community was exposed for 7 weeks to doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 microg L(-1) atrazine, combined with changes in nutrient concentration, and the photosynthetic activity, biomass, and community structure were noted during the experiment. Responses of the phytoplankton community were examined in terms of photosynthetic activity, biomass, and community structure. Significant effects of atrazine on the phytoplankton assemblage, in terms of primary production and community structure, were highlighted, even at doses as low as 1 and 0.1 microg L(-1), when associated with phosphorus fluctuations. The most abundant Chlorophyceae decreased in concentration with increasing atrazine dose, whereas cyanobacteria were more tolerant to atrazine, particularly with increased nutrient supply. The subinhibitory doses of atrazine used in the present study confirmed the higher sensitivity of long-term exposure of multispecies assemblages under resource competition. Our study supports the emerging hypothesis that the increasing prevalence of cyanobacterial blooms in European aquatic systems may result from a combination of unbalanced nutrient enrichment and selective pressures from multiple toxicants.

  2. Movement of atrazine and deethylatrazine through a midwestern reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fallon, J.D.; Tierney, D.P.; Thurman, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional visualization of atrazine and deethylatrazine in a reservoir was determined by five "snapshots" over a one-year period using immunoassay analyses, confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and visualized with a three-dimensional computer program. The surveys were conducted in Perry Lake in Kansas and showed that spring runoff laden with triazine herbicides entered the reservoir and did not mix immediately. Concentrations varied threefold between the inlet and the public water supply intakes located at the opposite end of the reservoir. The concentration range in the outflow varied much less than the concentration in the reservoir because of mixing throughout the season near the dam and outflow. A major conclusion from the study was that multiple analyses by a low-cost immunoassay technique coupled with computer visualization software gave a good three-dimensional view of the mass of herbicide present in a drinking water reservoir.

  3. Kinetics of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine, and deethylatrazine soil biodecomposers.

    PubMed

    la Cecilia, Daniele; Maggi, Federico

    2016-12-01

    Twenty-two experimental sets were used to determine the biodecomposition parameters of atrazine (ATZ), deisopropylatrazine (DIATZ), and deethylatrazine (DEATZ) by inverse solution of Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetic equations. The averaged maximum specific growth rate (μ), Michaelis-Menten half-saturation concentration (K), and biomass yield (Y) ranged between 2.00 × 10(-7) and 4.62 × 10(-5) 1/s, 3.43 × 10(-6) and 1.39 × 10(1) mol/L, and 1.20 × 10(2) and 2.98 × 10(5) mg-wet-Bio/mol-Subs, respectively. Parameters grouped by reaction pathway appeared clustered by aerobic and anaerobic catabolic breakdown, and were poorly correlated between each other (R ranging from -0.27 to 0.63, p ≥ 0.05). The tested bacterial strains decomposed ATZ, DIATZ, and DEATZ relatively rapidly in laboratory conditions, with an half-life (t1/2) ranging between 3 and 6 days. Numerical modeling showed that ATZ, DIATZ, and DEATZ half-lives were particularly sensitive to their initial concentration and the initial microbial biomass concentration. This study suggests that these bacterial strains can effectively be used or enhanced for bioremediation of agricultural soils where atrazine has been applied as long as these bacteria already coexist in or can integrate with the local soil microbial population at a given location.

  4. Biochemical characterization of metabolism-based atrazine resistance in Amaranthus tuberculatus and identification of an expressed GST associated with resistance.

    PubMed

    Evans, Anton F; O'Brien, Sarah R; Ma, Rong; Hager, Aaron G; Riggins, Chance W; Lambert, Kris N; Riechers, Dean E

    2017-02-20

    Rapid detoxification of atrazine in naturally tolerant crops such as maize (Zea mays) and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) results from glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. In previous research, two atrazine-resistant waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) populations from Illinois, U.S.A. (designated ACR and MCR) displayed rapid formation of atrazine-glutathione (GSH) conjugates, implicating elevated rates of metabolism as the resistance mechanism. Our main objective was to utilize protein purification combined with qualitative proteomics to investigate the hypothesis that enhanced atrazine detoxification, catalyzed by distinct GSTs, confers resistance in ACR and MCR. Additionally, candidate AtuGST expression was analyzed in an F2 population segregating for atrazine resistance. ACR and MCR showed higher specific activities towards atrazine in partially purified ammonium sulfate and GSH affinity-purified fractions compared to an atrazine-sensitive population (WCS). One-dimensional electrophoresis of these fractions displayed an approximate 26-kDa band, typical of GST subunits. Several phi- and tau-class GSTs were identified by LC-MS/MS from each population, based on peptide similarity with GSTs from Arabidopsis. Elevated constitutive expression of one phi-class GST, named AtuGSTF2, correlated strongly with atrazine resistance in ACR and MCR and segregating F2 population. These results indicate that AtuGSTF2 may be linked to a metabolic mechanism that confers atrazine resistance in ACR and MCR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Atrazine Triggers DNA Damage Response and Induces DNA Double-Strand Breaks in MCF-10A Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Ning, Jie; Wang, Michael; Song, Qisheng

    2015-06-24

    Atrazine, a pre-emergent herbicide in the chloro-s-triazine family, has been widely used in crop lands and often detected in agriculture watersheds, which is considered as a potential threat to human health. Although atrazine and its metabolites showed an elevated incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, no molecular evidence was found relevant to its carcinogenesis in humans. This study aims to determine whether atrazine could induce the expression of DNA damage response-related proteins in normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and to examine the cytotoxicity of atrazine at a molecular level. Our results indicate that a short-term exposure of MCF-10A to an environmentally-detectable concentration of atrazine (0.1 µg/mL) significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) and phosphorylated Rad17 in the cells. Atrazine treatment increased H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) and the formation of γH2AX foci in the nuclei of MCF-10A cells. Atrazine also sequentially elevated DNA damage checkpoint proteins of ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR), ATRIP and phospho-Chk1, suggesting that atrazine could induce DNA double-strand breaks and trigger the DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway in MCF-10A cells. Further investigations are needed to determine whether atrazine-triggered DNA double-strand breaks and DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway occur in vivo.

  6. Degradation of atrazine and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by mycorrhizal fungi at three nitrogen concentrations in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, P.K.; Crawford, D.L. ); Entry, J.A. )

    1993-08-01

    Atrazine is a chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon with an extremely low rated of degradation, especially in cold, dry climates. Biodegradation of the herbicide 2,4-D is known to occur in warm, moist soil, but it is dependent on environmental conditions and soil characteristics. This study examines the biodegradation of Atrazine and 2,4-D under various physiological conditions. Both mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal fungi were used. Phanerochaete chrysosporium was the best 2,4-D-degrading organism, but it was not able to mineralize atrazine. The ericoid mycorrhizal fungi degraded atrazine most effectively. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Atrazine removal from water by polycation-clay composites: effect of dissolved organic matter and comparison to activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zadaka, Dikla; Nir, Shlomo; Radian, Adi; Mishael, Yael G

    2009-02-01

    Atrazine removal from water by two polycations pre-adsorbed on montmorillonite was studied. Batch experiments demonstrated that the most suitable composite poly (4-vinylpyridine-co-styrene)-montmorillonite (PVP-co-S90%-mont.) removed 90-99% of atrazine (0.5-28 ppm) within 20-40 min at 0.367% w/w. Calculations employing Langmuir's equation could simulate and predict the kinetics and final extents of atrazine adsorption. Column filter experiments (columns 20x1.6 cm) which included 2g of the PVP-co-S90%-mont. composite mixed with excess sand removed 93-96% of atrazine (800 ppb) for the first 800 pore volumes, whereas the same amount of granular activated carbon (GAC) removed 83-75%. In the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM; 3.7 ppm) the efficiency of the GAC filter to remove atrazine decreased significantly (68-52% removal), whereas the corresponding efficiency of the PVP-co-S90%-mont. filter was only slightly influenced by DOM. At lower atrazine concentration (7 ppb) the PVP-co-S90%-mont. filter reduced even after 3000 pore volumes the emerging atrazine concentration below 3 ppb (USEPA standard). In the case of the GAC filter the emerging atrazine concentration was between 2.4 and 5.3 microg/L even for the first 100 pore volumes. Thus, the PVP-co-S90%-mont. composite is a new efficient material for the removal of atrazine from water.

  8. Real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis of expression of atrazine catabolism genes in two bacterial strains isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Devers, Marion; Soulas, Guy; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2004-01-01

    The level of expression of highly conserved, plasmid-borne, and widely dispersed atrazine catabolic genes (atz) was studied by RT-qPCR in two telluric atrazine-degrading microbes. RT-qPCR assays, based on the use of real-time PCR, were developed in order to quantify atzABCDEF mRNAs in Pseudomonas sp. ADP and atzABC mRNAs in Chelatobacter heintzii. atz gene expression was expressed as mRNA copy number per 10(6) 16S rRNA. In Pseudomonas sp. ADP, atz genes were basally expressed. It confirmed atrazine-degrading kinetics indicating that catabolic activity starts immediately after adding the herbicide. atz gene expression increased transitorily in response to atrazine treatment. This increase was only observed while low amount of atrazine remained in the medium. In C. heintzii, only atzA was basally expressed. atzA and atzB expression levels were similarly and significantly increased in response to atrazine treatment. atzC was not expressed even in the presence of high amounts of atrazine. This study showed that atz genes are basally expressed and up-regulated in response to atrazine treatment. atz gene expression patterns are different in Pseudomonas ADP and C. heintzii suggesting that the host may influence the expression of plasmid-borne atrazine-catabolic potential.

  9. Water supply implications of herbicide sampling: Hydrologic conditions may affect concentrations of organonitrogen herbicides and may be important considerations in complying with drinking water regulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    The temporal distribution of the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor was documented from September 1991 through August 1992 in the Platte River at Louisville, Neb., the drainage of the Central Nebraska Basins. Lincoln, Ornaha, and other municipalities withdraw groundwater for public supplies from the adjacent alluvium, which is hydraulically connected to the Platte River. Data were collected, in part, to provide information to managers, planners, and public utilities on the likelihood of water supplies being adversely affected by these herbicides. Three computational procedures - monthly means, monthly subsampling, and quarterly subsampling - were used to calculate annual mean herbicide concentrations. When the sampling was conducted quarterly rather than monthly, alachlor and atrazine concentrations were more likely to exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of 2.0 μg/L and 3.0 μg/L, and cyanazine concentrations were more likely to exceed the health advisory level of 1.0 μg/L. The US Environmental Protection Agency has established a tentative MCL of 1.0 μg/L for cyanazine; data indicate that cyanazine is likely to exceed this level under most hydrologic conditions.

  10. Characterization of an Atrazine-Degrading Pseudaminobacter sp. Isolated from Canadian and French Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Topp, Edward; Zhu, Hong; Nour, Sarah M.; Houot, Sabine; Lewis, Melanie; Cuppels, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide widely used in corn production, is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant. Fourteen bacterial strains able to use this herbicide as a sole source of nitrogen were isolated from soils obtained from two farms in Canada and two farms in France. These strains were indistinguishable from each other based on repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR genomic fingerprinting performed with primers ERIC1R, ERIC2, and BOXA1R. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis of one representative isolate, strain C147, the isolates belong to the genus Pseudaminobacter in the family Rhizobiaceae. Strain C147 did not form nodules on the legumes alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.). A number of chloro-substituted s-triazine herbicides were degraded, but methylthio-substituted s-triazine herbicides were not degraded. Based on metabolite identification data, the fact that oxygen was not required, and hybridization of genomic DNA to the atzABC genes, atrazine degradation occurred via a series of hydrolytic reactions initiated by dechlorination and followed by dealkylation. Most strains could mineralize [ring-U-14C]atrazine, and those that could not mineralize atrazine lacked atzB or atzBC. The atzABC genes, which were plasmid borne in every atrazine-degrading isolate examined, were unstable and were not always clustered together on the same plasmid. Loss of atzB was accompanied by loss of a copy of IS1071. Our results indicate that an atrazine-degrading Pseudaminobacter sp. with remarkably little diversity is widely distributed in agricultural soils and that genes of the atrazine degradation pathway carried by independent isolates of this organism are not clustered, can be independently lost, and may be associated with a catabolic transposon. We propose that the widespread distribution of the atrazine-degrading Pseudaminobacter sp. in

  11. Herbicide transport in rivers: Importance of hydrology and geochemistry in nonpoint-source contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, P.J.; Thurman, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    Alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and metribuzin were measured at six sites during 1984 and 1985 in large subbasins within the Cedar River, IA. A computer model separated the Cedar River discharge hydrograph into groundwater and overland-flow components. The concentration of herbicides in the river when groundwater was the major flow component was less than 1.0 μg/L and averaged 0.2 μg/L. The maximum concentrations of herbicides occurred when overland flow was the major component of river discharge, exceeding 50 pg/L for total herbicides. About 6% of the annual river load of atrazine was transported with the groundwater component, while 94% was transported with overland flow. From 1.5 to 5% of the atrazine applied during the year was transported from the basin. Atrazine concentrations in the river in- creased according to the discharge divided by the drainage area. This correlation indicates that rivers with large normalized 2-year peak flows have the potential to transport large concentrations of herbicides. A diagrammatic model of nonpoint-source transport of herbicides was developed that suggests that sorbed transport from fields occurs during episodes of overland flow with rapid dissolution of herbicides downstream. 

  12. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to a Low Dose Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on pubertal timing and prostrate Development of Male Long Evans Rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and d...

  13. Vulnerability of ground water to atrazine leaching in Kent County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holtschlag, D.J.; Luukkonen, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    A steady-state model of pesticide leaching through the unsaturated zone was used with readily available hydrologic, lithologic, and pesticide characteristics to estimate the vulnerability of the near-surface aquifer to atrazine contamination from non-point sources in Kent County, Michigan. The modelcomputed fraction of atrazine remaining at the water table, RM, was used as the vulnerability criterion; time of travel to the water table also was computed. Model results indicate that the average fraction of atrazine remaining at the water table was 0.039 percent; the fraction ranged from 0 to 3.6 percent. Time of travel of atrazine from the soil surface to the water table averaged 17.7 years and ranged from 2.2 to 118 years.Three maps were generated to present three views of the same atrazine vulnerability characteristics using different metrics (nonlinear transformations of the computed fractions remaining). The metrics were chosen because of the highly (right) skewed distribution of computed fractions. The first metric, rm = RMλ (where λ was 0.0625), depicts a relatively uniform distribution of vulnerability across the county with localized areas of high and low vulnerability visible. The second metric, rmλ-0.5, depicts about one-half the county at low vulnerability with discontinuous patterns of high vulnerability evident. In the third metric, rmλ-1.0 (RM), more than 95 percent of the county appears to have low vulnerability; small, distinct areas of high vulnerability are present.Aquifer vulnerability estimates in the RM metric were used with a steady-state, uniform atrazine application rate to compute a potential concentration of atrazine in leachate reaching the water table. The average estimated potential atrazine concentration in leachate at the water table was 0.16 μg/L (micrograms per liter) in the model area; estimated potential concentrations ranged from 0 to 26 μg/L. About 2 percent of the model area had estimated potential atrazine concentrations

  14. Hydrogeology, herbicides and nutrients in ground water and springs, and relation of water quality to land use and agricultural practices near Carlisle, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hippe, D.J.; Witt, E. C.; Giovannitti, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge and water-quality data collected in two adjacent karst-spring basins in Cumberland County, Pa., from May 1990 through April 1991 were used to (1) describe the hydrogeology of the area; (2) determine the concentrations of selected herbicides, herbicide-soil metabolites, and nutrients in water from wells and discharges from springs, (3) determine herbicide and nutrient discharges from springs; and (4) determine the relation of ground-water quality to land use and agricultural practices in the spring basins. The study area is underlain by a regolith-mantled carbonate-rock aquifer system. Agricultural land, forest, and residential land are the principal land uses. Herbicides are applied primarily to cornfields. Cyanazine, atrazine, metolachlor, and alachlor account for about 90 percent of the documented herbicide use on cropland. Daily mean discharge of Alexanders and Mount Rock Springs was 3.8 and 3.7 cubic feet per second, and total discharge was 1,390 and 1,370 cubic feet per second-days. Increases in discharge were related to individual periods of precipitation, but maximum flow rates lagged precipitation periods by 2 to 5 days. The recharge area to each spring is estimated to be 2.8 square miles. Atrazine was the only herbicide in common use that was detected in discharges from springs. Atrazine and the atrazine soil-metabolite deethylatrazine (DEA) were detected in spring discharges for the duration of the study. Changes in atrazine and DEA concentrations in the discharges from springs were minimal, and no flush of herbicides from the springs followed application. Temporal variation in constituent discharges was related mostly to changes in spring flow; the largest daily constituent discharges coincided with periods of increased spring flow during the winter and early spring. Atrazine and DEA discharged from Alexanders Spring and Mount Rock Spring were about 0.5 and 0.6 percent of the estimated annual atrazine use on row crops in their respective

  15. Modeling toxic stress by atrazine in a marine consumer-resource system.

    PubMed

    De Hoop, Lisette; De Troch, Marleen; Hendriks, A Jan; De Laender, Frederik

    2013-04-01

    The present study combines short-term experiments with food chain modeling to explore the long-term effects of the herbicide atrazine on consumer-resource dynamics in a marine intertidal ecosystem. Short-term (28 d) lab experiments indicated that the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and carrying capacity (K) of the marine diatom Seminavis robusta decreased with increasing atrazine exposure. This decrease did not show the concave shape expected from the lifetime productivity for nonexposed diatoms and from single-species toxicity data in the literature but instead was described best by a linear model. These experimentally observed atrazine-induced decreases of r and K were used to parameterize a Rosenzweig-MacArthur model representing a simple food chain including the tested diatom and its grazer, the harpacticoid copepod Delavalia palustris var. palustris. Stable oscillation zoo-phytobenthos systems were produced at diatom exposures of 0, 100, and 150 µg/L atrazine. An atrazine concentration of 150 µg/L contributed to a 15% increase of the oscillation periods of both diatoms and copepods as well as a 52% reduction of oscillation amplitudes compared with the control situation. Although the amplitudes of copepods increased only 7% at 150 µg/L atrazine, the maximum and minimum copepod densities at that concentration were reduced 61 and 63%, respectively. The effects of atrazine on periodicity and amplitudes were robust to 20% changes in the food-chain model parameters that represented allometric relationships. The simulations in the present study suggest food chain-mediated indirect effects on zoobenthos populations, indicating a reduced diatom and copepod availability throughout the year.

  16. Estimation of upper centile concentrations using historical atrazine monitoring data from community water systems.

    PubMed

    Mosquin, Paul; Whitmore, Roy W; Chen, Wenlin

    2012-01-01

    A survey sampling approach is presented for estimating upper centiles of aggregate distributions of surface water pesticide measurements obtained from datasets with large sample sizes but variable sampling frequency. It is applied to three atrazine monitoring programs of Community Water Systems (CWS) that used surface water as their drinking water source: the nationwide Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) data, the Syngenta Voluntary Monitoring Program (VMP), and the Atrazine Monitoring Program (AMP).The VMP/AMP CWS were selected on the basis of atrazine monitoring history (CWS having at least one annual average concentration from SDWA ≥ 1.6 ppb atrazine since 1997 in the AMP). Estimates of the raw water 95th, 99th, and 99.9th centile atrazine concentrations for the VMP/AMP CWS are 4.82, 11.85, and 34.00 ppb, respectively. The corresponding estimates are lower for the finished drinking water samples, with estimates of 2.75, 7.94, and 22.66 ppb, respectively. Finished water centile estimates for the VMP/AMP CWS using only the SDWA data for these sites are consistent with the results. Estimates are provided for the April through July period and for CWS based on surface water source type (static, flowing, or mixed). Requisite sample sizes are determined using statistical tolerance limits, relative SE, and the Woodruff interval sample size criterion. These analyses provide 99.9% confidence that the existing data include the 99.9th centile atrazine concentration for CWS raw and finished water in the Midwest atrazine high-use areas and in the nationwide SDWA dataset. The general validity of this approach is established by a simulation that shows estimates to be close to target quantities for weights based on sampling probabilities or time intervals between samples. Recommendations are given for suitable effective sample sizes to reliably determine interval estimates.

  17. Effects of atrazine on ovarian growth, in the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata.

    PubMed

    Silveyra, G R; Canosa, I S; Rodríguez, E M; Medesani, D A

    2017-02-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide that is intensively used in Argentina, was assayed to evaluate the alteration of reproduction in a wild species of crustaceans. Adult females of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata were exposed to formulated atrazine during the 3-month pre-reproductive period. Three atrazine concentrations (0.03, 0.3 and 3mg/L) were assayed, together with a water dilution control. At the end of the exposure period, several variables concerning the energetic status of animals were measured, such as weight gain, glycemia, and energy reserves in both muscle and hepatopancreas. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) was also determined, as well as the proportion and relative area of each oocyte type in histological sections. Besides, the total content of vitellogenin proteins (Vg) in both ovary and hepatopancreas was measured. A significant (p<0.05) decrease of glycogen content was observed in muscle, while a significant (p<0.05) lower area of both previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes was verified in the ovary by effect of atrazine, in correspondence with a Vg content significantly (p<0.05) diminished in the ovary and augmented in the hepatopancreas. Besides, a higher proportion of previtellogenic oocytes were seen by effect of atrazine. Taken together, these results indicate a clear reduction and delay in the ovarian growth of the studied species, during the period at which the ovary normally grows up prior to spawning. On the other hand, a decrease of Vg content was observed at 0.3 and 3mg/L of atrazine after 24-h in vitro assays carried out with ovarian explants, providing additional evidence about the inhibitory role of this herbicide on the ovarian growth. These results encourage future research on deleterious effects of atrazine on crustacean reproduction.

  18. Variability in carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation associated with bacterial hydrolysis of atrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, A.; Penning, H.; Elsner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Even after legislative prohibition in 1991 by the European Union, the pesticide atrazine and its metabolites are still detected in surface and ground water frequently exceeding the permitted drinking water concentration limit of 0,1 g/L. Despite much recent research on atrazine, its risk assessment in the environment is still a major challenge because of the difficulty of establishing mass balances in the subsurface. To obtain a better insight into the fate of atrazine, we developed compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) for atrazine. CSIA has proven valuable for assessing organic contaminants in subsurface environments, on the one hand for source identification and on the other hand to trace (bio)chemical degradation reactions through isotope fractionation in the compounds. Such assessment is based on the Rayleigh equation and therein on the isotope enrichment factor ɛ, which must be determined experimentally beforehand. In ongoing work, we therefore measured carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation associated with biotic hydrolsis of atrazine. C and N isotope enrichment factors were determined in resting cell experiments for Pseudomonas sp. ADP, Chelatobacter heintzii and Arthrobacter aurescens TC1, strains that hydrolyse atrazine in the initial transformation reaction. Carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment factors were distinctly different between the bacterial strains. However, when plotting shifts in carbon isotope ratios versus shifts in nitrogen isotope ratios the slopes of the different degradation experiments coincided well. These results give evidence that all bacterial strains were carrying out the same initial biochemical degradation reaction, but that the associated isotope fractionation, as represented by the enrichment factors, was masked to a different extent owing to different rate determining steps prior to the isotopically sensitive bond cleavage (commitment to catalysis). Our study therefore illustrates the benefit of multi

  19. Fate of atrazine in a soil under different agronomic management practices.

    PubMed

    Prado, B; Fuentes, M; Verhulst, N; Govaerts, B; De León, F; Zamora, O

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural management affects the movement of atrazine in soil and leaching to groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine atrazine adsorption in a soil after 20 years of atrazine application under agronomic management practices differing in tillage practice (conventional and zero tillage), residue management (with and without residue retention) and crop rotation (wheat-maize rotation and maize monoculture). Atrazine sorption was determined using batch and column experiments. In the batch experiment, the highest distribution coefficient Kd (1.1 L kg(-1)) at 0-10 cm soil depth was observed under zero tillage, crop rotation and residue retention (conservation agriculture). The key factor in adsorption was soil organic matter content and type. This was confirmed in the column experiment, in which the highest Kd values were observed in treatments with residue retention, under either zero or conventional tillage (0.81 and 0.68 L kg(-1), respectively). Under zero tillage, the fact that there was no soil movement helped to increase the Kd. The increased soil organic matter content with conservation agriculture may be more important than preferential flow due to higher pore connectivity in the same system. The soil's capacity to adsorb 2-hydroxyatrazine (HA), an important atrazine metabolite, was more important than its capacity to adsorb atrazine, and was similar under all four management practices (Kd ranged from 30 to 40 L kg(-1)). The HA adsorption was attributed to the type and amount of clay in the soil, which is unaffected by agronomic management. Soils under conservation agriculture had higher atrazine retention potential than soils under conventional tillage, the system that predominates in the study area.

  20. Behavior of atrazine in limited irrigation cropping systems in colorado: prior use is important.

    PubMed

    Shaner, Dale L; Wiles, Lori; Hansen, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) corn may be a major component of new cropping systems to optimize the use of limited irrigation water supply while sustaining production. Because atrazine is an important tool for residual weed control in GR corn, we examined atrazine binding to soil, dissipation, movement, and early season weed control in limited and full irrigation cropping systems. These systems included continuous corn under conventional tillage and full irrigation (CCC-FI) and under no-tillage and deficit irrigation (CCC-DI), a sunflower-wheat-corn rotation under no-tillage and deficit irrigation (SWC-DI), and a wheat-fallow-wheat-corn rotation under no tillage and natural precipitation (WFWC-NP). Crop rotation and herbicide use history influenced atrazine behavior more than amount or type of irrigation. Atrazine dissipated more rapidly in the top 30 cm of soil in the CCC-FI and CCC-DI plots (half-life [T(1/2)] = 3-12 d), which had received previous applications of the herbicide, compared with the SWC-DI and WFWC-NP plots, which had no history of atrazine use (T(1/2) = 15-22 d). Laboratory assays indicated that the different rates of degradation were at least partly due to differences in microbial degradation in the soil. Atrazine moved the most in the top 30 cm in the SWC-DI and WFWC-NP plots. This greater movement is probably due to the slower rate of atrazine degradation. Studies of the behavior of pre-emergence herbicides in new limited irrigation cropping systems must consider all characteristics of the systems, not just amount and timing of irrigation.

  1. Development and Application of Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) for Estimating Atrazine Concentration Distributions in Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Steven J.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Regression models were developed for predicting atrazine concentration distributions in rivers and streams, using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology. Separate regression equations were derived for each of nine percentiles of the annual distribution of atrazine concentrations and for the annual time-weighted mean atrazine concentration. In addition, seasonal models were developed for two specific periods of the year--the high season, when the highest atrazine concentrations are expected in streams, and the low season, when concentrations are expected to be low or undetectable. Various nationally available watershed parameters were used as explanatory variables, including atrazine use intensity, soil characteristics, hydrologic parameters, climate and weather variables, land use, and agricultural management practices. Concentration data from 112 river and stream stations sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment and National Stream Quality Accounting Network Programs were used for computing the concentration percentiles and mean concentrations used as the response variables in regression models. Tobit regression methods, using maximum likelihood estimation, were used for developing the models because some of the concentration values used for the response variables were censored (reported as less than a detection threshold). Data from 26 stations not used for model development were used for model validation. The annual models accounted for 62 to 77 percent of the variability in concentrations among the 112 model development stations. Atrazine use intensity (the amount of atrazine used in the watershed divided by watershed area) was the most important explanatory variable in all models, but additional watershed parameters significantly increased the amount of variability explained by the models. Predicted concentrations from all 10 models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentrations at most

  2. In vitro atrazine-exposure inhibits human natural killer cell lytic granule release

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Alexander M.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Barnett, John B. . E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2007-06-01

    The herbicide atrazine is a known immunotoxicant and an inhibitor of human natural killer (NK) cell lytic function. The precise changes in NK cell lytic function following atrazine exposure have not been fully elucidated. The current study identifies the point at which atrazine exerts its affect on the stepwise process of human NK cell-mediated lyses of the K562 target cell line. Using intracellular staining of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, it was determined that a 24-h in vitro exposure to atrazine did not decrease the level of NK cell lytic proteins granzyme A, granzyme B or perforin. Thus, it was hypothesized that atrazine exposure was inhibiting the ability of the NK cells to bind to the target cell and subsequently inhibit the release of lytic protein from the NK cell. To test this hypothesis, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy were employed to analyze NK cell-target cell co-cultures following atrazine exposure. These assays demonstrated no significant decrease in the level of target cell binding. However, the levels of NK intracellular lytic protein retained and the amount of lytic protein released were assessed following a 4-h incubation with K562 target cells. The relative level of intracellular lytic protein was 25-50% higher, and the amount of lytic protein released was 55-65% less in atrazine-treated cells than vehicle-treated cells following incubation with the target cells. These results indicate that ATR exposure inhibits the ability of NK cells to lyse target cells by blocking lytic granule release without affecting the ability of the NK cell to form stable conjugates with target cells.

  3. Water quality survey of Mississippi's Upper Pearl River.

    PubMed

    Tagert, Mary Love M; Massey, Joseph H; Shaw, David R

    2014-05-15

    Surface water samples were collected from May 2002 through May 2003 at seven locations within the Upper Pearl River Basin (UPRB) in east-central Mississippi to assess levels of pesticide impairment in the watershed. Depth-integrated samples were collected at three sites from September 2001 through January 2003 for total dissolved solid (TDS) analysis. Samples were extracted via Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and analyzed for fifteen pesticides: triclopyr, 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, simazine, atrazine, metribuzin, alachlor, metolachlor, cyanazine, norflurazon, hexazinone, pendimethalin, diuron, fluometuron, and the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) degradation product p,p'-DDE. Of the analyzed compounds, hexazinone was detected in 94% of the samples, followed by metolachlor (76%), tebuthiuron (48%), and atrazine (47%). Metribuzin was detected in 6% of the samples and was the least detected compound of those analyzed. Sediment concentrations ranged from 20.64 mg/L at Burnside to 42.20mg/L at Carthage, which also had the highest cumulative total sediment concentration at 4,009 mg/L.

  4. Effects of the herbicides prosulfuron and metolachlor on fluxes of CO2, N2O, and CH4 in a fertilized Colorado grassland soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinney, C.A.; Mosier, A.R.; Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.; Mandernack, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    The effect that pesticides have on trace gas production and consumption in agricultural soils is often overlooked. Independent field and laboratory experiments were used to measure the effects that the commonly used herbicides prosulfuron and metolachlor have on trace gas fluxes (CO2, N2O, and CH4) from fertilized soil of the Colorado shortgrass steppe. Separate sample plots (1 m2) on tilled and no-till soil at the sites included the following treatments: 1) a control without fertilizer or herbicide, 2) a fertilized (NH4NO3 equivalent to 244 kg ha-1) control without herbicide, 3) and fertilized plots amended with an herbicide (prosulfuron equivalent to 0.46 kg ha-1 57% by weight active ingredient or metolachlor equivalent to 5.7 L ha-1, 82.4% by weight active ingredient). During an initial study of one year duration, measurement of gas exchange revealed that prosulfuron-amendment stimulated N2O emissions and CH4 consumption by as much as 1600% and 1300% during a single measurement, respectively. During a second set of flux measurements beginning in August 2001, more frequent weekly measurements were made during a twelve week period. From this second study an increased N2O efflux and CH4 uptake occurred after a 7-week lag period that persisted for about 5 weeks. These changes in gas flux amounted to an overall increase of 41% and 30% for N2O emission and CH4 consumption, respectively. The co-occurrence of stimulated N2O and CH4 fluxes suggests a similar cause that is related to prosulfuron degradation. Evidence suggested that prosulfuron degradation stimulated microbial activity responsible for trace gas flux. Ultimately, prosulfuron-amendment led to an ???50% reduction in the global warming potential from N2O and CH4 fluxes at this field site, which is equivalent to a reduction of the global warming potential of 0.18 mols CO2 m-2 d-1 from these gases. Metolachlor application did not significantly affect the trace gas fluxes measured. These results demonstrate the

  5. Effects of the herbicides prosulfuron and metolachlor on fluxes of CO2, N2O, and CH4 in a fertilized Colorado grassland soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, Chad A.; Mosier, Arvin R.; Ferrer, Imma; Furlong, Edward T.; Mandernack, Kevin W.

    2004-03-01

    The effect that pesticides have on trace gas production and consumption in agricultural soils is often overlooked. Independent field and laboratory experiments were used to measure the effects that the commonly used herbicides prosulfuron and metolachlor have on trace gas fluxes (CO2, N2O, and CH4) from fertilized soil of the Colorado shortgrass steppe. Separate sample plots (1 m2) on tilled and no-till soil at the sites included the following treatments: 1) a control without fertilizer or herbicide, 2) a fertilized (NH4NO3 equivalent to 244 kg ha-1) control without herbicide, 3) and fertilized plots amended with an herbicide (prosulfuron equivalent to 0.46 kg ha-1 57% by weight active ingredient or metolachlor equivalent to 5.7 L ha-1, 82.4% by weight active ingredient). During an initial study of one year duration, measurement of gas exchange revealed that prosulfuron-amendment stimulated N2O emissions and CH4 consumption by as much as 1600% and 1300% during a single measurement, respectively. During a second set of flux measurements beginning in August 2001, more frequent weekly measurements were made during a twelve week period. From this second study an increased N2O efflux and CH4 uptake occurred after a 7-week lag period that persisted for about 5 weeks. These changes in gas flux amounted to an overall increase of 41% and 30% for N2O emission and CH4 consumption, respectively. The co-occurrence of stimulated N2O and CH4 fluxes suggests a similar cause that is related to prosulfuron degradation. Evidence suggested that prosulfuron degradation stimulated microbial activity responsible for trace gas flux. Ultimately, prosulfuron-amendment led to an ˜50% reduction in the global warming potential from N2O and CH4 fluxes at this field site, which is equivalent to a reduction of the global warming potential of 0.18 mols CO2 m-2 d-1 from these gases. Metolachlor application did not significantly affect the trace gas fluxes measured. These results demonstrate the

  6. Photocatalytic oxidation of pesticides by solar-irradiated TiO[sub 2] systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.M.; Grinstead, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Research at the Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center has been directed toward the development of passive basin type solar evaporators as a simple means of reducing the volume of fertilizer and pesticide contaminated rinsewater generated at fertilizer and agrichemical dealerships. In conjunction with this work, investigations are also devoted to TiO[sub 2] catalyzed solar photooxidation as a potential procedure for destroying pesticides in dilute aqueous systems. Initial tests in which dilute samples of the herbicides; Bicep (atrazine and metolachlor), Lasso (alachlor), and Sencor (metribuzin); were recirculated continuously over TiO[sub 2] impregnated fiberglass gauze, under solar irradiation, gave promising results. In the case of metribuzin, solar irradiation induced oxidation appeared effective at concentrations as high as 600 ppM. Catalytic efficiency did not appear greatly affected by using tap water rather than distilled water to dilute the pesticides. Two solar reactor designs will be discussed.

  7. Photocatalytic oxidation of pesticides by solar-irradiated TiO{sub 2} systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.M.; Grinstead, J.H. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    Research at the Tennessee Valley Authority`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center has been directed toward the development of passive basin type solar evaporators as a simple means of reducing the volume of fertilizer and pesticide contaminated rinsewater generated at fertilizer and agrichemical dealerships. In conjunction with this work, investigations are also devoted to TiO{sub 2} catalyzed solar photooxidation as a potential procedure for destroying pesticides in dilute aqueous systems. Initial tests in which dilute samples of the herbicides; Bicep (atrazine and metolachlor), Lasso (alachlor), and Sencor (metribuzin); were recirculated continuously over TiO{sub 2} impregnated fiberglass gauze, under solar irradiation, gave promising results. In the case of metribuzin, solar irradiation induced oxidation appeared effective at concentrations as high as 600 ppM. Catalytic efficiency did not appear greatly affected by using tap water rather than distilled water to dilute the pesticides. Two solar reactor designs will be discussed.

  8. Are shifts in herbicide use reflected in concentration changes in Midwestern rivers?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    In many Midwestern rivers, elevated concentrations of herbicides occur during runoff events for 1-3 months following application. The highest or 'peak' herbicide concentration often occurs during one of these runoff events. Herbicide concentrations in rivers are affected by a number of factors, including herbicide use patterns within the associated basin. Changing agricultural practices, reductions in recommended and permitted herbicide applications, shifts to new herbicides, and greater environmental awareness in the agricultural community have resulted in changes to herbicide use patterns. In the Midwestern United States, alachlor use was much larger in 1989 than in 1995, while acetochlor was not used in 1989, and commonly used in 1995. Use of atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor was about the same in 1989 and 1995. Herbicide concentrations were measured in samples from 53 Midwestern rivers during the first major runoff event that occurred after herbicide application (postapplication) in 1989, 1990, 1994, and 1995. The median concentrations of atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, metribuzin, metolachlor, propazine, and simazine all were significantly higher in 1989/90 than in 1994/95. The median acetochlor concentration was higher in 1995 than in 1994. Estimated daily yields for all herbicides and degradation products measured, with the exception of acetochlor, were higher in 1989/90 than in 1994/95. The differences in concentration and yield do not always parallel changes in herbicide use, suggesting that other changes in herbicide or crop management are affecting concentrations in Midwestern rivers during runoff events.In many Midwestern rivers, elevated concentrations of herbicides occur during runoff events for 1-3 months following application. The highest or `peak' herbicide concentration often occurs during one of these runoff events. Herbicide concentrations in rivers are affected by a number of factors, including herbicide use patterns within the associated

  9. Trends in pesticide concentrations and use for major rivers of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides strongly dominated by agricultural use (cyanazine, alachlor, atrazine and its degradate deethylatrazine, metolachlor, and carbofuran) had widespread agreement between concentration trends and use trends. Pesticides with substantial use in both agricultural and nonagricultural applications (simazine, chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, and carbaryl) had concentration trends that were mostly explained by a combination of agricultural-use trends, regulatory changes, and urban use changes inferred from concentration trends in urban streams. When there were differences, concentration trends usually were greater than use trends (increased more or decreased less). These differences may occur because of such factors as unaccounted pesticide uses, delayed transport to the river through groundwater, greater uncertainty in the use data, or unquantified land use and management practice changes.

  10. Occurrence of active and inactive herbicide ingredients at selected sites in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.; Liszewski, M.; Buchmiller, R.; Cherryholmes, K.

    1995-01-01

    Herbicides were detected in 50% of water samples, ranging from 78% of water samples from the Ames site to 25% from the Walnut Creek site. Among herbicides detected, listed in decreasing order of frequency, were atrazine > alachlor > cyanazine > metolachlor > metribuzin. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 11% of water samples. Among the compounds detected, listed in decreasing order of frequency, were xylene > toluene > acetone. One sample contained a detectable amount of aliphatic compound(s), with the empirical formula of C8H18. Results from the Deer Creek site showed that herbicides were detected primarily in the top layer (1.2 m), whereas xylene and other alkylbenzenes were detected at 2.1 m or deeper. Apparently, physico-chemical and other factors are separating herbicides and volatile organic compounds in the shallow unsaturated zone.

  11. Pesticides in streams of the western Lake Michigan drainages, Wisconsin and Michigan, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Daniel J.; Richards, Kevin D.

    1996-01-01

    During 1993-95, water samples were collected at nine sites on eight streams in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages to attempt to determine pesticide concentrations. The sampling effort was part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Pesticides analyzed for were 58 herbicides and 30 insecticides. Pesticides are used extensively in the study area; application of herbicides to corn and soybeans accounts for most of the use. Herbicides were detected more frequently and generally at higher concentrations than insecticides. The herbicide atrazine is applied to more acreage in Wisconsin than all other pesticides and was detected in 142 of 143 samples. The herbicides simazine, metolachlor, cyanazine, prometon, and alachlor were detected in more than half of the samples. The presence of these compounds in the sampled streams, is related to agricultural use. Two streams in forested basins in the northern part of the study area were sampled and found to contain low concentrations of atrazine. Atmospheric deposition is the likely source; atrazine has been detected in rain fall in northeastern Wisconsin. Herbicide concentrations in agricultural basins were highest in samples collected during storm runoff following application. Concentrations decreased over the growing season as herbicides broke down and increased ground cover reduced runoff. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking-water standard for atrazine was exceeded in eight samples, and the standard for alachlor was exceeded in two samples. All exceedances occurred during brief periods of high streamflow in June and July at two streams that drain primarily agricultural basins. Herbicide data for the Western Lake Drainages and other NAWQA study units indicate that concentrations in streams are as much as two orders of magnitude higher in areas where agricultural land contains a high percentage of row crops especially corn and soybeans than in areas where

  12. Environmentally Realistic Exposure to the Herbicide Atrazine Alters Some Sexually Selected Traits in Male Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Kausalya

    2012-01-01

    Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures on mating signals and behaviors in male guppies, a sexually dimorphic freshwater fish. Prolonged atrazine exposure reduced the expression of two honest signals: the area of orange spots (ornaments) and the number of courtship displays performed. Atrazine exposure also reduced aggression towards competing males in the context of mate competition. In the wild, exposure levels vary among individuals because of differential distribution of the pollutants across habitats; hence, differently impacted males often compete for the same mates. Disrupted mating signals can reduce reproductive success as females avoid mating with perceptibly suboptimal males. Less aggressive males are at a competitive disadvantage and lose access to females. This study highlights the effects of atrazine on ecologically relevant mating signals and behaviors in exposed wildlife. Altered reproductive traits have important implications for population dynamics, evolutionary patterns, and conservation of wildlife species. PMID:22312428

  13. Watershed regressions for pesticides (warp) models for predicting atrazine concentrations in Corn Belt streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, are improved for application to the United States (U.S.) Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62% of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites. Model predictions were within a factor of 5 of the observed concentration statistic for over 90% of the model-development sites. The WARP-CB residuals and uncertainty are lower than those of the National WARP model for the same sites. Although atrazine-use intensity is the most important explanatory variable in the National WARP models, it is not a significant variable in the WARP-CB models. The WARP-CB models provide improved predictions for Corn Belt streams draining watersheds with atrazine-use intensities of 17 kg/km2 of watershed area or greater.

  14. The combined effects of atrazine and lead (Pb): relative microbial activities and herbicide dissipation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinglin; Wang, Hui; Yang, Baoshan; He, Fei

    2014-04-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of single and combined pollution from different concentrations of atrazine (field rate, FR, 2.0 mg kg(-1) and 5 times FR, 10 mg kg(-1)) and lead (Pb) (300 mg kg(-1) and 600 mg kg(-1)) on enzyme activity, basal soil respiration (BSR), and net nitrogen (N) mineralization (NNM) in soil after exposure for 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. In addition, residual atrazine was measured in the samples of combined contamination. Results showed that the notable effects of either or both contaminants on the microbial activity and biological processes. Enzyme activity data demonstrated that the order of sensitivity to contamination was urease>invertase>catalase. BSR was strongly stimulated by atrazine/Pb at the early exposure (0-7 days for single contaminant and 7-14 days for combined contaminants). The stimulation effects on BSR were higher at low concentrations of the contamination (FR and Pb300). The combined treatments of 5FR+Pb600 inhibit BSR and NNM. Overall, the parameters associated with N cycling (urease and NNM) were more sensitive than others. Both Pb concentrations (300 and 600 mg/kg) had little influence on the dissipation of high concentrations of atrazine (5FR) during the 28-day-incubation. This study has provided useful information on potential ecotoxicology effects of combined contamination of atrazine and Pb on relative microbial biological process.

  15. Atrazine-induced changes in the myocardial structure of peripubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Rajkovic, Vesna; Kovac, Renata; Koledin, Ivana; Matavulj, Milica

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of atrazine (6-chloro-N(2)-ethyl-N(4)-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) on the left ventricle myocardium in juvenile/peripubertal male Wistar rats. Atrazine was administered orally at 50 or 200 mg/kg of body weight dose for 28 consecutive days. In order to assess possible structural alterations, tissue sections were examined histologically and then subjected to quantification analysis using stereological methods. The tissue specimens were routinely processed and stained with Mallory trichrome method in order to clearly distinguish muscle cells from the connective tissue components. A toluidine blue staining method was additionally used for the demonstration of mast cells. Statistically significant increase in length density and numerical density of capillaries were found at both the investigated doses of atrazine compared with the control. The increase in surface density and volume density of capillaries found at lower dosage of atrazine was significant in comparison with the control. The extensive mast cell degranulation was noted on the histological examination at both doses of the applied chemical. No significant changes were demonstrated for the stereological parameters of cardiomyocytes. Based on the available published data and the present results, it can be concluded that atrazine promoted angiogenesis in the rat myocardium, which might be partially mediated by mast cells.

  16. Oxidative stress response induced by atrazine in Palaemonetes argentinus: the protective effect of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Griboff, Julieta; Morales, David; Bertrand, Lidwina; Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Monferrán, Magdalena Victoria; Asis, Ramón; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Amé, María Valeria

    2014-10-01

    The widespread contamination and persistence of the herbicide atrazine residues in the environment resulted in the exposure of non-target organisms. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of atrazine in the response of oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus and the protective effect of vitamin-E against atrazine-induced toxicity. Therefore, two batches of P. argentinus were fed for 21 days with a commercial food enriched in proteins (D1) or with D2, composed of D1 enriched with vitamin-E (6.8 and 16.0mg% of vitamin-E, respectively). Subsequently, half of the individuals of each group were exposed to atrazine (0.4mgL(-1)) for 24h and the others remained as controls. Atrazine promoted oxidative stress response in P. argentinus fed with D1 as indicated by enhanced H2O2 content and induction of superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferases and glutathione reductase. This antioxidant activity would prevent the increment of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the shrimp tissues. P. argentinus fed with D2 reversed the response of the biomarkers measured. However, the activation of antioxidants response had an energetic cost, which was revealed by a decrease in lipids storage in shrimps. These results show the modulatory effect of vit-E on oxidative stress and its potential use as an effective antioxidant to be applied in chemoprotection strategies during aquaculture.

  17. Manganese dioxide as a catalyst for oxygen-independent atrazine dealkylation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.; Spiro, T.G.; Shin, J.Y.; Cheney, M.A.; Sposito, G.

    1999-09-15

    The herbicide atrazine is widely distributed in the environment, and its reactivity with soil minerals is an important issue. The authors have studied atrazine degradation on the surface of synthetic hydrous (10% H{sub 2}O) {delta}-MnO{sub 2} (birnessite) using UV resonance Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The products are mainly mono- and didealkyl atrazine. Atrazine disappearance is rapid, independent of whether O{sub 2} is present or not. MnO{sub 2} reduction is a minor reaction, and the alkyl chains are converted mainly to the alkenes, in a nonredox process. A novel dealkylation mechanism is proposed involving proton transfer to Mn(IV)-stabilized oxo and imido bonds. When O{sub 2} is present, olefin oxidation and ring mineralization are also observed as secondary reactions in addition to those discussed above. Thus {delta}-MnO{sub 2}, a common soil constituent, is found to promote efficient N-dealkylation of the herbicide atrazine at 30 C, via a nonoxidative mechanism.

  18. Electrocatalytic hydrodehalogenation of atrazine in aqueous solution by Cu@Pd/Ti catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Li; Xiong, Lu; Song, Xiang-Ning; Wang, Wei-Kang; Huang, Yu-Xi; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Electrocatalytic hydrodehalogenation is a cost-effective approach to degrade halogenated organic pollutants in groundwater, and Pd-based catalysts have been found to be an efficient cathode material for this purpose. In this work, a novel Cu@Pd bimetallic catalyst loaded on Ti plate was prepared via combined electrodeposition and galvanic replacement for electrocatalytic hydrodehalogenation of atrazine, a typical halogenated pollutant. The obtained bimetallic catalyst with uniformly dispersed Pd nanoparticles possessed a large electrochemically active surface area of 572 cm2. The Cu@Pd/Ti cathode exhibited a higher electrocatalytic efficiency towards atrazine reduction than the individual Pd/Ti or Cu/Ti cathodes, and achieved up to 91.5% within 120 min under a current density of 1 mA cm(-2). Such an electrocatalytic reduction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.0214 min(-1). Atrazine was selectively transformed to dechlorinated atrazine, and its degradation pathway was identified. Current density was found to have a critical influence on the atrazine reduction due to the competitive hydrogen evolution reaction at a higher current density. The fabricated bimetallic catalyst also exhibited a good stability. This work provides an efficient and stable electrocatalyst for chlorinated contaminate removal and groundwater remediation.

  19. Fate and significance of major degradation products of atrazine in the soil environment

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, J.R.; Kruger, E.L.; Baluch, H.U.

    1995-12-01

    Complete metabolism studies using radiotracers were performed in the laboratory to determine the fate of atrazine and major degradation products, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, and hydroxyatrazine, in soil as affected by soil type, soil moisture, soil depth, and previous long-term atrazine history. Several soil factors have been shown to significantly affect the fate of these compounds in soil. Persistence of the 4 compounds was significantly increased in subsurface soils. Hydroxyatrazine was the most persistent of the 4 compounds in surface and subsurface soil. Desiopropylatrazine was the most susceptible to mineralization in both surface and subsurface soil. A higher amount of bound residues were formed in deisopropylatrazine-treated soils. Soil moisture significantly affects the persistence of atrazine, deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine with decreased persistence under saturated soil moisture conditions. Persistence of deethylatrazine was positively correlated with percent clay and negatively correlated with percent organic matter. In soils with long-term atrazine history, deethylatrazine undergoes enhanced degradation. In soil column studies, the relative movement of deethylatrazine was greater than that of atrazine.

  20. Individual and combined toxic effects of herbicide atrazine and three insecticides on the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; An, Xuehua; Shen, Weifeng; Chen, Liezhong; Jiang, Jinhua; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the individual and combined toxic effects of herbicide atrazine and three insecticides (chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) on the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Results from 48-h filter paper test indicated that imidacloprid had the highest toxicity to E. fetida with an LC50 of 0.05 (0.041-0.058) μg a.i. cm(-2), followed by lambda-cyhalothrin and atrazine with LC50 values ranging from 4.89 (3.52-6.38) to 4.93 (3.76-6.35) μg a.i. cm(-2), while chlorpyrifos had the least toxicity to the worms with an LC50 of 31.18 (16.22-52.85) μg a.i. cm(-2). Results from 14-days soil toxicity test showed a different pattern of toxicity except that imidacloprid was the most toxic even under the soil toxicity bioassay system. The acute toxicity of atrazine was significantly higher than that of chlorpyrifos. In contrast, lambda-cyhalothrin was the least toxic to the animals under the soil toxicity bioassay system. The binary mixture of atrazine-lambda-cyhalothrin and ternary mixture of atrazine-chlorpyrifos-lambda-cyhalothrin displayed a significant synergistic effect on the earthworms under the soil toxicity bioassay. Our findings would help regulatory authorities understand the complexity of effects from pesticide mixtures on non-target organisms and provide useful information of the interaction of various pesticide classes detected in natural environment.

  1. Risk-Cost-Benefit Analysis Of Atrazine In Drinking Water From Agricultural Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aklilu, T. A.; Jagath, K. J.; Arthur, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    This study provides a new methodology for investigating the trade-offs between the health risks and economic benefits of using atrazine in the agricultural sector and a more holistic insight to pesticide management issues. Regression models are developed to predict the stream atrazine concentrations and finished water atrazine concentration at high-risk community water supplies in the US using surface water. The predicted finished water atrazine concentrations are then used in health risk assessment. The computed health risks are compared with the total surplus in the US corn market for different atrazine application rates using the demand and supply functions developed in this work. Analysis of different scenarios with consumer price premiums (preferences) for chemical-free to reduced chemical corn provided interesting results on the potential for future pesticide and land use management. This is an interdisciplinary work that has attempted to integrate and consider the interaction between weed sciences, economics, water quality, human health risk and human reaction to changes in different pesticide use scenarios. The results showed that this methodology provides a scientific framework for future decision-making and policy evaluation in pesticide management, especially when better regional and national data are available.

  2. [Degradation of endocrine disruptor atrazine in drinking water by UV radiation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Gao, Nai-yun; Wei, Hong-bin; Xia, Li-hua; Cui, Jing

    2006-06-01

    The degradation of atrazine with low concentration in drinking water by UV radiation was studied. The main influencing factors and degradation mechanism of this technology were discussed. Experimental results show that the photolytic degradation of atrazine by UV radiation alone is very efficient. Under 205 microW/cm2 irradiation intensity, atrazine removal ratio is 92.38% after 120 minutes. The rate of photodecomposition in aqueous solution follows first-order kinetics. The removal ratio of atrazine can be greatly enhanced by increasing the intensity of UV radiation. The initial concentration of atrazine has no effect on the oxidation reaction. The organic matter and various ion in tap water will decrease the degradation rate. The primary degradation pathway is dechlorination. The reaction rate is high. The hydroxylated compound is the major intermediate product. Hydroyatrazine can be further decomposed by UV radiation and form dealkylated derivatives. But the rate of dealkylated reaction is very low. There is intimate relationship between the change of pH in the solution and the formation of intermediate products.

  3. Characterizing and modeling of extensive atrazine elution tailing for stable manure-amended agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Nihat Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Non-ideal sorption and extensive elution tailing behavior of atrazine was evaluated for an agricultural soil with and without stable manure amendment (10% by weight). A series of laboratory experiments showed that the sorption of atrazine was described by rate-limited, nonlinear reversible processes (Freundlich isotherm) for both non-amended and amended soil. Non-ideal transport of atrazine exhibited extensive low concentration elution tailing due to the most likely organic carbon fraction in the soil. This tailing behavior was more pronounced and extensive for soil with 10% stable-manure amendment. Two-site transport modeling analyses including non-linear sorption and rate-limited sorption-desorption provided a reasonably good match to the atrazine breakthrough curves but were unable to match the long-term concentration tailing, even for non-amended soil. A mathematical model incorporating nonlinear, rate-limited sorption/desorption described by a continuous-distribution function was used to successfully simulate atrazine transport early-time breakthrough and long-term concentration tailing for both non-amended and amended soil conditions.

  4. Cyanazine, Atrazine, and Their Metabolites as Geochemical Indicators of Contaminant Transport in the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, M.T.; Thurman, E.M.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The geochemical transport of cyanazine and its metabolite cyanazine amide (CAM) was compared to atrazine and its metabolite deethylatrazine (DEA) at three sites in the Mississippi River basin during 1992 and six sites during 1993. The floods of 1993 caused an uninterrupted exponential decline in herbicide concentrations; whereas, in 1992 herbicide concentrations varied mostly in response to two discrete discharge pulses in the spring and midsummer and were stable during an extended period of summer low-flow. Concentration half-lives calculated from the 1993 data for atrazine were approximately twice those of cyanazine at all sites. The half-life for atrazine and cyanazine was shortest, 22 and 14 days, respectively at the Mississippi River at Clinton, Ill. - the farthest upstream site - and longest, 42 and 22 days, respectively, at the Baton Rouge, La. site - the farthest downstream site. The concentration of CAM exceeded the concentration of DEA through September at all sites where the mean ratio of atrazine-to-cyanazine (ACR) was less than 4.0. The ratio of CAM-to-cyanazine (CAMCR) increased from 0.2 to more than 1.0 and the ratio of DEA-to-atrazine (DAR) increased from less than 0.1 to 0.3 from application in May through early to mid-July. Temporal changes in the CAMCR were used to identify pre- and post-application "slugs" of water transported along the reaches of the Mississippi River.

  5. Dynamic speciation analysis of atrazine in aqueous latex nanoparticle dispersions using solid phase microextraction (SPME).

    PubMed

    Benhabib, Karim; Town, Raewyn M; van Leeuwen, Herman P

    2009-04-09

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is applied in the dynamic speciation analysis of the pesticide atrazine in an aqueous medium containing sorbing latex nanoparticles. It is found that the overall rate of extraction of the analyte is faster than in the absence of nanoparticles and governed by the coupled diffusion of free and particle-bound atrazine toward the solid/sample solution interface. In the eventual equilibrium the total atrazine concentration in the solid phase is dictated by the solid phase/water partition coefficient (K(sw)) and the concentration of the free atrazine in the sample solution. These observations demonstrate that the nanoparticles do not enter the solid phase. The experimental data show that the rate of release of sorbed atrazine from the latex particles is fast on the effective time scale of the microextraction process. A lability criterion is derived to quantitatively describe the relative rates of these two processes. All together, the results indicate that SPME has a strong potential for dynamic speciation analysis of organic compounds in media containing sorbing nanoparticles.

  6. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics of atrazine removal using a banana peel based sorbent.

    PubMed

    Chaparadza, Allen; Hossenlopp, Jeanne M

    2012-01-01

    Atrazine removal from water by treated banana peels was studied. The effect of pH, contact time, initial atrazine concentration, and temperature were investigated. Batch experiments demonstrated that 15 g L(-1) adsorbent dosage removed 90-99% of atrazine from 1-150 ppm aqueous solutions. The removal was both pH and temperature dependent with the most atrazine removed between pH 7 and 8.2 and increased with increasing temperature. Equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models in the concentration and temperature ranges investigated, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 14 mg g(-1). Simple mass transfer models were applied to the experimental data to examine the adsorption mechanism and it was found that both external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion played important roles in the adsorption mechanisms. The enthalpy of atrazine adsorption was evaluated to be 67.8 ± 6.3 kJ mol(-l) with a Gibbs free energy of -5.7 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1).

  7. Evaluation of Co-solvents with supercritical fluid extraction of atrazine from soil.

    PubMed

    Senseman, S A; Ketchersid, M L

    2000-04-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) has been successfully applied to herbicide extractions from soil. The objectives of this work were to compare extraction efficiency of atrazine from soil using different types and quantities of co-solvent modifiers under a specified set of SFE instrument conditions and to determine the ruggedness of an optimized extraction program and co-solvent on several soils with varying characteristics. The effect of 18 co-solvents on atrazine extraction from Lufkin fine sandy loam was determined using a completely randomized design with six replications. Extractions of Lufkin soil using the more nonpolar co-solvents had recovery similar to extractions where no co-solvent was added. The co-solvents that showed high extraction efficiency, low incidences of restrictor plugging, and ease of cleaning extraction cells were acetone, acetone:water mixtures (with and without 1% triethylamine), and acetonitrile. The addition of 1% triethylamine (TEA) did not increase recovery significantly. The 9:1 acetone:water mixture with 1% TEA was used for the soil comparison because of the high atrazine recovery and low water content. No differences in atrazine recovery were detected between extractions of the four representative soils when the same extraction conditions were employed. No cleanup steps were included in the procedure, yet adequate chromatography results were obtained suggesting some selectivity for this procedure. These data indicate that SFE with optimized conditions and appropriate co-solvents is a relatively robust method that can effectively be used in soil extractions of atrazine.

  8. Atrazine Molecular Imprinted Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Far-Infrared and Ultraviolet Induced Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Bai, Lian-Yang; Liu, Kun-Feng; Liu, Run-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR) radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIPuv possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIPFIR radiation counterparts. Scatchard plot’s of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high-and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF) and different selectivity index (SI) for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR), and mercury analyzer (MA). Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Compared with commercial C18 SPE sorbent (86.4%–94.8%), higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%–97.1% and 94.4%–101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively. PMID:24398982

  9. ATRAZINE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR OPP LEVEL OF CONCERN AND OW WATER QUALITY CRITERION FOR AQUATIC LIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine is a relatively water-soluble and persistent herbicide that can reach concentrations of possible ecological concern for aquatic plants in vulnerable watersheds in regions with high agricultural usage of atrazine. As a consequence, the U.S. EPA Office of Water is current...

  10. Monitoring of atrazine in the mainstream, major tributaries and streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed: Ecological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Anderson, R.D.

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this study was to provide exposure data for the atrazine in the mainstream tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In 1995, ten stations were sampled four times per year. Atrazine was also measured at 4 hour intervals for 72 hours at all stream sites during one rain event during the spring. Results are described.

  11. Atrazine immobilization on sludge derived biochar and the interactive influence of coexisting Pb(II) or Cr(VI) ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Zheng, Juan; Zheng, Pingping; Qiu, Rongliang

    2015-09-01

    Sludge derived biochars (SDBCs) may have the potential to simultaneously remove heavy metals and organic contaminants in relation to their various active sorption sites for both metal ions and organic compounds. SDBCs have been proven to provide a considerable capacity for immobilizing Pb(II) and Cr(VI) ions in solution, and in this study their ability to sorb atrazine, in addition to their corresponding interactive influences with coexisting metal ions, is extensively investigated. The results indicate that all atrazine adsorption isotherms fit well with the Freundlich equation, and the greatest value of 16.8 mg g(-1) sorption capacity occurred with SDBCs pyrolyzed at 400°C for 2h. The slow sorption kinetics fit well with the Lagergren's 2nd order reaction, and depend upon the initial atrazine concentration, indicating the significance of a site-specific process. The ionic strength-dependence of the atrazine adsorption behavior further consolidates the involvement of the mechanism of the H-bond with hydroxyl groups on SDBC. However, when Pb(II)/Cr(VI) metal ions coexist in solution, they substantially suppress atrazine adsorption, probably because the inner complex between the hydroxyl groups on SDBCs and Pb(II)/Cr(III) ions intrude the weak H-bond with atrazine. As a result, metal adsorption was found to be unaffected by the coexisting atrazine. Therefore, although SDBC is applicable for atrazine removal/immobilization in most of environmentally relevant conditions, a two-step process may be required if heavy metal ions coexist.

  12. Biomarker Analysis of American Toad (Anaxyrus Americanus) and Grey Tree Frog (Hyla Versicolor) Tadpoles Following Exposure to Atrazine

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the mode of action of atrazine in amphibians, we utilized mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to investigate the biochemical changes in two species of larval amphibians exposed to atrazine. Our objectives were to 1) Use changes in endogenous metabolites to f...

  13. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environme...

  14. Negative effects of low dose atrazine exposure on the development of effective immunity to FV3 in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Sifkarovski, Jason; Grayfer, Leon; De Jesús Andino, Francisco; Lawrence, B Paige; Robert, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    The recent dramatic increase of the prevalence and range of amphibian host species and populations infected by ranaviruses such as Frog Virus 3 (FV3) raises concerns about the efficacies of amphibian antiviral immunity. In this context, the potential negative effects of water contaminants such as the herbicide atrazine, at environmentally relevant levels, on host antiviral immunity remains unclear. Here we describe the use of the amphibian Xenopus laevis as an ecotoxicology platform to elucidate the consequences of exposure to ecologically relevant doses of atrazine on amphibian antiviral immunity. X. laevis were exposed at tadpole and adult stages as well as during metamorphosis to atrazine (range from 0.1 to 10.0 ppb) prior to infection with FV3. Quantitative analysis of gene expression revealed significant changes in the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α and the antiviral type I IFN gene in response to FV3 infection. This was most marked in tadpoles that were exposed to atrazine at doses as low 0.1 ppb. Furthermore, atrazine exposure significantly compromised tadpole survival following FV3 infections. In contrast, acute atrazine exposure of mature adult frogs did not induce detectable effects on anti-FV3 immunity, but adults that were exposed to atrazine during metamorphosis exhibited pronounced defects in FV3-induced TNF-α gene expression responses and slight diminution in type I IFN gene induction. Thus, even at low doses, atrazine exposure culminates in impaired development of amphibian antiviral defenses.

  15. Understanding the Effects of Atrazine on Steroidogenesis in rat granulosa and H295R adrenal cortical carcinoma cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) was introduced in the 1950s as a broad spectrum herbicide, and remains one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States. Several studies have suggested that atrazine modifies steroidogenesis and may disrupt r...

  16. Predicting where enhanced atrazine degradation will occur based on soil pH and herbicide use history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil bacteria on all continents except Antartica have developed the ability to rapidly degrade the herbicide atrazine, a phenomenon referred to as enhanced degradation. The agronomic significance of enhanced degradation is the potential for reduced residual weed control with atrazine in Corn, Sorgh...

  17. Comparative sensitivity of Selenastrum capricornutum and Lemna minor to sixteen herbicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, J.F.; Ruessler, D.S.; Haverland, P.S.; Carlson, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic plant toxicity tests are frequently conducted in environmental risk assessments to determine the potential impacts of contaminants on primary producers. An examination of published plant toxicity data demonstrates that wide differences in sensitivity can occur across phylogenetic groups of plants. Yet relatively few studies have been conducted with the specific intent to compare the relative sensitivity of various aquatic plant species to contaminants. We compared the relative sensitivity of the algae Selenestrum capricornutum and the floating vascular plant Lemna minor to 16 herbicides (atrazine, metribuzin, simazine, cyanazine, alachlor, metolachlor, chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron, triallate, EPTC, trifluralin, diquat, paraquat, dicamba, bromoxynil, and 2,4-D). The herbicides studied represented nine chemical classes and several modes of action and were chosen to represent major current uses in the United States. Both plant species were generally sensitive to the triazines (atrazine, metribuzin, simazine, and cyanazine), sulfonureas (metsulfuron and chlorsulfuron), pyridines (diquat and paraquat), dinitroaniline (trifluralin), and acetanilide (alachlor and metolachlor) herbicides. Neither plant species was uniformly more sensitive than the other across the broad range of herbicides tested. Lemna was more sensitive to the sulfonureas (metsulfuron and chlorsulfuron) and the pyridines (diquat and parequat) than Selenastrum. However Selenastrum was more sensitive than Lemna to one of two thiocarbamates (triallate) and one of the triazines (cyanazine). Neither species was sensitive to selective broadleaf herbicides including bromoxynil, EPTC, dicamba, or 2,4-D. Results were not always predictable in spite of obvious differences in herbicide modes of action and plant phylogeny. Major departures in sensitivity of Selenastrum occurred between chemicals within individual classes of the triazine, acetanilide, and thiocarbamate herbicides. Results indicate that neither

  18. Trends in concentrations and use of agricultural herbicides for Corn Belt rivers, 1996-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, A.V.; Gilliom, R.J.; Sullivan, D.J.; Lorenz, D.L.; Martin, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Trends in the concentrations and agricultural use of four herbicides (atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, and alachlor) were evaluated for major rivers of the Corn Belt for two partially overlapping time periods: 1996-2002 and 2000-2006. Trends were analyzed for 11 sites on the mainstems and selected tributaries in the Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Missouri River Basins. Concentration trends were determined using a parametric regression model designed for analyzing seasonal variability, flow-related variability, and trends in pesticide concentrations(SEAWAVE-Q).TheSEAWAVE-Qmodel accounts for the effect of changing flow conditions in order to separate changes caused by hydrologic conditions from changes caused by other factors, such as pesticide use. Most of the trends in atrazine and acetochlor concentrations for both time periods were relatively small and nonsignificant, but metolachlor and alachlor were dominated by varying magnitudes of concentration downtrends. Overall, with trends expressed as a percent change per year, trends in herbicide concentrations were consistent with trends in agricultural use; 84 of 88 comparisons for different sites, herbicides, and time periods showed no significant difference between concentration trends and agricultural use trends. Results indicate that decreasing use appears to have been the primary cause for the concentration downtrends during 1996-2006 and that, while there is some evidence that nonuse management factors may have reduced concentrations in some rivers, reliably evaluating the influence of these factors on pesticides in large streams and rivers will require improved, basin-specific information on both management practices and use over time. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Jennifer L.; Lansdell, Theresa A.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Baker, Lisa E.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 µg/kg atrazine, 10 mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24 h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10 mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning. PMID:26440580

  20. Early alterations on photosynthesis-related parameters in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells exposed to atrazine: A multiple approach study.

    PubMed

    Esperanza, Marta; Seoane, Marta; Rioboo, Carmen; Herrero, Concepción; Cid, Ángeles

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells were exposed to a sublethal concentration of the widespread herbicide atrazine for 3h. Physiological cellular parameters, such as chlorophyll a fluorescence and oxidative stress monitored by flow cytometry and pigments levels were altered in microalgal cells exposed to 0.25 μM of atrazine. Furthermore, the effects of this herbicide on C. reinhardtii were explored using "omics" techniques. Transcriptomic analyses, carried out by RNA-Seq technique, displayed 9 differentially expressed genes, related to photosynthesis, between control cultures and atrazine exposed cultures. Proteomic profiles were obtained using iTRAQ tags and MALDI-MS/MS analysis, identifying important changes in the proteome during atrazine stress; 5 proteins related to photosynthesis were downexpressed. The results of these experiments advance the understanding of photosynthetic adjustments that occur during an early herbicide exposure. Inhibition of photosynthesis induced by atrazine toxicity will affect the entire physiological and biochemical states of microalgal cells.

  1. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jennifer L; Lansdell, Theresa A; Lookingland, Keith J; Baker, Lisa E

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning.

  2. Ferric complexes as catalysts for {open_quotes}Fenton{close_quotes} degradation of 2,4-D and metolachlor in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatello, J.J.; Baehr, K.

    1994-03-01

    Fenton-type reactions of hydrogen peroxide with Fe compounds generate bydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) or other reactive species and are potentially useful for degrading organic contaminants in soil. The use of simple Fe salts is limited, however. This study investigated certain pH 6-soluble Fe(III) complexes (Fe-L, where L is an organic tigand) as catalysts for degradation of herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-[2-ethyl 6-methylphenyl]-N-[2-methoxy-l-methylethyl]acetamide). Reactions were carried out in 1:1 aqueous suspensions of a topsoil (15.7 g kg{sup -1} organic C) at the natural pH of 5.7 with herbicides at concentrations representative of a spill (2-3 g kg{sup -1} about 0.01 mol kg{sup -1}). The two herbicides had contrasting sorption behavior in that 2,4-D was mostly in solution, whereas metotachlor was mostly sorbed. The best results were obtained using Fe-nitrilotriscetate (NTA) or Fe-hydroxyethyleniminodiacetate (HEIDA) at 0.01 mol kg-{sup -1} and [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{ge} 0.5 mol kg{sup -1}. The gallic acid complex was less effective. In 3 h,{sup 14}C-labeled 2,4-D was quantitatively dechlorinated and partially (15-30%) converted to {sup 14}CO{sub 2}: metolachlor was 93% transformed and 29% dechlorinated. Controls using free ligand plus peroxide or peroxide alone gave little or no reaction. Fe-L + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was superior to the Fenton reagent itself (Fe{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The results of this study demonstrate that relatively mild chemical oxidation can be effective for remediation of certain contaminants in soil 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Atrazine and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Epidemiologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Michael; Mandel, Jack S; DeSesso, John M; Scialli, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is a commonly used agricultural herbicide that has been the subject of epidemiologic studies assessing its relation to reproductive health problems. This review evaluates both the consistency and the quality of epidemiologic evidence testing the hypothesis that ATR exposure, at usually encountered levels, is a risk factor for birth defects, small for gestational age birth weight, prematurity, miscarriages, and problems of fetal growth and development. We followed the current methodological guidelines for systematic reviews by using two independent researchers to identify, retrieve, and evaluate the relevant epidemiologic literature on the relation of ATR to various adverse outcomes of birth and pregnancy. Each eligible paper was summarized with respect to its methods and results with particular attention to study design and exposure assessment, which have been cited as the main areas of weakness in ATR research. As a quantitative meta-analysis was not feasible, the study results were categorized qualitatively as positive, null, or mixed. The literature on ATR and pregnancy-related health outcomes is growing rapidly, but the quality of the data is poor with most papers using aggregate rather than individual-level information. Without good quality data, the results are difficult to assess; however, it is worth noting that none of the outcome categories demonstrated consistent positive associations across studies. Considering the poor quality of the data and the lack of robust findings across studies, conclusions about a causal link between ATR and adverse pregnancy outcomes are not warranted. PMID:24797711

  4. Model simulation of atrazine exposure to aquatic nontarget organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.M.; Cheplick, J.M.; Balu, K.

    1996-10-01

    Pesticide fate and transport models have been identified by a number of regulatory work groups, including the Aquatic Risk Assessment and Mitigation Dialogue Group (ARAMDG) and the FIFRA Exposure Modeling Work Group (EMWG), as potential valuable tools in improving regulatory decisions for pesticide registration. To date, models uses have been limited to preliminary screening evaluations because the predictive capabilities of candidate models have not been adequately characterized and because procedures for scenario identification have not been tested. This paper presents an overview of a comprehensive modeling study that was conducted to evaluate exposure concentrations of atrazine to nontarget organisms and their ecosystems that may result from usage patterns of the herbicide throughout the United States. Simulations were conducted using the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM-2.3) and the Riverine Environments Water Quality Model (RIVWQ-2.0). Included are procedures used for scenario identification, model comparisons to field runoff and aquatic monitoring studies, and the statistical compilation of results for risk assessment use.

  5. Atrazine adsorption and colloid-facilitated transport through the unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, L.A.; Herman, J.S.; Hornberger, G.M.; Mills, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    One explanation for unexpectedly widespread ground water contamination from atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) may be the occurence of colloid-facilitated transport, whereby the dissolved herbicide becomes adsorbed to mobile colloids that migrate through preferential flow-paths in the soil zone and into the ground water. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of adsorpton of atrazine to bulk soil and to soil colloids and to determine the extent of colloid-facilitated transport of atrazine at a field site in Virginia during simulated rainfall events. Equilibrium batch adsorption experiments were performed over a concentration range of 0.05 to 10.0 mg atrazine L-1 on bulk soil samples and on colloidal suspensions of 75 mg L-1, a concentration comparable with those observed at the field site. Linear partition coefficients ranged from 0.496 to 2.48 L kg-1 for the bulk soil and from 70.8 to 832 L kg-1 for the soil colloids. In the field, gravity lysimeters were insured at a depth of 25 cm below the surface of six 0.25-m2 undisturbed plots. Mass recovery of surface-applied atrazine in the lysimeters was not significantly affected by rainfall rate and was, on average, 2.7% for plots receiving 25 mm h-1 simulated rainfall and 3.6% for plots receiving 50 mm h-1 simulated rainfall. Of the total atrazine collected in the lysimeters, the fraction that was colloid-associated ranged from 4.9 to 30% (mean of 15%), indicating that a measurable portion of mobile atrazine is transported via association with colloids.One explanation for unexpectedly widespread ground water contamination from atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) may be the occurrence of colloid-facilitated transport, whereby the dissolved herbicide becomes adsorbed to mobile colloids that migrate through preferential flow-paths in the soil zone and into the ground water. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of adsorption of

  6. Regression models for estimating concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine in shallow groundwater in agricultural areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Stone, Wesley W.; Wolock, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Tobit regression models were developed to predict the summed concentration of atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] and its degradate deethylatrazine [6-chloro-N-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5,-triazine-2,4-diamine] (DEA) in shallow groundwater underlying agricultural settings across the conterminous United States. The models were developed from atrazine and DEA concentrations in samples from 1298 wells and explanatory variables that represent the source of atrazine and various aspects of the transport and fate of atrazine and DEA in the subsurface. One advantage of these newly developed models over previous national regression models is that they predict concentrations (rather than detection frequency), which can be compared with water quality benchmarks. Model results indicate that variability in the concentration of atrazine residues (atrazine plus DEA) in groundwater underlying agricultural areas is more strongly controlled by the history of atrazine use in relation to the timing of recharge (groundwater age) than by processes that control the dispersion, adsorption, or degradation of these compounds in the saturated zone. Current (1990s) atrazine use was found to be a weak explanatory variable, perhaps because it does not represent the use of atrazine at the time of recharge of the sampled groundwater and because the likelihood that these compounds will reach the water table is affected by other factors operating within the unsaturated zone, such as soil characteristics, artificial drainage, and water movement. Results show that only about 5% of agricultural areas have greater than a 10% probability of exceeding the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 3.0 μg L-1. These models are not developed for regulatory purposes but rather can be used to (i) identify areas of potential concern, (ii) provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of atrazine residues in deeper potential drinking water supplies, and (iii) set priorities

  7. Distinct Detoxification Mechanisms Confer Resistance to Mesotrione and Atrazine in a Population of Waterhemp1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rong; Kaundun, Shiv S.; Tranel, Patrick J.; Riggins, Chance W.; McGinness, Daniel L.; Hager, Aaron G.; Hawkes, Tim; McIndoe, Eddie; Riechers, Dean E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research reported the first case of resistance to mesotrione and other 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) herbicides in a waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) population designated MCR (for McLean County mesotrione- and atrazine-resistant). Herein, experiments were conducted to determine if target site or nontarget site mechanisms confer mesotrione resistance in MCR. Additionally, the basis for atrazine resistance was investigated in MCR and an atrazine-resistant but mesotrione-sensitive population (ACR for Adams County mesotrione-sensitive but atrazine-resistant). A standard sensitive population (WCS for Wayne County herbicide-sensitive) was also used for comparison. Mesotrione resistance was not due to an alteration in HPPD sequence, HPPD expression, or reduced herbicide absorption. Metabolism studies using whole plants and excised leaves revealed that the time for 50% of absorbed mesotrione to degrade in MCR was significantly shorter than in ACR and WCS, which correlated with previous phenotypic responses to mesotrione and the quantity of the metabolite 4-hydroxy-mesotrione in excised leaves. The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitors malathion and tetcyclacis significantly reduced mesotrione metabolism in MCR and corn (Zea mays) excised leaves but not in ACR. Furthermore, malathion increased mesotrione activity in MCR seedlings in greenhouse studies. These results indicate that enhanced oxidative metabolism contributes significantly to mesotrione resistance in MCR. Sequence analysis of atrazine-resistant (MCR and ACR) and atrazine-sensitive (WCS) waterhemp populations detected no differences in the psbA gene. The times for 50% of absorbed atrazine to degrade in corn, MCR, and ACR leaves were shorter than in WCS, and a polar metabolite of atrazine was detected in corn, MCR, and ACR that cochromatographed with a synthetic atrazine-glutathione conjugate. Thus, elevated rates of metabolism via distinct detoxification mechanisms contribute to

  8. Atrazine biodegradation efficiency, metabolite detection, and trzD gene expression by enrichment bacterial cultures from agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Robinson David Jebakumar; Kumar, Amit; Satheeja Santhi, Velayudhan

    2013-12-01

    Atrazine is a selective herbicide used in agricultural fields to control the emergence of broadleaf and grassy weeds. The persistence of this herbicide is influenced by the metabolic action of habituated native microorganisms. This study provides information on the occurrence of atrazine mineralizing bacterial strains with faster metabolizing ability. The enrichment cultures were tested for the biodegradation of atrazine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. Nine cultures JS01.Deg01 to JS09.Deg01 were identified as the degrader of atrazine in the enrichment culture. The three isolates JS04.Deg01, JS07.Deg01, and JS08.Deg01 were identified as efficient atrazine metabolizers. Isolates JS04.Deg01 and JS07.Deg01 produced hydroxyatrazine (HA) N-isopropylammelide and cyanuric acid by dealkylation reaction. The isolate JS08.Deg01 generated deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), and cyanuric acid by N-dealkylation in the upper degradation pathway and later it incorporated cyanuric acid in their biomass by the lower degradation pathway. The optimum pH for degrading atrazine by JS08.Deg01 was 7.0 and 16S rDNA phylogenetic typing identified it as Enterobacter cloacae strain JS08.Deg01. The highest atrazine mineralization was observed in case of isolate JS08.Deg01, where an ample amount of trzD mRNA was quantified at 72 h of incubation with atrazine. Atrazine bioremediating isolate E. cloacae strain JS08.Deg01 could be the better environmental remediator of agricultural soils and the crop fields contaminated with atrazine could be the source of the efficient biodegrading microbial strains for the environmental cleanup process.

  9. Atrazine biodegradation efficiency, metabolite detection, and trzD gene expression by enrichment bacterial cultures from agricultural soil

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Robinson David Jebakumar; Kumar, Amit; Satheeja Santhi, Velayudhan

    2013-01-01

    Atrazine is a selective herbicide used in agricultural fields to control the emergence of broadleaf and grassy weeds. The persistence of this herbicide is influenced by the metabolic action of habituated native microorganisms. This study provides information on the occurrence of atrazine mineralizing bacterial strains with faster metabolizing ability. The enrichment cultures were tested for the biodegradation of atrazine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. Nine cultures JS01.Deg01 to JS09.Deg01 were identified as the degrader of atrazine in the enrichment culture. The three isolates JS04.Deg01, JS07.Deg01, and JS08.Deg01 were identified as efficient atrazine metabolizers. Isolates JS04.Deg01 and JS07.Deg01 produced hydroxyatrazine (HA) N-isopropylammelide and cyanuric acid by dealkylation reaction. The isolate JS08.Deg01 generated deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), and cyanuric acid by N-dealkylation in the upper degradation pathway and later it incorporated cyanuric acid in their biomass by the lower degradation pathway. The optimum pH for degrading atrazine by JS08.Deg01 was 7.0 and 16S rDNA phylogenetic typing identified it as Enterobacter cloacae strain JS08.Deg01. The highest atrazine mineralization was observed in case of isolate JS08.Deg01, where an ample amount of trzD mRNA was quantified at 72 h of incubation with atrazine. Atrazine bioremediating isolate E. cloacae strain JS08.Deg01 could be the better environmental remediator of agricultural soils and the crop fields contaminated with atrazine could be the source of the efficient biodegrading microbial strains for the environmental cleanup process. PMID:24302716

  10. Enzymatic vegetable organic extracts as soil biochemical biostimulants and atrazine extenders.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, Ana María; Tejada, Manuel; Díaz, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Bautista, Juan; Parrado, Juan

    2010-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to gather information on the potential effects of organic biostimulants on soil activity and atrazine biodegradation. Carob germ enzymatic extract (CGEE) and wheat condensed distiller solubles enzymatic extract (WCDS-EE) have been obtained using an enzymatic process; their main organic components are soluble carbohydrates and proteins in the form of peptides and free amino acids. Their application to soil results in high biostimulation, rapidly increased dehydrogenase, phosphatase and glucosidase activities, and an observed atrazine extender capacity due to inhibition of its mineralization. The extender capacity of both extracts is proportional to the protein/carbohydrate ratio content. As a result, these enzymatic extracts are highly microbially available, leading to two independent phenomena, fertility and an atrazine persistence that is linked to increased soil activity.

  11. Enhanced adsorption of atrazine from aqueous solution by molecularly imprinted TiO2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunjing; Yan, Jinlong; Zhang, Chunxiao; Yang, Zhengpeng

    2012-07-01

    TiO2 film imprinted by atrazine molecule at the surface of quartz crystal was prepared using molecular imprinting and surface sol-gel process. The molecularly imprinted TiO2 film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry, and the atrazine adsorption was investigated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. In comparison with non-imprinted TiO2 film, the molecularly imprinted TiO2 film exhibits high selectivity for atrazine, better reversibility and a much higher adsorption capacity for the target molecule, the adsorption equilibrium constant estimated from the in situ frequency measurement is about 6.7 × 104 M-1, which is thirteen times higher than that obtained on non-imprinted TiO2 film.

  12. Growth, fecundity and glycogen utilization in Lymnaea palustris exposed to atrazine and hexachlorobenzene in freshwater mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Baturo, W.; Lagadic, L.; Caquet, T.

    1995-03-01

    Freshwater mesocosms were used to study the long-term sublethal effects of atrazine and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on a basommatophoran gastropod, Lymnaea palustris (Mueller). Growth, fecundity, and biochemical parameters related to polysaccharide metabolism of pesticide-exposed snails were compared with those of control animals maintained in untreated mesocosms. HCB inhibited body growth and stimulated egg production, whereas atrazine had no relevant effect on these physiological parameters. Also, HCB stimulated the activity of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes, suggesting that changes in the metabolism of reserve polysaccharides (glycogen) may be involved in the inhibition of growth and increase of fecundity. In contrast, atrazine had no effect on the metabolism of polysaccharides. It is concluded that the effects of HCB are related to its neurotoxicity that would have affected the neurohormonal control of growth and reproduction of exposed snails. It is suggested that polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes may be used as biomarkers to predict the effects of neurotoxic pesticides on freshwater snail populations.

  13. Mobility of atrazine from alginate-bentonite controlled release formulations in layered soil.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, M; González-Pradas, E; Villafranca-Sánchez, M; Flores-Céspedes, F

    2001-04-01

    The mobility of atrazine [6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] from alginate-bentonite-based controlled release (CR) formulations was investigated by using soil columns. Two CR formulations based on sodium alginate (14.0 g kg(-1), atrazine (6.0 g kg(-1), natural or acid-treated bentonite (50 g kg(-1), and water (924 g kg(-1) were compared to technical grade product and commercial liquid (CL) formulation (Gesaprim 500FW). All herbicide treatments were applied to duplicate layered bed systems simulating the typical arrangement under a plastic greenhouse, which is composed of sand (10 cm), peat (2 cm), amended soil (20 cm) and native soil (20 cm). The columns were leached with 39 cm (1500 ml) and 156 cm (6000 ml) of 0.02 M CaCl2 solution to evaluate the effect of water volume applied on herbicide movement. When 39 cm of 0.02 M CaCl2 solution was applied, there was no presence of herbicide in the leachate for the alginate-bentonite CR treatments. However, 0.11% and 0.14% of atrazine appeared in the leachate when the treatment was carried out with technical grade and CL formulations, respectively. When 156 cm of 0.02 M CaCl2 solution was applied, the use of the alginate-acid treated bentonite CR formulation retards and reduces the presence of atrazine in the leachate as compared to technical product. Analysis of the soil columns showed the highest atrazine concentration in the peat layer. Alginate-bentonite CR formulations might be an efficient system for reducing atrazine leaching in layered soil and thus, it could reduce the risks of pollution of groundwater.

  14. Fracture-controlled nitrate and atrazine transport in four Iowa till units.

    PubMed

    Helmke, Martin F; Simpkins, William W; Horton, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Fractures in till may provide pathways for agricultural chemicals to contaminate aquifers and surface waters. This study was conducted to quantify the influence of fractures on solute fate and transport using three conservative and two nonconservative tracers. The conservative tracers were potassium bromide (KBr), pentafluorobenzoic acid (PFBA), and 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid disodium salt (PIPES); the nonconservative tracers were nitrate and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine]. Three sites in Iowa were investigated, including four late Wisconsinan and Pre-Illinoian tills. Laboratory tracer experiments were conducted using eight large (0.4-0.45 m long by 0.43 m in diameter), undisturbed columns of till collected from depths of 1 to 28 m. The tills were densely fractured, with fracture spacing ranging from 3.8 to 10.4 cm. First arrival velocities of Br- ranged from 0.004 to 64.8 m d(-1), 10 to 100 times faster than predicted for unfractured media. Nitrate behaved as a conservative tracer in weathered till columns, but degraded during experiments using deeper tills. Sorption caused retardation of atrazine in the shallowest four columns. Atrazine degradation occurred in deeper columns as demonstrated by deviations between atrazine and the conservative tracers. Mobile-immobile model (MIM) simulations estimated first-order exchange coefficients (alpha) ranging from 1 x 10(-8) to 1.7 x 10(-2) s(-1), sorption coefficients (K(d)) for atrazine ranging from 2.6 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-3) m3 kg(-1), and degradation half-lives ranging from 0.24 to 67 d (nitrate) and 1.6 to 277 d (atrazine). This study suggests that aquifers and surface waters associated with thin, fractured till units may be vulnerable to contamination, yet deeper aquifers may be protected by these materials due to increased residence times provided by matrix diffusion.

  15. Atrazine chlorohydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP: gene sequence, enzyme purification, and protein characterization.

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, M L; Sadowsky, M J; Wackett, L P

    1996-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP metabolizes atrazine to carbon dioxide and ammonia via the intermediate hydroxyatrazine. The genetic potential to produce hydroxyatrazine was previously attributed to a 1.9-kb AvaI DNA fragment from strain ADP (M. L. de Souza, L. P. Wackett, K. L. Boundy-Mills, R. T. Mandelbaum, and M. J. Sadowsky, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:3373-3378, 1995). In this study, sequence analysis of the 1.9-kb AvaI fragment indicated that a single open reading frame, atzA, encoded an activity transforming atrazine to hydroxyatrazine. The open reading frame for the chlorohydrolase was determined by sequencing to be 1,419 nucleotides and encodes a 473-amino-acid protein with a predicted subunit molecular weight of 52,421. The deduced amino acid sequence matched the first 10 amino acids determined by protein microsequencing. The protein AtzA was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography. The subunit and holoenzyme molecular weights were 60,000 and 245,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography, respectively. The purified enzyme in H2(18)O yielded [18O]hydroxyatrazine, indicating that AtzA is a chlorohydrolase and not an oxygenase. The most related protein sequence in GenBank was that of TrzA, 41% identity, from Rhodococcus corallinus NRRL B-15444R. TrzA catalyzes the deamination of melamine and the dechlorination of deethylatrazine and desisopropylatrazine but is not active with atrazine. AtzA catalyzes the dechlorination of atrazine, simazine, and desethylatrazine but is not active with melamine, terbutylazine, or desethyldesisopropylatrazine. Our results indicate that AtzA is a novel atrazine-dechlorinating enzyme with fairly restricted substrate specificity and contributes to the microbial hydrolysis of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine in soils and groundwater. PMID:8759853

  16. Cooperative catabolic pathways within an atrazine-degrading enrichment culture isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel; Alvey, Sam; Crowley, David E

    2005-07-01

    Atrazine degradation previously has been shown to be carried out by individual bacterial species or by relatively simple consortia that have been isolated using enrichment cultures. Here, the degradative pathway for atrazine was examined for a complex 8-membered enrichment culture. The species composition of the culture was determined by PCR-DGGE. The bacterial species included Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Caulobacter crescentus, Pseudomonas putida, Sphingomonas yaniokuyae, Nocardia sp., Rhizobium sp., Flavobacterium oryzihabitans, and Variovorax paradoxus. All of the isolates were screened for the presence of known genes that function for atrazine degradation including atzA,-B,-C,-D,-E,-F and trzD,-N. Dechlorination of atrazine, which was obligatory for complete mineralization, was carried out exclusively by Nocardia sp., which contained the trzN gene. Following dechlorination, the resulting product, hydroxyatrazine was further degraded via two separate pathways. In one pathway Nocardia converted hydroxyatrazine to N-ethylammelide via an unidentified gene product. In the second pathway, hydroxyatrazine generated by Nocardia sp. was hydrolyzed to N-isopropylammelide by Rhizobium sp., which contained the atzB gene. Each member of the enrichment culture contained atzC, which is responsible for ring cleavage, but none of the isolates carried the atzD,-E, or -F genes. Each member further contained either trzD or exhibited urease activity. The enrichment culture was destabilized by loss of Nocardia sp. when grown on ethylamine, ethylammelide, and cyanuric acid, after which the consortium was no longer able to degrade atrazine. The analysis of this enrichment culture highlights the broad level bacterial community interactions that may be involved in atrazine degradation in nature.

  17. Atrazine and Diuron partitioning within a soil-water-surfactant system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Keller, A.

    2006-12-01

    The interaction between pesticide and soil and water is even more complex in the presence of surfactants. In this study, batch equilibrium was employed to study the sorption of surfactants and the partitioning behaviors of Atrazine and Diuron within a soil-water-surfactant system. Five soils and four surfactants (nonionic Triton- 100, cationic Benzalkonium Chloride (BC), anionic Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS), and anionic Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)) were used. All surfactant sorption isotherms exhibited an initial linear increase at low surfactant concentrations but reached an asymptotic value as the surfactant concentrations increased. Among the surfactants, BC had the highest sorption onto all soils, followed by Triton-100 and then by LAS and SDS, implying that the nature of the charge significantly influences surfactant sorption. Sorption of either Triton-100 or BC was highly correlated with soil Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) while that of LAS and SDS was complicated by the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the aqueous phase and the CEC sites. Both LAS and SDS formed complexes with Ca2+ and Mg2+, resulting in a significant decrease in the detergency of the surfactants. At high surfactant concentrations and with micelles present in the aqueous phase, the micelles formed a more competitive partitioning site for the pesticides, resulting in less pesticide sorbed to the soil. At low Triton-100 and BC concentration, the sorption of the surfactants first resulted in less Atrazine sorption but more Diuron sorption, implying competition between the surfactants and Atrazine, which serves as an indirect evidence that there is a different sorption mechanism for Atrazine. Atrazine is a weak base and it protonates and becomes positively charged near particle surfaces where the pH is much lower than in the bulk solution. The protonated Atrazine may then be held on the CEC sites via electrostatic attraction. Triton-100, LAS and SDS sorbed on the soil showed similar

  18. Persistence and movement of atrazine in a salt marsh sediment microecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Isensee, A.R.

    1987-09-01

    Pesticides enter salt marshes in runoff from agricultural lands or through direct or near-by application. Concern has been raised that the tidal action in the salt marsh that functions to trap sediment and nutrients may also function to concentrate pesticides to harmful levels. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of pesticides on representative species of salt marsh ecosystems. This paper describes the use of a modified salt marsh microecosystem to evaluate persistence and movement of atrazine in salt marsh sediment under simulated tidal flux and continuous flooding conditions. Atrazine persistence was also compared under normal field conditions.

  19. Method for Estimating Annual Atrazine Use for Counties in the Conterminous United States, 1992-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thelin, Gail P.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed to estimate annual atrazine use during 1992 to 2007 on sixteen crops and four agricultural land uses. For each year, atrazine use was estimated for all counties in the conterminous United States (except California) by combining (1) proprietary data from the Doane Marketing Research-Kynetec (DMRK) AgroTrak database on the mass of atrazine applied to agricultural crops, (2) county harvested crop acreage, by county, from the 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007 Censuses of Agriculture, and (3) annual harvested crop acreage from National Agriculture Statistics Service (NASS) for non-Census years. DMRK estimates of pesticide use on individual crops were derived from surveys of major field crops and selected specialty crops in multicounty areas referred to as Crop Reporting Districts (CRD). The CRD-level atrazine-use estimates were disaggregated to obtain county-level application rates by dividing the mass (pounds) of pesticides applied to a crop by the acreage of that crop in the CRD to yield a rate per harvested acre. When atrazine-use estimates were not available for a CRD, crop, or year, an estimated rate was developed following a hierarchy of decision rules that checked first for the availability of a crop application rate from surveyed atrazine application rate(s) for adjacent CRDs for a specific year, and second, the rates from surveyed CRDs within for U.S. Department of Agriculture Farm Production Regions for a specific year or multiple years. The estimation method applied linear interpolation to estimate crop acreage for years when harvested acres for a crop and county were not reported in either the Census of Agriculture or the NASS database, but were reported by these data sources for other years for that crop and county. Data for atrazine use for the counties in California was obtained from farmers' reports of pesticide use collected and published by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation-Pesticide Use Reporting (DPR-PUR) because these

  20. Update of Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) for Predicting Atrazine Concentration in Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Regression models for predicting atrazine concentrations in streams were updated by incorporating refined annual atrazine-use estimates and by adding an explanatory variable representing annual precipitation characteristics. The updated Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models enable improved predictions of specific pesticide-concentration statistics for unmonitored streams. for unmonitored streams. Separate WARP regression models were derived for selected percentiles (5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th and 95th), annual mean, annual maximum, and annual maximum moving-average (21-, 60-, and 90-day durations) concentration statistics. Development of the regression models involved the same model-development data, model-validation data, and regression methods as those used in the original development of WARP. The original WARP models were based on atrazine-use estimates from either 1992 or 1997. This update of the WARP models incorporates annual atrazine-use estimates. In addition, annual precipitation data were evaluated as potential explanatory variables. as potential explanatory variables. The updated WARP models include the same five explanatory variables and transformations that were used in the original WARP models, including the new annual atrazine-use data. The models also include a sixth explanatory variable, total precipitation during May and June of the year of sampling. The updated WARP models account for as much as 82 percent of the variability in the concentration statistics among the 112 sites used for model development, whereas previous WARP models accounted for no more than 77 percent. Concentration statistics predicted by the 95th percentile, annual mean, annual maximum and annual maximum moving-average concentration models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentration statistics for most of the model development and validation sites. Overall, performance of the models for the development and validation sites supports

  1. Effect of Copper, Irgarol and Atrazine on Epiphytes Attached to Artificial Devices for Coastal Ecotoxicology Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Elena; Lozano, Pablo; Blasco, Julián; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio

    2013-10-12

    Toxic effects of copper, atrazine and irgarol were evaluated on epiphytes attached to mimes (artificial devices that mimic the morphology of seagrasses) in order to check sensitivity of this biological group. Tube-dwelling diatoms were the major component of the epiphyte community. Superoxide dismutase activity was enhanced by exposure to 25 and 50 μg L(-1) of atrazine; the organism generates this antioxidant response to prevent cellular damage by removing reactive oxygen substances produced by oxidative stress. The measurement of antioxidant enzymatic activity in epiphytes could be a useful technique for ecotoxicology monitoring in marine coastal environments.

  2. Pesticides in streams in the Tar-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina, 1992-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodside, Michael D.; Ruhl, Kelly E.

    2001-01-01

    From 1992 to 1994, 147 water samples were collected at 5 sites in the Tar-Pamlico drainage basin in North Carolina and analyzed for 46 herbicides, insecticides, and pesticide metabolites as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Based on a common adjusted detection limit of 0.01 microgram per liter, the most frequently detected herbicides were metolachlor (84 percent), atrazine (78 percent), alachlor (72 percent), and prometon (57 percent). The insecticides detected most frequently were carbaryl (12 percent), carbofuran (7 percent), and diazinon (4 percent). Although the pesticides with the highest estimated uses generally were the compounds detected most frequently, there was not a strong correlation between estimated use and detection frequency. The development of statistical correlations between pesticide use and detection frequency was limited by the lack of information on pesticides commonly applied in urban and agricultural areas, such as prometon, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon, and the small number of basins included in this study. For example, prometon had the fourth highest detection frequency, but use information was not available. Nevertheless, the high detection frequency of prometon indicates that nonagricultural uses also contribute to pesticide levels in streams in the Tar-Pamlico drainage basin. Concentrations of the herbicides atrazine, alachlor, and trifluralin varied seasonally, with elevated concentrations generally occurring in the spring, during and immediately following application periods, and in the summer. Seasonal concentration patterns were less evident for prometon, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos. Alachlor is the only pesticide detected in concentrations that exceeded current (2000) drinking-water standards.

  3. Occurrence of pesticides in transboundary aquifers of North-eastern Greece.

    PubMed

    Vryzas, Zisis; Papadakis, Emmanuel N; Vassiliou, George; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2012-12-15

    A five-year groundwater monitoring program undertaken in Evros (north-east Greece), showed a diversification in the levels of pesticide residues detected in adjacent transboundary aquifers. During the first two years 37 wells, including irrigation, drinking water and artesian wells were monitored while the next three years the survey was focused on the 11 most contaminated wells. The presence of pesticide residues was also monitored in the phreatic horizon (shallow groundwater) of four experimental boreholes drilled in the respective margins of four fields. Among the compounds found alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, desethylatrazine (DEA), desisopropylatrazine (DIA) and caffeine were constantly detected. Pesticide concentrations were much lower (up to 1.54 μg/L) in the water of the monitored drinking water wells (deep groundwater aquifers) compared to those found in the phreatic horizon (experimental boreholes) of the respective areas (up to 5.20 μg/L). DEA to atrazine concentration ratios (DAR) determined for the phreatic horizon of the three boreholes and respective wells were lower than 1, indicating that preferential flow was the cause of the fast downward movement of atrazine to the phreatic horizon. In contrast the DAR for the fourth borehole and the adjacent well were greater than 1 indicating the absence of preferential flow of atrazine. Catabolic processes of the soil converted atrazine to DEA which is more mobile than atrazine itself through chromatographic (darcian) flow. This differential behavior of pesticides in adjacent aquifers (3 km) was further investigated by determining the apparent age of water in the two wells. The apparent age of the water present in the first aquifer was 21.7 years whereas the apparent age of that in the second aquifer was approximately 1.2 years. The faster replenishing rate of the latter is an indication that this aquifer is very vulnerable to contamination with pollutants present in the infiltrated soil water.

  4. Sensitive detection of atrazine in tap water using TELISA.

    PubMed

    Qie, Zhiwei; Bai, Jialei; Xie, Bin; Yuan, Lin; Song, Nan; Peng, Yuan; Fan, Xianjun; Zhou, Huanying; Chen, Fengchun; Li, Shuang; Ning, Baoan; Gao, Zhixian

    2015-08-07

    A highly sensitive flow injection analysis (FIA)-based thermal enzyme-linked immunoassay, TELISA, was developed for the rapid detection of atrazine (ATZ) in tap water. ATZ and β-lactamase-labeled ATZ were employed in a competitive immunoassay using a monoclonal antibody (mAb). After the off-column liquid-phase competition, the mAb was captured on the Protein G Sepharose™ 4 Fast Flow (PGSFF) column support material. Injected β-lactamase substrate ampicillin was degraded by the column-bound ATZ-β-lactamase, generating a detectable heat signal. Several assay parameters were optimized, including substrate concentration, flow rates and regeneration conditions, as well as the mAb and ATZ-β dilution ratios and concentrations. The assay linear range was 0.73-4.83 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.66 ng mL(-1). An entire heat signal requires 10 min for generation, and the cycle time is less than 40 min. The results were reproducible and stable. ATZ-spiked tap water samples exhibited a recovery rate of 103%-116%, which correlated with the UHPLC-MS/MS measurements. We attributed this significant increase in sensitivity over our previously published work to the following factors: (i) the capture of already-formed immune complexes on the column via immobilized Protein G, which eliminated chemical immobilization of the antibody; (ii) off-column preincubation allows the formation of immune complexes under nearly ideal conditions; and (iii) multiple buffers can be used to, in one case, enhance immune-complex formation and in the other to maximize enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the scheme creates a universal assay platform in which sensing is performed in the off-column incubation and detection after capture in the enzyme thermistor (ET) detector, which opens up the possibility of detecting any antigen for which antibodies were available.

  5. Simultaneous removal of atrazine and copper using polyacrylic acid-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon from water: adsorption mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yaoyu; Zhang, Fengfeng; Tang, Lin; Zhang, Jiachao; Zeng, Guangming; Luo, Lin; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Pei; Peng, Bo; Liu, Xiaocheng

    2017-03-01

    Highly efficient simultaneous removal of atrazine and Cu(II) was accomplished using synthesized polyacrylic acid-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (P-MMC) as compared to magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (MMC) and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). The mutual effects and interactive mechanism of their adsorption onto P-MMC were investigated systematically by binary, preloading and thermodynamic adsorption procedures. In both binary and preloading systems, the adsorption of atrazine was inhibited to some extent by the presence of Cu(II) because of selective recognition and direct competition, but the presence of atrazine had negligible effect on Cu(II) desorption. With the coexistence of humic acid (0–20 mg L‑1), both atrazine and Cu(II) sorption increased slightly in sole and binary systems. With the concentration of coexisting NaCl increasing from 0 to 100 mM, the adsorption capacity for Cu(II) slightly decreased, but as for atrazine adsorption, it decreased at first, and then increased slightly in sole and binary systems. P-MMC was applied to treat real environmental samples, and the sorption capacities for atrazine and Cu(II) in real samples were all more than 91.47% and 96.43% of those in lab ultrapure water, respectively. Finally, comprehensively considering the relatively good renewability and the superior behavior in the application to real water samples, P-MMC has potential in removal of atrazine, Cu(II) and possibly other persistent organic pollutants from wastewater.

  6. The possible role of hydroxylation in the detoxification of atrazine in mature vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides Nash) grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Marcacci, Sylvie; Raventon, Muriel; Ravanel, Patrick; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The resistance mechanism of vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) to atrazine was investigated to evaluate its potential for phytoremediation of environment contaminated with the herbicide. Plants known to metabolise atrazine rely on hydroxylation mediated by benzoxazinones, conjugation catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases and dealkylation probably mediated by cytochromes P450. All three possibilities were explored in mature vetiver grown in hydroponics during this research project. Here we report on the chemical role of benzoxazinones in the transformation of atrazine. Fresh vetiver roots and leaves were cut to extract and study their content in benzoxazinones known to hydroxylate atrazine, such as 2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA), 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) and their mono- and di-glucosylated forms. Identification of benzoxazinones was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and comparison of retention factors (Rf) and UV spectra with standards: although some products exhibited the same Rf as standards, UV spectra were different. Furthermore, in vitro hydroxylation of atrazine could not be detected in the presence of vetiver extracts. Finally, vetiver organs exposed to [14C]-atrazine did not produce any significant amount of hydroxylated products, such as hydroxyatrazine (HATR), hydroxy-deethylatrazine (HDEA), and hydroxy-deisopropylatrazine (HDIA). Altogether, these metabolic features suggest that hydroxylation was not a major metabolic pathway of atrazine in vetiver.

  7. Simultaneous removal of atrazine and copper using polyacrylic acid-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon from water: adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yaoyu; Zhang, Fengfeng; Tang, Lin; Zhang, Jiachao; Zeng, Guangming; Luo, Lin; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Pei; Peng, Bo; Liu, Xiaocheng

    2017-03-02

    Highly efficient simultaneous removal of atrazine and Cu(II) was accomplished using synthesized polyacrylic acid-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (P-MMC) as compared to magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (MMC) and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). The mutual effects and interactive mechanism of their adsorption onto P-MMC were investigated systematically by binary, preloading and thermodynamic adsorption procedures. In both binary and preloading systems, the adsorption of atrazine was inhibited to some extent by the presence of Cu(II) because of selective recognition and direct competition, but the presence of atrazine had negligible effect on Cu(II) desorption. With the coexistence of humic acid (0-20 mg L(-1)), both atrazine and Cu(II) sorption increased slightly in sole and binary systems. With the concentration of coexisting NaCl increasing from 0 to 100 mM, the adsorption capacity for Cu(II) slightly decreased, but as for atrazine adsorption, it decreased at first, and then increased slightly in sole and binary systems. P-MMC was applied to treat real environmental samples, and the sorption capacities for atrazine and Cu(II) in real samples were all more than 91.47% and 96.43% of those in lab ultrapure water, respectively. Finally, comprehensively considering the relatively good renewability and the superior behavior in the application to real water samples, P-MMC has potential in removal of atrazine, Cu(II) and possibly other persistent organic pollutants from wastewater.

  8. Impact of soil primary size fractions on sorption and desorption of atrazine on organo-mineral fractions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yufen; Liu, Zhongzhen; He, Yan; Li, Yanliang

    2015-03-01

    In the current study, a mechanical dispersion method was employed to separate clay (<2 μm), silt (2-20 μm), and sand (20-50 μm) fraction in six bulk soils. Batch equilibrium method was used to conduct atrazine sorption and desorption experiments on soil organo-mineral fractions with bulk soils and their contrasting size fractions separately. The potential contribution of total organic carbon (TOC) for atrazine retention in different fractions was further investigated. It was found that clay fraction had the highest adsorption but the least desorption capacities for atrazine, while sand fraction had the lowest adsorption but the highest desorption capacities for atrazine. The adsorption percentage of atrazine, as compared with adsorption by the corresponding bulk soils, ranged from 53.6 to 80.5%, 35.7 to 56.4%, and 0.2 to 4.5% on the clay, silt, and sand fractions, respectively. TOC was one of the key factors affecting atrazine retention in soils, with the exact contribution dependent on varying degree of coating with mineral component in different soil size fractions. The current study may be useful to predict the bioavailability of atrazine in different soil size fractions.

  9. Role of eaq⁻, ·OH and H· in radiolytic degradation of atrazine: a kinetic and mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Khan, Javed Ali; Shah, Noor S; Nawaz, Shah; Ismail, M; Rehman, Faiza; Khan, Hasan M

    2015-05-15

    The degradation of atrazine was investigated in aqueous solution by gamma-ray irradiation. 8.11 μM initial atrazine concentration could be completely removed in N₂ saturated solution by applying 3500 Gy radiation dose at a dose rate of 296 Gy h(-1). Significant removal of atrazine (i.e., 39.4%) was observed at an absorbed dose of 1184 Gy in air saturated solution and the removal efficiency was promoted to 50.5 and 65.4% in the presence of N₂O and N₂ gases, respectively. The relative contributions of hydrated electron, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen radical toward atrazine degradation were determined as ratio of observed dose constant (kobs) and found to be 5: 3: 1 for keaq(-): k·OH: kH·, respectively. The degradation efficiency of atrazine was 69.5, 55.6 and 37.3% at pH 12.1, 1.7 and 5.7, respectively. A degradation mechanism was proposed based on the identified degradation by-products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Taking the relative contributions of oxidative and reductive species to atrazine degradation into account, reductive pathway proved to be a better approach for the radiolytic treatment of atrazine contaminated water.

  10. The long-term effects of the herbicide atrazine on the dopaminergic system following exposure during pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanshu; Sun, Yan; Yang, Junwei; Wu, Yanping; Yu, Jia; Li, Baixiang

    2014-03-15

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) is used worldwide as a herbicide, and its presence in the environment has resulted in documented human exposure. Atrazine has been shown to cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity. The juvenile period is particularly vulnerable to environmental agents, but only few studies have investigated the long-term effects of atrazine following exposure during the pubertal development. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a 41-day exposure to atrazine on the dopaminergic system in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with atrazine at 25 or 50mg/kg bw, daily from postnatal day 22 to 62. The content of dopamine (DA) was examined in striatum samples by HPLC-FL, and the mRNA and protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), orphan nuclear hormone (Nurr1), dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoaminetransporter 2 (VMAT2) were examined in samples of the ventral mid-brain by use of fluorescence PCR and Western-blot analysis when the rats reached the age of one year. Exposure of juvenile rats to the high dose of atrazine led to reduced levels of DA and mRNA of Nurr1 in one-year-old animals. This study shows that the long-term adverse effects of atrazine on the dopaminergic system have a special relevance after juvenile exposure.

  11. Oxidative decomposition of atrazine in water in the presence of hydrogen peroxide using an innovative microwave photochemical reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huilun; Bramanti, Emilia; Longo, Iginio; Onor, Massimo; Ferrari, Carlo

    2011-02-28

    The simultaneous application of microwave (MW) power and UV light leads to improved results in photochemical processes. This study investigates the oxidative decomposition of atrazine in water using an innovative MW and UV photochemical reactor, which activates a chemical reaction with MW and UV radiation using an immersed source without the need for a MW oven. We investigated the influence of reaction parameters such as initial H(2)O(2) concentrations, reaction temperatures and applied MW power and identified the optimal conditions for the oxidative decomposition of atrazine. Atrazine was completely degraded by MW/UV/H(2)O(2) in a very short time (i.e. t(1/2) = 1.1 min for 20.8 mg/L in optimal conditions). From the kinetic study, the disappearance rate of atrazine can be expressed as dX/dt = k(PH)[M](0)(b-X)(1-X), where b ≡ [H(2)O(2)](0)/[M](0)+k(OH)[·OH]/k(PH)[M](0), and X is the atrazine conversion, which correlates well with the experimental data. The kinetic analysis also showed that an indirect reaction of atrazine with an OH radical is dominant at low concentrations of H(2)O(2) and a direct reaction of atrazine with H(2)O(2) is dominant when the concentration of H(2)O(2) is more than 200 mg/L.

  12. Simultaneous removal of atrazine and copper using polyacrylic acid-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon from water: adsorption mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yaoyu; Zhang, Fengfeng; Tang, Lin; Zhang, Jiachao; Zeng, Guangming; Luo, Lin; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Pei; Peng, Bo; Liu, Xiaocheng

    2017-01-01

    Highly efficient simultaneous removal of atrazine and Cu(II) was accomplished using synthesized polyacrylic acid-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (P-MMC) as compared to magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (MMC) and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). The mutual effects and interactive mechanism of their adsorption onto P-MMC were investigated systematically by binary, preloading and thermodynamic adsorption procedures. In both binary and preloading systems, the adsorption of atrazine was inhibited to some extent by the presence of Cu(II) because of selective recognition and direct competition, but the presence of atrazine had negligible effect on Cu(II) desorption. With the coexistence of humic acid (0–20 mg L−1), both atrazine and Cu(II) sorption increased slightly in sole and binary systems. With the concentration of coexisting NaCl increasing from 0 to 100 mM, the adsorption capacity for Cu(II) slightly decreased, but as for atrazine adsorption, it decreased at first, and then increased slightly in sole and binary systems. P-MMC was applied to treat real environmental samples, and the sorption capacities for atrazine and Cu(II) in real samples were all more than 91.47% and 96.43% of those in lab ultrapure water, respectively. Finally, comprehensively considering the relatively good renewability and the superior behavior in the application to real water samples, P-MMC has potential in removal of atrazine, Cu(II) and possibly other persistent organic pollutants from wastewater. PMID:28252022

  13. Probability of detecting atrazine/desethyl-atrazine and elevated concentrations of nitrate plus nitrate as nitrogen in ground water in the Idaho part of the western Snake River Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.

    2000-01-01

    As ground water continues to provide an ever-growing proportion of Idaho?s drinking water, concerns about the quality of that resource are increasing. Pesticides (most commonly, atrazine/desethyl-atrazine, hereafter referred to as atrazine) and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (hereafter referred to as nitrate) have been detected in many aquifers in the State. To provide a sound hydrogeologic basis for atrazine and nitrate management in southern Idaho—the largest region of land and water use in the State—the U.S. Geological Survey produced maps showing the probability of detecting these contaminants in ground water in the upper Snake River Basin (published in a 1998 report) and the western Snake River Plain (published in this report). The atrazine probability map for the western Snake River Plain was constructed by overlaying ground-water quality data with hydrogeologic and anthropogenic data in a geographic information system (GIS). A data set was produced in which each well had corresponding information on land use, geology, precipitation, soil characteristics, regional depth to ground water, well depth, water level, and atrazine use. These data were analyzed by logistic regression using a statistical software package. Several preliminary multivariate models were developed and those that best predicted the detection of atrazine were selected. The multivariate models then were entered into a GIS and the probability maps were produced. Land use, precipitation, soil hydrologic group, and well depth were significantly correlated with atrazine detections in the western Snake River Plain. These variables also were important in the 1998 probability study of the upper Snake River Basin. The effectiveness of the probability models for atrazine might be improved if more detailed data were available for atrazine application. A preliminary atrazine probability map for the entire Snake River Plain in Idaho, based on a data set representing that region, also was produced

  14. New procedures for simultaneous determination of mesotrione and atrazine in water and soil. Comparison of the degradation processes of mesotrione and atrazine.

    PubMed

    Barchanska, Hanna; Rusek, Małgorzata; Szatkowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of residues of mesotrione, atrazine and its degradation products: deethylatrazine, hydroxyatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, desethyldesisopropylatrazine in a variety of water and soil matrices has been developed. Mesotrione is a new selective herbicide for use in corn, which has been substituted for atrazine, which has been banned in European Union countries since 2007. Although atrazine has not been used for three vegetative periods, it is still detected in the environment. The analysis was conducted by means of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The procedures for analyte separation from water and soil matrices were also established. The optimal conditions for solid-phase extraction (SPE) were determined. The recoveries were compared with that obtained by means of SPE. Method fortification recoveries from water samples averaged 78-97% and for soil 80-97% depending on the analyte and type of sample. The limits of detection were 0.04-0.61 μg/L for water samples and for soil samples 0.02-0.88 μg/g. The soil samples were collected in spring 2009 from three different fields with water samples being made from effluents from these fields. Samples collection was conducted in the day of mesotrione (Callisto 100SC) application and then done weekly, until the mesotrione concentration was below the limit of quantification. The results enabled the monitoring of mesotrione degradation in soil and its permeability into surface waters; simultaneously, the same studies were conducted for atrazine.

  15. Evaluation of the Agronomic Performance of Atrazine-Tolerant Transgenic japonica Rice Parental Lines for Utilization in Hybrid Seed Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9–7.0% or 0.8–8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0–59.2% or 28.1–30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production. PMID:25275554

  16. Microscopic examination on cytological changes in Allium cepa and shift in phytoplankton population at different doses of Atrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Finger, Kristen; Usnick, Samantha; Rogers, William J.; Das, A. B.; Smith, Don W.

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is a wide-range herbicide. For over 50 years, atrazine has been used as a selective broadleaf herbicide in many capacities, from pre-plant to pre-emergence to post-emergence, depending on the crop and application. Currently, 96% of all atrazine used is for commercial applications in fields for the control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, corn, sugarcane, pineapple and for the control of undesirable weeds in rangeland. Many panhandle wells have also detected atrazine in samples taken. The concern for the public is the long-term effect of atrazine with its increasing popularity, and the impact on public health. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on Allium cepa (onion), a standard plant test system. We established a control with the Allium bulbs grown on hydroponics culture. Varying concentrations of atrazine was used on the standard plant test system, Allium cepa grown hydroponically. The mitotic indices varied and with higher doses, we observed various chromosomal abnormalities including sticky bridges, early and late separations, and lag chromosomes with higher doses of treatments. In the second part of the experiment, 0.1ppb, 1ppb, 10ppb, and 100ppb concentrations of atrazine were applied to established phytoplankton cultures from the Lake Tanglewood, Texas. Study with a Sedgwick-Rafter counter, a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 camera revealed a gradual shift in the phytoplankton community from obligatory to facultative autotroph and finally to a parasitic planktonic community. This explains the periodic fish kill in the lakes after applications of atrazine in crop fields.

  17. Atrazine Triggers DNA Damage Response and Induces DNA Double-Strand Breaks in MCF-10A Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Ning, Jie; Wang, Michael; Song, Qisheng

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a pre-emergent herbicide in the chloro-s-triazine family, has been widely used in crop lands and often detected in agriculture watersheds, which is considered as a potential threat to human health. Although atrazine and its metabolites showed an elevated incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, no molecular evidence was found relevant to its carcinogenesis in humans. This study aims to determine whether atrazine could induce the expression of DNA damage response-related proteins in normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and to examine the cytotoxicity of atrazine at a molecular level. Our results indicate that a short-term exposure of MCF-10A to an environmentally-detectable concentration of atrazine (0.1 µg/mL) significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) and phosphorylated Rad17 in the cells. Atrazine treatment increased H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) and the formation of γH2AX foci in the nuclei of MCF-10A cells. Atrazine also sequentially elevated DNA damage checkpoint proteins of ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR), ATRIP and phospho-Chk1, suggesting that atrazine could induce DNA double-strand breaks and trigger the DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway in MCF-10A cells. Further investigations are needed to determine whether atrazine-triggered DNA double-strand breaks and DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway occur in vivo. PMID:26114388

  18. Evaluation of the agronomic performance of atrazine-tolerant transgenic japonica rice parental lines for utilization in hybrid seed production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luhua; Chen, Haiwei; Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently,