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Sample records for alaghband blue sky

  1. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  2. Blue Skies Research and the global economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2002-11-01

    Robert Solow's seminal work of the 1950s showed that science and technology are major sources of long-term global economic growth. But we have recently changed the ways that science and technology are managed. Industrial and academic research once thrived on individual freedom and flair. Progressively for the past three decades or so, however, research has been focused on short-term objectives selected by consensus. Global per-capita growth has steadily declined. Scientific enterprise is losing diversity. Blue Skies Research can help to restore diversity and to create the new technologies that can stimulate growth, but funding agencies nowadays rarely allow total freedom. A new coefficient of adventurousness is described. Its use, or other means, may help restore economic growth to its former levels.

  3. The BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D. C.; Larkin, N.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; ONeill, S. M.; Leung, F. T.; Qu, J. J.; Hao, X.

    2012-12-01

    BlueSky systems—a set of decision support tools including SmartFire and the BlueSky Framework—aid public policy decision makers and scientific researchers in evaluating the air quality impacts of fires. Smoke and fire managers use BlueSky systems in decisions about prescribed burns and wildland firefighting. Air quality agencies use BlueSky systems to support decisions related to air quality regulations. We will discuss a range of recent improvements to the BlueSky systems, as well as examples of applications and future plans. BlueSky systems have the flexibility to accept basic fire information from virtually any source and can reconcile multiple information sources so that duplication of fire records is eliminated. BlueSky systems currently apply information from (1) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Hazard Mapping System (HMS), which represents remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES); (2) the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) interagency project, which derives fire perimeters from Landsat 30-meter burn scars; (3) the Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group (GeoMAC), which produces helicopter-flown burn perimeters; and (4) ground-based fire reports, such as the ICS-209 reports managed by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group. Efforts are currently underway to streamline the use of additional ground-based systems, such as states' prescribed burn databases. BlueSky systems were recently modified to address known uncertainties in smoke modeling associated with (1) estimates of biomass consumption derived from sparse fuel moisture data, and (2) models of plume injection heights. Additional sources of remotely sensed data are being applied to address these issues as follows: - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

  4. Blue Sky Funders Forum - Advancing Environmental Literacy through Funder Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Blue Sky Funders Forum inspires, deepens, and expands private funding and philanthropic leadership to promote learning opportunities that connect people and nature and promote environmental literacy. Being prepared for the future requires all of us to understand the consequences of how we live on where we live - the connection between people and nature. Learning about the true meaning of that connection is a process that starts in early childhood and lasts a lifetime. Blue Sky brings supporters of this work together to learn from one another and to strategize how to scale up the impact of the effective programs that transform how people interact with their surroundings. By making these essential learning opportunities more accessible in all communities, we broaden and strengthen the constituency that makes well-informed choices, balancing the needs of today with the needs of future generations.

  5. Blue sky catastrophe as applied to modeling of cardiac rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu.; Rozov, N. Kh.

    2015-07-01

    A new mathematical model for the electrical activity of the heart is proposed. The model represents a special singularly perturbed three-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations with one fast and two slow variables. A characteristic feature of the system is that its solution performs nonclassical relaxation oscillations and simultaneously undergoes a blue sky catastrophe bifurcation. Both these factors make it possible to achieve a phenomenological proximity between the time dependence of the fast component in the model and an ECG of the human heart.

  6. BlueSky Cloud - rapid infrastructure capacity using Amazon's Cloud for wildfire emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haderman, M.; Larkin, N. K.; Beach, M.; Cavallaro, A. M.; Stilley, J. C.; DeWinter, J. L.; Craig, K. J.; Raffuse, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    During peak fire season in the United States, many large wildfires often burn simultaneously across the country. Smoke from these fires can produce air quality emergencies. It is vital that incident commanders, air quality agencies, and public health officials have smoke impact information at their fingertips for evaluating where fires and smoke are and where the smoke will go next. To address the need for this kind of information, the U.S. Forest Service AirFire Team created the BlueSky Framework, a modeling system that predicts concentrations of particle pollution from wildfires. During emergency response, decision makers use BlueSky predictions to make public outreach and evacuation decisions. The models used in BlueSky predictions are computationally intensive, and the peak fire season requires significantly more computer resources than off-peak times. Purchasing enough hardware to run the number of BlueSky Framework runs that are needed during fire season is expensive and leaves idle servers running the majority of the year. The AirFire Team and STI developed BlueSky Cloud to take advantage of Amazon's virtual servers hosted in the cloud. With BlueSky Cloud, as demand increases and decreases, servers can be easily spun up and spun down at a minimal cost. Moving standard BlueSky Framework runs into the Amazon Cloud made it possible for the AirFire Team to rapidly increase the number of BlueSky Framework instances that could be run simultaneously without the costs associated with purchasing and managing servers. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the features of BlueSky Cloud, describe how the system uses Amazon Cloud, and discuss the costs and benefits of moving from privately hosted servers to a cloud-based infrastructure.

  7. 40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.140 What are the provisions for certifying Blue... emission control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you certify an engine family...

  8. 40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.140 What are the provisions for certifying Blue... emission control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you certify an engine family...

  9. 40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.140 What are the provisions for certifying Blue... emission control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you certify an engine family...

  10. 40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.140 What are the provisions for certifying Blue... emission control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you certify an engine family...

  11. 40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.140 What are the provisions for certifying Blue... emission control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you certify an engine family...

  12. BlueSky Cloud Framework: An E-Learning Framework Embracing Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bo; Zheng, Qinghua; Qiao, Mu; Shu, Jian; Yang, Jie

    Currently, E-Learning has grown into a widely accepted way of learning. With the huge growth of users, services, education contents and resources, E-Learning systems are facing challenges of optimizing resource allocations, dealing with dynamic concurrency demands, handling rapid storage growth requirements and cost controlling. In this paper, an E-Learning framework based on cloud computing is presented, namely BlueSky cloud framework. Particularly, the architecture and core components of BlueSky cloud framework are introduced. In BlueSky cloud framework, physical machines are virtualized, and allocated on demand for E-Learning systems. Moreover, BlueSky cloud framework combines with traditional middleware functions (such as load balancing and data caching) to serve for E-Learning systems as a general architecture. It delivers reliable, scalable and cost-efficient services to E-Learning systems, and E-Learning organizations can establish systems through these services in a simple way. BlueSky cloud framework solves the challenges faced by E-Learning, and improves the performance, availability and scalability of E-Learning systems.

  13. 77 FR 38048 - Blue Sky East, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Sky East, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Blue Sky East, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. Putting Together a Blue Sky: Laying the Foundation for Staff Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searcy, Jeny

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation time can be like putting together a 5,000-piece jigsaw puzzle that is all sky--what, exactly, is the point? When all is said and done, one ends up with a big blue blob--nothing to show for all the effort. However, it doesn't have to be that way. Performance reviews can and should be an effective means of communication for both parties…

  15. THE BLUE TIP OF THE STELLAR LOCUS: MEASURING REDDENING WITH THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Schlafly, Edward F.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Juric, Mario; Schlegel, David J.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Gibson, Robert R.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2010-12-10

    We present measurements of reddening due to dust using the colors of stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We measure the color of main-sequence turnoff stars by finding the 'blue tip' of the stellar locus: the prominent blue edge in the distribution of stellar colors. The method is sensitive to color changes of order 18, 12, 7, and 8 mmag of reddening in the colors u - g, g - r, r - i, and i - z, respectively, in regions measuring 90' by 14'. We present maps of the blue tip colors in each of these bands over the entire SDSS footprint, including the new dusty southern Galactic cap data provided by the SDSS-III. The results disfavor the best-fit O'Donnell and Cardelli et al. reddening laws, but are described well by a Fitzpatrick reddening law with R{sub V} = 3.1. The Schlegel et al. (SFD) dust map is found to trace the dust well, but overestimates reddening by factors of 1.4, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 in u - g, g - r, r - i, and i - z largely due to the adopted reddening law. In select dusty regions of the sky, we find evidence for problems in the SFD temperature correction. A dust map normalization difference of 15% between the Galactic north and south sky may be due to these dust temperature errors.

  16. New spiro[benzotetraphene-fluorene] derivatives: synthesis and application in sky-blue fluorescent host materials.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Ryung; Lee, Chil-Won; Gong, Myoung-Seon

    2014-07-01

    Blue light-emitting spiro[benzotetraphene-fluorene] (SBTF)-based host materials, 3-(1-naphthyl)-10-naphthylspiro[benzo[ij]tetraphene-7,9'-fluorene] (1), 3-(2-naphthyl)-10-naphthylspiro[benzo[ij]tetraphene-7,9'-fluorene] (2), and 3-[2-(6-phenyl)naphthyl]-10-naphthylspiro[benzo[ij]tetraphene-7,9'-fluorene] (3) were designed and prepared via multi-step Suzuki coupling reactions. Introducing various aromatic groups into SBTF core lead to a reduction in band gap and a determination of the color purity and luminescence efficiency. Typical sky-blue fluorescent organic light emitting diodes with the configuration of ITO/N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-bis[(4-diphenylamino)phenyl]-biphenyl-4,4'-diamie (60 nm)/N,N,N',N'-tetra(1-biphenyl)-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (30 nm)/host: dopant (30 nm, 5%)/LG201 (electron transporting layer, 20 nm)/LiF/Al were developed using SBTF derivatives as a host material and p-bis(p-N,N-diphenyl-aminostyryl)benzene (DSA-Ph) as a sky-blue dopant material. A device obtained from three materials doped with DSA-Ph showed color purity of 0.148 and 0.239, a luminance efficiency of 7.91 cd/A, and an external quantum efficiency >4.75% at 5 V. PMID:24859632

  17. Basic Blue Skies Research in the UK: Are we losing out?

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    Background The term blue skies research implies a freedom to carry out flexible, curiosity-driven research that leads to outcomes not envisaged at the outset. This research often challenges accepted thinking and introduces new fields of study. Science policy in the UK has given growing support for short-term goal-oriented scientific research projects, with pressure being applied on researchers to demonstrate the future application of their work. These policies carry the risk of restricting freedom, curbing research direction, and stifling rather than stimulating the creativity needed for scientific discovery. Methods This study tracks the tortuous routes that led to three major discoveries in cardiology. It then investigates the constraints in current research, and opportunities that may be lost with existing funding processes, by interviewing selected scientists and fund providers for their views on curiosity-driven research and the freedom needed to allow science to flourish. The transcripts were analysed using a grounded theory approach to gather recurrent themes from the interviews. Results The results from these interviews suggest that scientists often cannot predict the future applications of research. Constraints such as lack of scientific freedom, and a narrow focus on relevance and accountability were believed to stifle the discovery process. Although it was acknowledged that some research projects do need a clear and measurable framework, the interviewees saw a need for inquisitive, blue skies research to be managed in a different way. They provided examples of situations where money allocated to 'safe' funding was used for more innovative research. Conclusion This sample of key UK scientists and grant providers acknowledge the importance of basic blue skies research. Yet the current evaluation process often requires that scientists predict their likely findings and estimate short-term impact, which does not permit freedom of research direction. There is

  18. Correcting the relationship between PRI and shadow fraction for the blue sky effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mõttus, Matti

    2016-04-01

    The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) is defined as the normalized difference ratio of leaf reflectance at two specific wavelengths in the green spectral region. Its value depends on the status of leaf carotenoid content, and especially that of the xanthophyll cycle pigments. Due to the dependence on the xanthophyll cycle, when the photosynthetic apparatus of green leaves is close to the saturation limit, their PRI becomes dependent on light conditions. Therefore, by measuring the PRI of leaves in the same canopy under different local irradiance conditions on a sunny day, it should be possible to determine the saturation level of the leaves. In turn, this gives information on the light use efficiency (LUE) of the vegetation canopy. The average light conditions of visible foliage elements are often quantified with the shadow fraction -- the fraction of visible foliage not lit by direct sunlight. The dependence of PRI on the shadow fraction has been used to remotely measure canopy LUE on clear days. Variations in shadow fraction have been achieved with multiangular measurement. However, besides photosynthetic downregulation, the dependence of canopy PRI on shadow fraction is affected by the blue sky radiation caused by scattering in the atmosphere. To quantify this effect on remotely sensed PRI, we present the underlying definitions relating leaf and canopy PRI and perform the required calculations for typical midsummer conditions in Central Finland. We demonstrate that the effect of blue sky radiation on the variation of PRI with canopy shadow fraction is similar in shape and magnitude to that of LUE variations reported in literature. Next, we propose a new method to assess these PRI variations in structured vegetation. We investiagate this blue sky effect on the PRI -- shadow fraction relationship with high spatial (60 cm) and spectral (9.8 nm) resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy data from Hyytiälä, Finland. We evaluate the spectral irradiance in

  19. Comparison of modified Chicago sky blue stain and potassium hydroxide mount for the diagnosis of dermatomycoses and onychomycoses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong; Sheng, Ping; Yang, Yan-Ping; Li, Wen; Huang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Jie-Di; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic value of modified Chicago sky blue (CSB) stain and potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount for superficial mycoses was compared using fungal culture as gold standard. The sensitivity and screening time of the CSB stain were superior to the KOH mount. The CBS stain is simple, quick and reliable for diagnosing superficial mycoses. PMID:25765148

  20. Blue not brown: UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey T dwarfs with suppressed K-band flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, D. N.; Burningham, B.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.; Lucas, P. W.; Leggett, S. K.; Tinney, C. G.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Weights, D. J.; Lodieu, N.; Pérez Prieto, J. A.; Nickson, E.; Zhang, Z. H.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Jenkins, J. S.; Tamura, M.

    2011-06-01

    We have used blue near-infrared colours to select a group of 12 spectroscopically confirmed United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) T dwarfs later than T4. From amongst these, we identify the first two kinematic halo T-dwarf candidates. Blue near-infrared colours have been attributed to collisionally induced hydrogen absorption, which is enhanced by either high surface gravity or low metallicity. Proper motions are measured and distances estimated, allowing the determination of tangential velocities. U and V components are estimated for our objects by assuming Vrad= 0. From this, ULAS J0926+0835 is found to have U= 62 km s-1 and V=-140 km s-1, and ULAS J1319+1209 is found to have U= 192 km s-1 and V=-92 km s-1. These values are consistent with potential halo membership. However, these are not the bluest objects in our selection. The bluest is ULAS J1233+1219, with J-K=-1.16 ± 0.07, and surprisingly this object is found to have young disc-like U and V. Our sample also contains Hip 73786B, companion to the metal-poor K5 dwarf Hip 73786. Hip 73786 is a metal-poor star, with [Fe/H] =-0.3 ± 0.1 and is located at a distance of 19 ± 0.7 pc. U, V, W space velocity components are calculated for Hip 73786A and B, finding that U=-48 ± 7 km s-1, V=-75 ± 4 km s-1 and W=-44 ± 8 km s-1. From the properties of the primary, Hip 73786B is found to be at least 1.6-Gyr old. As a metal-poor object, Hip 73786B represents an important addition to the sample of known T dwarf benchmarks.

  1. Synthesis of fluorescent C2-bridged teraryls and quateraryls for blue, sky-blue, and green color light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Goel, Atul; Sharma, Ashutosh; Rawat, Madhu; Anand, R S; Kant, Ruchir

    2014-11-21

    A series of fluorescent teraryls and quateraryls were prepared from a ketene-S,S-acetal under mild conditions. These compounds exhibited blue, sky-blue and green color emissions both in the solid state and in a solution with good quantum yields, positive solvatochromic behavior, and reversible oxidation and reduction properties. The electronic characteristics of teraryl 6a and quateraryls 9a,b were examined by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Light-emitting devices were fabricated from teraryl 6a and quateraryls 9a,b as dyes and the configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (40 nm)/NPB (20 nm)/ dye (50 nm)/BCP (7 nm)/ LiF (0.7 nm)/Al (200 nm), which exhibited electroluminescence maxima of 455, 480, and 525 nm, respectively. These devices operated at a substantially low turn-on voltage (3 and 4 V) and exhibited maximum luminance efficiencies of 0.62, 0.57, and 1.9 cd/A and brightnesses of 59, 160, and 1284 cd/m(2), respectively. PMID:25340860

  2. Non-cardinal color perception across the retina: easy for orange, hard for burgundy and sky blue.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Karen L

    2014-04-01

    Cardinal color performance (reddish, greenish, bluish, yellowish, black, and white) has been shown to decline in peripheral viewing. What about non-cardinal color performance (e.g., orange, burgundy, and sky blue)? In visual search, performance on non-cardinal colors matched that of the cardinal colors in the (L-M)/(S-(L+M)) (isoluminant) color plane (Experiment 1, n=10, to 30°; Experiment 2, n=3, to 50°). However, performance in the (L-M)/(L+M) and (S-(L+M))/(L+M) color planes was worse for non-cardinal colors, at all eccentricities, even in the fovea. The implications that these results have for the existence of non-cardinal mechanisms in each color plane are discussed. PMID:24695183

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of Chicago Sky Blue 6B and Benzopurpurin 4B using titanium dioxide thin film.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Abdul K; McKenzie, Katrina T

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of azo dyes undergo degradation to form harmless intermediates and colorless products following irradiation by visible light in the presence of titanium dioxide thin films. The dyes that were studied in this work are: Chicago Sky Blue 6B and Benzopurpurin 4B. Results obtained indicated that complete mineralization of the dyes took place under the experimental conditions. There was an increase in conductivity after the complete mineralization experiments possibly indicating the formation of ions such as NO3- and SO4(2-). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements show a decrease in organic matter for both dyes following complete degradation. The effect of how changing experimental conditions such as pH, temperature and starting concentrations of dyes affected the rate of dye degradation was measured. There was an increase in the rate of disappearance of the dye color at lower pH. High concentrations of dye solutions required long degradation time.

  4. Can We Build an Open-Science Model to Fund Young, Risky, Blue-Sky Research? First Insights into Funding Geoscientists Via Thinkable.Org

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, B.

    2014-12-01

    Some of the biggest discoveries and advances in geoscience research have come from purely curiosity-driven, blue-sky research. Marine biologist Osamu Shimomura's discovery of Green-Fluorecent Protein (GFP) in the 1960s during his postdoc is just one example, which came about through his interest and pursuit of how certain jellyfish bioluminescence. His discovery would eventually revolutionise medicine, culminating in a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2008. Despite the known importance of "blue-sky" research that doesn't have immediate commercial or social applications, it continues to struggle for funding from both government and industry. Success rates for young scientists also continue to decline within the government competitive granting models due to the importance of track records, yet history tells us that young scientists tend to come up with science's greatest discoveries. The digital age however, gives us a new opportunity to create an alternative and sustainable funding model for young, risky, blue-sky science that tends not to be supported by governments and industry anymore. Here I will discuss how new digital platforms empower researchers and organisations to showcase their research using video, allowing wider community engagment and funding that can be used to directly support young, risky, blue-sky research that is so important to the future of science. I will then talk about recent experience with this model from some ocean researchers who used a new platform called thinkable.org to showcase and raise funding via the public.

  5. The Nature of Faint Blue Stars in the PHL and Ton Catalogues Based on Digital Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andernach, H.; Romero Sauri, F.; Copó Córdova, W.; Santiago-Bautista, I. del C.

    We determined accurate positions for 3,000 of the "faint blue stars" in the PHL (Palomar-Haro-Luyten) and Ton/Ton S catalogues. These were published from 1957 to 1962, and, aimed at finding new white dwarfs, provide approximate positions for ˜ 10,750 blue stellar objects. Some of these "stars" had become known as quasars, a type of objects unheard-of before 1963. We derived subarcsec positions from a comparison of published finding charts with images from the first-epoch Digitized Sky Survey. Numerous objects are now well known, but as of February 2015 neither their PHL or Ton numbers, nor their discoverers, are recognized in current databases. A comparison with modern radio, IR, UV and X-ray surveys leads us to suggest that the fraction of extragalactic objects in the PHL and Ton catalogues is at least 15 %. However, as we failed to locate the original PHL plates or finding charts, it may be impossible to correctly identify the remaining 7,726 PHL objects.

  6. Fading Skies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sio, Betsy Menson

    2009-01-01

    A sky fading from blue to white to red at the horizon, and water darkening from light to midnight blue. Strong diagonals slashing through the image, drawing a viewer's eyes deeper into the picture, and delicate trees poised to convey a sense of beauty. These are the fascinating strengths of the ukiyo-e woodblock prints of Japanese artist Ando…

  7. SDSS J141624.08+134826.7: A NEARBY BLUE L DWARF FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2010-02-10

    We present the discovery of a bright (J = 13.1 mag) nearby L6 dwarf found in a search for L-type ultracool subdwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. SDSS J141624.08+134826.7 exhibits blue near-infrared colors compared to other optically typed L6 objects, but its optical and near-infrared spectra do not show metal-poor features characteristic of known L-type ultracool subdwarfs. Instead, SDSS J141624.08+134826.7 is probably a nearby example of the class of L dwarfs with low condensate opacities that exhibit unusually blue near-infrared colors for a given spectral type. Its deep 1.4 and 1.9 {mu}m H{sub 2}O absorption bands, weak 2.3 {mu}m CO feature, strong 0.99 {mu}m FeH band, and shallow optical TiO and CaH bands resemble the spectra of other blue L dwarfs which are believed to have unusually thin or large-grained cloud structure. The luminosity of SDSS J141624.08+134826.7 implies that it is either a high-mass brown dwarf or a low-mass star, depending on its age, and its UVW space motion suggests a thin-disk membership. With a spectrophotometric distance of 8.4 +- 1.9 pc, SDSS J141624.08+134826.7 is one of the nearest L dwarfs to the Sun and is therefore an excellent target for high resolution imaging, spectroscopic, and astrometric follow-up observations.

  8. Chicago sky blue 6B, a vesicular glutamate transporters inhibitor, attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Zongsheng; Yan, Lingdi; Yong, Zheng; Dong, Zhaoqi; Dong, Huajin; Gong, Zehui

    2013-02-15

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that glutamatergic system plays an important role in drug addiction. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), a vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) inhibitor, on methamphetamine (METH)-induced behaviors in mice. Mice were induced behavioral sensitization to METH by subcutaneous injection of 1mg/kg METH once daily for 7 days and then challenged with 1mg/kg METH in 14th day. Intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B (7.5μg) 2.5h prior to METH was to observe its effects on METH -induced behavioral sensitization. Our results showed that the expressions of behavioral sensitization were significantly attenuated by intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B 2.5h prior to METH either during the development period or before methamphetamine challenge in mice, while CSB6B itself had no effect on locomotor activity. Meanwhile, pretreatment of CSB6B also attenuated hyperactivity caused by a single injection of METH in mice. These results demonstrated that CSB6B, a VGLUTs inhibitor, attenuated acute METH-induced hyperactivity and chronic METH-induced behavioral sensitization, which indicated that VGLUTs were involved in the effect of chronic METH-induced behavioral sensitization and may be a new target against the addiction of METH.

  9. Sky-Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode with 37% External Quantum Efficiency Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence from Spiroacridine-Triazine Hybrid.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ting-An; Chatterjee, Tanmay; Tsai, Wei-Lung; Lee, Wei-Kai; Wu, Meng-Jung; Jiao, Min; Pan, Kuan-Chung; Yi, Chih-Lung; Chung, Chin-Lung; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2016-08-01

    Extremely efficient sky-blue organic electroluminescence with external quantum efficiency of ≈37% is achieved in a conventional planar device structure, using a highly efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter based on the spiroacridine-triazine hybrid and simultaneously possessing nearly unitary (100%) photoluminescence quantum yield, excellent thermal stability, and strongly horizontally oriented emitting dipoles (with a horizontal dipole ratio of 83%). PMID:27271917

  10. More than Blue Skies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granat, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts to find and preserve some 5,000 Rosenwald schools. These buildings were funded with seed money during the 1920s from Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck and Company, and served as schools and public buildings for black residents in the rural South. (EV)

  11. Blue skies, sunny days.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M

    1991-11-01

    The storm clouds and bad news surrounding rural hospitals sometimes block out the other side of the story. In this issue, HealthTexas looks at three rural health care providers--Medina Community Hospital, Starr County Memorial Hospital, and Moore County Hospital District--that are doing far more than just hanging on; they are succeeding. What they share is important and instructive: a strong commitment to their communities, a whatever-it-takes-to-get-the-job-done attitude, and a creative approach to defining the role of rural health care providers.

  12. Blue skies, sunny days.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M

    1991-11-01

    The storm clouds and bad news surrounding rural hospitals sometimes block out the other side of the story. In this issue, HealthTexas looks at three rural health care providers--Medina Community Hospital, Starr County Memorial Hospital, and Moore County Hospital District--that are doing far more than just hanging on; they are succeeding. What they share is important and instructive: a strong commitment to their communities, a whatever-it-takes-to-get-the-job-done attitude, and a creative approach to defining the role of rural health care providers. PMID:10115588

  13. Scattering of Light by Colloidal Aluminosilicate Particles Produces the Unusual Sky-Blue Color of Río Celeste (Tenorio Volcano Complex, Costa Rica)

    PubMed Central

    Castellón, Erick; Martínez, María; Madrigal-Carballo, Sergio; Arias, María Laura; Vargas, William E.; Chavarría, Max

    2013-01-01

    Río Celeste (Sky-Blue River) in Tenorio National Park (Costa Rica), a river that derives from the confluence and mixing of two colorless streams—Río Buenavista (Buenavista River) and Quebrada Agria (Sour Creek)—is renowned in Costa Rica because it presents an atypical intense sky-blue color. Although various explanations have been proposed for this unusual hue of Río Celeste, no exhaustive tests have been undertaken; the reasons hence remain unclear. To understand this color phenomenon, we examined the physico-chemical properties of Río Celeste and of the two streams from which it is derived. Chemical analysis of those streams with ion-exchange chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) made us discard the hypothesis that the origin of the hue is due to colored chemical species. Our tests revealed that the origin of this coloration phenomenon is physical, due to suspended aluminosilicate particles (with diameters distributed around 566 nm according to a lognormal distribution) that produce Mie scattering. The color originates after mixing of two colorless streams because of the enlargement (by aggregation) of suspended aluminosilicate particles in the Río Buenavista stream due to a decrease of pH on mixing with the acidic Quebrada Agria. We postulate a chemical mechanism for this process, supported by experimental evidence of dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectra (EDS). Theoretical modeling of the Mie scattering yielded a strong coincidence between the observed color and the simulated one. PMID:24058661

  14. Scattering of light by colloidal aluminosilicate particles produces the unusual sky-blue color of Río Celeste (Tenorio volcano complex, Costa Rica).

    PubMed

    Castellón, Erick; Martínez, María; Madrigal-Carballo, Sergio; Arias, María Laura; Vargas, William E; Chavarría, Max

    2013-01-01

    Río Celeste (Sky-Blue River) in Tenorio National Park (Costa Rica), a river that derives from the confluence and mixing of two colorless streams--Río Buenavista (Buenavista River) and Quebrada Agria (Sour Creek)--is renowned in Costa Rica because it presents an atypical intense sky-blue color. Although various explanations have been proposed for this unusual hue of Río Celeste, no exhaustive tests have been undertaken; the reasons hence remain unclear. To understand this color phenomenon, we examined the physico-chemical properties of Río Celeste and of the two streams from which it is derived. Chemical analysis of those streams with ion-exchange chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) made us discard the hypothesis that the origin of the hue is due to colored chemical species. Our tests revealed that the origin of this coloration phenomenon is physical, due to suspended aluminosilicate particles (with diameters distributed around 566 nm according to a lognormal distribution) that produce Mie scattering. The color originates after mixing of two colorless streams because of the enlargement (by aggregation) of suspended aluminosilicate particles in the Río Buenavista stream due to a decrease of pH on mixing with the acidic Quebrada Agria. We postulate a chemical mechanism for this process, supported by experimental evidence of dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectra (EDS). Theoretical modeling of the Mie scattering yielded a strong coincidence between the observed color and the simulated one.

  15. Scattering of light by colloidal aluminosilicate particles produces the unusual sky-blue color of Río Celeste (Tenorio volcano complex, Costa Rica).

    PubMed

    Castellón, Erick; Martínez, María; Madrigal-Carballo, Sergio; Arias, María Laura; Vargas, William E; Chavarría, Max

    2013-01-01

    Río Celeste (Sky-Blue River) in Tenorio National Park (Costa Rica), a river that derives from the confluence and mixing of two colorless streams--Río Buenavista (Buenavista River) and Quebrada Agria (Sour Creek)--is renowned in Costa Rica because it presents an atypical intense sky-blue color. Although various explanations have been proposed for this unusual hue of Río Celeste, no exhaustive tests have been undertaken; the reasons hence remain unclear. To understand this color phenomenon, we examined the physico-chemical properties of Río Celeste and of the two streams from which it is derived. Chemical analysis of those streams with ion-exchange chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) made us discard the hypothesis that the origin of the hue is due to colored chemical species. Our tests revealed that the origin of this coloration phenomenon is physical, due to suspended aluminosilicate particles (with diameters distributed around 566 nm according to a lognormal distribution) that produce Mie scattering. The color originates after mixing of two colorless streams because of the enlargement (by aggregation) of suspended aluminosilicate particles in the Río Buenavista stream due to a decrease of pH on mixing with the acidic Quebrada Agria. We postulate a chemical mechanism for this process, supported by experimental evidence of dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectra (EDS). Theoretical modeling of the Mie scattering yielded a strong coincidence between the observed color and the simulated one. PMID:24058661

  16. Sky-Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with 34.1% External Quantum Efficiency Using a Low Refractive Index Electron Transporting Layer.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Huh, Jin-Suk; Sim, Bomi; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-06-01

    Blue-phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with 34.1% external quantum efficiency (EQE) and 79.6 lm W(-1) are demonstrated using a hole-transporting layer and electron-transporting layer with low refractive index values. Using optical simulations, it is predicted that outcoupling efficiencies with EQEs > 60% can be achieved if organic layers with a refractive index of 1.5 are used for OLEDs.

  17. Sky-Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with 34.1% External Quantum Efficiency Using a Low Refractive Index Electron Transporting Layer.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Huh, Jin-Suk; Sim, Bomi; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-06-01

    Blue-phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with 34.1% external quantum efficiency (EQE) and 79.6 lm W(-1) are demonstrated using a hole-transporting layer and electron-transporting layer with low refractive index values. Using optical simulations, it is predicted that outcoupling efficiencies with EQEs > 60% can be achieved if organic layers with a refractive index of 1.5 are used for OLEDs. PMID:27060851

  18. A Novel Contrast Stain for the Rapid Diagnosis of Pityriasis Versicolor: A Comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B Stain, Potassium Hydroxide Mount and Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lodha, Nikita; Poojary, Shital Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB) is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain) with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1) KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2) culture using Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen's Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement) among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%), 92 (92%) and 56 (56%) patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%). Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001). Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001) as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107). Conclusion: CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount. PMID:26288400

  19. Prospective space developments - Blue sky and non-blue sky.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Braun, W.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the significance for man's future of the practical benefits to be yielded by developments successfully concluded or still in progress over the wide range of technologies involved in current and future space activities. Reviewed benefit potentials pertain to space-age communications, transportation, computer developments, information networks, education, home communications centers, holography, life-support systems, power systems, manufacturing in space, meteorology, and earth resources. A strong case is made for the indissoluble involvement of this nation's self-interest in the achievement of national space goals.

  20. A Blue-Sky Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douce, G. Keith

    1979-01-01

    Extension personnel must learn how to use computer technology to provide information for decision making, to store and retrieve publications and information quickly and accurately, and to help people learn new things. The author suggests possible applications of computer technology to program needs in the extension service. (MF)

  1. Grammar and the Blue Sky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talkington, Melinda

    1975-01-01

    Author made observations on methods he found useful in helping the high school student to bridge the gap between his uncertain grammatical knowledge and his understanding of its applications to his own speech and writing. (Author/RK)

  2. Pluto’s Blue Haze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The sky on Pluto is blue! Kind of. This is Pluto in an Minute. So it’s not exactly the case that the sky on Pluto is blue, rather, what the New Horizons science team has found in recent images do...

  3. Phosphorescent OLEDs: Sky-Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with 34.1% External Quantum Efficiency Using a Low Refractive Index Electron Transporting Layer (Adv. Mater. 24/2016).

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Huh, Jin-Suk; Sim, Bomi; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-06-01

    J.-J. Kim and co-workers achieve highly efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a low-refractive-index layer. As described on page 4920, an external quantum efficiency over 34% is achieved, owing to the low refractive index of the materials. A milepost and a shining entrance of the castle are the metaphor indicating the way to highly efficient blue OLEDs. On the way to the castle, the depicted chemical structures serve as the light-emitting layer.

  4. Phosphorescent OLEDs: Sky-Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with 34.1% External Quantum Efficiency Using a Low Refractive Index Electron Transporting Layer (Adv. Mater. 24/2016).

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Huh, Jin-Suk; Sim, Bomi; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-06-01

    J.-J. Kim and co-workers achieve highly efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a low-refractive-index layer. As described on page 4920, an external quantum efficiency over 34% is achieved, owing to the low refractive index of the materials. A milepost and a shining entrance of the castle are the metaphor indicating the way to highly efficient blue OLEDs. On the way to the castle, the depicted chemical structures serve as the light-emitting layer. PMID:27311092

  5. Highly Efficient Sky-Blue Fluorescent Organic Light Emitting Diode Based on Mixed Cohost System for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter (2CzPN).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin Won; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Ki; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-04-20

    The mixed cohosts of 1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene and 2,8-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene have been developed for a highly efficient blue fluorescent oragnic light emitting diode (OLED) doped with a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter [4,5-di (9H-carbazol-9-yl) phthalonitrile (2CzPN)]. We have demonstrated one of the highest external quantum efficiency of 21.8% in blue fluorescent OLEDs, which is identical to the theoretically achievable maximum electroluminescence efficiency using the emitter. Interestingly, the efficiency roll-off is large even under the excellent charge balance in the device and almost the same as the single host based devices, indicating that the efficiency roll-off in 2CzPN based TADF host is related to the material characteristics, such as low reverse intesystem crossing rate rather than charge imbalance. PMID:27019330

  6. Sky cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerth, Jordan J.

    Of all of the standard meteorological parameters collected and observed daily, sky cover is not only one of the most complex, but the one that is fairly ambiguously defined and difficult to quantify. Despite that, the implications of how cloud fraction and sky cover are understood not only impact daily weather forecasts, but also present challenges to assessing the state of the earth's climate system. Part of the reason for this is the lack of observational methods for verifying the skill of clouds represented and parameterized in numerical models. While human observers record sky cover as part of routine duties, the spatial coverage of such observations in the United States is relatively sparse. There is greater spatial coverage of automated observations, and essentially complete coverage from geostationary weather satellites that observe the Americas. A good analysis of sky cover reconciles differences between manual observations, automated observations, and satellite observations, through an algorithm that accounts for the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset. This work describes the decision structure for trusting and weighting these similar observations. Some of the issues addressed include: human and instrument error resulting from approximations and estimations, a deficiency in high cloud detectability using surface-based ceilometers, poorly resolved low cloud using infrared channels on space-based radiometers during overnight hours, and decreased confidence in satellite-detected cloud during stray light periods. Using the blended sky cover analysis as the best representation of cloudiness, it is possible to compare the analysis to numerical model fields in order to assess the performance of the model and the parameterizations therein, as well as confirm or uncover additional relationships between sky cover and pertinent fields using an optimization methodology. The optimizer minimizes an affine expression of adjusted fields to the "truth" sky cover

  7. Point Source All Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This panoramic view encompasses the entire sky as seen by Two Micron All-Sky Survey. The measured brightnesses of half a billion stars (points) have been combined into colors representing three distinct wavelengths of infrared light: blue at 1.2 microns, green at 1.6 microns, and red at 2.2 microns. This image is centered on the core of our own Milky Way galaxy, toward the constellation of Sagittarius. The reddish stars seemingly hovering in the middle of the Milky Way's disc -- many of them never observed before -- trace the densest dust clouds in our galaxy. The two faint smudges seen in the lower right quadrant are our neighboring galaxies, the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds.

  8. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  9. The Color of the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagury, Frederic

    2012-10-01

    The color of the sky in day-time and at twilight is studied by means of spectroscopy, which provides an unambiguous way to understand and quantify why a sky is blue, pink, or red. The colors a daylight sky can take primarily owe to Rayleigh extinction and ozone absorption. Spectra of the sky illuminated by the sun can generally be represented by a generic analytical expression which involves the Rayleigh function R ≈ 1/λ^4 e(?a/λ^4), ozone absorption, and, to a lesser extend, aerosol extinction. This study is based on a representative sample of spectra selected from a few hundred observations taken in different places, times, and dates, with a portable fiber spectrometer.

  10. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  11. ESA Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merin, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    The ESAC Science Data Centre, ESDC, is working on a science-driven discovery portal for all its astronomy missions with the provisional name Multi-Mission Interface. The first public release of this service will be demonstrated, featuring an interface for sky exploration and for single and multiple target searches. It requires no prior knowledge of any of the missions involved. From a technical point of view, the system offers all-sky projections of full mission datasets using a new-generation HEALPix projection called HiPS; detailed geometrical footprints to access individual observations at the mission archives using VO-TAP queries; and direct access to the underlying mission-specific science archives. A first public release is scheduled before the end of 2015 and will give users worldwide simplified access to high-level science-ready data products from all ESA Astronomy missions plus a number of ESA-produced source catalogues. A demo will accompany the presentation.

  12. Grey Area in the Blue Skies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Craig M.

    A number of flight accidents in recent years have made the use of helicopters in news coverage controversial. Radio or television reporters are sometimes asked to fly under unsafe conditions simply because competing stations have sent up their reporters. Although pilots have the right to refuse to fly if they feel conditions are dubious, they too…

  13. LSST Site: Sky Brightness Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Jamison; Claver, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is an upcoming robotic survey telescope. At the telescope site on Cerro Pachon in Chile there are currently three photodiodes and a Canon camera with a fisheye lens, and both the photodiodes and Canon monitor the night sky continuously. The NIST-calibrated photodiodes directly measure the flux from the sky, and the sky brightness can also be obtained from the Canon images via digital aperture photometry. Organizing and combining the two data sets gives nightly information of the development of sky brightness across a swath of the electromagnetic spectrum, from blue to near infrared light, and this is useful for accurately predicting the performance of the LSST. It also provides data for models of moonlight and twilight sky brightness. Code to accomplish this organization and combination was successfully written in Python, but due to the backlog of data not all of the nights were processed by the end of the summer.Burke was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  14. A Violet Martian Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These clouds from Sol 15 have a new look. As water ice clouds cover the sky, the sky takes on a more bluish cast. This is because small particles (perhaps a tenth the size of the martian dust, or one-thousandth the thickness of a human hair) are bright in blue light, but almost invisible in red light. Thus, scientists expect that the ice particles in the clouds are very small. The clouds were imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  15. Extended Source/Galaxy All Sky 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This panoramic view encompasses the entire sky and reveals the distribution of galaxies beyond the Milky Way galaxy, which astronomers call extended sources, as observed by Two Micron All-Sky Survey. The image is assembled from a database of over 1.6 million galaxies listed in the survey's All-Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog,; more than half of the galaxies have never before been catalogued. The colors represent how the many galaxies appear at three distinct wavelengths of infrared light (blue at 1.2 microns, green at 1.6 microns, and red at 2.2 microns). Quite evident are the many galactic clusters and superclusters, as well as some streamers composing the large-scale structure of the nearby universe. The blue overlay represents the very close and bright stars from our own Milky Way galaxy. In this projection, the bluish Milky Way lies predominantly toward the upper middle and edges of the image.

  16. Microwave Sky image from the WMAP Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A detailed full-sky map of the oldest light in the universe. It is a 'baby picture' of the universe. Colors indicate 'warmer' (red) and 'cooler' (blue) spots. The oval shape is a projection to display the whole sky; similar to the way the globe of the earth can be projected as an oval. The microwave light captured in this picture is from 379,000 years after the Big Bang, over 13 billion years ago. For more information, see http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_mm/mr_whatsthat.html

  17. Infrared sky noise study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The hardware and techniques to measure and compare sky noise at several sites were studied, and a device was developed that would maximize its output and minimize its output for modulation. The instrument and its functions are described. The nature of sky emissions and the fluctuation, gaseous sources of sky noise, and aerosol sources are discussed. It is concluded that sky noise really exists, and the spatial distribution of the sky noise sources are such that observed noise values are linear functions of chopping stroke.

  18. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  19. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation. PMID:24663457

  20. Sky monitoring with LOBSTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Tichy, V.

    2014-12-01

    The X--ray sky monitoring represents valuable energy spectral extension to optical sky monitoring. Lobster--Eye all--sky monitors are able to provide relatively high sensitivity and good time resolution in the soft X--ray energy range up to 10 keV. The fine time resolution can be used to alert optical robotic telescopes for follow--up and multispectral analyzes in the visible light.

  1. Under Summer Skies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    There's no better way to celebrate 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, than by curling up with a good book under summer skies. To every civilization, in every age, the skies inspired imagination and scientific inquiry. There's no better place to start your summer reading than under their influence. Here are a few selections identified by…

  2. WISE Eyes the Whole Sky

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the progress of the WISE all-sky survey over time. WISE, or NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, is perched up in the sky like a wise, old owl, scanning the whole sky on...

  3. Pi in the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, W. P.

    2008-12-01

    Pi In The Sky (PITS) consists of a loose collection of virtual globe (VG) activities with a slight mathematical twist, wherein students search for interesting circular structures on the surface of Earth (Moon or other planets) and measure the circumference C and diameter D of each structure, using the built-in VG measure tool, in order to determine experimental values of pi from the C/D ratios. Examples of man-made circular structures visible using VG browsers include Fermilab and l"Arc de Triomphe roundabout; quasi-circular natural structures include certain volcano calderas and impact craters. Since a circle is but a special case of an ellipse, a natural extension of the activity involves making similar measurements of perimeter P, semi-major axis a, and semi-minor axis b of a visible elliptical structure (such as one of the thousands of elliptical Carolina bays, enigmatic depressions on the Atlantic Coast of North America) and solving for pi using Ramanujan's first approximation for the dependence of the perimeter of an ellipse on a and b. PITS exercises can be adapted to a wide range of student ages and teaching goals. For instance, K-6 students could measure C and D of the huge irrigation circles near Circle, Texas, to discover pi in the same way they might infer pi from measurements of coffee-can lids in math class. Middle school and high school students could move beyond man-made circles to consider the near-circularity of certain volcano calderas and impact craters in earth science units, make measurements for Olympus Mons on Mars or Crater Kepler on the moon in astronomy units, or search for circularity among Arctic thermokarst lakes as an introduction to climate change in tundra environments in environmental science units; such studies might ignite student curiosity about planetary processes. High school students of analytic geometry could examine several elliptical Carolina bays and calculate not only values of pi (as noted above) but also determine the

  4. Pt(II) metal complexes tailored with a newly designed spiro-arranged tetradentate ligand; harnessing of charge-transfer phosphorescence and fabrication of sky blue and white OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuan-Yu; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chi, Yun; Hsu, Ming-Kuan; Wu, Szu-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hao; Liu, Shih-Hung; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hu, Yue; Robertson, Neil

    2015-04-20

    Tetradentate bis(pyridyl azolate) chelates are assembled by connecting two bidentate 3-trifluoromethyl-5-(2-pyridyl)azoles at the six position of pyridyl fragment with the tailored spiro-arranged fluorene and/or acridine functionalities. These new chelates were then utilized in synthesizing a series of Pt(II) metal complexes [Pt(Ln)], n = 1-5, from respective chelates L1-L5 and [PtCl2(DMSO)2] in 1,2-dimethoxyethane. The single-crystal X-ray structural analyses were executed on 1, 3, and 5 to reveal the generalized structures and packing arrangement in crystal lattices. Their photophysical properties were measured in both solution and solid state and are discussed in the context of computational analysis. These L1-L5 coordinated Pt(II) species exhibit intense emission, among which complex 5 shows remarkable solvatochromic phosphorescence due to the dominant intraligand charge transfer transition induced by the new bis(pyridyl azolate) chelates. Moreover, because of the higher-lying highest occupied molecular orbital of acridine, complex 5 can be considered as a novel bipolar phosphor. Successful fabrication of blue and white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using Pt(II) complexes 3 and 5 as the phosphorescent dopants are reported. In particular, blue OLEDs with 5 demonstrated peak efficiencies of 15.3% (36.3 cd/A, 38.0 lm/W), and CIE values of (0.190, 0.342) in a double-emitting layer structure. Furthermore, a red-emitting Os(II) complex and 5 were used to fabricate warm-white OLEDs to achieve peak external quantum efficiency, luminance efficiency, and power efficiency values as high as 12.7%, 22.5 cd/A, and 22.1 lm/W, respectively. PMID:25848710

  5. Monitoring the night sky with the Cerro Tololo All-Sky camera for the TMT and LSST projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David E.; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Bustos, Edison

    2006-06-01

    The All-Sky camera used in the LSST and TMT site testing campaigns is described and some early results are shown. The All-Sky camera takes images of the entire visible hemisphere of sky every 30s in blue, red, Y and Z filters giving enhanced contrast for the detection of clouds, airglow and the near-infrared. Animation is used to show movement of clouds. An additional narrow band filter is centered on the most prominent line of the sodium vapor lamp spectra and is used to monitor any man-made light pollution near the site. The camera also detects aircraft lights and contrails, satellites, meteor(ite)s, local light polluters, and can be used for stellar extinction monitoring and for photometry of transient astronomical objects. For outreach and education the All-Sky camera can show wandering planets, diurnal rotation of the sky, the zodiacal light, and similar astronomical basics.

  6. Pre-Dawn Martian Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    On Sol 39 there were wispy blue clouds in the pre-dawn sky of Mars, as seen by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The color image was made by taking blue, green, and red images and then combining them into a single color image. The clouds appear to have a bluish side and a greenish side because they moved (in the wind from the northeast) between images. This picture was made an hour and twenty minutes before sunrise -- the sun is not shining directly on the water ice clouds, but they are illuminated by the dawn twilight.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  7. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  8. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  9. Colors of the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

  10. Extended Source/Galaxy All Sky 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This panoramic view of the entire sky reveals the distribution of galaxies beyond our Milky Way galaxy, which astronomers call extended sources, as observed by Two Micron All-Sky Survey. The image is constructed from a database of over 1.6 million galaxies listed in the survey's Extended Source Catalog; more than half of the galaxies have never before been catalogued. The image is a representation of the relative brightnesses of these million-plus galaxies, all observed at a wavelength of 2.2 microns.

    The brightest and nearest galaxies are represented in blue, and the faintest, most distant ones are in red. This color scheme gives insights into the three dimensional large-scale structure of the nearby universe with the brightest, closest clusters and superclusters showing up as the blue and bluish-white features. The dark band in this image shows the area of the sky where our Milky Way galaxy blocks our view of distant objects, which, in this projection, lies predominantly along the edges of the image.

  11. Sloan digital sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.; Stoughton, C.; Newberg, H.; Loveday, J.; Petravick, D.; Gurbani, V.; Berman, E.; Sergey, G.; Lupton, R.

    1994-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey will produce a detailed digital photometric map of half the northern sky to about 23 magnitude using a special purpose wide field 2.5 meter telescope. From this map we will select {approximately} 10{sup 6} galaxies and 10{sup 5} quasars, and obtain high resolution spectra using the same telescope. The imaging catalog will contain 10{sup 8} galaxies, a similar number of stars, and 10{sup 6} quasar candidates.

  12. The IRAS view of the extragalactic sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Houck, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The IR-observable characteristics of the extragalactic sky are reviewed, summarizing the results of recent studies based on the IRAS survey, which covers over 96 percent of the sky to about 500 mJy at 12, 25, and 60 microns and to about 1.5 Jy at 100 microns. The numerical and morphological data are described; possible mechanisms for the IR emission are discussed; and the object classes are considered separately. Consideration is given to spiral and disk galaxies, barred and ring galaxies, irregular and dwarf galaxies, blue compact galaxies, elliptical and S0 galaxies, AGN observations (BL Lacs and OVV quasars, Seyfert galaxies, and quasars), highly luminous IR galaxies, and the cosmological implications of the IRAS findings. Diagrams, graphs, and tables are provided.

  13. Angles in the Sky?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Bradford

    2005-09-01

    Tycho Brahe lived and worked in the late 1500s before the telescope was invented. He made highly accurate observations of the positions of planets, stars, and comets using large angle-measuring devices of his own design. You can use his techniques to observe the sky as well. For example, the degree, a common unit of measurement in astronomy, can be measured by holding your fist at arm's length up to the sky. Open your fist and observe the distance across the sky covered by the width of your pinky fingernail. That is, roughly, a degree! After some practice, and knowing that one degree equals four minutes, you can measure elapsed time by measuring the angle of the distance that the Moon appears to have moved and multiplying that number by four. You can also figure distances and sizes of things. These are not precise measurements, but rough estimates that can give you a "close-enough" answer.

  14. Dark-Skies Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1. Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2. Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3. Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4. Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5. Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The presentation will provide an update, describe how people can become involved and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  15. Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.

    1993-11-01

    The Solan Digital Sky Survey is a project which will produce a detailed digital phometric map of half the northern sky to about 23 magnitude using a special purpose wide field telescope of 2.5 meter aperture. This map will be used to select about a million galaxies and 100,000 quasars, for which high resolution spectra will be obtained using the same telescope. A catalog will be produced of all the detected objects, about 100 million galaxies and a similar number of stars, and a million quasar candidates.

  16. Measurement of night sky brightness in southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampf, Daniel; Rowell, Gavin; Wild, Neville; Sudholz, Tristan; Horns, Dieter; Tluczykont, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Night sky brightness is a major source of noise both for Cherenkov telescopes as well as for wide-angle Cherenkov detectors. Therefore, it is important to know the level of night sky brightness at potential sites for future experiments. The measurements of night sky brightness presented here were carried out at Fowler's Gap, a research station in New South Wales, Australia, which is a potential site for the proposed TenTen Cherenkov telescope system and the planned wide-angle Cherenkov detector system HiSCORE. A portable instrument was developed and measurements of the night sky brightness were taken in February and August 2010. Brightness levels were measured for a range of different sky regions and in various spectral bands. The night sky brightness in the relevant wavelength regime for photomultipliers was found to be at the same level as measured in similar campaigns at the established Cherenkov telescope sites of Khomas, Namibia, and at La Palma. The brightness of dark regions in the sky is about 2 × 10 12 photons/(s sr m 2) between 300 nm and 650 nm, and up to four times brighter in bright regions of the sky towards the galactic plane. The brightness in V band is 21.6 magnitudes per arcsec 2 in the dark regions. All brightness levels are averaged over the field of view of the instrument of about 1.3 × 10 -3 sr. The spectrum of the night sky brightness was found to be dominated by longer wavelengths, which allows to apply filters to separate the night sky brightness from the blue Cherenkov light. The possible gain in the signal to noise ratio was found to be up to 1.2, assuming an ideal low-pass filter.

  17. The Big Sky inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  18. A night sky model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpylev, N. P.; Smirnov, M. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    A night sky model is proposed. It includes different components of light polution, such as solar twilight, moon scattered light, zodiacal light, Milky Way, air glow and artificial light pollution. The model is designed for calculating the efficiency of astronomical installations.

  19. Dark Sky Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, D.

    2008-06-01

    Dark Sky Scotland (DSS) 2006-2008 is a nationwide programme of public and educational astronomy events. It demonstrates successful national partnerships with non-astronomy organisations and effective ways of delivering events in remote rural communities. DSS is looking for international partners for IYA2009.

  20. The Infrared Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habing, Harm J.; Neugebauer, Gerry

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is a survey instrument that has provided an overall view of the infrared sky and identified objects that merit further investigation. A description of the IRAS and examples of the types of astronomical data collected are presented. (JN)

  1. The Quiet Skies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Steve

    2008-01-01

    To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and radio frequency interference (RFI), an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project--the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space…

  2. Discovering the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedman, Daniel W.

    1997-01-01

    An astronomer gives teachers tips on learning how to look at the night sky then on passing along personal instruction to students. Presents ideas for finding information through astronomers at colleges, science museums, planetariums, research observatories, and on the World Wide Web. Contains a resource list and foldout poster of galaxies with…

  3. September in the Skies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2004-01-01

    This school year begins with no planets visible in the evenings, and it will remain this way until November when Mercury returns to the evening skies. For a period of several days, starting on September 8, you can follow the waning crescent Moon in the early morning as it passes Saturn, Venus, the bright star Regulus, and Mercury. On the morning…

  4. Color Variations in the Sky at Sunset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the martian sunset from Sol 24 shows much more color variation than had previously been seen. The blue color near the Sun is not caused by clouds of water ice, but by the martian dust itself. The dust in the atmosphere absorbs blue light, giving the sky its red color, but it also scatters some of the blue light into the area just around the Sun because of its size. The blue color only becomes apparent near sunrise and sunset, when the light has to pass through the largest amount of dust. This image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  5. The New Progress of the Starry Sky Project of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua

    2015-08-01

    Since the 28th General Assembly of IAU, the SSPC team made new progress:1. Enhanced the function of the SSPC team-- Established the contact with IAU C50, IUCN Dark Skies Advisory Group, AWB and IDA,and undertakes the work of the IDA Beijing Chapter.-- Got supports from China’s National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing Planetarium, and Shanghai Science and Technology Museum.-- Signed cooperation agreements with Lighting Research Center, English Education Group and law Firm; formed the team force.2. Put forward a proposal to national top institutionThe SSPC submitted the first proposal about dark sky protection to the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference.3. Introduced the Criteria and Guideline of dark sky protectionThe SSPC team translated 8 documents of IDA, and provided a reference basis for Chinese dark sky protection.4. Actively establish dark sky places-- Plan a Dark Sky Reserve around Ali astronomical observatory (5,100m elevation) in Tibet. China’s Xinhua News Agency released the news.-- Combining with Hangcuo Lake, a National Natural Reserve and Scenic in Tibet, to plan and establish the Dark Sky Park.-- Cooperated with Shandong Longgang Tourism Group to construct the Dream Sky Theme Park in the suburbs of Jinan city.In the IYL 2015, the SSPC is getting further development:First, make dark sky protection enter National Ecological Strategy of “Beautiful China”. We call on: “Beautiful China” needs “Beautiful Night Sky” China should care the shared starry sky, and left this resource and heritage for children.Second, hold “Cosmic Light” exhibition in Shanghai Science and Technology Museum on August.Third, continue to establish Dark Sky Reserve, Park and Theme Park. We want to make these places become the bases of dark sky protection, astronomical education and ecological tourism, and develop into new cultural industry.Fourth, actively join international cooperation.Now, “Blue Sky, White Cloud and Starry Sky “have become

  6. The impact of light source spectral power distribution on sky glow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Boley, Paul A.; Davis, Donald R.

    2014-05-01

    The effect of light source spectral power distribution on the visual brightness of anthropogenic sky glow is described. Under visual adaptation levels relevant to observing the night sky, namely with dark-adapted (scotopic) vision, blue-rich (“white”) sources produce a dramatically greater sky brightness than yellow-rich sources. High correlated color temperature LEDs and metal halide sources produce a visual brightness up to 8× brighter than low-pressure sodium and 3× brighter than high-pressure sodium when matched lumen-for-lumen and observed nearby. Though the sky brightness arising from blue-rich sources decreases more strongly with distance, the visual sky glow resulting from such sources remains significantly brighter than from yellow sources out to the limits of this study at 300 km.

  7. Infrared Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  8. Dark Skies Rangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    Creating awareness about the importance of the protection of our dark skies is the main goal of the Dark Skies Rangers project, a joint effort from the NOAO and the Galileo Teacher Training Program. Hundreds of schools and thousands of students have been reached by this program. We will focus in particular on the experience being developed in Portugal where several municipalities have now received street light auditing produced by students with suggestions on how to enhance the energy efficiency of illumination of specific urban areas. In the International Year of Light we are investing our efforts in exporting the successful Portuguese experience to other countries. The recipe is simple: train teachers, engage students, foster the participation of local community and involve local authorities in the process. In this symposium we hope to draft the cookbook for the near future.

  9. Optical infrared sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craine, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a photographic survey of the northern sky currently underway at Steward Observatory. The survey is being conducted at a principal bandpass of 8000-9000 A supplemented by a V bandpass. The survey is the first of its type conducted using a small (20-in. aperture) wide-field telescope, a very large-format (146 mm) image intensifier with a red-extended, multialkali photocathode. The output phosphor of the intensifier is photographed with IIaD emulsion on film. One of the goals of the survey is to catalog red stellar objects on the photographs and to examine in detail regions of the sky which are obscured by hydrogen emission on conventional photographs.

  10. Sacred Sky and Cyberspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clynes, F.

    2011-06-01

    The concept of the sacred world beyond the stars found expression in the works of Plato, into Gnosticism and was incorporated into Christianity where medieval images of the cosmos pictured the heavenly domain as beyond the stars. Today cyberspace literature abounds with descriptions of a transmundane space, a great Beyond. This talk looks at current views of cyberspace and asks if they are a re-packaging of the age-old concept of a sacred sky in a secular and technological format?

  11. SkyMapper and Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalzo, R.

    The SkyMapper Southern Sky Survey will be a wide-area digital survey of the southern sky, run from the robotic 1.3-m SkyMapper telescope at Siding Spring Observatory near Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia. The survey will include a supernova search run during poor seeing time, run as a rolling search to produce high-quality light curves for Hubble diagram cosmology. The search is currently taking data in science verification mode. I will briefly describe SkyMapper and then give an overview of su- pernova search activities, including pipeline design, operations, and interaction with the community.

  12. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Big Sky Carbon Atlas is an online geoportal designed for you to discover, interpret, and access geospatial data and maps relevant to decision support and education on carbon sequestration in the Big Sky Region. In serving as the public face of the Partnership's spatial Data Libraries, the Atlas provides a gateway to geographic information characterizing CO2 sources, potential geologic sinks, terrestrial carbon fluxes, civil and energy infrastructure, energy use, and related themes. In addition to directly serving the BSCSP and its stakeholders, the Atlas feeds regional data to the NatCarb Portal, contributing to a national perspective on carbon sequestration. Established components of the Atlas include a gallery of thematic maps and an interactive map that allows you to: • Navigate and explore regional characterization data through a user-friendly interface • Print your map views or publish them as PDFs • Identify technical references relevant to specific areas of interest • Calculate straight-line or pipeline-constrained distances from point sources of CO2 to potential geologic sink features • Download regional data layers (feature under development) (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  13. Digital Optical Sky Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kron, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    Cameras containing arrays of charge-coupled devices---or which are otherwise capable of sustained high data rates---enable optical sky surveys that compete in efficiency with photographic surveys in terms of area of sky covered per unit observing time. There are gains in performance as well as efficiency: stellar photometry is more straightforward because of the higher dynamic range of CCDs, and the low noise of CCDs allows narrow-band surveys to be undertaken. The small dead-time between exposures allows surveys for rapid variability as well as near-simultaneous color measurements. The most important new prospect may be real-time analysis for identification of sources changing either in position or in brightness. These gains come only after substantial investment in analysis tools and data handling and storage systems. To illustrate some of this potential, this review will focus on a number of sky surveys with CCDs that are either under way or in advanced implementation stages. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Astronomical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital the} {ital Pacific}.

  14. Quality Assurance and e-Learning: Blue Skies and Pragmatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Ron

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the role of quality assurance in e-learning; reflecting on the conditions necessary for successful e-learning. It reviews some of the current international work on quality assurance in this area and goes on to consider the ways in which the quality of a process or activity can be assessed--focusing on the use of benchmarking…

  15. New Directions: Can a "blue sky" return to Indian megacities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Jain, Suresh; Gurjar, B. R.; Sharma, Prateek; Khare, Mukesh; Morawska, Lidia; Britter, Rex

    2013-06-01

    Deterioration of air quality in Indian megacities (Delhi, Mumbai or Kolkata) is much more significant than that observed in the megacities of developed countries. Densely packed high-rise buildings restrict the self-cleaning capabilities of Indian megacities. Also, the ever growing number of on-road vehicles, resuspension of the dust, and anthropogenic activities exacerbate the levels of ambient air pollution, which is in turn breathed by urban dwellers. Pollution levels exceeding the standards on a regular basis often result in a notable increase in morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the challenges faced by Indian megacities in their quest for sustainable growth, without compromising the air quality and urban way of life.

  16. Blue skies, green politics: The Clean Air Act of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bryner, G.C.

    1995-10-01

    This book presents a discussion framework for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The author focuses on both an analysis of the problem of air pollution and an examination of the politics that went in to crafting the Clean Air Act Amendments. The book is intended for those not familiar with the problem.

  17. Rayleigh scattering: blue sky thinking for future CMB observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Antony

    2013-08-01

    Rayleigh scattering from neutral hydrogen during and shortly after recombination causes the CMB anisotropies to be significantly frequency dependent at high frequencies. This may be detectable with Planck, and would be a strong signal in any future space-based CMB missions. The later peak of the Rayleigh visibility compared to Thomson scattering gives an increased large-scale CMB polarization signal that is a greater than 4% effect for observed frequencies ν ∼> 500GHz. There is a similar magnitude suppression on small scales from additional damping. Due to strong correlation between the Rayleigh and primary signal, measurement of the Rayleigh component is limited by noise and foregrounds, not cosmic variance of the primary CMB, and should observable over a wide range of angular scales at frequencies 200GHz ∼< ν ∼< 800GHz. I give new numerical calculations of the temperature and polarization power spectra, and show that future CMB missions could measure the temperature Rayleigh cross-spectrum at high precision, detect the polarization from Rayleigh scattering, and also accurately determine the cross-spectra between the Rayleigh temperature signal and primary polarization. The Rayleigh scattering signal may provide a powerful consistency check on recombination physics. In principle it can be used to measure additional horizon-scale primordial perturbation modes at recombination, and distinguish a significant tensor mode B-polarization signal from gravitational lensing at the power spectrum level.

  18. Design of a Device for Sky Light Polarization Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xiaoping; Lian, Junxiang; Zhang, Lilian; Xian, Zhiwen; Ma, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Sky polarization patterns can be used both as indicators of atmospheric turbidity and as a sun compass for navigation. The objective of this study is to improve the precision of sky light polarization measurements by optimal design of the device used. The central part of the system is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera; a fish-eye lens and a linear polarizer. Algorithms for estimating parameters of the polarized light based on three images are derived and the optimal alignments of the polarizer are analyzed. The least-squares estimation is introduced for sky light polarization pattern measurement. The polarization patterns of sky light are obtained using the designed system and they follow almost the same patterns of the single-scattering Rayleigh model. Deviations of polarization angles between observation and the theory are analyzed. The largest deviations occur near the sun and anti-sun directions. Ninety percent of the deviations are less than 5° and 40% percent of them are less than 1°. The deviations decrease evidently as the degree of polarization increases. It also shows that the polarization pattern of the cloudy sky is almost identical as in the blue sky. PMID:25196003

  19. Design of a device for sky light polarization measurements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xiaoping; Lian, Junxiang; Zhang, Lilian; Xian, Zhiwen; Ma, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Sky polarization patterns can be used both as indicators of atmospheric turbidity and as a sun compass for navigation. The objective of this study is to improve the precision of sky light polarization measurements by optimal design of the device used. The central part of the system is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera; a fish-eye lens and a linear polarizer. Algorithms for estimating parameters of the polarized light based on three images are derived and the optimal alignments of the polarizer are analyzed. The least-squares estimation is introduced for sky light polarization pattern measurement. The polarization patterns of sky light are obtained using the designed system and they follow almost the same patterns of the single-scattering Rayleigh model. Deviations of polarization angles between observation and the theory are analyzed. The largest deviations occur near the sun and anti-sun directions. Ninety percent of the deviations are less than 5° and 40% percent of them are less than 1°. The deviations decrease evidently as the degree of polarization increases. It also shows that the polarization pattern of the cloudy sky is almost identical as in the blue sky. PMID:25196003

  20. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  1. Under the Same Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Milena

    2016-07-01

    Sharing the same sky provides the unique opportunity to use it as a tool to inspire pupils and encourage them to develop an interest in science and technology. Excitement of space can also serve as introduction to the idea of global citizenship and tolerance. A wide spectrum of educational activities dedicated to children and teenagers, especially those from less privileged backgrounds, carried out under several projects in Poland will be presented. We will also introduce the way we follow to support teachers and educators in discovering our wonderful cosmos.

  2. Bargaining for Open Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojahn, Oliver W.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the bargaining problem between countries when negotiating bilateral air service agreements. To do so, we use the methods of bargaining and game theory. We give special attention to the case where a liberal minded country is trying to convince a less liberal country to agree to bilateral open skies, and the liberal country might also unilaterally open up its market. The following analysis is positive in the sense that the results help explain and predict the outcome of negotiations under different payoffs and structures of the bargaining process. They are normative in the sense that adequate manipulation of the bargaining conditions can ensure a desired outcome.

  3. Supplementing the Digitized Sky Survey for UV-Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The Space Telescope Science Institute worked on a project to augment the Digitized Sky Survey archive by completing the scanning and processing of the POSS-I blue survey. This will provide an additional valuable resource to support UV-mission planning. All of the data will be made available through the NASA optical/UV archive (MAST) at STScI. The activities completed during this project are included.

  4. Ring Around the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croswell, Ken

    2005-07-01

    Gould's Belt, the most prominent starry feature in the Sun's neighborhood, is a zone of large supergiant stars including the Orion constellation; the bright stars of Canis Major, the Southern Cross, Centaurus, and Lupus; and the brightest stars of the Pupis, Vela, and Carina constellations. Its most prominent feature is its 20-degree tilt to the plane of the Milky Way. Gould's Belt was first noticed in 1847 by Englishman John F. W. Herschel while observing from the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa. Later, Benjamin A. Gould, the first American to earn a doctoral degree in astronomy and the founder of The Astronomical Journal, traced the belt around the entire sky. More recent studies of Gould's Belt show evidence of more than just superstars. When massive stars like those in Gould's Belt explode, they leave behind pulsars and black holes. In the 1990's several dozen gamma-ray sources were discovered to track along the path of Gould's Belt around the sky, possible evidence of the explosion of brilliant stars at an earlier time. X-ray studies suggest that the belt may actually be a disk.

  5. Fire in the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Roberta J. M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.

    1999-11-01

    Fire in the Sky collects many representations of comets and meteors in Britain during the eighteen and nineteenth century when a large number of works inspired by these celestial objects were produced. Over 100 photographs--and two sections of luscious color plates--beautifully portray the inspired output of some of the world's most talented artists, fully capturing the phenomenon that obsessed not only a nation but an era as well. Olson and Pasachoff reveal the many different ways that comets and meteors have appeared in paintings and literature and link these works to the achievements of British science in the wake of Newton and Halley. They also examine the different symbolism that writers and artists have attached to these spectacular objects. Throughout, Fire in the Sky conveys how the development of new technologies, and the burgeoning interest of the general public in science and art, dovetailed with an interest in nature and a strong literary tradition of comet and meteor symbolism. Beautifully illustrated and packed with engaging stories, this book will delight anyone with an interest in the art and astronomy of comets.

  6. The Other Dark Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazmino, John

    In previous demonstrations of New York's elimination of luminous graffiti from its skies, I focused attention on large-scale projects in the showcase districts of Manhattan. Although these works earned passionate respect in the dark sky movement, they by the same token were disheartening. New York was in some quarters of the movement regarded more as an unachievable Shangri-La than as a role model to emulate. This presentation focuses on scenes of light abatement efforts in parts of New York which resemble other towns in scale and density. I photographed these scenes along a certain bus route in Brooklyn on my way home from work during October 2001. This route circulates through various "bedroom communities," each similar to a mid-size to large town elsewhere in the United States. The sujbects included individual structures - stores, banks, schools - and streetscapes mimicking downtowns. The latter protrayed a mix of atrocious and excellent lighting practice, being that these streets are in transition by the routine process of replacement and renovation. The fixtures used - box lamps, fluted or Fresnel globes, subdued headsigns, indirect lighting - are casually obtainable by property managers at local outlets for lighting apparatus. They are routinely offered to the property managers by storefront designers, security services, contractors, and the community improvement or betterment councils.

  7. Eyes in the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    These shape-shifting galaxies have taken on the form of a giant mask. The icy blue eyes are actually the cores of two merging galaxies, called NGC 2207 and IC 2163, and the mask is their spiral arms. The false-colored image consists of infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red) and visible data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (blue/green).

    NGC 2207 and IC 2163 met and began a sort of gravitational tango about 40 million years ago. The two galaxies are tugging at each other, stimulating new stars to form. Eventually, this cosmic ball will come to an end, when the galaxies meld into one. The dancing duo is located 140 million light-years away in the Canis Major constellation.

    The infrared data from Spitzer highlight the galaxies' dusty regions, while the visible data from Hubble indicates starlight. In the Hubble-only image (not pictured here), the dusty regions appear as dark lanes.

    The Hubble data correspond to light with wavelengths of .44 and .55 microns (blue and green, respectively). The Spitzer data represent light of 8 microns.

  8. Preserving our sky heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonavitacola, Michel; Le Gué, Alain

    2011-06-01

    We briefly relate the story of the fight against light pollution in France and make a projection into the future. Following the steps of Jean Kovalevsky who was the initiator of the protection of the astronomical sites in France, a few French amateur astronomers began the fight against light pollution in the 1990s. After a first conference for the night environmental protection in 1995 in Rodez, the second conference in 1998 creates the national association which will become in 2007 the National association for the Protection of the Sky and the Night Environment (ANPCEN). In 2008 light pollution is formally identified, by law, as a problem. Since 2005 the LICORNESS association continues to promote research on the impacts of light on the biotopes while protecting the astronomical sites.

  9. Roses in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    The two best known satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds, are located in the southern sky at a distance of about 170,000 light-years. They host many giant nebular complexes with very hot and luminous stars whose intense ultraviolet radiation causes the surrounding interstellar gas to glow. The intricate and colourful nebulae are produced by ionised gas [1] that shines as electrons and positively charged atomic nuclei recombine, emitting a cascade of photons at well defined wavelengths. Such nebulae are called "H II regions", signifying ionised hydrogen, i.e. hydrogen atoms that have lost one electron (protons). Their spectra are characterized by emission lines whose relative intensities carry useful information about the composition of the emitting gas, its temperature, as well as the mechanisms that cause the ionisation. Since the wavelengths of these spectral lines correspond to different colours, these alone are already very informative about the physical conditions of the gas. N44 [2] in the Large Magellanic Cloud is a spectacular example of such a giant H II region. Having observed it in 1999 (see ESO PR Photos 26a-d/99), a team of European astronomers [3] again used the Wide-Field-Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope of the La Silla Observatory, pointing this 67-million pixel digital camera to the same sky region in order to provide another striking - and scientifically extremely rich - image of this complex of nebulae. With a size of roughly 1,000 light-years, the peculiar shape of N44 clearly outlines a ring that includes a bright stellar association of about 40 very luminous and bluish stars. These stars are the origin of powerful "stellar winds" that blow away the surrounding gas, piling it up and creating gigantic interstellar bubbles. Such massive stars end their lives as exploding supernovae that expel their outer layers at high speeds, typically about 10,000 km/sec. It is quite likely that some supernovae have already

  10. Ground-based full-sky imaging polarimetry of rapidly changing skies and its use for polarimetric cloud detection.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gábor; Barta, Andras; Gál, József; Suhai, Bence; Haiman, Ottó

    2002-01-20

    For elimination of the shortcomings of imaging polarimeters that take the necessary three pictures sequentially through linear-polarization filters, a three-lens, three-camera, full-sky imaging polarimeter was designed that takes the required pictures simultaneously. With this polarimeter, celestial polarization patterns can be measured even if rapid temporal changes occur in the sky: under cloudy sky conditions, or immediately after sunrise or prior to sunset. One of the possible applications of our polarimeter is the ground-based detection of clouds. With use of the additional information of the degree and the angle of polarization patterns of cloudy skies measured in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) spectral ranges, improved algorithms of radiometric cloud detection can be offered. We present a combined radiometric and polarimetric algorithm that performs the detection of clouds more efficiently and reliably as compared with an exclusively radiometric cloud-detection algorithm. The advantages and the limits of three-lens, three-camera, full-sky imaging polarimeters as well as the possibilities of improving our polarimetric cloud detection method are discussed briefly.

  11. Measuring Anthropogenic Sky Glow Using a Natural Sky Brightness Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.

    2013-11-01

    Anthropogenic sky glow (a result of light pollution) combines with the natural background brightness of the night sky when viewed by an observer on the earth's surface. In order to measure the anthropogenic component accurately, the natural component must be identified and subtracted. A model of the moonless natural sky brightness in the V-band was constructed from existing data on the Zodiacal Light, an airglow model based on the van Rhijn function, and a model of integrated starlight (including diffuse galactic light) constructed from images made with the same equipment used for sky brightness observations. The model also incorporates effective extinction by the atmosphere and is improved at high zenith angles (>80°) by the addition of atmospheric diffuse light. The model may be projected onto local horizon coordinates for a given observation at a resolution of 0.05° over the hemisphere of the sky, allowing it to be accurately registered with data images obtained from any site. Zodiacal Light and integrated starlight models compare favorably with observations from remote dark sky sites, matching within ± 8 nL over 95% of the sky. The natural airglow may be only approximately modeled, errors of up to ± 25 nL are seen when the airglow is rapidly changing or has considerable character (banding); ± 8 nL precision may be expected under favorable conditions. When subtracted from all-sky brightness data images, the model significantly improves estimates of sky glow from anthropogenic sources, especially at sites that experience slight to moderate light pollution.

  12. Close to the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Today, a new ALMA outreach and educational book was publicly presented to city officials of San Pedro de Atacama in Chile, as part of the celebrations of the anniversary of the Andean village. ESO PR Photo 50a/07 ESO PR Photo 50a/07 A Useful Tool for Schools Entitled "Close to the sky: Biological heritage in the ALMA area", and edited in English and Spanish by ESO in Chile, the book collects unique on-site observations of the flora and fauna of the ALMA region performed by experts commissioned to investigate it and to provide key initiatives to protect it. "I thank the ALMA project for providing us a book that will surely be a good support for the education of children and youngsters of San Pedro de Atacama. Thanks to this publication, we expect our rich flora and fauna to be better known. I invite teachers and students to take advantage of this educational resource, which will be available in our schools", commented Ms. Sandra Berna, the Mayor of San Pedro de Atacama, who was given the book by representatives of the ALMA global collaboration project. Copies of the book 'Close to the sky' will be donated to all schools in the area, as a contribution to the education of students and young people in northern Chile. "From the very beginning of the project, ALMA construction has had a firm commitment to environment and local culture, protecting unique flora and fauna species and preserving old estancias belonging to the Likan Antai culture," said Jacques Lassalle, who represented ALMA at the hand-over. "Animals like the llama, the fox or the condor do not only live in the region where ALMA is now being built, but they are also key elements of the ancient Andean constellations. In this sense they are part of the same sky that will be explored by ALMA in the near future." ESO PR Photo 50c/07 ESO PR Photo 50c/07 Presentation of the ALMA book The ALMA Project is a giant, international observatory currently under construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile

  13. Spatiotemporal change of sky polarization during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey: polarization patterns of the eclipsed sky observed by full-sky imaging polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Sipocz, Brigitta; Hegedüs, Ramón; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2008-12-01

    Using 180 degrees field-of-view (full-sky) imaging polarimetry, we measured the spatiotemporal change of the polarization of skylight during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey. We present our observations here on the temporal variation of the celestial patterns of the degree p and angle alpha of linear polarization of the eclipsed sky measured in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) parts of the spectrum. We also report on the temporal and spectral change of the positions of neutral (unpolarized, p = 0) points, and points with local minima or maxima of p of the eclipsed sky. Our results are compared with the observations performed by the same polarimetric technique during the total solar eclipse on 11 August 1999 in Hungary. Practically the same characteristics of celestial polarization were encountered during both eclipses. This shows that the observed polarization phenomena of the eclipsed sky may be general.

  14. Spatiotemporal change of sky polarization during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey: polarization patterns of the eclipsed sky observed by full-sky imaging polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Sipocz, Brigitta; Hegedüs, Ramón; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2008-12-01

    Using 180 degrees field-of-view (full-sky) imaging polarimetry, we measured the spatiotemporal change of the polarization of skylight during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey. We present our observations here on the temporal variation of the celestial patterns of the degree p and angle alpha of linear polarization of the eclipsed sky measured in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) parts of the spectrum. We also report on the temporal and spectral change of the positions of neutral (unpolarized, p = 0) points, and points with local minima or maxima of p of the eclipsed sky. Our results are compared with the observations performed by the same polarimetric technique during the total solar eclipse on 11 August 1999 in Hungary. Practically the same characteristics of celestial polarization were encountered during both eclipses. This shows that the observed polarization phenomena of the eclipsed sky may be general. PMID:19037328

  15. The Invisible Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschenbach, Bernd; Hahn, Hermann-Michael; Trümper, Joachim; Jenkner, H.

    The x-ray satellite ROSAT, launched in 1990, has made a new universe visible. It has discovered over 120,000 x-ray sources and allowed us for the first time to look in new ways at stellar explosions, galactic collisions, extremely compact pulsars, black holes, and quasars that shine 10,000 times more strongly than the brightest galaxy. It has detected x-rays from Comet Hyakutake and from the Moon. ROSAT is one of the most successful scientific instruments ever launched. In The Invisible Sky, two of the scientists who were instrumental in the design and launching of the satellite team up with a well-known science journalist to chronicle the beginnings, early failures, planning and construction, and deployment of this most famous of x-ray observatories. They describe the cutting-edge science being done with it and show many of the most spectacular color images it has generated. This beautifully illustrated book is the first to describe for lay readers one of the most rmearkable instruments in modern astronomy.

  16. Color vision: retinal blues.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  17. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  18. Uncovering Blue Diffuse Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) and the star-formation within their chemically pristine environments are fundamental to our understanding of the galaxy formation process at early times. However, traditional emission-line surveys detect only the brightest metal-poor galaxies where star-formation occurs in compact, starbursting environments, and thereby give us only a partial view of the dwarf galaxy population. To avoid such biases, we have developed a new search algorithm based on the morphological, rather then spectral, properties of XMPs and have applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database of images. Using this novel approach, we have discovered ~100 previously undetected, faint blue galaxies, each with isolated HII regions embedded in a diffuse continuum. In this talk I will present the first results from follow-up optical spectroscopy of this sample, which reveals these blue diffuse dwarfs (BDDs) to be young, very metal-poor and actively forming stars despite their intrinsically low luminosities. I will present evidence showing that BDDs appear to bridge the gap between quiescent dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies and blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and as such offer an ideal opportunity to assess how star-formation occurs in more `normal' metal-poor systems.

  19. Digital all-sky polarization imaging of partly cloudy skies.

    PubMed

    Pust, Nathan J; Shaw, Joseph A

    2008-12-01

    Clouds reduce the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of skylight relative to that of a clear sky. Even thin subvisual clouds in the "twilight zone" between clouds and aerosols produce a drop in skylight DOLP long before clouds become visible in the sky. In contrast, the angle of polarization (AOP) of light scattered by a cloud in a partly cloudy sky remains the same as in the clear sky for most cases. In unique instances, though, select clouds display AOP signatures that are oriented 90 degrees from the clear-sky AOP. For these clouds, scattered light oriented parallel to the scattering plane dominates the perpendicularly polarized Rayleigh-scattered light between the instrument and the cloud. For liquid clouds, this effect may assist cloud particle size identification because it occurs only over a relatively limited range of particle radii that will scatter parallel polarized light. Images are shown from a digital all-sky-polarization imager to illustrate these effects. Images are also shown that provide validation of previously published theories for weak (approximately 2%) polarization parallel to the scattering plane for a 22 degrees halo.

  20. Mira Soars Through the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    New ultraviolet images from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows a speeding star that is leaving an enormous trail of 'seeds' for new solar systems. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' is shedding material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life as it hurls through our galaxy.

    In figure 1, the upper panel shows Mira's full, comet-like tail as seen only in shorter, or 'far' ultraviolet wavelengths, while the lower panel is a combined view showing both far and longer, or 'near' ultraviolet wavelengths. The close-up picture at bottom gives a better look at Mira itself, which appears as a pinkish dot, and is moving from left to right in this view. Shed material appears in light blue. The dots in the picture are stars and distant galaxies. The large blue dot on the left side of the upper panel, and the large yellow dot in the lower panel, are both stars that are closer to us than Mira.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the strange tail during part of its routine survey of the entire sky at ultraviolet wavelengths. When astronomers first saw the picture, they were shocked because Mira has been studied for over 400 years yet nothing like this has ever been documented before.

    Mira's comet-like tail stretches a startling 13 light-years across the sky. For comparison, the nearest star to our sun, Proxima Centauri, is only about 4 light-years away. Mira's tail also tells a tale of its history -- the material making it up has been slowly blown off over time, with the oldest material at the end of the tail being released about 30,000 years ago (figure 2).

    Mira is a highly evolved, 'red giant' star near the end of its life. Technically, it is called an asymptotic giant branch star. It is red in color and bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace

  1. Mira Soars Through the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    New ultraviolet images from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows a speeding star that is leaving an enormous trail of 'seeds' for new solar systems. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' is shedding material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life as it hurls through our galaxy.

    In figure 1, the upper panel shows Mira's full, comet-like tail as seen only in shorter, or 'far' ultraviolet wavelengths, while the lower panel is a combined view showing both far and longer, or 'near' ultraviolet wavelengths. The close-up picture at bottom gives a better look at Mira itself, which appears as a pinkish dot, and is moving from left to right in this view. Shed material appears in light blue. The dots in the picture are stars and distant galaxies. The large blue dot on the left side of the upper panel, and the large yellow dot in the lower panel, are both stars that are closer to us than Mira.

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the strange tail during part of its routine survey of the entire sky at ultraviolet wavelengths. When astronomers first saw the picture, they were shocked because Mira has been studied for over 400 years yet nothing like this has ever been documented before.

    Mira's comet-like tail stretches a startling 13 light-years across the sky. For comparison, the nearest star to our sun, Proxima Centauri, is only about 4 light-years away. Mira's tail also tells a tale of its history -- the material making it up has been slowly blown off over time, with the oldest material at the end of the tail being released about 30,000 years ago (figure 2).

    Mira is a highly evolved, 'red giant' star near the end of its life. Technically, it is called an asymptotic giant branch star. It is red in color and bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace

  2. Sky Cover from MFRSR Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.

    2011-07-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  3. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J. C.; Berg, L. K.; Flynn, C.; Long, C. N.

    2011-07-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  4. THEMIS / All-Sky Imagers

    NASA Video Gallery

    A collection of ground-based All-Sky Imagers (ASI) make up another important component of the THEMIS mission. It is sometimes referred to as the sixth THEMIS satellite. Imagery from each camera is ...

  5. Dark Sky Protection and Education - Izera Dark Sky Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Kolomanski, Sylwester; Mrozek, Tomasz; Zakowicz, Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    Darkness of the night sky is a natural component of our environment and should be protected against negative effects of human activities. The night darkness is necessary for balanced life of plants, animals and people. Unfortunately, development of human civilization and technology has led to the substantial increase of the night-sky brightness and to situation where nights are no more dark in many areas of the World. This phenomenon is called "light pollution" and it can be rank among such problems as chemical pollution of air, water and soil. Besides the environment, the light pollution can also affect e.g. the scientific activities of astronomers - many observatories built in the past began to be located within the glow of city lights making the night observations difficult, or even impossible.In order to protect the natural darkness of nights many so-called "dark sky parks" were established, where the darkness is preserved, similar to typical nature reserves. The role of these parks is not only conservation but also education, supporting to make society aware of how serious the problem of the light pollution is.History of the dark sky areas in Europe began on November 4, 2009 in Jizerka - a small village situated in the Izera Mountains, when Izera Dark Sky Park (IDSP) was established - it was the first transboundary dark sky park in the World. The idea of establishing that dark sky park in the Izera Mountains originated from a need to give to the society in Poland and Czech Republic the knowledge about the light pollution. Izera Dark Sky Park is a part of the astro-tourism project "Astro Izery" that combines tourist attraction of Izera Valley and astronomical education under the wonderful starry Izera sky. Besides the IDSP, the project Astro Izery consists of the set of simple astronomical instruments (gnomon, sundial), natural educational trail "Solar System Model", and astronomical events for the public. In addition, twice a year we organize a 3-4 days

  6. Night sky luminance under clear sky conditions: Theory vs. experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    Sky glow is caused by both natural phenomena and factors of anthropogenic origin, and of the latter ground-based light sources are the most important contributors for they emit the spatially linked spectral radiant intensity distribution of artificial light sources, which are further modulated by local atmospheric optics and perceived as the diffuse light of a night sky. In other words, sky glow is closely related to a city's shape and pattern of luminaire distribution, in practical effect an almost arbitrary deployment of random orientation of heterogeneous electrical light sources. Thus the luminance gradation function measured in a suburban zone or near the edges of a city is linked to the City Pattern or vice versa. It is shown that clear sky luminance/radiance data recorded in an urban area can be used to retrieve the bulk luminous/radiant intensity distribution if some a-priori information on atmospheric aerosols is available. For instance, the single scattering albedo of aerosol particles is required under low turbidity conditions, as demonstrated on a targeted experiment in the city of Frýdek-Mistek. One of the main advantages of the retrieval method presented in this paper is that the single scattering approximation is satisfactorily accurate in characterizing the light field near the ground because the dominant contribution to the sky glow has originated from beams propagated along short optical paths.

  7. The Transient Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, E. F.

    2010-11-01

    The high time-resolution radio sky represents unexplored astronomical territory where the discovery potential is high. In this thesis I have studied the transient radio sky, focusing on millisecond scales. As such, this work is concerned primarily with neutron stars, the mostpopulous member of the radio transient parameter space. In particular, I have studied the well known radio pulsars and the recently identified group of neutron stars which show erratic radio emission, known as RRATs, which show radio bursts every few minutes to every few hours. When RRATs burst onto the scene in 2006, it was thought that they represented a previously unknown, distinct class of sporadically emitting sources. The difficulty in their identification implies a large underlying population, perhaps larger than the radio pulsars. The first question investigated in this thesis was whether the large projected population of RRATs posed a problem, i.e. could the observed supernova rate account for so many sources. In addition to pulsars and RRATs, the various other known neutron star manifestations were considered, leading to the conclusion that distinct populations would result in a `birthrate problem'. Evolution between the classes could solve this problem -- the RRATs are not a distinct population ofneutron stars.Alternatively, perhaps the large projected population of RRATs is an overestimate. To obtain an improved estimate, the best approach is to find more sources. The Parkes Multi-beam Pulsar Survey, wherein the RRATs were initially identified, offered an opportunity to do just this. Abouthalf of the RRATs showing bursts during the survey were thought to have been missed, due to the deleterious effects of impulsive terrestrial interference signals. To remove these unwanted signals, so that we could identify the previously shrouded RRATs, we developed newinterference mitigation software and processing techniques. Having done this, the survey was completely re-processed, resulting in

  8. Exmoor - Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, S.

    2011-12-01

    On 2011 October 9 Exmoor National Park in the southwest of England was designated as Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve by the International Dark Skies Association. This is a huge achievement, and follows three years of work by park authorities, local astronomers, lighting engineers and the resident community. Exmoor Dark Sky Reserve follows in the footsteps of Galloway Forest Dark Sky Park, set up in 2009, and Sark Dark Sky Island, established in January 2011.

  9. Hemispherical sky simulator for daylighting model studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkowitz, S.

    1981-07-01

    The design of a 24 foot diameter hemispherical sky simulator is described. A facility in which large models is tested, which is suitable for research, teaching, and design which could provide a uniform sky, an overcast sky, and several clear sky luminance distributions, as well as accommodating an artificial sun was produced. Initial operating experience with the facility is described, the sky simulator capabilities are reviewed, and its strengths and weaknesses relative to outdoor modelling tests are discussed.

  10. Dark Skies are a Universal Resource. So are Quiet Skies!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.; Heatherly, S.

    2008-05-01

    You've just purchased your first telescope. But where to set it up? Certainly not a WalMart parking lot. Too much light pollution! In the same way that man-made light obscures our night sky and blinds ground-based optical telescopes, man-made radio signals blind radio telescopes as well. NRAO developed the Quiet Skies project to increase awareness of radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy in general by engaging students in local studies of RFI. To do that we created a sensitive detector which measures RFI. We produced 20 of these, and assembled kits containing detectors and supplementary materials for loan to schools. Students conduct experiments to measure the properties of RFI in their area, and input their measurements into a web-based data base. The Quiet Skies project is a perfect complement to the IYA Dark Skies Awareness initiative. We hope to place 500 Quiet Skies detectors into the field through outreach to museums and schools around the world. Should we be successful, we will sustain this global initiative via a continuing loan program. One day we hope to have a publicly generated image of the Earth which shows RFI much as the Earth at Night image illustrates light pollution. The poster will present the components of the project in detail, including our plans for IYA, and various low-cost alternative strategies for introducing RFI and radio astronomy to the public. We will share the results of some of the experiments already being performed by high school students. Development of the Quiet Skies project was funded by a NASA IDEAS grant. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  11. Dark Skies Rangers - Fighting light pollution and simulating dark skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa; Correia, Nelson; Guerra, Rita; Costa, Ana

    2015-03-01

    Dark Skies Rangers is an awareness program aimed at students of all ages to stimulate them to make an audit of light pollution in their school/district. The young light pollution fighters evaluate the level of light pollution, how much energy is being wasted, and produce a report to be delivered to the local authorities. They are also advised to promote a light pollution awareness campaign to the local community targeting not only the dark skies but also other implications such as effects in our health, to the flora and fauna, etc.

  12. Adverse reaction; patent blue turning patient blue.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Meera; Hart, Matthew; Ahmed, Farid; McPherson, Sandy

    2012-11-30

    The authors report a severe anaphylactic reaction to Patent Blue V dye used in sentinel node biopsy for lymphatic mapping during breast cancer surgery to stage the axilla. Patent Blue dye is the most widely used in the UK; however, adverse reactions have been reported with the blue dye previously. This case highlights that reactions may not always be immediately evident and to be vigilant in all patients that have undergone procedures using blue dye. If the patients are not responding appropriately particularly during an anaesthetic, one must always think of a possible adverse reaction to the dye. All surgical patients should give consent for adverse reactions to patent blue dye preoperatively. Alternative agents such as methylene blue are considered.

  13. Sky subtraction with fiber spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissandrini, C.; Cristiani, S.; La Franca, F.

    1994-11-01

    The sky-subtraction performance of multifiber spectrographs is discussed, analyzing in detail the case of the OPTOPUS system at the 3.6-m European Space Observatory (ESO) telescope at La Silla. A standard technique, based on flat fields obtained with a uniformly illuminated screen on the dome, provides poor results. A new method has been developed, using the (O I) emission line at 5577 A as a calibrator of the fiber transmittance, taking into account the diffuse light and the influence of each fiber on the adjacent ones, and correcting for the effects of the image distortions on the sky sampling. In this way the accuracy of the sky subtraction improves from 2%-8% to 1.3%-1.6%.

  14. Dark sky enters the lexicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    “Basketbrawl,” “cloud music,” “humblebrag,” and “occupy Wall Street.” These are some of the catchwords and phrases that lexicographer Grant Barrett included in a year-end newspaper column, “Which words will live on?,” in the New York Times on 31 December 2011. Among the couple dozen examples of new language was “dark sky.” Barrett wrote that it “designates a place free of nighttime light pollution. For example, the island of Sark in the English Channel is a dark-sky island.”

  15. The solan digital sky suvey

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.

    1996-01-01

    A description is provided for the planned Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) designed to replace and supplement the Palomar Sky Survey used broadly in cosmology for the past four decades. The SDSS will employ CCD detectors to achieve orders of magnitude increases sensitivity over photographic plates used in the Palomar survey. Described herein are plans for and expected results to be gained from the survey. Detailed descriptions of the design and construction of the SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, NM. and the spectrographs to be used are also provided.

  16. A bolt out of the blue.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Joseph R

    2005-05-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It causes more deaths and injuries in the U.S. than either hurricanes or tornadoes do, and it strikes without warning, sometimes with nothing but blue sky overhead. In central Florida, where I live, thunderstorms are a daily occurrence during the summer, and so, ironically, people in the Sunshine State often spend their afternoons indoors to avoid the risk of death from the sky. Worldwide, lightning flashes about four million times a day, and bolts have even been observed on other planets. Yet despite its familiarity, we still do not know what causes lightning. It is a misconception that Benjamin Franklin solved the puzzle when he conducted his famous kite experiment in 1752. PMID:15882023

  17. A bolt out of the blue.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Joseph R

    2005-05-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It causes more deaths and injuries in the U.S. than either hurricanes or tornadoes do, and it strikes without warning, sometimes with nothing but blue sky overhead. In central Florida, where I live, thunderstorms are a daily occurrence during the summer, and so, ironically, people in the Sunshine State often spend their afternoons indoors to avoid the risk of death from the sky. Worldwide, lightning flashes about four million times a day, and bolts have even been observed on other planets. Yet despite its familiarity, we still do not know what causes lightning. It is a misconception that Benjamin Franklin solved the puzzle when he conducted his famous kite experiment in 1752.

  18. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Pranav; Bindra, V. K.; Kapoor, Seema; Jain, Vivek; Saxena, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb) in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1–2 mg/kg) administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels. PMID:22219589

  19. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  20. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  1. Color of the Night Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    (Abstract only) The author presents the results of all-night monitoring of the sky brightness in BVRI filters. The measuring equipment used was Unihendron SQM's and knightware software. Results from four observatories are presented, along with implications of twilight flats.

  2. The "All Sky Camera Network"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Andy

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the "All Sky Camera Network" came to life as an outreach program to connect the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS) exhibit "Space Odyssey" with Colorado schools. The network is comprised of cameras placed strategically at schools throughout Colorado to capture fireballs--rare events that produce meteorites. Meteorites have great…

  3. The Blue Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, J. Joel

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the advantages of an elementary science activity in which students discover that blowing through a straw into a bromthymol blue solution changes the color to yellow. Directions are provided for preparing the bromthymol blue solution. (JR)

  4. Gospel and Blues Improvisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Richard

    1980-01-01

    The similarities and differences between blues and gospel music are identified and the author suggests that both blues and gospel music have inherent improvisational qualities. Methods of capitalizing on these qualities are presented. Selected readings and recordings are included. (KC)

  5. Greening the Blue Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

  6. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    Blue-green algae” describes a large and diverse group of simple, plant-like organisms found in salt water and some large fresh water lakes. Blue-green algae products are used for many conditions, but so ...

  7. Eyeing the Sky's Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, and many like it, are one way NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is measuring trace amounts of water vapor in the atmosphere over far-northern Mars. Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) uses solar filters, or filters designed to image the sun, to make these images. The camera is aimed at the sky for long exposures.

    SSI took this image as a test on June 9, 2008, which was the Phoenix mission's 15th Martian day, or sol, since landing, at 5:20 p.m. local solar time. The camera was pointed about 38 degrees above the horizon. The white dots in the sky are detector dark current that will be removed during image processing and analysis.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space

  8. Simplified night sky display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A portable structure, simply constructed with inexpensive and generally lightweight materials, for displaying a selected portion of the night sky and selected planets, satellites, comets and other astronomically observable objects that are visually perceptible within that portion of the night sky. The structure includes a computer having stored signals representing the observable objects, an image projector that converts and projects the stored signals as visually perceptible images, a first curvilinear light-reflecting surface to receive and reflect the visually perceptible images, and a second curvilinear surface to receive and display the visually perceptible images reflected from the first surface. The images may be motionless or may move with passage of time. In one embodiment, the structure includes an inflatable screen surface that receives gas in an enclosed volume, supports itself without further mechanical support, and optionally self-regulates pressure of the received gas within the enclosed volume.

  9. The Citizen Sky Planetarium Trailer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, R.; Price, A.; Wyatt, R.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) Citizen Sky is a multi-year, citizen science project focusing on the bright variable star e Aurigae. We have developed a six-minute video presentation describing eclipsing binary stars, light curves, and the Citizen Sky project. Designed like a short movie trailer, the video can be shown at planetariums before their regular, feature shows or integrated into a longer presentation. The trailer is available in a wide range of formats for viewing on laptops all the way up to state-of-the-art planetariums. The show is narrated by Timothy Ferris and was produced by the Morrison Planetarium and Visualization Studio at the California Academy of Sciences. This project has been made possible by the National Science Foundation.

  10. A New Sky Brightness Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, David L.; McKenna, D.

    2006-12-01

    A good estimate of sky brightness and its variations throughout the night, the months, and even the years is an essential bit of knowledge both for good observing and especially as a tool in efforts to minimize sky brightness through local action. Hence a stable and accurate monitor can be a valuable and necessary tool. We have developed such a monitor, with the financial help of Vatican Observatory and Walker Management. The device is now undergoing its Beta test in preparation for production. It is simple, accurate, well calibrated, and automatic, sending its data directly to IDA over the internet via E-mail . Approximately 50 such monitors will be ready soon for deployment worldwide including most major observatories. Those interested in having one should enquire of IDA about details.

  11. The Alphabet and the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, A.

    2011-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 17th century the letters of the Greek alphabet are used to identify the stars of constellation by order of magnitude. This was simply a practical means of astronomical classification. In several instances the Bible uses such metaphors as "The sky rolled up like a scroll". The idea of associating letters of different alphabets with stars, constellations and the sky in general can be found to day in the marginal subculture. The persistence of such an association of writing with astronomy or cosmology is at least of interest for cultural reasons, but the problem might be of good interest as well for the history of astronomy and cosmology. I present here two examples of this tradition in works of art. The first a painted representation of the Revelation of Saint John in the Orthodox church tradition, and the other in the construction of the late bronze age sacred well at Santa Cristina in Sardinia, Italy.

  12. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  13. Astronomy Education Under Dark Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecylia Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna

    2015-08-01

    We have been providing professional support for the high school students and the astronomy teachers since 2007. Our efforts include organizing astronomy events that take from several hours, like, e.g., watching the transit of Venus, to several days, like the workshops organized in the framework of the projects 'School Workshops on Astronomy' (SWA) and 'Wygasz'.The SWA and Wygasz workshops include presentations by experts in astronomy and space science research, presentations prepared by students being supervised by those experts, hands-on interactive experience in the amateur astrophotography, various pencil-and-paper exercises, and other practical activities. We pay particular attention to familiarize the teachers and students with the idea and the necessity of protecting the dark sky. The format of these events allows also for some time for teachers to share ideas and best practices in teaching astronomy.All those activities are organized either in the Izera Dark-Sky Park in Poland or in other carefuly selected locations in which the beauty of the dark night sky can be appreciated.

  14. What's Up in the Atmosphere? Exploring How Aerosols Impact Sky Color Through Hands-on Activities with Elementary GLOBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damadeo, K.; Taylor, J.

    2015-12-01

    What color is the sky today? The GLOBE Kids - Anita, Simon, and Dennis want to know why the sky isn't always the same shade of blue and sometimes isn't even blue. Through the new Elementary GLOBE Aerosols Storybook and Learning Activities, the GLOBE Kids learn that there's a lot more than air in the atmosphere, which can affect the colors we see in the sky. There are four hands-on activities in this unit: 1) Sky Observers - Students make observations of the sky, record their findings and share their observation reports with their peers. The activity promotes active observation and recording skills to help students observe sky color, and recognize that sky color changes; 2) Why (Not) So Blue? - Students make predictions about how drops of milk will affect color and visibility in cups of water representing the atmosphere to help them understand that aerosols in the atmosphere have an effect on sky conditions, including sky color and visibility. The activity also introduces the classification categories for daytime sky color and visibility; 3) See the Light - Students use prisms and glue sticks to explore the properties of light. The activity demonstrates that white light is made up of seven colors that represent different wavelengths, and illustrates why the sky is blue during the day and red at sunset; 4) Up in the Air - Students work in groups to make an aerosol sampler, a simple adhesive tool that allows students to collect data and estimate the extent of aerosols present at their school, understanding that, in fact, there are particles in the air we breathe. NGSS Alignment includes: Disciplinary Core Ideas- ESS2.D: Weather and Climate, ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems, PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation, ESS3.A: Natural Resources; Science and Engineering Practices- Asking Questions and Defining Problems, Planning and Carrying Out an Investigation, Analyzing and Interpreting Data, Engaging in Argument from Evidence, Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating

  15. Estimation of aerosol optical properties from all-sky imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantzidis, Andreas; Tzoumanikas, Panagiotis; Salamalikis, Vasilios; Wilbert, Stefan; Prahl, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols are one of the most important constituents in the atmosphere that affect the incoming solar radiation, either directly through absorbing and scattering processes or indirectly by changing the optical properties and lifetime of clouds. Under clear skies, aerosols become the dominant factor that affect the intensity of solar irradiance reaching the ground. It has been shown that the variability in direct normal irradiance (DNI) due to aerosols is more important than the one induced in global horizontal irradiance (GHI), while the uncertainty in its calculation is dominated by uncertainties in the aerosol optical properties. In recent years, all-sky imagers are used for the detection of cloud coverage, type and velocity in a bouquet of applications including solar irradiance resource and forecasting. However, information about the optical properties of aerosols could be derived with the same instrumentation. In this study, the aerosol optical properties are estimated with the synergetic use of all-sky images, complementary data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and calculations from a radiative transfer model. The area of interest is Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA), Tabernas, Spain and data from a 5 month period are analyzed. The proposed methodology includes look-up-tables (LUTs) of diffuse sky radiance of Red (R), Green (G) and Blue (B) channels at several zenith and azimuth angles and for different atmospheric conditions (Angström α and β, single scattering albedo, precipitable water, solar zenith angle). Based on the LUTS, results from the CIMEL photometer at PSA were used to estimate the RGB radiances for the actual conditions at this site. The methodology is accompanied by a detailed evaluation of its robustness, the development and evaluation of the inversion algorithm (derive aerosol optical properties from RGB image values) and a sensitivity analysis about how the pre-mentioned atmospheric parameters affect the results.

  16. Derivation of sky quality indicators from photometrically calibrated all-sky image mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.; Moore, Chadwick A.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.

    2015-08-01

    A large database of high resolution all-sky measurements of V-band night sky brightness at sites in U.S. National Parks and astronomical observatories is utilized to describe sky quality over a wide geographic area. Mosaics of photometrically calibrated V-band imagery are processed with a semi-automated procedure to reveal the effects of artificial sky glow through graphical presentation and numeric indicators of artificial sky brightness. Comparison with simpler methods such as the use of the Unihedron SQM and naked eye limiting magnitude reveal that areas near the horizon, which are not typically captured with single-channel measurements, contribute significantly to the indicators maximum vertical illuminance, maximum sky luminance, and average all-sky luminance. Distant sources of sky glow may represent future threats to areas of the sky nearer the zenith. Timely identification and quantification of these threats may allow mitigating strategies to be implemented.

  17. How the clear-sky angle of polarization pattern continues underneath clouds: full-sky measurements and implications for animal orientation.

    PubMed

    Pomozi, I; Horváth, G; Wehner, R

    2001-09-01

    One of the biologically most important parameters of the cloudy sky is the proportion P of the celestial polarization pattern available for use in animal navigation. We evaluated this parameter by measuring the polarization patterns of clear and cloudy skies using 180 degrees (full-sky) imaging polarimetry in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm) and blue (450 nm) ranges of the spectrum under clear and partly cloudy conditions. The resulting data were compared with the corresponding celestial polarization patterns calculated using the single-scattering Rayleigh model. We show convincingly that the pattern of the angle of polarization (e-vectors) in a clear sky continues underneath clouds if regions of the clouds and parts of the airspace between the clouds and the earth surface (being shady at the position of the observer) are directly lit by the sun. The scattering and polarization of direct sunlight on the cloud particles and in the air columns underneath the clouds result in the same e-vector pattern as that present in clear sky. This phenomenon can be exploited for animal navigation if the degree of polarization is higher than the perceptual threshold of the visual system, because the angle rather than the degree of polarization is the most important optical cue used in the polarization compass. Hence, the clouds reduce the extent of sky polarization pattern that is useful for animal orientation much less than has hitherto been assumed. We further demonstrate quantitatively that the shorter the wavelength, the greater the proportion of celestial polarization that can be used by animals under cloudy-sky conditions. As has already been suggested by others, this phenomenon may solve the ultraviolet paradox of polarization vision in insects such as hymenopterans and dipterans. The present study extends previous findings by using the technique of 180 degrees imaging polarimetry to measure and analyse celestial polarization patterns.

  18. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePlus

    Mongolian spots; Congenital dermal melanocytosis; Dermal melanocytosis ... Mongolian blue spots are common among persons who are of Asian, Native American, Hispanic, East Indian, and African descent. The color ...

  19. Explorers of the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Raymond; Haynes, Roslynn D.; Malin, David; McGee, Richard

    2010-08-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Dreaming the stars; 2. Sailing south for a new sky; 3. Astronomy in Sydney town; 4. The struggle for independence; 5. A bid for fame; 6. For love of the subject; 7. Astronomy on a national basis; 8. From swords to ploughshares; 9. Radio astronomy and the big telescopes; 10. Entrepreneurs in astronomy; 11. The advantage of latitude; 12. The high-energy frontier; 13. Diversity through innovation; 14. Optical astronomy goes high tech; 15. A telescope as wide as a continent; Glossary of abbreviations; Glossary of scientific and technical words; Bibliography; Index of names and dates; Subject index.

  20. MSDS sky reference and preamplifier study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, L.; Stewart, S.; Lambeck, P.

    1974-01-01

    The major goals in re-designing the Multispectral Scanner and Data System (MSDS) sky reference are: (1) to remove the sun-elevation angle and aircraft-attitude angle dependence from the solar-sky illumination measurement, and (2) to obtain data on the optical state of the atmosphere. The present sky reference is dependent on solar elevation and provides essentially no information on important atmospheric parameters. Two sky reference designs were tested. One system is built around a hyperbolic mirror and the reflection approach. A second approach to a sky reference utilizes a fish-eye lens to obtain a 180 deg field of view. A detailed re-design of the present sky reference around the fish-eye approach, even with its limitations, is recommended for the MSDS system. A preamplifier study was undertaken to find ways of improving the noise-equivalent reflectance by reducing the noise level for silicon detector channels on the MSDS.

  1. Nightscape Photography Reclaims the Natural Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak

    2015-08-01

    Nightscape photos and timelapse videos, where the Earth & sky are framed together with an astronomical purpose, support the dark skies activities by improving public awareness. TWAN or The World at Night program (www.twanight.org) presents the world's best collection of such landscape astrophotos and aims to introduce the night sky as a part of nature, an essential element of our living environment besides being the astronomers lab. The nightscape images also present views of our civilizations landmarks, both natural and historic sites, against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. In this context TWAN is a bridge between art, science and culture.TWAN images contribute to programs such as the Dark Sky Parks by the International Dark Sky Association or Starlight reserves by assisting local efforts in better illustrating their dark skies and by producing stunning images that not only educate the local people on their night sky heritage also communicate with the governments that are responsible to support the dark sky area.Since 2009 TWAN organizes the world's largest annual photo contest on nightscape imaging, in collaboration with the Dark Skies Awareness, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and Astronomers Without Borders. The International Earth & Sky Photo Contest promotes the photography that documents the beauty of natural skies against the problem of light pollution. In 2014 the entries received from about 50 countries and the contest result news was widely published in the most popular sources internationally.*Babak A. Tafreshi is a photographer and science communicator. He is the creator of The World At Night program, and a contributing photographer to the National Geographic, Sky&Telescope magazine, and the European Southern Observatory. http://twanight.org/tafreshi

  2. Blue Ocean Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  3. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  4. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  5. From blue jeans to blue genes.

    PubMed

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  6. For Spacious Skies: A Teacher's Guide. An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    For Spacious Skies, Inc., Lexington, MA.

    Despite the fact that the sky is the most dominant feature of our surroundings, it plays the role of an unseen background for many objects. It is the intent of this guide to bring about an awareness of the sky to young people. Topics for activities include: (1) "Sky Awareness"; (2) "Compass"; (3) "Hand Lens"; (4) "Prism"; (5) "Binoculars"; (6)…

  7. For Spacious Skies Activity Guide. An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, C. Whitney; Borden, Jack

    Despite the fact that the sky is the most dominant feature of our surroundings, it plays the role of an unseen background for may objects. It is the intent of this guide to bring about an awareness of the sky to young people. Topics for activities include: (1) "Sky Awareness"; (2) "Compass"; (3) "Hand Lens"; (4) "Prism"; (5) "Binoculars"; (6)…

  8. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  9. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  10. Exploring the Dynamic Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooley, Kunal P.; Hallinan, Gregg; Frail, Dale A.; Myers, Steven T.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Bourke, Stephen; Horesh, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Most of what is currently known about slow radio transients (supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, tidal disruption events, stellar flares, etc.) has come via radio follow-up of objects identified by synoptic telescopes at optical, X-ray or gamma-ray wavelengths. However, with the ability to capture obscured, unbeamed and magnetically-driven phenomena, radio surveys offer unique discovery strong diagnostic for cosmic transients. For the first time, we are systematically exploring the dynamic radio sky on timescales between one day to several years using multi-epoch large surveys with the Karl G. Jansky Array (VLA). We have carried out surveys in the COSMOS deep field as well as wide fields like Stripe 82. I have developed a unique infrastructure for near-real-time calibration, imaging, transient search, transient vetting, rapid multiwavelength follow-up, and contemporaneous optical surveys to better characterize radio transient phenomena. A large part of my thesis includes the commissioning of a new observing mode at the VLA: On-The-Fly Mosaicking. This mode has significantly improved the survey efficiency of the VLA, and it is a driver for VLASS, the future all-sky survey planned with this telescope. Through our radio surveys we have discovered several fascinating transients that are unique to the radio. These surveys have established the VLA as an efficient transient discovery machine. My thesis has enormous implications for how to design efficient transient surveys for the next generation of radio interferometer facilities like ASKAP, MeerKAT, WSRT/Apertif and LOFAR. My work has also provided answers to key problems such as the rates of transients, demographics of variability of radio sources including AGN, and false-positive foreground for future searches for the radio counterparts of gravitational-wave (GW) sources.

  11. Photometric indicators of visual night sky quality derived from all-sky brightness maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.

    2016-09-01

    Wide angle or fisheye cameras provide a high resolution record of artificial sky glow, which results from the scattering of escaped anthropogenic light by the atmosphere, over the sky vault in the moonless nocturnal environment. Analysis of this record yields important indicators of the extent and severity of light pollution. The following indicators were derived through numerical analysis of all-sky brightness maps: zenithal, average all-sky, median, brightest, and darkest sky brightness. In addition, horizontal and vertical illuminance, resulting from sky brightness were computed. A natural reference condition to which the anthropogenic component may be compared is proposed for each indicator, based upon an iterative analysis of a high resolution natural sky model. All-sky brightness data, calibrated in the V band by photometry of standard stars and converted to luminance, from 406 separate data sets were included in an exploratory analysis. Of these, six locations representing a wide range of severity of impact from artificial sky brightness were selected as examples and examined in detail. All-sky average brightness is the most unbiased indicator of impact to the environment, and is more sensitive and accurate in areas of slight to moderate light pollution impact than zenith brightness. Maximum vertical illuminance provides an excellent indicator of impacts to wilderness character, as does measures of the brightest portions of the sky. Zenith brightness, the workhorse of field campaigns, is compared to the other indicators and found to correlate well with horizontal illuminance, especially at relatively bright sites. The median sky brightness describes a brightness threshold for the upper half of the sky, of importance to telescopic optical astronomy. Numeric indicators, in concert with all-sky brightness maps, provide a complete assessment of visual sky quality at a site.

  12. SkyMapper Early Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Christian; Onken, Christopher; Schmidt, Brian; Bessell, Michael; Da Costa, Gary; Luvaul, Lance; Mackey, Dougal; Murphy, Simon; White, Marc; SkyMapper Team

    2016-05-01

    The SkyMapper Early Data Release (EDR) is the initial data release from the SkyMapper Southern Survey, which aims to create a deep, multi-epoch, multi-band photometric data set for the entire southern sky. EDR covers approximately 6700 sq. deg. (one-third) of the southern sky as obtained by the Short Survey component of the project. All included fields have at least two visits in good conditions in all six SkyMapper filters (uvgriz). Object catalogues are complete to magnitude 17-18, depending on filter. IVOA-complaint table access protocol (TAP), cone search and simple image access protocol (SIAP) services are available from the SkyMapper website (http://skymapper.anu.edu.au/), as well as through tools such as TOPCAT. Data are restricted to Australian astronomers and their collaborators for twelve months from the release date. Further details on the reduction of SkyMapper data, along with data quality improvements, will be released in late 2016 as part of SkyMapper Data Release 1 (DR1).

  13. Bright Meteor Lights Up Atlanta Skies

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a very bright meteor that streaked over the skies of Atlanta, Ga., on the night of Aug. 28, 2011. The view is from an all sky camera in Cartersville, Ga., operated by NASA’s Mars...

  14. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX): an All Sky Ultraviolet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana; GALEX Team

    We are preparing a mission to perform imaging and spectroscopic surveys of the sky in the Ultraviolet. GALEX (The GALaxy Evolution EXplorer) will fill in the crucial missing piece of the spectrum so that our knowledge of the sky from 100 micron to 10 A is complete. The Palomar Sky Survey has served as the fundamental resource for research in optical astronomy for over thirty years, and the IRAS, EUVE, and Rosat satellites provided similar databases for the infrared, extreme ultraviolet, and X-ray regimes. GALEX will provide a catalog with an order of magnitude more sources than any of these experiments, and will produce an unprecedented statistically powerful database of UV images and spectra of nearby and distant galaxies, linked to a multiwavelength archive. GALEX is approved as a NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) mission, to fly in 2001. GALEX will perform a series of spectroscopic and imaging surveys in the space ultraviolet band (1300-3000A ), that will map the history and probe the causes of star formation over the 0blue galaxy population. As such, it will provide a framework for the interpretation of the deepest HST images and those that may be obtained by the NGST.

  15. Cloud discrimination and spectral radiance estimation from a digital sky images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M.; Iwabuchi, H.; Murata, I.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds cover more than 60% of the globe with high impacts on incoming solar irradiance on the ground as well as the radiative energy transfer in the Earth-atmosphere system. Several method for detecting clouds from sky images have been developed, and digital signals available from the JPEG image have nonlinear relationship with the corresponding spectral radiances, which may lead to cloud misclassifications. In this work, a method for cloud discrimination from sky images in RAW format taken from a commercial digital camera is developed. The method uses the clear sky index (CSI). In order to take into account the spectral response in red-green-blue (RGB) channels of the camera as well as lens characteristics, these characteristics are first inferred very accurately with a laboratory experiment. Spectral radiance is represented in a simple form with spectra of incoming solar radiation at the top of atmosphere and ozone transmittance and a polynominal with three coefficients that include the intensity index, the molecular index (MI) and the small particle index (SPI). These coefficients can be obtained from the digital RGB RAW counts by linear transformation. The MI and the SPI can be converted to the CSI, which takes different value from that at clear sky and cloudy pixels. Simultaneous observations with the lidar and the digital camera at Tohoku University show that the CSI can discriminate cloud and clear sky at every pixel with correct discrimination rate more than 90%. Furthermore, spectral distribution of sky radiance can also be estimated at every pixel, and estimated ones are consistent with those from spectrometer and those from radiative transfer simulations under various sky conditions in a wavelength range of 430-680 nm with mean biases lower than 3% and bias standard deviations smaller than 1%.

  16. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  17. Pulmonary blue bodies.

    PubMed

    Koss, M N; Johnson, F B; Hochholzer, L

    1981-03-01

    Pulmonary blue bodies are intra-alveolar laminated basophilic concretions of uncertain etiology. Blue bodies were studied in lung biopsy specimens from 10 patients. The patients ranged in age from 47 to 69 years and were predominantly men. Three had a history of overt exposure to environmental dusts such as sawdust and asbestos, and two showed occasional ferruginous bodies in the lung, raising the possibility of pneumoconiosis. In eight cases there was interstitial pneumonitis, which resembled desquamative interstitial pneumonia by light microscopy but which was often seen to be patchy and asymmetrically distributed in the lung by chest x-ray examination. Of two other patients, one had xanthogranulomatous inflammation and the other, necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Light and electron microscopic, histochemical, microchemical, and x-ray diffraction studies of blue bodies were also performed. Calcium carbonate is a major component of blue bodies and is responsible for their birefringence in unstained sections and ready solubility in acid solutions. Blue bodies also contain a mucopolysaccharide matrix and iron. We offer the hypothesis that blue bodies (calcium carbonate) are a product of histiocytic catabolism.

  18. Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A pall of smoke and dust largely obscured the nations of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Burkina Faso and southern Mali on January 12, 2004. The poor air quality in the region was a combined result of the hundreds of agricultural fires that were burning throughout western Africa during December and early January, and was likely to have been influenced by a Saharan dust storm that occurred several days earlier. These image data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate the abundance of atmospheric particulate matter across the region.

    The left-hand panels are natural-color views from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) and most obliquely forward-pointing cameras. At the nadir view, the shoreline of the Cote d'Ivoire and many other surface features are apparent, and the haze across the region is noticeable. The distinctive area of dark green vegetation (apparent below and left of image center) is situated in the Cote d'Ivoire, near the border with Ghana, to the east of the Komoe River and southwest of the Comoe National Park. At the oblique view the aerosol appears so thick that the coastline is completely obscured, but this region of dark vegetation and hilly terrain can still be discerned.

    The right-hand panel is generated through automated processing of data from multiple MISR cameras, and utilizes the change in scene brightness and contrast at different view angles to retrieve aerosol amounts, expressed as optical depth. The aerosol map indicates an optically thick atmosphere by the orange or yellow pixels, and clearer skies are indicated by blue pixels. Places where clouds or other factors precluded an aerosol retrieval are shown in dark gray. Aerosol properties are retrieved at a coarse spatial resolution of 17.6 kilometers.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were

  19. Light Emitting Diodes and Astronomy - a chance for restoration of the dark night sky - or for further loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Across the planet, conventional light sources such as high pressure sodium, are rapidly being replaced by light emitting diodes (LEDs). As light fixtures are being replaced, there is a tremendous opportunity for restoration of dark night skies through replacement of poorly shielded fixtures by fully shielded fixtures. However, it is critically important to limit the amount of blue light from the LEDs.Sales people are strongly promoting LEDs with high correlated color temperature (CCT), such as 5000K. They are promoting them on energy efficiency grounds - higher energy efficiency is easier to sell. These LEDs have tremendous amounts of blue light near 450 nm. The photopic human eye is relatively insensitive to this blue light, but the dark adapted scotopic eye is much more sensitive, and CCDs are also very sensitive to this wavelength of light. As a consequence, both professional and amateur astronomers are very seriously impacted by high CCT LED lighting. The sodium lighting that the LEDs are replacing has relatively little blue light. Blue light is strongly scattered by air molecules in the atmosphere.Use of high CCT LED lighting will cause further deterioration of night sky quality.In contrast, use of LED lighting with low CCT (e.g., 2400K or 2700K), or use of filters to remove the blue light, can restore the dark night sky. LED lighting is much easier to direct, meaning that an area such as a roadway can be lit with many less lumens with LEDs compared to conventional lights such as high pressure sodium. And use of fully shielded fixtures will eliminate direct uplighting.It is therefore critically important at this time to require that all new LED lighting be fully shielded, and for strong limits to be placed the amount of blue light from LEDs. This is crucial near observatories, but is important everywhere.

  20. Simulations of the Microwave Sky

    SciTech Connect

    Sehgal, Neelima; Bode, Paul; Das, Sudeep; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Huffenberger, Kevin; Lin, Yen-Ting; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Trac, Hy; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2009-12-16

    We create realistic, full-sky, half-arcminute resolution simulations of the microwave sky matched to the most recent astrophysical observations. The primary purpose of these simulations is to test the data reduction pipeline for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) experiment; however, we have widened the frequency coverage beyond the ACT bands and utilized the easily accessible HEALPix map format to make these simulations applicable to other current and near future microwave background experiments. Some of the novel features of these simulations are that the radio and infrared galaxy populations are correlated with the galaxy cluster and group populations, the primordial microwave background is lensed by the dark matter structure in the simulation via a ray-tracing code, the contribution to the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals from galaxy clusters, groups, and the intergalactic medium has been included, and the gas prescription to model the SZ signals has been refined to match the most recent X-ray observations. The cosmology adopted in these simulations is also consistent with the WMAP 5-year parameter measurements. From these simulations we find a slope for the Y{sub 200} - M{sub 200} relation that is only slightly steeper than self-similar, with an intrinsic scatter in the relation of {approx} 14%. Regarding the contamination of cluster SZ flux by radio galaxies, we find for 148 GHz (90 GHz) only 3% (4%) of halos have their SZ decrements contaminated at a level of 20% or more. We find the contamination levels higher for infrared galaxies. However, at 90 GHz, less than 20% of clusters with M{sub 200} > 2.5 x 10{sup 14}M{sub {circle_dot}} and z < 1.2 have their SZ decrements filled in at a level of 20% or more. At 148 GHz, less than 20% of clusters with M{sub 200} > 2.5 x 10{sup 14}M{sub {circle_dot}} and z < 0.8 have their SZ decrements filled in at a level of 50% or larger. Our models also suggest that a population of very high flux infrared

  1. The NRAO VLA Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Greisen, E. W.; Yin, Q. F.; Perley, R. A.; Broderick, J. J.

    1996-03-01

    Observations for the 1.4 GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) began in 1993 September and should cover the sky north of -40 deg declination (82% of the celestial sphere) before the end of 1996. The principal data products will be: (1) A set of 2326 continuum map "cubes," each covering 4 deg X 4 deg with three planes containing Stokes I, Q, and U images. These maps were made with a relatively large restoring beam (45 arcsec FWHM) to yield the high surface-brightness sensitivity needed for completeness and photometric accuracy. Their rms brightness fluctuations are about 0.45 mJy/beam = 0.14 K (Stokes I) and 0.29 mJy/beam = 0.09 K (Stokes Q and U). The rms uncertainties in right ascension and declination vary from 0.3 arcsec for strong (S > 30 mJy) point sources to 5 arcsec for the faintest (S = 2.5 mJy) detectable sources. (2) Lists of discrete sources. (3) Processed (u,v) data sets. Every large map was constructed from more than 100 smaller "snapshot" maps. All of the edited and calibrated single-source (u,v) data sets used to make the snapshot maps contributing to each large map have been combined into a single multisource (u,v) file for users who want to investigate the data underlying the large maps. The NVSS is being made as a service to the astronomical community, and the principal data products are being released into a directory accessible by anonymous FTP (nvss.cv.nrao.edu) as soon as they are produced and verified. To ensure equal access for everyone, the NVSS team members have agreed to use only these electronically released results for their own research. Users should read the postscript file "paper.ps" containing a detailed description of the NVSS. Unprocessed data are available on request. If you have any questions, comments, or special requests, please contact Jim Condon by email at Internet address "jcondon@nrao.edu" or by telephone at (804) 296-0322.

  2. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  3. SIMULATIONS OF THE MICROWAVE SKY

    SciTech Connect

    Sehgal, Neelima; Bode, Paul; Das, Sudeep; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Huffenberger, Kevin; Lin, Yen-Ting; Trac, Hy

    2010-02-01

    We create realistic, full-sky, half-arcminute resolution simulations of the microwave sky matched to the most recent astrophysical observations. The primary purpose of these simulations is to test the data reduction pipeline for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) experiment; however, we have widened the frequency coverage beyond the ACT bands and utilized the easily accessible HEALPix map format to make these simulations applicable to other current and near future microwave background experiments. Some of the novel features of these simulations are that the radio and infrared galaxy populations are correlated with the galaxy cluster and group populations, the primordial microwave background is lensed by the dark matter structure in the simulation via a ray-tracing code, the contribution to the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals from galaxy clusters, groups, and the intergalactic medium has been included, and the gas prescription to model the SZ signals has been refined to match the most recent X-ray observations. The cosmology adopted in these simulations is also consistent with the WMAP 5-year parameter measurements. From these simulations we find a slope for the Y{sub 200}-M{sub 200} relation that is only slightly steeper than self-similar, with an intrinsic scatter in the relation of approx14%. Regarding the contamination of cluster SZ flux by radio galaxies, we find for 148 GHz (90 GHz) only 3% (4%) of halos have their SZ decrements contaminated at a level of 20% or more. We find the contamination levels higher for infrared galaxies. However, at 90 GHz, less than 20% of clusters with M{sub 200} > 2.5 x 10{sup 14} M{sub sun} and z < 1.2 have their SZ decrements filled in at a level of 20% or more. At 148 GHz, less than 20% of clusters with M{sub 200} > 2.5 x 10{sup 14} M{sub sun} and z < 0.8 have their SZ decrements filled in at a level of 50% or larger. Our models also suggest that a population of very high flux infrared galaxies, which are

  4. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device. PMID:25388935

  5. The Sky Brightness Data Archive (SBDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, Erin M.; Craine, Brian L.

    2011-05-01

    Although many astronomers have long been sensitive to issues of light pollution and deteriorating sky quality it is only in recent years that such interest has extended to other groups including, among others, ecologists, health professionals, and urban planners. Issues of light pollution and loss of dark skies are starting to appear in the scientific literature in the context of health and behavior impacts on both human and animal life. Nonetheless, a common deficiency in most such studies is the absence of historical or baseline data against which to compare sky brightness trends and temporal changes. To address this deficiency we have begun to collect a variety of types of quantitative sky brightness data for insertion in an international sky brightness archive that can be accessed for research projects which are dependent upon an understanding of the nature of local light pollution issues. To aid this process we have developed a mobile sky brightness meter which automatically logs sky brightness and observation location. The device can be stationary for long periods of time or can be easily transported for continuous sky brightness measurement from ground vehicles, boats, or aircraft. The sampling rate is typically about 0.25Hz. We present here examples of different modes of sky brightness measurement, various means of displaying and analyzing such data, ways to interpret natural astronomical phenomena apparent in the data, and suggest a number of complementary scientific projects that may capture the interest of both professional and amateur scientists. Finally, we discuss the status of the archive and ways that potential contributors may submit their observations for publication in the archive.

  6. NASA Science Engagement Through "Sky Art"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethea, K. L.; Damadeo, K.

    2013-12-01

    Sky Art is a NASA-funded online community where the public can share in the beauty of nature and the science behind it. At the center of Sky Art is a gallery of amateur sky photos submitted by users that are related to NASA Earth science mission research areas. Through their submissions, amateur photographers from around the world are engaged in the process of making observations, or taking pictures, of the sky just like many NASA science instruments. By submitting their pictures and engaging in the online community discussions and interactions with NASA scientists, users make the connection between the beauty of nature and atmospheric science. Sky Art is a gateway for interaction and information aimed at drawing excitement and interest in atmospheric phenomena including sunrises, sunsets, moonrises, moonsets, and aerosols, each of which correlates to a NASA science mission. Educating the public on atmospheric science topics in an informal way is a central goal of Sky Art. NASA science is included in the community through interaction from scientists, NASA images, and blog posts on science concepts derived from the images. Additionally, the website connects educators through the formal education pathway where science concepts are taught through activities and lessons that align with national learning standards. Sky Art was conceived as part of the Education and Public Outreach program of the SAGE III on ISS mission. There are currently three other NASA mission involved with Sky Art: CALIPSO, GPM, and CLARREO. This paper will discuss the process of developing the Sky Art online website, the challenges of growing a community of users, as well as the use of social media and mobile applications in science outreach and education.

  7. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  8. The Night Sky on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Taking advantage of extra solar energy collected during the day, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit settled in for an evening of stargazing, photographing the two moons of Mars as they crossed the night sky. This time-lapse composite, acquired the evening of Spirit's martian sol 590 (Aug. 30, 2005) from a perch atop 'Husband Hill' in Gusev Crater, shows Phobos, the brighter moon, on the left, and Deimos, the dimmer moon, on the right. In this sequence of images obtained every 170 seconds, both moons move from top to bottom. The bright star Aldebaran forms a trail on the right, along with some other stars in the constellation Taurus. Most of the other streaks in the image mark the collision of cosmic rays with pixels in the camera.

    Scientists will use images of the two moons to better map their orbital positions, learn more about their composition, and monitor the presence of nighttime clouds or haze. Spirit took the six images that make up this composite using Spirit's panoramic camera with the camera's broadband filter, which was designed specifically for acquiring images under low-light conditions.

  9. Teaching Chemistry Using October Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goll, James G.; Wilkinson, Lindsay J.; Snell, Dolores M.

    2009-02-01

    The first artificial satellite, Sputnik, was launched over fifty years ago, on October 4, 1957, marking the beginning of the space age. The launch of Sputnik inspired coal miners’ sons in Coalwood, West Virginia, to form a rocket research program. The story of these coal miners’ sons was told by Homer Hickham, Jr., in the book Rocket Boys: A Memoir, and later in the movie adaptation October Sky. Both the book and the movie show the importance of mentoring from a teacher, Frieda Riley, who encouraged the Rocket Boys in their endeavors. The story of the Rocket Boys can be used in science classrooms as a means to teach the scientific process and to create what is termed in both the book and movie as a body of knowledge. Several chemical principles important in the development of rocket propellant systems were depicted in the book and movie. These propellant systems are comparable to those used for the solid rocket boosters used to launch the space shuttles. The use of popular media in the classroom can engage and inspire students and teachers alike.

  10. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  11. CORRELATIONS AMONG GALAXY PROPERTIES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhongmu; Mao Caiyan

    2013-07-01

    Galaxies are complex systems with many properties. Correlations among galaxy properties can supply important clues for studying the formation and evolution of galaxies. Using principal component analysis and least-squares fitting, this paper investigates the correlations among galactic parameters involving more properties (color, morphology, stellar population, and absolute magnitude) than previous studies. We use a volume-limited sample (whole sample) of 75,423 galaxies that was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 and divided into two subsamples (blue and red samples) using a critical color of (g - r) = 0.70 mag. In addition to recovering some previous results, we also obtain some new results. First, all separators for dividing galaxies into two groups can be related via good parameter-first principal component (PC1) correlations. A critical PC1 that indicates whether or not stellar age (or the evolution of a stellar population over time) is important can be used to separate galaxies. This suggests that a statistical parameter, PC1, is helpful in understanding the physical separators of galaxies. In addition, stellar age is shown to be unimportant for red galaxies, while both stellar age and mass are dominating parameters of blue galaxies. This suggests that the various numbers of dominating parameters of galaxies may result from the use of different samples. Finally, some parameters are shown to be correlated, and quantitative fits for a few correlations are obtained, e.g., log(t) = 8.57 + 1.65 (g - r) for the age (log t) and color (g - r) of blue galaxies and log (M{sub *}) = 4.31 - 0.30 M{sub r} for the stellar mass (log M{sub *}) and absolute magnitude (M{sub r}) of red galaxies. The median relationships between various parameter pairs are also presented for comparison.

  12. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement

  13. Teachable Fiction Comes to Yellow Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tietz, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that teachable fiction is efficient, strategically sound, and very visual. Analyzes Stephen Crane's "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" to show it fulfills these three characteristics. Suggests the story should be taught later in the semester. (PM)

  14. Sky cover from MFRSR observations: cumulus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J.; Berg, L. K.; Flynn, C.; Long, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  15. Spectral selectivity of electrochromic windows with color state for all-sky conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Soule, D E; Zhang, J G; Benson, D K

    1995-07-01

    The optical performance of an electrochromic window is studied for the visible, ultraviolet, and near infrared spectral regions. The performance is found to deviate strongly with window color state and for clear or cloudy skies. A new spectral cloud model is applied to an electrochromic window recently developed at NREL. A spectral comparison is made between the electrochromic window and spectrally selective standard windows. Two series of double-glazed window sections, including the electrochromic window with color state and a series of low-E windows, were measured for transmittance and reflectance (300-2500nm), With these spectral data, a new near-infrared blocking (reflection + absorption) factor is developed for window application in warm climates for cooling load reduction. A chromaticity analysis is presented for both the daylight spectra and the transmitted electrochromic window spectra with color state, Computed daylight correlated color temperatures show a wide range, with values of 5660K for clear global irradiation, 6210K for clouds, and 13,250K for a zenith blue sky. Chromatic trajectories with color state for transmitted radiation extend further toward the blue to 8180K for the global and 28,990K for zenith sky irradiation.

  16. The color of the Martian sky and its influence on the illumination of the Martian surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.; Markiewicz, W.J.; Sablotny, R.M.; Wuttke, M.W.; Keller, H.U.; Johnson, J. R.; Reid, R.J.; Smith, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The dust in the atmosphere above the Mars Pathfinder landing site produced a bright, red sky that increases in redness toward the horizon at midday. There is also evidence for an absorption band in the scattered light from the sky at 860 nm. A model of the sky brightness has been developed [Markiewicz et al., this issue] and tested against Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) observations of calibration targets on the lander. The resulting model has been used to quantify the total diffuse flux onto a surface parallel to the local level for several solar elevation angles and optical depths. The model shows that the diffuse illumination in shadowed areas is strongly reddened while areas illuminated directly by the Sun (and the blue forward scattering peak) see a more solar-type spectrum, in agreement with Viking and IMP observations. Quantitative corrections for the reddening in shadowed areas are demonstrated. It is shown quantitatively that the unusual appearance of the rock Yogi (the east face of which appeared relatively blue in images taken during the morning but relatively red during the afternoon) can be explained purely by the changing illumination geometry. We conclude that any spectrophotometric analysis of surfaces on Mars must take into account the diffuse flux. Specifically, the reflectances of surfaces viewed under different illumination geometries cannot be investigated for spectral diversity unless a correction has been applied which removes the influence of the reddened diffuse flux. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  18. Using Virtual Observatory Services in Sky View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    For over a decade Skyview has provided astronomers and the public with easy access to survey and imaging data from all wavelength regimes. SkyView has pioneered many of the concepts that underlie the Virtual Observatory. Recently SkyView has been released as a distributable package which uses VO protocols to access image and catalog services. This chapter describes how to use the Skyview as a local service and how to customize it to access additional VO services and local data.

  19. The Mythology of the Night Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, David E.

    The word "planet" comes from the Latin word planeta and the Greek word planes, which means "wanderer." When the ancient Greeks studied the night sky they noticed that most of the stars remained in the same position relative to all the other stars, but a few stars seem to move in the sky from day to day, week to week, and month to month. The Greeks called these rogue stars "wanderers" because they wandered through the starry background.

  20. Aladin Lite: Lightweight sky atlas for browsers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boch, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Aladin Lite is a lightweight version of the Aladin tool, running in the browser and geared towards simple visualization of a sky region. It allows visualization of image surveys (JPEG multi-resolution HEALPix all-sky surveys) and permits superimposing tabular (VOTable) and footprints (STC-S) data. Aladin Lite is powered by HTML5 canvas technology and is easily embeddable on any web page and can also be controlled through a Javacript API.

  1. Correcting for Circumsolar and Near-Horizon Errors in Sky Cover Retrievals from Sky Images

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Charles N.

    2010-03-31

    Fractional sky cover amounts retrieved from sky imagery are overestimated significantly at times due to occurrences of “whitening” near the sun, and near the horizon for low sun, in the images. This phenomenon occurs due to forward scattering of visible light by aerosols and haze, and the intensity range limitations of the detectors of the cameras used to record the sky images. Our results suggest that when the problem occurs, the magnitude of the overestimate is typically on the order of about 10% to 20% fractional sky cover. To help alleviate this problem, a statistical analysis of the time series of the areas in the image near the sun position and along the horizon centered on the solar azimuth angle has been developed. This statistical analysis requires that images be captured frequently, at least once per minute. For times when the overestimation is detected as occurring, a correction is applied to the retrieved sky cover amounts. When the sky cover amount correction is applied, analysis indicates that the result better matches the actual sky conditions present, as noted by visual inspection of the sky images in question. In addition, frequency-of-occurrence histogram comparisons show that the adjusted results improve the agreement with other methodologies and expectations. Thus, the methodology presented here helps produce more accurate fractional sky cover retrievals.

  2. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    SciTech Connect

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g – r){sub 0} < –0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  3. Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

    2006-01-01

    College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

  4. Educating for the Preservation of Dark Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Sandra Lee; Cianciolo, Frank; Wetzel, Marc; Finkelstein, Keely; Wren, William; Nance, Craig

    2015-08-01

    The stars at night really are big and bright deep in the heart of Texas at the McDonald Observatory near Fort Davis, Texas. Each year 80,000 visitors from all over the world make the pilgrimage to the Observatory to attend one of the three-times-a-week star parties. Many experience, for the first time, the humbling, splendor of a truly dark night sky. Over the last several years, the Observatory has experienced dramatic increases in visitation demonstrating the public’s appetite for science education, in general, and interest in the night sky, in particular. This increasing interest in astronomy is, ironically, occurring at a time when most of humanity’s skies are becoming increasingly light-polluted frustrating this natural interest. Dark skies and knowledgeable education and outreach staff are an important resource in maintaining the public’s interest in astronomy, support for astronomical research, and local tourism.This year Observatory educators were inspired by the observance of the International Year of Light to promote healthy outdoor lighting through its popular Astronomy Day distance learning program. This program reaches tens of thousands of K-12 students in Texas and other states with a message of how they can take action to preserve dark skies. As well, more than a thousand Boy Scouts visiting during the summer months receive a special program, which includes activities focusing on good lighting practices, thereby earning them credits toward an astronomy badge.The Observatory also offers a half-a-dozen K-12 teacher professional development workshops onsite each year, which provide about 90 teachers with dark skies information, best-practice lighting demonstrations, and red flashlights. Multi-year workshops for National Park and State of Texas Parks personnel are offered on dark sky preservation and sky interpretation at McDonald and a Dark Skies fund for retrofitting lights in the surrounding area has been established. The Observatory also uses

  5. IDENTIFYING BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS USING THE z FILTER

    SciTech Connect

    Vickers, John J.; Grebel, Eva K.; Huxor, Avon P.

    2012-04-15

    In this paper we present a new method for selecting blue horizontal branch (BHB) candidates based on color-color photometry. We make use of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey z band as a surface gravity indicator and show its value for selecting BHB stars from quasars, white dwarfs, and main-sequence A-type stars. Using the g, r, i, and z bands, we demonstrate that extraction accuracies on a par with more traditional u, g, and r photometric selection methods may be achieved. We also show that the completeness necessary to probe major Galactic structure may be maintained. Our new method allows us to efficiently select BHB stars from photometric sky surveys that do not include a u-band filter such as the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System.

  6. Sample of Wolf-Rayet galaxies from the SLOAN digital sky survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agienko, K. B.; Guseva, N. G.; Izotov, Yu. I.

    2013-05-01

    We have analyzed the spectra of blue compact dwarf galaxies from the SLOAN Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 and created a sample of 271 galaxies with Wolf-Rayet (WR) spectral features produced by high-velocity stellar winds. A blue WR feature (bump) is a blend of the N V λλ 460.5 and 462.0 nm, N III λλ 463.4 and 464.0 nm, C III λλ 465.0 nm, C IV λ 465.8 nm, and He II λ 468.6 nm emission lines. A red WR feature (bump) is the broad C IV λ 580.8 nm emission. The blue WR bump is mainly due to emissions of nitrogen WR (WN) stars, while the red bump is fully produced by emissions of carbon WR (WC) stars. All the sample spectra show the blue WR bumps, whereas the red WR bumps are only identified in 50% of sample spectra. We have derived the numbers of early-type WC stars (WCE) and late-type WN stars (WNL) in the galaxies using the luminosities of single WC and WN stars in the red and blue bumps, respectively. The number of O stars is estimated using the Hβ luminosity. The ratio of the overall number of WR stars of different types to the number of all massive stars N(WR)/N(O + WR) decreases with decreasing metallicity, corresponding to the evolution population synthesis models.

  7. Dark Skies are a Universal Resource: IYA Programs on Dark Skies Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Bueter, C.; Pompea, S. M.; Berglund, K.; Mann, T.; Gay, P.; Crelin, B.; Collins, D.; Sparks, R.

    2008-05-01

    The loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource is a growing concern. It impacts not only astronomical research, but also health, ecology, safety, economics and energy conservation. Because of its relevance, "Dark Skies” is a theme of the US Node for the International Year of Astronomy (IYA). Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people involved in a variety of dark skies-related programs. To reach this goal, the ASP session will immerse participants in hands-on, minds-on activities, events and resources on dark skies awareness. These include a planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking, a digital photography contest, The Great Switch Out, Earth Hour, National Dark Skies Week, a traveling exhibit, a 6-minute video tutorial, Dark Skies Teaching Sites, Astronomy Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy Nights, and unaided-eye and digital-meter star counting programs like GLOBE at Night. The ASP "Dark Skies” session is offered to provide IYA dark skies-related programs to a variety of attendees. Participants include professional or amateur astronomers, education and public outreach professionals, science center/museum/planetarium staff and educators who want to lead activities involving dark skies awareness in conjunction with IYA. During the session, each participant will be given a package of educational materials on the various dark skies programs. We will provide the "know-how” and the means for session attendees to become community leaders in promoting these dark skies programs as public events at their home institutions during IYA. Participants will be able to jump-start their education programs through the use of well-developed instructional materials and kits sent later if they commit to leading IYA dark skies activities. For more information about the IYA Dark Skies theme, visit http://astronomy2009.us/darkskies/.

  8. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  9. Dusty Skies over Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Southern California's 'Santa Anas' are dry, north-easterly winds having speeds in excess of 25 knots (46 kilometers/hour). Santa Ana conditions are commonly associated with gusts of more than twice this level. These offshore winds usually occur in late fall and winter when a high pressure system forms in the Great Basin between the Sierra Nevadas and the Rocky Mountains. The air warms as it flows downslope from the high plateau, and its speed increases dramatically when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern California's uneven terrain, the strength of the winds varies greatly from place to place, and the Santa Anas can be sufficiently strong to pick up surface dust.

    This view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer shows the pattern of airborne dust stirred up by Santa Ana winds on February 9, 2002. The image is from MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera, and airborne particulates are especially visible due to the camera's oblique viewing angle. Southeast of the Los Angeles Basin, a swirl of dust, probably blown through the Banning Pass, curves toward the ocean near Dana Point. The largest dust cloud occurs near Ensenada, in Baja California, Mexico. Also visible in this image is a blue-gray smoke plume from a small fire located near the southern flank of Palomar Mountain in Southern California.

    This image was acquired during Terra orbit 11423, and represents an area of about 410 kilometers x 511 kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  10. An Innovative Collaboration on Dark Skies Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Mayer, M.; EPO Students, NOAO

    2011-01-01

    Dark night skies are being lost all over the globe, and hundreds of millions of dollars of energy are being wasted in the process.. Improper lighting is the main cause of light pollution. Light pollution is a concern on many fronts, affecting safety, energy conservation, cost, human health, and wildlife. It also robs us of the beauty of viewing the night sky. In the U.S. alone, over half of the population cannot see the Milky Way from where they live. To help address this, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory Education and Public Outreach (NOAO EPO) staff created two programs: Dark Skies Rangers and GLOBE at Night. Through the two programs, students learn about the importance of dark skies and experience activities that illustrate proper lighting, light pollution's effects on wildlife and how to measure the darkness of their skies. To disseminate the programs locally in an appropriate yet innovative venue, NOAO partnered with the Cooper Center for Environmental Learning in Tucson, Arizona. Operated by the largest school district in Tucson and the University of Arizona College of Education, the Cooper Center educates thousands of students and educators each year about ecology, science, and the beauty and wonders of the Sonoran Desert. During the first academic year (2009-2010), we achieved our goal of reaching nearly 20 teachers in 40 classrooms of 1000 students. We gave two 3-hour teacher-training sessions and provided nineteen 2.5-hour on-site evening sessions on dark skies activities for the students of the teachers trained. One outcome of the program was the contribution of 1000 "GLOBE at Night 2010” night-sky brightness measurements by Tucson students. Training sessions at similar levels are continuing this year. The partnership, planning, lesson learned, and outcomes of NOAO's collaboration with the environmental center will be presented.

  11. Dark Skies: Local Success, Global Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, G. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Flagstaff, Arizona 1987 lighting code reduced the growth rate of man-made sky glow by a third. Components of the code include requirements for full cutoff lighting, lumens per acre limits in radial zones around observatories, and use of low-pressure sodium monochromatic lighting for roadways and parking lots. Broad public acceptance of Flagstaff's lighting code demonstrates that dark sky preservation has significant appeal and few visibility or public safety negatives. An inventory by C. Luginbuhl et al. of the light output and shielding of a sampling of various zoning categories (municipal, commercial, apartments, single-family residences, roadways, sports facilities, industrial, etc.), extrapolated over the entire city, yields a total output of 139 million lumens. Commercial and industrial sources account for 62% of the total. Outdoor sports lighting increases the total by 24% on summer evenings. Flagstaff's per capita lumen output is 2.5 times greater than the nominal 1,000 lumens per capita assumed by R. Garstang in his early sky glow modeling work. We resolved the discrepancy with respect to Flagstaff's measured sky glow using an improved model that includes substantial near ground attenuation by foliage and structures. A 2008 university study shows that astronomy contributes $250M annually to Arizona's economy. Another study showed that the application of lighting codes throughout Arizona could reduce energy consumption significantly. An ongoing effort led by observatory directors statewide will encourage lighting controls in currently unregulated metropolitan areas whose growing sky glow threatens observatory facilities more than 100 miles away. The national press (New York Times, the New Yorker, the Economist, USA Today, etc.) have publicized dark sky issues but frequent repetition of the essential message and vigorous action will be required to steer society toward darker skies and less egregious waste.

  12. yourSky: Custom Sky-Image Mosaics via the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    yourSky (http://yourSky.jpl.nasa.gov) is a computer program that supplies custom astronomical image mosaics of sky regions specified by requesters using client computers connected to the Internet. [yourSky is an upgraded version of the software reported in Software for Generating Mosaics of Astronomical Images (NPO-21121), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 4 (April 2001), page 16a.] A requester no longer has to engage in the tedious process of determining what subset of images is needed, nor even to know how the images are indexed in image archives. Instead, in response to a requester s specification of the size and location of the sky area, (and optionally of the desired set and type of data, resolution, coordinate system, projection, and image format), yourSky automatically retrieves the component image data from archives totaling tens of terabytes stored on computer tape and disk drives at multiple sites and assembles the component images into a mosaic image by use of a high-performance parallel code. yourSky runs on the server computer where the mosaics are assembled. Because yourSky includes a Web-interface component, no special client software is needed: ordinary Web browser software is sufficient.

  13. THE SEVENTH DATA RELEASE OF THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Abazajian, Kevork N.; Adelman-McCarthy, Jennifer K.; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Berman, Eileen F.; Agueeros, Marcel A.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; An, Deokkeun; Anderson, Kurt S. J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Becker, Andrew C.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bell, Eric F.; Barentine, J. C.; Bassett, Bruce A.; Beers, Timothy C.; Belokurov, Vasily; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bernardi, Mariangela

    2009-06-15

    This paper describes the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), marking the completion of the original goals of the SDSS and the end of the phase known as SDSS-II. It includes 11,663 deg{sup 2} of imaging data, with most of the {approx}2000 deg{sup 2} increment over the previous data release lying in regions of low Galactic latitude. The catalog contains five-band photometry for 357 million distinct objects. The survey also includes repeat photometry on a 120 deg. long, 2.{sup 0}5 wide stripe along the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap, with some regions covered by as many as 90 individual imaging runs. We include a co-addition of the best of these data, going roughly 2 mag fainter than the main survey over 250 deg{sup 2}. The survey has completed spectroscopy over 9380 deg{sup 2}; the spectroscopy is now complete over a large contiguous area of the Northern Galactic Cap, closing the gap that was present in previous data releases. There are over 1.6 million spectra in total, including 930,000 galaxies, 120,000 quasars, and 460,000 stars. The data release includes improved stellar photometry at low Galactic latitude. The astrometry has all been recalibrated with the second version of the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog, reducing the rms statistical errors at the bright end to 45 milliarcseconds per coordinate. We further quantify a systematic error in bright galaxy photometry due to poor sky determination; this problem is less severe than previously reported for the majority of galaxies. Finally, we describe a series of improvements to the spectroscopic reductions, including better flat fielding and improved wavelength calibration at the blue end, better processing of objects with extremely strong narrow emission lines, and an improved determination of stellar metallicities.

  14. A `Blank' Sky Search for Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, Karen L.

    2000-08-01

    Low surface brightness galaxies have been shown to numerically dominate the local (z< 0.1) galaxy population, yet their properties remain paradoxical. Many unanswered questions currently exist, such as: What is the true opacity and dust content of LSB galaxies? Do the redder LSB galaxies appear to have more neutral hydrogen than their blue counterparts? How does star formation proceed in LSB galaxies? Does, in fact, star formation occur in the absence of giant molecular clouds in these systems? Is the IMF for LSB galaxies the same as their high surface brightness (HSB) counterparts? Answering the above questions requires a having a large and varied sample of LSB galaxies with known photometric properties, and this large sample does not currently exist. To date the majority of LSB galaxy searches have been undertaken in spiral-rich regions of the sky. As a result, although the number of entries into our catalogs of known LSB galaxies has grown significantly, we have little information as to the environmental effects on the galaxies discovered. A case in point is our discovery of red LSB galaxies - as only cluster environments have been searched for red LSB galaxies, we do not know wether red LSB galaxies are unique to cluster environments or if they, like their HSB counterparts, exist in all galaxy environments. If this, and the numerous other questions concerning the properties and evolution of LSB galaxies are to be answered, it is clear additional surveys are needed. We therefore propose to undertake a multicolor (U, B, V, I) survey of 20 degrees^2 in a galaxy-poor region of the southern sky. Towards this end we request a total of 54 hours observation time (6 nights) on the CTIO 0.6m telescope with the 2K CCD.

  15. Sky coverage modeling for the whole sky for laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianqi; Andersen, David; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2012-06-01

    The scientific productivity of laser guide star adaptive optics systems strongly depends on the sky coverage, which describes the probability of finding natural guide stars for the tip/tilt wavefront sensor(s) to achieve a certain performance. Knowledge of the sky coverage is also important for astronomers planning their observations. In this paper, we present an efficient method to compute the sky coverage for the laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics system, the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), being designed for the Thirty Meter Telescope project. We show that NFIRAOS can achieve more than 70% sky coverage over most of the accessible sky with the requirement of 191 nm total rms wavefront. PMID:22695611

  16. Globe at Night - Sky Brightness Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Sze Leung; Pun, Jason Chun Shing; SO, Chu-wing; Shibata, Yukiko; Walker, Constance Elaine; Agata, Hidehiko

    2015-08-01

    The Global at Night - Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (GaN-MN) is an international project for long-term monitoring of night sky conditions around the world. The GaN-MN consists of fixed monitoring stations each equipped with a Sky Quality Meter - Lensed Ethernet (SQM-LE), which is a specialized light sensor for night sky brightness (NSB) measurement. NSB data are continuously collected at high sampling frequency throughout the night, and these data will be instantly made available to the general public to provide a real-time snapshot of the global light pollution condition. A single data collection methodology, including data sampling frequency, data selection criteria, device design and calibration, and schemes for data quality control, was adopted to ensure uniformity in the data collected. This is essential for a systematic and global study of the level of light pollution. The data collected will also provide the scientific backbone in our efforts to contribute to dark sky conservation through education to the general public and policy makers. The GaN-MN project is endorsed by the IAU IYL Executive Committee Working Group as a major Cosmic Light program in the International Year of Light.

  17. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation. This is particularly true in wide-open areas where water can collect in naturally occurring terrain depressions during periods of heavy precipitation and form large water bodies. One of the properties of water useful for detecting it is that its surface acts as a horizontal mirror at large incidence angles. Water bodies can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has implemented a water detector based on sky reflections that geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground and predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. This software detects water bodies in wide-open areas on cross-country terrain at mid- to far-range using imagery acquired from a forward-looking stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial UGV. In three test sequences approaching a pond under a clear, overcast, and cloudy sky, the true positive detection rate was 100% when the UGV was beyond 7 meters of the water's leading edge and the largest false positive detection rate was 0.58%. The sky reflection based water detector has been integrated on an experimental unmanned vehicle and field tested at Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA, USA.

  18. The Two Micron All Sky Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinmann, S. G.; Lysaght, M. G.; Pughe, W. L.; Schneider, S. E.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Weinberg, M. D.; Price, S. D.; Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T.; Huchra, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) will provide a uniform survey of the entire sky at three near-infrared wavebands: J(lambda(sub eff) = 1.25 micrometers), H(lambda(sub eff) = 1.65 micrometers), and K(sub s)(lambda(sub eff) = 2.16 micrometers). A major goal of the survey is to probe large scale structures in the Milky Way and in the Local Universe, exploiting the relatively high transparency of the interstellar medium in the near-infrared, and the high near-infrared luminosities of evolved low- and intermediate-mass stars. A sensitive overview of the near-infrared sky is also an essential next step to maximize the gains achievable with infrared array technology. Our assessment of the astrophysical questions that might be addressed with these new arrays is currently limited by the very bright flux limit of the only preceding large scale near-infrared sky survey, the Two Micron Sky Survey carried out at Caltech in the late 1960's. Near-infrared instruments based on the new array technology have already obtained spectra of objects 1 million times fainter than the limit of the TMSS! This paper summarizes the essential parameters of the 2MASS project and the rationale behind those choices, and gives an overview of results obtained with a prototype camera that has been in operation since May 1992. We conclude with a list of expected data products and a statement of the data release policy.

  19. "Let There Be Night" Advocates Dark Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueter, Chuck

    2008-05-01

    Let There Be Night is an interactive planetarium program that supports a community-wide experiment to quantify local sky glow. In the planetarium, visitors will experience three aspects of light pollution--glare, sky glow, and light trespass--and decide whether and how to confront dark sky issues. Planetarians can select optional recorded stories and lessons to complement live demonstrations or star talks. As a companion experiment, students in grades 3-8 from one school district will then submit their backyard observations of Orion's limiting magnitude to the 2009 Globe at Night star hunt while small student teams concurrently quantify sky glow from each schoolyard with hand-held meters. After mapping their results and having classroom discussions, students will present their findings to the School Board. Material compiled and created for the program will be available for other dark sky advocates at www.LetThereBeNight.com, while large digital files will be distributed on disk through two planetarium associations. A 2008 Toyota TAPESTRY grant has enticed significant professional support, additional funding, and in-kind contributions.

  20. Learning the Blues. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This lesson introduces students to the "blues," one of the most distinctive and influential elements of African-American musical tradition. With this lesson plan, students can take a virtual field trip to Memphis, Tennessee, one of the prominent centers of blues activities, and explore the history of the blues in the work of W. C. Handy and a…

  1. INFORMATION ON THE MILKY WAY FROM THE 2MASS ALL SKY STAR COUNT: BIMODAL COLOR DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Lai, Shao-Yu; Peng, Ting-Hung; Ko, Chung-Ming E-mail: cmko@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2012-11-10

    The J - K{sub s} color distributions (CDs) with a bin size of 0.05 mag has been carried out for the entire Milky Way using the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS PSC). The CDs are bimodal, with a red peak at 0.8 < J - K{sub s} < 0.85 and a blue peak at 0.3 < J - K{sub s} < 0.4. The colors of the red peak are more or less the same for the whole sky, but those of the blue peak depend on Galactic latitude (J - K{sub s} {approx} 0.35 at low Galactic latitudes and 0.35 < J - K{sub s} < 0.4 for other sky areas). The blue peak dominates the bimodal CDs at low Galactic latitudes and becomes comparable with the red peak in other sky regions. In order to explain the bimodal distribution and the global trend shown by the all-sky 2MASS CDs, we assemble an empirical Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram, which is composed of observational-based near-infrared H-R diagrams and color-magnitude diagrams, and incorporate a Milky Way model. In the empirical H-R diagram, the main-sequence turn-off for stars in the thin disk is relatively bluer, (J - K{sub s} ){sub 0} = 0.31, compared with that of the thick disk which is (J - K{sub s} ){sub 0} = 0.39. The age of the thin/thick disk is roughly estimated to be around 4-5/8-9 Gyr according to the color-age relation of the main-sequence turn-off. In general, the 2MASS CDs can be treated as a tool to measure the age of the stellar population of the Milky Way in a statistical manner and to our knowledge it is the first attempt to do so.

  2. EXTREMELY ISOLATED EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY. I. THE SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Fuse, C.; Marcum, P.; Fanelli, M. E-mail: pamela.m.marcum@nasa.gov

    2012-08-15

    We describe the properties of a sample of extremely isolated early-type galaxies (IEGs) selected from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Sample galaxies are isolated from nearest neighbors more luminous than M{sub V} = -16.5 by a minimum distance corresponding to 2.5 Mpc and 350 km s{sup -1} in redshift space. The candidate IEGs exhibit a number of unusual features as compared to bulge-dominated galaxies in cluster and group environments, including fainter luminosities, blue colors suggesting possible recent star formation, and smaller physical sizes. The paper is the first in a series analyzing this isolated galaxy sample.

  3. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  4. Launch window definition for sky target experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, N. H.

    1973-01-01

    This paper is a brief report on the computer program developed for the Extraterrestrial Physics Barium Ion Cloud (BIC) Project. The mathematical analysis developed for the program along with its programing characteristics are pointed out to show that this program is adaptable to similar sky target projects. Definite viewing constraints are specified so that the chosen ground tracking stations can photograph the behavior of the sky target after its release. Viewing factors include the illumination of the target by the sun, the relative elevation look angle to the target from each tracking station, the solar and lunar depression angles at each tracking station, and the total sky background brightness of the target relative to each tracking station. Numeric values are assigned to each factor through program input. The program output is flexible so that the results of the window calculations can be studied to the depth required.

  5. Secrets to Successful Earth and Sky Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    In the absolute silence of a desert night, surrounded by an arena of celestial beauties, a gentle breeze shifts the tiny grains of sand around me. There is a patchy glow of light visible all across the eastern horizon. It is gradually ascending over the sand dunes. The glow represents billions of stars in our home galaxy rising above the horizon of our planet. I have seen such dream-like starry scenes from many locations; from the boundless dark skies of the African Sahara when the summer Milky Way was arching over giant sandstones, to the shimmering beauty of the Grand Canyon under moonlight, and the transparent skies of the Himalayas when the bright stars of winter were rising above where the highest peak on Earth (Mt. Everest) meets the sky. These are forever-engraved moments in my memory. Astrophotography is not only about recording the celestial world. It can lead you to a life of adventure and discovery (Fig. 1).

  6. Hyperspectral all-sky imaging of auroras.

    PubMed

    Sigernes, Fred; Ivanov, Yuriy; Chernouss, Sergey; Trondsen, Trond; Roldugin, Alexey; Fedorenko, Yury; Kozelov, Boris; Kirillov, Andrey; Kornilov, Ilia; Safargaleev, Vladimir; Holmen, Silje; Dyrland, Margit; Lorentzen, Dag; Baddeley, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    A prototype auroral hyperspectral all-sky camera has been constructed and tested. It uses electro-optical tunable filters to image the night sky as a function of wavelength throughout the visible spectrum with no moving mechanical parts. The core optical system includes a new high power all-sky lens with F-number equal to f/1.1. The camera has been tested at the Kjell Henriksen Observatory (KHO) during the auroral season of 2011/2012. It detects all sub classes of aurora above ~½ of the sub visual 1kR green intensity threshold at an exposure time of only one second. Supervised classification of the hyperspectral data shows promise as a new method to process and identify auroral forms. PMID:23262713

  7. Sky surveys in the ultraviolet. [spaceborne astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Instrumentation, results, and future prospects for sky surveys at UV wavelengths inaccessible from the ground are reviewed. Detectors and optical materials, coatings, and systems for UV surveys are discussed, previously performed UV sky surveys are recounted, and some specific results of these surveys are examined. The rationale for UV surveys is explained, and the detectors and instrumentation considered for future UV surveys are described. It is noted that for the wavelength range from 1000 to 2000 A, detectors and instrumentation are already available to provide an all-sky UV survey of moderate resolution (10 to 30 arcsec) and moderate sensitivity (reaching hot stars as faint as 18th visual magnitude in direct imagery and 11th magnitude spectrographically with 2-A resolution).

  8. The NASA SETI sky survey: Recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Olsen, E. T.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) project utilizes two complementary search strategies: a sky survey and a targeted search. The SETI team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, has primary responsibility to develop and carry out the sky survey part. Described here is progress that has been made developing the major elements of the survey including a 2-million channel wideband spectrum analyzer system that is being designed and constructed by JPL for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The system will be a multiuser instrument; it will serve as a prototype for the SETI sky survey processor. This prototype system will be used to test the signal detection and observational strategies on DSN antennas in the near future.

  9. The NASA SETI sky survey - Recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Michael J.; Gulkis, Samuel; Olsen, Edward T.; Renzetti, Nicholas A.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) project utilizes two complimentary search strategies: a sky survey and a targeted search. The SETI team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have primary responsibility to develop and carry out the sky survey part of the Microwave Observing Project. The paper describes progress that has been made to develop the major elements of the survey including a two-million channel wideband spectrum analyzer system that is being developed and constructed by JPL for the Deep Space Network. The new system will be a multiuser instrument that will serve as a prototype for the SETI Sky Survey processor. This system will be used to test the signal detection and observational strategies on deep-space network antennas in the near future.

  10. Hyperspectral all-sky imaging of auroras.

    PubMed

    Sigernes, Fred; Ivanov, Yuriy; Chernouss, Sergey; Trondsen, Trond; Roldugin, Alexey; Fedorenko, Yury; Kozelov, Boris; Kirillov, Andrey; Kornilov, Ilia; Safargaleev, Vladimir; Holmen, Silje; Dyrland, Margit; Lorentzen, Dag; Baddeley, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    A prototype auroral hyperspectral all-sky camera has been constructed and tested. It uses electro-optical tunable filters to image the night sky as a function of wavelength throughout the visible spectrum with no moving mechanical parts. The core optical system includes a new high power all-sky lens with F-number equal to f/1.1. The camera has been tested at the Kjell Henriksen Observatory (KHO) during the auroral season of 2011/2012. It detects all sub classes of aurora above ~½ of the sub visual 1kR green intensity threshold at an exposure time of only one second. Supervised classification of the hyperspectral data shows promise as a new method to process and identify auroral forms.

  11. Science with the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Eric J.; Baum, Stefi Alison; Brandt, W. Niel; Chandler, Claire J.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Condon, James J.; Cordes, James M.; Deustua, Susana E.; Dickinson, Mark; Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Hallinan, Gregg; Hodge, Jacqueline; Lang, Cornelia C.; Law, Casey J.; Lazio, Joseph; Mao, Sui Ann; Myers, Steven T.; Osten, Rachel A.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; White, Richard L.; Zauderer, Bevin; Extragalactic Science Working Group, Galactic Science Working Group, Transient Science Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS) was initiated to develop and carry out a new generation large radio sky survey using the recently upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The proposed VLASS is a modern, multi-tiered survey with the VLA designed to provide a broad, cohesive science program with forefront scientific impact, capable of generating unexpected scientific discoveries, generating involvement from all astronomical communities, and leaving a lasting legacy value for decades.VLASS will observe from 2-4 GHz and is structured to combine comprehensive all sky coverage with sequentially deeper coverage in carefully identified parts of the sky, including the Galactic plane, and will be capable of informing time domain studies. This approach enables both focused and wide ranging scientific discovery through the coupling of deeper narrower tiers with increasing sky coverage at shallower depths, addressing key science issues and providing a statistical interpretational framework. Such an approach provides both astronomers and the citizen scientist with information for every accessible point of the radio sky, while simultaneously addressing fundamental questions about the nature and evolution of astrophysical objects.VLASS will follow the evolution of galaxies and their central black hole engines, measure the strength and topology of cosmic magnetic fields, unveil hidden explosions throughout the Universe, and chart our galaxy for stellar remnants and ionized bubbles. Multi-wavelength communities studying rare objects, the Galaxy, radio transients, or galaxy evolution out to the peak of the cosmic star formation rate density will equally benefit from VLASS.Early drafts of the VLASS proposal are available at the VLASS website (https://science.nrao.edu/science/surveys/vlass/vlass), and the final proposal will be posted in early January 2015 for community comment before undergoing review in March 2015. Upon approval, VLASS would then be on schedule to start

  12. Modelling and Display of the Ultraviolet Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, J.; Henry, R.; Murthy, J.; Allen, M.; McGlynn, T. A.; Scollick, K.

    1994-12-01

    A computer program is currently under development to model in 3D - one dimension of which is wavelength - all the known and major speculated sources of ultraviolet (900 A - 3100 A ) radiation over the celestial sphere. The software is being written in Fortran 77 and IDL and currently operates under IRIX (the operating system of the Silicon Graphics Iris Machine); all output models are in FITS format. Models along with display software will become available to the astronomical community. The Ultraviolet Sky Model currently includes the Zodiacal Light, Point Sources of Emission, and the Diffuse Galactic Light. The Ultraviolet Sky Model is currently displayed using SkyView: a package under development at NASA/ GSFC, which allows users to retrieve and display publically available all-sky astronomical survey data (covering many wavebands) over the Internet. We present a demonstration of the SkyView display of the Ultraviolet Model. The modelling is a five year development project: the work illustrated here represents product output at the end of year one. Future work includes enhancements to the current models and incorporation of the following models: Galactic Molecular Hydrogen Fluorescence; Galactic Highly Ionized Atomic Line Emission; Integrated Extragalactic Light; and speculated sources in the intergalactic medium such as Ionized Plasma and radiation from Non-Baryonic Particle Decay. We also present a poster which summarizes the components of the Ultraviolet Sky Model and outlines a further package that will be used to display the Ultraviolet Model. This work is supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004. Dr J. Daniels is supported with a post-doctoral Fellowship from the Leverhulme Foundation, London, United Kingdom. We are also grateful for the encouragement of Dr Stephen Price (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, MA)

  13. Polarization patterns of the twilight sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Warrant, Eric J.; Greiner, Birgit

    2005-08-01

    Although natural light sources produce depolarized light, patterns of partially linearly polarized light appear in the sky due to scattering from air molecules, dust, and aerosols. Many animals, including bees and ants, orient themselves to patterns of polarization that are present in daytime skies, when the intensity is high and skylight polarization is strong and predictable. The halicitid bee Megalopta genalis inhabits rainforests in Central America. Unlike typical bees, it forages before sunrise and after sunset, when light intensities under the forest canopy are very low, and must find its way to food sources and return to its nest in visually challenging circumstances. An important cue for the orientation could be patterns of polarization in the twilight sky. Therefore, we used a calibrated digital camera to image skylight polarization in an overhead patch of sky, 87.6° across, before dawn on Barro Colorado Island in Panama, where the bees are found. We simultaneously measured the spectral properties of polarized light in a cloudless patch of sky 15° across centered on the zenith. We also performed full-sky imaging of polarization before dawn and after dusk on Lizard Island in Australia, another tropical island. During twilight, celestial polarized light occurs in a wide band stretching perpendicular to the location of the hidden sun and reaching typical degrees of polarization near 80% at wavelengths >600 nm. This pattern appears about 45 minutes before local sunrise or disappears 45 minutes after local sunset (about 20 minutes after the onset of astronomical twilight at dawn, or before its end at dusk) and extends with little change through the entire twilight period. Such a strong and reliable orientation cue could be used for flight orientation by any animal with polarization sensitivity that navigates during twilight.

  14. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  15. South Pol: Revealing the polarized southern sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalha~es, A. M.; de Oliveira, C. M.; Carciofi, A.; Costa, R.; Dal Pino, E. M. G.; Diaz, M.; Ferrari, T.; Fernandez, C.; Gomes, A. L.; Marrara, L.; Pereyrac, A.; Ribeiro, N. L.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Rubinho, M. S.; Seriacopi, D. B.; Taylor, K.

    2012-05-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimetric module at an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile, in late 2012. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy <~ 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar explosions and Solar System, among others.

  16. The LWA1 Low Frequency Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Jayce; Taylor, Gregory B.; LWA Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The LWA1 Low Frequency Sky Survey is a survey of the sky visible from the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1) across the frequency range of 35 to 80 MHz. The primary motivation behind this effort is to improve our understanding of the sky at these frequencies. In particular, an understanding of the low frequency foreground emission is necessary for work on detecting the epoch of reionization and the cosmic dark ages where the foreground signal dwarfs the expected redshifted HI signal by many orders of magnitude (Pritchard & Loeb 2012, Rep. Prog. Phys., 75, 086901). The leading model for the sky in the frequency range of 20 to 200 MHz is the Global Sky Model (GSM) by de Oliveria-Costas et al. (2008, MNRAS, 288, 247). This model is based upon a principle component analysis of 11 sky maps ranging in frequency from 10 MHz to 94 GHz. Of these 11 maps, only four are below 1 GHz; 10 MHz from Caswell (1976, MNRAS, 177, 601), 22 MHz from Roger et al. (1999, A&AS, 137, 7), 45 MHz from Alvarez et al. (1997, A&AS, 124, 315) and Maeda et al. (1999, A&AS, 140, 145), and 408 MHz from Haslam et al. (1982, A&AS, 47, 1). Thus, within this model, the region of interest to both cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization is largely unconstrained based on the available survey data, and are also limited in terms of the spatial coverage and calibration. A self-consistent collection of maps is necessary for both our understanding of the sky and the removal of the foregrounds that mask the redshifted 21-cm signal.We present the current state of the survey and discuss the imaging and calibration challenges faced by dipole arrays that are capable of imaging nearly 2π steradians of sky simultaneously over a large fractional bandwidth.Construction of the LWA has been supported by the Office of Naval Research under Contract N00014-07-C-0147. Support for operations and continuing development of the LWA1 is provided by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-1139963 and AST

  17. The Sky Polarisation Observatory (SPOrt) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretti, E.; Cortiglioni, S.; Tucci, M.; Cecchini, S.; Macculi, C.; Orsini, M.; Monari, J.; Orfei, A.; Poppi, S.; Bonometto, S.; Boella, G.; Gervasi, M.; Sironi, G.; Zannoni, M.; Fabbri, R.; Nicastro, L.; Tascone, R.; Pisani, U.

    The main goal of the Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt) Program is the measurement of the sky linear polarized emission in the 22-90 GHz frequency range. SPOrt payload will be accommodated on the International Space Station in 2003-2004 for a period of 18 months. The instrument configuration is presented together with most relevant ground activities in support to its realization. In particular, the development of hardware solutions for high sensitive polarimetric measurements, such as those requested by Galactic polarized emission and Cosmic Microwave Background observations, has been addressed by the SPOrt team to match the experiment requirements.

  18. Highly efficient greenish-blue platinum-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on a high triplet energy platform

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. L. Gong, S. White, R.; Lu, Z. H.; Wang, X.; Wang, S.; Yang, C.

    2014-04-28

    We have demonstrated high-efficiency greenish-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) based on a dimesitylboryl-functionalized C^N chelate Pt(II) phosphor, Pt(m-Bptrz)(t-Bu-pytrz-Me). Using a high triplet energy platform and optimized double emissive zone device architecture results in greenish-blue PHOLEDs that exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 24.0% and a power efficiency of 55.8 lm/W. This record high performance is comparable with that of the state-of-the-art Ir-based sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  19. Highly efficient greenish-blue platinum-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on a high triplet energy platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. L.; Gong, S.; Wang, X.; White, R.; Yang, C.; Wang, S.; Lu, Z. H.

    2014-04-01

    We have demonstrated high-efficiency greenish-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) based on a dimesitylboryl-functionalized C^N chelate Pt(II) phosphor, Pt(m-Bptrz)(t-Bu-pytrz-Me). Using a high triplet energy platform and optimized double emissive zone device architecture results in greenish-blue PHOLEDs that exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 24.0% and a power efficiency of 55.8 lm/W. This record high performance is comparable with that of the state-of-the-art Ir-based sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  20. Sky brightness during eclipses: a review.

    PubMed

    Silverman, S M; Mullen, E G

    1975-12-01

    This paper is abstracted from the introductory section of "Sky Brightness During Eclipses: A Compendium from the Literature," AFCRL-TR-74-0363, Special Reports 180, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731. This report should be consulted for fuller details and tables.

  1. A Ladder to Lean on the Sky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Margaret A.

    1970-01-01

    Over the four years the student is in high school the most logical person to impart to hime a love of reading, as a lifelong, never failing source of ideas and inspiration, is the school librarian. This is his ladder to the sky. (NH)

  2. Predicting UV sky for future UV missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, M.; Mohan, R.; Sreejith, A. G.; Murthy, Jayant

    2013-02-01

    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse Galactic light, depends on different factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day; zodiacal light depends on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic; diffuse UV emission depends on the line of sight. To provide a full description of the sky along any line of sight, we have also added stars. The UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely limit viewing directions due to overbrightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a web-based tool, can be applied to preparation of real space missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example use for the two near-future UV missions: UVIT instrument on the Indian Astrosat mission and a new proposed wide-field (∼1000 square degrees) transient explorer satellite.

  3. Very large radio surveys of the sky.

    PubMed

    Condon, J J

    1999-04-27

    Recent advances in electronics and computing have made possible a new generation of large radio surveys of the sky that yield an order-of-magnitude higher sensitivity and positional accuracy. Combined with the unique properties of the radio universe, these quantitative improvements open up qualitatively different and exciting new scientific applications of radio surveys.

  4. Very large radio surveys of the sky

    PubMed Central

    Condon, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in electronics and computing have made possible a new generation of large radio surveys of the sky that yield an order-of-magnitude higher sensitivity and positional accuracy. Combined with the unique properties of the radio universe, these quantitative improvements open up qualitatively different and exciting new scientific applications of radio surveys. PMID:10220365

  5. Sky brightness during eclipses: a review.

    PubMed

    Silverman, S M; Mullen, E G

    1975-12-01

    This paper is abstracted from the introductory section of "Sky Brightness During Eclipses: A Compendium from the Literature," AFCRL-TR-74-0363, Special Reports 180, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731. This report should be consulted for fuller details and tables. PMID:20155120

  6. Why Is the Sky Dark at Night?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…

  7. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) in hematological neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preiss, Birgitte S.; Pedersen, Rikke K.; Kerndrup, Gitte B.

    2001-07-01

    From November 1, 1997 till November 1, 2000 we have investigated 204 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (nequals95), acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) (nequals40), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (nequals11), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) (nequals9), chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) (nequals4) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (nequals45) cytogenetically, using G-band analysis and spectral karyotyping (SKY). By SKY we were able to detect the abnormal clones in all cases but 9. In the G-band preparations these cases showed very few abnormal mitoses. The SKY either extended or confirmed the G-band findings in 94% of those with an abnormal karyotype. Cryptic translocations (translocations not suspected from the G-band karyotype) were found in 71 cases (26 AML, 9 ALL, 5 MDS, 2 CLL and 29 NHL). We find SKY a powerful adjuvant diagnostic tool that does not compromise one of the advantages of karyotyping techniques, the analysis of the entire genome which, in contrast to molecular biological techniques, still leave the possibility to get mroe answers than questions posed.

  8. Deep-Sky Companions: Southern Gems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Meara, Stephen James

    2013-05-01

    Preface; 1. How to use this book; 2. The southern gems; Appendix A. Southern gems: basic data; Appendix B. Forty-two additional southern gems in Dunlop's catalogue; Appendix C. A brief history of early telescopic exploration of the far-southern skies; Appendix D. Photo credits; The southern gems checklist; Index; Wide-field star charts.

  9. Environmental Education in Hong Kong Kindergartens: What Happened to the Blue Sky?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Eva Yuen Yi

    2010-01-01

    The Hong Kong government has sought to encourage environmental education (EE) in schools. However, little is known about how government and private initiatives impact at the level of the kindergarten. This article, based on a small-scale study, investigates what is happening in Hong Kong kindergartens in EE. The findings show that there have been…

  10. Looking toward the Blue Sky: Environmental Education Researchers' Experience, Influences, and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte R.; Wojcik, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) researchers hail from diverse disciplines and sociocultural contexts, work in a range of settings, and envision various outcomes. Desiring to better understand their backgrounds, interests, and aspirations for the field, we surveyed EE researchers to explore their theoretical and educational influences and what they…

  11. The Information Society of the 1990s; Blue Sky and Green Pastures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Toni Carbo

    1987-01-01

    Predicts how an information-intensive society in the next 10 years will affect the daily life of an individual. Trends described include renewed emphasis of problem solving, increased awareness of the importance of lifelong learning, greater economic challenges, and redirected attention to sociocultural concerns. (EM)

  12. Secrets of the Dark Universe: Simulating the Sky on the Blue Gene/Q

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-13

    An astonishing 99.6% of our Universe is dark. Observations indicate that the Universe consists of 70% of a mysterious dark energy and 25% of a yet unidentified dark matter component, and only 0.4% of the remaining ordinary matter is visible. Understanding the physics of this dark sector is the foremost challenge in cosmology today. Sophisticated simulations of the evolution of the Universe play a crucial task in this endeavor.

  13. Clear water, blue skies: China`s environment in the new century

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The second volume in a seven-volume series examining China`s recent history, where it is today, and the path it should follow during the first two decades of the 21st century. It provides an overview of the country`s strengths and weaknesses as well as its obstacles and options.

  14. Geodes Like Sky Blue Popsicles: Developing Authorship Literacy in Limited English Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehlke, Lisa; Rummel, Mary Kay

    1990-01-01

    An approach is described for developing the language of limited English proficient (LEP) students using process writing with content drawn from across the curriculum. This is proposed in the context of recent research in second language reading that has focused on developing metacognitive awareness and use of reading strategies, and that less…

  15. Under the Same Blue Sky? Inequity in Migrant Children's Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Guangyu

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 10% of China's population has left their villages and hometowns as millions of farmers have descended upon cities and urban centers in response to a huge demand for labor since the economic reform launched in the late 1970s (Li, 2006). Approximately 19.8 million children are believed to have accompanied their parents…

  16. From Clouds of Chemical Warfare to Blue Skies of Peace: The Tehran Peace Museum, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Khateri, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the limited number of peace museums around the world, there exists an essential role for existing peace museums to promote a culture of peace and peace education. The purpose of this article was to introduce the origins, rationale, scope and work of the Tehran Peace Museum in Iran. The concept of the museum is to facilitate peace education…

  17. Blue Sky Below My Feet: Daycamp & After School Programs--9 to 11 Year Olds. Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual presents a 10-day lesson plan for day camp and after-school program leaders. The activities and experiments described in the manual focus on nutrition and space exploration. Topics covered by the lesson plan and specific projects include: (1) gravity; (2) food spoilage; (3) model rocket building and launching; (4) the basic food…

  18. Photometric Calibrators for the Second-Generation Palomar Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Brian; Bucciarelli, Beatrice; Garcia Yus, Jorge; Loomis, Charles; Alessandro, Spagna; Greene, Gretchen

    2006-08-01

    The latest GSC-II release (GSC2.3) includes positions, proper motions, photographic photometry (blue J, red F and near-IR N), and star/non-star classification of nearly 1 billion objects to a limiting magnitude of J~eq 22 and F~eq 20.5. Besides its obvious applications for telescope operations and space missions planning, the all-sky astro-photometric properties of GSC-II make it a highly valuable tool for a wide range of astrophysical investigations and data mining. A major effort toward the construction of such a catalog has been the collection of ad-hoc photometric sequences (a total of ~ 1780) for the linearization of the density-to-intensity response of each survey plate; this is summarized by the realization of the CCD-based, photometric catalogue GSPC-II. More details on the GSC- II and GSPC-II, and their releases, can bee found at www- gsss.stsci.edu/Catalogs/Catalogs.htm With this proposal we are addressing the remaining 100 fields still lacking photometric calibrators. Eighty of them were targets of a previous KPNO proposal (ID 2005B-0139), but did not get proper data due to uncooperative weather; most of the twenty southern sequences need re- observations because they are of poor photometric quality.

  19. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  20. Low-energy light bulbs, computers, tablets and the blue light hazard.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M; Price, L L A

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of low energy lighting and the widespread use of computer and mobile technologies have changed the exposure of human eyes to light. Occasional claims that the light sources with emissions containing blue light may cause eye damage raise concerns in the media. The aim of the study was to determine if it was appropriate to issue advice on the public health concerns. A number of sources were assessed and the exposure conditions were compared with international exposure limits, and the exposure likely to be received from staring at a blue sky. None of the sources assessed approached the exposure limits, even for extended viewing times.

  1. Low-energy light bulbs, computers, tablets and the blue light hazard.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M; Price, L L A

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of low energy lighting and the widespread use of computer and mobile technologies have changed the exposure of human eyes to light. Occasional claims that the light sources with emissions containing blue light may cause eye damage raise concerns in the media. The aim of the study was to determine if it was appropriate to issue advice on the public health concerns. A number of sources were assessed and the exposure conditions were compared with international exposure limits, and the exposure likely to be received from staring at a blue sky. None of the sources assessed approached the exposure limits, even for extended viewing times. PMID:26768920

  2. LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING SOUTH. (MOTTLED SKY FROM CONDENSED MOISTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING SOUTH. (MOTTLED SKY FROM CONDENSED MOISTURE ON NEGATIVE AFFECTING EVEN PROCESSING OF SKY, SAVED FOR DOCUMENTARY PURPOSES) - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Lee Vining Intake Structure, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Constellations and Inflow of Galactic Wind -- IBEX Full Sky Map

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation, zooming out from Scorpio to a full sky view of the stars. It blends over to a color-coded full sky neutral atom map, as obtained with IBEX at energies where the interstellar wind is the ...

  4. Light pollution: Assessment of sky glow on two dark sky regions of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raul Cerveira; Pinto da Cunha, José; Peixinho, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), producing light pollution (LP), is not a matter restricted to astronomy anymore. Light is part of modern societies and, as a consequence, the natural cycle day-night (bright-dark) has been interrupted in a large segment of the global population. There is increasing evidence that exposure to certain types of light at night and beyond threshold levels may produce hazardous effects to humans and the environment. The concept of "dark skies reserves" is a step forward in order to preserve the night sky and a means of enhancing public awareness of the problem of spread of light pollution worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the skyglow at two sites in Portugal, the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PNPG) and the region now known as Dark Sky Alqueva Reserve. The latter site was classified as a "Starlight Tourism Destination" by the Starlight Foundation (the first in the world to achieve this classification) following a series of night sky measurements in situ described herein. The measurements at PNPG also contributed to the new set of regulations concerning light pollution at this national park. This study presents the first in situ systematic measurements of night sky brightness, showing that at the two sites the skies are mostly in levels 3 to 4 of the Bortle 9-level scale (with level 1 being the best achievable). The results indicate that the sources of light pollution and skyglow can be attributed predominantly to contamination from nearby urban regions.

  5. Light pollution: Assessment of sky glow on two dark sky regions of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raul Cerveira; Pinto da Cunha, José; Peixinho, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), producing light pollution (LP), is not a matter restricted to astronomy anymore. Light is part of modern societies and, as a consequence, the natural cycle day-night (bright-dark) has been interrupted in a large segment of the global population. There is increasing evidence that exposure to certain types of light at night and beyond threshold levels may produce hazardous effects to humans and the environment. The concept of "dark skies reserves" is a step forward in order to preserve the night sky and a means of enhancing public awareness of the problem of spread of light pollution worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the skyglow at two sites in Portugal, the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PNPG) and the region now known as Dark Sky Alqueva Reserve. The latter site was classified as a "Starlight Tourism Destination" by the Starlight Foundation (the first in the world to achieve this classification) following a series of night sky measurements in situ described herein. The measurements at PNPG also contributed to the new set of regulations concerning light pollution at this national park. This study presents the first in situ systematic measurements of night sky brightness, showing that at the two sites the skies are mostly in levels 3 to 4 of the Bortle 9-level scale (with level 1 being the best achievable). The results indicate that the sources of light pollution and skyglow can be attributed predominantly to contamination from nearby urban regions. PMID:27029512

  6. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  7. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  8. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

  9. Diffuse sky radiation influences the relationship between canopy PRI and shadow fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mõttus, Matti; Takala, Tuure L. H.; Stenberg, Pauline; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Yang, Bin; Nilson, Tiit

    2015-07-01

    The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) of green leaves is an indicator of photosynthetic downregulation: when the photosynthetic apparatus is close to the saturation limit, PRI becomes dependent on light conditions. Therefore, by measuring the PRI of leaves under different local irradiance conditions, it should be possible to determine the saturation level of the leaves and obtain information on the light use efficiency (LUE) of a vegetation canopy. The dependence of PRI on the ratio of sunlit to shaded foliage (quantified by the canopy shadow fraction) in the field of view of an instrument has been used to remotely measure canopy LUE on clear days. However, besides photosynthetic downregulation, the dependence of canopy PRI on shadow fraction is affected by the blue sky radiation caused by scattering in the atmosphere. To quantify this effect on remotely sensed PRI, we present the underlying definitions relating leaf and canopy PRI and perform the required calculations for typical midsummer conditions in Central Finland. We demonstrate that the effect of blue sky radiation on the variation of PRI with canopy shadow fraction is similar in shape and magnitude to that of LUE variations reported in literature.

  10. Laser Induced Blue Luminescence Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiyong; Duan, Yanmin; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Yaoju; Yang, Fugui

    2011-09-01

    Laser induced strange blue luminescence in several Raman crystals has been investigated. The blue luminescence at about 473 nm has the characteristic of no orientation and only produced in the crystal where the fundament laser oscillated. The experimental results show that the blue luminescence must result from the fundamental laser around 1.0 µm rather than Stokes-shifting. The spectrum detected is similar for different crystals. This blue luminescence is obviously strange and inconsistent with traditional luminescence theories, which maybe a brand-new luminescence theory.

  11. More Observations in Schools for Promoting Astronomy and Sky Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2015-03-01

    In astronomy it is important to promote observation and the quality of the sky is essential for a good observation impact. It is important that children have a nice memory of their observations in a non-polluted sky. Using students as agents of change it is possible to promote good practice for sky protection in society.

  12. Integrated primary flight display: the sky arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgaris, Theodore J.; Metalis, Sam A.; Mobley, R. S.

    1995-05-01

    Flight instrument interpretability has been a key piloting issue because it is directly related to operator performance and inversely related to operator error. To improve interpretability we have developed the Sky Arc, a new symbology initially developed for attitude control, particularly for a helmet-mounted display. It consists of an integrated set of graphic symbols which vary in a continuous, analog fashion with changing flight parameters. The Sky Arc currently integrates, pitch, roll, heading, air speed, and terrain avoidance. The display can be integrated into a head down display, a head up display, or a helmet mounted display. In this preliminary study the usability of the Sky Arc as an attitude indicator was compared to a conventional head-up display pitch ladder symbology. The test involved six test subject pilots and a medium-fidelity simulator. The pilots were asked to fully recover from a series of unusual attitude conditions that were presented on the simulator. The time taken to recover and the correctness of the recovery procedure served as the objective evaluation measures. A Likert-type rating scale and open-ended subject matter expert opinions served as the subjective measures of evaluation. To examine whether there was a relationship between usability of the attitude indicator and difficulty of the unusual attitude, the workload levels involved in performing the unusual attitude recoveries were grouped into three levels, low, medium, and high. At each workload level there were four conditions, for a total of 12 different conditions. Each pilot was asked to recovery twice from each condition, for a total of 24 unusual attitude recovery trials. The test trials were counterbalanced and displayed in a prearranged order. No differences due to difficulty of the unusual attitude were detected. Overall, the study revealed that the Sky Arc led to generally faster recoveries than did the standard display, as well as higher subjective preference ratings

  13. Ferric ions involved in the flower color development of the Himalayan blue poppy, Meconopsis grandis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kumi; Kitahara, Sayoko; Ito, Daisuke; Kondo, Tadao

    2006-05-01

    The Himalayan blue poppy, Meconopsis grandis, has sky blue-colored petals, although the anthocyanidin nucleus of the petal pigment is cyanidin. The blue color development in this blue poppy involving ferric ions was therefore studied. We analyzed the vacuolar pH, and the organic and inorganic components of the colored cells. A direct measurement by a proton-selective microelectrode revealed that the vacuolar pH value was 4.8. The concentrations of the total anthocyanins in the colored cells were around 5mM, and ca. three times more concentrated flavonols were detected. Fe was detected by atomic analysis of the colored cells, and the ratio of Fe to anthocyanins was ca. 0.8 eq. By mixing the anthocyanin, flavonol and metal ion components in a buffered aq. solution at pH 5.0, we were able to reproduce the same blue color; the visible absorption spectrum and CD were identical to those in the petals, with Fe(3+), Mg(2+) and flavonol being essential for the blue color. The blue pigment in Meconopsis should be a new type of metal complex pigment that is different from a stoichiometric supramolecular pigment such as commelinin or protocyanin.

  14. High-brightness blue organic light emitting diodes with different types of guest-host systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Jing-shuang; Peng, Cui-yun; Guo, Kun-ping; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate high-brightness blue organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using two types of guest-host systems. A series of blue OLEDs were fabricated using three organic emitters of dibenz anthracene (perylene), di(4-fluorophenyl) amino-di (styryl) biphenyl (DSB) and 4,4'-bis[2-(9-ethyl-3-carbazolyl)vinyl]biphenyl (BCzVBi) doped into two hosting materials of 4,4'-bis(9-carbazolyl) biphenyl (CBP) and 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5(4-tert-butyl-phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) as blue emitting layers, respectively. We achieve three kinds of devices with colors of deep-blue, pure-blue and sky-blue with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.16, 0.10), (0.15, 0.15) and (0.17, 0.24), respectively, by employing PBD as host material. In addition, we present a microcavity device using the PBD guest-host system and achieve high-purity blue devices with narrowed spectrum.

  15. SOUTH POL: Revealing the Polarized Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimeter for an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in about two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy ≤ 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar Explosions and Solar System, among others. The polarimeter is currently being built and its optics and electronics assembled. We will describe the current status of the project. This project is supported by FAPESP. AMM is also supported by CNPq.

  16. Photographic surveys of the southern sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Parameters of the UK 1.2 meter Schmidt telescope are described. Plates taken with this instrument are in two categories, those for systematic sky surveys and those taken at the request of research users. A collaborative project with the European Southern Observatory was undertaken to obtain a two-color survey of the sky south of -20 deg declination to complement the Palomar survey. A near infrared survey of the Galactic Plane and the Megallanic Clouds is being done. The area south of -20 deg and the zone between 0 deg and -15 deg are also being surveyed. Pending a decision on survey parameters, all available A quality prism plates are being retained to form a basis for systematic survey. Nearly half the plates taken on a service basis for the UK astronomical community are to fulfill nonsurvey requests. Plates taken for surveys which are not of A grade quality are also made available for research purposes.

  17. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, Brian; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R.; Bittle, L.; Borish, H.; Burkhardt, A.; Corby, J.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Dorsey, G.; Graninger, D.; Lauck, T.; Liss, S.; Oza, A.; Peacock, S.; Romero, C.; Sokal, K. R.; Stierwalt, S.; Walker, L.; Wenger, T.; Zucker, C.

    2014-01-01

    Our public outreach group Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) fosters science literacy in Virginia by bringing a hands-on approach to astronomy that engages children's natural excitement and curiosity. We are an entirely volunteer-run group based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia and we enthusiastically utilize astronomy as a 'gateway science.' We create long-term relationships with students during an 8 to 10 week long, after-school astronomy club at under served elementary schools in neighboring counties, and we visited 3 different schools in 2013. Additionally, we organize and participate in science events throughout the community. The fifth year of DSBK was marked by surpassing 10,000 contact hours in Spring 2013 Semester and by ringing in the fall semester with our biggest, most successful star party to date. We hosted the Third Annual Central Virginia Star Party, free and open to the community to encourage families to enjoy astronomy together. Nearly four hundred people of all ages attended, double the number from previous years. Joining with local astronomical societies, we offered an enlightening and exciting night with resources rarely accessible to the public, such as an IR camera and a portable planetarium. With numerous telescopes pointed at the sky, and a beautifully clear night with views of the Milky Way, the International Space Station, and numerous meteors, the star party was a fantastic opportunity to introduce many of our guests to the natural wonders of our night sky and enjoy some of the darkest skies on the eastern seaboard.

  18. Aquarius L-Band Radiometers Calibration Using Cold Sky Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Le Vine, David M.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Shannon T.; Hong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    An important element in the calibration plan for the Aquarius radiometers is to look at the cold sky. This involves rotating the satellite 180 degrees from its nominal Earth viewing configuration to point the main beams at the celestial sky. At L-band, the cold sky provides a stable, well-characterized scene to be used as a calibration reference. This paper describes the cold sky calibration for Aquarius and how it is used as part of the absolute calibration. Cold sky observations helped establish the radiometer bias, by correcting for an error in the spillover lobe of the antenna pattern, and monitor the long-term radiometer drift.

  19. Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    This software has been designed to detect water bodies that are out in the open on cross-country terrain at mid- to far-range (approximately 20 100 meters), using imagery acquired from a stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial, unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). Non-traversable water bodies, such as large puddles, ponds, and lakes, are indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. The appearance of water bodies in color imagery largely depends on the ratio of light reflected off the water surface to the light coming out of the water body. When a water body is far away, the angle of incidence is large, and the light reflected off the water surface dominates. We have exploited this behavior to detect water bodies out in the open at mid- to far-range. When a water body is detected at far range, a UGV s path planner can begin to look for alternate routes to the goal position sooner, rather than later. As a result, detecting water hazards at far range generally reduces the time required to reach a goal position during autonomous navigation. This software implements a new water detector based on sky reflections that geometrically locates the exact pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground, and predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features

  20. Modelling UV sky for future UV missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safanova, M.; Mohan, R.; Murthy, Jayant

    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse galactic light, is dependent on various factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day, zodiacal light on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic, and diffuse UV emission depends on the look direction. To provide a full description of any line of sight, we have also added stars. The diffuse UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely impact space telescopes viewing directions due to over brightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a simple web-based tool, can be applied to separate missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example used for two UV missions: the UVIT instrument on the Indian ASTROSAT mission to be launched in the next year and a prospective wide-field mission to search for transients in the UV.

  1. Charged-coupled detector sky surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, D P

    1993-01-01

    Sky surveys have played a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of the cosmos. The current pictures of stellar evolution and structure and kinematics of our Galaxy were made possible by the extensive photographic and spectrographic programs performed in the early part of the 20th century. The Palomar Sky Survey, completed in the 1950s, is still the principal source for many investigations. In the past few decades surveys have been undertaken at radio, millimeter, infrared, and x-ray wavelengths; each has provided insights into new astronomical phenomena (e.g., quasars, pulsars, and the 3 degrees cosmic background radiation). The advent of high quantum efficiency, linear solid-state devices, in particular charged-coupled detectors, has brought about a revolution in optical astronomy. With the recent development of large-format charged-coupled detectors and the rapidly increasing capabilities of data acquisition and processing systems, it is now feasible to employ the full capabilities of electronic detectors in projects that cover an appreciable fraction of the sky. This talk reviews the first "large scale" charged-coupled detector survey. This program, designed to detect very distant quasars, reveals the powers and limitations of charged-coupled detector surveys. PMID:11607431

  2. IRAS sky survey atlas: Explanatory supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheelock, S. L.; Gautier, T. N.; Chillemi, J.; Kester, D.; Mccallon, H.; Oken, C.; White, J.; Gregorich, D.; Boulanger, F.; Good, J.

    1994-01-01

    This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) and the ISSA Reject Set. The first ISSA release in 1991 covers completely the high ecliptic latitude sky, absolute value of beta is greater than 50 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 40 deg. The second ISSA release in 1992 covers ecliptic latitudes of 50 deg greater than the absolute value of beta greater than 20 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 13 deg. The remaining fields covering latitudes within 20 deg of the ecliptic plane are of reduced quality compared to the rest of the ISSA fields and therefore are released as a separate IPAC product, the ISSA Reject Set. The reduced quality is due to contamination by zodiacal emission residuals. Special care should be taken when using the ISSA Reject images. In addition to information on the ISSA images, some information is provided in this Explanatory Supplement on the IRAS Zodiacal History File (ZOHF), Version 3.0, which was described in the December 1988 release memo. The data described in this Supplement are available at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The interested reader is referred to the NSSDC for access to the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA).

  3. Sky camera geometric calibration using solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, Bryan; Kurtz, Ben; Kleissl, Jan

    2016-09-01

    A camera model and associated automated calibration procedure for stationary daytime sky imaging cameras is presented. The specific modeling and calibration needs are motivated by remotely deployed cameras used to forecast solar power production where cameras point skyward and use 180° fisheye lenses. Sun position in the sky and on the image plane provides a simple and automated approach to calibration; special equipment or calibration patterns are not required. Sun position in the sky is modeled using a solar position algorithm (requiring latitude, longitude, altitude and time as inputs). Sun position on the image plane is detected using a simple image processing algorithm. The performance evaluation focuses on the calibration of a camera employing a fisheye lens with an equisolid angle projection, but the camera model is general enough to treat most fixed focal length, central, dioptric camera systems with a photo objective lens. Calibration errors scale with the noise level of the sun position measurement in the image plane, but the calibration is robust across a large range of noise in the sun position. Calibration performance on clear days ranged from 0.94 to 1.24 pixels root mean square error.

  4. Status of The Catalina Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Eric J.; Carson Fuls, David; Gibbs, Alex R.; Grauer, Albert D.; Hill, Rik E.; Johnson, Jess A.; Kowalski, Richard A.; Larson, Stephen M.; Matheny, Rose G.; Shelly, Frank C.

    2015-11-01

    The Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) continues to be a key contributor to NASA’s Near-Earth Object (NEO) survey effort, accounting for 42% of all new discoveries in the last calendar year (618 of 1,478). Recent upgrades and improvements include the routine, queue-scheduled remote operation of a 1.0-m telescope principally dedicated to the follow-up of newly discovered NEOs; enhancement of the moving object detection software resulting in a 10-15% increase in efficiency; reduction in acquisition overheads resulting in ~10% higher data throughput; and changes to the data reduction pipeline which have yielded overall better data quality (flat-fielding, astrometry and photometry). Significant instrumentation upgrades to the 1.5-m telescope (MPC code G96) and 0.7-m Schmidt telescope (MPC code 703) are underway, despite significant delays in procuring science-grade 10k x 10k detectors. The G96 camera has been fully assembled in the lab, and on-sky commissioning is imminent. When complete these new cameras will increase the fields-of-view of the 1.5-m and 0.7-m by 4.0x (to 5.0 sq. deg.) and 2.4x (to 19.4 sq. deg.), dramatically expanding the nightly coverage for both telescopes.The Catalina Sky Survey is funded by NASA’s Near-Earth Object Observation program (NNX15AF79G).

  5. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

    The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

    The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

    Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

    All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

    The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is

  6. Deep Sky Diving with the ESO New Technology Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    Technology Telescope. Many of the advanced technological concepts now incorporated into the VLT were first tested in the NTT. When this new facility entered into operation at La Silla in 1990, it represented a break-through in telescope technology and it has since then made many valuable contributions to front-line astronomical projects. Last year, the control and data flow system at the NTT was thoroughly refurbished to the high VLT standards and current observations with the NTT closely simulate the future operation of the VLT. The successful, early tests with the new operations system have been described in ESO Press Release 03/97. The NTT SUSI Deep Field With the possibility to test already now observing procedures which will become standard for the operation of the VLT, a group of astronomers [1] was granted NTT time for observations of Faint Galaxies in an Ultra-Deep Multicolour SUSI field . This is a programme aimed at the study of the distribution of faint galaxies in the field and of gravitational lensing effects (cosmic mirages and deformation of images of distant galaxies caused by the gravitational field of intervening matter). SUSI (SUperb Seeing Imager) is a high-resolution CCD-camera at the NTT that is particularly efficient under excellent sky conditions. The observations were fully defined in advance and were carried out in service mode from February to April 1997 with flexible scheduling by a team of dedicated ESO astronomers (the NTT team). Only in this way was it possible to obtain the exposures under optimal atmospheric conditions, i.e. `photometric' sky and little atmospheric turbulence (seeing better than 1 arcsec). A total of 122 CCD frames were obtained in four colours (blue, green-yellow, red and near-infrared) with a total exposure time of no less than 31.5 hours. The frames cover a 2.3 x 2.3 arcmin `empty' sky field centered south of the high-redshift quasar QSO BR 1202-0725 (z=4.7), located just south of the celestial equator. ESO PR Photo 01a/98

  7. A total sky cloud detection method using real clear sky background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Min, Q.; Lu, W.; Ma, Y.; Yao, W.; Lu, T.; Du, J.; Liu, G.

    2015-12-01

    The brightness distribution of sky background is usually non-uniform, which creates many problems for traditional cloud detection methods including the failure of thin cloud detection in total sky images and significantly reducing retrieval accuracy in the circumsolar and near-horizon regions. This paper describes the development of a new cloud detection algorithm, named "clear sky background differencing (CSBD)", which is accomplished by differencing the original image and the corresponding clear sky background image using the images' green channel. First, a library of clear sky background images with a variety of solar elevation angles needs to be developed. The image rotation and image brightness adjustment algorithms are applied to ensure the two images being differenced have the same solar position and similar brightness distribution. Sensitivity tests show, as long as the positions of the sun in the two images are the same, the cloud detection results are satisfactory. Several experimental cases show that the CSBD algorithm obtains good cloud recognition results visually, especially for thin clouds.

  8. The interactive sky: a browsable allsky image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo; Da Rosa, Fernando; Roland, Santiago; Almenares, Luciano; Gomez, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    We are conducting a project to make available panoramas of the night sky of the southern hemisphere, based on a mosaic of hundred of photographs. Each allsky panorama is a giant image composed by hundreds of high-resolution photos taken in the course of one night. The panoramas are accessible with a web-browser and the public is able to zoom on them and to see the sky with better quality than the naked eye. We are preparing 4 sets of panoramas corresponding to the four seasons.The individual images are taken with a 16 Mpixels DLSR camera with a 50 mm lens mounted on a Gigapan EPIC robotic camera mounts. These devices and a autoguiding telescope are mounted in a equatorial telescope mount, which allows us to have exposure of several tens seconds. The images are then processed and stitched to create the gigantic panorama, with typical weight of several GBytes.The limiting magnitude is V~8. The panoramas include more than 50 times more stars those detected with the naked eye.In addition to the allsky panoramas, we embedded higher resolution images of specific regions of interest such as: emission nebulae and dark, open and globular clusters and galaxies; which can be zoomed.The photographs have been acquiring since December 2014 in a dark place with low light pollution in the countryside of Uruguay; which allows us to achieve deep sky objects.These panoramas will be available on a website and can be accessed with any browser.This tool will be available for teaching purposes, astronomy popularization or introductory research. Teacher guides will be developed for educational activities at different educational levels.While there are similar projects like Google Sky, the methodology used to generate the giant panoramas allows a much more realistic view, with a background of continuous sky without sharp edges. Furthermore, while the planetarium software is based on drawings of the stars, our panoramas are based on real images.This is the first project with these

  9. COOL WHITE DWARFS FOUND IN THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, S. K.; Nitta, A.; Lodieu, N.

    2011-07-01

    We present the results of a search for cool white dwarfs in the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). The UKIDSS LAS photometry was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to identify cool hydrogen-rich white dwarf candidates by their neutral optical colors and blue near-infrared colors, as well as faint reduced proper motion magnitudes. Optical spectroscopy was obtained at Gemini Observatory and showed the majority of the candidates to be newly identified cool degenerates, with a small number of G- to K-type (sub)dwarf contaminants. Our initial search of 280 deg{sup 2} of sky resulted in seven new white dwarfs with effective temperature T{sub eff} {approx} 6000 K. The current follow-up of 1400 deg{sup 2} of sky has produced 13 new white dwarfs. Model fits to the photometry show that seven of the newly identified white dwarfs have 4120 K {<=}T{sub eff} {<=} 4480 K, and cooling ages between 7.3 Gyr and 8.7 Gyr; they have 40 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub tan} {<=} 85 km s{sup -1} and are likely to be thick disk 10-11 Gyr-old objects. The other half of the sample has 4610 K {<=}T{sub eff} {<=} 5260 K, cooling ages between 4.3 Gyr and 6.9 Gyr, and 60 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub tan} {<=} 100 km s{sup -1}. These are either thin disk remnants with unusually high velocities, or lower-mass remnants of thick disk or halo late-F or G stars.

  10. Evidence of Clear-Sky Daylight Whitening: Are we already conducting geoengineering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. N.; Barnard, J.; Flynn, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Long et al. (2009, JGR 114) analyzed surface radiation data spanning 1995 through 2007 from several ARM and six SURFRAD sites across the continental US, and showed an average 8 Wm-2/decade brightening in all-sky downwelling SW. The study also showed a 5 Wm-2/decade increase in the clear-sky downwelling SW, an expected result of decreasing aerosol optical depths during the same time period (Augustine et al., 2008, JGR 113). However, the unexpected result of the Long et al. study is that the 5 Wm-2/decade increase is in the diffuse SW, while the direct SW remained virtually unchanged...opposite what is expected for aerosol direct effect due to decreases in aerosols. With detailed radiative transfer modeling and correlation with US FAA commercial flight hours through the same years, Long et al. speculated that while the decreased aerosols did increase the total SW, an increase in high, sub-visual contrail-generated ice haze repartitioned the increase into the diffuse SW component through large-mode scattering. Subsequent attempts to investigate the veracity of this speculation using long time series of ARM Micropulse and Raman lidar data proved untenable due to instrument limitation and continuity issues. However, similar to using the red/blue ratio of pixel color amounts in processing color sky images to infer clouds, we have used clear-sky diffuse SW irradiance measurements from the Multi-Frequency Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) 870 and 415 nm spectral channels to look at any possible trends suggesting "whitening" of the cloud-free skies over the ARM SGP site. We will present our preliminary findings to date of these investigations suggesting indeed that there has been an aggregate "whitening" of the sky conditions we typically consider to be "cloud free." Augustine, J.A., G.B.Hodges, E.G.Dutton, J.J. Michalsky, and C.R.Cornwall (2008), An aerosol optical depth climatology for NOAA's national surface radiation budget network (SURFRAD), J. Geophys. Res., 113

  11. Evidence of Clear-Sky Daylight Whitening: Are we already conducting geoengineering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. N.; Flynn, C. J.; Barnard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Long et al. (2009, JGR 114) analyzed surface radiation data spanning 1995 through 2007 from several ARM and six SURFRAD sites across the continental US, and showed an average 8 Wm-2/decade brightening in all-sky downwelling SW. The study also showed a 5 Wm-2/decade increase in the clear-sky downwelling SW, an expected result of decreasing aerosol optical depths during the same time period (Augustine et al., 2008, JGR 113). However, the unexpected result of the Long et al. study is that the 5 Wm-2/decade increase occurred in the diffuse SW, while the direct SW remained virtually unchanged...opposite what is expected for aerosol direct effect due to decreases in aerosols. With detailed radiative transfer modeling and correlation with US FAA commercial flight hours through the same years, Long et al. suggested that while the decreased aerosols did increase the total SW, an increase in high, sub-visual contrail-generated ice haze repartitioned the increase into the diffuse SW component through large-mode particle scattering. Subsequent attempts to investigate the veracity of this speculation using long time series of ARM Micropulse and Raman lidars data proved untenable due to instrument limitations and continuity issues. However, similar to using the red/blue ratio of pixel color amounts in processing color sky images to infer clouds, we have used clear-sky diffuse SW irradiance measurements from the Multi-Frequency Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) 870, 500, and 415 nm spectral channels to look at any possible trends suggesting "whitening" of the cloud-free skies over the ARM SGP site. We will present our preliminary findings to date of these investigations suggesting indeed that there has been an aggregate "whitening" of the sky conditions we typically consider to be "cloud free." Augustine, J.A., G.B.Hodges, E.G.Dutton, J.J. Michalsky, and C.R.Cornwall (2008), An aerosol optical depth climatology for NOAA's national surface radiation budget network (SURFRAD

  12. Polarization patterns of thick clouds: overcast skies have distribution of the angle of polarization similar to that of clear skies.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, Ramón; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2007-08-01

    The distribution of polarization in the overcast sky has been practically unknown. Earlier the polarization of light from heavily overcast skies (when the Sun's disc was invisible) has been measured only sporadically in some celestial points by point-source polarimetry. What kind of patterns of the degree p and angle alpha of linear polarization of light could develop after transmission through a thick layer of ice or water clouds? To answer this question, we measured the p and alpha patterns of numerous totally overcast skies on the Arctic Ocean and in Hungary by full-sky imaging polarimetry. We present here our finding that depending on the optical thickness of the cloud layer, the pattern of alpha of light transmitted through the ice or water clouds of totally overcast skies is qualitatively the same as the alpha pattern of the clear sky. Under overcast conditions the value of alpha is determined predominantly by scattering on cloud particles themselves. Nevertheless, the degrees of linear polarization of light from overcast skies were rather low (psky also appears in partly cloudy, foggy, and smoky skies. Our results show that the celestial distribution of the direction of polarization is a very robust pattern being qualitatively always the same under all possible sky conditions. This is of great importance for the orientation of polarization-sensitive animals based on sky polarization under conditions when the Sun is not visible.

  13. Crowdfunding Astronomy Research with Google Sky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Travis S.

    2015-01-01

    For nearly four years, NASA's Kepler space telescope searched for planets like Earth around more than 150,000 stars similar to the Sun. In 2008 with in-kind support from several technology companies, our non-profit organization established the Pale Blue Dot Project, an adopt-a-star program that supports scientific research on the stars observed by…

  14. Blue ellipticals in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    1990-01-01

    By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

  15. Custom Sky-Image Mosaics from NASA's Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph; Collier, James; Craymer, Loring; Curkendall, David

    2005-01-01

    yourSkyG is the second generation of the software described in yourSky: Custom Sky-Image Mosaics via the Internet (NPO-30556), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 6 (June 2003), page 45. Like its predecessor, yourSkyG supplies custom astronomical image mosaics of sky regions specified by requesters using client computers connected to the Internet. Whereas yourSky constructs mosaics on a local multiprocessor system, yourSkyG performs the computations on NASA s Information Power Grid (IPG), which is capable of performing much larger mosaicking tasks. (The IPG is high-performance computation and data grid that integrates geographically distributed 18 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2005 computers, databases, and instruments.) A user of yourSkyG can specify parameters describing a mosaic to be constructed. yourSkyG then constructs the mosaic on the IPG and makes it available for downloading by the user. The complexities of determining which input images are required to construct a mosaic, retrieving the required input images from remote sky-survey archives, uploading the images to the computers on the IPG, performing the computations remotely on the Grid, and downloading the resulting mosaic from the Grid are all transparent to the user

  16. INNOCENT BYSTANDERS: CARBON STARS FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Among stars showing carbon molecular bands (C stars), the main-sequence dwarfs, likely in post-mass transfer binaries, are numerically dominant in the Galaxy. Via spectroscopic selection from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we retrieve 1220 high galactic latitude C stars, {approx}5 times more than previously known, including a wider variety than past techniques such as color or grism selection have netted, and additionally yielding 167 DQ white dwarfs. Of the C stars with proper motion measurements, we identify 69% clearly as dwarfs (dCs), while {approx}7% are giants. The dCs likely span absolute magnitudes M{sub i} from {approx}6.5 to 10.5. 'G-type' dC stars with weak CN and relatively blue colors are probably the most massive dCs still cool enough to show C{sub 2} bands. We report Balmer emission in 22 dCs, none of which are G-types. We find 8 new DA/dC stars in composite spectrum binaries, quadrupling the total sample of these 'smoking guns' for AGB binary mass transfer. Eleven very red C stars with strong red CN bands appear to be 'N'-type AGB stars at large Galactocentric distances, one likely a new discovery in the dIrr galaxy Leo A. Two such stars within 30' of each other may trace a previously unidentified dwarf galaxy or tidal stream at {approx}40 kpc. We explore the multiwavelength properties of the sample and report the first X-ray detection of a dC star, which shows strong Balmer emission. Our own spectroscopic survey additionally provides the dC surface density from a complete sample of dwarfs limited by magnitude, color, and proper motion.

  17. The diffuse galactic far-ultraviolet sky

    SciTech Connect

    Hamden, Erika T.; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark

    2013-12-20

    We present an all-sky map of the diffuse Galactic far ultraviolet (1344-1786 Å) background using Galaxy Evolution Explorer data, covering 65% of the sky with 11.79 arcmin{sup 2} pixels. We investigate the dependence of the background on Galactic coordinates, finding that a standard cosecant model of intensity is not a valid fit. Furthermore, we compare our map to Galactic all-sky maps of 100 μm emission, N {sub H} {sub I} column, and Hα intensity. We measure a consistent low level far-UV (FUV) intensity at zero points for other Galactic quantities, indicating a 300 photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} sr{sup –1} Å{sup –1} non-scattered isotropic component to the diffuse FUV. There is also a linear relationship between FUV and 100 μm emission below 100 μm values of 8 MJy sr{sup –1}. We find a similar linear relationship between FUV and N {sub H} {sub I} below 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2}. The relationship between FUV and Hα intensity has no such constant cutoff. For all Galactic quantities, the slope of the linear portion of the relationship decreases with Galactic latitude. A modified cosecant model, taking into account dust scattering asymmetry and albedo, is able to accurately fit the diffuse FUV at latitudes above 20°. The best fit model indicates an albedo, a, of 0.62 ± 0.04 and a scattering asymmetry function, g, of 0.78 ± 0.05. Deviations from the model fit may indicate regions of excess FUV emission from fluorescence or shock fronts, while low latitude regions with depressed FUV emission are likely the result of self-shielding dusty clouds.

  18. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. © 2016 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  20. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriner, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  1. HHEBBES! All sky camera system: status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, F.

    2015-01-01

    A status update is given of the HHEBBES! All sky camera system. HHEBBES!, an automatic camera for capturing bright meteor trails, is based on a DSLR camera and a Liquid Crystal chopper for measuring the angular velocity. Purpose of the system is to a) recover meteorites; b) identify origin/parental bodies. In 2015, two new cameras were rolled out: BINGO! -alike HHEBBES! also in The Netherlands-, and POgLED, in Serbia. BINGO! is a first camera equipped with a longer focal length fisheye lens, to further increase the accuracy. Several minor improvements have been done and the data reduction pipeline was used for processing two prominent Dutch fireballs.

  2. Observed brightness distributions in overcast skies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond L; Devan, David E

    2008-12-01

    Beneath most overcasts, clouds' motions and rapidly changing optical depths complicate mapping their angular distributions of luminance L(v) and visible-wavelength radiance L. Fisheye images of overcast skies taken with a radiometer-calibrated digital camera provide a useful new approach to solving this problem. Maps calculated from time-averaged images of individual overcasts not only show their brightness distributions in unprecedented detail, but they also help solve a long-standing puzzle about where brightness maxima of overcasts are actually located. When combined with simulated radiance distributions from MODTRAN4, our measured radiances also let us estimate the gradients of cloud thickness observed in some overcasts.

  3. Colors of the daytime overcast sky.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond L; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2005-09-20

    Time-series measurements of daylight (skylight plus direct sunlight) spectra beneath overcast skies reveal an unexpectedly wide gamut of pastel colors. Analyses of these spectra indicate that at visible wavelengths, overcasts are far from spectrally neutral transmitters of the daylight incident on their tops. Colorimetric analyses show that overcasts make daylight bluer and that the amount of bluing increases with cloud optical depth. Simulations using the radiative-transfer model MODTRAN4 help explain the observed bluing: multiple scattering within optically thick clouds greatly enhances spectrally selective absorption by water droplets. However, other factors affecting overcast colors seen from below range from minimal (cloud-top heights) to moot (surface colors).

  4. Colors of the daytime overcast sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Raymond L., Jr.; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2005-09-01

    Time-series measurements of daylight (skylight plus direct sunlight) spectra beneath overcast skies reveal an unexpectedly wide gamut of pastel colors. Analyses of these spectra indicate that at visible wavelengths, overcasts are far from spectrally neutral transmitters of the daylight incident on their tops. Colorimetric analyses show that overcasts make daylight bluer and that the amount of bluing increases with cloud optical depth. Simulations using the radiative-transfer model MODTRAN4 help explain the observed bluing: multiple scattering within optically thick clouds greatly enhances spectrally selective absorption by water droplets. However, other factors affecting overcast colors seen from below range from minimal (cloud-top heights) to moot (surface colors).

  5. Temperature Stability of the Sky Quality Meter

    PubMed Central

    Schnitt, Sabrina; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz; Kyba, Christopher C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of radiance measurements taken by the Sky Quality Meter (SQM) was tested under rapidly changing temperature conditions during exposure to a stable light field in the laboratory. The reported radiance was found to be negatively correlated with temperature, but remained within 7% of the initial reported radiance over a temperature range of −15°C to 35°C, and during temperature changes of −33°C/h and +70°C/h. This is smaller than the manufacturer's quoted unit-to-unit systematic uncertainty of 10%, indicating that the temperature compensation of the SQM is adequate under expected outdoor operating conditions. PMID:24030682

  6. ACTPol: On-Sky Performance and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grace, E.; Beall, J.; Bond, J. R.; Cho, H. M.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dunner, R.; Fox, A. E.; Gallardo, P.; Hasselfield, M.; Henderson, S.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hlozek, R.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Klein, J.; Koopman, B.; Li, D.; Lungu, M.; Newburgh, L.; Nibarger, J. P.; Niemack, M. D.; Maurin, L.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    ACTPol is the polarization-sensitive receiver on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. ACTPol enables sensitive millimeter wavelength measurements of the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at arcminute angular scales. These measurements are designed to explore the process of cosmic structure formation, constrain or determine the sum of the neutrino masses, probe dark energy, and provide a foundation for a host of other cosmological tests. We present an overview of the first season of ACTPol observations focusing on the optimization and calibration of the first detector array as well as detailing the on-sky performance.

  7. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Marriner, John; /Fermilab

    2012-06-29

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  8. The FLAMINGOS-2 On-Sky Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raines, Steven Nicholas; Eikenberry, S. S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Bandyopadhyay, R. M.; DeWitt, C.; Elston, R. J.; Bennett, J.; Murphey, C.; Hanna, K. T.; Rambold, W. N.; Warner, C.; Bessoff, A.; Branch, M.; Corley, R.; Eriksen, J.; Frommeyer, S.; Herlevich, M.; Hon, D.; Julian, J. A.; Julian, R. E.; Marin-Franch, A.; Marti, J.; Rashkin, D.; Leckie, B.; Gardhouse, W.; Fletcher, M.; Hardy, T.; Dunn, J.; Wooff, R.; Gomez, P. L.; Diaz, R. J.; Bergmann, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    FLAMINGOS-2, a near-infrared wide-field imager and fully-cryogenic multi-object spectrometer for Gemini Observatory built by the University of Florida, achieved First-Light in September 2009. We present and discuss on-sky characterization data such as image quality, imaging throughput, spectroscopic image quality and throughput, spectroscopic dispersion and resolution, as well as plate scale, field-of-view, and distortion. We also present detector plus system read noise, and detector gain, dark current, and linearity.

  9. Lost Skies of Italian Folk Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barale, Piero

    The limited archival material and the scarcity of evidence from the oldest living representatives of various communities effectively restrict research on archaic astronomical knowledge within Italy to the Alpine area and the most northerly part of the Appenines. These are territories where, fortunately, the folk culture is historically recognized as being very conservative. The sky provided a series of "astral instruments" used for planning religious festivals, fairs, and work in the fields through an empirical-symbolic approach and ancient sidereal calendars with which the valley dwellers were able to arrange daily life.

  10. SPHEREx: An All-Sky Spectral Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; SPHEREx Science Team

    2016-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Small Explorer (SMEX) program that was selected for Phase A in July 2015, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's astrophysics division, in a single survey, with a single instrument. We will probe the physics of inflation by measuring non-Gaussianity by studying large-scale structure, surveying a large cosmological volume at low redshifts, complementing high-z surveys optimized to constrain dark energy. The origin of water and biogenic molecules will be investigated in all phases of planetary system formation - from molecular clouds to young stellar systems with protoplanetary disks - by measuring ice absorption spectra. We will chart the origin and history of galaxy formation through a deep survey mapping large-scale spatial power. Finally, SPHEREx will be the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey, creating a legacy archive of spectra (0.75 - 4.8 um at R = 41.5 and 150) with high sensitivity using a cooled telescope with large mapping speed.SPHEREx will observe from a sun-synchronous low-earth orbit, covering the entire sky in a manner similar to IRAS, COBE and WISE. During its two-year mission, SPHEREx will produce four complete all-sky maps for constraining the physics of inflation. These same maps contain numerous high signal-to-noise absorption spectra to study water and biogenic ices. The orbit naturally covers two deep regions at the celestial poles, which we use for studying galaxy evolution. All aspects of the SPHEREx instrument and spacecraft have high heritage. SPHEREx requires no new technologies and carries large technical and resource margins on every aspect of the design. The projected instrument sensitivity, based on conservative performance estimates, meets the driving point source sensitivity requirement with 300 % margin.SPHEREx is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, following the successful management structure of the NuSTAR and GALEX SMEX missions. The spacecraft

  11. Concise Catalog of Deep-Sky Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, Warren H.

    This book is intended to give a concise summary of some of the more interesting astrophysical facts that are known about objects commonly observed by amateur astronomers. Pondering this information while viewing an object in the field has added a new level to the author's enjoyment of deep-sky observing, and it is hoped this information will be similarly enjoyed by other amateur astronomers. The book is not intended to be read cover to cover, but rather is designed so that each object entry can be read individually one at a time and in no particular order, perhaps while at the eyepiece.

  12. Smart Data Node in the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Faiza; Kantak, Anil

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses the physical and engineering principles affecting the design of the Smart Data Node in the Sky (SDNITS) -- a proposed Earth-orbiting satellite for relaying scientific data from other Earth-orbiting satellites to one or more ground station(s). The document characterizes the problem of designing the telecommunication architecture of the SDNITS as consisting of two main parts: (1) finding the most advantageous orbit for the SDNITS to gather data from the scientific satellites and relay the data to the ground, taking account of such factors as visibility and range; and (2) choosing a telecommunication architecture appropriate for the intended relay function.

  13. Temperature stability of the sky quality meter.

    PubMed

    Schnitt, Sabrina; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz; Kyba, Christopher C M

    2013-01-01

    The stability of radiance measurements taken by the Sky Quality Meter (SQM)was tested under rapidly changing temperature conditions during exposure to a stable light field in the laboratory. The reported radiance was found to be negatively correlated with temperature, but remained within 7% of the initial reported radiance over a temperature range of -15 °C to 35 °C, and during temperature changes of -33 °C/h and +70 °C/h.This is smaller than the manufacturer's quoted unit-to-unit systematic uncertainty of 10%,indicating that the temperature compensation of the SQM is adequate under expected outdoor operating conditions. PMID:24030682

  14. DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUALLY BLUE L DWARF WITHIN 10 pc OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; West, Andrew A.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Bochanski, John J.

    2010-03-15

    We report the discovery of an unusually blue L5 dwarf within 10 pc of the Sun from a search of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. A spectrophotometric distance estimate of 8.0 {+-} 1.6 pc places SDSS J141624.08+134826.7 among the six closest known L dwarfs. SDSS 1416+13 was overlooked in infrared color-based searches because of its unusually blue J - K {sub S} color, which also identifies it as the nearest member of the blue L dwarf subclass. We present additional infrared and optical spectroscopy from the IRTF/SpeX and Magellan/MagE spectrographs and determine UVW motions that indicate thin disk kinematics. The inclusion of SDSS 1416+13 in the 20 pc sample of L dwarfs increases the number of L5 dwarfs by 20% suggesting that the L dwarf luminosity function may be far from complete.

  15. Skycorr: A general tool for spectroscopic sky subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, S.; Kausch, W.; Kimeswenger, S.; Barden, M.; Jones, A. M.; Modigliani, A.; Szyszka, C.; Taylor, J.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Airglow emission lines, which dominate the optical-to-near-infrared sky radiation, show strong, line-dependent variability on time scales from minutes to decades. Therefore, the subtraction of the sky background in the affected wavelength regime becomes a problem if plain-sky spectra have to be taken at a different time from the astronomical data. Aims: A solution of this problem is the physically motivated scaling of the airglow lines in the plain-sky data to fit the sky lines in the object spectrum. We have developed a corresponding instrument-independent approach based on one-dimensional spectra. Methods: Our code skycorr separates sky lines and sky/object continuum by an iterative approach involving a line finder and airglow line data. The sky lines, which mainly belong to OH and O2 bands, are grouped according to their expected variability. The line groups in the sky data are then scaled to fit the sky in the science data. Required pixel-specific weights for overlapping groups are taken from a comprehensive airglow model. Deviations in the wavelength calibration are corrected for by fitting Chebyshev polynomials and rebinning via asymmetric damped sinc kernels. The scaled sky lines and the sky continuum are subtracted separately. Results: ESO-VLT X-shooter data covering 2.5 h with a good time resolution were selected to illustrate the performance. Data taken six nights and about one year before were also used as reference sky data. The variation of the sky-subtraction quality as a function of time difference between the object and sky data depends on changes in the airglow intensity, atmospheric transparency, and instrument calibration. Except for short time intervals of a few minutes, the sky line residuals were between 2.1 and 5.5 times weaker than for sky subtraction without fitting. Additional tests showed that skycorr performs consistently better than the method of Davies (2007, MNRAS, 375, 1099) developed for ESO-VLT SINFONI data.

  16. Hazards of solar blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Tsutomu

    2008-06-01

    Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

  17. Seeing the Sky through Hubble's Eye: The COSMOS SkyWalker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Koekemoer, A.

    2006-08-01

    Large, high-resolution space-based imaging surveys produce a volume of data that is difficult to present to the public in a comprehensible way. While megapixel-sized images can still be printed out or downloaded via the World Wide Web, this is no longer feasible for images with 109 pixels (e.g., the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys [ACS] images of the Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs [GEMS] project) or even 1010 pixels (for the ACS Cosmic Evolution Survey [COSMOS]). We present a Web-based utility called the COSMOS SkyWalker that allows viewing of the huge ACS image data set, even through slow Internet connections. Using standard HTML and JavaScript, the application successively loads only those portions of the image at a time that are currently being viewed on the screen. The user can move within the image by using the mouse or interacting with an overview image. Using an astrometrically registered image for the COSMOS SkyWalker allows the display of calibrated world coordinates for use in science. The SkyWalker ``technique'' can be applied to other data sets. This requires some customization, notably the slicing up of a data set into small (e.g., 2562 pixel) subimages. An advantage of the SkyWalker is the use of standard Web browser components; thus, it requires no installation of any software and can therefore be viewed by anyone across many operating systems.

  18. Blinded: Modern Art, Astronomy, and the Lost Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, G.

    2016-01-01

    For today's casual visual observer, the night sky has become lost. Pollution, light glare, and the constructed environment have created a blindness through which the night sky is only imperfectly seen, when seen at all. Can the night sky, then, still inspire art if it has become invisible? In this paper, I would like to explore the question of the inspiration of the night sky in the absence of direct observation. In particular, I suggest that the absence of the visual night sky has forced artists to consider the problems of representing an “invisible” subject from nature. The implications of this “invisible” sky are not just a matter of stylistic expression, but also of cultural interpretation.

  19. Radio Source Contributions to the Microwave Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughn, S. P.; Partridge, R. B.

    2008-03-01

    Cross-correlations of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) full sky K-, Ka-, Q-, V-, and W-band maps with the 1.4 GHz NVSS source count map and the HEAO I A2 2-10 keV full sky X-ray flux map are used to constrain rms fluctuations due to unresolved microwave sources in the WMAP frequency range. In the Q band (40.7 GHz), a lower limit, taking account of only those fluctuations correlated with the 1.4 GHz radio source counts and X-ray flux, corresponds to an rms Rayleigh-Jeans temperature of ~2 μK for a solid angle of 1 deg2 assuming that the cross-correlations are dominated by clustering, and ~1 μK if dominated by Poisson fluctuations. The correlated fluctuations at the other bands are consistent with a β = -2.1 ± 0.4 frequency spectrum. If microwave sources are distributed similarly in redshift to the radio and X-ray sources and are similarly clustered, then the implied total rms microwave fluctuations correspond to ~5 μK. While this value should be considered no more than a plausible estimate, it is similar to that implied by the excess, small angular scale fluctuations observed in the Q band by WMAP and is consistent with estimates made by extrapolating low-frequency source counts.

  20. COSMO-SkyMed and GIS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Pietro; Sole, Aurelia; Serio, Carmine

    2013-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing have become key technology tools for the collection, storage and analysis of spatially referenced data. Industries that utilise these spatial technologies include agriculture, forestry, mining, market research as well as the environmental analysis . Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a coherent active sensor operating in the microwave band which exploits relative motion between antenna and target in order to obtain a finer spatial resolution in the flight direction exploiting the Doppler effect. SAR have wide applications in Remote Sensing such as cartography, surface deformation detection, forest cover mapping, urban planning, disasters monitoring , surveillance etc… The utilization of satellite remote sensing and GIS technology for this applications has proven to be a powerful and effective tool for environmental monitoring. Remote sensing techniques are often less costly and time-consuming for large geographic areas compared to conventional methods, moreover GIS technology provides a flexible environment for, analyzing and displaying digital data from various sources necessary for classification, change detection and database development. The aim of this work si to illustrate the potential of COSMO-SkyMed data and SAR applications in a GIS environment, in particular a demostration of the operational use of COSMO-SkyMed SAR data and GIS in real cases will be provided for what concern DEM validation, river basin estimation, flood mapping and landslide monitoring.

  1. Intercomparisons of nine sky brightness detectors.

    PubMed

    den Outer, Peter; Lolkema, Dorien; Haaima, Marty; van der Hoff, Rene; Spoelstra, Henk; Schmidt, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across The Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between ±14%. Individual night time sums range from -16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and -7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 ± 0.003 mcd/m(2) on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 ± 0.03 mcd/m(2) on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent.

  2. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel

    2014-12-31

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  3. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

    2010-09-30

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

  4. Students in Advanced Research for Sky Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Tom

    1997-11-01

    Spacewatch program discovers small bodies (asteroids and comets) in the solar system and analyzes their distributions with orbital parameters and absolute magnitude. Scanning of the night sky is conducted 18-20 nights per month with tbe 0.9-m Spacewatch Telescope on Kitt Peak. About 1200. to 2000 sqare degrees of sky are searched each year to a V magnitude level of 21.3. Spacewatch discoveries support studies of the evolution of the Centaur, Trojan, Main-Belt, and Earth-approaching asteroid populations. Space watch also finds potential targets for space missions, finds objects that might present a hazard of impact on the Earth, provides accurate astrometry of about 30,000 asteroids annually, and recovers comets and asteroids that are too faint for most other observers. This AASERT grant supported several undergraduate students working on upgrades to instrumentation and analyses of date under the supervision of spacewatch engineers and researchers. The opportunity to have young, energetic new members of the group accomplished a great del of work, simulated and exxelerated our research efforts, and enhanced the students' career opportunities.

  5. Patrolling the Sky at Long Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Gregory B.; Obenberger, K.; Hartman, J.; LWA Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The first station of the Long Wavelength Array, “LWA1”, is located near the center of the Very Large Array in central New Mexico and has recently begun scientific operations as a stand-alone instrument with collecting area roughly equivalent to a 100m dish. The LWA1 images the sky in near-real-time using the “transient buffer - narrowband” (TBN) system which is operational with 258 dipoles, and a bandwidth of 70 kHz. This bandwidth can be placed at any frequency between 5 and 88 MHz. Near-real-time reduction of the data is accomplished by a dedicated cluster in the electronics shelter of the array. The LWA1 can also form up to 4 beams on the sky simultaneously with 16 MHz bandwidth in each of two tunings and full polarization which can provide higher senstivity for follow-up observations. Here we report on detection limits for prompt emission from approximately 30 Gamma-Ray Bursts at frequencies between 30 and 80 MHz. We also report on a number of bright transients of short duration that were detected in the course of searching the error-boxes of GRBs. Support for operations and continuing development of the LWA1 is provided by the National Science Foundation under grant AST-1139974 of the University Radio Observatory program.

  6. Mauna Loa sky conditions - Bench mark and present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, C. J.; Yasukawa, E. A.

    1983-08-01

    Sky conditions at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) were measured during a period of uncontaminated skies in July 1981, and during the presence of volcanic dust clouds in 1982 using MLSO instrument systems. A six-fold increase in scattering due to aerosols, is accompanied by a 25 percent direct incident radiation decrease, and sky polarization/intensity perturbations were detected after the onset of volcanic clouds.

  7. Sky type discrimination using a ground-based sun photometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFelice, Thomas P.; Wylie, B.K.

    2001-01-01

    A 2-year feasibility study was conducted at the USGS EROS Data Center, South Dakota (43.733°N, 96.6167°W) to assess whether a four-band, ground-based, sun photometer could be used to discriminate sky types. The results indicate that unique spectral signatures do exist between sunny skies (including clear and hazy skies) and cirrus, and cirrostratus, altocumulus or fair-weather cumulus, and thin stratocumulus or altostratus, and fog/fractostratus skies. There were insufficient data points to represent other cloud types at a statistically significant level.

  8. Sky surveys of interest for cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Sky Surveys provide much useful information for finding and understanding catacylsmic variables (CVs). Depending on the length of time the survey runs and the cadence used, the surveys can easily locate novae and dwarf novae based on the amplitude and shape of the light curves. For systems with high inclination or prominent hot spots and periods of hours, some orbital information can be derived from eclipses that are caught or repetitive modulations in the folded light curves. However, in most cases, detailed knowledge of the type of system and its orbital period must come from extended observations at other wavelengths, as most surveys take place in one filter or unfiltered. Currently, we are in the midst of an explosion of recently past, continuing and future plans for sky surveys. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey found about 300 CVs in its Legacy Mode, with small numbers continuing to be added through the extended phases. The CVs were primarily identified through spectroscopic coverage of selected objects from the photometric survey and subsequently found a wide variety of systems (polars, intermediate polars, novalikes, dwarf novae, objects with pulsating white dwarfs) due to spectroscopic differences among these types. The Palomar Transit Factory (PTF), Intermediate PTF and future Zwicky Transient Facilty (ZTF) operate in the same mode of candidate discovery via outbursts followed by spectroscopy for confirmation. The Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey primarily adds dwarf novae that are found from outbursts in the long time span of observations. The Kepler K2 mission operates with a much higher cadence (48-1440 observations/day) but shorter total length (70-80 days) and thus finds CVs through orbital variability as well as those with short outburst intervals. Gaia will provide distances for most of the objects under study, thus locating them in the galaxy. The upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will go much fainter and cover variability on a 10 yr

  9. "Untangling the centimetre-wavelength sky"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, J. Patrick

    2015-08-01

    The global SED of the Milky Way reaches a minimum at about 80 GHz. In the decade below this, three emission processes predominate: synchrotron, from cosmic ray leptons spiralling in the Galactic magnetic field; free-free, from ionized gas in nebulae and the diffuse warm ionized medium; and anomalous microwaves (AME), believed to be dipole emission from spinning very small dust grains. Each component provides unique diagnostics: synchroton traces the lepton energy spectrum near 20 GeV and reveals the local and global structure of the Galactic magnetic field, free-free probes ionized gas where the usual H-alpha tracer is obscured, and AME traces a new interstellar component, whose relation to the general dust population can now be explored. In total intensity, accurate separation of these components is a hard problem not yet completely solved, mainly due to the spatial variability of the AME spectrum, which in the Planck 2015 analysis dominates the SED between 20 and 60 GHz. New large-area surveys in the frequency decade below the satellite microwave will, in combination with Planck and WMAP, will provide a far more robust determination of each component.In contrast to the confused situation in total intensity, only synchrotron contributes significant polarization in our band, and WMAP and Planck give a clear view of the polarized synchrotron sky, for the first time effectively free of Faraday rotation and depolarization. New ground-based microwave polarization surveys such as GMIMS, S-PASS, C-BASS, and QUIJOTE, will add much higher sensitivity and also have the high frequency resolution needed to trace the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field via Faraday synthesis. The polarization along the Galactic plane constrains models of the global Galactic magnetic field. Away from the plane, polarization probes the tangling of the field in the Galactic halo and clarifies the structure of the Galactic loops and spurs, which impose a large-scale coherence on the

  10. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic. PMID:24695190

  11. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  12. Opaque Skies in the Far East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A thick shroud of haze lingers over China, turning the sky an opaque grey over most of the eastern provinces and almost completely blotting out details of the land surface in this true-color scene. Beijing, China's capital city, is situated roughly 150 km (93 miles) west of Bo Hai Bay, under what appears to the densest portion of the aerosol pollution. These data were collected on January 11, 2002, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard OrbView 2. The heavy aerosol concentrations can be seen blowing eastward across the Bo Hai Bay and Yellow Sea. It appears that some of the pollution has reached as far east as North and South Korea and the islands of Japan. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. Sky reconstruction for the Tianlai cylinder array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiao; Zuo, Shi-Fan; Ansari, Reza; Chen, Xuelei; Li, Yi-Chao; Wu, Feng-Quan; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Magneville, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    We apply our sky map reconstruction method for transit type interferometers to the Tianlai cylinder array. The method is based on spherical harmonic decomposition, and can be applied to a cylindrical array as well as dish arrays and we can compute the instrument response, synthesized beam, transfer function and noise power spectrum. We consider cylinder arrays with feed spacing larger than half a wavelength and, as expected, we find that the arrays with regular spacing have grating lobes which produce spurious images in the reconstructed maps. We show that this problem can be overcome using arrays with a different feed spacing on each cylinder. We present the reconstructed maps, and study the performance in terms of noise power spectrum, transfer function and beams for both regular and irregular feed spacing configurations.

  14. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  15. The ATLAS All-Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, L.

    The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) is a small project with an ambitious goal: early warning of asteroid impacts on Earth. We aim to provide one day warning for the smallest "town-killer" 30-kiloton asteroids up to three weeks for a 100-megaton impactor. ATLAS will execute a wide-field all-sky survey with four visits per footprint per night down to a sensitivity limit of V=20, suitable for detection dangerous asteroids and enabling other exciting time-domain astronomy. ATLAS is currently under construction and expects to be fully operational in late 2015. We provide an overview of the ATLAS system and discuss how ATLAS can participate in the emerging community of time-domain astronomy.

  16. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Borish, H. Jacob; Burkhardt, Andrew; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Matthews, Allison; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Troup, Nicholas William; Wenger, Trey

    2016-01-01

    We present updates from our seventh year of operation including new club content, continued assessments, and our fifth annual Star Party. Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.

  17. Hunting the Southern Skies with SIMBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    First Images from the New "Millimetre Camera" on SEST at La Silla Summary A new instrument, SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") , has been installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the ESO La Silla Observatory in July 2001. It records astronomical images at a wavelength of 1.2 mm and is able to quickly map large sky areas. In order to achieve the best possible sensitivity, SIMBA is cooled to only 0.3 deg above the absolute zero on the temperature scale. SIMBA is the first imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere . Radiation at this wavelength is mostly emitted from cold dust and ionized gas in a variety of objects in the Universe. Among other, SIMBA now opens exciting prospects for in-depth studies of the "hidden" sites of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar nebulae. While such clouds are impenetrable to optical light, they are transparent to millimetre radiation and SIMBA can therefore observe the associated phenomena, in particular the dust around nascent stars . This sophisticated instrument can also search for disks of cold dust around nearby stars in which planets are being formed or which may be left-overs of this basic process. Equally important, SIMBA may observe extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , recording them while they were still in the formation stage. Various SIMBA images have been obtained during the first tests of the new instrument. The first observations confirm the great promise for unique astronomical studies of the southern sky in the millimetre wavelength region. These results also pave the way towards the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the giant, joint research project that is now under study in Europe, the USA and Japan. PR Photo 28a/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17175-3544 PR Photo 28b/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 18434-0242 PR Photo 28c/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17271-3439 PR Photo 28d/01

  18. Gaia's FPA: sampling the sky in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohley, Ralf; Garé, Philippe; Vétel, Cyril; Marchais, Denis; Chassat, François

    2012-09-01

    ESÁs astrometry satellite Gaia is scheduled for launch in 2013. In a combination of outstanding hardware performance, autonomous object detection and sophisticated data processing, Gaia will chart more than a billion stars of the entire sky to unprecedented accuracy during its 5 years mission. A key element to its mission success is the focal plane assembly (FPA), the largest ever flown to space, comprising a close-butted almost Giga-pixel mosaic of 106 large area CCDs. Manufacturing and extensive testing of the individual devices and detector system units as well as integration on the single-piece, silicon-carbide support structure has been a challenge. The focal plane is now assembled and has undergone its final tests during 2012. The paper summarizes the expected in-flight performances of Gaiás FPA and the implemented tools and procedures to monitor its operation in space. Accurate knowledge of the impact of FPA performance parameters on individual measurements and its evolution in time is critical to achieve the high accuracy needed in calibrating the science data. An example is the radiation-induced deterioration of the CCD charge transfer efficiency, which acts on distorting the detected object PSFs while observing the sky in continuous scan mode. Through dedicated calibration procedures and directly through the scientific data processing, Gaia will therefore closely track the radiation environment at L2 from the FPA output itself. Detection of transient effects and analysis of persistent damage on the CCDs mainly caused by solar protons converts Gaia's FPA inherently into the largest ever radiation monitor in space.

  19. COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation planner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covello, Fabio; Scopa, Tiziana; Serva, Stefano; Caltagirone, Francesco; De Luca, Giuseppe Francesco; Pacaccio, Alessandro; Profili, Mario

    2014-10-01

    COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation (CSG) system has been conceived, according to Italian Space Agency (ASI) and Italian Ministry of Defence (It-MoD) requirements, at the twofold objective of ensuring operational continuity to the current constellation (COSMO-SkyMed - CSK), while improving functionality and performances. It is an "end-to-end" Italian Earth Observation Dual-Use (Civilian and Defence) Space System with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operating in X-Band. CSG mission planning purpose is to fully employ the system resources, shared between partners with very different needs, producing a mission plan that satisfies the higher priority requests and optimizes the overall plan with the remaining requests according to the users programming rights consumption. CSG Mission Planning tool provides new performances in terms of adaptability and flexibility of the planning and scheduling algorithms conceived to select and synchronize data acquisition and downloading activities. CSG planning and scheduling problem is characterized by a large size of research space and a particular structure of technical and managerial constraints that has led to the implementation of innovative design of the planning algorithms based on both priority criteria and saturation of system resources. This approach envisages two scheduling strategies: the rank-based and the optimization-based. The former strategy is firstly applied to the most important request categories, with an associated rank value or priority level; the latter is subsequently applied to the unranked or lower priority requests. This is an iterative dynamic process of finding optimal solutions able to better answer the demanding requirements coming from the needs of heterogeneous users.

  20. Dark Skies, Bright Kids: Year 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Johnson, K.; Lynch, R.; Walker, L.; Beaton, R.; Corby, J.; de Messieres, G.; Drosback, M.; Gugliucci, N.; Jackson, L.; Kingery, A.; Layman, S.; Murphy, E.; Richardson, W.; Ries, P.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G.; Sokal, K.; Trammell, G.; Whelan, D.; Yang, A.; Zasowski, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) outreach program brings astronomy education into local elementary schools in central Virginia's Southern Albemarle County through an after-school club. Taking advantage of the unusually dark night skies in the rural countryside, DSBK targets economically disadvantaged schools that tend to be underserved due to their rural locale. The goals of DSBK are to foster children's natural curiosity, demonstrate that science is a fun and creative process, challenge students' conceptions of what a scientist is and does, and teach some basic astronomy. Furthermore, DSBK works to assimilate families into students' education by holding family observing nights at the school. Now in its third semester, DSBK has successfully run programs at two schools with very diverse student populations. Working with these students has helped us to revise our activities and to create new ones. A by-product of our work has been the development of lesson plans, complete with learning goals and detailed instructions, that we make publically available on our website. This year we are expanding our repertoire with our new planetarium, which allows us to visualize topics in novel ways and supplements family observing on cloudy nights. The DSBK volunteers have also created a bilingual astronomy artbook --- designed, written, and illustrated by UVa students --- that we will publish and distribute to elementary schools in Virginia. Our book debuted at the last AAS winter meeting, and since then it has been extensively revised and updated with input from many individuals, including parents, professional educators, and a children's book author. Because the club is currently limited to serving a few elementary schools, this book will be part of our efforts to broaden our impact by bringing astronomy to schools we cannot go to ourselves and reaching out to Spanish-speaking communities at the same time.

  1. Polarization transition between sunlit and moonlit skies with possible implications for animal orientation and Viking navigation: anomalous celestial twilight polarization at partial moon.

    PubMed

    Barta, András; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Egri, Ádám; Barta, Pál; Kovács, József; Csák, Balázs; Jankovics, István; Szabó, Gyula; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-08-10

    Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the celestial distribution of polarization during sunset and sunrise at partial (78% and 72%) and full (100%) moon in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) parts of the spectrum. We investigated the temporal change of the patterns of degree p and angle α of linear polarization of sunlit and moonlit skies at dusk and dawn. We describe here the position change of the neutral points of sky polarization, and present video clips about the celestial polarization transition at moonlit twilight. We found that at partial moon and at a medium latitude (47° 15.481' N) during this transition there is a relatively short (10-20 min) period when (i) the maximum of p of skylight decreases, and (ii) from the celestial α pattern neither the solar-antisolar nor the lunar-antilunar meridian can be unambiguously determined. These meridians can serve as reference directions of animal orientation and Viking navigation based on sky polarization. The possible influence of these atmospheric optical phenomena during the polarization transition between sunlit and moonlit skies on the orientation of polarization-sensitive crepuscular/nocturnal animals and the hypothesized navigation of sunstone-aided Viking seafarers is discussed. PMID:25320929

  2. The ADS All Sky Survey: footprints of astronomy literature, in the sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Alberto; Goodman, A. A.; Muench, A. A.; Seamless Astronomy Group at the CfA

    2014-01-01

    The ADS All-Sky Survey (ADSASS) aims to transform the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource for astronomers, into a data resource. The ADS is not a data repository per se, but it implicitly contains valuable holdings of astronomical data, in the form of images, tables and object references contained within articles. The objective of the ADSASS effort is to extract these data and make them discoverable and available through existing data viewers. In this talk, the ADSASS viewer - http://adsass.org/ - will be presented: a sky heatmap of astronomy articles based on the celestial objects they reference. The ADSASS viewer is as an innovative research and visual search tool for it allows users to explore astronomical literature based on celestial location, rather than keyword string. The ADSASS is a NASA-funded initiative carried out by the Seamless Astronomy Group at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

  3. Crowdfunding Astronomy Research With Google Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.

    2015-12-01

    For nearly four years, NASA's Kepler space telescope searched for planets like Earth around more than 150,000 stars similar to the Sun. In 2008 with in-kind support from several technology companies, our non-profit organization established the Pale Blue Dot Project, an adopt-a-star program that supports scientific research on the stars observed by the Kepler mission. To help other astronomy educators conduct successful fundraising efforts, I describe how this innovative crowdfunding program successfully engaged the public over the past seven years to help support an international team in an era of economic austerity.

  4. Big Sky Telegraph: Telecommunications Guide to Community Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odasz, Frank B., Comp.

    This document contains a wide assortment of papers and promotional materials concerning the Big Sky Telegraph, a Montana-based telecommunications network serving rural economic development organizations. Funded by the US West Foundation and Western Montana College, Big Sky was created to stimulate grassroots innovation in rural education,…

  5. 76 FR 42704 - Sky River LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sky River LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that, on July 8, 2011, Sky River LLC filed to amend its Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT) filing, submitted on April 1, 2011...

  6. Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

  7. Bonney's blue cystitis: a warning.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T J; Chapple, C R; Payne, S D; Milroy, E J; Warwick, R T

    1989-03-01

    The instillation of diluted Bonney's blue into the bladder during gynaecological operations has been quite common practice over the last 50 years. Bonney's blue is composed of a 1:1 mixture of brilliant green and crystal violet dissolved in ethanol (90%) or industrial methylated spirit. Before insertion into the bladder this solution must be diluted with water to a 0.5% solution. Failure to do this will result in a severe inflammatory reaction within the bladder. The degree of resultant damage depends upon the duration of exposure. Persistent pain is a feature of this condition, although the other symptoms (frequency and urgency) may settle in time. Two cases of chemical cystitis resulting from the use of undiluted Bonney's blue are described to illustrate the possible consequences. Both patients were awarded 6-figure sums as compensation.

  8. Stability of the nine sky quality meters in the Dutch night sky brightness monitoring network.

    PubMed

    den Outer, Peter; Lolkema, Dorien; Haaima, Marty; van der Hoff, Rene; Spoelstra, Henk; Schmidt, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In the context of monitoring abundance of artificial light at night, the year-to-year stability of Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) is investigated by analysing intercalibrations derived from two measurement campaigns that were held in 2011 and 2012. An intercalibration comprises a light sensitivity factor and an offset for each SQM. The campaigns were concerned with monitoring measurements, each lasting one month. Nine SQMs, together forming the Night Sky Brightness Monitoring network (MHN) in The Netherlands, were involved in both campaigns. The stability of the intercalibration of these instruments leads to a year-to-year uncertainty (standard deviation) of 5% in the measured median luminance occurring at the MHN monitoring locations. For the 10-percentiles and 90-percentiles, we find 8% and 4%, respectively. This means that, for urban and industrial areas, changes in the sky brightness larger than 5% become detectable. Rural and nature areas require an 8%-9% change of the median luminance to be detectable. The light sensitivety agrees within 8% for the whole group of SQMs.

  9. Haleakalā Sky Polarization: Full-Sky Observations and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindle, R.; Kuhn, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    Observations of the daytime sky polarization are useful calibration tools for large-aperture telescopes, as well as a testbed for polarized radiative transfer models. We present an instrument capable of measuring the complete full-sky Stokes vector over visible/NIR broad bands. The design utilizes liquid crystal variable retarders and a dual-beam polarization analyzer, allowing for a clear and cloudy sky acquisition cadence near 12 s which shows minimal image artifacts from solar and cloud motion. In this article, we detail the design, full-field calibration methodology, and Haleakalā observations, which provide an absolute polarimetric accuracy on individual Stokes parameters of better than 3% across VRI bandpasses. Angle and degree of polarization images are compared with a single-scattering model and the more complete MODTRAN-4P polarized radiative transfer package. Comparisons with independent measurements atop nearby Mauna Loa show similar polarization structure, but results suggest a relatively larger depolarization from surface reflections beneath Haleakalā.

  10. Monitoring the Sky with the Prototype All-Sky Imager on the LWA1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenberger, K. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Hartman, J. M.; Clarke, T. E.; Dowell, J.; Dubois, A.; Dubois, D.; Henning, P. A.; Lazio, J.; Michalak, S.; Schinzel, F. K.

    2015-03-01

    We present a description of the Prototype All-Sky Imager (PASI), a backend correlator and imager of the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1). PASI cross-correlates a live stream of 260 dual-polarization dipole antennas of the LWA1, creates all-sky images, and uploads them to the LWA-TV website in near real time. PASI has recorded over 13,000hr of all-sky images at frequencies between 10 and 88MHz creating opportunities for new research and discoveries. We also report rate density and pulse energy density limits on transients at 38, 52, and 74MHz, for pulse widths of 5s. We limit transients at those frequencies with pulse energy densities of >2.7×10-23, >1.1×10-23, and >2.8×10-23Jm-2Hz-1 to have rate densities <1.2×10-4, <5.6×10-4, and <7.2×10-4 year-1deg-2.

  11. Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview.

    PubMed

    Shields, Janet E; Karr, Monette E; Johnson, Richard W; Burden, Art R

    2013-03-10

    A family of fully automated digital whole sky imagers (WSIs) has been developed at the Marine Physical Laboratory over many years, for a variety of research and military applications. The most advanced of these, the day/night whole sky imagers (D/N WSIs), acquire digital imagery of the full sky down to the horizon under all conditions from full sunlight to starlight. Cloud algorithms process the imagery to automatically detect the locations of cloud for both day and night. The instruments can provide absolute radiance distribution over the full radiance range from starlight through daylight. The WSIs were fielded in 1984, followed by the D/N WSIs in 1992. These many years of experience and development have resulted in very capable instruments and algorithms that remain unique. This article discusses the history of the development of the D/N WSIs, system design, algorithms, and data products. The paper cites many reports with more detailed technical documentation. Further details of calibration, day and night algorithms, and cloud free line-of-sight results will be discussed in future articles. PMID:23478763

  12. Monitoring the Low Frequency Sky with the LWA1 and the Prototype All-Sky Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenberger, Kenneth Steven; LWA Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present findings from the Prototype All-Sky Imager (PASI), a backend correlator of the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1). PASI cross-correlates a live stream of all 260 dual-polarization dipole antennas of the LWA1, creates all-sky images, and uploads them to the LWA-TV website in near real-time. PASI has recorded over 14,000 hours of all-sky images at frequencies between 10 and 88 MHz. These data have resulted in the discovery of radio emission from large meteors (Fireballs), and has been used to set improved limits on slow transients at 38, 52, and 74 MHz. PASI is also being used to characterize how the ionosphere affects low frequency transient astronomy. Construction of the LWA has been supported by the Office of Naval Research under Contract N00014-07-C-0147. Support for operations and continuing development of the LWA1 is provided by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-1139963 and AST-1139974 of the University Radio Observatory program.

  13. Stability of the Nine Sky Quality Meters in the Dutch Night Sky Brightness Monitoring Network

    PubMed Central

    den Outer, Peter; Lolkema, Dorien; Haaima, Marty; van der Hoff, Rene; Spoelstra, Henk; Schmidt, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In the context of monitoring abundance of artificial light at night, the year-to-year stability of Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) is investigated by analysing intercalibrations derived from two measurement campaigns that were held in 2011 and 2012. An intercalibration comprises a light sensitivity factor and an offset for each SQM. The campaigns were concerned with monitoring measurements, each lasting one month. Nine SQMs, together forming the Night Sky Brightness Monitoring network (MHN) in The Netherlands, were involved in both campaigns. The stability of the intercalibration of these instruments leads to a year-to-year uncertainty (standard deviation) of 5% in the measured median luminance occurring at the MHN monitoring locations. For the 10-percentiles and 90-percentiles, we find 8% and 4%, respectively. This means that, for urban and industrial areas, changes in the sky brightness larger than 5% become detectable. Rural and nature areas require an 8%–9% change of the median luminance to be detectable. The light sensitivety agrees within 8% for the whole group of SQMs. PMID:25912348

  14. Stability of the nine sky quality meters in the Dutch night sky brightness monitoring network.

    PubMed

    den Outer, Peter; Lolkema, Dorien; Haaima, Marty; van der Hoff, Rene; Spoelstra, Henk; Schmidt, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In the context of monitoring abundance of artificial light at night, the year-to-year stability of Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) is investigated by analysing intercalibrations derived from two measurement campaigns that were held in 2011 and 2012. An intercalibration comprises a light sensitivity factor and an offset for each SQM. The campaigns were concerned with monitoring measurements, each lasting one month. Nine SQMs, together forming the Night Sky Brightness Monitoring network (MHN) in The Netherlands, were involved in both campaigns. The stability of the intercalibration of these instruments leads to a year-to-year uncertainty (standard deviation) of 5% in the measured median luminance occurring at the MHN monitoring locations. For the 10-percentiles and 90-percentiles, we find 8% and 4%, respectively. This means that, for urban and industrial areas, changes in the sky brightness larger than 5% become detectable. Rural and nature areas require an 8%-9% change of the median luminance to be detectable. The light sensitivety agrees within 8% for the whole group of SQMs. PMID:25912348

  15. Night Sky Quality Measurements at the ATA50 Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, Hüseyin; Nasiroglu, Ilham; Guney, Yavuz

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important factor affecting the quality of the sky in astronomy is the light pollution (luminance of the night sky). Light pollution, also affects humans and wildlife in many ways. This effect occurs by using the light source of outdoor lighting in the wrong way. Light pollution can be reduced by lighting only what is actually needed, when and where it is needed. In generally, SQM (Sky Quality Meter- Clear Sky Detector) is used to measure this light effect. In this work we present night sky brightness measurements performed at the Atatürk University Astrophysics Research Telescope (ATA50) and the surrounding area, Erzurum, TURKEY. We also discussed the physical impacts of light pollution on science, humans and wildlife.

  16. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  17. Agminated blue nevus - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus.

  18. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  19. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  20. Crater Lake: blue through time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

  1. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  2. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  3. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  4. Radio continuum detection in blue early-type weak-emission-line galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paswan, A.; Omar, A.

    2016-06-01

    The star formation rates (SFRs) in weak-emission-line (WEL) galaxies in a volume-limited (0.02 < z < 0.05) sample of blue early-type galaxies (ETGs) identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, are constrained here using 1.4-GHz radio continuum emission. The direct detection of 1.4-GHz radio continuum emission is made in eight WEL galaxies and a median stacking is performed on 57 WEL galaxies using Very Large Array (VLA) Faint Images of Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) images. The median stacked 1.4-GHz flux density and luminosity are estimated as 79 ± 19 μJy and 0.20 ± 0.05 × 1021 W Hz-1, respectively. The radio far-infrared correlation in four WEL galaxies suggests that the radio continuum emission from WEL galaxies is most likely a result of star formation activities. The median SFR for WEL galaxies is estimated as 0.23 ± 0.06 M⊙ yr-1, which is much less than SFRs (0.5-50 M⊙ yr-1) in purely star-forming blue ETGs. The SFRs in blue ETGs are found to be correlated with their stellar velocity dispersions (σ) and decreasing gradually beyond σ of ˜100 km s-1. This effect is most likely linked to the growth of a black hole and the suppression of star formation via active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. The colour differences between star-forming and WEL subtypes of blue ETGs appear to be driven to a large extent by the level of current star formation activities. In a likely scenario of an evolutionary sequence between subtypes, the observed colour distribution in blue ETGs can be explained best in terms of fast evolution through AGN feedback.

  5. The lizard celestial compass detects linearly polarized light in the blue.

    PubMed

    Beltrami, Giulia; Parretta, Antonio; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Buttini, Paola; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto

    2012-09-15

    The present study first examined whether ruin lizards, Podarcis sicula, are able to orientate using plane-polarized light produced by an LCD screen. Ruin lizards were trained and tested indoors, inside a hexagonal Morris water maze positioned under an LCD screen producing white polarized light with a single E-vector, which provided an axial cue. White polarized light did not include wavelengths in the UV. Lizards orientated correctly either when tested with E-vector parallel to the training axis or after 90 deg rotation of the E-vector direction, thus validating the apparatus. Further experiments examined whether there is a preferential region of the light spectrum to perceive the E-vector direction of polarized light. For this purpose, lizards reaching learning criteria under white polarized light were subdivided into four experimental groups. Each group was tested for orientation under a different spectrum of plane-polarized light (red, green, cyan and blue) with equalized photon flux density. Lizards tested under blue polarized light orientated correctly, whereas lizards tested under red polarized light were completely disoriented. Green polarized light was barely discernible by lizards, and thus insufficient for a correct functioning of their compass. When exposed to cyan polarized light, lizard orientation performances were optimal, indistinguishable from lizards detecting blue polarized light. Overall, the present results demonstrate that perception of linear polarization in the blue is necessary - and sufficient - for a proper functioning of the sky polarization compass of ruin lizards. This may be adaptively important, as detection of polarized light in the blue improves functioning of the polarization compass under cloudy skies, i.e. when the alternative celestial compass based on detection of the sun disk is rendered useless because the sun is obscured by clouds.

  6. Sky Mining - Application to Photomorphic Redshift Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Pragyansmita

    The field of astronomy has evolved from the ancient craft of observing the sky. In it's present form, astronomers explore the cosmos not just by observing through the tiny visible window used by our eyes, but also by exploiting the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays. The domain is undoubtedly at the forefront of data-driven science. The data growth rate is expected to be around 50%--100% per year. This data explosion is attributed largely to the large-scale wide and deep surveys of the different regions of the sky at multiple wavelengths (both ground and space-based surveys). This dissertation describes the application of machine learning methods to the estimation of galaxy redshifts leveraging such a survey data. Galaxy is a large system of stars held together by mutual gravitation and isolated from similar systems by vast regions of space. Our view of the universe is closely tied to our understanding of galaxy formation. Thus, a better understanding of the relative location of the multitudes of galaxies is crucial. The position of each galaxy can be characterized using three coordinates. Right Ascension (ra) and Declination (dec) are the two coordinates that locate the galaxy in two dimensions on the plane of the sky. It is relatively straightforward to measure them. In contrast, fixing the third coordinate that is the galaxy's distance from the observer along the line of sight (redshift 'z') is considerably more challenging. "Spectroscopic redshift" method gives us accurate and precise measurements of z. However, it is extremely time-intensive and unusable for faint objects. Additionally, the rate at which objects are being identified via photometric surveys far exceeds the rate at which the spectroscopic redshift measurements can keep pace in determining their distance. As the surveys go deeper into the sky, the proportion of faint objects being identified also continues to increase. In order to tackle both these drawbacks increasing in

  7. Predicting the sky from 30 MHz to 800 GHz: the extended Global Sky Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Adrian

    We propose to construct the extended Global Sky Model (eGSM), a software package and associated data products that are capable of generating maps of the sky at any frequency within a broad range (30 MHz to 800 GHz). The eGSM is constructed from archival data, and its outputs will include not only "best estimate" sky maps, but also accurate error bars and the ability to generate random realizations of missing modes in the input data. Such views of the sky are crucial in the practice of precision cosmology, where our ability to constrain cosmological parameters and detect new phenomena (such as B-mode signatures from primordial gravitational waves, or spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background; CMB) rests crucially on our ability to remove systematic foreground contamination. Doing so requires empirical measurements of the foreground sky brightness (such as that arising from Galactic synchrotron radiation, among other sources), which are typically performed only at select narrow wavelength ranges. We aim to transcend traditional wavelength limits by optimally combining existing data to provide a comprehensive view of the foreground sky at any frequency within the broad range of 30 MHz to 800 GHz. Previous efforts to interpolate between multi-frequency maps resulted in the Global Sky Model (GSM) of de Oliveira-Costa et al. (2008), a software package that outputs foreground maps at any frequency of the user's choosing between 10 MHz and 100 GHz. However, the GSM has a number of shortcomings. First and foremost, the GSM does not include the latest archival data from the Planck satellite. Multi-frequency models depend crucially on data from Planck, WMAP, and COBE to provide high-frequency "anchor" maps. Another crucial shortcoming is the lack of error bars in the output maps. Finally, the GSM is only able to predict temperature (i.e., total intensity) maps, and not polarization information. With the recent release of Planck's polarized data products, the

  8. "APEC Blue": Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61-67% and 51-57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2-3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as "APEC Blue". We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution. PMID:26891104

  9. Coupling sky images with radiative transfer models: a new method to estimate cloud optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, Felipe A.; Kurtz, Ben; Murray, Keenan; Hinkelman, Laura M.; Sengupta, Manajit; Xie, Yu; Kleissl, Jan

    2016-08-01

    A method for retrieving cloud optical depth (τc) using a UCSD developed ground-based sky imager (USI) is presented. The radiance red-blue ratio (RRBR) method is motivated from the analysis of simulated images of various τc produced by a radiative transfer model (RTM). From these images the basic parameters affecting the radiance and red-blue ratio (RBR) of a pixel are identified as the solar zenith angle (θ0), τc, solar pixel angle/scattering angle (ϑs), and pixel zenith angle/view angle (ϑz). The effects of these parameters are described and the functions for radiance, Iλτc, θ0, ϑs, ϑz, and RBRτc, θ0, ϑs, ϑz are retrieved from the RTM results. RBR, which is commonly used for cloud detection in sky images, provides non-unique solutions for τc, where RBR increases with τc up to about τc = 1 (depending on other parameters) and then decreases. Therefore, the RRBR algorithm uses the measured Iλmeasϑs, ϑz, in addition to RBRmeasϑs, ϑz, to obtain a unique solution for τc. The RRBR method is applied to images of liquid water clouds taken by a USI at the Oklahoma Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program site over the course of 220 days and compared against measurements from a microwave radiometer (MWR) and output from the Min et al. (2003) method for overcast skies. τc values ranged from 0 to 80 with values over 80, being capped and registered as 80. A τc RMSE of 2.5 between the Min et al. (2003) method and the USI are observed. The MWR and USI have an RMSE of 2.2, which is well within the uncertainty of the MWR. The procedure developed here provides a foundation to test and develop other cloud detection algorithms.

  10. The Extreme and Variable High Energy Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A critically important region of the astrophysical spectrum is the hard X-ray/gamma-ray band, from the keV to the GeV energy range. In this band, an unusually rich range of astrophysical processes occur: this is the energy domain where fundamental changes from thermal to non-thermal sources/phenomena are expected, where the effects of absorption are drastically reduced and a clearer picture of the Universe is possible. This is also the energy range where most of the extreme astrophysical behavior is taking place, e.g. cosmic acceleration, explosions and accretion onto black holes and neutron stars; where variability is more the rule than the exception and where a number of instruments are actively working (e.g. INTEGRAL, SWIFT, Suzaku, MAXI, AGILE, Fermi and HESS). These telescopes are providing an unprecedented view of the high energy sky. Combined with data obtained at lower energies from a number of satellites and ground based telescopes we have for the first time the possibility of studying this extreme and variable sky over a very broad energy band and with unprecedented sensitivity.The workshop is aimed at bringing together scientists active across the field of high energy astrophysics in order to focus on the opportunities offered by the high energy window both from the observational and theoretical viewpoints, while a dedicated section will also be devoted to discuss the current status of planned and future missions. The meeting will consist of invited talks and contributions which are welcome as either posters or as short presentations. There will be time for open discussions throughout.We intend to cover the most extreme phenomena associated with acceleration, explosions and accretion onto galactic and extragalactic objects as well as to study variability in all types of objects and environments. In view of the extension of INTEGRAL operational lifetime, the workshop will provide a unique opportunity to prepare for extra observational possibility and to

  11. DISCOVERIES FROM A NEAR-INFRARED PROPER MOTION SURVEY USING MULTI-EPOCH TWO MICRON ALL-SKY SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cutri, Roc M.; Looper, Dagny L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schurr, Steven D.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Sweet, Anne C.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Barman, Travis S.; Bochanski, John J.; Roellig, Thomas L.; McLean, Ian S.; McGovern, Mark R.; Rice, Emily L.

    2010-09-15

    We have conducted a 4030 deg{sup 2} near-infrared proper motion survey using multi-epoch data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). We find 2778 proper motion candidates, 647 of which are not listed in SIMBAD. After comparison to Digitized Sky Survey images, we find that 107 of our proper motion candidates lack counterparts at B, R, and I bands and are thus 2MASS-only detections. We present results of spectroscopic follow-up of 188 targets that include the infrared-only sources along with selected optical-counterpart sources with faint reduced proper motions or interesting colors. We also establish a set of near-infrared spectroscopic standards with which to anchor near-infrared classifications for our objects. Among the discoveries are six young field brown dwarfs, five 'red L' dwarfs, three L-type subdwarfs, twelve M-type subdwarfs, eight 'blue L' dwarfs, and several T dwarfs. We further refine the definitions of these exotic classes to aid future identification of similar objects. We examine their kinematics and find that both the 'blue L' and 'red L' dwarfs appear to be drawn from a relatively old population. This survey provides a glimpse of the kinds of research that will be possible through time-domain infrared projects such as the UKIDSS Large Area Survey, various VISTA surveys, and WISE, and also through z- or y-band enabled, multi-epoch surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  12. The Taos Blue Lake Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)

  13. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  14. MEASURING REDDENING WITH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STELLAR SPECTRA AND RECALIBRATING SFD

    SciTech Connect

    Schlafly, Edward F.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2011-08-20

    We present measurements of dust reddening using the colors of stars with spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We measure reddening as the difference between the measured and predicted colors of a star, as derived from stellar parameters from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration Stellar Parameter Pipeline. We achieve uncertainties of 56, 34, 25, and 29 mmag in the colors u - g, g - r, r - i, and i - z, per star, though the uncertainty varies depending on the stellar type and the magnitude of the star. The spectrum-based reddening measurements confirm our earlier 'blue tip' reddening measurements, finding reddening coefficients different by -3%, 1%, 1%, and 2% in u - g, g - r, r - i, and i - z from those found by the blue tip method, after removing a 4% normalization difference. These results prefer an R{sub V} = 3.1 Fitzpatrick reddening law to O'Donnell or Cardelli et al. reddening laws. We provide a table of conversion coefficients from the Schlegel et al. (SFD) maps of E(B - V) to extinction in 88 bandpasses for four values of R{sub V} , using this reddening law and the 14% recalibration of SFD first reported by Schlafly et al. and confirmed in this work.

  15. All Sky Cloud Coverage Monitoring for SONG-China Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, J. F.; Deng, L. C.; Yan, Z. Z.; Wang, K.; Wu, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In order to monitor the cloud distributions at Qinghai station, a site selected for SONG (Stellar Observations Network Group)-China node, the design of the proto-type of all sky camera (ASC) applied in Xinglong station is adopted. Both hardware and software improvements have been made in order to be more precise and deliver quantitative measurements. The ARM (Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer Machine) MCU (Microcontroller Unit) instead of PC is used to control the upgraded version of ASC. A much higher reliability has been realized in the current scheme. Independent of the positions of the Sun and Moon, the weather conditions are constantly changing, therefore it is difficult to get proper exposure parameters using only the temporal information of the major light sources. A realistic exposure parameters for the ASC can actually be defined using a real-time sky brightness monitor that is also installed at the same site. The night sky brightness value is a very sensitive function of the cloud coverage, and can be accurately measured by the sky quality monitor. We study the correlation between the exposure parameter and night sky brightness value, and give the mathematical relation. The images of the all sky camera are inserted into database directly. All sky quality images are archived in FITS format which can be used for further analysis.

  16. Sky Background Variability Measured on Maunakea at Gemini North Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Adam B.; Roth, Katherine; Stephens, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Gemini North has recently implemented a Quality Assessment Pipeline (QAP) that automatically reduces images in realtime to determine sky condition quantities, including background sky brightness from the optical to near-infrared. Processing archived images through the QAP and mining the results allows us to look for trends and systematic issues with the instruments and optics during the first decade of Gemini.Here we present the results of using the QAP calculated values to quantify how airglow affects the background sky brightness of images taken with Gemini's imaging instruments, GMOS and NIRI, as well as searching for other factors that may cause changes in the sky brightness. By investigating the dependence of measured sky brightness as a function of a variety of variables, including time after twilight, airmass, season, distance from the moon, air temperature, etc., we quantify the effect of sky brightness and its impact on the sensitivity of Gemini optical and near-infrared imaging data. These measurements will be used to determine new sky background relationships for Maunakea, and to improve the Gemini Integration Time Calculators (ITCs).

  17. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  18. GTC/OSIRIS SPECTROSCOPIC IDENTIFICATION OF A FAINT L SUBDWARF IN THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Lodieu, N.

    2010-01-10

    We present the discovery of an L subdwarf in 234 deg{sup 2} common to the UK InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey Data Release 2 and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3. This is the fifth L subdwarf announced to date, the first one identified in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, and the faintest known. The blue optical and near-infrared colors of ULAS J135058.86+081506.8 and its overall spectra energy distribution are similar to the known mid-L subdwarfs. Low-resolution optical (700-1000 nm) spectroscopy with the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy spectrograph on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio de Canarias reveals that ULAS J135058.86+081506.8 exhibits a strong K I pressure-broadened line at 770 nm and a red slope longward of 800 nm, features characteristics of L-type dwarfs. From direct comparison with the four known L subdwarfs, we estimate its spectral type to be sdL4-sdL6 and derive a distance in the interval 94-170 pc. We provide a rough estimate of the space density for mid-L subdwarfs of 1.5 x 10{sup -4} pc{sup -3}.

  19. Retrieval of the columnar aerosol phase function and single-scattering albedo from sky radiance over the ocean - Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Menghua; Gordon, Howard R.

    1993-01-01

    Based on the fact that the part of downward radiance that depends on the optical properties of the aerosol in the atmosphere can be extracted from the measured sky radiance, a new scheme for retrieval of the aerosol phase function and the single-scattering albedo over the ocean is developed. This retrieval algorithm is tested with simulations for several cases. It is found that the retrieved aerosol phase function and the single-scattering albedo are virtually error-free if the vertical structure of the atmosphere is known and if the sky radiance and the aerosol optical thickness can be measured accurately. The robustness of the algorithm in realistic situations, in which the measurements are contaminated by calibration errors or noise, is examined. It is found that the retrieved value of omega(0) is usually in error by less than about 10 percent, and the phase function is accurately retrieved for theta less than about 90 deg. However, as the aerosol optical thickness becomes small, e.g., less than about 0.1, errors in the sky radiance measurement can lead to serious problems with the retrieval algorithm, especially in the blue. The use of the retrieval scheme should be limited to the red and near IR when the aerosol optical thickness is small.

  20. The IRAS view of the extragalactic sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    The global properties of the IR emissions from optically bright galaxies observed with the IRAS are described. A histogram of the morphological types of the galaxies is presented. Analysis of the ratio of far IR to blue luminosity (IR/B) reveals that the ratio covers a large range of about five orders of magnitude; 'normal galaxies' in the IR/B ratio of about 0.1-1.0 and galaxies with an IR/B ratio of greater than 1 are observed. The IR/B ratios for galaxies as a function of the 100 micron-60 micron flux density ratio are examined and it is detected that the galaxies which are more active in the IR display a warmer color temperature.

  1. Far Infrared All-Sky Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Paul L.

    1998-01-01

    Precise measurements of the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy will revolutionize cosmology. These measurements will discriminate between competing cosmological models and, if the standard inflationary scenario is correct, will determine each of the fundamental cosmological parameters with high precision. The astrophysics community has recognized this potential: the orbital experiments MAP and PLANCK, have been approved to measure CMB anisotropy. Balloon-borne experiments can realize much of this potential before these missions are launched. Additionally, properly designed balloon-borne experiments can complement MAP in frequency and angular resolution and can give the first realistic test of the instrumentation proposed for the high frequency instrument on PLANCK. The MAXIMA experiment is part of the MAXIMA/BOOMERANG collaboration which is doing balloon observations of the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background from l = 10 to l = 800. These experiments are designed to use the benefits of both North American and Antarctic long-duration ballooning to full advantage. We have developed several new technologies that together allow the power spectrum to be measured with unprecedented combination of angular resolution, beam throw, sensitivity, sky coverage and control of systematic effects. These technologies are the basis for the high frequency instrument for the PLANCK mission. Our measurements will strongly discriminate between models of the origin and evolution of structure in the universe and, for many models, will determine the value of the basic cosmological parameters to high precision.

  2. MUSE dream conclusion: the sky verdict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillier, P.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, R.; Boudon, D.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; Francois, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Gonté, F.; Haddad, N.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Larrieu, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J.-E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2014-08-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument built for ESO (European Southern Observatory). The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the finalisation of its integration in Europe, the MUSE instrument has been partially dismounted and shipped to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. From October 2013 till February 2014, it has then been reassembled, tested and finally installed on the telescope its final home. From there it collects its first photons coming from the outer limit of the visible universe. This critical moment when the instrument finally meets its destiny is the opportunity to look at the overall outcome of the project and the final performance of the instrument on the sky. The instrument which we dreamt of has become reality. Are the dreamt performances there as well? These final instrumental performances are the result of a step by step process of design, manufacturing, assembly, test and integration. Now is also time to review the path opened by the MUSE project. What challenges were faced during those last steps, what strategy, what choices did pay off? What did not?

  3. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Sandra; Troup, Nicholas William; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Barcos-Munoz, Loreto D.; Beaton, Rachael; Bittle, Lauren; Borish, Henry J.; Burkhardt, Andrew; Corby, Joanna; Dean, Janice; Hancock, Danielle; King, Jennie; Prager, Brian; Romero, Charles; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Wenger, Trey; Zucker, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Now entering our sixth year of operation, Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts beyond Virginia's Standards of Learning. Our primary focus is hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools. Each week, DSBK volunteers take the role of coaches to introduce astronomy-related concepts ranging from the Solar System to galaxies to astrobiology, and to lead students in interactive learning activities. Another hallmark of DSBK is hosting our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows.DSBK has amassed over 15,000 contact hours since 2009 and we continue to broaden our impact. One important step we have taken in the past year is to establish a graduate student led assessment program to identify and implement directed learning goals for DSBK outreach. The collection of student workbooks, observations, and volunteer surveys indicates broad scale success for the program both in terms of student learning and their perception of science. The data also reveal opportunities to improve our organizational and educational practices to maximize student achievement and overall volunteer satisfaction for DSBK's future clubs and outreach endeavors.

  4. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, J.E.; Carr, M.; Rockosi, C.; Sekiguchi, M.; Berry, K.; Elms, B.; de Haas, E.; Ivezic, Z.; Knapp, G.; Lupton, R.; Pauls, G.; Simcoe, R.; Hirsch, R.; Sanford, D.; Wang, S.; York, D.; Harris, F.; Annis, J.; Bartozek, L.; Boroski, W.; Bakken, J.; Haldeman, M.; Kent, S.; Holm, S.; Holmgren, D.; Petravick, D.; Prosapio, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Shimasaku, K.; Okada, N.; Hull, C.; Siegmund, W.; Mannery, E.; Blouke, M.; Heidtman, D.; Schneider, D.; Lucinio, R.; and others

    1998-12-01

    We have constructed a large-format mosaic CCD camera for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The camera consists of two arrays, a photometric array that uses 30 2048 {times} 2048 SITe/Tektronix CCDs (24 {mu}m pixels) with an effective imaging area of 720 cm{sup 2} and an astrometric array that uses 24 400 {times} 2048 CCDs with the same pixel size, which will allow us to tie bright astrometric standard stars to the objects imaged in the photometric camera. The instrument will be used to carry out photometry essentially simultaneously in five color bands spanning the range accessible to silicon detectors on the ground in the time-delay{endash}and{endash}integrate (TDI) scanning mode. The photometric detectors are arrayed in the focal plane in six columns of five chips each such that two scans cover a filled stripe 2&arcdeg;5 wide. This paper presents engineering and technical details of the camera. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  5. Surprise Ultraviolet Party in the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Galaxies aren't the only objects filling up the view of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Since its launch in 2003, the space telescope -- originally designed to observe galaxies across the universe in ultraviolet light -- has discovered a festive sky blinking with flaring and erupting stars, as well as streaking asteroids, satellites and space debris. A group of six streaking objects -- the identities of which remain unknown -- can be seen here flying across the telescope's sight in this sped-up movie.

    The two brightest objects appear to perform a sharp turn then travel in the reverse direction. This illusion is most likely the result of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer overtaking the objects as it orbits around Earth.

    Careful inspection reveals four additional faint objects with the same timing and behavior. These faint objects are easiest to see during the retrograde portion of their paths. Three appear between the two bright sources, and one is above them, near the edge of the field of view.

    These bonus objects are being collected in to public catalogues for other astronomers to study.

  6. The Emu Sky Knowledge of the Kamilaroi and Euahlayi Peoples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Robert S.; Anderson, Michael G.; Norris, Ray P.; Trudgett, Michelle

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of the knowledge of the Kamilaroi and Euahlayi peoples about the "Emu in the Sky". This study was done with ethnographic data that was not previously reported in detail. We surveyed the literature to find that there are widespread reports of an "Emu in the Sky" across Aboriginal Australian language groups, but little detailed knowledge available in the literature. This paper reports and describes a comprehensive Kamilaroi and Euahlayi knowledge of the Emu in the Sky and its cultural context.

  7. Summary of sky brightness measurements during eclipses of the sun.

    PubMed

    Sharp, W E; Silverman, S M; Lloyd, J W

    1971-06-01

    A selected group of measurements of the sky brightness during total solar eclipses is used to determine a standard light curve during the period from no obscuration to totality. It is found that the sky light may be considered as attenuated sunlight up to at least 99.8% obscuration. During totality, the sky light consists of multiply scattered light from outside the umbral region. The effects of solar elevation angle, cloud cover, and albedo and the variability of the light curve during totality are discussed.

  8. SNAP sky background at the north ecliptic pole

    SciTech Connect

    Aldering, Greg

    2002-07-01

    I summarize the extant direct and indirect data on the sky background SNAP will see at the North Ecliptic Pole over the wavelength range 0.4 < {lambda} < 1.7 {micro}m. At the spatial resolution of SNAP the sky background due to stars and galaxies is resolved, so the only source considered is zodiacal light. Several models are explored to provide interpolation in wavelength between the broadband data from HST and COBE observations. I believe the input data are now established well enough that the accuracy of the sky background presented here is sufficient for SNAP simulations, and that it will stand up to scrutiny by reviewers.

  9. Summary of sky brightness measurements during eclipses of the sun.

    PubMed

    Sharp, W E; Silverman, S M; Lloyd, J W

    1971-06-01

    A selected group of measurements of the sky brightness during total solar eclipses is used to determine a standard light curve during the period from no obscuration to totality. It is found that the sky light may be considered as attenuated sunlight up to at least 99.8% obscuration. During totality, the sky light consists of multiply scattered light from outside the umbral region. The effects of solar elevation angle, cloud cover, and albedo and the variability of the light curve during totality are discussed. PMID:20111096

  10. Promoting Landspace Astrophotography for Dark Sky Preservation in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwa, Manisha; Bhattarai, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This paper will present astrophotography and dark sky preservation initiatives and its impact in Nepal. It will highlight the astrophotography and the dark skies Initiatives of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since 2007. Some case studies from the landspace astrophotography by TWAN, EurAstro Mission and others promoted by NASO will be discussed in details. It will also present our collaborative approach with the media to take the idea of dark sky peservation to Nepalese Community in the country and abroad. Some success stories linked with UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Nepal will be discussed in brief. Our appreach of introducing such photography as a tool for astronomy communication will be discussed.

  11. Pi of the Sky preparations towards advanced gravitational detector era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZadroŻny, Adam; Opiela, Rafał; Obara, Łukasz; Sokołowski, Marcin

    2014-11-01

    Pi of the Sky telescope have taken part in gravitational wave EM follow-up project, runned by LSC-Virgo Collaboration, in its initial run in 2009-2010. Since than gravitational wave detectors are being upgraded and become operation in 2015, when the next science run is planned. The paper focuses on Pi of the Sky preparations to LSC-Virgo EM Follow-up project of gravitational wave transient candidates in 2015+ and on Pi of the Sky results of previous science run 2009-2010.

  12. Wide-Field Sky Monitoring - Optical and X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; BART Teams; Ondrejov Observatory Lobster Eye Team

    We report on selected projects in wide-field sky imaging. This includes the recent efforts to digitize the astronomical sky plate archives and to apply these data for various scientific projects. We also address and discuss the status of the development of related algorithms and software programs. These data may easily provide very long term monitoring over very extended time intervals (up to more than 100 years) with limiting magnitudes between 12 and 23. The further experiments include CCD sky monitors, OMC camera onboard the ESA Integral satellite, robotic telescopes, and innovative wide-field X-ray telescopes.

  13. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  14. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  15. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  16. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  17. The Blues Poetry of Langston Hughes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Edward E.

    1971-01-01

    The author discusses the criteria of the blues as an American art form. He then shows how Langston Hughes captures the mood, the feeling, the rhythm and the impact of the blues in his poetry. (Author/LF)

  18. ESO unveils an amazing, interactive, 360-degree panoramic view of the entire night sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The first of three images of ESO's GigaGalaxy Zoom project - a new magnificent 800-million-pixel panorama of the entire sky as seen from ESO's observing sites in Chile - has just been released online. The project allows stargazers to explore and experience the Universe as it is seen with the unaided eye from the darkest and best viewing locations in the world. This 360-degree panoramic image, covering the entire celestial sphere, reveals the cosmic landscape that surrounds our tiny blue planet. This gorgeous starscape serves as the first of three extremely high-resolution images featured in the GigaGalaxy Zoom project, launched by ESO within the framework of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009). GigaGalaxy Zoom features a web tool that allows users to take a breathtaking dive into our Milky Way. With this tool users can learn more about many different and exciting objects in the image, such as multicoloured nebulae and exploding stars, just by clicking on them. In this way, the project seeks to link the sky we can all see with the deep, "hidden" cosmos that astronomers study on a daily basis. The wonderful quality of the images is a testament to the splendour of the night sky at ESO's sites in Chile, which are the most productive astronomical observatories in the world. The plane of our Milky Way Galaxy, which we see edge-on from our perspective on Earth, cuts a luminous swath across the image. The projection used in GigaGalaxy Zoom place the viewer in front of our Galaxy with the Galactic Plane running horizontally through the image - almost as if we were looking at the Milky Way from the outside. From this vantage point, the general components of our spiral galaxy come clearly into view, including its disc, marbled with both dark and glowing nebulae, which harbours bright, young stars, as well as the Galaxy's central bulge and its satellite galaxies. The painstaking production of this image came about as a collaboration between ESO, the renowned

  19. Discovery of a new blue quasar: SDSS J022218.03-062511.1

    DOE PAGES

    Fix, Mees B.; Smith, J. Allyn; Tucker, Douglas L.; Wester, William; Annis, James

    2015-07-29

    We report the discovery of a bright blue quasar: SDSS J022218.03–062511.1. This object was discovered spectroscopically while searching for hot white dwarfs that may be used as calibration sources for large sky surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey or the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope project. In addition, we present the calibrated spectrum, spectral line shifts and report a redshift of z = 0.521 ± 0.0015 and a rest-frame g-band luminosity of 8.71 × 1011 L⊙.

  20. Spectroscopy of unresolved blue objects from the Case Low-Dispersion Northern Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Zotov, N.

    1985-08-01

    Sixty-seven unresolved objects with flat blue spectra that had no apparent features on the plates of the Case Low-Dispersion Northern Sky Survey have been observed at higher dispersion and to shorter wavelengths in order to determine their nature. The following classifications are proposed: 20 low-redshift QSOs (z greater than 1.7), two Seyfert 2 galaxies, 23 stars, and two variable objects. The spectra obtained for the remaining 20 objects were flat with no obvious features, but noisy, and these will need further observation. 5 references.

  1. Discovery of a new blue quasar: SDSS J022218.03-062511.1

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, Mees B.; Smith, J. Allyn; Tucker, Douglas L.; Wester, William; Annis, James

    2015-07-29

    We report the discovery of a bright blue quasar: SDSS J022218.03–062511.1. This object was discovered spectroscopically while searching for hot white dwarfs that may be used as calibration sources for large sky surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey or the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope project. In addition, we present the calibrated spectrum, spectral line shifts and report a redshift of z = 0.521 ± 0.0015 and a rest-frame g-band luminosity of 8.71 × 1011 L.

  2. Gram Scale Synthesis of Benzophenanthroline and Its Blue Phosphorescent Platinum Complex.

    PubMed

    Saris, Patrick J G; Thompson, Mark E

    2016-08-19

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of 12-phenylbenzo[f][1,7]phenanthroline, Bzp, is reported. Its use as a fluorine-free ligand for sky blue phosphorescence is demonstrated in a cyclometalated platinum complex, BzpPtDpm. BzpPtDpm phosphoresces at the same wavelength as its analogous 4,6-difluorophenylpyridine complex at both room temperature (466 nm) and 77 K (458 nm). Finally, production of a conformationally restricted derivative of BzpPtDpm with greatly increased quantum yield (46%) validates the versatility of the synthetic route. PMID:27490703

  3. Triphenylamine substituted anthracene derivatives for blue organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sung Min; Lee, Kum Hee; Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Suk Jae; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2014-08-01

    A series of bipolar anthracene derivatives containing triphenylamine as an electron donating group and pyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline and benzothiazole as electron withdrawing groups were synthesized and characterized. Particularly, a material, 9-quinolinyl-10-triphenylamin anthracene (3) exhibits a highly efficient sky-blue EL emission with the luminous efficiency (LE) of 9.36 cd/A, power efficiency (PE) of 5.94 lm/W and quantum efficiency (QE) of 4.23% at 500 nit. This material shows the maximum wavelength of the electroluminescence (EL) at 486 nm and the CIE x, y coordinates of (0.17, 0.36) at 6 V. PMID:25936082

  4. The High Time Resolution Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, D.

    2013-11-01

    Pulsars are laboratories for extreme physics unachievable on Earth. As individual sources and possible orbital companions can be used to study magnetospheric, emission, and superfluid physics, general relativistic effects, and stellar and binary evolution. As populations they exhibit a wide range of sub-types, with parameters varying by many orders of magnitude signifying fundamental differences in their evolutionary history and potential uses. There are currently around 2200 known pulsars in the Milky Way, the Magellanic clouds, and globular clusters, most of which have been discovered with radio survey observations. These observations, as well as being suitable for detecting the repeating signals from pulsars, are well suited for identifying other transient astronomical radio bursts that last just a few milliseconds that either singular in nature, or rarely repeating. Prior to the work of this thesis non-repeating radio transients at extragalactic distances had possibly been discovered, however with just one example status a real astronomical sources was in doubt. Finding more of these sources was a vital to proving they were real and to open up the universe for millisecond-duration radio astronomy. The High Time Resolution Universe survey uses the multibeam receiver on the 64-m Parkes radio telescope to search the whole visible sky for pulsars and transients. The temporal and spectral resolution of the receiver and the digital back-end enable the detection of relatively faint, and distant radio sources. From the Parkes telescope a large portion of the Galactic plane can be seen, a rich hunting ground for radio pulsars of all types, while previously poorly surveyed regions away from the Galactic plane are also covered. I have made a number of pulsar discoveries in the survey, including some rare systems. These include PSR J1226-6208, a possible double neutron star system in a remarkably circular orbit, PSR J1431-471 which is being eclipsed by its companion with

  5. ESO unveils an amazing, interactive, 360-degree panoramic view of the entire night sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    The first of three images of ESO's GigaGalaxy Zoom project - a new magnificent 800-million-pixel panorama of the entire sky as seen from ESO's observing sites in Chile - has just been released online. The project allows stargazers to explore and experience the Universe as it is seen with the unaided eye from the darkest and best viewing locations in the world. This 360-degree panoramic image, covering the entire celestial sphere, reveals the cosmic landscape that surrounds our tiny blue planet. This gorgeous starscape serves as the first of three extremely high-resolution images featured in the GigaGalaxy Zoom project, launched by ESO within the framework of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009). GigaGalaxy Zoom features a web tool that allows users to take a breathtaking dive into our Milky Way. With this tool users can learn more about many different and exciting objects in the image, such as multicoloured nebulae and exploding stars, just by clicking on them. In this way, the project seeks to link the sky we can all see with the deep, "hidden" cosmos that astronomers study on a daily basis. The wonderful quality of the images is a testament to the splendour of the night sky at ESO's sites in Chile, which are the most productive astronomical observatories in the world. The plane of our Milky Way Galaxy, which we see edge-on from our perspective on Earth, cuts a luminous swath across the image. The projection used in GigaGalaxy Zoom place the viewer in front of our Galaxy with the Galactic Plane running horizontally through the image - almost as if we were looking at the Milky Way from the outside. From this vantage point, the general components of our spiral galaxy come clearly into view, including its disc, marbled with both dark and glowing nebulae, which harbours bright, young stars, as well as the Galaxy's central bulge and its satellite galaxies. The painstaking production of this image came about as a collaboration between ESO, the renowned

  6. 25. VIEW OF UPPER PORTION OF GRAND STAIRWAY SHOWING SKY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF UPPER PORTION OF GRAND STAIRWAY SHOWING SKY LIGHT, COLUMN CAPITALS AND COFFERED CEILING. PHOTO TAKEN FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  7. Feasibility of polarized all-sky imaging for aerosol characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuter, A.; Blumthaler, M.

    2012-12-01

    Polarized all-sky distribution measurements contain radiative information about aerosol properties. We investigate the method of all-sky imaging for aerosol property retrieval and propose a technical frame work for image processing and analysis. Using Zernike polynomials, we decompose the relative Stokes parameter distributions, which efficiently captures the information content. The resulting feature vector is well suited for all-sky imaging, independent of calibration and robust against noise. It can be directly used in existing algorithms or alternative types of retrieval methods of aerosol optical properties in the future. By modeling possible aerosol scenarios we investigate the influence of different aerosol types in terms of the first two principal components describing the maximal variances. In this representation we show that the feature vector from a polarized all-sky imager is suitable for aerosol classification with respect to size and single scatter albedo.

  8. J-2X Powerpack Test Lights Up the Sky

    NASA Video Gallery

    A burst of flame from a J-2X Powerpack test-firing lights up the sky on Dec. 5, 2012 at NASA's Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. For the first time, the Space Launch System team invited Twitter ...

  9. Tropical rainforest response to marine sky brightening climate engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Kristjánsson, Jón Egill

    2015-04-01

    Tropical forests represent a major atmospheric carbon dioxide sink. Here the gross primary productivity (GPP) response of tropical rainforests to climate engineering via marine sky brightening under a future scenario is investigated in three Earth system models. The model response is diverse, and in two of the three models, the tropical GPP shows a decrease from the marine sky brightening climate engineering. Partial correlation analysis indicates precipitation to be important in one of those models, while precipitation and temperature are limiting factors in the other. One model experiences a reversal of its Amazon dieback under marine sky brightening. There, the strongest partial correlation of GPP is to temperature and incoming solar radiation at the surface. Carbon fertilization provides a higher future tropical rainforest GPP overall, both with and without climate engineering. Salt damage to plants and soils could be an important aspect of marine sky brightening.

  10. Sky view factors in forest canopies calculated with IDRISI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmer, B.; Postgård, U.; Eriksson, M.

    The sky view factor (SVF) is used in forest, road and urban climatology to characterise radiative properties. We now propose a method suitable for forest canopies using the raster based and commercially available software IDRISI. It uses quadratic pixels in rows and columns in a scanned equiangular fish-eye image. A threshold value is chosen to divide the image into sky and non-sky areas. The resulting image is then multiplied with a sky view weight image, where the weights of the pixels depend on the angular distance from zenith. The sum of pixel products gives the SVF. Quality analysis of the method is also performed. The choice of threshold value gives some uncertainties due to leaves reflecting sunlight. This error will be reduced by observing details (branches etc.) in the image and by choosing an overcast day for capturing the image. The precision range for SVF calculations will be better than 0.1.

  11. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R.; Borish, J.; Crawford, S. B.; Corby, J.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Dorsey, G.; Jackson, L.; Liss, S.; Oza, A.; Peacock, S.; Prager, B.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Walker, L.; Whelan, D. G.; Zucker, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to engage young children's natural excitement and curiosity, the outreach group Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) brings a hands-on approach to astronomy to elementary schools in Virginia. We hope to enhance children's view and understanding of science while exploring the Universe using fun activities. DSBK focuses on rural and underserved schools in Albemarle County and offers a semester-long astronomy club for third through fifth grade students. We believe regular interactions foster personal relationships between students and volunteers that encourage a life-long interest in science. In our fourth year of hosting clubs, we returned to Ivy Creek Elementary School, where we saw wonderful responses from a special group of students with `low-incidence' disabilities. DSBK has grown to realize a broader reach beyond local astronomy clubs; we hope to ignite a spark of interest in astronomy and science more widely- in more children, their families, and their teachers. We also hosted the Second Annual Central Virginia Star Party with an open invitation to the community to encourage families to enjoy astronomy together. Throughout the year, DSBK now holds 'one-off' programs (akin to astronomy field days) for elementary schools and children's groups throughout Virginia. Furthermore, we are in the final stages of a project to create two bilingual astronomy books called "Snapshots of the Universe", in Spanish and French with English translations. This art book will be made available online and we are working to get a copy in every elementary school in the state. DSBK has begun to reach out to elementary school teachers in order to provide them with useful and engaging classroom material. We have adapted our volunteer-created activities into useful and ready-to-use lessons, available online. After improvements based on research through interactions and feedback from teachers, we have explicitly identified the learning goals in terms of Virginia's Standards of Learning

  12. "Sausage" and "Toothbrush" in the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, Myungkook J.; Dawson, William; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Wittman, David M.; Merging Cluster Collaborations

    2016-06-01

    Radio-relic clusters are a subclass of merging clusters that exhibit elongated diffuse radio emissions at the periphery of the systems. A number of observational and theoretical studies support the premise that the relics trace the locations of shock fronts induced by cluster mergers. Detailed analysis of the radio relic data enables us to put independent constraints on the key parameters necessary in our reconstruction of the merging scenario, including the direction of the merger, the projection angle between the merger axis and the plane of the sky, the shock velocity, and the time since the impact. Because of the limited observational time window set by both development and deterioration of mature shocks, only a few tens of radio relic clusters are known to date. In this poster, we present a detailed study of the two radio-relic clusters CIZA J2242.8+5301 and RX J0603.3+4214, whose peculiar radio-relic morphologies give them the nicknames "Sausage" and "Toothbrush", respectively. Both clusters possess remarkably large (~2 Mpc) radio relics stretched perpendicular to the hypothesized merger axes. After briefly reviewing previous studies, we highlight our recent weak-lensing analysis of these two interesting systems. We find that the "Sausage" cluster's dark matter is elongated along the merger axis and composed of two massive systems, each weighing ~1015 solar masses. On the other hand, the dark matter of the "Toothbrush" cluster is distributed complicatedly and resolved into at least four subclusters with relatively modest masses. Our weak-lensing studies help us to constrain the merger scenarios and enable detailed follow-up numerical studies in the future.

  13. Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, K.; Gaume, R.; Harris, F.; Monet, D.; Murison, M.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Urban, S.; Johnson, M.; Horner, S.; Vassar, R.

    2000-12-01

    The FAME project began Phase B development in September 2000. FAME is a MIDEX class NASA Explorer mission that will perform an all-sky, astrometric survey with unprecedented accuracy. FAME will produce an astrometric catalog of 40 million stars between 5th and 15th magnitude. For the bright stars (5th to 9th magnitude) FAME will determine positions and parallaxes accurate to better than 50 microarcseconds, with proper motion errors less than 50 microarcseconds per year. For the fainter stars (between 9th and 15th magnitude) FAME will determine positions and parallaxes accurate to better than 500 microarcseconds, with proper motion errors less than 500 microarcseconds per year. FAME will also collect photometric data on these 40 million stars in four Sloan DSS colors. The FAME science, instrument, and spacecraft requirements and error budgets are being refined to establish the basis for the improved design of the instrument and spacecraft. The Attitude Control System (ACS) based on solar radiation pressure is being studied, including the limitations on the solar angle between the Sun and the rotation angle. The data processing plans are being developed. The CCD procurement contract is in place and design and fabrication of the CCDs is in progress. CCD tests for operations in various Time Delay Integration (TDI) situations are underway and described in another poster. It appears that the current FAME launch schedule will be delayed somewhat due to recent NASA budget restrictions. The FAME project is funded by the NASA Explorer program administered by Goddard Space Flight Center for the Office of Space Science under contract number S-13610-Y.

  14. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, David G.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R. L.; Borish, J.; Corby, J. F.; Dorsey, G.; Gugliucci, N. E.; Prager, B. J.; Ries, P. A.; Romero, C. E.; Sokal, K. R.; Tang, X.; Walker, L. M.; Yang, A. J.; Zasowski, G.

    2012-01-01

    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is a program that brings astronomy education to elementary schools throughout central Virginia. In a relaxed, out-of-classroom atmosphere, we are able to foster the innate curiosity that young students have about science and the world around them. We target schools that are under-served due to their rural locale or special needs students, demonstrating that science is a fun and creative process to a segment of the population that might not otherwise be exposed to astronomy. Families are included in the learning experience during semi-annual `star parties'. Since last January, we have expanded the breadth and depth of our educational capabilities. We have developed new programs for use in our digital planetarium. We held the first Central Virginia Star Party, providing an atmosphere where local children from multiple schools were able to share their love for astronomy. Local government and University officials were also invited so that they could experience our focused science outreach. Most recently, we have become part of Ivy Creek School's Club Day activities, bringing our program to a new segment of the elementary school system in Albemarle County: those that have `low-incidence' disabilities, requiring special attention. We continue to develop a curriculum for after-school programs that functions as either a series of one-time activities or several months of focused outreach at one school. Many of these activities are provided on our website, http://www.astro.virginia.edu/dsbk/, for the wider astronomical community, including the new planetarium work. We have extended our book project to include two bilingual astronomy books called `Snapshots of the Universe,' one in Spanish and English, the other in French and English. These books introduce young people to some of the many wonders of the Universe through art and captions developed by DSBK volunteers.

  15. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  16. The Physics of the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  17. Blue Shield Plan Physician Participation

    PubMed Central

    Yett, Donald E.; Der, William; Ernst, Richard L.; Hay, Joel W.

    1981-01-01

    Many Blue Shield Plans offer participation agreements to physicians that are structurally similar to the participation provisions of Medicaid programs. This paper examines physicians' participation decisions in two such Blue Shield Plans where the participation agreements were on an all-or-nothing basis. The major results show that increases in the Plans' reasonable fees or fee schedules significantly raise the probability of participation, and that physicians with characteristics associated with “low quality” are significantly more likely to participate than are physicians with characteristics associated with “high quality.” In this sense the results highlight the tradeoff that must be faced in administering governmental health insurance policy. On the one hand, restricting reasonable and scheduled fees is the principal current tool for containing expenditures on physicians' services. Yet these restrictions tend to depress physicians' willingness to participate in government programs, thereby reducing access to high quality care by the populations those programs were designed to serve. PMID:10309468

  18. THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE FRACTION OF 'UNCONVENTIONAL' GALAXIES: RED LATE TYPES AND BLUE EARLY TYPES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa; He Jizhou; Wu Ping; Ding Yingping

    2009-07-10

    From the Main galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6, we construct two volume-limited samples with the luminosity -20.0 {<=} M{sub r} {<=} -18.5 and -22.40 {<=} M{sub r} {<=} -20.16, respectively, to explore the environmental dependence of the fraction of 'unconventional' galaxies: red late types and blue early types. We use the density estimator within the distance to the fifth nearest neighbor, and construct two samples at both extremes of density and perform comparative studies between them for each volume-limited sample. Results of two volume-limited samples show the same conclusions: the fraction of red late-type galaxies rises considerably with increasing local density, and that one of the blue early-type galaxies declines substantially with increasing local density. In addition, we note that bluer galaxies preferentially are late types, but the red galaxies are not dominated by early types.

  19. The Status of the NASA All Sky Fireball Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.; Moser, Danielle E.

    2011-01-01

    Established by the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office, the NASA All Sky Fireball Network consists of 6 meteor video cameras in the southern United States, with plans to expand to 15 cameras by 2013. As of mid-2011, the network had detected 1796 multi-station meteors, including meteors from 43 different meteor showers. The current status of the NASA All Sky Fireball Network is described, alongside preliminary results.

  20. Worldwide Impact: International Year of Astronomy Dark Skies Awareness Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

    2009-12-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, “Dark Skies Awareness” is a global cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs through: - New Technology (website, podcasts, social networking, Second Life) - Educational Materials (Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, brochures, posters, CDs, DVDs, educational kit) - The Arts (photo contest) - Events (Earth Hour, International Dark Sky Week, World Night in Defense of Starlight, Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Sidewalk Astronomy, Nights in the Parks) - Citizen Science Programs (5 star hunting programs & Quiet Skies) Dark Skies Communities (Starlight Initiative, International Dark Sky Communities) Many countries around the world have participated in these programs. We will highlight 24 countries in particular and focus on successful techniques used in aspects of the programs, results and impact on the audience, and plans and challenges for maintaining or extending the program beyond the International Year of Astronomy. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is partially funded from a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Astronomy Division. The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is host to the IYA2009 Dark Skies Awareness programs and is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under cooperative agreement with NSF.

  1. Photometric identification of blue horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Klement, R. J.; Xue, X. X.

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the performance of some common machine learning techniques in identifying blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars from photometric data. To train the machine learning algorithms, we use previously published spectroscopic identifications of BHB stars from Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) data. We investigate the performance of three different techniques, namely k nearest neighbour classification, kernel density estimation for discriminant analysis and a support vector machine (SVM). We discuss the performance of the methods in terms of both completeness (what fraction of input BHB stars are successfully returned as BHB stars) and contamination (what fraction of contaminating sources end up in the output BHB sample). We discuss the prospect of trading off these values, achieving lower contamination at the expense of lower completeness, by adjusting probability thresholds for the classification. We also discuss the role of prior probabilities in the classification performance, and we assess via simulations the reliability of the dataset used for training. Overall it seems that no-prior gives the best completeness, but adopting a prior lowers the contamination. We find that the support vector machine generally delivers the lowest contamination for a given level of completeness, and so is our method of choice. Finally, we classify a large sample of SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) photometry using the SVM trained on the spectroscopic sample. We identify 27 074 probable BHB stars out of a sample of 294 652 stars. We derive photometric parallaxes and demonstrate that our results are reasonable by comparing to known distances for a selection of globular clusters. We attach our classifications, including probabilities, as an electronic table, so that they can be used either directly as a BHB star catalogue, or as priors to a spectroscopic or other classification method. We also provide our final models so that they can be directly applied to new data. Full Tables 7, A.3

  2. Blue light regulated shade avoidance.

    PubMed

    Keuskamp, Diederik H; Keller, Mercedes M; Ballaré, Carlos L; Pierik, Ronald

    2012-04-01

    Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the red:far-red ratio and the depletion of blue light are signals that induce a set of phenotypic traits, such as shoot elongation and leaf hyponasty, which increase the likelihood of light capture in dense plant stands. This set of phenotypic responses are part of the so called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). This addendum discusses recent findings on the regulation of the SAS of Arabidopsis thaliana upon blue light depletion. Keller et al. and Keuskamp et al. show that the low blue light attenuation induced shade avoidance response of seedling and rosette-stage A. thaliana plants differ in their hormonal regulation. These studies also show there is a regulatory overlap with the R:FR-regulated SAS.

  3. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  4. Preserving Dark Skies in National Parks for Future Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duriscoe, C. S.; Duriscoe, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The United States National Park Service (NPS) has formed a team of professional scientists and naturalists to monitor the effects of light pollution in parks throughout the country, from sources both within and outside the parks. The NPS Night Sky Team is using a wide field CCD camera to quantify sky quality by imaging the entire sky under varying optical extinction conditions. A component of the program utilizes these images and other materials to convey the National Park Service mission of protecting the night sky "unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." This education outreach effort includes the dissemination of results from the research and monitoring, brochures for the general public, astronomy activity guide for grades 6-12 emphasizing light pollution and dark skies as one of the national parks' primary resources, and astronomy activities for the public in parks, often in collaboration with local amateur astronomy groups. Other potential accomplishments include the location of observatories in parks, a website for the Night Sky Team, and the instigation of lighting retrofits within parks. This program is funded primarily by the United States Department of Interior, National Park Service

  5. Open Skies: Facilitating the many dimensions of transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J.

    1993-08-01

    The Treaty on Open Skies (Open Skies) was signed on 24 March 1992 by 23 European nations in addition to the United States and Canada. Unlike other arms control treaties which prohibit specific weapons or weapon systems, Open Skies is intended to provide, in the words of its preamble, means ``to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with existing or future arms control agreements.`` In addition, its objectives include the ``improvement of openness and transparency for conflict prevention and crises management in the framework of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and in other relevant international institutions.`` The preamble also alludes to the possible extension of the Open Skies regime into additional (non-arms control) fields, such as environmental protection. Not mentioned is an objective which the treaty would appear to strive to attain: to equalize to some degree the ability of nations to obtain intelligence deemed essential to their national security. This is in fact the case since it provides such means to signatories which otherwise do not have direct access to advanced information gathering technology. ``Open Skies`` also contributes to monitoring or treaty verification by providing an instrument for cuing further investigation of information which might indicate impending treaty violation. Thus, while appearing unfocussed from a monitoring or treaty verification point of view, Open Skies represents substantial progress toward facilitating transparency.

  6. New Sky Flats for HST's ACS/WFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Ray A.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2016-06-01

    We have begun experiments to make new sky flat files for HST's ACS/WFC. Sky flats can be especially useful for deep imaging in such as programs as deep, extragalactic survey programs because they can help to better deal with noise at low levels. Although we also hope to make similar sky flats for some other popular filters including F606W and F814W, we are beginning this experiment with the F435W filter on the ACS/WFC since it is a popular filter in use in many deep extragalactic surveys, and since the bluer filters such as F435W generally have lower throughput and images in that filter are typically noisier than others at some longer mid-optical wavelengths. Initially, although sources will be masked in these images, etc. we are endeavoring to use just post-SM4 F435W images of duration equal to or greater than 800 seconds and which are free of bright stars in order to try and avoid scattered light and sky background color issues as much as possible, although the sky in different images taken at different times and in different directions will likely have some different background levels and color terms in any event. However, our hope is that the final sky flats will be of sufficient S/N to be good calibrators for deep survey programs.

  7. SkyDOT: a publicly accessible variability database, containing multiple sky surveys and real-time data

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, D. L.; Wozniak, P. R.; Vestrand, W. T.

    2002-01-01

    SkyDOT (Sky Database for Objects in Time-Domain) is a Virtual Observatory currently comprised of data from the RAPTOR, ROTSE I, and OGLE I1 survey projects. This makes it a very large time domain database. In addition, the RAPTOR project provides SkyDOT with real-time variability data as well as stereoscopic information. With its web interface, we believe SkyDOT will be a very useful tool for both astronomers, and the public. Our main task has been to construct an efficient relational database containing all existing data, while handling a real-time inflow of data. We also provide a useful web interface allowing easy access to both astronomers and the public. Initially, this server will allow common searches, specific queries, and access to light curves. In the future we will include machine learning classification tools and access to spectral information.

  8. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  9. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Xue, Wei E-mail: wei.xue@sissa.it

    2014-10-01

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives.

  10. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E; Nikkels, Arjen F

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7-C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  11. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation

  12. The Biggest Star in the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    An international team of astronomers has used large telescopes in Chile and Australia to measure the biggest star in the sky. The star, designated R Doradus , is of the so-called red giant type and is located in the southern constellation of Dorado. Its apparent diameter (i.e., the size which the star appears to have when seen from the Earth) is larger than any other so far observed, except for the Sun. In particular, it exceeds by more than 30 % that of Betelgeuse , which for the past 75 years has held the title of star with the largest apparent size. Measuring sizes of stars Measuring the sizes of stars is very difficult due to their enormous distances. For example, if our Sun were placed at the distance of the next closest star (four light-years away), it would have about the same apparent size as a DM 1 (or US quarter-dollar) coin placed at a distance of 500 km (about 0.01 arcsec). Even for the most powerful astronomical telescopes, it is a very challenging task to measure such small angles. Ideally, the angular resolution of a telescope (its capability to resolve fine details in celestial sources) increases with its diameter. In practice, although ground-based optical telescopes now have diameters up to 10 metres, their actual resolution of visual light is that of a telescope of only about 20 centimetres aperture. This is because of the constant turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere. This turbulence causes the stars to twinkle in a way which delights the poets but frustrates the astronomers, since it blurs the fine details of the images. The first, and largest, star apart from the Sun to have its diameter measured was Betelgeuse, the brightest star in the constellation of Orion. Its angular diameter was found to be 0.044 arcsec by Albert Michelson and his team who used the Hooker telescope on Mt. Wilson in California in the early 1920s, pioneering interferometry techniques. Betelgeuse kept its title as the star with the largest apparent size for the next 75

  13. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  14. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  15. "APEC Blue" association with emission control and meteorological conditions detected by multi-scale statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Dai, Xin-Gang

    2016-09-01

    The term "APEC Blue" has been created to describe the clear sky days since the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit held in Beijing during November 5-11, 2014. The duration of the APEC Blue is detected from November 1 to November 14 (hereafter Blue Window) by moving t test in statistics. Observations show that APEC Blue corresponds to low air pollution with respect to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 under strict emission-control measures (ECMs) implemented in Beijing and surrounding areas. Quantitative assessment shows that ECM is more effective on reducing aerosols than the chemical constituents. Statistical investigation has revealed that the window also resulted from intensified wind variability, as well as weakened static stability of atmosphere (SSA). The wind and ECMs played key roles in reducing air pollution during November 1-7 and 11-13, and strict ECMs and weak SSA become dominant during November 7-10 under weak wind environment. Moving correlation manifests that the emission reduction for aerosols can increase the apparent wind cleanup effect, leading to significant negative correlations of them, and the period-wise changes in emission rate can be well identified by multi-scale correlations basing on wavelet decomposition. In short, this case study manifests statistically how human interference modified air quality in the mega city through controlling local and surrounding emissions in association with meteorological condition.

  16. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  17. Blue/white organic light-emitting diodes and passive matrix display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Lin; Jiang, Xue-Yin; Zhu, Wen-Qing; Xu, Shao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The blue organic light emitting diodes (OLED) based on anthracene derivatives (ADN) doped with distryrylarylene derivatives (BCzVB and DSA-ph) were presented. The device of ADN doped with BCzVb shows high color purity (x=0.146, y=0.162) with maximum luminance 11600 cd/m2 (15V), current efficiency 2.8 cd/A, while the device of ADN doped with DSA-ph exhibits a sky blue with as high as efficiency 8.29 cd/A, both have a flat efficiency vs current density responses. A typical blue device of ADN doped with TBPe is used for comparison, which gives greenish blue and a stronger current-induced flyorescence quenching. Three kinds of White organic light emitting devices (WOLED) with different dopants and doping sites were constructed. The cell with a single-doped red dye in the light emitting layer (EML)(single-doped) and the cell with both red and blue dyes doped in a single EML (double-doped as well as the cell with red and blue dyes doped in EML and a green dye in another layer (triple-doped). The triple-doped cell shows much higher performance than other two cells: maximum luminance 21200cd/m2, 1026 cd/m2 at driving current 20mA/cm2, efficiency 6cd/A and a half lifetime over 22245h were reached. A passive display features 102x64 pixels with pixel size of 0.25x0.25mm2 pixel pitch 0.08mm, luminance 100 cd/m2 at driving duty 1/64, and power consumption of 0.6W was constructed.

  18. A SKY FULL OF GLITTERING JEWELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has given us a keyhole view towards the heart of our Milky Way Galaxy, where a dazzling array of stars reside. Most of the view of our galaxy is obscured by dust. Hubble peered into the Sagittarius Star Cloud, a narrow, dust-free region, providing this spectacular glimpse of a treasure chest full of stars. Some of these gems are among the oldest inhabitants of our galaxy. By studying the older stars that pack our Milky Way's hub, scientists can learn more about the evolution of our galaxy. Many of the brighter stars in this image show vivid colors. A star's color reveals its temperature, one of its most 'vital statistics.' Knowing a star's temperature and the power of the star's radiation allow scientists to make conclusions about its age and mass. Most blue stars are young and hot, up to ten times hotter than our Sun. They consume their fuel much faster and live shorter lives than our Sun. Red stars come in two flavors: small stars and 'red giants'. Smaller red stars generally have a temperature about half that of our Sun, consuming their fuel slowly and thus, live the longest. 'Red giant' stars are at the end of their lives because they have exhausted their fuel. Although many 'red giant' stars may have been ordinary stars like our Sun, as they die they swell up in size, become much cooler, and are much more luminous then they were during the majority of their stellar life. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)

  19. SkyLine and SkyGas: Novel automated technologies for automatic GHG flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ineson, Philip; Stockdale, James

    2014-05-01

    1. Concerns for the future of the Earth's climate centre around the anthropogenically-driven continuing increases in atmospheric concentrations of the major 'greenhouse gases' (GHGs) which include CO2, CH4 and N2O. A major component of the global budgets for all three of these gases is the flux between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. 2. Currently, these fluxes are poorly quantified, largely due to technical limitations associated with making these flux measurements. Whilst eddy covariance systems have greatly improved such measurements at the ecosystem scale, flux measurements at the plot scale are commonly made using labour intensive traditional 'cover box' approaches; technical limitations have frequently been a bottle-neck in producing adequate and appropriate GHG flux data necessary for making land management decisions. For example, there are almost no night time flux data for N2O fluxes, and frequently such data are only measured over bare soil patches. 3. We have been addressing the design of novel field equipment for the automation of GHG flux measurements at the chamber and plot scale and will present here some of the technical solutions we have developed. These solutions include the development of the SkyLine and SkyGas approaches which resolve many of the common problems associated with making high frequency, sufficiently replicated GHG flux measurements under field conditions. 4. Unlike most other automated systems, these technologies 'fly' a single chamber to the measurement site, rather than have multiple replicated chambers and analysers. We will present data showing how such systems can deliver high time and spatial resolution flux data, with a minimum of operator intervention and, potentially, at relatively low per plot cost. We will also show how such measurements can be extended to monitoring fluxes from freshwater features in the landscape.

  20. Deepest Wide-Field Colour Image in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    LA SILLA CAMERA OBSERVES CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH ESO PR Photo 02a/03 ESO PR Photo 02a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 437 pix - 95k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 873 pix - 904k] [HiRes - JPEG: 4000 x 4366 pix - 23.1M] Caption : PR Photo 02a/03 shows a three-colour composite image of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) , obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) camera on the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It was produced by the combination of about 450 images with a total exposure time of nearly 50 hours. The field measures 36 x 34 arcmin 2 ; North is up and East is left. Technical information is available below. The combined efforts of three European teams of astronomers, targeting the same sky field in the southern constellation Fornax (The Oven) have enabled them to construct a very deep, true-colour image - opening an exceptionally clear view towards the distant universe . The image ( PR Photo 02a/03 ) covers an area somewhat larger than the full moon. It displays more than 100,000 galaxies, several thousand stars and hundreds of quasars. It is based on images with a total exposure time of nearly 50 hours, collected under good observing conditions with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile) - many of them extracted from the ESO Science Data Archive . The position of this southern sky field was chosen by Riccardo Giacconi (Nobel Laureate in Physics 2002) at a time when he was Director General of ESO, together with Piero Rosati (ESO). It was selected as a sky region towards which the NASA Chandra X-ray satellite observatory , launched in July 1999, would be pointed while carrying out a very long exposure (lasting a total of 1 million seconds, or 278 hours) in order to detect the faintest possible X-ray sources. The field is now known as the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) . The new WFI photo of CDF-S does not reach quite as deep as the available images of the "Hubble Deep Fields

  1. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Michele M.; Jamieson, Christopher G.; Lal, Geeta

    1996-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, an uncommon condition, is manifested by gastrointestinal and skin hemangiomas and gastrointestinal hemorrhage causing anemia. The authors report a unique case of the syndrome in association with a congenital cardiac malformation. A 26-year-old woman presented with iron-deficiency anemia after the birth of her first child. She had a history of skin and gastrointestinal hemangiomas and tetralogy of Fallot. Endoscopy revealed multiple new intestinal hemangiomas, which were removed through enterotomies with resolution of the anemia. Iron therapy was prescribed, and her condition was stable at follow-up 5 years later. PMID:8599795

  2. Spectroscopy of blue stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, K. J.; Warnock, A., III; Nations, H. L.; Barden, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra have been obtained for the brightest objects from a list of blue stellar objects found in a Palomar Schmidt field centered on Kapteyn Selected Area 28. Four of the objects presented here comprise a complete sample of objects with UV excess and magnitudes brighter than or equal to B = 16.3 mag. The object with the largest UV excess is a previously undiscovered quasar of redshift 0.25 and cataloged B magnitude of 15.6 mag. The object shows some evidence of variability. Spectroscopy for one bright object in a companion field centered on Selected Area 29 is also presented.

  3. DEMOGRAPHY OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF RADIAL COLOR GRADIENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Hyewon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Oh, Kyuseok; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Ferreras, Ignacio; Schawinski, Kevin

    2010-04-01

    We have investigated the radial g - r color gradients of early-type galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR6 in the redshift range 0.00 {<=} z {<=} 0.06. The majority of massive early-type galaxies show a negative color gradient (red-cored) as generally expected for early-type galaxies. On the other hand, roughly 30% of the galaxies in this sample show a positive color gradient (blue-cored). These 'blue-cored' galaxies often show strong H{beta} absorption-line strengths and/or emission-line ratios that are indicative of the presence of young stellar populations. Combining the optical data with Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) ultraviolet photometry, we find that all blue-cored galaxies show UV-optical colors that can only be explained by young stellar populations. This implies that most of the residual star formation in early-type galaxies is centrally concentrated. Blue-cored galaxies are predominantly low-velocity dispersion systems, and tend to live in lower density regions. A simple model shows that the observed positive color gradients (blue-cored) are visible only for a billion years after a star formation episode for the typical strength of recent star formation. The observed effective radius decreases and the mean surface brightness increases due to this centrally concentrated star formation episode. As a result, the majority of blue-cored galaxies may lie on different regions in the fundamental plane (FP) from red-cored ellipticals. However, the position of the blue-cored galaxies on the FP cannot be solely attributed to recent star formation but requires substantially lower velocity dispersion. Our results based on the optical data are consistent with the residual star formation interpretation of Yi and collaborators which was based on GALEX UV data. We conclude that a low-level of residual star formation persists at the centers of most low-mass early-type galaxies, whereas massive ones are mostly quiescent systems with metallicity-driven red

  4. AGN, Star Formation, and the NanoJy Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, Paolo

    I present simple but robust estimates of the types of sources making up the faint, sub-μJy radio sky. These include star-forming galaxies and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei but also two "new" populations, that is low radio power ellipticals and dwarf galaxies, the latter likely constituting the most numerous component of the radio sky. I then estimate for the first time the X-ray, optical, and mid-infrared fluxes these objects are likely to have, which are very important for source identification and the synergy between the upcoming SKA and its various pathfinders with future missions in other bands. On large areas of the sky the SKA, and any other radio telescope producing surveys down to at least the μJy level, will go deeper than all currently planned (and past) sky surveys, with the possible exception of the optical ones from PAN-STARRS and the LSST. On the other hand, most sources from currently planned all-sky surveys, with the likely exception of the optical ones, will have a radio counterpart within the reach of the SKA. JWST and the ELTs might turn out to be the main, or perhaps even the only, facilities capable of securing optical counterparts and especially redshifts of μJy radio sources.

  5. Deeply X-raying the high-energy sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottacini, Eugenio; Ajello, Marco

    2016-05-01

    All-sky explorations by Fermi-LAT have revolutionized our view of the gamma-ray Universe. While its ongoing all-sky survey counts thousands of sources, essential issues related to the nature of unassociated sources call for more sensitive all-sky surveys at hard X-ray energies that allow for their identification. This latter energy band encodes the hard-tail of the thermal emission and the soft-tail of non-thermal emission thereby bridging the non-thermal and thermal emission mechanisms of gamma-ray sources. All-sky surveys at hard X-rays are best performed by current coded-mask telescopes Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL/IBIS. To boost the hard X-ray all-sky sensitivity, we have developed an ad hoc technique by combining photons from independent observations of BAT and IBIS. The resulting Swift-INTEGRAL X-ray (SIX) survey has an improved source-number density. This improvement is essential to enhance the positive hard X-ray - gamma-ray source matches. We present the results from the scientific link between the neighboring gamma-ray and hard X-ray bands in the context of galactic and extragalactic source classes of the second catalog Fermi Gamma-ray LAT (2FGL).

  6. The AKARI far-infrared all-sky survey maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arimatsu, Ko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakagawa, Takao; Morishima, Takahiro; Hattori, Makoto; Komugi, Shinya; White, Glenn J.; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Chinone, Yuji; Etxaluze, Mireya; Cypriano, Elysandra F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a far-infrared all-sky atlas from a sensitive all-sky survey using the Japanese AKARI satellite. The survey covers > 99% of the sky in four photometric bands centred at 65 μm, 90 μm, 140 μm, and 160 μm, with spatial resolutions ranging from 1' to 1{^''.}5. These data provide crucial information on the investigation and characterisation of the properties of dusty material in the interstellar medium (ISM), since a significant portion of its energy is emitted between ˜ 50 and 200 μm. The large-scale distribution of interstellar clouds, their thermal dust temperatures, and their column densities can be investigated with the improved spatial resolution compared to earlier all-sky survey observations. In addition to the point source distribution, the large-scale distribution of ISM cirrus emission, and its filamentary structure, are well traced. We have made the first public release of the full-sky data to provide a legacy data set for use in the astronomical community.

  7. Automating Image Import for Google Sky using Virtual Observatory Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, Jared H.; DuPlain, R.; Radziwill, N. M.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a prototype web service that brings the wealth of Virtual Observatory image data to the Google Sky desktop client. The web service, "KML Now!," presents the user with a simple web interface and requires no specialized knowledge of image conversion, coordinate system conversion, or Google Sky's KML metadata format. KML Now! makes use of Virtual Observatory Simple Image Access Services to acquire images based on user-input search coordinates. Once images are acquired, open source conversion software is used to generate Sky-compatible image and metadata files; the files are cached on the server for reuse. A "launcher" KML file pointing to all applicable server-side data is returned to the user, and when opened in Google Sky, all images are automatically placed within the desktop client. KML Now! can also operate directly on a user-specified image, without the need for Virtual Observatory interaction. A KML Now! query is coded in URL arguments, which allows it to be easily called from within Google Sky, a feature to be added in future developments. Funding for this project is provided by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and the National Virtual Observatory, both supported by the National Science Foundation.

  8. Night sky photometry with amateur-grade digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozek, Tomasz; Gronkiewicz, Dominik; Kolomanski, Sylwester; Steslicki, Marek

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of night sky brightness can give us valuable information on light pollution. The more the measurements we have the better is our knowledge on the spatial distribution of the pollution on local and global scale.High accuracy professional photometry of night sky can be performed with dedicated instruments. The main drawbacks of this method are high price and low mobility. This limits an amount of observers and therefore amount of photometric data that can be collected. In order to overcome the problem of limited amount of data we can involve amateur astronomers in photometry of night sky. However, to achieve this goal we need a method that utilizes equipment which is usually used by amateur astronomers, e.g digital cameras.We propose a method that enables good accuracy photometry of night sky with a use of digital compact or DSLR cameras. In the method reduction of observations and standarization to Johnson UBV system are performed. We tested several cameras and compared results to Sky Quality Meter (SQM) measurements. The overall consistency for results is within 0.2 mag.

  9. A New Sky Subtraction Technique for Low Surface Brightness Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katkov, I. Y.; Chilingarian, I. V.

    2011-07-01

    We present a new approach to the sky subtraction for long-slit spectra that is suitable for low-surface brightness objects based on the controlled reconstruction of the night sky spectrum in the Fourier space using twilight or arc-line frames as references. It can be easily adopted for FLAMINGOS-type multi-slit data. Compared to existing sky subtraction algorithms, our technique is taking into account variations of the spectral line spread along the slit thus qualitatively improving the sky subtraction quality for extended targets. As an example, we show how the stellar metallicity and stellar velocity dispersion profiles in the outer disc of the spiral galaxy NGC5440 are affected by the sky subtraction quality. Our technique is used in the survey of early-type galaxies carried out at the Russian 6-m telescope, and it strongly increases the scientific potential of large amounts of long-slit data for nearby galaxies available in major data archives.

  10. The MAMBA Thermal Infrared All-Sky Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pier, Edward Alan; Tinn Chee Jim, Kevin; Lewis, Peter

    2015-08-01

    We are developing a system to continually and simultaneously monitor infrared atmospheric extinction along all lines of sight. This system combines a next generation radiometrically calibrated thermal all-sky camera, a weather station, and a neural net trained on historic Radiosonde profiles. Oceanit Laboratories, Inc. will market this system as an off the shelf unit. Custom-built thermal all sky cameras have previously been used on Haleakala, Cerro Tololo, and elsewhere. Except for RASICAM on Cerro Tololo, they have not been radiometrically calibrated and have been used only for qualitative cloud monitoring. The new system will have improved sky coverage, resolution, and noise properties with respect to RASICAM, and simulations show it will be able to infer atmospheric transmittance to within a few percent. The all sky camera will combine an equiresolution optical design with an off-the-shelf thermal detector and in field blackbody calibration sources to provide uniform sensitivity and radiometric accuracy across the sky at relatively low cost. Our goal is to make such systems ubiqitous at observatories around the world.

  11. Mining the SDSS SkyServer SQL queries log

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Vitor M.; Santos, Rafael; Raddick, Jordan; Thakar, Ani

    2016-05-01

    SkyServer, the Internet portal for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) astronomic catalog, provides a set of tools that allows data access for astronomers and scientific education. One of SkyServer data access interfaces allows users to enter ad-hoc SQL statements to query the catalog. SkyServer also presents some template queries that can be used as basis for more complex queries. This interface has logged over 330 million queries submitted since 2001. It is expected that analysis of this data can be used to investigate usage patterns, identify potential new classes of queries, find similar queries, etc. and to shed some light on how users interact with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and how scientists have adopted the new paradigm of e-Science, which could in turn lead to enhancements on the user interfaces and experience in general. In this paper we review some approaches to SQL query mining, apply the traditional techniques used in the literature and present lessons learned, namely, that the general text mining approach for feature extraction and clustering does not seem to be adequate for this type of data, and, most importantly, we find that this type of analysis can result in very different queries being clustered together.

  12. CONCAM All-Sky Maps of Airglow and Opacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.; CONCAM Collaboration

    2003-12-01

    A major goal of the global CONtinuous CAMera (CONCAM) network is to support astronomical observing sites with real-time all-sky images and information. To date, this aim has been fulfilled mostly by CONCAM's role as an optical cloud monitor -- creating rapid ground-truth fisheye images that can be visually inspected so that real-time observing decisions can be made. These images are available immediately over the web through http://concam.net/, where they are also archived The high quality of raw CONCAM data, however, allows us to go further and build a data pipeline from which automated stellar photometry can be done for a few hundred of the brightest stars. When combined with CONCAM all-sky brightness data, we show that a simultaneous solution for sky opacity and emissivity is possible at stellar positions. These data can then be interpolated into all-sky maps. With current CONCAM3 equipment, maps with a broadband accuracy of about 0.25 magnitudes for altitudes above 25 degrees is demonstrated. Such maps might contribute to a more quantitative assessment of the brightness, clarity, and variability of the night sky background above the world's largest telescopes both in real time and in subsequent data reduction. Progress on creating these maps as part of the CONCAM data processing pipeline will be discussed.

  13. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space.

  14. The search for Near Earth Objects - why dark skies are critically important

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Impact of Earth by asteroids is perhaps the only natural disaster that can be prevented. If an asteroid that will impact Earth can be identified sufficiently early, it is possible to modify its orbit to eliminate the impact. As a consequence, a major effort is presently underway to identify Near Earth Objects (NEOs) that may present a threat to Earth. The impact of a 20-meter diameter object near Chelyabinsk, Russia, provided a spectacular reminder of the threat that these objects present. Although no deaths were caused, injuries and a large amount of property damage were caused.The search for NEOs is mostly funded by NASA. The principal search telescopes are the Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, and the Catalina Sky Survey, located near Tucson, Arizona. Both of these locations are seriously threatened by light pollution. A new survey, ATLAS, will commence shortly, with one telescope located on Haleakala, Maui, and the other telescope located on Mauna Loa, Hawaii (which is less threatened).Artificial light (i.e., light pollution) at these observing sites raises the sky background, and makes faint objects harder or impossible to see.Searches for Near Earth Objects typically use very broad passbands in order to obtain the maximum amount of light. These passbands typically stretch from 400 to 820 nm. As such, they are very vulnerable to the changes in lighting that are occurring across the globe, with widespread introduction of blue-rich white lighting. It is critically important in all of these locations to limit the amount of blue light that is so readily scattered by the atmosphere.A network of followup telescopes, spread across the planet, play a crucial role in the discovery of NEOs. After a new NEO is identified by the survey telescopes such as Pan-STARRS and Catalina, additional observations must be secured to establish its orbit, and in order to determine whether it poses a threat to Earth. The majority of these followup telescopes are

  15. Blue Photoluminescence From Silacyclobutene Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernisz, Udo

    1999-04-01

    Organosilicon compounds in which the Si atom is bound to an aromatic moiety such as a phenyl group, exhibit strong blue photoluminescence when excited with UV light (for example at a wavelength of 337 nm). This phenomenon was investigated quantitatively at room temperature and at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (78 K) by measuring the emission and excitation spectra of the total luminescence, and of the phosphorescence, for a silacyclobutene compound in which two phenyl groups are joined across the C=C double bond of the ring. The effect of a series of organic substituents on the Si atom was investigated as well as the time dependence of the phosphorescence intensity decay for this class of materials. A tentative model of the energy levels in this compound is proposed. The observation of visible blue emission -- in contrast to photoluminescence in the UV from the aromatic groups -- is explained by the Si-C bond lowering the energy of the molecular orbitals, an effect that is currently under study for a range of Si-containing compounds. Synthesis of the silacyclobutene compounds was performed at the laboratory of Prof. N. Auner, now at J.W. Goethe Universität, Frankfurt, Germany. His contributions, and those of his collaborators, to the work reported here are gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  17. The Blue Dots Initiative and Roadmapping Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2010-10-01

    The Blue Dots initiative (a grassroot effort to build a scientific community in Europe around the exoplanet theme) is introduced. The Blue Dots activities include the elaboration of a roadmap towards the spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets, a summary of which is presented here. While the roadmap will need to be updated regularly, it is expected that the methodology developed within Blue Dots will provide a durable framework for the elaboration of future revisions.

  18. Slow-blue nuclear hypervariables in PanSTARRS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, A.; Bruce, A. G.; MacLeod, C.; Gezari, S.; Elvis, M.; Ward, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Fraser, M.; Marshall, P.; Kaiser, N.; Burgett, W.; Magnier, E.; Tonry, J.; Chambers, K.; Wainscoat, R.; Waters, C.; Price, P.; Metcalfe, N.; Valenti, S.; Kotak, R.; Mead, A.; Inserra, C.; Chen, T. W.; Soderberg, A.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss 76 large amplitude transients (Δm > 1.5) occurring in the nuclei of galaxies, nearly all with no previously known active galactic nucleus (AGN). They have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π survey, by comparison with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry a decade earlier, and then monitored with the Liverpool Telescope, and studied spectroscopically with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT). Based on colours, light-curve shape, and spectra, these transients fall into four groups. A few are misclassified stars or objects of unknown type. Some are red/fast transients and are known or likely nuclear supernovae. A few are either radio sources or erratic variables and so likely blazars. However the majority (˜66 per cent) are blue and evolve slowly, on a time-scale of years. Spectroscopy shows them to be AGN at z ˜ 0.3 - 1.4, which must have brightened since the SDSS photometry by around an order of magnitude. It is likely that these objects were in fact AGN a decade ago, but too weak to be recognized by SDSS; they could then be classed as `hypervariable' AGN. By searching the SDSS Stripe 82 quasar database, we find 15 similar objects. We discuss several possible explanations for these slow-blue hypervariables - (i) unusually luminous tidal disruption events; (ii) extinction events; (iii) changes in accretion state; and (iv) large amplitude microlensing by stars in foreground galaxies. A mixture of explanations (iii) and (iv) seems most likely. Both hold promise of considerable new insight into the AGN phenomenon.

  19. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  20. Dark Sky Collaborators: Arizona (AZ) Observatories, Communities, and Businesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Castillo, Elizabeth Alvarez; Corbally, Christopher; Falco, Emilio E.; Green, Richard F.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Williams, G. Grant

    2015-03-01

    With outdoor lighting ordinances in Arizona first in place around observatories in 1958 and 1972, then throughout the state since 1986, Arizonans have extensive experience working with communities and businesses to preserve our dark skies. Though communities are committed to the astronomy sector in our state, astronomers must collaborate with other stakeholders to implement solutions. Ongoing education and public outreach is necessary to enable ordinance updates as technology changes. Despite significant population increases, sky brightness measurements over the last 20 years show that ordinance updates are worth our efforts as we seek to maintain high quality skies around our observatories. Collaborations are being forged and actions taken to promote astronomy for the longer term in Arizona.

  1. Development test results of the Portable, Reconfigurable Sky Sensor (PRSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Blattman, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    The protection of assets against surreptitious access from the sky is a continuing problem. The Portable, Reconfigurable Sky Sensor is designed to provide volumetric intruder detection against low-observable aircraft, helicopters, and parachutists in the sky. Multiple systems may be joined to form continuous detection volume for applications such as borders. The PRSS is resistant to nuisance alarms due to wind up to 70 mph, rain/snow up to 6 inches/hour or small targets such as birds. The PRSS has been successfully tested against multiple intrusions with altitude range from 50 to 3,000 feet and cross-range up to 3,000 feet. This paper summarizes some of these field tests and lists specifications and potential uses.

  2. A simple formula for determining globally clear skies

    SciTech Connect

    Long, C.N.; George, A.T.; Mace, G.G.

    1996-04-01

    Surface measurements to serve as {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes} are of primary importance in the development of retrieval algorithms using satellite measurements to predict surface irradiance. The most basic algorithms of this type deal with clear sky (i.e., cloudless) top-to-surface shortwave (SW) transfer, serving as a necessary prerequisite towards treating both clear and cloudy conditions. Recently, atmosphere SW cloud forcing to infer the possibility of excess atmospheric absorption (compared with model results) in cloudy atmospheres. The surface component of this ratio relies on inferring the expected clear sky SW irradiance to determine the effects of clouds on the SW energy budget. Solar renewable energy applications make use of clear and cloud fraction climatologies to assess solar radiation resources. All of the above depend to some extent on the identification of globally clear sky conditions and the attendant measurements of downwelling SW irradiance.

  3. The BAA Campaign for Dark Skies: Fifteen years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizon, R.

    2004-06-01

    The starry sky is, unofficially but indubitably, a site of special scientific interest and an area of outstanding natural beauty - if it can be seen. The BAA's Campaign for Dark Skies (CfDS) was set up by concerned members in 1989, to counter the ever-growing tide of skyglow which has tainted the night sky over Britain since the 1950s. Once caused almost exclusively by poorly aimed streetlamps and building floodlights emitting light above the horizontal, skyglow is nowadays increasingly the result of vastly over-powered, poorly mounted household security lights and literally 'over-the-top' sports lighting. CfDS has grown into a network of 124 volunteer local officers, and several hundred committed supporters, who aim to persuade their local councils and relevant organisations of the benefits of well directed lighting, the motto being: the right amount of light, and only where needed.

  4. Sky background subtraction with fiber-fed spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puech, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Yang, Y.; Flores, H.; Royer, F.; Disseau, K.; Gonçalves, T.; Hammer, F.; Cirasuolo, M.; Evans, C. J.; Li Causi, G.; Maiolino, R.; Melo, C.

    2014-08-01

    Fiber-fed spectrographs can now have throughputs equivalent to slit spectrographs. However, the sky subtraction accuracy that can be reached on such instruments has often been pinpointed as one of their major issues, in relation to difficulties in scattered light and flat-field corrections or throughput losses associated with fibers. Using technical time observations with FLAMES-GIRAFFE, two observing techniques, namely dual staring and cross beam switching modes, were tested and the resulting sky subtraction accuracy reached in both cases was quantified. Results indicate that an accuracy of 0.6% on the sky subtraction can be reached, provided that the cross beam switching mode is used. This is very encouraging regarding the detection of very faint sources with future fiber-fed spectrographs such as VLT/MOONS or E-ELT/MOSAIC.

  5. Pi of the Sky contributions to the GLORIA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, L.; Cwiek, A.; Cwiok, M.; Majcher, A.; Mankiewicz, L.; Żarnecki, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    ``Pi of the Sky'' is a system of wide field-of-view robotic telescopes, which search for short timescale astrophysical phenomena, especially for prompt optical GRB emission. In July 2013 the final ``Pi of the Sky'' detector system, with 16 CCD cameras on 4 mounts, was comissioned and integrated into the citizen-science network GLORIA (GLobal Robotic-telescope Intelligent Array). It is available to GLORIA users for scheduled observations. Selected archive data from the ``Pi of the Sky'' prototype telescope in Chile was also used to implement off-line demonstrator experiment for GLORIA. Thanks to the wide field of view of the telescope the selected sample of about 500 images allows for variability analysis of bright objects of different kind. Image processing is based on the LUIZA framework, which was implemented for GLORIA for efficient and flexible data analysis, based on the experience from high energy physics experiments.

  6. All-sky monitors for X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Stephen S.; Priedhorsky, William

    1987-01-01

    The rationale for a semipermanent all-sky X-ray monitor and a variety of options for its implementation are discussed. It is concluded that the Space Station offers an excellent opportunity for hosting such a monitor, and that a set of pinhole cameras can be configured to provide an effective and economical monitor system. A baseline of six independent pinhole modules, each of which requires approximately 1 cu ft, 30 pounds, 2 W and 100 bits per second, can provide full sky coverage with scientifically interesting sensitivities. No other resources or special accommodation (such as detailed alignment registration, time-tagging, or on-orbit servicing) would be required. The baseline system can locate bright sources to a few arcmin and can simultaneously measure each of the several hundred sources in the sky brighter than a few thousandths the intensity of the Crab nebula every day for decades.

  7. ZAP - enhanced PCA sky subtraction for integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Kurt T.; Lilly, Simon J.; Bacon, Roland; Richard, Johan; Conseil, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We introduce Zurich Atmosphere Purge (ZAP), an approach to sky subtraction based on principal component analysis (PCA) that we have developed for the Multi Unit Spectrographic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectrograph. ZAP employs filtering and data segmentation to enhance the inherent capabilities of PCA for sky subtraction. Extensive testing shows that ZAP reduces sky emission residuals while robustly preserving the flux and line shapes of astronomical sources. The method works in a variety of observational situations from sparse fields with a low density of sources to filled fields in which the target source fills the field of view. With the inclusion of both of these situations, the method is generally applicable to many different science cases and should also be useful for other instrumentation. ZAP is available for download at http://muse-vlt.eu/science/tools.

  8. Providing Diurnal Sky Cover Data at ARM Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Klebe, Dimitri I.

    2015-03-06

    The Solmirus Corporation was awarded two-year funding to perform a comprehensive data analysis of observations made during Solmirus’ 2009 field campaign (conducted from May 21 to July 27, 2009 at the ARM SGP site) using their All Sky Infrared Visible Analyzer (ASIVA) instrument. The objective was to develop a suite of cloud property data products for the ASIVA instrument that could be implemented in real time and tailored for cloud modelers. This final report describes Solmirus’ research and findings enabled by this grant. The primary objective of this award was to develop a diurnal sky cover (SC) data product utilizing the ASIVA’s infrared (IR) radiometrically-calibrated data and is described in detail. Other data products discussed in this report include the sky cover derived from ASIVA’s visible channel and precipitable water vapor, cloud temperature (both brightness and color), and cloud height inferred from ASIVA’s IR channels.

  9. Gods, Demons and Deceivers: Jesuits Facing Chaco Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro Martín

    2015-05-01

    The Jesuit missions located in the Chaco are less known than the ones in Paraguay. They are the last step of the Jesuits' missionary device in the Rio de la Plata region. They were dedicated to 'evangelize' and 'civilize' the aboriginal groups considered more hostile: nomadic hunter-gatherers who adopted the use of horses and were not controlled by the colonial government. These groups were seen by Europeans as a radical otherness. That is why the Jesuits' descriptions of Chaco Indian skies are a very interesting example about European attitudes toward other worldviews. This paper explores the use of different paradigms for interpreting these alternative skies: demonic influence, the deception of sorcerers and an Evemeristic reading of the indigenous worldview. This article also addresses some of the interactions between the aboriginal and Christian skies in the mission context.

  10. Blue Sky Below My Feet. Adventures in Space Technology, Forces, Fibers, Foods. 4-H Leader/Teacher Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manholt, Donna; And Others

    This teaching guide for 4th through 6th grade classes integrates science, language arts, and math concepts into ready-to-use space and space technology lessons. Significant learning outcomes for this curriculum are linked to Ohio's educational objectives for science in an at-a-glance curriculum matrix. A summary of the significant 4-H life skills…

  11. "Dip, Dip, Sky Blue, Who's It? NOT YOU": Children's Experiences of Standardised Testing--A Socio-Cultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruairc, Gerry Mac

    2009-01-01

    The recent decision by the Department of Education and Science in the Republic of Ireland to introduce the mandatory testing of children in Irish primary schools provides the broad context for this paper. This decision has particular implications for schools designated as disadvantaged. The main focus of this study is on identifying the strategies…

  12. Nothing but blue skies? Not-for-profit health systems try to soar over a slipping Columbia.

    PubMed

    Japsen, B; Limbacher, P B

    1997-12-01

    With Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corp. sitting on the sidelines, a newly aggressive not-for-profit hospital sector is stepping up its merger and acquisition activity. Since Richard Scott resigned as Columbia's chief on July 25, the company hasn't announced a single acquisition. Meanwhile, during that span, 40 not-for-profit systems have announced deals involving 50 hospitals.

  13. Blue-sky bifurcation of ion energies and the limits of neutral-gas sympathetic cooling of trapped ions

    PubMed Central

    Schowalter, Steven J.; Dunning, Alexander J.; Chen, Kuang; Puri, Prateek; Schneider, Christian; Hudson, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic cooling of trapped ions through collisions with neutral buffer gases is critical to a variety of modern scientific fields, including fundamental chemistry, mass spectrometry, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics. Despite its widespread use over four decades, there remain open questions regarding its fundamental limitations. To probe these limits, here we examine the steady-state evolution of up to 10 barium ions immersed in a gas of three-million laser-cooled calcium atoms. We observe and explain the emergence of nonequilibrium behaviour as evidenced by bifurcations in the ion steady-state temperature, parameterized by ion number. We show that this behaviour leads to the limitations in creating and maintaining translationally cold samples of trapped ions using neutral-gas sympathetic cooling. These results may provide a route to studying non-equilibrium thermodynamics at the atomic level. PMID:27511602

  14. Secrets of the Dark Universe: Simulating the Sky on the Blue Gene/Q, The Outer Rim Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hal finkel; Kalyan Kumaran; Adrian Pope; David Daniel; Zarija Lukic

    2013-04-24

    An astonishing 99.6% of our Universe is dark. Observations indicate that the Universe consists of 70% of a mysterious dark energy and 25% of a yet-unidentified dark matter component, and only 0.4% of the remaining ordinary matter is visible. Understanding the physics of this dark sector is the foremost challenge in cosmology today. Sophisticated simulations of the evolution of the Universe play a crucial task in this endeavor. This movie shows an intermediate stage in a large simulation of the distribution of matter in the Universe, the so-called cosmic web, accounting for the influence of dark energy. The simulation is evolving 1.1 trillion particles. The movie shows a snapshot of the Universe when it was 1.6 billion years old.

  15. Blue-sky bifurcation of ion energies and the limits of neutral-gas sympathetic cooling of trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowalter, Steven J.; Dunning, Alexander J.; Chen, Kuang; Puri, Prateek; Schneider, Christian; Hudson, Eric R.

    2016-08-01

    Sympathetic cooling of trapped ions through collisions with neutral buffer gases is critical to a variety of modern scientific fields, including fundamental chemistry, mass spectrometry, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics. Despite its widespread use over four decades, there remain open questions regarding its fundamental limitations. To probe these limits, here we examine the steady-state evolution of up to 10 barium ions immersed in a gas of three-million laser-cooled calcium atoms. We observe and explain the emergence of nonequilibrium behaviour as evidenced by bifurcations in the ion steady-state temperature, parameterized by ion number. We show that this behaviour leads to the limitations in creating and maintaining translationally cold samples of trapped ions using neutral-gas sympathetic cooling. These results may provide a route to studying non-equilibrium thermodynamics at the atomic level.

  16. Blue-sky bifurcation of ion energies and the limits of neutral-gas sympathetic cooling of trapped ions.

    PubMed

    Schowalter, Steven J; Dunning, Alexander J; Chen, Kuang; Puri, Prateek; Schneider, Christian; Hudson, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic cooling of trapped ions through collisions with neutral buffer gases is critical to a variety of modern scientific fields, including fundamental chemistry, mass spectrometry, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics. Despite its widespread use over four decades, there remain open questions regarding its fundamental limitations. To probe these limits, here we examine the steady-state evolution of up to 10 barium ions immersed in a gas of three-million laser-cooled calcium atoms. We observe and explain the emergence of nonequilibrium behaviour as evidenced by bifurcations in the ion steady-state temperature, parameterized by ion number. We show that this behaviour leads to the limitations in creating and maintaining translationally cold samples of trapped ions using neutral-gas sympathetic cooling. These results may provide a route to studying non-equilibrium thermodynamics at the atomic level. PMID:27511602

  17. The SuperCOSMOS all-sky galaxy catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J. A.; Hambly, N. C.; Bilicki, M.; MacGillivray, H. T.; Miller, L.; Read, M. A.; Tritton, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    We describe the construction of an all-sky galaxy catalogue, using SuperCOSMOS scans of Schmidt photographic plates from the UK Schmidt Telescope and Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. The photographic photometry is calibrated using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, with results that are linear to 2 per cent or better. All-sky photometric uniformity is achieved by matching plate overlaps and also by requiring homogeneity in optical-to-2MASS colours, yielding zero-points that are uniform to 0.03 mag or better. The typical AB depths achieved are BJ < 21, RF < 19.5 and IN < 18.5, with little difference between hemispheres. In practice, the IN plates are shallower than the BJ and RF plates, so for most purposes we advocate the use of a catalogue selected in these two latter bands. At high Galactic latitudes, this catalogue is approximately 90 per cent complete with 5 per cent stellar contamination; we quantify how the quality degrades towards the Galactic plane. At low latitudes, there are many spurious galaxy candidates resulting from stellar blends: these approximately match the surface density of true galaxies at |b| = 30°. Above this latitude, the catalogue limited in BJ and RF contains in total about 20 million galaxy candidates, of which 75 per cent are real. This contamination can be removed, and the sky coverage extended, by matching with additional data sets. This SuperCOSMOS catalogue has been matched with 2MASS and with WISE, yielding quasi-all-sky samples of respectively 1.5 million and 18.5 million galaxies, to median redshifts of 0.08 and 0.20. This legacy data set thus continues to offer a valuable resource for large-angle cosmological investigations.

  18. Dark Skies Awareness Programs for the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; US IYA Dark Skies Working Group

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's cultural and natural heritage. More than 1/5 of the world population, 2/3 of the United States population and 1/2 of the European Union population have already lost naked-eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1) Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2) Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3) Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4) Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5) Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The poster will provide an update, describe how people can continue to participate, and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  19. Automating sky object classification in astronomical survey images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayyad, Usama M.; Doyle, Richard J.; Weir, Nicholas; Djorgovski, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the application of machine classification techniques to the development of an automated tool for the reduction of a large scientific data set. The 2nd Palomer Observatory Sky Survey is nearly completed. This survey provides comprehensive coverage of the northern celestial hemisphere in the form of photographic plates. The plates are being transformed into digitized images whose quality will probably not be surpassed in the next ten to twenty years. The images are expected to contain on the order of 10(exp 7) galaxies and 10(exp 8) stars. Astronomers wish to determine which of these sky objects belong to various classes of galaxies and stars. The size of this data set precludes manual analysis. Our approach is to develop a software system which integrates the functions of independently developed techniques for image processing and data classification. Digitized sky images are passed through image processing routines to identify sky objects and to extract a set of features for each object. These routines are used to help select a useful set of attributes for classifying sky objects. Then GID3* and O-BTree, two inductive learning techniques, learn classification decision trees from examples. These classifiers will be used to process the rest of the data. This paper gives an overview of the machine learning techniques used, describes the details of our specific application, and reports the initial encouraging results. The results indicate that our approach is well-suited to the problem. The primary benefits of the approach are increased data reduction throughput and consistency of classification. The classification rules which are the product of the inductive learning techniques will form an object, examinable basis for classifying sky objects. A final, not to be underestimated benefit is that astronomers will be freed from the tedium of an intensely visual task to pursue more challenging analysis and interpretation problems based on automatically cataloged

  20. Color-magnitude distribution of face-on nearby galaxies in Sloan digital sky survey DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Shuo-Wen; Feng, Long-Long; Gu, Qiusheng; Huang, Song; Shi, Yong

    2014-05-20

    We have analyzed the distributions in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of a large sample of face-on galaxies to minimize the effect of dust extinctions on galaxy color. About 300,000 galaxies with log (a/b) < 0.2 and redshift z < 0.2 are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 catalog. Two methods are employed to investigate the distributions of galaxies in the CMD, including one-dimensional (1D) Gaussian fitting to the distributions in individual magnitude bins and two-dimensional (2D) Gaussian mixture model (GMM) fitting to galaxies as a whole. We find that in the 1D fitting, two Gaussians are not enough to fit galaxies with the excess present between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The fitting to this excess defines the center of the green valley in the local universe to be (u – r){sub 0.1} = –0.121M {sub r,} 0{sub .1} – 0.061. The fraction of blue cloud and red sequence galaxies turns over around M {sub r,} {sub 0.1} ∼ –20.1 mag, corresponding to stellar mass of 3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. For the 2D GMM fitting, a total of four Gaussians are required, one for the blue cloud, one for the red sequence, and the additional two for the green valley. The fact that two Gaussians are needed to describe the distributions of galaxies in the green valley is consistent with some models that argue for two different evolutionary paths from the blue cloud to the red sequence.

  1. Properties of galaxy groups in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - II. Active galactic nucleus feedback and star formation truncation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, Simone M.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Yang, Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.; Croton, Darren J.; Moore, Ben

    2006-11-01

    Successfully reproducing the galaxy luminosity function (LF) and the bimodality in the galaxy distribution requires a mechanism that can truncate star formation in massive haloes. Current models of galaxy formation consider two such truncation mechanisms: strangulation, which acts on satellite galaxies, and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, which predominantly affects central galaxies. The efficiencies of these processes set the blue fraction of galaxies, fblue(L, M), as a function of galaxy luminosity, L, and halo mass, M. In this paper, we use a galaxy group catalogue extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to determine fblue(L, M). To demonstrate the potential power of these data as a benchmark for galaxy formation models, we compare the results to the semi-analytical model for galaxy formation of Croton et al. Although this model accurately fits the global statistics of the galaxy population, as well as the shape of the conditional LF, there are significant discrepancies when the blue fraction of galaxies as a function of mass and luminosity is compared between the observations and the model. In particular, the model predicts (i) too many faint satellites in massive haloes, (ii) a blue fraction of satellites that is much too low, and (iii) a blue fraction of centrals that is too high and with an inverted luminosity dependence. In the same order, we argue that these discrepancies owe to (i) the neglect of tidal stripping in the semi-analytical model, (ii) the oversimplified treatment of strangulation, and (iii) improper modelling of dust extinction and/or AGN feedback. The data presented here will prove useful to test and calibrate future models of galaxy formation and, in particular, to discriminate between various models for AGN feedback and other star formation truncation mechanisms.

  2. AUTOMATIC UNSUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION OF ALL SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 7 GALAXY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J. Sanchez; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Munoz-Tunon, C.; De Vicente, A. E-mail: jalfonso@iac.e E-mail: angelv@iac.e

    2010-05-01

    Using the k-means cluster analysis algorithm, we carry out an unsupervised classification of all galaxy spectra in the seventh and final Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release (SDSS/DR7). Except for the shift to rest-frame wavelengths and the normalization to the g-band flux, no manipulation is applied to the original spectra. The algorithm guarantees that galaxies with similar spectra belong to the same class. We find that 99% of the galaxies can be assigned to only 17 major classes, with 11 additional minor classes including the remaining 1%. The classification is not unique since many galaxies appear in between classes; however, our rendering of the algorithm overcomes this weakness with a tool to identify borderline galaxies. Each class is characterized by a template spectrum, which is the average of all the spectra of the galaxies in the class. These low-noise template spectra vary smoothly and continuously along a sequence labeled from 0 to 27, from the reddest class to the bluest class. Our Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) classification separates galaxies in colors, with classes characteristic of the red sequence, the blue cloud, as well as the green valley. When red sequence galaxies and green valley galaxies present emission lines, they are characteristic of active galactic nucleus activity. Blue galaxy classes have emission lines corresponding to star formation regions. We find the expected correlation between spectroscopic class and Hubble type, but this relationship exhibits a high intrinsic scatter. Several potential uses of the ASK classification are identified and sketched, including fast determination of physical properties by interpolation, classes as templates in redshift determinations, and target selection in follow-up works (we find classes of Seyfert galaxies, green valley galaxies, as well as a significant number of outliers). The ASK classification is publicly accessible through various Web sites.

  3. Hunting Mirages in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-02-01

    Another Gravitational Lens Candidate Identified at ESO One more cosmic mirage has been found with the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT). It consists of two images of the same quasar, seen very close to each other in the southern constellation of Hydra (The Water-Snake). Ever since the exciting discovery of the first cosmic mirage was made seventeen years ago, astronomers have been asking how common this strange phenomenon really is. In most cases we see more than one image of the same celestial object. This effect is due to the bending and focusing of light from distant objects when it passes through the strong gravitational fields of massive galaxies on its way to us. However, from here on the opinions of the specialists diverge. While some believe that this is a very rare event, others disagree and some have even been suggesting that a substantial fraction of the very faint images seen on long exposure photos obtained with large astronomical telescopes may in fact be caused by this effect. If so, they would not be `real'. Is it thus conceivable that the distant Universe is just a great mirror cabinet? There is only one way to answer this important question - more and better observations must be obtained. It is in the course of these investigations that the new discovery was made by a group of three European astronomers [1]. Cosmic mirages are caused by gravitational lenses The physical principle behind a cosmic mirage is known since 1916 as a consequence of Einstein's General Relativity Theory. The gravitational field of a massive object curves the local geometry of the Universe, so light rays passing close to the object are also curved (in the same way as a `straight line' on the surface of the Earth is necessarily curved because of the curvature of the Earth's surface). This effect was first observed by astronomers in 1919 during a total solar eclipse. Accurate positional measurements of stars seen in the dark sky near the eclipsed Sun indicated an

  4. Interpretation of NO2 absorption in twilight sky spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, B. B.

    1984-07-01

    A multiple scattering model has been developed to calculate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) absorption in the light from the zenith sky during twilight. Model studies show that this absorption is not very sensitive to the atmospheric temperature profile or to tropospheric NO2. The model was used to interpret some ground-based measurements of NO2 sky absorption. Values for the total stratospheric column amount vary from 2 to 12 x 10 to the 15th molec/sq cm, and the mean altitude of the stratospheric concentration profile is around 35 km. These observations are in broad agreement with those of other workers.

  5. The sky entities as represented in African literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Evelyn N.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical observations used by the ancient people of Africa were developed out of the people's desire to have concrete manifestations of their gods and religious beliefs as well as for time-keeping - day, night and calendar for agricultural and festive seasons. The sky entities (the solar and stellar systems) observed become part of the lives and events here on Earth and so are also part of the context of African literature. This paper examines the ways in which different African peoples have reflected on the role of the sky entities in their literature.

  6. The All Sky Young Association (ASYA): a New Young Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, C. A. O.; Quast, G. R.; Montes, D.

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the SACY (Search for Associations Containing Young stars) survey we developed a method to find young associations and to define their high probability members. These bona fide members enable to obtain the kinematical and the physical properties of each association in a proper way. Recently we noted a concentration in the UV plane and we found a new association we are calling ASYA (All Sky Young Association) for its overall distribution in the sky with a total of 38 bonafide members and an estimated age of 110 Myr, the oldest young association found in the SACY survey. We present here its kinematical, space and Li distributions and its HR diagram.

  7. Full - sky search for ultrahigh - energy cosmic ray anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Luis A. Anchordoqui et al.

    2003-07-02

    Using data from the SUGAR and the AGASA experiments taken during a 10 yr period with nearly uniform exposure to the entire sky, we search for anisotropy patterns in the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energies > 10{sup 19.6} eV. We determine the angular power spectrum from an expansion in spherical harmonics for modes out to {ell} = 5. Based on available statistics, we find no significant deviation from isotropy. We compare the rather modest results which can be extracted from existing data samples with the results that should be forthcoming as new full-sky observatories begin operation.

  8. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Loveday, J.; SDSS Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a project to definitively map {pi} steradians of the local Universe. An array of CCD detectors used in drift-scan mode will digitally image the sky in five passbands to a limiting magnitude of r{prime} {approximately} 23. Selected from the imaging survey, 10{sup 6} galaxies and 10{sup 5} quasars will be observed spectroscopically. I describe the current status of the survey, which is due to begin observations early in 1997, and its prospects for constraining models for dark matter in the Universe. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Blue angioedema of eyelip after patent blue injection for lymphatic mapping procedure.

    PubMed

    Weng, P-W; Hsu, H-M; Chen, T-W; Hsieh, C-B; Chang, T-M; Chen, V T K; Yu, J-C

    2007-07-01

    Sentinel node biopsy using patent blue dye in breast cancer is a well-documented procedure to assess the axillary status. We presented an unusual and previously unreported complication of simple blue angioedema over bilaterally periorbital tissue after blue dye injection.

  10. Blue moons and large fires.

    PubMed

    Porch, W M

    1989-05-15

    Theoretical analysis of simulations of optical effects from the 1950 Canadian forest fires has revealed what conditions are necessary for large fires to cause blue moons and suns. This study shows how large fires can be used to improve our understanding of long range pollution transport on a global scale as well as the evolution of aerosol radiative effects so important to global climate studies. The most important aerosol characteristics are the initial submicron smoke particle concentration and areal extent of the fire and its effect on fire plume dispersion. Capping clouds above the fire and near saturation humidity effects are simulated and found to help establish anomalous optical effects. Data are included showing probable anomalous extinction events associated with concentrated fire plumes.

  11. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  12. Blue Straggler-White Dwarf binaries in Galactic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekanayake, Gemunu B.; Wilhelm, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    The mass transfer in close binaries has been identified as the most probable formation channel for field blue straggler stars (BSSs). The companions to these BSSs are white dwarf stars (WDs) and can be detected at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths in the spectral energy distribution of the binary, if the mass transfer happened recently so that WD is young and hot.We chose a sample of 2,188 BSSs in the temperature range of 7,000 - 9000 K. and surface gravity, Log g > 3.8, using the Sloan Stellar Parameter Pipeline, from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS).From this, a sub-sample of 80 UV excess field BSSs were identified using UV photometry from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). By using a chi-square minimization technique we fit the observed SED of these UVe-BSSs to set of combined BS+WD models to find the best fitting WD parameters. By considering our fitting results and the theoretical estimates of mass-temperature relation for BSSs , we find that the likely companions to our sample of UVe-BSSs are He WDs. This means that the most likely scenario of formation of these UVe-BSSs is mass transfer onto a normal main sequence star from a red giant star.

  13. Rapid approach to the quantitative determination of nocturnal ground irradiance in populated territories: a clear-sky case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Petržala, Jaromír

    2016-11-01

    A zero-order approach to the solving of the radiative transfer equation and a method for obtaining the horizontal diffuse irradiance at night-time are both developed and intended for wide use in numerical predictions of nocturnal ground irradiance in populated territories. Downward diffuse radiative fluxes are computed with a two-stream approximation, and the data products obtained are useful for scientists who require rapid estimations of illumination levels during the night. The rapid technique presented here is especially important when the entire set of calculations is to be repeated for different lighting technologies and/or radiant intensity distributions with the aim of identifying high-level illuminance/irradiance, the spectral composition of scattered light or other optical properties of diffuse light at the ground level. The model allows for the computation of diffuse horizontal irradiance due to light emissions from ground-based sources with arbitrary spectral compositions. The optical response of a night sky is investigated using the ratio of downward to upward irradiance, R⊥, λ(0). We show that R⊥, λ(0) generally peaks at short wavelengths, thus suggesting that, e.g., the blue light of an LED lamp would make the sky even more bluish. However, this effect can be largely suppressed or even removed with the spectral sensitivity function of the average human eye superimposed on to the lamp spectrum. Basically, blue light scattering dominates at short optical distances, while red light is transmitted for longer distances and illuminates distant places. Computations are performed for unshielded as well as fully shielded lights, while the spectral function R⊥, λ(0) is tabulated to make possible the modelling of various artificial lights, including those not presented here.

  14. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name. PMID:23957706

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Great blue heron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.; Cooper, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    The great blue heron is the largest, most widely distributed, and best known of the American herons (Henny 1972). Great blue herons occur in a variety of habitats from freshwater lakes and rivers to brackish marshes, lagoons, mangrove areas, and coastal wetlands (Spendelow and Patton in prep.).

  16. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... million. Mercury (as Hg), not more than 1 part per million. (c) Uses and restrictions. The color additive ultramarine blue may be safely used for coloring salt intended for animal feed subject to the restriction that the quantity of ultramarine blue does not exceed 0.5 percent by weight of the salt. (d)...

  17. Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-05-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  18. On the geolocation accuracy of COSMO-SkyMed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitti, Davide O.; Nutricato, Raffaele; Lorusso, Rino; Lombardi, Nunzia; Bovenga, Fabio; Bruno, Maria F.; Chiaradia, Maria T.; Milillo, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Accurate geolocation of SAR data is nowadays strongly required because of the increasing number of high resolution SAR sensors available as for instance from TerraSAR-X / TanDEM-X and COSMO-SkyMed space-borne missions. Both stripmap and spotlight acquisition modes provide from metric to sub metric spatial resolution which demands the ability to ensure a geolocation accuracy of the same order of magnitude. Geocoding quality depends on several factors and in particular on the knowledge of the actual values of the satellite position along the orbit, and the delay introduced by the additional path induced by changes in the refractivity index due to the presence of the atmosphere (the so called Atmospheric Path Delay or APD). No definitive results are reported yet in the scientific literature, concerning the best performances achievable by the COSMO-SkyMed constellation in terms of geolocation accuracy. Preliminary studies have shown that sub-pixel geolocation accuracies are hardly achievable with COSMO-SkyMed data. The present work aims at inspecting the origin of the geolocation error sources in COSMO-SkyMed Single-look Complex Slant (SCS) products, and to investigate possible strategies for their compensation or mitigation. Five different test sites have been selected in Italy and Argentina, where up to 30 corner reflectors are installed, pointing towards ascending or descending passes. Experimental results are presented and discussed.

  19. a Study of Sasin-Animal Sky Map on Chonmunryucho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Jin; Park, Myeong-Gu

    2003-03-01

    Chon-Mun-Ryu-Cho, written (edited) by Lee Sun-Ji during the period of King Se-Jong, is a representative astronomy book of Cho-Sun (A.D. 1392 -1910) Dynasty. We find and study in the first page of the book; the description of 28 oriental constellations as a Sasin (four mythical oriental animals)-animal sky map which is not widely known yet. The map consists of four groups of constellations, each of which represents the Sasin: Chang-Ryong (dragon), Baek-Ho (tigers with Ki-Rin [Oriental giraffe]), Ju-Jak (Chinese phoenix), Hyun-Mu (a tortoise interwined with a snake). Each group (animals) spans 2˜7 of 28 oriental constellations As we know from the illustration of the Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do a representative sky map of Cho-Sun Dynasty, astronomy in Cho-Sun Dynasty is closely related to that in Go-Gu-Ryer (B.C. 37 -A.D. 668) Dynasty. Since these Sasin-animals appear in most mural paintings of Go-Gu-Ryer tombs, visualization of sky with these animal constellations could have been established as early as in Go-Gu-Ryer Dynasty. We also reconstruct this ''A Sasin-animal Korean sky map'' based on the shapes of the Sasin and Ki-Rin from Go-Gu-Ryer paintings and 28 oriental constellations in Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do.

  20. Scope on the Skies: The Law of Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This article explains how the sky would look from different locations, specifically from other locations within our solar system. Answers to the following questions are addressed: Do the constellation patterns we see from Earth look different from another planet in our solar system? What would the Sun look like from greater distances? (Contains 2…