Science.gov

Sample records for alameda county water

  1. A water-quality monitoring network for Vallecitos Valley, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    A water-quality monitoring network is proposed to detect the presence of and trace the movement of radioisotopes in the hydrologic system in the vicinity of the Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Alameda County, Calif. The source of the radioisotopes is treated industrial wastewater from the Vallecitos Nuclear Center that is discharged into an unnamed tributary of Vallecitos Creek. The effluent infiltrates the alluvium along the stream course, percolates downward to the water table, and mixes with the native ground water in the subsurface. The average daily discharge of effluent to the hydrologic system in 1978 was about 100,000 gallons. In Vallecitos Valley, the Livermore Gravel and the overlying alluvium constitute the groundwater reservoir. There is no subsurface inflow from adjacent groundwater basins. Groundwater flow in the Vallecitos subbasin is toward the southwest. The proposed network consists of four surface-water sampling sites and six wells to sample the groundwater system. Samples collected monthly at each site and analyzed for tritium and for alpha, beta, and gamma radiation would provide adequate data for monitoring. (USGS)

  2. Educational and Demographic Profile: Alameda County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Alameda County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced communication and…

  3. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alameda County Recorder Office Map ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alameda County Recorder Office Map Book 6, page 17 October 1960 SURVEY OF 1868 - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  4. An Environmental Scan of Northern Alameda County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloro, Nicholas

    A study was conducted to provide an overview of the demographic and economic characteristics of the geographical area served by the Peralta Community College District and to provide population and economic projections up to the year 2000. Historical data from the Alameda County Planning Commission, census data, and projections from the Association…

  5. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health through the Alameda County, California, Place Matters Policy Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Schaff, Katherine; Flournoy, Rebecca; Carson, Keith; Drenick, Teresa; Fujii, Darlene; Lee, Anna; Luginbuhl, Jessica; Mena, Mona; Shrago, Amy; Siegel, Anita; Stahl, Robert; Watkins-Tartt, Kimi; Willow, Pam; Witt, Sandra; Woloshin, Diane; Yamashita, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    In Alameda County, California, significant health inequities by race/ethnicity, income, and place persist. Many of the county's low-income residents and residents of color live in communities that have faced historical and current disinvestment through public policies. This disinvestment affects community conditions such as access to economic opportunities, well-maintained and affordable housing, high-quality schools, healthy food, safe parks, and clean water and air. These community conditions greatly affect health. At the invitation of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies' national Place Matters initiative, Alameda County Supervisor Keith Carson's Office and the Alameda County Public Health Department launched Alameda County Place Matters, an initiative that addresses community conditions through local policy change. We describe the initiative's creation, activities, policy successes, and best practices. PMID:24179279

  6. Addressing the social determinants of health through the Alameda County, California, place matters policy initiative.

    PubMed

    Schaff, Katherine; Desautels, Alexandra; Flournoy, Rebecca; Carson, Keith; Drenick, Teresa; Fujii, Darlene; Lee, Anna; Luginbuhl, Jessica; Mena, Mona; Shrago, Amy; Siegel, Anita; Stahl, Robert; Watkins-Tartt, Kimi; Willow, Pam; Witt, Sandra; Woloshin, Diane; Yamashita, Brenda

    2013-11-01

    In Alameda County, California, significant health inequities by race/ethnicity, income, and place persist. Many of the county's low-income residents and residents of color live in communities that have faced historical and current disinvestment through public policies. This disinvestment affects community conditions such as access to economic opportunities, well-maintained and affordable housing, high-quality schools, healthy food, safe parks, and clean water and air. These community conditions greatly affect health. At the invitation of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies' national Place Matters initiative, Alameda County Supervisor Keith Carson's Office and the Alameda County Public Health Department launched Alameda County Place Matters, an initiative that addresses community conditions through local policy change. We describe the initiative's creation, activities, policy successes, and best practices. PMID:24179279

  7. Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    James Spillane

    2005-10-01

    The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

  8. The Alameda County Study: A Systematic, Chronological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This study is a systematic review of the Alameda County study findings and their importance in establishing a link between lifestyle and health outcomes. A systematic review of literature was performed and data indicating important links between lifestyle and health were synthesized. Although initial studies focused on the associations between…

  9. Subsurface structure of the East Bay Plain ground-water basin: San Francisco Bay to the Hayward fault, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Borchers, J.W.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.; Ponce, D.A.; Steedman, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The area of California between the San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Santa Clara Valley, and the Diablo Ranges (East Bay Hills), commonly referred to as the 'East Bay', contains the East Bay Plain and Niles Cone ground-water basins. The area has a population of 1.46 million (2003 US Census), largely distributed among several cities, including Alameda, Berkeley, Fremont, Hayward, Newark, Oakland, San Leandro, San Lorenzo, and Union City. Major known tectonic structures in the East Bay area include the Hayward Fault and the Diablo Range to the east and a relatively deep sedimentary basin known as the San Leandro Basin beneath the eastern part of the bay. Known active faults, such as the Hayward, Calaveras, and San Andreas pose significant earthquake hazards to the region, and these and related faults also affect ground-water flow in the San Francisco Bay area. Because most of the valley comprising the San Francisco Bay area is covered by Holocene alluvium or water at the surface, our knowledge of the existence and locations of such faults, their potential hazards, and their effects on ground-water flow within the alluvial basins is incomplete. To better understand the subsurface stratigraphy and structures and their effects on ground-water and earthquake hazards, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD), acquired a series of high-resolution seismic reflection and refraction profiles across the East Bay Plain near San Leandro in June 2002. In this report, we present results of the seismic imaging investigations, with emphasis on ground water.

  10. 75 FR 13301 - Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Register on February 20, 2009 (74 FR 7922). The written comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on April... Bureau of Reclamation Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA AGENCY... Environmental Quality Act lead agency, have prepared the Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion Final EIS/EIR....

  11. Support Services for Exceptional Students: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Joaquin, and Solano Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Angelica; Maloney, Patricia

    Intended for use by vocational administrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Alameda,…

  12. Digital database of microfossil localities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, Kristin; Block, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The eastern San Francisco Bay region (Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California) is a geologically complex area divided by faults into a suite of tectonic blocks. Each block contains a unique stratigraphic sequence of Tertiary sediments that in most blocks unconformably overlie Mesozoic sediments. Age and environmental interpretations based on analysis of microfossil assemblages are key factors in interpreting geologic history, structure, and correlation of each block. Much of this data, however, is distributed in unpublished internal reports and memos, and is generally unavailable to the geologic community. In this report the U.S. Geological Survey microfossil data from the Tertiary sediments of Alameda and Contra Costa counties are analyzed and presented in a digital database, which provides a user-friendly summary of the micropaleontologic data, locality information, and biostratigraphic and ecologic interpretations.

  13. Summary and results of the joint WMD-DAC/Alameda County bioterrorism response plan exercise.

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Lipkin, Joel; West, Todd H.; Tam, Ricky; Hirano, Howard H.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.

    2003-11-01

    On June 12,2003, the Alameda County Public Health Department and Sandia National Laboratories/CA jointly conducted an exercise that used a Weapons of Mass Destruction-Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC) bioterrorism attack simulation to test the effectiveness of the county's emergency response plan. The exercise was driven by an assumed release (in the vicinity of the Berkeley Marina), and subsequent spread, of a small quantity of aerosolized, weapons-grade anthrax spores. The simulation used several key WMD-DAC capabilities, namely: (1) integration with an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate expected dose levels in the affected areas, (2) a individual-tracking capability for both infected and non-infected persons as they made decisions, sought treatment, and received prophylaxis drugs, and (3) a user interface that allows exercise participants to affect the scenario evolution and outcome. The analysis of the county's response plan included documenting and reviewing the decisions made by participants during the exercise. Twenty-six local and regional officials representing the health care system, emergency medical services and law enforcement were involved in responding to the simulated attack. The results of this joint effort include lessons learned both by the Alameda County officials regarding implementation of their bioterrorism response plan and by the Sandia representatives about conducting exercises of this type. These observations are reviewed in this report, and they form a basis for providing a better understanding of group/individual decision processes and for identifying effective communication options among decision makers.

  14. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Alameda County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; Brian, Dianne; Houdre, Nicolas

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. In Alameda County more than $20 million in damages were assessed. Debris flows occurred in rural portions of the county, but were only responsible for $400 thousand in damages.

  15. 77 FR 77183 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda County, Cal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Industrial Lead); Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority--Abandonment of Residual Common Carrier Obligation Exemption--in Alameda County, Cal. (San Jose Industrial Lead) On December 12, 2012, Union Pacific... line, to abandon its residual common carrier obligation for, a portion of the San Jose Industrial...

  16. Alameda County Library Workplace Literacy, Final Performance Report for Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) Title VI, Library Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drobner, Sherry

    The Adult Literacy Program at the Alameda County Library provided employment oriented programs. The project served a community of over 200,000 people, and targeted workforce/workplace learners. The project served 578 adult learners and provided 35,904 hours of direct tutoring service. The report provides a comparison of actual accomplishments to…

  17. Intersections of family homelessness, CPS involvement, and race in Alameda County, California.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jason M; Shinn, Marybeth

    2016-07-01

    The homelessness and child protective services (CPS) systems are closely linked. This study examines the patterns and sequence of families' involvement with homeless shelters and CPS, as well as whether involvement in each system predicts involvement in the other using linked administrative records for 258 families recruited in emergency shelters in Alameda County, California. More than half of families were reported to CPS at some point, but less than one-fifth ever had a report substantiated. Reports that were uninvestigated or unfounded increased in the months leading up to shelter entry and spiked immediately afterward, but substantiations and child removals increased only later. Shelter use before study entry was associated with CPS referrals and investigations after study entry, although not with substantiated cases or child removals. However, CPS involvement before study entry was not associated with returns to shelter after study entry. These results imply that an unsubstantiated report of neglect or abuse may serve as an early warning signal for homelessness and that preventive strategies aiming to affect both homeless and child protective systems should focus on reducing homelessness. CPS workers should evaluate families' housing needs and attempt to link families to appropriate resources. Black families were disproportionately referred to CPS after shelter entry after controlling for other family characteristics, but race was not associated with substantiations of neglect or abuse or with child removals. Findings lend modest support to human decision-making and institutional explanations of racial disproportionalities in CPS involvement, especially for reporters outside of the CPS system. PMID:27318034

  18. 2001-2002 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300, Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    Condor County Consulting on behalf of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has performed wet season surveys for listed branchiopods at Site 300, located in eastern Alameda County and western San Joaquin County. LLNL is collecting information for the preparation of an EIS covering ongoing explosives testing and related activities on Site 300. Related activities include maintenance of fire roads and annual control burns of approximately 607 hectares (1500 acres). Control burns typically take place on the northern portion of the site. Because natural branchiopod habitat is sparse on Site 300, it is not surprising that listed branchiopods were not observed during this 2001-2002 wet season survey. Although the site is large, a majority of it has topography and geology that precludes the formation of static seasonal pools. Even the relatively gentle topography of the northern half of the site contains few areas where water pools for more than two weeks. The rock outcrops found on the site did not provide suitable habitat for listed branchiopods. Most of the habitat available to branchiopods on the site is puddles that form in roadbeds and dry quickly. The one persistent pool on the site, the larger of the two modified vernal pools and the only one to fill this season, is occupied by two branchiopod species that require long-lived pools to reach maturity. In short, there is little habitat available on the site for branchiopods and most of the habitat present is generally too short-lived to support the branchiopod species that do occur at Site 300.

  19. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century - A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, K.M.; Fuller, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would require measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. 31 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Clearing a Career Path: Lessons from Two Communities in Promoting Higher Education Access for the Early Care and Education Workforce. Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukakis, Kara; Bellm, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the process through which Alameda and Santa Clara Counties have used the Comprehensive Approaches to Raising Educational Standards (CARES) programs and other resources to leverage systemic change in early care and education (ECE) higher education. It describes a range of new and expanded efforts in both counties, and aims to…

  1. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century : a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K.M.; Fuller, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Opening of the Oakland tidal channel and removal of 97% of the marshlands formerly surrounding the Bay have decreased tidal velocities and volumes. Marshland removal has decreased the tidal prism by about 25%. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would required measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1 ,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 85-345-1665, County of Alameda, Oakland, California. [Data Processing Department

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, P.L.

    1986-02-01

    Air quality in the Data Processing Department of the County of Alameda, Oakland, California was investigated on May 16, and June 14, 1985. The evaluation was requested by a representative of the Personnel Department, Occupational Health Services, County of Alameda, Oakland, California to investigate indoor air quality problems. Workers had complained about room air temperature, and symptoms such as stuffy head, headaches, burning eyes and raspy throat. There also was concern that the ventilation intake duct, at street level, might be capturing vehicle-exhaust fumes. Approximately 70 to 80 programmers and clerical staff work in the Data Processing Department, which is located in a large windowless room in the basement. An initial environmental survey was conducted in May; in June, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) and formaldehyde concentrations in the air were measured using chemical detector tubes. The author concluded that there were no overexposures to CO, CO/sub 2/, or formaldehyde, and that workers complaints may be related to an improperly balanced ventilation system and cigarette smoke.

  3. 17. Western Branch right of way on Alameda Drive, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Western Branch right of way on Alameda Drive, looking west from Dorsey. The piped ditch (Lateral 6) runs beneath the grassy median. The SRP control structure in the background diverts water for Lateral 7, formerly known as the Petersen Ditch. Photographer: Mark Durben, June 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 2. LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST ACROSS FEDERAL CHANNEL FROM THE ALAMEDA SHORE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST ACROSS FEDERAL CHANNEL FROM THE ALAMEDA SHORE, TO THE NORTH TRAINING WALL. (Panoramic view 2 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. GATE HOUSE FOR UNITED ENGINEERING CO., Alameda, California. Four elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GATE HOUSE FOR UNITED ENGINEERING CO., Alameda, California. Four elevations and three sections. Alben Froberg, Architect, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 1. Scale 1/4 inch to the foot, elevations. Scale ~ inch to the foot, sections. July 31, 1941. pencil on tracing paper - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Gate House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  6. BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, two elevations, sections, and details. Alben Froberg, Architect, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 1 of 1. Various scales. December 15, 1941. pencil on tracing paper - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Bending Shop & Oven, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  7. TRUSS DETAILS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Includes crane ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRUSS DETAILS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Includes crane girder section. No architect noted. Drawn by Penney. Plan no. 2-N-7. March 10, 1942, no revisions. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76, item no. 22A. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Warehouse, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  8. 15. MAP OF ALAMEDA SHIPYARD SHOWING PROPOSED ADDITIONAL FACILITIES. United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MAP OF ALAMEDA SHIPYARD SHOWING PROPOSED ADDITIONAL FACILITIES. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. A site map with all existing structures keyed to an identification legend. Also shows proposed new structures. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.B.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 2. Plan no. 10,528. Scale one inch to 100 feet. November 12, 1943, last revised 1/18/44. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  9. Debris flows triggered by the El Nino rainstorm of February 2-3, 1998, Walpert Ridge and vicinity, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    On February 2 and 3, 1998, a rainstorm generated by the 1997-98 El Nino moved through the San Francisco Bay region of California triggering widespread slope failures. In the Walpert Ridge area of Alameda County 531 debris flows were triggered by the storm. These data depict the debris flows and landslides as polygons. The landslide polygons were mapped from 1:30,000 aerial photography using a PG2 photogrammetric plotter. The mapped debris flows and landslides were digitized manually in ArcInfo.

  10. Lithostratigraphic, borehole-geophysical, hydrogeologic, and hydrochemical data from the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Orlando, Patricia v.P.; Borchers, James W.; Everett, Rhett; Solt, Michael; McGann, Mary; Lowers, Heather; Mahan, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Water-level and aquifer-system-compaction measurements, which indicated diurnal and seasonal fluctuations, were made at the Bayside Groundwater Project site. Slug tests were performed at the Bayside piezometers and nine pre-existing wells to estimate hydraulic conductivity.

  11. 75 FR 16550 - BNSF Railway Company-Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption-in Alameda County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... approximately 2.04 miles of rail line owned by the Alameda Beltline Railroad (ABL), running between milepost 0... Zip Code 94501. \\1\\ One of BNSF's predecessors, The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company acquired the trackage in 1982. See The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company--Trackage...

  12. 75 FR 18013 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption-in Alameda County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... trackage rights over 1.80 miles of rail line owned ] by Alameda Belt Line (ABL) \\1\\ between milepost 0.00... UP and Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway Company (BNSF). UP acquired the trackage rights in... least 2 years; (2) there is no overhead traffic on the line; (3) no formal complaint filed by a user...

  13. Map showing recent (1997-98 El Nino) and historical landslides, Crow Creek and vicinity, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Godt, Jonathan; Tachker, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the spatial distribution of 3,800 landslides caused by 1997-98 El Ni?o winter rainfall in the vicinity of Crow Creek in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California. The report also documents 558 historical (pre-1997-98) landslides. Landslides were mapped from 1:12,000-scale aerial photographs and classified as either debris flows or slides. Slides include rotational and translational slides, earth flows, and complex slope movements. Debris flows and slides from the 1997-98 winter modified 1 percent of the surface of the 148.6 km2 study area. Debris flows were scattered throughout the area, regardless of the type of underlying bedrock geology. Slides, however, were concentrated in a soft sandstone, conglomerate, and clayey group of rock units. Digital map files accompany the report.

  14. STATION BUILDING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STATION BUILDING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. Plan, elevations, sections, details. Austin Willmott Earl, Consulting Engineer, 233 Sansome Street, San Francisco, California. Drawing no. 504. Various scales. January 20, 1945, no revisions. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76, amendments 4 & 5. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Electrical Services & Switching Station, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  15. 14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DREDGING MAP. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Ship repair facilities dredging map. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 1. Plan no. 10,529. Scale one inch to 50 feet. September 22, 1943. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 18, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  16. FIRST FLOOR PLAN AND SCHEDULES. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR PLAN AND SCHEDULES. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities, Office Building. First floor plan, door transom schedule, interior finish schedule, sash schedule, exterior color schedule, and location plot plan. John Hudspeth, Architect, at foot of Main Street, Alameda, Calif. Sheet no. Al of 8 sheets, Plan no. 10,007. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 18, 1942, last revised 9/25/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Office Building No. 137, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  17. EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities, Office Building. Includes lettering detail for front elevation. John Hudspeth, Architect, at foot of Main Street, Alameda, Calif. Sheet no. A3 of 8 sheets, Plan no. 10,007. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 18, 1942, last revised 9/21/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Office Building No. 137, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  18. SECOND FLOOR AND ROOF PLANS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECOND FLOOR AND ROOF PLANS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities, Office Building. Second floor plan, and roof plan. John Hudspeth, Architect, at foot of Main Street, Alameda, Calif. Sheet no. A2 of 8 sheets, Plan no. 10,007. Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 18, 1942, last revised 9/22/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Office Building No. 137, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  19. Landslides in Alameda County, California: A Digital Database Extracted from Preliminary Photointerpretation Maps of Surficial Deposits by T.H. Nilsen in USGS Open-File Report 75-277

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Sebastian; Roberts, Michelle A.; Brennan, Eileen M.

    2000-01-01

    All or part of 25 7.5-minute quadrangles identifying 8465 landslides - largely slow-moving slides and earth flows - in Alameda County, California, have been converted to a digital-map database, compiled at 1:24,000 scale and plotted at 1:62,500 scale, that can be acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey over the Internet or on magnetic tape.

  20. Trench logs, terrestrial lidar system imagery, and radiocarbon data from the kilometer-62 site on the Greenville Fault, southeastern Alameda County, California, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Avdievitch, Nikita N.; Pickering, Alexandra J; Guilderson, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, we investigated an abrupt 8.5-meter (m), right-laterally deflected stream channel located near the Greenville Fault in southeastern Alameda County, California (-121.56224° E, 37.53430° N) that we discovered using 0.5-m resolution, 2011 aerial lidar imagery flown along the active fault trace. Prior to trenching we surveyed the site using a terrestrial lidar system (TLS) to document the exact geomorphic expression of this deflected stream channel before excavating a trench adjacent to it. We trenched perpendicular to the fault hoping to document the prehistoric history of earthquake ruptures along the fault. However, the alluvial stratigraphy that we document in these trench logs shows conclusively that this trench did not expose any active fault trace. Using other local geomorphic evidence for the fault location, a straight fault scarp immediately north of this stream projects slightly upslope of the west end of our trench and may be the actual location of the active fault trace. Five radiocarbon samples establish age control for the alluvial sequence documented in the trench, which may in the future be useful in constraining the long-term slip rate of the Greenville Fault. The deflection had been caused by an abrupt nontectonic termination of unit u30, a relatively thick (0.15–0.35 m) silt that is more erosion resistant than the adjacent cohesionless sand and gravel. 

  1. 75 FR 8106 - Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara... located in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties of California. We provide this notice in..., we initiate our process for developing a CCP for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR in Alameda,...

  2. PLANS & ELEVATIONS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Also ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANS & ELEVATIONS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Also includes door schedule and a small scale plot plan. No architect noted. Drawn by W.H.H. Plan no. 2-N-5 (U.E. Co. plan no. 10,523). Scale 1/8 inch to the foot. March 10, 1942, last revised 10/6/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76, item no. 22A. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Warehouse, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  3. WAREHOUSE END FRAMING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Sections ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAREHOUSE END FRAMING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Sections at north and detail sections. No architect noted. Drawn by Penney. Plan no. 2-N-9 (U.E. Co. plan no. 10,523). Scales 1/4 inch and 1 inch to the foot. March 10, 1942, no revisions. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76, item no. 22A. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Warehouse, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  4. Cone Penetration Test and Soil Boring at the Bayside Groundwater Project Site in San Lorenzo, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Michael J.; Sneed, Michelle; Noce, Thomas E.; Tinsley, John C., III

    2009-01-01

    Aquifer-system deformation associated with ground-water-level changes is being investigated cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) at the Bayside Groundwater Project (BGP) near the modern San Francisco Bay shore in San Lorenzo, California. As a part of this project, EBMUD has proposed an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) program to store and recover as much as 3.78x104 m3/d of water. Water will be stored in a 30-m sequence of coarse-grained sediment (the 'Deep Aquifer') underlying the east bay alluvium and the adjacent ground-water basin. Storing and recovering water could cause subsidence and uplift at the ASR site and adjacent areas because the land surface will deform as aquifers and confining units elastically expand and contract with ASR cycles. The Deep Aquifer is overlain by more than 150 m of clayey fine-grained sediments and underlain by comparable units. These sediments are similar to the clayey sediments found in the nearby Santa Clara Valley, where inelastic compaction resulted in about 4.3 m of subsidence near San Jose from 1910 to 1995 due to overdraft of the aquifer. The Deep Aquifer is an important regional resource, and EBMUD is required to demonstrate that ASR activities will not affect nearby ground-water management, salinity levels, or cause permanent land subsidence. Subsidence in the east bay area could induce coastal flooding and create difficulty conveying winter storm runoff from urbanized areas. The objective of the cooperative investigation is to monitor and analyze aquifer-system compaction and expansion, as well as consequent land subsidence and uplift resulting from natural causes and any anthropogenic causes related to ground-water development and ASR activities at the BGP. Therefore, soil properties related to compressibility (and the potential for deformation associated with ground-water-level changes) are of the most concern. To achieve this objective, 3 boreholes

  5. 20. ANOTHER WATER VIEW OF THIS NORTH TRAINING WALL SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. ANOTHER WATER VIEW OF THIS NORTH TRAINING WALL SECTION, FROM SEVERAL HUNDRED FEET TO THE EAST OF THE PREVIOUS VIEW. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 76 FR 13172 - Placer County Water Agency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Placer County Water Agency Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with... Filed: February 23, 2011 d. Applicant: Placer County Water Agency e. Name of Project: Middle Fork... Manager, Placer County Water Agency, 144 Ferguson Road, Auburn, CA 95603; Telephone: (530) 823-4490....

  7. Alameda Unified School District, 2009-2011. Alameda Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivot Learning Partners, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When the five-member Board of the Alameda Unified School District selected Kirsten Vital as the new superintendent in 2009, they chose someone from outside their tight-knit community. Board Trustee Margie Sherratt thought Vital was chosen to "get us moving," to be a change agent on closing the achievement gap. Vital, in her initial conversations…

  8. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of aquifers underlying the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Borchers, James W.; Leighton, David A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Fields, Latoya; Galloway, Devin L.; Michel, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The East Bay Plain, on the densely populated eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, contains an upper aquifer system to depths of 250 feet below land surface and an underlying lower aquifer system to depths of more than 650 feet. Injection and recovery of imported water has been proposed for deep aquifers at two sites within the lower aquifer system. Successful operation requires that the injected water be isolated from surface sources of poor-quality water during storage and recovery. Hydraulic, geochemical, and isotopic data were used to evaluate the isolation of deeper aquifers. Ground-water responses to tidal changes in the Bay suggest that thick clay layers present within these deposits effectively isolate the deeper aquifers in the northern part of the study area from overlying surficial deposits. These data also suggest that the areal extent of the shallow and deep aquifers beneath the Bay may be limited in the northern part of the study area. Despite its apparent hydraulic isolation, the lower aquifer system may be connected to the overlying upper aquifer system through the corroded and failed casings of abandoned wells. Water-level measurements in observation wells and downward flow measured in selected wells during nonpumped conditions suggest that water may flow through wells from the upper aquifer system into the lower aquifer system during nonpumped conditions. The chemistry of water from wells in the East Bay Plain ranges from fresh to saline; salinity is greater than seawater in shallow estuarine deposits near the Bay. Water from wells completed in the lower aquifer system has higher pH, higher sodium, chloride, and manganese concentrations, and lower calcium concentrations and alkalinity than does water from wells completed in the overlying upper aquifer system. Ground-water recharge temperatures derived from noble-gas data indicate that highly focused recharge processes from infiltration of winter streamflow and more diffuse recharge processes from

  9. The Water Cycle in Volusia County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, Edward R.

    2009-01-01

    Earth's water is always in motion. The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the Earth's surface. This fact sheet provides information about how much water moves into and out of Volusia County, and where it is stored. It also illustrates the seasonal variation in water quantity and movement using data from some of the hydrologic data collection sites in or near Volusia County, Florida.

  10. Water resources of Langlade County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    An average of about 4.7 million gallons of water was pumped daily in Langlade County in 1983. Irrigation and fish rearing are the major ground-water uses in the county. An average of about 4.2 million gallons per day was pumped for irrigation during the months of June, July, and August. Results of this study show that present irrigation pumpage rates have little effect on groundwater levels in the Antigo Flats area.

  11. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  12. WATER QUALITY IN OPEN FINISHED WATER RESERVOIRS - ALLEGHENY COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this investigation was to study water quality changes occurring in open reservoirs in the distribution systems of five water supplies located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Results of chemical, bacteriological, and biological analyses showed deterioration of wa...

  13. Surface-water availability, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Alfred L.; Davis, Marvin E.

    1975-01-01

    The average annual runoff, about 1,270 mgd (million gallons per day), originating in Tuscaloosa County is equivalent to 20 inches or 0.95 mgd per square mile. The Black Warrior and Sipsey Rivers, the largest streams in the county, have average flows of 5,230 mgd and 580 mgd, respectively, where they leave the county, and median annual 7-day low flows in excess of 150 mgd and 35 mgd, respectively. North River, Big Sandy Creek, and Hurricane Creek have average flows in excess of 100 mgd and median annual 7-day low flows in excess of 2 mgd. Surface water generally contains less than 100 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids, less than 10 mg/l chloride, and is soft to moderately hard. Streams having the higher hardness and the higher dissolved-solids content are in eastern Tuscaloosa County.

  14. Water resources of Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrabrant, Lynn A.

    1993-01-01

    In Taos County, ground water generally is unconfined and moves toward the Rio Grande or perennial streams. Water quality is good except in some areas where water has high values of specific conductance and hardness and contains high concentrations of dissolved solids and fluoride. Most wells are completed in alluvial sediments of Quaternary and Tertiary age in the Costilla Plains. A few wells are completed in basalt of the Taos Plateau and in alluvium of stream channels in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Depths to water in wells range from less than 1 to 1,080 feet below land surface. Well yields range from 1 to 3,000 gallons per minute. Water levels in wells in Sunshine Valley dropped 5 to 50 feet between 1955 and 1970. Ground-water irrigation has since declined and water levels have risen. Surface-water records show the county is a net producer of water. The average discharge gained in the Rio Grande as it flows through the county was 271,700 acre-feet per year for water years 1931-89. The highest mean monthly discharge occurs in May or June due to snowmelt runoff. Water quality ranges from good in upstream reaches to fair in lower reaches. Surface water was the source for 93 percent of water withdrawn in 1990, but ground water was used for all public supply, domestic, and industrial purposes. The largest water use is irrigation. About 28,500 acres were irrigated in 1990; alfalfa, native pasture, and planted pasture accounted for 91 percent of this acreage.

  15. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Water Supply Project, Clarke County, Iowa. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Sims, State... comments by NRCS information related to water supply demand requirements for permitting by the State...

  16. Water-resources investigations, Collier County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Howard

    1980-01-01

    Early water-resources investigations in Collier County, Fla., were related to saltwater intrusion in Naples. With the advent of canal drainage and land reclamation farther inland, investigations were directed at effects of canals on water resources and the environment. High on the list of investigative needs are: (1) areal and vertical delineation of the shallow aquifer, the prime source of freshwater; (2) delineation of areas of poor quality ground water and the sources of the poor quality; (3) establishment of network of hydrologic data stations; and (4) determination of the relation between canals and the shallow aquifer. (USGS)

  17. Water resources of Vilas County, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Pleistocene drift in Vilas County, Wisconsin, consists of three types of material: till, debris-flow sediment, and fluvial sediment. Hydraulic conductivity of the sand and gravel is on the order of 0.001 ft/sec but that of the till and debris-flow sediment is on the order of 0.0001 ft/sec. Calculations of transmissivity indicate that most sand and gravel deposits can yield sufficient quantities of potable water for domestic use, but the till and debris-flow deposits cannot. The water table is generally shallow and there is little water-level fluctuation throughout the county. Fifty-six wells had median depths to water of less than 20 ft. The range of fluctuations varied from 0.5 to 7.36 ft. Analysis of water samples collected from 50 observation wells indicate that calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are the major dissolved constituents. Alkalinity concentrations in Vilas County ranged from 2 to 152 mg/L and had a median concentration of 28 mg/L. The median concentration was lower than the 102 mg/L median for the surrounding area. The low alkalinity concentration in groundwater implies a limited capacity to neutralize acid; this may increase the potential for degradation of lakes by acid precipitation. Alkalinity data for surface water were used to classify 546 lakes according to their sensitivity to acid precipitation. Five lakes are classified as ultrasensitive, 108 lakes are classified as extremely sensitive, 185 lakes are classified as moderately sensitive, 89 lakes are classified as having low sensitivity, and 159 lakes are classified as not sensitive. 19 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Artesian water in Somervell County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fiedler, Albert George

    1934-01-01

    Somervell County is part of the Grand Prairie region of north-central Texas. An excellent supply of artesian water is available from the Trinity reservoir at no great depth. The first flowing well in Somervell County was drilled in 1880, and the first flowing well in Glen Rose, the county seat, was drilled in 1881. Since 1880 more than 500 wells have been constructed, probably more than half of them prior to 1900. Many of these early wells have been abandoned, either because the well hole caved in as a result of the absence or deterioration of casing or because the wells ceased to yield water by natural flow. The artesian water has always been used chiefly for domestic supply and for watering stock. Only a comparatively small area of farm land is now irrigated. The quantity used to supply the needs of tourist camps and outdoor swimming pools forms a relatively large percentage of the total amount withdrawn from the artesian reservoir in Somervell County. The artesian water is contained chiefly in the permeable sandstone beds--the basal sands for the Trinity group. Some shallow wells of small capacity are supplied by water in the crevices and solution channels in limestone that apparently is near the base of the Glen Rose formation and probably derives its water by leakage from the underlying Trinity reservoir. The wells encounter from one to three aquifers, the number depending upon their depth and location. At and around Glen Rose, the area in which most of the flowing wells are concentrated, the first aquifer is the creviced portion of the limestone, which is encountered at about 50 feet but does not everywhere yield water. The second and third aquifers, both of which are part of the 'basal sands' of the Trinity group, are much more uniform and persistent; the second is encountered at Glen Rose at depths of 100 to 135 feet, and the third at depths of about 275 to 330 feet. The artesian reservoir is supplied by water that falls as rain or snow upon the outcrop of

  19. 77 FR 19095 - Security Zone; USCGC STRATTON Commissioning Ceremony, Alameda, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary security zone in the navigable waters of the San Francisco Bay, Alameda, CA within the San Francisco Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone. The security zone is necessary to ensure the safety of the USCGC STRATTON commissioning...

  20. Water resources of Big Horn County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafcan, Maria; Cassidy, E.W.; Smalley, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater in unconsolidated aquifers is the most reliable and accessible source of potable water in Big Horn County, Wyoming. Well yields generally ranged from 25 to 200 gal/min; however, yields of 1600 gal/min are reported from wells in the gravel, pediment, and fan deposits. Bedrock aquifers that yield the most abundant water supplies are the Tensleep Sandstone, Madison Limestone, Bighorn Dolomite, and Flathead Sandstone. The Madison Limestone, the Darby Formation, and the Bighorn Dolomite form the Madison/Bighorn aquifer. Shut-in pressure from flowing wells in bedrock indicate declines, from the time the wells were completed to 1988, by as much as 390 ft. Water samples from wells completed,in unconsolidated aquifers had concentration of dissolved solids less than 2000 mg/L. Water samples from wells in aquifers in Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks had median concentrations of dissolved solids ranging from 111 to 275 mg/L. Perennial streams originate in the mountains and ephemeral streams originate in the Bighorn Basin. The predominant dissolved constituents are calcium or sodium and bicarbonate or sulfate. Concentrations of pesticides detected in surface-water samples were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant levels. Pesticides detected in groundwater samples included dicamba and picloram at a concentration of 0.40 microg/L, atrazines (0.40 microg/L), aldicarb sulfoxide (1.44 microg/L), aldicarb sulfoxide (0.52 microg/L), and malathion (0.02 microg/L). Analyses of groundwater samples for radionuclides indicated that concentrations from four municipal wells exceeded the maximum contaminant levels established by the USEPA. Surface water accounts for 96 percent and groundwater accounts for 4 percent of total off-stream water use in Big Horn County. Irrigation is the largest off-stream use of both surface and groundwater. Groundwater supplies 89 percent of water used for domestic purposes and about 16 percent of water used

  1. Site mitigation issues along the Alameda Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Ripaldi, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Alameda Corridor is a consolidated railroad link between the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach and the regional and national rail systems linking the nation. A joint Environmental Impacts Report/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/EIS) was prepared for the project. The Final EIS was issued in February 1996, and a record of decision was issued in May, 1996. Various Phase 1 and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments have provided extensive historical documentation of environmental contamination in the vicinity of the Alameda Corridor Transportation Project. A Site Mitigation Master Plan provides guidance and direction for the clean-up activities. Samples will be analyzed for metals, PCB`s TRPH, BTEX, and VOCs.

  2. Chemical quality of ground water in Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Two maps portray the chemical quality of ground water in Fairfax County, Virginia. One map shows dissolved-solids concentration and chemical analyses diagrams. The other indicates hardness and areas of marginal water quality. Three tables of chemical analysis representing the three distinct rock types in the county are presented also. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Outdoor residential water use trends in Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijoor, N. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Berg, J.; Baum-Haley, M.

    2012-12-01

    Irrigation is required to maintain outdoor landscapes in semi-arid climates, such as in Orange County, California. Landscape water use efficiency is a priority in Orange County, as nearly half the water supply is imported and the region is vulnerable to water shortages. The purpose of this research is to determine whether single family household residents adjust landscape irrigation based on climate or income in Orange County. Specifically, the goals were to (1) estimate the volume of single family residence (SFR) landscape irrigation applied (2) determine the depth (mm) of over- or under-irrigation compared to theoretical need (3) determine the climatic and socioeconomic controls on landscape irrigation. We plan to compare results from agencies with uniform vs. allocation-based rate structures. A research partnership was established between six water retail agencies in Orange County: Huntington Beach Water District, El Toro Water District, Irvine Ranch Water District, East Orange County Water District, City of San Juan Capistrano, and Laguna Beach County Water District. These agencies represent a wide range of climatic and economic conditions and contributed between 3 and 13 years of SFR water use data on a monthly/bimonthly basis. Household water use, climate, and socioeconomic factors were mapped using Arcview GIS. Air temperature (California Irrigation Management Information System), precipitation (Orange County Cooperative Observer System), landscape size, and income (US Census) were evaluated as possible controls on SFR water use. Findings indicate that landscape water use may constitute the majority of household water use. We found over-irrigation relative to plant water demand in areas of Orange County. Domestic landscape water use may depend on climate and/or income. Results suggest a high potential for residential water savings with improved landscape irrigation efficiency. This information would be useful for improving or developing water use efficiency

  4. Water resources of Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Charles R.; Flippo, Herbert N., Jr.; Lescinsky, Joseph B.; Barker, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Lehigh County occupies an area of 347 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. The northern part of Lehigh County is underlain by the Martinsburg Formation, which consists chiefly of shale and slate. The central part of the county, where most of the population centers are located and much of the urbanization is occurring, is underlain by alternating beds of limestone and dolomite. From oldest to youngest, these carbonate rocks are the Leithsville Formation, the Allentown Formation, the Beekmantown Group, and the Jacksonburg Formation. The southern part of the county is underlain chiefly by the shales, sandstones, and conglomerates of the Brunswick Formation and by metamorphic and igneous rocks.

  5. SPIRIT LAKE, KOOTENAI COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spirit Lake is a high quality recreational lake located in northwestern Kootenai County, Idaho (17010214). A 1984 water quality assessment indicated nutrient enrichment from nonpoint sources, such as timber harvest and domestic wastewater, were causing increased aquatic plant gr...

  6. Detection of water bodies in Saline County, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, B. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A total of 2,272 water bodies were mapped in Saline County, Kansas in 1972 using ERTS-1 imagery. A topographic map of 1955 shows 1,056 water bodies in the county. The major increase took place in farm ponds. Preliminary comparison of image and maps indicates that water bodies larger than ten acres in area proved consistently detectable. Most water areas between four and ten acres are also detectable, although occasionally image context prevents detection. Water areas less than four acres in extent are sometimes detected, but the number varies greatly depending on image context and the individual interpretor.

  7. Sources of emergency water supplies in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    Water distribution systems in Santa Clara County, Calif., may be damaged and rendered inoperable by a large earthquake or other disaster. In such an event, individual agencies may have to implement emergency measures to supply water for drinking, firefighting, decontamination, or other purposes. In Santa Clara County, 128 wells have been identified as potential water-supply sources in emergencies. The criteria used to select the wells are: yield of at least 3 liters per second (50 gallons per minute), good water quality, ready accessibility, and available emergency power. Purification methods of small water supplies are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. PALOUSE RIVER STUDY, LETAH COUNTY, IDAHO, WATER YEAR 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    During water year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on the Palouse River in Latah County (17060108) to determine the present water quality status of the river at Princeton and to obtain background information for the development of effluent limitations for the Hampton-Pr...

  9. Ground-water resources of Cumberland County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rooney, James G.

    1971-01-01

    Water use in Cumberland County varies and is highly seasonal, mainly because of increasing requirements for irrigation and the food processing industries in the county. In 1964 seasonal use ranged from 27 mgd in March to 145 mgd in August. This is much higher than withdrawals in neighboring Salem and Cape May Counties. In 1964 withdrawals in Cumberland County averaged about 51 mgd; almost all of this, 49.4 mgd, was from ground-water supplies. The total annual water use in 1964 according to type of use was: for public supply, 10.6 mgd; for industrial uses, 19.0 mgd; irrigation, 15.4 mgd; suburban, rural, residential, institutional, farm, and commercial, 5.9 mgd. 

  10. Geology and ground-water resources of Clayton County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinhilber, W.L.; Van Eck, O. J.; Feulner, A.J.

    1961-01-01

    Clayton County includes 784 square miles in northeastern Iowa and in 1960 had a population of 21, 962.  For the most part, the county is a dissected upland that is drained mainly by the southeastward flowing Turkey River and its principal tributary, the Volga River.  The Turkey River empties into the Mississippi River, which flows southward along the eastern border of the county.  The climate is humid continental, and the average annual precipitation is 33.01 inches.  The economy of the county is based on farming and the raising of livestock.  The natural resources of the county include soil, water, rock, sand, and timber.

  11. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water supply in central Florida and is critical for aquatic habitats and human consumption. To provide a better understanding for the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County, Florida, a study of the hydrogeologic framework, water budget, and ground-water quality characteristics was conducted from 1998 through 2002. The study also included extensive analyses of the surface-water resources, published as a separate report. An increase in population from about 264,000 in 1960 to 896,000 in 2000 and subsequent urban growth throughout this region has been accompanied by a substantial increase in water use. Total ground-water use in Orange County increased from about 82 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 287 million gallons per day in 2000. The hydrogeology of Orange County consists of three major hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. Data were compiled from 634 sites to construct hydrogeologic maps and sections of Orange County. Water-level elevations measured in 23 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system ranged from about 10.6 feet in eastern Orange County to 123.8 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Orange County from March 2000 through September 2001. Water levels also were measured in 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels fluctuate over time from seasonal and annual variations in rainfall; however, water levels in a number of wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer have declined over time. Withdrawal of ground water from the aquifers by pumping probably is causing the declines because the average annual precipitation rate has not changed substantially in central Florida since the 1930s, although yearly rates can vary. A generalized water budget was computed for Orange County from 1991 to 2000. Average rates for the 10-year period for the following budget components were computed based

  12. Ground-water geology of Bexar County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnow, Ted

    1963-01-01

    The investigation in Bexar County was part of a comprehensive study of a large area in south-central Texas underlain by the Edwards and associated limestones (Comanche Peak and Georgetown) of Cretaceous age. The limestones form an aquifer which supplies water to the city of San Antonio, several military installations, many industrial plants, and many irrigated farms. The geologic formations that yield water to wells in Bexar County are sedimentary rocks of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. The rocks strike northeastward and dip southeastward toward the Gulf of Mexico. In the northern part of the county, in an erosional remnant of the Edwards Plateau, the rocks are clearly flat and free from faulting. In the central and southern parts of the county, however, the rocks dip gulfward at gentle to moderately steep angles and are extensively faulted in the Balcones and Mexia fault zones. Individual faults or shatter zones were traced as much as 25 miles; the maximum displacement is at least 600 feet. In general, the formations are either monoclinal or slightly folded; in the western part of the county the broad Culebra anticline plunges southwestward. Most of the large-capacity wells in Bexar County draw water from the Edwards and associated limestones, but a few draw from the Glen Rose limestone, the Austin chalk, and surficial sand and gravel. The Hosston formation, Glen Rose limestone, Buda limestone, and Austin chalk, all of Cretaceous age, generally yield small to large supplies of water; the Wilcox group and Carrizo sand of Tertiary age yield moderate supplies and alluvium of Pleistocene and Recent age generally yield small supplies. The Edwards and associated limestones are recharged primarily by groundwater underflow into Bexar County from the west, and secondarily by seepage from streams that cross the outcrop of the aquifer in Bexar County. During the period 1934-47 the recharge to the aquifer in Bexar County is estimated to have averaged between 400,000 and 430

  13. HAYDEN LAKE, KOOTENAI COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hayden Lake (17010305) is a high quality recreational lake located in Kootenai County, Idaho. Water quality investigations and trend monitoring data from 1985 until 1987 reveal that Hayden Lake is a relatively nutrient poor, oligo-mesotrophic lake with good water clarity and low...

  14. Ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakin, T.E.; Robinson, T.W.

    1950-01-01

    As a part of the State-wide cooperative program between the Office of the State Engineer of Nevada and the U.S. Geological Survey, the Ground Water Branch of the Geological Survey made a reconnaissance study of ground-water conditions in Whisky Flat, Mineral County, Nevada.

  15. CUB RIVER, FRANKLIN COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Water Year 1979, a water quality study was conducted on the Cub River in Franklin County, Idaho (16010202) to determine the present condition of the stream and to assess the impact of the Del Monte Corporation vegetable processing discharge. The study involved approximately m...

  16. Geology and ground-water resources of Richardson County, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, Philip A.

    1964-01-01

    Richardson County is in the extreme southeast corner of Nebraska. It has an area of 545 square miles, and in 1960 it had a population of 13,903. The county is in the physiographic region referred to as the Dissected Loess-covered Till Prairies. Major drainage consists of the Big Nemaha River, including its North and South Forks, and Muddy Creek. These streams flow southeastward and empty into the Missouri River, which forms the eastern boundary of the county. The climate of Richardson County is subhumid; the normal annual precipitation is about 35 inches. Agriculture is the chief industry, and corn is the principal crop. Pleistocene glacial drift, loess, and alluvial deposits mantle the bedrock except in the southern and southwestern parts of the county where the bedrock is at the surface. Ground water is obtained from glacial till, fluvioglacial material, terrace deposits, and coarse alluvial deposits, all of Pleistocene age--and some is obtained from bedrock aquifers of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Adequate supplies of ground water are in many places difficult to locate because the water-bearing sands and gravels of Pleistocene age vary in composition and lack lateral persistence. Perched water tables are common in the upland areas and provide limited amounts of water to many of the shallow wells, Very few wells in bedrock yield adequate supplies, as the permeability of the rock is low and water that is more than a few tens of feet below the bedrock surface is highly mineralized. Recharge is primarily from local precipitation, and water levels in many wells respond rapidly to increased or decreased precipitation. The quality of the ground water is generally satisfactory for most uses, although all the water is hard, and iron and manganese concentrations, in some areas, are relatively high. Ground water is used mainly for domestic and stock purposes.

  17. Geochemical Analysis of Surface Water in Rice County, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christenson, C.; Prullage, R.; Harvey, M.; Haileab, B.; Harrison, B. K.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring the quality of surface water is essential to protecting freshwater systems from pollution. For the past four years, Rice County, located in southeastern Minnesota, has been subject to continuous research with the objective of determining the long-term effects of farmland runoff in the water systems. During the summer of 2012, 105 samples were collected from lakes, rivers, and streams. The samples were analyzed for conductivity, nitrate, chloride, calcium, and phosphate. Results show nitrate levels exceeding EPA restrictions (ranging 10-25 ppm) at some locations in the streams along farmlands in the southeast corner of the county. These findings are consistent with past results correlating nitrate levels with farmland runoff, with potential impact on contamination of surficial aquifers as well as significant lake eutrophication observed in the state. ICP-MS results on 67 samples exhibit complex geographical trends across the county not readily attributed to anthropogenic sources. Our findings should inform residents and policy makers taking measures to improve water quality in the county. In addition, annual studies should be continued to monitor water quality in Rice County.

  18. Availability of ground water in Decatur County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cagle, J.W.; Steinhilber, W.L.

    1967-01-01

    Decatur County and several other counties in south-central Iowa comprise an area that has been chronically short of good-quality water.  Municipalities, industries and rural water users alike have been affected by the water shortage.  Municipalities have experienced serious problems in obtaining potable supplies adequate to keep pace with their growth and development: industrial expansion has been hindered and continues to be hindered by the shortage of good-quality water; and rural supplies for domestic and livestock use are difficult to obtain at many places.  The increased use of water for all purposes and periodic drought conditions have greatly magnified an already serious problem of water shortage.

  19. Ground-water in the Austin area, Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1949-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State Engineer of Nevada, made a preliminary survey of ground-water conditions in the Austin area, Nev., during the period July 25 to 28, 1949. The purpose was to evaluate ground-water conditions with special reference to the quantity of ground water that might be available in the area--an adequate water supply has been a constant problem throughout the history of the Austin area. The investigation was made by the writer under the supervision of Thomas W. Robinson, district engineer, Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey. Material assistance was given in the field by local residents. Frank Bertrand, water commissioner, Thomas Peacock, county assessor, and George McGinnis, county commissioner, guided the writer to springs new utilized by the town of Austin and rendered other valuable field assistance.

  20. Estimated use of water in Lincoln County, Wyoming, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, K.M.; Eddy-Miller, C. A.; Busing, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Total water use in Lincoln County, Wyoming in 1993 was estimated to be 405,000 Mgal (million gallons). Water use estimates were divided into nine categories: public supply, self-supplied domestic, commercial, irrigation, livestock, indus ial, mining, thermoelectric power, and hydro- electric power. Public supply water use, estimated to be 2,160 Mgal, primarily was obtained from springs and wells. Shallow ground water wells were the primary source of self-supplied domestic water, estimate to be 1.7 Mgal, and 53 percent of those wells were drilled to a depth of 100 feet or less. Commercial water use, estimated to be 117 Mgal, was obtained from public-supply systems. Surface water supplied an estimated 153,000 Mgal of the total estimated water use of 158,000 Mgal for irrigation in 1993. Sprinkler and flood irrigation technology were used about equally in the northern part of Lincoln County and flood irrigation was the primary technology used in the southern part. Livestock, industrial, and mining were not major water users in Lincoln County in 1993. Livestock water use totaled an estimated 203 Mgal. Industrial water use was estimated to be 120 Mgal from self-supplied water sources and 27 Mgal from public supplied water source Mining water use was an estimated 153 Mgal. Thermoelectric and hydroelectric power generation used surface water sources. Thermoelectric power water use was an estimated 5,900 Mgal. An estimated 238,000 Mgal of water was used to generate hydroelectc power at Fontenelle Reservoir on the Green River.

  1. Ground-water altitudes and well data, Nye County, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ciesnik, M.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report contains ground-water altitudes and well data for wells located in Nye County, Nevada, and Inyo County, California, south of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Data are from wells whose coordinates are within the Beatty and Death Valley Junction, California-Nevada maps from the US Geological Survey, scale 1:100,000 (30-minute {times} 60-minute quadrangle). Compilation of these data was made to provide a reference for numerical models of ground-water flow at Yucca Mountain and its vicinity. Water-level measurements were obtained from the US Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, and span the period of October 1951 to May 1991; most measurements were made from 1980 to 1990.

  2. Radon-222 in the ground water of Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in ground water in 31 geologic units in Chester County, Pa., were measured in 665 samples collected from 534 wells from 1986 to 1997. Chester County is underlain by schists, gneisses, quartzites, carbonates, sandstones, shales, and other rocks of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. On average, radon concentration was measured in water from one well per 1.4 square miles, throughout the 759 square-mile county, although the distribution of wells was not even areally or among geologic units. The median concentration of radon-222 in ground water from the 534 wells was 1,400 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). About 89 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 300 pCi/L, and about 11 percent of the wells sampled contained radon-222 at concentrations greater than 5,000 pCi/L. The highest concentration measured was 53,000 pCi/L. Of the geologic units sampled, the median radon-222 concentration in ground water was greatest (4,400 pCi/L) in the Peters Creek Schist, the second most areally extensive formation in the county. Signifi- cant differences in the radon-222 concentrations in ground water among geologic units were observed. Generally, concentrations in ground water in schists, quartzites, and gneisses were greater than in ground water in anorthosite, carbonates, and ultramafic rocks. The distribution of radon-222 in ground water is related to the distribution of uranium in aquifer materials of the various rock types. Temporal variability in radon-222 concentrations in ground water does not appear to be greater than about a factor of two for most (75 percent) of wells sampled more than once but was observed to range up to almost a factor of three in water from one well. In water samples from this well, seasonal variations were observed; the maximum concentrations were measured in the fall and the minimum in the spring.

  3. Pesticides in Ground Water - Campbell County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Campbell County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Campbell County.

  4. Pesticides in Ground Water - Carbon County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Carbon County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Carbon County.

  5. Pesticides in Ground Water - Sublette County, Wyoming, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Remley, Kendra J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, members of local, State, and Federal governments, as well as industry and interest groups, formed the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee to prepare the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. Part of this management plan is to sample and analyze Wyoming's ground water for pesticides. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ground-water and Pesticide Strategy Committee, began statewide implementation of the sampling component of the State of Wyoming's generic Management Plan for Pesticides in Ground Water. During 2004-2005, baseline monitoring was conducted in Sublette County. This fact sheet describes and summarizes results of the baseline monitoring in Sublette County.

  6. Ground-water resources of Kleberg County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Livingston, Penn Poore; Bridges, Thomas W.

    1936-01-01

    Water obtained from the fresh-water horizon is comparatively fresh in the western and central parts of the county but contains a somewhat higher proportion of chlorides toward the Gulf. Samples obtained from about 100 wells, located for the most part in the central part of the county, showed a. higher chloride content than is normal for the freshwater beds in the area. These wells are believed in large part to be defective and to be admitting salt water. This was demonstrated and the leaks located in several wells that were tested. No evidence was found of salt-water contamination by percolation through the formations, however. The leaky wells should be repaired, If practicable, or sealed to prevent them from contaminating the fresh-water sand. The chances of leaks developing can be largely eliminated If the wells are properly drilled and provided with casing of good grade, and the casing is adequately seated.

  7. Ground water near Newton, Jasper County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality in the South Skunk River and the alluvial aquifer was similar, except most ground-water samples contained low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in ground water resulted in high concentrations of iron and manganese in some locations and reduced forms of nitrogen.

  8. Water quality of shallow pump wells, southern Rock County, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.W. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    Rock County is located in south central Wisconsin; bordering the Illinois counties of Boone and Winnebago. Five county parks in the southern portion of the county were tested primarily for metal content, such as Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe, and others, using an ICAP spectrometer. Four of the five wells were tapping water from glacial outwash aquifers, and one from a carbonate source. Acceptable levels of contaminates were found in all of the wells. The well at Airport Park, north of the Rock county airport, was significantly higher in elements such as Na, Fe, K, and Zn, than the other wells in the study. Na values for example, reached 36.87 ppm, which is four times higher than at any other well in the survey. Thus far this has been interpreted as being due to its location north of the county airport and next to highway 51. Runoff from these two sources may be contributing to the high values due to the shallowness of the well. The pH values for the wells ranged from 7.3 to 7.9 which is not uncommon for the area due to massive amounts of carbonates in the area.

  9. Ground-water resources of Coke County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.

    1973-01-01

    Coke County, located in semiarid west-central Texas, where large ranches, small farms, and oil production are the main bases of the economy, has a small supply of ground and surface water. Of the approximately 1,900 acre-feet of fresh to moderately saline ground water used in 1968, industry used 880 acre-feet, irrigation used 210 acre-feet, and domestic supply and livestock used 820 acre-feet. All of the water for municipal supply and some of the water for industry is obtained from surface-water reservoirs.

  10. BILLINGSLEY CREEK, GOODING COUNTY, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billingsley Creek in Gooding County, Idaho (17040212) has been identified as a stream where fish farm discharges and other land use practices are degrading water quality. The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environment sampled Billingsley Creek to assess in-s...

  11. 78 FR 41390 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered...: Pershing County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydro Power Project....

  12. Ground-water resources of Atascosa County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundstrom, Raymond W.; Follett, C.R.

    1950-01-01

    Atascosa County, Tex., is underlain by water-bearing sands of Tertiary age that furnish water for domestic and stock supplies throughout the county, for the public supply of all except one of the towns and cities in the county, for irrigation in several localities, for drilling oil wells in the central and southern parts of the county, for washing glass sand in the northern part of the county, and for maintaining several lakes that are used for hunting and fishing. By far the most productive formation is the Carrizo sand, but supplies of considerable magnitude are also obtained from sands in the Mount Selman and Cook Mountain. formations. The rate of withdrawal from the Carrizo sand amounted to about 15,500 acre-feet a year in 1944-45 or an average of about 13.8 million gallons a day. This was about 6,000 acre-feet a year greater in 1944-45 than it was in 1929-30. Of the total amount of water withdrawn in 1944-45 about 6,500 acre-feet a year is largely wasted from uncontrolled flowing wells. If the waste of water from wells in the Carrizo sand were stopped, the consumption of water for useful purposes could be increased about 70 percent without increasing the draft on the underground reservoir. The increase in total withdrawals from the Carrizo sand has been accompanied by a general decline in the artesian head between 1929-30 and 1944 ranging from 3 to 25 feet. On the whole, the evidence shows that the artesian reservoir is not being overdrawn and that it will sustain a somewhat greater draft.

  13. Sources of emergency water supplies in San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    San Mateo County has several densely populated urban areas that get most of their water supplies from surface-water sources that could by damaged by a major earthquake or other general disaster. In the event of such a disaster, limited supplies of potable water may be obtained from selected wells, springs, and perennial streams. This report outlines the principal sources of existing water supplies, gives information on the need for emergency water-supply procedures, presents general criteria needed for selecting emergency water-supply wells, summarizes information for 60 selected water wells, numerous springs, and perennial streams that can be used as sources of water, and describes emergency water-purification procedures that can be used by individuals or small groups of people.

  14. South Orange County Recycled Water Enhancement Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Calvert, Ken [R-CA-44

    2009-01-22

    04/27/2010 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Water and Power. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Water supply and demand in Sedgwick County, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevans, Hugh E.

    1989-01-01

    Water supplies in Sedgwick County, Kansas, are derived from surface--and groundwater resources. During 1985, public supply, irrigation, and self-supplied industry required 38% of the 56 ,500 acre-ft of appropriated surface water and 57% of the 187 ,800 acre-ft of appropriated groundwater. If the historic (1920-80) annual population growth rate (2.8%) continues, the 126,100 acre ft of water appropriated for public-water supplies should meet demand until 2015. The quantity of potentially available water supplies was estimated by summing those resources having less than 1.00 mg/L dissolved solids. Surface water resources that meet this criterion are the Little Arkansas and Ninnescah Rivers and Cheney Reservoir. Subtracting legislated minimum streamflows for the rivers from their mean annual streamflow volumes leaves 532,000 acre-ft, which combined with the annual sustained yield of Cheney Reservoir (40,000 acre-ft) provides an estimated 572,000 acre-ft of surface water annually. Groundwater that meets the criterion was estimated by summing the annual precipitation recharge available to unconsolidated deposits in the county (78,400 acre-ft) and in the Harvey County part of the Wichita well field (13,000 acre-ft). Although more groundwater is available, withdrawals exceeding annual precipitation recharge would cause water level declines. Because less than 4% of the potentially available surface water was used for supplies in 1985 and because about 120% of the groundwater recharge was used, surface water resources have a greater potential for meeting future water use demands. (USGS)

  16. Ground-water quality for Grainger County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.D.; Patel, A.R.; Hickey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The residents of Grainger County depend on ground water for many of their daily needs including personal consumption and crop irrigation. To address concerns associated with ground-water quality related to domestic use, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from 35 wells throughout the county during the summer 1992. The water samples were analyzed to determine if pesticides, nutrients, bacteria, and other selected constituents were present in the ground water. Wells selected for the study were between 100 and 250 feet deep and yielded 10 to 50 gallons of water per minute. Laboratory analyses of the water found no organic pesticides at concentrations exceeding the primary maximum contaminant levels established by the State of Tennessee for wells used for public supply. However, fecal coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations exceeding the State's maximum contaminant level in water from 15 of the 35 wells sampled. Analyses also indicated several inorganic compounds were present in the water samples at concentrations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant level.

  17. Water resources of Okaloosa County and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trapp, Henry; Pascale, C.A.; Foster, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Okaloosa County, in the northwest Florida panhandle, uses the Floridan aquifer for water supply, although it also has abundant surface water and ground water in the surficial sand-and-gravel aquifer. Water levels have declined locally more than 90 feet in the upper limestone of the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is overlain by the Pensacola clay confining bed, and the Bucatunna Clay subdivides it into two limestone units. Water in the upper limestone is generally of good quality. The lower limestone probably contains saline water. Average daily stream discharge is about 2,500 million gallons. Stream discharge does not diminish excessively during droughts, owing to high base runoff. Water levels in the Floridan aquifer will decline as long as pumping increases in the present areas of withdrawal. The decline could be alleviated by redistribution of pumping, artificial recharge, and the use of the sand-and-gravel aquifer or streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Ground-water resources in Mendocino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    Mendocino County includes about 3,500 sq mi of coastal northern California. Groundwater is the main source for municipal and individual domestic water systems and contributes significantly to irrigation. Consolidated rocks of the Franciscan Complex are exposed over most of the county. The consolidated rocks are commonly dry and generally supply < 5 gal/min of water to wells. Unconsolidated fill in the inland valleys consists of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Low permeability in the fill caused by fine grain size and poor sorting limits well yields to less than 50 gal/min in most areas; where the fill is better sorted, yields of 1,000 gal/min can be obtained. Storage capacity estimates for the three largest basins are Ukiah Valley, 90,000 acre-ft; Little lake Valley, 35,000 acre-ft; and Laytonville Valley, 14,000 acre-ft. Abundant rainfall (35 to 56 in/yr) generally recharges these basins to capacity. Seasonal water level fluctuations since the 1950 's have been nearly constant, except during the 1976-77 drought. Chemical quality of water in basement rocks and valley fill is generally acceptable for most uses. Some areas along fault zones yield water with high boron concentrations ( <2 mg/L). Sodium chloride water with dissolved solids concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/L is found in deeper parts of Little Lake Valley. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Ground-water resources and geology of Cook County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sever, Charles W.

    1972-01-01

    Aquifer-performance tests and aquifer studies indicate that the limestone beneath the city of Adel and probably most of Cook County contains potable water to a depth of only about 400 to 500 feet and that "deep" wells that tap these limestones obtain most of their water from a few thin, highly permeable zones rather than from the entire thickness of the rocks. Below about 500 feet the water is mineralized and not potable without treatment. The yield of "shallow wells" is variable and the water generally is corrosive and at places contains appreciable dissolved iron. The volume of ground water flowing through the Suwannee and Marianna Limestones in Cook County and available for development to properly spaced wells and well fields is estimated to be about 18,000,000 gallons per day. That in the Tampa Foundation is estimated to be about 1,500,000 gallons per day. Water levels near the center of the Adel well field have declined 38 feet since 1890 and presently are declining at a rate of 1.6 feet per year.

  20. Water availability and geology of Sumter County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Marvin E.; Sanford, Thomas H.; Jefferson, Patrick O.

    1975-01-01

    Geologic units that crop out in Sumter County include the Selma Group of Late Cretaceous age; the Midway and Wilcox Groups of Tertiary Age; and terrace deposits and alluvium of Quaternary age. The Tuscaloosa Group, consisting of the Coker and Gordo Formations, and Eutaw Formation of Late Cretaceous age underlie the entire county. The Cretaceous units dip southwestward about 45 feet per mile and strike northwestward. They consist chiefly of deposits of sand, gravel, chalk, and clay. Potential sources of large supplies of ground water are major aquifers in the Coker, Gordo, and Eutaw Formations; expected yields are 1.6 mgd (million gallons per day or more per well. The Naheola and Nanafalia formations, Tuscahome Sand, and terrace deposits and alluvium are expected to yield 10 to 50 gallons per minute per well.

  1. Availability of ground water in Montgomery County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1977-01-01

    Montgomery County, Md., is underlain by consolidated rocks that, on the basis of well yields, have been subdivided into six hydrogeologic units. The distribution of the hydrogeologic units are shown on a map (scale 1:62,500). Most wells drilled in the county yield between 6 and 25 gal/min (0.4 to 1.6 L/s); however, about one-third of the wells drilled in the most productive hydrogeologic unit yielded more than 25 gal/min (1.6 L/s). Water from all units is suitable for domestic, public supply, and most industrial uses, but may require treatment for the removal of iron and hardness.

  2. Ground-water data in Orange County and adjacent counties, Texas, 1985-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The lower unit of the Chicot aquifer is a major source of freshwater for Orange County, Texas. In 1989, the average rate of ground-water withdrawal from the lower unit of the Chicot aquifer in Orange County for municipal and industrial use was 13.8 million gallons per day, a substantial decrease from the historical high of 23.1 million gallons per day in 1972. The average withdrawal for industrial use decreased substantially from 14.4 million gallons per day during 1963?84 to 6.9 million gallons per day during 1985?89. The average withdrawal for municipal use during 1985?89 was 6.8 million gallons per day, similar to the average withdrawal of 5.8 million gallons per day during 1963?84. Water levels in wells in most of the study area rose during 1985?90. The largest rise in water levels was more than 10 feet in parts of Orange and Pinehurst, north of site B (one of three areas of ground-water withdrawal for industrial use), while the largest decline in water levels was a localized decline of more than 60 feet at site C in south-central Orange County (also an area of withdrawal for industrial use). Chemical analyses of ground-water samples from the lower Chicot aquifer during 1985?90 indicate that the aquifer contained mostly freshwater (dissolved solids concentrations less than 1,000 milligrams per liter). Dissolved chloride concentrations remained relatively constant in most wells during 1985?90 but could vary greatly between wells within short distances. Saline-water encroachment continued to occur during 1985?89 but at a slower rate than in the 1970s and early 1980s. On the basis of chemical data collected during 1985?89, a relation was determined between specific conductance and dissolved chloride concentration that can be used to estimate dissolved chloride by multiplying the specific conductance by different factors for low or high conductances.

  3. 75 FR 9921 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program... Diego County Water Authority (Water Authority/ Applicant) has applied to us, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife... the Draft Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan...

  4. Hydrogeochemical tracing of mineral water in Jingyu County, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2016-02-01

    The east Jilin Province in China, Jingyu County has been explored as a potential for enriching mineral water. In order to assess the water quality and quantity, it is of crucial importance to investigate the origin of the mineral water and its flow paths. In this study, eighteen mineral springs were sampled in May and September of 2012, May and September of 2013, and May 2014 and the environment, evolvement, and reaction mechanism of mineral water formation were analysed by hydrochemical data analysis, geochemical modelling and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the investigated mineral water was rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, nitrate, total iron, silicate, and strontium, and mineral water ages ranged from 11.0 to more than 61.0 years. The U-shape contours of the mineral ages indicate a local and discrete recharge. The mineral compositions of the rocks were olivine, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, albite, and anorthite and were under-saturated in the mineral water. The origin of mineral water was from the hydrolysis of basalt minerals under a neutral to slightly alkaline and CO2-rich environment. PMID:26040975

  5. A water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 1; South county

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showalter, P.K.; Hord, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation made of rainfall, surface water, groundwater, and water quality monitoring networks in Salinas River basin in southern Monterey County, California, proposed all long-term rain gages be continued for extending short-term records and suggested the installation of two additional recording gages. Eight new storage rain gages were suggested at midaltitudes of east and west sides of Salinas Valley where few data are available. The evaluation revealed some short-term gaging stations could be discontinued because of good regression relations between them and the long-term stations Arroyo Seco near Soledad. Of 16 stations selected for the proposed network, 4 are new recording stations, 6 are new nonrecording streamflow and water quality sampling sites, 5 are existing stations, and the last is a station operated from 1969 to 1976; also included are water quality sampling stations on Lakes Nacimiento and San Antonio. The proposed groundwater network was developed from information on geology, geohydrology, and groundwater quality, high priority objectives for groundwater network, and consideration for providing good areal coverage of levels and water quality. Of 145 sites selected, 86 are existing monitoring wells. (USGS)

  6. Water resources of Aurora and Jerauld Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Large quantities of slightly saline ground water are available for future water requirements in Aurora and Jerauld Counties, 1 ,236 square miles of glaciated, till-covered hills and plains in southeastern South Dakota. More than one million acre-feet of ground water is stored in five major glacial aquifers, outwash sand and gravel, beneath 340 square miles. About 58 million acre-feet is stored in bedrock, in the Niobrara marl aquifer, the Codell sandstone aquifer, and the Dakota sandstone aquifer. Recharge of aquifers by infiltration of precipitation totals 31 ,000 acre-feet annually. Effects of increased ground-water withdrawals generally have been small for glacial aquifers and large for some bedrock aquifers. Water levels declined 0.6 to 4 feet in glacial aquifers during 1978-80 within a mile of irrigation wells pumping 300 to 1,000 gallons per minute. In contrast, water levels declined 40 feet near a well pumping 1 ,500 gallons per minute from the Niobrara aquifer because of small artesian storage. Artesian pressure of the Dakota aquifer declined about 200 feet between 1909 and 1979 because of large withdrawals through flowing wells. The availability of surface water is limited because streams are ephemeral and have large flows only during spring of wet years. Most of the lakes are small, semipermanent, and shallow. Most surface water in the study area contains low concentrations of dissolved solids but most of the ground water is very hard and slightly saline. Some ground water has a very high-salinity hazard for irrigation. Water from the Niobrara and Codell aquifers also has a high sodium hazard and high boron concentrations. (USGS)

  7. Water for the growing needs of Harrison County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcome, Roy, Jr.; Shattles, Donald E.; Humphreys, Carney P., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    The potential for water-supply development in Harrison County is almost unlimited. During an average year, more than 350 billion gallons of water flow into the Gulf of Mexico from the streams of the county. With storage reservoirs these streams have a potential sustained supply of hundreds of millions of. gallons per day. Recreation uses and flood-control benefits could also be considered in reservoir design. Upstream from the zones of salt-water penetration, mineral content is low and fairly constant. Water in the streams generally has high color and low pH ; treatment would be required for most municipal and industrial uses. Impoundment in reservoirs normally would have little effect on the quality of the surface water. However, impoundment would trap most of the suspended-sediment load of the streams. Flooding along the major streams of Harrison County is a minor hazard at present (1966), but with further industrial development and urbanization, flooding in these now rural areas could become serious. Intense rainfall from thunderstorms and hurricanes causes serious local flooding in the populous areas near the coast. Tidal flooding, a result of tropical storms, is an ever-present hazard in areas near the coast. The ground-water reservoir, which at present provides all fresh-water supplies, is capable of supporting many times the 25 million gallons per day withdrawal through existing wells. Fresh water occurs to depths as great as 2,500 feet in sand aquifers of Pliocene and Miocene age. Many of the aquifers have high transmissibility; most of those tested have transmissibility in the range, of 50,000-100,000 gallons per day per foot. Although few wells produce more than 1,000 gallons per minute, several of the aquifers can yield two to three times that amount to wells designed for the higher production. Artesian water levels along the coast are declining at a rate of 1 foot per year on the average; however, water levels are still above or only slightly below the

  8. Water resources of the Descanso Area, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L.F., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrologic information was collected during water year 1988 (October 1987 to September 1988) to evaluate the effects of current pumping on groundwater levels in the Descanso area in south-central San Diego County. Water year 1988 was a period of near-normal precipitation and runoff. The groundwater system in the area consists of aquifers in the metamorphic and granitic bedrock and in the overlying regolith (weathered bedrock). Most wells penetrate both aquifers, but the regolith is the source of most water pumped from wells. Groundwater storage in 1988 was estimated to be 800 to 2,000 acre-ft in the regolith and 300 to 3,000 acre-ft in bedrock. Recharge to the groundwater system from infiltration of precipitation and streamflow was estimated to be about 1,000 acre-ft. Pumpage, which was estimated to be 170 acre-ft, had little effect on groundwater storage. Water levels in wells were nearly the same at the end of the water year as at the beginning. Groundwater quality generally was suitable for domestic uses. Concentrations of iron and manganese , although nontoxic, exceeded California maximum contaminant levels for domestic drinking water in some wells. (USGS)

  9. Water quality of Bear Creek basin, Jackson County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittenberg, Loren A.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1980-01-01

    Water-quality data identify surface-water-quality problems in Bear Creek basin, Jackson County, Oreg., where possible, their causes or sources. Irrigation and return-flow data show pastures are sources of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria and sinks for suspended sediment and nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen. Bear Creek and its tributaries have dissolved oxygen and pH values that do not meet State standards. Forty to 50% of the fecal coliform and fecal streptococci concentrations were higher than 1,000 bacteria colonies per 100 milliliters during the irrigation season in the lower two-thirds of the basin. During the irrigation season, suspended-sediment concentrations, average 35 milligrams per liter, were double those for the nonirrigation season. The Ashland sewage-treatment plant is a major source of nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, and Kjeldahl nitrogen, and orthophosphate in Bear Creek. (USGS)

  10. 77 FR 29456 - City of Alameda d/b/a Alameda Belt Line Railroad-Abandonment Exemption-in Alameda County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be filed. Provided no formal expression of intent to file an offer of financial assistance (OFA) has been...

  11. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, January 1995 through December 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into an agreement to continue collecting water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, the USGS has provided training and instrumentation for County personnel to measure, on a quarterly basis, the depth to water below the land surface in selected wells. The agreement includes the operation of continuous water-level recorders installed on four wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant and Lake Townships (fig. 1). County personnel make quarterly water-level measurements of 22 other wells. Once each year, County personnel are accompanied by USGS personnel who provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made.

  12. Geology and ground water resources, Williams County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freers, Theodore F.; Armstrong, C.A.

    1970-01-01

    Williams County, in northwestern North Dakota, is located near the center of the structural and sedimentary Williston basin. The preglacial sedimentary formations beneath the county are as much as 14,828 feet thick. Their beds dip generally to the south except along the flanks of the north-south striking Nesson anticline in the eastern part of the county. Late Wisconsinan glacial deposits cover all of Williams County except along the Missouri River and other scattered small areas.

  13. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water. [in Hidalgo County, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study was conducted in a 340-acre (139 hectares) field of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) to determine if multispectral data from ERTS-1 could be used to detect differences in chlorophyll concentration between iron-deficient (chlorotic) and apparently normal (green) grain sorghum. Chlorotic sorghum areas 2.8 acres (1.1 hectares) or larger in size were identified on a computer printout of band 5 data which contains the chlorophyll absorption band at the 0.65 micron wavelength. ERTS resolution is sufficient for practical applications in detecting iron-deficient sorghum in otherwise uniform fields. The first classification map of the study county has been produced. Vegetation (crops), rangeland, bare soil, water, and an undefined (all other) category occupied 15.2, 45.0, 19.1, 0.02, and 20.6% of the land area, respectively.

  14. 77 FR 40509 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal, Alameda, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... of Alameda Public Works Agency to perform necessary repairs on the bridge. The opposite leaf will... deviation allows single leaf operation of the double leaf bascule style drawbridge during the project. DATES... recreational. The Alameda (south) side of the bridge leaf of the double bascule drawspan may be secured in...

  15. Surface-water and climatological data, Salt Lake County, Utah, water year 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyper, G.E.; Christensen, R.C.; Stephens, D.W.; McCormack, H.F.; Conroy, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents streamflow, water-quality, precipitation, and storm-runoff data collected in Salt Lake County, Utah, during the 1980 water year and certain water-quality data for the 1979 water year which were included for comparative purposes. Surface-water data consist of daily mean values of flow at 33 sites on natural streams, canals, and conduits. Water-quality data consist of chemical, biologic, and sediment analyses at 30 sites. Precipitation data consist of daily and monthly total at nine sites. Storm-runoff data consist of 5 and 15-minute interval discharge data for storms of July 1-2, August 19, and August 25, 1980, for most surface-water sites. (USGS)

  16. Ground-water and geohydrologic conditions in Queens County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soren, Julian

    1971-01-01

    Queens County is a heavily populated borough of New York City, at the western end of Long Island, N. Y., in which large amounts of ground water are used, mostly for public supply. Ground water, pumped from local aquifers, by privately owned water-supply companies, supplied the water needs of about 750,000 of the nearly 2 million residents of the county in 1967; the balance was supplied by New York City from surface sources outside the county in upstate New York. The county's aquifers consist of sand and gravel of Late Cretaceous and of Pleistocene ages, and the aquifers comprise a wedge-shaped ground-water reservoir lying on a southeastward-sloping floor of Precambrian(?) bedrock. Beds of clay and silt generally confine water in the deeper parts of the reservoir; water in the deeper aquifers ranges from poorly confined to well confined. Wisconsin-age glacial deposits in the uppermost part of the reservoir contain ground water under water-table conditions. Ground water pumpage averaged about 60 mgd (million gallons per day) in Queens County from about 1900 to 1967. Much of the water was used in adjacent Kings County, another borough of New York City, prior to 1950. The large ground-water withdrawal has resulted in a wide-spread and still-growing cone of depression in the water table, reflecting a loss of about 61 billion gallons of fresh water from storage. Significant drawdown of the water table probably began with rapid urbanization of Queens County in the 1920's. The county has been extensively paved, and storm and sanitary sewers divert water, which formerly entered the ground, to tidewater north and south of the county. Natural recharge to the aquifers has been reduced to about one half of the preurban rate and is below the withdrawal rate. Ground-water levels have declined more than 40. feet from the earliest-known levels, in 1903, to 1967, and the water table is below sea level in much of the county. The aquifers are being contaminated by the movement of

  17. Average daily withdrawals of water for public supply in Kings, Queens, and Nassau Counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brashears, M.L., Jr.

    1950-01-01

    Since 1932 the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York Water Power and Control Commission, the Nassau County Department of Public Works, the Suffolk County Water Authority, and the Suffolk County Board of Supervisors has conducted studies dealing with the occurrence, movement, quantity, quality, and temperature of ground water on Long Island. Also, as a part of three investigations, data on the withdrawals by pumpage for public water supply are assembled an analyzed. Previously, pumpage records for periods from 1904 through 1946 have been released.

  18. The Role of County Surveyors and County Drainage Boards in Addressing Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Mike; Mullendore, Nathan; de Jalon, Silvestre Garcia; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2016-06-01

    Water quality problems stemming from the Midwestern U.S. agricultural landscape have been widely recognized and documented. The Midwestern state of Indiana contains tens of thousands of miles of regulated drains that represent biotic communities that comprise the headwaters of the state's many rivers and creeks. Traditional management, however, reduces these waterways to their most basic function as conveyances, ignoring their role in the ecosystem as hosts for biotic and abiotic processes that actively regulate the fate and transport of nutrients and farm chemicals. Novel techniques and practices such as the two-stage ditch, denitrifying bioreactor, and constructed wetlands represent promising alternatives to traditional management approaches, yet many of these tools remain underutilized. To date, conservation efforts and research have focused on increasing the voluntary adoption of practices among agricultural producers. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the roles of the drainage professionals responsible for the management of waterways and regulated drains. To address this gap, we draw on survey responses from 39 county surveyors and 85 drainage board members operating in Indiana. By examining the backgrounds, attitudes, and actions of these individuals, we consider their role in advocating and implementing novel conservation practices.

  19. The Role of County Surveyors and County Drainage Boards in Addressing Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Mike; Mullendore, Nathan; de Jalon, Silvestre Garcia; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2016-06-01

    Water quality problems stemming from the Midwestern U.S. agricultural landscape have been widely recognized and documented. The Midwestern state of Indiana contains tens of thousands of miles of regulated drains that represent biotic communities that comprise the headwaters of the state's many rivers and creeks. Traditional management, however, reduces these waterways to their most basic function as conveyances, ignoring their role in the ecosystem as hosts for biotic and abiotic processes that actively regulate the fate and transport of nutrients and farm chemicals. Novel techniques and practices such as the two-stage ditch, denitrifying bioreactor, and constructed wetlands represent promising alternatives to traditional management approaches, yet many of these tools remain underutilized. To date, conservation efforts and research have focused on increasing the voluntary adoption of practices among agricultural producers. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the roles of the drainage professionals responsible for the management of waterways and regulated drains. To address this gap, we draw on survey responses from 39 county surveyors and 85 drainage board members operating in Indiana. By examining the backgrounds, attitudes, and actions of these individuals, we consider their role in advocating and implementing novel conservation practices. PMID:26993817

  20. Ground-water resources of southern New Castle County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert; Coskery, O.J.; Anderson, P.W.

    1964-01-01

    Southern New Castle County has a land area of 190 square miles in northcentral Delaware. It is predominantly a rural area with a population of about 9,500 people who are engaged chiefly in agriculture. By and large, the residents are dependent upon ground water as a source of potable water. This investigation was made to provide knowledge of the availability and quality of .the ground-water supply to aid future development. The climate, surface features, and geology of the area are favorable for the occurrence of ground water. Temperatures are generally mild and precipitation is normally abundant and fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The topography of the area is relatively fiat and, hence, the streams have low gradients. The surface is underlain to a considerable depth by highly permeable unconsolidated sediments that range in age from Early Cretaceous to Recent. Nearly all the subsurface stratigraphic units yield some water to wells, but only four parts or combinations of these units are sufficiently permeable, to yield large supplies. These are, from oldest to youngest, the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy Formation, the Monmouth Group, the Rancocas Formation, and .the surficial terrace and valley-fill deposits. In the northern part of the area the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy Formation can be reached economically by wells. Yields in excess of 300 gpm (gallons per minute) have been obtained from wells screened in this aquifer, but the maximum productivity of the aquifer has not been .tested. The Monmouth Group is used as a source of water in the central part of the area, where some wells yield as much as 125 gpm. The Rancocas Formation is the principal aquifer in the southern part of the area. Yields of 200-400 gpm can be expected from this aquifer, owing to its uniformly coarse texture, particularly in the upper part of the formation. The terrace deposits compose the shallow watertable aquifer throughout the area. In

  1. Quality of ground water in Clark County, Washington, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Turney, G.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 76 wells throughout Clark County, in southwest Washington, during April and May 1988, and were analyzed from concentrations of major ions, silica, nitrate, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, radon, and bacteria. Samples from 20 wells were analyzed for concentrations of trace elements and organic compounds, including most of those on the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority pollutant list. Dissolved solids concentrations range from 12 to 245 mg/L, with a median concentration of 132 mg/L. The major dissolved constituents are calcium, bicarbonate, and silica, and, in some samples, sodium. Nitrate concentrations exceeded 1.0 mg/L throughout the Vancouver urban area, and were as large as 6.7 mg/L. Comparison with limited historical data indicates that nitrate concentrations were somewhat correlated, possibly indicating similar sources. Volatile organic compound, including tetrachloroethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, were detected in samples from three wells in the Vancouver area. Trace amounts of volatile organic compounds were reported in samples from several other wells, but at concentrations too close to analytical detection limits to ascertain that they were in the groundwater. Trace elements and radiochemical constituents were present at small levels indicating natural sources for these constituents. Only pH, turbidity, iron, manganese, and total coliform bacteria had values that did not meet USEPA Drinking Water Standards.

  2. Ground water of coal deposits, Bay County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; McDonald, Michael G.

    1980-01-01

    A coal deposit in Bay County, Mich., typical of Pennsylvanian-coal deposits in the State, was studied to determine the degree to which hydrologic factors might affect future coal mining. The coal deposit, which averages about 0.5 meters in thickness, lies 50 meters below land surface. It is part of a multi-layered aquifer system that contains sandstone, shale, sand and gravel, and clay units in addition to beds of coal. Hydrologic characteristics (hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient) of each unit were evaluated by analyses of aquifer tests and a finite-difference groundwater flow model. A model simulating groundwater flow to a hypothetical mine was developed. Results of the study indicate that seepage will probably not be great enough to preclude mining coal. Also, pumping water to keep the mine dry will have little effect on heads in aquifers outside the mine during the first decade of mining. Although coal was mined in Michigan during 1860-1950, significant reserves remain. These deposits, part of the Saginaw Formation of Pennsylvanian age, are near the industrialized parts of the State. The quantity of pumped water needed to keep mines dry and the effect of pumping on aquifers surrounding the mines is a major factor in determining the feasibility of opening new mines. (USGS)

  3. The ground-water system in southeastern Laramie County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, Marvin A.; Borchert, William B.

    1972-01-01

    Increased development of irrigation wells in southeastern Laramie County, Wyo., has caused concern about the quantity of water available. Ground water from approximately 230 large-capacity wells is used to irrigate most of the 18,165 acres under irrigation. The purpose of this study is to provide more knowledge about the character of the aquifers, quantity of water in storage, rate of withdrawal, and the effect of withdrawals on streamflow. The area studied consists of about 400 square miles in southeastern Laramie County in the extreme southeast corner of Wyoming. The White River Formation of Oligocene age and alluvium of Quaternary age are the principal aquifers. The White River Formation is made up primarily of clay, silt, and fine sand. Secondary permeability in the White River Formation accounts for it being an important aquifer. The alluvium, which Includes terrace and flood-plain deposits, consists of sand and gravel that contain some lenses of silt and clay. Existence of secondary permeability in the White River Formation has been accepted for some time although the nature of the secondary permeability has been disputed. Examination of downhole conditions with a television camera during this study revealed openings in the formation that appeared to be similar to tubes or caverns. The openings were of various sizes and shapes but only a few appeared to be associated with fracturing. Solution activity in the formation probably is an important factor in the development of secondary permeability. The study area was divided into the Pine Bluffs-Egbert area and the Carpenter area. Ground-water movement in the Pine Bluffs-Egbert area is generally eastward into Nebraska; in the Carpenter area, movement is generally southward into Colorado. Pumpage from large-capacity wells in the Pine Bluffs-Egbert area was estimated to be about 21,790 acre-feet in 1971. Water levels exhibited a declining trend annually in some areas during the period of record. Data indicate that

  4. Altitude of water table, surficial aquifer, Palm Beach County, Florida, April 24-26, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    Water levels in Palm Beach County, Florida, were measured in April 1984 to determine the altitude of the water table in the surficial aquifer. A total of 104 wells and 50 surface-water measurement sites were used to contour the altitude of the water table at 2 and 4-foot intervals. The water-level measurements made in April represent low-water levels near the end of south Florida 's dry season. Contours of the water table at this time ranged from 22 feet above sea level in the north-central part of the county to 2 feet near the coast. (USGS)

  5. 78 FR 78355 - San Diego County Water Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted For Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission San Diego County Water Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted For Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 1, 2013, the San Diego County...

  6. Geology and ground water resources of Cass County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klausing, Robert L.

    1968-01-01

    Cass County comprises an area of 1,749 square miles in the southeastern corner of North Dakota. About one-fourth of the county is in the Drift Prairie physiographic province; the rest is in the Red River Valley (Lake Agassiz basin) physiographic division.

  7. Hydraulic conductivity and water quality of the shallow aquifer, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    Subsurface geophysical logs were correlated with logs of drill cuttings to determine the permeability of selected zones of the shallow aquifer, Palm Beach County, Fla. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is estimated to range from 1 to 130 feet per day, based on lithology and physical properties. The yield of wells penetrating this aquifer ranges from 100 to more than 1,000 gallons per minute. Water samples were collected from different depths throughout the county and analyzed for chemical constituents. Stiff diagrams illustrate the changes in types of water by depth and area. Water of suitable quality is in the eastern parts of the county. In this area the aquifer is the thickest and most permeable. The concentration of chemical constituents in the water increase in a westerly direction. The water in the western parts of the county is unsuitable for most purposes. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Drought-trigger ground-water levels and analysis of historical water-level trends in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chester County observation-well network was established in 1973 through a cooperative agreement between the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and the U.S. Geological Survey. The network was established to monitor local ground-water levels, to determine drought conditions, and to monitor ground-water-level trends. Drought-warning and drought-emergency water-level triggers were determined for 20 of the 23 wells in the Chester County observation-well network. A statistical test to determine either rising or declining water-level trends was performed on data for all wells in the network. Water-level data from both of these wells showed a rising trend. A decrease in ground-water pumping in the area near these wells was probably the reason for the rise in water levels.

  9. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of Brunswick County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Fine, Jason M.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2003-01-01

    Brunswick County is the southernmost coastal county in North Carolina and lies in the southeastern part of the Coastal Plain physiographic province. In this report, geologic, hydrologic, and chemical data were used to investigate and delineate the hydro-geologic framework and ground-water quality of Brunswick County. The major aquifers and their associated confining units delineated in the Brunswick County study area include, from youngest to oldest, the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, Black Creek, upper Cape Fear, and lower Cape Fear aquifers. All of these aquifers, with the exception of the Castle Hayne aquifer, are located throughout Brunswick County. The Castle Hayne aquifer extends across only the southeastern part of the county. Based on available data, the Castle Hayne and Peedee confining units are missing in some areas of Brunswick County, which allows direct hydraulic contact between the surficial aquifer and underlying Castle Hayne or Peedee aquifers. The confining units for the Black Creek, upper Cape Fear, and lower Cape Fear aquifers appear to be continuous throughout Brunswick County. In examining the conceptual hydrologic system for Brunswick County, a generalized water budget was developed to better understand the natural processes, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, and stream runoff, that influence ground-water recharge to the shallow aquifer system in the county. In the generalized water budget, an estimated 11 inches per year of the average annual precipitation of 55 inches per year in Brunswick County is estimated to infiltrate and recharge the shallow aquifer system. Of the 11 inches per year that recharges the shallow system, about 1 inch per year is estimated to recharge the deeper aquifer system. The surficial aquifer in Brunswick County is an important source of water for domestic supply and irrigation. The Castle Hayne aquifer is the most productive aquifer and serves as the principal ground-water source of municipal supply

  10. The Extent of Salt Water Intrusion, Southern Baldwin County, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgulet, D.; Tick, G.; Zheng, C.

    2006-12-01

    Contamination of groundwater due to saltwater intrusion has become a major concern for coastal communities which rely on groundwater as their principal source of drinking water. With increasing development and tourism in these regions both groundwater resources and environmentally sensitive areas such as coastal wetlands and ecological coastal habitats will be at risk. As a result, the protection of groundwater resources from saltwater intrusion and groundwater overdraft has become and will continue to be a critical concern in these areas. A regional-scale study evaluating the extent of saltwater intrusion as a result of increased groundwater pumping was conducted for Baldwin County, Alabama, a region on the gulf coast which has experienced continuously increasing growth and development over the last decade. An extensive reconnaissance of groundwater wells that includes water supply wells, irrigation and agricultural wells, monitoring wells, and private wells was conducted for the study area. The wells were sampled and analyzed for chloride, salinity, and TDS to determine the extent of saltwater intrusion, chloride and salinity fluxes, and the location of the saltwater/freshwater interface in the region. Groundwater pumping rates in addition to critical well-point data including hydraulic head, construction details, and lithology (well logs) were collected to determine the hydrogeological conditions in the region. ArcGIS software was used to develop head contour maps and iso-concentration maps for chloride, TDS, and salinity. A variable-density flow model SEAWAT based on MODFLOW and MT3DMS was developed to test management scenarios incorporating current and predicted demands on groundwater pumping to evaluate changing freshwater/saltwater interface, salinity and chloride fluxes, and rates of saltwater encroachment. The study will provide scientific basis for effective management of the coastal aquifers in the study region.

  11. Ground-water resources and geology of Washington and Ozaukee Counties, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.L.; Batten, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    Population growth is placing increased demands on water supplies in Washington and Ozaukee Counties. Water from three principal aquifers supplies most municipal, industrial, irrigation, residential, and farm water needs in these counties. These are the sand-and-gravel, Niagara, and sandstone aquifers. As much as 15 gallons per minute can be obtained from wells almost everywhere in these counties. Yields of 500 to 1,000 gallons per minute are available from the sand-and-gravel aquifer in parts of Washington County. The Niagara aquifer underlies most of the area and can yield as much as 500 gallons per minute in most of Ozaukee and eastern Washington Counties. It yields less than 100 gallons per minute in some areas, notably eastern Mequon in Ozaukee County and parts of western Washington County. The sandstone aquifer underlies the entire area and generally can yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute to wells. However, yields of less than 500 gallons per minute are common in southwestern Washington County, where the aquifer is thinnest.

  12. Generalized altitude and configuration of the water table in parts of Larimer, Logan, Sedgwick, and Weld Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borman, R.G.; Gaggiani, Neville G.

    1982-01-01

    The water table in parts of Larimer, Logan, Sedgwick, and Weld Counties, Colorado ranges from about 7,000 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (formerly called mean sea level) in eastern Larimer County to about 3,450 feet in northeastern Sedgwick County. Water is moving to the south and southeast in much of the study area. (USGS)

  13. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water. [Hidalgo County, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The majority of the rangelands of Hidalgo County, Texas are used in cow-calf operations. Continuous year-long grazing is practiced on about 60% of the acreage and some type of deferred system on the rest. Mechanical brush control is used more than chemical control. Ground surveys gave representative estimates for 15 vegetable crops produced in Hidalgo County. ERTS-1 data were used to estimate the acreage of citrus in the county. Combined Kubleka Munk and regression models, that included a term for shadow areas, gave a higher correlation of composite canopy reflectance with ground truth than either model alone.

  14. A County Level Assessment of Water Withdrawals for Hydraulic Fracturing: Where are Impacts Most Likely?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, M. M.; LeDuc, S. D.; Clark, C.; Todd, J.

    2015-12-01

    Concerns have arisen of the potential effects of hydraulic fracturing water withdrawals on both water for human consumption and aquatic communities. Any impacts are likely to be location specific since current U.S. hydraulic fracturing activities are concentrated in particular regions, water availability is unevenly distributed, and hydraulic fracturing water use differs between locations, including the amount of water use per well, source water, and reuse rates. Here, we used FracFocus to estimate annual hydraulic fracturing water use, and combined this with U.S. Geological Survey water use data and water availability indices to identify U.S. counties where potential impacts may be most likely. We surveyed the literature to understand source water and reuse rates. Overall, we found that hydraulic fracturing water use and consumption are a small percentage relative to total water use and consumption for most U.S. counties. However, there are 26 counties where fracturing water use is greater than 10% compared to 2010 total water use, and eight and four counties at greater than 30% and 50%, respectively. We conclude hydraulic fracturing water use currently has the greatest potential for impacts in southern and western Texas due to relatively high fracturing water use, low reuse rates, low fresh water availability, and frequent drought. However, the availability of brackish groundwater in these areas is also high relative to fracturing water use, suggesting an alternative source that could reduce potential impacts. Comparatively, the potential for impacts appears to be lower in other U.S. regions. While our county-scale findings do not preclude the possibility of more localized water quantity effects, this study provides a relative indicator of areas where potential problems might arise. Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  15. Geology and ground water resources of Kidder County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Jon L.; Bakken, Wallace E.; Chmelik, James; Williams, Barrett J.; Randich, P.G.; Petri, L.R.; Adolphson, D.G.; Bradley, Edward

    1963-01-01

    Kidder County was covered with glacial ice at least three times during the Wisconsin Stage of the Pleistocene, but the entire sequence of drifts has not been observed in one exposure. The drift which covers the area was deposited during three ice advances termed the Long Lake, Burnstad and Streeter advances. The position of the drift border of the Long Lake advance is marked by the prominent Long Lake end moraine on the western border of the county.

  16. Chemical quality of ground water in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Stephen K.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical water-quality conditions were investigated in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties by canvassing available wells and sampling water from 324 representative wells. Chemical water types varied, with 73 percent of the wells sampled containing either calcium-magnesium bicarbonate, or calcium-sodium bicarbonate type water. Substantial areas contain ground water exceeding water-quality standards for boron, manganese, and nitrate. Trace elements, with the exception of boron and manganese, were present in negligible amounts. (USGS)

  17. Feasibility of water-supply development from the unconfined aquifer in Charlotte County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    The unconfined aquifer in Charlotte County contains some potable water over most of the county, and represents a potential source of water supply to help satisfy the increasing demands of development. An estimated 150 billion cubic feet of relatively good quality water is stored in the unconfined aquifer. Transmissivity of this aquifer averages about 500 square feet per day, ranging from 100 to 7000 feet per day. Although recharge is primarily from rainfall, a significant amount occurs by upward movement of water from underlying confined aquifers through abandoned and flowing irrigation wells. Average annual recharge is estimated at 12 inches per year, and ranges from less than one inch to 16 inches per year. Chemical quality of the water is variable. However, chloride concentrations of water from the unconfined aquifer generally are less than 50 milligrams per liter. The area of greatest potential yield is located east of Telegraph Swamp in eastern Charlotte County. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. 75 FR 81642 - Long-Term North to South Water Transfer Program, Sacramento County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Long-Term North to South Water Transfer Program, Sacramento County, CA AGENCY... written comments on the scope of the Long-Term Water Transfer Program by February 28, 2011. Three public...: Send written comments on the scope of the Long-Term Water Transfer Program or issues to be addressed...

  19. 76 FR 23708 - Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Management Regional Water Exercise, East Passage, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary..., Washington for a Regional Water Rescue Exercise near Browns Point. A safety zone is necessary to ensure the... participants in the Regional Water Rescue Exercise. Basis and Purpose The Pierce County, Washington,...

  20. LIGHTNING CREEK, PACK RIVER, AND SAND CREEK, BONNER COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY SUMMARY, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Water Year 1978, water quality studies were conducted on Lightning Creek, Pack River, and Sand Creek in Bonner County, Idaho (17010214, 17010213) to determine the present status of the streams. Water quality in Lightning Creek was generally very high. No violations of standa...

  1. Construction, lithologic, and water-level data for wells near the Dickson County landfill, Dickson County, Tennessee, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ladd, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Organic compounds were detected in water samples collected from Sullivan Spring during several sampling events in 1994. Prior to this, the spring was the drinking-water source for two families in the Dickson, Tennessee area. An investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Dickson County Solid Waste Management, to determine if Sullivan Spring is hydraulically downgradient from the Dickson County landfill. This report describes the data collected during the investigation. Five monitoring wells were installed near the northwestern corner of the landfill at points between the landfill and Sullivan Spring. Water-level measurements were made on June 1 and 2, 1995, at these wells and 13 other wells near the landfill to determine ground- water altitudes in the area. Water-level altitudes in the five new monitoring wells and three other landfill-monitoring wells were higher (750.04 to 800.17 feet) than the altitude of Sullivan Spring (approximately 725 feet). In general, wells in topographically high areas had higher water-level altitudes than Sullivan Spring and wells near streams in lowland areas.

  2. Ground-water movement and water quality in Lake Point, Tooele County, Utah, 1999-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, T.A.; Wright, S.J.; Stolp, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality data in Lake Point, Tooele County, Utah, were collected during August 1999 through August 2003. Water levels in Lake Point generally declined about 1 to 2 feet from July 2001 to July 2003, likely because of less-than-average precipitation. Ground water generally flows in two directions from the Oquirrh Mountains. One component flows north toward the regional topographic low, Great Salt Lake. The other component generally flows southwest toward a substantial spring complex, Factory/Dunne's Pond. This southwest component flows through a coarse gravel deposit believed to be a shoreline feature of historic Lake Bonneville. The dominant water-quality trend in Lake Point is an increase in dissolved-solids concentration with proximity to Great Salt Lake. The water type changes from calcium-bicarbonate adjacent to the Oquirrh Mountains to sodium-chloride with proximity to Great Salt Lake. Evaluation of chloride-bromide weight ratios indicates a mixture of fresher recharge waters with a brine similar to what currently exists in Great Salt Lake.

  3. Description of water-resource-related data compiled for Harvey County, south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Site, construction, geologic, water-level, water- quality, water-withdrawal, and well-survey data for sites in Harvey County were compiled in cooper- ation with the Harvey County Health Department as part of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment's Local Environmental Protection Program (LEPP). These data were entered into a relational data-base management system (RDBMS) to facilitate the analysis required to meet the LEPP goals of developing plans for nonpoint-source management and for public-water-supply protection. The data in the RDBMS are organized into digital data sets. The data sets contain the water- resource-related data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for 668 wells; by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment for 1,636 wells, 6 public-water-supply systems, 6 streams, and 2 surface-water impoundments; by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture for 423 wells and 26 streams or impoundments; by well-drilling con- tractors and the Kansas Geological Survey for 126 wells; and by Harvey County for 89 wells. In addition, data on 761 wells and 133 sites without wells resulting from a survey of rural landowners and residents by Harvey County as a part of the LEPP are contained in another data set. The data in these 7 data sets are available from the Harvey County Health Department in Newton, Kansas. (USGS)

  4. Geology and ground-water resources of Cerro Gordo County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershey, H.G.; Wahl, K.D.; Steinhilber, W.L.

    1970-01-01

    Ground water is the major source of water supplies through out Cerro Gordo County. The majority of wells in the county are used for domestic and stock supplies, but the largest with drawals of water are for municipal and industrial supplies. Municipal pumpage in the county in 1968 was about 1.5 billion gallons; industrial pumpage was about 1.8 billion gallons and most of the water was obtained from the Jordan aquifer. If future development of water from the Jordan aquifer is to be to the best economical advantage, careful consideration should be given to the location, capacity, and pumping schedules of pro posed wells and nearby existing wells so that local overdevelop ment or excessive interference do not occur.

  5. Public supply water use, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1978-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W.L.; Alvarez, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Public supply water-use data are listed for 32 utilities in Palm Beach County, Florida, for 1978 through 1982. The data are tabulated as monthly and yearly untreated water withdrawals from each public supply utility. Utilities using ground water as a source are listed separately from those using surface-water sources. In 1978, the total public supply water withdrawal in the county was 37,580.64 million gallons, of which 74.0 percent (27,823.22 million gallons) was ground water. By 1982, the total withdrawal had increased to 43,264.16 million gallons, of which 77.5 percent (33,544.52 million gallons) was ground water. Nearly 57 percent of the ground-water withdrawal was in southeast Palm Beach County (Zone 1) during 1982. The greatest surface-water withdrawal during this time was from Clear Lake and Lake Mangonia (Zone 2) and amounted to 79.3 percent of the county 's total surface-water withdrawal. (USGS)

  6. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, March 1993 through December 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan. In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into an agreement to continue collecting water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, the USGS provided training and instrumentation for County personnel to measure, on a quarterly basis, the depth to water below the land surface in selected wells. The program included the operation of continuous water-level recorders installed on four wells, in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant and Lake townships (figure 1). County personnel make quarterly water-level measurements on 22 other wells (figure 1). Once each year, County personnel are accompanied by USGS personnel who provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Two of the wells with recorders are completed in the Marshall aquifer (H5r and H25Ar), one is completed in the glacio-fluvial aquifer (H2r), and one is completed in the Saginaw aquifer (H9r). Hydrographs are presented for each of the four wells with water level recorders (figures 3, 4, 6, and 8). Hydrographs of quarterly water-level measurements and range of water levels during the period October, 1988 to January, 1990 (the original project period) are shown in figures 5, 7, 9, and 10 and quarterly water levels are presented in tables 1 through 4. Figure 2 shows the monthly-mean water-level elevation of Lake Huron, as measured at Harbor Beach and Essexville, and monthly-mean precipitation as recorded at Bad Axe, for the period October, 1988 through December, 1994. In general, Lake Huron water-level elevation were at or near record lows in late 1989, and near record highs in late 1993. Precipitation throughout the period was generally within the normal range.

  7. MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH, DRINKING WATER ARSENIC COHORT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah, which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, birth date, town ...

  8. MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH DRINKING WATER ARSENIC COHORT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cohort members: Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, bi...

  9. Ground water in the Blanchard area, McClain County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Leon Virgil; Schoff, Stuart L.

    1948-01-01

    A letter from Lloyd L. Bowser, City Clerk, dated January 8, 1948, in behalf of the town council and Mayor Walter Casey, indicates that a serious shortage of water is faced by the town of Blanchard, McClain County, Oklahoma. The town is near the eastern boundary of Grady County, where an investigation of the ground-water resources is being made by the Oklahoma Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a State-wide investigation. Information obtained thus far may aid the town by showing where additional ground water for municipal supply may be sought.

  10. Summary of geology and ground-water conditions in the vicinity of Tappahannock, Essex County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinnott, Allen

    1955-01-01

    This memorandum has been prepared in response to a recent inquiry from the city officials of Tappahannock, Essex County, Va., regarding the availability of ground water in the Tappahannock area.  The memorandum was prepared as part of the ground-water studies of the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Virginia Division of Geology.

  11. TREND ANALYSIS OF WATER QUALITY MONITORING DATA FOR COBB COUNTY, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cobb County Water Protection Division Water Quality Laboratory has conducted quarterly chemical monitoring from 1995-2005. Here we analyze these data for temporal trends in 20 Piedmont streams in the Chattahoochee and Etowah river basins. We found trends through time at mos...

  12. TREND ANALYSIS OF WATER QUALITY MONITORING DATA FOR COBB COUNTY, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cobb County Water Protection Division Water Quality Laboratory has conducted quarterly chemical monitoring from 1995-2005. Here we analyze these data for temporal trends at 45 sites in 10 Piedmont streams in the Chattahoochee and Etowah river basins. The strongest overall tre...

  13. 77 FR 27097 - LaCrosse Boiling Water Reactor, Exemption From Certain Requirements, Vernon County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... revised 10 CFR 73.55 through the issuance of a final rule on March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). Section 73.55... COMMISSION LaCrosse Boiling Water Reactor, Exemption From Certain Requirements, Vernon County, WI AGENCY...) 73.55, for the LaCrosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR). This Environmental Assessment (EA) has...

  14. EVIDENCE FOR METAL ATTENUATION IN ACID MINE WATER BY SULFATE REDUCTION, PENN MINE, CALAVERAS COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Penn Mine in Calaveras County, California, produced Cu from massive sulfide ores from 1861 to 1953. Mine wastes were removed to a landfill during the late 1990s, improving surface-water quality, but deep mine workings were not remediated and contain metalliferous water with p...

  15. Change in surficial water area, Quivera National Wildlife Refuge, Stafford County, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. MSS-7 images acquired in August, October, and December 1972 revealed changes in both the number of water pools and surficial water area of larger pools in Quivera National Wildlife Refuge (Big and Little Salt Marsh), Stafford County, Kansas.

  16. Hydrogeology and Simulation of Regional Ground-Water-Level Declines in Monroe County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Wright, Kirsten V.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Observed ground-water-level declines from 1991 to 2003 in northern Monroe County, Michigan, are consistent with increased ground-water demands in the region. In 1991, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 20 million gallons per day, and 80 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. In 2001, the estimated ground-water use in the county was 30 million gallons per day, and 75 percent of this total was from quarry dewatering. Prior to approximately 1990, the ground-water demands were met by capturing natural discharge from the area and by inducing leakage through glacial deposits that cover the bedrock aquifer. Increased ground-water demand after 1990 led to declines in ground-water level as the system moves toward a new steady-state. Much of the available natural discharge from the bedrock aquifer had been captured by the 1991 conditions, and the response to additional withdrawals resulted in the observed widespread decline in water levels. The causes of the observed declines were explored through the use of a regional ground-water-flow model. The model area includes portions of Lenawee, Monroe, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties in Michigan, and portions of Fulton, Henry, and Lucas Counties in Ohio. Factors, including lowered water-table elevations because of below average precipitation during the time period (1991 - 2001) and reduction in water supply to the bedrock aquifer because of land-use changes, were found to affect the regional system, but these factors did not explain the regional decline. Potential ground-water capture for the bedrock aquifer in Monroe County is limited by the low hydraulic conductivity of the overlying glacial deposits and shales and the presence of dense saline water within the bedrock as it dips into the Michigan Basin to the west and north of the county. Hydrogeologic features of the bedrock and the overlying glacial deposits were included in the model design. An important step of characterizing the bedrock aquifer was the

  17. Computer program and data listing for two-dimensional ground-water model for Laramie County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This is a supplement to the report, ' Effect of pumpage on ground-water levels as modeled in Laramie County, Wyoming, ' published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Open-File Report 80-1104. The computer program and data used to model ground-water conditions in post-Cretaceous rocks in Laramie County are listed. (USGS)

  18. 77 FR 2974 - Yuba County Water Agency; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Yuba County Water Agency; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a... issuing a license. Yuba County Water Agency, as licensee for the Yuba River Project No. 2246, and the... Water Agency, 1220 F Street, Marysville, CA 95901 Any person on the official service list for the...

  19. Geochemical characterization of seaplane lagoon sediments, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, A; Carroll, S; Esser, B; Luther, G W; O'Day, P; Randall, S

    1999-08-16

    Our objective in the characterization of sediments from Seaplane Lagoon at the Alameda Naval Air Station (NAS) was to determine the geochemical interactions that control the partitioning of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc between the sediments and the porewaters. Our approach was to collect several cores at the east outfall location of the Seaplane Lagoon. We determined the porewater chemistry by (1) making in situ micro-electrode measurements, (2) extracting porewaters, and (3) modeling geochemical reactions. We determined the sediment chemistry by measuring (1) elemental abundance, (2) mineralogy, and (3) trace-element speciation. This information should help the US Navy determine the long-term hazard of the sediments if they are left in place and the short-term hazard if they are dredged. We did not fully examine the geochemistry of sediments from the West Beach Landfill Wetlands site, because these sediments were distinct from the Seaplane Lagoon sediments. Our initial motivation for studying the Landfill Wetlands site was to determine the trace-element geochemistry in Seaplane Lagoon sediments that had been dredged and then disposed in the Landfill Wetlands. Unfortunately, the location of these dredged sediments is unknown. The cores we sampled were not from the Seaplane Lagoon.

  20. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, January 1996 through December 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into an agreement to continue collecting water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, the USGS has provided training and instrumentation for County personnel to measure, on a quarterly basis, the depth to water below the land surface in selected wells. The agreement includes the operation of continuous water-level recorders installed on four wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant and Lake Townships (fig. 1). County personnel make quarterly water-level measurements of 22 other wells. Once each year, County personnel are accompanied by USGS personnel who provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Precipitation and the altitude of Lake Huron are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at two sites, and mean monthly precipitation as recorded in Huron County, for the period October 1988 through December 1996. In general, Lake Huron water levels in 1996 were about the same as they were from 1992-94 (NOAA, 1988-96). Precipitation was generally within the normal range, but was lower than 1993 or 1994. Rainfall during May, June, and July was, cumulatively, about 8.5 inches less in 1995 than in 1994. Hydrographs are presented for each of four wells with water-level recorders. Quarterly water-level measurements and range of water levels during 1996 for the other 22 wells are shown graphically and tabulated. In general, water levels in the glaciofluvial aquifer reflect seasonal variations, with maximum depths to water occurring in late summer and early fall and minimum depths to water occurring in late winter and early

  1. Occurrence of natural radium-226 radioactivity in ground water of Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1985-01-01

    Water that contains radium-226 radioactivity in excess of the 5.0-picocurie-per-liter limit set in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations was found in the majority of wells sampled throughout Sarasota County. Highest levels were found areally near the coast or near rivers and vertically in the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer where semiconsolidated phosphate pebbles occur. Analysis of data suggests that part of the radium-226 in ground water of Sarasota County is dissolved by alpha particle recoil. In slightly mineralized water, radium-226 concentrations are decreased by ion exchange or sorption. In more mineralized water, other ions compete with radium-226 for ion exchange or sorption sites. Dissolution of minerals containing radium-226 by mineralized water probably contributes a significant fraction of the dissolved radium-226. Two types of mineralized water were present in Sarasota County. One type is a marine-like water, presumably associated with saltwater encroachment in coastal areas; the other is a calcium magnesium strontium surfate bicarbonate type. In general, water that contains high radium-226 radioactivities also contains too much water hardness or dissolved solids to be used for public supply without treatment that would also reduce radium-226 radioactivities. (USGS)

  2. Ground water in Myrtle Creek - Glendale area, Douglas County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe briefly the occurence of ground water and to present ground-water information that will help water users, public officials, and planners to determine the probability of obtaining adequate quanitities of good-quality ground water in the Myrtle Creek-Glendale area.

  3. Ground-water resources of Kings and Queens counties, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Shernoff, Peter K.

    1999-01-01

    From 1981 through 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the ground-water system of western Long Island, New York, including Kings and Queens counties. This report describes the structure and operation of the western part of the Long Island ground-water system, and the hydrologic effects associated with human development from 1900 to the early 1980's. Recent (early 1980's) ground-water quantity and quality characteristics are described.

  4. Ground-water basic data for Griggs and Steele Counties, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downey, Joe S.

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the hydrologic investigation in Griggs and Steele Counties, N. Dak. (fig. 1) were to: (1) determine the location, extent, and nature of the major aquifers; (2) evaluate the occurrence and movement of ground water, including recharge and discharge; (3) estimate the quantities of water stored in the aquifers; (4) estimate the potential yields of wells tapping the major aquifers; and (5) determine the chemical quality of the ground water.

  5. Ground-water/surface-water relations along Honey Creek, Washtenaw County, Michigan, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Denis F.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Ann Arbor, Mich., investigated the ground-water/surface-water relations along the lower reaches of Honey Creek, Washtenaw County, Mich., and an unnamed tributary to Honey Creek (the discharge tributary) from June through October 2003. Streamflow in these reaches was artificially high during a naturally low-flow period due to an anthropogenic discharge. Ground-water/surface-water relations were examined by seepage runs (series of streamflow measurements for the computation of streams gains or losses) and measurements of the difference in head between the stream surface and shallow aquifer. Specific conductance and water-temperature measurements were used as ancillary data to help identify gaining and losing reaches. Three seepage runs and four runs in which hydraulic-head differences between the stream and shallow aquifer were measured (piezometer runs) were made during periods of base flow. Streamflow measurements were made at 18 sites for the seepage runs. Instream piezometers were installed at 16 sites and bank piezometers were installed at 2 sites. Two deeper instream piezometers were installed at site 13 on September 4, 2003 to collect additional data on the ground-water/surface-water relations at that site. The seepage runs indicate that the main stem of Honey Creek and the discharge tributary in the study area are overall gaining reaches. The seepage runs also indicate that smaller reaches of Honey Creek and the discharge tributary may be losing reaches and that this relation may change over time with changing hydraulic conditions. The piezometer-run measurements support the seepage-run results on the main stem, whereas piezometer-run measurements both support and conflict with seepage-run measurements on the discharge tributary. Seepage runs give an average for the reach, whereas piezometer head-difference measurements are for a specific area around the piezometer. Data that may appear to be

  6. Geology and ground-water resources of Camden County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farlekas, G.M.; Nemickas, Bronius; Gill, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    The major fresh water aquifers in Camden County, N. J., are in the unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The major aquifers are the sand and gravel units in the Potomac Group and the Raritan and Magothy Formations, the Cohansey Sand, the Wenonah Formation-Mount Laurel Sand, and the Englishtown Formation. The average ground-water use for Camden County was 68 million gallons per day for 1966. All of the major artesian aquifers have had potentiometric head declines due to ground-water withdrawals. The largest water-level decline occurred in the aquifer system in the Potomac Group and the Raritan and Magothy Formations. At Haddon Heights the potentiometric head declined over 110 feet from 1900 to 1968. In the aquifer in the Wenonah Formation-Mount Laurel Sand the potentiometric head declined 43 feet in about 60 years. The quality of ground water is generally good. In the southeastern portion of the county chloride concentrations in excess of 250 mg/liter occur in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. The high chloride water has remained in the aquifer system from the time of deposition or has re-entered the system from the ocean after the changes in sea level. The greatest potential of future ground-water development is from the Cohansey Sand which is under water table conditions. It also may have the greatest possibility of local ground-water contamination. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Quality-of-water data, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1970-1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Wesley L.; Lietz, Arthur C.

    1976-01-01

    One of the most pressing problems of Palm Beach County, Florida, is the present and potential contamination of the surface and ground-water resources. The canals which dissect the urban and agricultural areas are convenient receptacles for storm-water runoff, sewage effluent, and agricultural wastes. Contaminants in the canals may enter the shallow aquifer as the canal water infiltrates. The quality of water in the shallow aquifer is further influenced by constituents in infiltrating rainwater, septic tank effluent, and many other sources of contamination. The County Health Department has stated that many of the canals and lakes, including Lake Worth, an estuary, have reached levels of contamination rendering them unfit for recreation (Land and others, 1972). The purpose of this report is to: (1) Compile the basic water-quality data collected during 1970-75 as a part of the monitoring program. (2) Make these data available in a usable form to assist in urban and regional planning of the county 's water resources. The water-quality programs include 36 surface-water stations on canals and lakes and 136 ground-water stations which have been regularly sampled. Both urban and agricultural areas are included in the sampling programs. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Transmissivity and water quality of water-producing zones in the intermediate aquifer system, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, L.A.; Bowman, Geronia

    1998-01-01

    The intermediate aquifer system is an important water source in Sarasota County, Florida, because the quality of water in it is usually better than that in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The intermediate aquifer system consists of a group of up to three water-producing zones separated by less-permeable units that restrict the vertical movement of ground water between zones. The diverse lithology, that makes up the intermediate aquifer system, reflects the variety of depositional environments that occurred during the late Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Slight changes in the depositional environment resulted in aquifer heterogeneity, creating both localized connection between water-producing zones and abrupt culmination of water-producing zones that are not well documented. Aquifer heterogeneity results in vertical and areal variability in hydraulic and water-quality properties. The uppermost water-producing zone is designated producing zone 1 but is not extensively used because of its limited production capability and limited areal extent. The second water-producing zone is designated producing zone 2, and most of the domestic- and irrigation-supply wells in the area are open to this zone. Additionally, producing zone 2 is utilized for public supply in southern coastal areas of Sarasota County. Producing zone 3 is the lowermost and most productive water-producing zone in the intermediate aquifer system. Public-supply well fields serving the cities of Sarasota and Venice, as well as the Plantation and Mabry Carlton Reserve well fields, utilize producing zone 3. Heads within the intermediate aquifer system generally increase with aquifer depth. However, localized head-gradient reversals occur in the study area, coinciding with sites of intense ground-water withdrawals. Heads in producing zones 1, 2, and 3 range from 1 to 23, 0.2 to 34, and 7 to 42 feet above sea level, respectively. Generally, an upward head gradient exists between producing zones 3 and 2

  9. County Level Assessment of Impaired Waters and Gastrointestinal Infections

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality data are measured at a watershed level and health data are organized at different levels of aggregation therefore, assessing the population-level impact of water quality on health can be difficult. To address this discrepancy and enable the consideration of water ...

  10. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, STOCKNEY CREEK, IDAHO COUNTY, IDAHO. 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    A water quality monitoring study was conducted on Stockney Creek (17060305) for the following purposes: 1) to determine baseline water quality; 2) to document water quality effects of spring and storm agricultural runoff; and 3) to determine whether implementation of Best Manage...

  11. 77 FR 66607 - Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Application for Approval of Contract for the Sale of Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Application for Approval of Contract for the Sale of Power for a Period Extending Beyond the Term of the License Take notice that on July 17, 2012, Placer County Water Agency filed with the Commission an application for approval of:...

  12. 78 FR 63242 - Proposed Template Safe Harbor Agreement for the Solano County Water Agency in Yolo and Solano...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Harbor Policy (64 FR 32717). The Service will issue individual 10(a)(1)(A) enhancement of survival... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Template Safe Harbor Agreement for the Solano County Water Agency in... availability. SUMMARY: This notice advises the public that the Solano County Water Agency and the U.S. Fish...

  13. 75 FR 35024 - North Carolina Waters Along the Entire Length of Brunswick and Pender Counties and the Saline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY North Carolina Waters Along the Entire Length of Brunswick and Pender Counties and the Saline Waters of the Cape Fear River in Brunswick and New Hanover Counties No Discharge Zone Determination The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region...

  14. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  15. Ground water in the Thousand Oaks area, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1980-01-01

    The ground-water basin beneath the city of Thousand Oaks, Calif. , corresponds closely in area with the surface-water drainage basin of Conejo Valley. Before World War II there was little ground-water development. After World War II, urban development put a stress on the ground-water basin; many wells were drilled and water levels in wells were drawn down as much as 300 feet in places. Beginning in 1963, imported water replaced domestic and municipal ground-water systems, and water levels rapidly recovered to predevelopment levels or nearly so. Most of the ground water in the Thousand Oaks area is stored in fractured basalt of the middle Miocene Conejo Volcanics. Depending on the degree of occurrence of open fractures and cavities in the basalt, recoverable ground water in the upper 300 to 500 feet of aquifer is estimated to be between 400,000 and 600,000 acre-feet. The yield of water from wells in the area ranges from 17 to 1,080 gallons per minute. Most of the ground-water in the eastern part of the valley is high insulfate and has a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter. In the western part of the valley the ground-water is mostly of a bicarbonate type, and the dissolved-solids concentration is less than 800 milligrams per liter. In most areas of Conejo Valley, ground-water is a viable resource for irrigation of public lands and recreation areas. (USGS)

  16. Ground-water levels in water years 1984-86 and estimated ground-water pumpage in water years 1984-85, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Tabulations of groundwater level measurements made during the water years 1984-86 and summaries of estimated pumpage for water years 1984 and 1985 in Carson valley, Douglas County, Nevada, are included in this report. The data are being collected to provide a record of long-term groundwater changes and pumpage estimates that can be incorporated in a groundwater model change at a later date. (USGS)

  17. Availability and quality of ground water in the Winston area, Douglas County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Collins, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A map of the Winston area, Douglas County, Oreg., shows areal geology and locations and chemical diagrams of wells with water analyses. Another map of the area has diagrams showing the depth to water, pumping level, total depth, and yields of selected wells. Reported yields of wells range from less than 1 to as much as 70 gallons per minute; the average is less than 10. A table listing chemical analyses of water shows that, although most ground water is of adequate quality for domestic use, some wells yield water with dissolved constituents in excess of recommended limits. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Chemical quality of ground water in Sacramento and Western Placer counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical quality of groundwater was investigated in Sacramento and western Placer Counties during the summer of 1982. Chemical analyses of water samples from 209 wells indicate that the groundwater is suitable for domestic and most agricultural uses. Water from wells near the Sacramento River and a few wells near Lincoln had high concentrations of dissolved solids and some trace elements. Although chemical water types varied, 53% of the wells had a combination of calcium magnesium bicarbonate water. More than 90% of the wells sampled had water with a low to medium sodium-salinity hazard when used for irrigation. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Streamflow and water quality of the Grand Calumet River, Lake County, Indiana, and Cook County, Illinois, October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.G.; Wangsness, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    A diel water-quality survey was done to investigate the sources of dry-weather waste inputs attributable to other than permitted point-source effluent and to evaluate the waste-load assimilative capacity of the Grand Calumet River, Lake County, Indiana, and Cook County, Illinois, in October 1984. Flow in the Grand Calumet River consists almost entirely of municipal and industrial effluents which comprised more than 90% of the 500 cu ft/sec flow observed at the confluence of the East Branch Grand Calumet River and the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal during the study. At the time of the study, virtually all of the flow in the West Branch Grand Calumet River was municipal effluent. Diel variations in streamflow of as much as 300 cu ft/sec were observed in the East Branch near the ship canal. The diel variation diminished at the upstream sampling sites in the East Branch. In the West Branch, the diel variation in flow was quite drastic. Average dissolved-oxygen concentrations at stations in the East Branch ranged from 5.7 to 8.2 mg/L and at stations in the West Branch from 0.8 to 6.6 mg/L. Concentrations of dissolved solids, suspended solids, biochemical-oxygen demand, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphorus were substantially higher in the West Branch than in the East Branch. In the East Branch, only the Indiana Stream Pollution Control Board water-quality standards for total phosphorus and phenol were exceeded. In the West Branch, water-quality standards for total ammonia, chloride, cyanide, dissolved solids, fluoride, total phosphorus, mercury, and phenol were exceeded and dissolved oxygen was less than the minimum allowable. 25 refs., 65 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. A county level assessment of water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing: Where are impacts most likely? [Poster 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to assess, at the county level, the potential for hydraulic fracturing (HF) water withdrawals to impact the quantity of drinking water resources, and identify where potential impacts may be most frequent or severe.

  1. Assessment of water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1989-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess ground-water and surface-water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District in northern Palm Beach County from 1989 to 1994. Contamination of the surficial aquifer system and availability of a potable water supply have become of increasing concern. The study consisted of sampling 11 ground-water wells and 14 surface- water sites for determination of major inorganic constituents and physical characteristics, trace metals, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and synthetic organic compounds. Sodium and chloride concentrations exceeded Florida drinking-water standards in ground water at two wells, dissolved- solids concentrations at five ground-water wells and one surface-water site, and color values at all 11 ground-water wells and all 14 surface-water sites. Other constituents also exhibited concentrations that exceeded drinking-water standards. Cadmium and zinc concentrations exceeded the standards in ground water at one well, and lead concentrations exceeded the standard in ground water at five wells. Nitrogen and phosphorus specie concentrations did not exceed respective drinking-water standards in any ground-water or surface-water samples. Several synthetic organic compounds were detected at or above 50 micrograms per liter in water samples collected from six ground-water wells and three surface-water sites.

  2. 76 FR 72197 - Yuba County Water Agency; Notice of Panel Meeting and Technical Conference Details

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Yuba County Water Agency; Notice of Panel Meeting and Technical Conference... anadromous fish: Sediment supply, transport, and storage; (5) large wood and riparian habitat for anadromous..., the dispute resolution panel convened. On November 9, 2011, the Commission issued a Notice of...

  3. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, LOWER WEISER RIVER, WASHINGTON COUNTY, IDAHO, 1983 - 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Weiser River, Crane Creek to the mouth at Weiser (17050124), Washington County, Idaho and its tributaries and selected irrigation inflows were the subject of a water quality survey for one year during 1983-84. The Weiser River contributes nearly 260,000 tons of annual ...

  4. 77 FR 12830 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Intent To File... Process/Alternative Licensing Procedures a. Type of Filing: Notice of Intent to File License...

  5. Occurrence of ground waters of low hardness and of high chloride content in Lyon County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Schneider, Robert

    1960-01-01

    Hardness and chloride determinations were made with field-testing kits at the time data were obtained on most of the farm wells in the county. Tests were made on wells that were reported to yield relatively soft or "salty" water.

  6. 76 FR 6491 - San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... November 26, 2003 (68 FR 66478). The Service and Water Authority held a public scoping meeting on December... Authority NCCP/HCP, and draft IA in the Federal Register (75 FR 9921). Public meetings were held on March 17... Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA; Final Environmental...

  7. 77 FR 47058 - Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Public Meetings a. Date and Time of Meetings: Tuesday, August 28, 2012, from 9:00 a.m. to...

  8. 76 FR 67717 - Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, Protests, Recommendations, and Terms and Conditions Take notice that the following...

  9. 78 FR 59919 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission, Intent to Waive Scoping, Soliciting Motions to Intervene and Protests, Ready For Environmental Analysis,...

  10. Availability and quality of water from shallow aquifers in Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, Lawson V.; Phelps, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    The shallow-aquifer system in Duval County, Fla., overlies the Florida aquifer and is composed chiefly of sand, clay, sandy clay, and limestone. Thickness of the system ranges from about 300 to 600 feet. The upper 150 feet of deposits, consisting of the water-table and shallow-rock zones, are the most dependable and economical source of supplemental water supply. The principal shallow water-bearing zone is a limestone bed 40 to 100 feet below land surface. Aquifer tests conducted at 13 sites in Duval County show that yields from the shallow aquifer vary from place to place within the county owing chiefly to variations in lithology of the saturated rocks and sediments. The limestone of the shallow-rock zone will yield as much as 200 gallons per minute to wells; the maximum yield at most of the sites tested was between 30 and 100 gallons per minute. The water-table zone generally yields 10 gallons per minute or less but at one site, where a water-table well tapped a shell bed near land surface, the well yielded more than 40 gallons per minute. The quality of water in the shallow aquifer system in Duval County is generally acceptable for most domestic, commercial, and industrial uses. In some places, however, it has a high iron concentration and is hard. The iron concentration exceeds 0.3 milligrams per liter in water from the water-table or shallow-rock zones at 7 of the 13 aquifer test sites. The hardness of water from the aquifer ranges from about 60 to about 180 milligrams per liter. (Kosco-USGS)

  11. Ground-water hydrology of the Cocoa well-field area, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbals, C.H.; Frazee, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The city of Cocoa, Brevard County, Florida, supplies water for much of central Brevard County including Cape Kennedy and Patrick Air Force Base. The water supply is obtained from a well field in east Orange County. Many of the easternmost wells in that well field yield salty water (chloride concentration greater than 250 milligrams per liter). The interface between the fresh and salty water in the west part of the well field occurs at a depth of about 1,400 feet. An upward hydraulic gradient exists between the the lower (salty) zones and the upper, or pumped zones of the Floridan aquifer in the west part of the well field. Secondary artesian aquifers in the well-field area are relatively high-yielding but are of limited areal extent. However, they are suitable as a source of water for supplemental supply or for artificially recharging the Floridan aquifer. Fresh water was transferred by siphon from a secondary artesian aquifer to the Floridan aquifer at 90 gallons per minute. Artificial recharge and recovery experiments show that it is feasible to retrieve fresh water stored in salty zones of the Floridan aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Ground-water levels in water year 1987 and estimated ground-water pumpage in water years 1986-87, Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater levels were measured at 58 wells during water year 1987 and a summary of estimated pumpage is given for water years 1986 and 1987 in Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada. The data were collected to provide a record of groundwater changes over the long-term and pumpage estimates that can be incorporated into an existing groundwater model. The estimated total pumpage in water year 1986 was 10,200 acre-ft and in water year 1987 was 13,400 acre-ft. Groundwater levels exhibited seasonal fluctuations but remained relatively stable over the reporting period throughout most of the valley. (USGS)

  13. Seasonal variation of arsenic concentration in well water in Lane County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Nadakavukaren, J.J.; Ingermann, R.L.; Jeddeloh, G.; Falkowski, S.J.

    1984-09-01

    The United State Public Health Service has set a maximum limit for arsenic in public water supplies of 0.05 ppM (mg/l), and advises that continuous consumption of water exceeding this level is potentially hazardous. However, well and spring water exceeding this limit occurs in the U.S.S.R., Taiwan, Romania, New Zealand, and in areas of California, Nevada, Alaska and Oregon. One such area of Oregon, in Lane and Douglas Counties, overlies the Fisher formation, which consists predominantly of tuffaceous siltstone and volcaniclastic sediments. Apparently groundwater leaches arsenic from this material, and in this area, arsenic levels in well water range up to 2 p.p.m. The authors monitored the arsenic concentration in 14 Lane County wells over a 13 month period spanning 1975 and 1976. To the best of our knowledge, no studies of this type have been reported. This paper presents the results and recommendations from this study.

  14. Ground-water resources of Honey Lake valley, Lassen County, California, and Washoe County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, E.H.; Londquist, C.J.; Maurer, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Honey Lake Valley is a 2,200 sq-mi, topographically closed basin about 35 miles northwest of Reno, Nevada. Unconsolidated basin-fill deposits on the valley floor and fractured volcanic rocks in northern and eastern uplands are the principal aquifers. In the study area, about 130,000 acre- ft of water recharges the aquifer system annually, about 40% by direct infiltration of precipitation and about 60% by infiltration of streamflow and irrigation water. Balancing this is an equal amount of groundwater discharge, of which about 65% evaporates from the water table or is transpired by phreatophytes, about 30 % is withdrawn from wells, and about 5% leaves the basin as subsurface outflow to the east. Results of a groundwater flow model of the eastern part of the basin, where withdrawals for public supply have been proposed, indicate that if 15,000 acre-ft of water were withdrawn annually, a new equilibrium would eventually be established by a reduction of about 60% in both evapotranspiration and subsurface outflow to the east. Hydrologic effects would be minimal at the western boundary of the flow-model area. Within the modeled area, the increased withdrawals cause an increase in the simulated net flow of groundwater eastward across the California-Nevada State line from about 670 acre-ft/yr to about 2,300 acre-ft/yr. (USGS)

  15. WINCHESTER LAKE, LEWIS COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1985

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winchester Lake, Idaho (17060306) is an 85 acre recreation site located approximately 30 miles southeast of Lewiston. Citizen complaints of poor water clarity, odors, and decline in angler success led to a 6 month study of the lakes water quality in 1985. Winchester Lake exhibi...

  16. Membrane Technology for Produced Water in Lea County

    SciTech Connect

    Cecilia Nelson; Ashok Ghosh

    2011-06-30

    Southeastern New Mexico (SENM) is rich in mineral resources, including oil and gas. Produced water is a byproduct from oil and gas recovery operations. SENM generates approximately 400 million barrels per year of produced water with total dissolved solids (TDS) as high as ~ 200,000 ppm. Typically, produced water is disposed of by transporting it to injection wells or disposal ponds, costing around $1.2 billion per year with an estimated use of 0.3 million barrels of transportation fuel. New Mexico ranks first among U.S. states in potash production. Nationally, more than 85% of all potash produced comes from the Carlsbad potash district in SENM. Potash manufacturing processes use large quantities of water, including fresh water, for solution mining. If the produced water from oilfield operations can be treated and used economically in the potash industry, it will provide a beneficial use for the produced water as well as preserve valuable water resources in an area where fresh water is scarce. The goal of this current research was to develop a prototype desalination system that economically treats produced water from oil and/or natural gas operations for the beneficial use of industries located in southeastern New Mexico. Up until now, most water cleaning technologies have been developed for treating water with much lower quantities of TDS. Seawater with TDS of around 30,000 ppm is the highest concentration that has been seriously studied by researchers. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely used; however the cost remains high due to high-energy consumption. Higher water fluxes and recoveries are possible with a properly designed Forward Osmosis (FO) process as large driving forces can be induced with properly chosen membranes and draw solution. Membrane fouling and breakdown is a frequent and costly problem that drives the cost of desalination very high. The technology developed by New Mexico Tech (NMT) researchers not only protects the membrane, but has also

  17. Fragmented Flows: Water Supply in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Pincetl, Stephanie; Porse, Erik; Cheng, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    In the Los Angeles metropolitan region, nearly 100 public and private entities are formally involved in the management and distribution of potable water-a legacy rooted in fragmented urban growth in the area and late 19th century convictions about local control of services. Yet, while policy debates focus on new forms of infrastructure, restructured pricing mechanisms, and other technical fixes, the complex institutional architecture of the present system has received little attention. In this paper, we trace the development of this system, describe its interconnections and disjunctures, and demonstrate the invisibility of water infrastructure in LA in multiple ways-through mapping, statistical analysis, and historical texts. Perverse blessings of past water abundance led to a complex, but less than resilient, system with users accustomed to cheap, easily accessible water. We describe the lack of transparency and accountability in the current system, as well as its shortcomings in building needed new infrastructure and instituting new water rate structures. Adapting to increasing water scarcity and likely droughts must include addressing the architecture of water management. PMID:27174451

  18. Geochemistry of Standard Mine Waters, Gunnison County, Colorado, July 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Manning, Andrew H.; Graves, Jeffrey T.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Todorov, Todor; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    In many hard-rock-mining districts water flowing from abandoned mine adits is a primary source of metals to receiving streams. Understanding the generation of adit discharge is an important step in developing remediation plans. In 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency listed the Standard Mine in the Elk Creek drainage basin near Crested Butte, Colorado as a superfund site because drainage from the Standard Mine enters Elk Creek, contributing dissolved and suspended loads of zinc, cadmium, copper, and other metals to the stream. Elk Creek flows into Coal Creek, which is a source of drinking water for the town of Crested Butte. In 2006 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a hydrogeologic investigation of the Standard Mine and vicinity and identified areas of the underground workings for additional work. Mine drainage, underground-water samples, and selected spring water samples were collected in July 2009 for analysis of inorganic solutes as part of a follow-up study. Water analyses are reported for mine-effluent samples from Levels 1 and 5 of the Standard Mine, underground samples from Levels 2 and 3 of the Standard Mine, two spring samples, and an Elk Creek sample. Reported analyses include field measurements (pH, specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential), major constituents and trace elements, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopic determinations. Overall, water samples collected in 2009 at the same sites as were collected in 2006 have similar chemical compositions. Similar to 2006, water in Level 3 did not flow out the portal but was observed to flow into open workings to lower parts of the mine. Many dissolved constituent concentrations, including calcium, magnesium, sulfate, manganese, zinc, and cadmium, in Level 3 waters substantially are lower than in Level 1 effluent. Concentrations of these dissolved constituents in water samples collected from Level 2 approach or exceed concentrations of Level 1 effluent

  19. Fragmented Flows: Water Supply in Los Angeles County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincetl, Stephanie; Porse, Erik; Cheng, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    In the Los Angeles metropolitan region, nearly 100 public and private entities are formally involved in the management and distribution of potable water—a legacy rooted in fragmented urban growth in the area and late 19th century convictions about local control of services. Yet, while policy debates focus on new forms of infrastructure, restructured pricing mechanisms, and other technical fixes, the complex institutional architecture of the present system has received little attention. In this paper, we trace the development of this system, describe its interconnections and disjunctures, and demonstrate the invisibility of water infrastructure in LA in multiple ways—through mapping, statistical analysis, and historical texts. Perverse blessings of past water abundance led to a complex, but less than resilient, system with users accustomed to cheap, easily accessible water. We describe the lack of transparency and accountability in the current system, as well as its shortcomings in building needed new infrastructure and instituting new water rate structures. Adapting to increasing water scarcity and likely droughts must include addressing the architecture of water management.

  20. Water resources of the Sycamore Creek watershed, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomsen, B.W.; Schumann, Herbert H.

    1969-01-01

    The Sycamore Creek watershed is representative of many small watersheds in the Southwest where much of the streamflow originates in the mountainous areas and disappears rather quickly into the alluvial deposits adjacent to the mountains. Five years of .streamflow records from the Sycamore Creek watershed show that an average annual water yield of 6,110 acre-feet was obtained from the 165 square miles (105,000 acres) of the upper hard-rock mountain area, which receives an average annual precipitation of about 20 inches. Only a small percentage of the ,annual water yield, however, reaches the Verde River as surface flow over the 9-mile reach of the alluvial channel below the mountain front. Flows must be more ,than 200 cubic feet per second to reach the river; flows less than this rate disappear into the 1,ower alluvial area and are stored temporarily in the ground-Water reservoir : most of this water is released as ground-water discharge to the Verde River at a relatively constant rate of about 4,000 acre-feet per year. Evapotranspiration losses in the lower alluvial area are controlled by the depth of the water table and averaged about 1,500 acre-feet per year.

  1. Ground-water resources of Liberty County, Texas, with a section on Stream runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Walter H., Jr.; Breeding, S. D.

    1950-01-01

    Liberty County is in the Gulf Coastal Plain of southeastern Texas in the second tier of counties back from the Gulf. The geologic formations discussed in this report in upward sequence consist of the Oakville sandstone of Miocene age and the Lagarto clay of Miocene (?) age, the Willis sand of Pliocene (?) age, and the Lissie formation and Beaumont clay of Pleistocene age. The rocks of these formations crop out in belts roughly parallel to the Gulf shore and dip southeastward. As one travels across San Jacinto and Liberty Counties from northwest to southeast the belts of outcrop are traversed in the above order, beginning with the 0akville sandstone and Lagarto clay. The land surface slopes southeastward toward the Gulf at a rate less than the dip of the rocks; consequently artesian conditions exist in all parts of the county. The valley of the Trinity River is well known for its flowing weds, which range from 100 to 808 feet in depth. Most of the ground water used in the county is obtained from wells ranging in depth from 350 to about 1,000 feet and is drawn from the Lissie formation. Wells yielding 1,000 to 3,500 gallons a minute and ranging from 740 to 1,030 feet in depth have been developed for rice irrigation in the North Dayton area, in the southwestern part of the county. These wells draw water mostly from sands in the Lissie formation, but most of them are also screened in overlying thinner sands in the Beaumont clay. The municipal water supplies of Liberty, Cleveland, Dayton, and Diasetta are obtained from wells ranging from 350 to 833 feet in depth with reported yields of 300 to 350 gallons a minute. Most of the wells in the rural areas are less than 50 feet in depth and furnish small supplies of water for domestic use and for stock. Such supplies can be obtained almost anywhere in the county from shallow wells in the Lissie and Beaumont formations or in alluvial deposits. The average daily withdrawal of ground water for irrigation, public supply, and

  2. History and hydrologic effects of ground water use in Kings, Queens, and western Nassau counties, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawals from the aquifers underlying Kings and Queens Counties varied temporally and spatially during the 20th century and caused extreme changes in water levels. The resultant lowering of water levels during periods of heavy pumping caused saltwater intrusion in nearshore areas and the migration of contaminants from land surface into deep aquifers. The recovery of water levels in response to countywide curtailment of pumping has resulted in the flooding of underground structures. Combined withdrawals for public and industrial supply in Kings and Queens Counties were greatest during the 1930's--about 130 million gallons per day. During this period, a large cone of depression developed in the water table in Kings County; within this depression, water levels were about 45 feet lower than in 1903. All pumping for public supply was halted in Kings County in 1947, and in Jamaica (in Queens County) in 1974. Water levels in Kings County had recovered by 1974 and have remained similar to those of 1903 since then, except for minor localized drawdowns due to industrial-supply or dewatering withdrawals. A large cone of depression that had formed in southeastern Queens County before 1974 has now (1997) disappeared. The estimated combined withdrawal for public supply and industrial supply in Kings and Queens Counties in 1996 was only about 50 million gallons per day. The water-level recoveries in the water-table and confined aquifers generally have resulted in the dilution and dispersion of residual salty and nitrate-contaminated ground water. The majority of recently sampled wells indicate stable or decreasing chloride and nitrate concentrations in all aquifers since 1983. Organic contaminants remain in ground water in Kings, Queens, and Nassau Counties, however; the most commonly detected compounds in 1992-96 were tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, chloroform, and total trihalomethanes. Water samples from monitoring wells in Kings County indicate a greater

  3. Description of water-resource-related data compiled for Reno County, south-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Water-resource-related data for sites in Reno County, Kansas were compiled in cooperation with the Reno County Health Department as part of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment's Local Environmental Protection Program (LEPP). These data were entered into a relational data-base management system (RDBMS) to facilitate the spatial analysis required to meet the LEPP goals of developing plans for nonpoint-source management and for public- water-supply protection. The data in the RDBMS are organized into digital data sets. The data sets contain the water-resource-related data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for 958 wells; by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment for 3,936 wells; by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment for 51 wells, 18 public-water-supply distribution systems, and 7 streams; by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture for 643 wells and 23 streams or surface-water impoundments; and by well-drilling contractors and the Kansas Geological Survey for 96 wells. The data in these five data sets are available from the Reno County Health Department in Hutchinson, Kansas. (USGS)

  4. Ground-water resources of Monmouth County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jablonski, Leo A.

    1968-01-01

    Aquifers in the Raritan and Magothy Formations and the Englishtown Formation supplied 76 percent of the ground water used in 1958. These aquifers, in conjunction with the Wenonah Formation and Mount Laurel Sand of Late Cretaceous age, are capable of providing relatively large yields to wells. The average yield of 63 large-diameter wells tapping these aquifers is 580 gpm, at depths randing from 100 to 1,140 feet. In general, the concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the aquifers would not restrict the use of the water for most purposes. High concentrations of iron do occur and require treatment. The concentrations of dissolved solids in 39 to 41 samples were 160 ppm (parts per million) or less.

  5. Ground-water recharge in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water is a major component of Florida's water resources, accounting for 90 percent of all public-supply and self-supplied domestic water withdrawals, and 58 percent of self-supplied commercial-industrial and agricultural withdrawals of freshwater (Marella, 1992). Ground-water is also an important source of water for streams, lakes, and wetlands in Florida. Because of their importance, a good understanding of these resources is essential for their sound development, use, and protection. One area in which our understanding is lacking is in characterizing the rate at which ground water in aquifers is recharged, and how recharge rates vary geographically. Ground-water recharge (recharge) is the replenishment of ground water by downward infiltration of water from rainfall, streams, and other sources (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1987, p. 222). The recharge rates in many areas of Florida are unknown, of insufficient accuracy, or mapped at scales that are too coarse to be useful. Improved maps of recharge rates will result in improved capabilities for managing Florida's ground-water resources. In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, began a study to delineate high-rate recharge areas in several regions of Florida (Vecchioli and others, 1990). This study resulted in recharge maps that delineated areas of high (greater than 10 inches per year) and low (0 to 10 inches per year) recharge in three counties--Okaloosa, Pasco, and Volusia Counties--at a scale of 1:100,000. This report describes the results of a similar recharge mapping study for Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties (fig. 1), in which areas of high- and low-rates of recharge to the sand-and-gravel aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer are delineated. The study was conducted in 1992 and 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

  6. 78 FR 75249 - Safety Zone: Google's Night at Sea Fireworks Display, San Francisco Bay, Alameda, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NOAA... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Google's Night at Sea Fireworks Display... the breakwater in Alameda, CA in support of Google's Night at Sea Fireworks Displays on December...

  7. 76 FR 28453 - Cesar Chavez Special Resource Study-Alameda, Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Monterey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... National Park Service Cesar Chavez Special Resource Study--Alameda, Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles.... ACTION: Notice of Scoping for Cesar Chavez Special Resource Study. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions.... 110-229-May 2008), the NPS is conducting a special resource study of the sites in the State of...

  8. Project to Develop a Cost Benefit Model for Vocational Programs at College of Alameda. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ittner, Fred E.

    A pilot study is reported in the development of a cost/benefit analysis model for vocational education programs in community colleges and its application to three programs at the College of Alameda. This model can be used to compare and assess the effectiveness of occupational education programs at the same college or different colleges at the…

  9. DEEP CREEK, LATAH COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deep Creek, Idaho (17060108) had been identified as a first priority stream segment in the Nonpoint Source Pollution Abatement program. Current designated uses for Deep Creek are as a domestic and agricultural water supply, primary and secondary contact recreation, as well as co...

  10. Water Quality in Bayfield County, Wisconsin; Its Understanding, Preservation, Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderwent, Myron O., Ed.

    The report represents the efforts of two schools of higher education in northern Wisconsin to keep Lake Superior, the largest surface area, fresh water lake in the world, close to the condition it was in thousands of years ago when it was formed. The University of Wisconsin-Superior and Northland College have been studying, since 1972, water…

  11. Water Quality in Iron County, Wisconsin; Its Understanding, Preservation, Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderwent, Myron O., Ed.

    The report represents the efforts of two schools of higher education in northern Wisconsin to keep Lake Superior, the largest surface area, fresh water lake in the world, close to the condition it was in thousands of years ago when it was formed. The University of Wisconsin-Superior and Northland College have been studying, since 1972, water…

  12. Water Quality in Douglas County, Wisconsin; Its Understanding, Preservation, Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderwent, Myron O., Ed.

    The report represents the efforts of two schools of higher education in northern Wisconsin to keep Lake Superior, the largest surface area, fresh water lake in the world, close to the condition it was in thousands of years ago when it was formed. The University of Wisconsin-Superior and Northland College have been studying, since 1972, water…

  13. Water Quality in Ashland County, Wisconsin; Its Understanding, Preservation, Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderwent, Myron O., Ed.

    This report represents the efforts of two schools of higher education in northern Wisconsin to keep Lake Superior, the largest surface area, fresh water lake in the world, close to the condition it was in thousands of years ago when it was formed. The University of Wisconsin-Superior and Northland College have been studying, since 1972, water…

  14. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, VINYARD CREEK, JEROME COUNTY, IDAHO. 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    During 1986, a survey was done on Vinyard Creek (17040212) to assess water quality conditions and beneficial use impairment due to agricultural pollutants. During the 1986 irrigation season, Vinyard Creek transported an estimated 780 tons of sediment to the Snake River. Most of...

  15. Demographic factors associated with perceptions about water safety and tap water consumption among adults in Santa Clara County, California, 2011.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Brianna; Webber, Whitney L; Stoddard, Pamela; Shah, Roshni; Martin, Lori; Broderick, Bonnie; Induni, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in tap water consumption and perceptions of bottle versus tap water safety for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites, as well as associations with other demographic characteristics. Data are from the Santa Clara County, California, Dietary Practices Survey (2011; N = 306). We used logistic regression to examine associations between demographic characteristics and 1) perceptions that bottled water is safer than tap and 2) primarily consuming tap water. Hispanics were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to primarily drink tap water (OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.11-0.99), although there was no significant difference in perceptions that bottled water is safer between these groups (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.11-2.27). Hispanics may be an important population for interventions promoting tap water consumption. PMID:24921901

  16. 76 FR 18548 - North Carolina Waters Along the Entire Length of Brunswick and Pender Counties and the Lower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY North Carolina Waters Along the Entire Length of Brunswick and Pender Counties and the Lower Portion of the Cape Fear River in Brunswick and New Hanover Counties; No Discharge Zone Determination On June 21, 2010, the Environmental...

  17. 76 FR 66685 - Foreign-Trade Zone 37-Orange County, NY, Application for Subzone, ITT Water Technology, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 37--Orange County, NY, Application for Subzone, ITT Water... Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the County of Orange, New York, grantee of FTZ 37,...

  18. 76 FR 1610 - Yuba County Water Agency; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    .... (PST) Location: Yuba County Government Center, Conference Rooms 1 and 2, 915 8th Street, Marysville, California Evening Scoping Meeting Date and Time: Wednesday, February 2, 2011, 7 p.m. (PST) Location: Yuba... and Time: Tuesday, February 1, 2011, 8 a.m.-4:30 p.m. (PST) Location: Meet at Yuba County Water...

  19. Assessing county-level water footprints of different cellulosic-biofuel feedstock pathways.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wu, May

    2012-08-21

    While agricultural residue is considered as a near-term feedstock option for cellulosic biofuels, its sustainability must be evaluated by taking water into account. This study aims to analyze the county-level water footprint for four biofuel pathways in the United States, including bioethanol generated from corn grain, stover, wheat straw, and biodiesel from soybean. The county-level blue water footprint of ethanol from corn grain, stover, and wheat straw shows extremely wide variances with a national average of 31, 132, and 139 L of water per liter biofuel (L(w)/L(bf)), and standard deviation of 133, 323, and 297 L(w)/L(bf), respectively. Soybean biodiesel production results in a blue water footprint of 313 L(w)/L(bf) on the national average with standard deviation of 894 L(w)/L(bf). All biofuels show a greater green water footprint than the blue one. This work elucidates how diverse spatial resolutions affect biofuel water footprints, which can provide detailed insights into biofuels' implications on local water sustainability. PMID:22816524

  20. Ground-water pumpage and water-level declines in the Peedee and Black Creek aquifers in Onslow and Jones counties, North Carolina, 1900-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyke, W.L.; Brockman, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two aquifers in sediments of Cretaceous age, The Peedee and Black Creek aquifers, have become a major source of freshwater in Onslow and Jones Counties in North Carolina since about 1960. Prior to 1960, most water systems in this area withdrew water from younger sand or limestone beds that overlie the Peedee and Black Creek aquifers. Water-quality and economic considerations related to the treatment of water from these shallower aquifers led to increased use of the Peedee and Black Creek aquifers. Water withdrawals from the Black Creek and Peedee aquifers were about 10,000 gallons per day in 1933. By 1986, total withdrawals were about 7.8 million gallons per day, about 90 percent of which was supplied from the Black Creek aquifer. As a result of these withdrawals, ground-water levels have declined throughout Onslow and Jones Counties. The average rate of decline in static water levels in the Peedee aquifer is about 0.6 feet per year in central Jones County and about 1.4 feet per year in northern Onslow County. Rates of water level decline in the Black Creek aquifer average about 8.3 feet per year in Jones County to about 12 feet per year in northern Onslow County. Water levels in the Peedee aquifer have declined as much as 40 feet in Jones County and 80 feet in northern Onslow County since about 1900. During the same period, water levels in the Black Creek aquifer have declined as much as 120 and 160 feet in Jones and northern Onslow Counties, respectively.

  1. REMEDIATION OF LEON WATER FLOOD, BUTLER COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Korphage; Kelly Kindscher; Bruce G. Langhus

    2001-11-26

    The Leon Water Flood site has undergone one season of soil amendments and growth of specialized plants meant to colonize and accelerate the remediation of the salt-impacted site. The researchers characterized the impacted soil as to chemistry, added soil amendments, and planted several species of seedlings, and seeded the scarred areas. After the first growing season, the surface soil was again characterized and groundcover was also characterized. While plant growth was quite meager across the area, soil chemistry did improve over most of the two scars.

  2. Hydrogeology and water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium, Concho Reserve, Canadian County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A growing user population within the Concho Reserve in Canadian County, Oklahoma, has increased the need for drinking water. The North Canadian River alluvium is a reliable source of ground water for agriculture, industry, and cities in Canadian County and is the only ground-water source capable of meeting large demands. This study was undertaken to collect and analyze data to describe the hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium within the Concho Reserve. The alluvium forms a band about 2 miles long and 0.5 mile wide along the southern edge of the Concho Reserve. Thickness of the alluvium ranges from 19 to 75 feet thick and averages about 45 feet in the study area. Well cuttings and natural gamma-ray logs indicate the alluvium consists of interfingering lenses of clay, silt, and sand. The increase of coarse-grained sand and the decrease of clay and silt with depth suggests that the water-bearing properties of the aquifer within the study area improve with depth. A clay layer in the upper part of the aquifer may be partially responsible for surface water ponding in low areas after above normal precipitation and may delay the infiltration of potentially contaminated water from land surface. Specific conductance measurements indicate the ground-water quality improves in a northern direction towards the terrace. Water-quality properties, bacteria counts, major ion and nutrient concentrations, trace-element and radionuclide concentrations, and organic compound concentrations were measured in one ground-water sample at the southern edge of the Concho Reserve and comply with the primary drinking-water standards. Measured concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and total dissolved solids exceed the secondary maximum contaminant levels set for drinking water. The ground water is a calcium sulfate bicarbonate type and is considered very hard, with a hardness of 570 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate.

  3. Availability of ground water near Carmel, Hamilton County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillies, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Flow in the unconsolidated glacial deposits near the city of Carmel in central Indiana was simulated by a digital-computer model in a study of hydraulic characteristics of the deposits. The study shows that 21.3 million gallons per day (933 litres per second) of additional water could be withdrawn from the aquifer for an indefinite period of time. This pumpage is approximately 5 million gallons per day (219 1itres per second) above the projected water needs of Carmel for 1990. Saturated thickness, transmissivity, and storage coefficient of the outwash aquifer along the White River east of Carmel were determined, using available data supplemented by test drilling . The saturated thickness of the aquifer ranges f r om 10 to 110 feet 0 to 34 me tres); transmissivity ranges from 1,000 feet squared per day (93 metres squared per day) to 24 ,000 feet squared per day (2 ,230 metres squared per day); and the average storage coefficient is 0.11.

  4. Effects of sanitary sewers on ground-water levels and streams in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York; Part 3, development and application of southern Nassau County model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Buxton, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    By 1990, sanitary sewers in Nassau County Sewage Disposal Districts 2 and 3 and Suffolk County Southwest Sewer District will discharge to the ocean 140 cu ft of water per second that would otherwise be returned to the groundwater system through septic tanks and similar systems. To evaluate the effects of this loss on groundwater levels and streamflow, the U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model that couples a fine-scale subregional model to a regional model of a larger scale. The regional model generates flux boundary conditions for the subregional model, and the subregional model provides detail in the area of concern. Results indicate that the water table will decline by as much as 90% from conditions in the early 1970's. This report is one of a three-part series describing the predicted hydrologic effects of sewers in southern Nassau and southwestern Suffolk Counties. (USGS)

  5. Effects of irrigation pumping on the ground-water system in Newton and Jasper Counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, Marcel P.

    1981-01-01

    Flow in the ground-water system in Newton and Jasper Counties, Indiana, was simulated in a quasi-three-dimensional model in a study of irrigation use of ground water in the two counties. The ground-water system consists of three aquifers: (1) a surficial coarse sand aquifer known as the Kankakee aquifer, (2) a limestone and dolomite bedrock aquifer, and (3) a sand and gravel bedrock valley aquifer. Irrigation pumping, derived primarily from the bedrock, was estimated to be 34.8 million gallons per day during peak irrigation in 1977. Acreage irrigated with ground water is estimated to be 6,200 acres. A series of model experiments was used to estimate the effects of irrigation pumping on ground-water levels and streamflow. Model analysis indicates that a major factor controlling drawdown due to pumping in the bedrock aquifer are the variations in thickness and in vertical hydraulic conductivity in a semiconfining unit overlying the bedrock. Streamflow was not significantly reduced by hypothetical withdrawals of 12.6 million gallons per day from the bedrock aquifer and 10.3 million gallons per day in the Kankakee aquifer. Simulation of water-level recovery after irrigation pumping indicated that a 5-year period of alternating between increasing pumping and recovery will not cause serious problems of residual drawdown or ground-water mining. 

  6. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS TO DOMESTIC WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN SALT LAKE COUNTY, UTAH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.

    1985-01-01

    A magnitude-7. 5 earthquake occurring along the central portion of the Wasatch Fault, Utah, may cause significant damage to Salt Lake County's domestic water system. This system is composed of water treatment plants, aqueducts, distribution mains, and other facilities that are vulnerable to ground shaking, liquefaction, fault movement, and slope failures. Recent investigations into surface faulting, landslide potential, and earthquake intensity provide basic data for evaluating the potential earthquake hazards to water-distribution systems in the event of a large earthquake. Water supply system components may be vulnerable to one or more earthquake-related effects, depending on site geology and topography. Case studies of water-system damage by recent large earthquakes in Utah and in other regions of the United States offer valuable insights in evaluating water system vulnerability to earthquakes.

  7. Water resources and geology of the Los Coyotes Indian Reservation and vicinity, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballog, A.P., Jr.; Moyle, W.R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The water resources of the Los Coyotes Indian Reservation, San Diego County, Calif., are sufficient to supply the limited domestic and stock-water needs of the present residents of the reservation. Surface-water runoff is derived from direct precipitation on the area and from intermittent spring flow. Groundwater occurs in the alluvial deposits and in the consolidated rocks where they are highly fractured or deeply weathered. The best potential for groundwater development on the reservation is in the small alluvial basins in the San Ysidro and San Ignacio areas. Most water on the reservation is good to excellent in chemical quality for domestic, stock, and irrigation use. Water from two wells (and one spring), however, exceeds the primary drinking-water standard for nitrate plus nitrate. (USGS)

  8. Water assessment report: Section 13 (c); Great Plains gasification project, Mercer County, ND

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The Water Resources Council is completing a water assessment of synfuels development in the Upper Missouri River Basin. This is being done under Section 13(a) of the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act. The assessment area includes the coal deposits in the Mercer County project site. Levels of North Dakota coal gasification development that are several times the production level of the Great Plains gasification project are being examined. This report assesses: (1) the availability of adequate water supplies to meet the water requirements of the project, supporting activities, and other development induced by the project; and (2) the changes in the water resources that will result from the project. Findings of the 13(a) assessment show that water supplies are physically available within the mainstem of the Missouri River in North Dakota to supply the requirements of the gasification facilities and the supporting activities - mining and reclamation, electricity, and project-induced population increases.

  9. Geochemical Relations between Surface Water and Groundwater In Fractured Rock In Nevada County, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltero, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Sierra Nevada foothills in the South Yuba River basin Nevada County, CA is underlain by plutonic, metabasic rocks of pre-Tertiary age. Fifty-six water samples from five sites were analyzed for spatial and temporal variations using stable isotopes of water and major element chemistry. Hydrogeochemical data from surface water and groundwater indicate site specific, depth related spatial variations. Temporal variations are evident in most surface water data and absent in most groundwater data. Data for 18O and deuterium (D) plot close to the global meteoric water line confirming a meteoric source and minimal subsequent evaporative fractionation or effects of gas-water-rock interactions. An altitude effect presented in surface and groundwater data as a 0.1 per mil decrease in δ 18O and a 0.5- 0.7 per mil decrease in δ D per 30.5 meter (100ft) increase between 305 and 884 meters (1,000 and 2,900 feet) in elevation. Major element chemistry was dominated by sodium, magnesium, and calcium bicarbonate in dilute concentrations. Most groundwater data had higher Ca/Na (1.8:1), Ca/Mg (4:3), and HCO3- /Cl- (3:1) ratios than surface water data from the same site, indicative of local gas-water-rock interactions or mixing of infiltrating water with other groundwater sources. Most deep groundwater data (>91 meters or 300ft) had similar Ca/Na (0.9:1), and higher Ca/Mg (1.6:1) and HCO3- /Cl- (1.6:1) ratios than shallow groundwater data. Most groundwater samples were under saturated or close to saturation with respect to calcite. Aqueous speciation modeling, EQ3NR version 7.2c, adjusted for lab conditions, indicated acceptable charge balance relations. Most water data are consistent with fracture flow in the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the region. Data suggest a precipitation dominated hydrologic regime where local surface waters are related to local groundwaters. Most data indicate that infiltration by way of secondary porosity contributes to groundwater production in

  10. Hydrology and water quality of Geneva Lake, Walworth County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Mergener, Elizabeth A.; Rose, William J.; Garrision, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    Direct measurements and indirect measurements based on sediment-core analyses indicate that the water quality of Geneva Lake has degraded in the last 170 years, the greatest effects resulting from urbanization. Sedimentation rates were highest between 1900 to 1930, and phosphorus concentrations were highest between the 1930s to early 1980s. As a result of the recent reduction in phosphorus loading, in-lake near-surface phosphorus concentrations decreased from 20.25 ?g/L to about 10.15 ?g/L and are similar to those estimated for the lake in the early 1900s. Concentrations of other chemical constituents associated with urban areas, however, have continually increased, especially in Williams Bay and Geneva Bay.

  11. Effects of sanitary sewers on ground-water levels and streams in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York; Part 2, development and application of southwest Suffolk County model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, H.T.; Reilly, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    By 1990, sanitary sewers in Nassau County Sewage Disposal Districts 2 and 3 and Suffolk County Southwest Sewer District will discharge to the ocean 140 cu ft of water/sec that would otherwise be returned to the groundwater system through septic tanks and similar systems. To evaluate the effects of this loss on groundwater levels and streamflow, the U.S. Geological Survey developed a groundwater flow model that couples a fine-scale subregional model to a regional model of larger scale. The regional model generates flux boundary conditions for the subregional model, and the subregional model provides detail in the area of concern. Results indicate that the water table will decline by as much as 8 ft along the Suffolk-Nassau county line, with effects decreasing eastward. Base flow is predicted to decrease by as much as 73% in a stream along the county line, but this effect will decrease to zero just east of the sewered area. This report is one of a series describing the predicted hydrologic effects of sewers in southern Nassau and southwest Suffolk Counties. (USGS)

  12. Development, description, and application of a geographic information system data base for water resources in Karst Terrane in Greene County, Missouri. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, L.A.; Thomson, K.C.

    1993-12-31

    A geographic information system data base was developed for Greene County, Missouri, to provide data for use in the planning for the protection of water resources. The data base contains the following map layers: geology, cave entrances and passages, county and quadrangle boundary, dye traces, faults, geographic names, hypsography, hydrography, lineaments. Ozark aquifer potentiometric surface, public land survey system, sinkholes, soils, springs, and transportation.

  13. Availability of Ground-water in Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William R.; Reussow, J.P.; Gillies, D.C.; Shampine, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    A series of model experiments were carried out to test the capacity of the aquifers to sustain increases in pumpage. In all of these, a new equilibrium was established within 6 years of simulated pumpage. In two of these experiments, water levels in the discharging wells were allowed to draw down to approximately half of the saturated thickness of the glacial-outwash aquifer. At this drawdown limit, the total discharge of wells in the system was found to be 59 million gallons per day (2.6 cubic second) assuming that the streams were fully connected to the upper third of the glacial-outwash aquifer. In two other experiments, discharging wells were allowed to drawdown an average of two-thirds of the saturated thickness of the glacial-outwash aquifer. At this limit, the total discharge was found to be 72 million gallons per day (3.2 cubic metres per second) using the conservative stream-aquifer connection, and 103 million gallons per day (4.5 cubic metres per second) assuming a full connection. Some dewatering of the aquifer was associated with the 72 million gallons per day (3.2 cubic metres per second) discharge. In all experiments, the amount that could be pumped from the confined aquifers without disturbing existing domestic wells was found to be small.

  14. Availability and chemical characteristics of ground water in central La Plata County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brogden, R.E.; Giles, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The central part of La Plata County, Colo., has undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in central La Plata County include: alluvium, Animas Formation of Quaternary and Tertiary age, Fruitland Formation, Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, three formations of the Mesa Verde Group, the Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation of Cretaceous and Jurassic age, and undifferentiated formations. Well yields generally are low, usually less than 25 gallons per minute. However, higher yields, 25 to 50 gallons per minute may be found locally in aquifers in the alluvium and the Animas Formation. The quality of water from the aquifers is dependent on rock type. Most of the water is a calcium bicarbonate type. However, aquifers that are predominantly fine-grained or contain interbeds of shale may contain sodium bicarbonate type water. The dissolution of minerals in the coal beds, which are present in the Mesa Verde Group and the Dakota Sandstone, can contribute high concentrations of iron, sulfate, and chloride to ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Applying Bayesian Maximum Entropy to extrapolating local-scale water consumption in Maricopa County, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Wentz, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding water use in the context of urban growth and climate variability requires an accurate representation of regional water use. It is challenging, however, because water use data are often unavailable, and when they are available, they are geographically aggregated to protect the identity of individuals. The present paper aims to map local-scale estimates of water use in Maricopa County, Arizona, on the basis of data aggregated to census tracts and measured only in the City of Phoenix. To complete our research goals we describe two types of data uncertainty sources (i.e., extrapolation and downscaling processes) and then generate data that account for the uncertainty sources (i.e., soft data). Our results ascertain that the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) mapping method of modern geostatistics is a theoretically sound approach for assimilating the soft data into mapping processes. Our results lead to increased mapping accuracy over classical geostatistics, which does not account for the soft data. The confirmed BME maps therefore provide useful knowledge on local water use variability in the whole county that is further applied to the understanding of causal factors of urban water demand.

  16. Water-Quality Data for the Lower Russian River Basin, Sonoma County, California, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, Robert; Davidek, Karl; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency, began a study to determine the chemical, microbiological, and isotopic composition of the surface water and ground water in selected areas of the Lower Russian River Basin, Sonoma County, California. This report is a compilation of the hydrologic and water-quality data collected from 10 Russian River sites, 1 gravel-terrace pit site, 12 ground-water sites, 11 tributary sites including Mark West Creek, and 2 estuary sites between the city of Healdsburg and the Pacific Ocean, for the period August 2003 to September 2004. Field measurements made included streamflow, barometric pressure, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and turbidity. Water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, total and dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, mercury, wastewater compounds, total coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Discharge measurements and sampling techniques were modified to accommodate the very low summer flows at most of the tributaries, and discharge measurements were made with an acoustic Doppler velocity meter at the estuary river site to overcome the complexities associated with tidal influences.

  17. Ground-water resources of the Florida Mesa area, La Plata County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.; Wright, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    Rapid population growth in La Plata County, Colorado, has increased the demand for ground water in the Florida Mesa area. This report was prepared in cooperation with La Plata County to provide needed information about the geology, extent, thickness, and depth of the aquifers in the area; sources of ground-water recharge and discharge; direction of ground-water movement; water-level changes; and water quality in the alluvial and bedrock aquifers. Ground water in the study area is present in bedrock formations and in terrace deposits on Florida Mesa. Porous or fractured sandstone beds that contain bedrock aquifers are present near land surface along the northern margin of the study area and are present at depths less than 3,000 feet throughout the study area. Terrace deposits as much as 200 feet thick and consisting of gravel, sand, silt, and clay are present on Florida Mesa. The terrace deposits and the upper part of the underlying Animas and Nacimiento Formations form the principal aquifer under the mesa. Ground water under the mesa is supplied from precipitation and irrigation water. A small part of the precipitation and irrigation water on the mesa percolates to depth in the soil and recharges the aquifer. Irrigation water is the largest source of this recharge. Water levels in the aquifer can decline because of a reduction in irrigation recharge, or because of an increase in well pumping. Because irrigation recharge is so much larger than pumping, changes in recharge can have a much larger effect on ground-water levels than can changes in pumping. Factors that tend to increase ground-water recharge and thereby increase or maintain ground- water levels include: maintaining large rates of surface-water diversion onto Florida Mesa, reducing surface flow off the mesa, increasing use of ponds and spreading basins to promote infiltration, and irrigating by use of flood irrigation. The general direction of ground-water movement on the mesa is from the northern part of

  18. The distribution of bromide in water in the Floridan aquifer system, Duval County, northeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, E.R.; Taylor, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Although Duval County, Florida, has ample ground-water resources for public supply, the potential exists for a problem with excessive disinfectant by-products. These disinfectant by-products result from the treatment of raw water containing low concentrations of bromide and naturally occurring organic compounds. Because of this potential problem, the relation of bromide concentrations to aquifer tapped, well location and depth, and chemical characteristics of water in the Floridan aquifer system underlying Duval County were studied to determine if these relations could be applied to delineate water with low-bromide concentrations for future supplies. In 1992, water samples from 106 wells that tap the Floridan aquifer system were analyzed for bromide and major dissolved constituents. A comparison of bromide concentrations from the 1992 sampling with data from earlier studies (1979-80) indicates that higher bromide concentrations were detected during the earlier studies. The difference between the old and new data is probably because of a change in analytical methodology in the analysis of samples. Bromide concentrations exceeded the detection limit (0.10 milligrams per liter) in water from 28 of the 106 wells (26 percent) sampled in 1992. The maximum concentration was 0.56 milligrams per liter. There were no relations between bromide and major dissolved constituents, well depth, or aquifer tapped that would be useful for determining bromide concentrations. Areal patterns of bromide occurrence are not clearly defined, but areas with relatively high bromide concentrations tend to be located in a triangular area near the community of Sunbeam, Florida, and along the St. Johns River throughout Duval County.

  19. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Wilkinson, James M.; Orzol, Leonard L.

    1998-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with a particle-tracking program to demonstrate a method of evaluating ground-water vulnerability. The study area encompassed the part of the Portland Basin located in Clark County, Washington. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results and to evaluate ground-water vulnerability by identifying recharge areas and their characteristics, determining the downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and estimating the age of ground water. The report presents a description of the methods used and the results of the evaluation of ground-water vulnerability.

  20. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in the Brunswick-Glynn County Area, Georgia, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Clarke, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is contaminated with saltwater in a 2-square-mile area of downtown Brunswick, Georgia. This contamination has limited the development of the ground-water supply in the Glynn County area. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data are needed to effectively manage water resources. Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cooperative water-resources program with the City of Brunswick to monitor and assess the effect of ground-water development on saltwater contamination of the Floridan aquifer system. The potential development of alternative sources of water in the Brunswick and surficial aquifer systems also is an important consideration in coastal areas. During calendar year 2007, the cooperative water-resources monitoring program included continuous water-level recording of 13 wells completed in the Floridan, Brunswick, and surficial aquifer systems; collecting water levels from 22 wells to map the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007; and collecting and analyzing water samples from 76 wells to map chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007. In addition, work was initiated to refine an existing ground-water flow model for evaluation of water-management scenarios.

  1. Mesocarnivore Surveys on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, H O; Smith, D A; Cypher, B L; Kelly, P A; Woollett, J S

    2004-11-16

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), operated under cooperative agreement between the University of California and the U. S. Department of Energy, administers and operates an approximately 11 mi{sup 2} (28 km{sup 2}) test site in the remote hills at the northern end of the South Coast Ranges of Central California (Figure 1). Known as Site 300, this expanse of rolling hills and canyons supports a diverse array of grassland communities typical of lowland central California. The facility serves a variety of functions related to testing non-nuclear explosives, lasers, and weapons subsystems. The primary purpose of this project was to determine the presence of any mesocarnivores on Site 300 that use the property for foraging, denning, and other related activities. The surveys occurred from mid-September to mid-October, 2002.

  2. Revised long-term creep rates on the Hayward Fault, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.; Galehouse, Jon S.

    1997-01-01

    Although the Hayward fault is a source of major earthquakes, it also creeps or slips aseismically, and has done so steadily for several decades (certainly since 1921 and probably since 1869). Most of the fault creeps between 3 and 6 mm/yr, except for a 4- to 6-km-long segment near its south end that creeps at about 9 mm/yr. We present results of our recent surveys to recover angles and deflection lines established across the fault in the 1960s and 1970s, but unmonitored since. We have added data from more offset cultural features to the long-term creep rate data set and made substantial improvements to the analytical method used to compute offsets. The revised creep rate values improve our knowledge of spatial and temporal variation along the fault. The more accurate revised data has reduced the estimate of the average creep rate along most of the fault from 5.1 mm/yr to 4.6 mm/yr. Creep rates in the 9 mm/yr section near the south end have remained the same.

  3. Cultural resource inventory of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300, Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, C.I.

    1981-05-01

    A Class III cultural resources inventory was undertaken of ca. 7000 acres of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 property. Twenty-four cultural resource properties and twenty-five site types were located and recorded. Of the properties, three are prehistoric, twenty historic and one is a multicomponent site. Historic cultural resources comprise 83% of the total site assemblage. In terms of defined site types, historic petroglyphs and structures are the most representative of the recorded cultural resources. A brief site locale analysis, utilizing the inventory data, indicates that cultural resources occurrence is associated more strongly with the canyon-gully landforms than the foothills. Based on this analysis, it is probable that there is a greater probability of impacting cultural resources when projects occur in and around canyon-gully areas. The majority of the sites are either of CRES S3 or S4 significance (low significance) and while they merit consideration by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, that consideration should be mostly of a defensive nature.

  4. Ground-water conditions in artesian aquifers in Brown County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drescher, William James

    1953-01-01

    The principal water-bearing rocks underlying Brown County, Wis., are thick sandstone units of Cambrian and Ordovician age. Other aquifers include limestone and dolomite of Ordovician age, dolomite of Silurian age, and sands and gravel of Pleistocene and Recent age. Underlying the water-bearing formations are crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age which contain little or no water. Ground water is the source of all public and most private and industrial supplies in. the county. Several of the large industries use large quantities of surface water also. Most of the water is pumped from wells that penetrate the Cambrian sandstones where the water occurs under artesian conditions. From 1886, when the first deep well was drilled, to 1949, the pumpage in the county increased to an average of about 5 million gallons a day (mgd) in 1939 and to about 10 mgd in 1949. The piezometric level, which was about 100 feet above the land surface in 1886, was about 300 feet below the land surface in 1949. About 200 feet of this decline took place after 1938. The water-level-measurement program begun in 1946 shows that yearly fluctuations of water levels in observation wells range from less than 1 foot to about 90 feet, the fluctuations being larger at the center of the heavily pumped area. The highest water levels occur in the winter or spring and the lowest in the summer near the end of the season of maximum withdrawal. Coefficients of transmissibility and storage for the sandstones were obtained by making controlled pumping tests at Green Bay and De Pere. The coefficients were verified by comparing computed water-level declines and rates of withdrawal with actual ones. The computed values were within I0 percent of the actual values. Probable declines of water levels by 1960 were computed, using the same coefficients of transmissibility and storage, and assuming three different conditions of pumping. The additional decline in water level will be 15 to 150 feet in the center of the

  5. Ground-water flow beneath levee 35A from conservation area 2B, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Relation of nitrate concentrations in water to agricultural land use and soil type in Dakota County, Minnesota, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almendinger, James Edward

    1991-01-01

    Nitrate is commonly found in ground water in agricultural areas throughout the Midwest. The emphasis of this report is to relate differences in nitrate concentrations in ground water to agricultural land use and soil type. In addition, nitrate concentrations in streams, shallow ground water near the water table, and deeper ground water from 10 to 30 feet below the water table are tabulated for selected sites in Dakota County.

  7. A water-quality assessment of the Burnham Creek Watershed, Polk County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Have, M.R.

    1975-01-01

    A water-quality assessment of the Burnham Creek watershed, Polk County, Minn., was made in May 1975. Surface waters were calcium magnesium bicarbonate types with 0.11 mg/liter or less of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and 0.10 mg/liter or less of total phosphorous. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were between 3 and 720 colonies per 100 milliliters and fecal Streptococci concentrations ranged between 19 and 1600 colonies per 100 milliliters. Pesticide concentrations were low in the stream bottom materials, but an increasing trend was apparent in the downstream direction. The benthic community was dominated by blackfly larvae.

  8. Geology and ground-water resources of Burlington County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rush, F. Eugene

    1968-01-01

    The Raritan and Magothy Formations are the most prolific producers, but the Cohansey Sand and Kirkwood Formation have a great and, as yet, untapped potential. Small to moderately large supplies have been obtained from other aquifers. The maximum average potential recharge to the ground-water reservoirs is estimated to be about 790 mgd. Presently, most of it is rejected because the aquifers are essentially full. On this basis, it is believed that ground-water supplies in Burlington County are sufficient for the foreseeable future. However, well spacing must be planned to avoid local overdevelopment. 

  9. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for two coal areas of Jackson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard

    1982-01-01

    Statistical summaries of water-quality data are compiled for eight streams in two separate coal areas of Jackson County, Colo. The quality-of-water data were collected from October 1976 to September 1980. For inorganic constituents, the maximum, minimum, and mean concentrations, as well as other statistics are presented; for minor elements, only the maximum, minimum, and mean values are included. Least-squares equations (regressions) are also given relating specific conductance of the streams to the concentration of the major ions. The observed range of specific conductance was 85 to 1,150 micromhos per centimeter for the eight sites. (USGS)

  10. Compilation of Water-Resources Data and Hydrogeologic Setting for Brunswick County, North Carolina, 1933-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fine, Jason M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data were compiled for Brunswick County, North Carolina, to describe the hydrologic conditions of the County. Hydrologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as well as data collected by other governmental agencies and reviewed by the U.S. Geological Survey are presented. Data from four weather stations and two surface-water stations are summarized. Data also are presented for land use and land cover, soils, geology, hydrogeology, 12 continuously monitored ground-water wells, 73 periodically measured ground-water wells, and water-quality measurements from 39 ground-water wells. Mean monthly precipitation at the Longwood, Shallotte, Southport, and Wilmington Airport weather stations ranged from 2.19 to 7.94 inches for the periods of record, and mean monthly temperatures at the Longwood, Southport, and Wilmington Airport weather stations ranged from 43.4 to 80.1 degrees Fahrenheit for the periods of record. An evaluation of land-use and land-cover data for Brunswick County indicated that most of the County is either forested land (about 57 percent) or wetlands (about 29 percent). Cross sections are presented to illustrate the general hydrogeology beneath Brunswick County. Water-level data for Brunswick County indicate that water levels ranged from about 110 feet above mean sea level to about 22 feet below mean sea level. Chloride concentrations measured in aquifers in Brunswick County ranged from near 0 to 15,000 milligrams per liter. Chloride levels in the Black Creek and Cape Fear aquifers were measured at well above the potable limit for ground water of 250 milligrams per liter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for safe drinking water.

  11. Ground-water quality in the vicinity of landfill sites, southern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Roche, J.T.; Razem, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogeology and ground-water quality in the vicinity of five landfills in southern Franklin County, Ohio, were investigated by use of data obtained from 46 existing wells, 1 seep, 1 surface-water site, and 1 leachate-collection site. Interpretation was based on data from the wells, a potentiometric-surface map, and chemical analyses. Four of the five landfills are in abandoned sand and gravel pits. Pumping of water from a quarry near the landfills has modified the local ground-water flow pattern, increased the hydraulic gradient, and lowered the water table. Ground water unaffected by the landfills is a hard, calcium bicarbonate type with concentrations of dissolved iron and dissolved sulfate as great as 3.0 milligrams per liter and 200 milligrams per liter, respectively. Water sampled from wells downgradient from two landfills shows an increase in sodium, chloride, and other constituents. The change in water quality cannot be traced directly to the landfills, however, because of well location and the presence of other potential sources of contamination. Chemical analysis of leachate from a collection unit at one landfill shows significant amounts of zinc, chromium, copper, and nickel, in addition to high total organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand, and organic nitrogen. Concentrations of chloride, iron, lead, manganese and phenolic compounds exceed Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Standards for drinking water. Water from unaffected wells within the study area have relatively small amounts of these constituents. (USGS)

  12. Water-quality reconnaissance of the north Dade County solid-waste facility, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality sampling reconnaissance of the north Dade County solid-waste disposal facility (landfill) near Carol City, Florida, was conducted during 1977-78. The purpose of the reconnaissance was to determine selected quality characteristics of the surface- and ground-water of the landfill and contiguous area; and to assess, generally, if leachate produced by the decomposition of landfill wastes was adversely impacting the downgradient water quality. Sampling results indicated that several water-quality characteristics were present in landfill ground water at significantly higher levels than in ground water upgradient or downgradient from the landfill. Moreover, many of these water-quality characteristics were found at slightly higher levels at down gradient site 5 than at upgradient site 1 which suggested that some downgradient movement of landfill leachate had occurred. For example, chloride and alkalinity in ground water had average concentrations of 20 and 290 mg/L at background wells (site 1), 144 and 610 mg/L at landfill wells (sites 2 and 4), and 29 and 338 mg/L at downgradient wells (site 5). A comparison of the 1977-78 sampling results with the National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations indicated that levels of iron and color in ground water of the study area frequently exceeded national maximum contaminant levels, dissolved solids, turbidity, lead, and manganese occasionally exceeded regulations. Concentrations of iron and levels of color and turbidity in some surface water samples also exceeded National maximum contaminant levels. (USGS)

  13. Analysis of water-surface profiles in Leon County and the city of Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, M.A.; Orr, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water surface profiles for the 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-yr recurrence interval floods for most of the streams that drain developing areas of Leon County and the city of Tallahassee are presented. The principal streams studied are in the Lake Munson, Lake Lafayette, and Lake Jackson basins Peak discharges were computed from regression equations based on information gained from 15 streamflow stations in the area. Standard step-backwater procedures were used to determine the water-surface elevations for the streams. The flood elevations were generally higher than those in the Flood Insurance Studies for Tallahassee (1976) and Leon County (1982). The primary reason for the higher profiles is that peak discharges used in this report are larger than those used previously, largely due to changes in land use. The flood profiles for Bradford Brook, North Branch Gum Creek, and West Branch Gum Creek generally match those in the Leon County Flood Insurance Studies. Channel improvements in some areas would lower the flood elevation in that area, but would probably increase flooding downstream. (Lantz-PTT)

  14. Investigation of ground-water availability and quality in Orange County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, William L.; Daniel, Charles C., III

    2001-01-01

    A countywide inventory was conducted of 649 wells in nine hydrogeologic units in Orange County, North Carolina. As a result of this inventory, estimates of ground-water availability and use were calculated, and water-quality results were obtained from 51 wells sampled throughout the County from December 1998 through January 1999. The typical well in Orange County has an average depth of 208 feet, an average casing length of 53.6 feet, a static water level of 26.6 feet, a yield of 17.6 gallons per minute, and a well casing diameter of 6.25 inches. The saturated thickness of the regolith averages 27.0 feet and the yield per foot of total well depth averages 0.119 gallon per minute per foot. Two areas of the County are more favorable for high-yield wells.a west-southwest to east-northeast trending area in the northwestern part of the County, and a southwest to northeast trending area in the southwestern part of the County. Well yields in Orange County show little correlation with topographic or hydrogeologic setting. Fifty-one sampling locations were selected based on (a) countywide areal distribution, (b) weighted distribution among hydrogeologic units, and (c) permission from homeowners. The list of analytes for the sampling program consisted of common anions and cations, metals and trace elements, nutrients, organic compounds, and radon. Samples were screened for the presence of fuel compounds and pesticides by using immuno-assay techniques. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity were measured in the field. The median pH was 6.9, which is nearly neutral, and the median hardness was 75 milligrams per liter calcium carbonate. The median dissolved solids concentration was 125 milligrams per liter, and the median specific conductance was 175 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Orange County ground water is classified as a calcium-bicarbonate type. High nutrient concentrations were not found in samples collected for this

  15. Development of ground-water resources in Orange County, Texas, and adjacent areas in Texas and Louisiana, 1971-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonnet, C.W.; Gabrysch, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Although saltwater encroachment is evident in parts of southern Orange County, the encroachment is not expected to be detrimental if the ground-water pumping remains stable and the projected increase in demands for water is met with surface-water supplies.

  16. Appraisal of the water resources of the Big Sioux Aquifer, Moody County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Big Sioux aquifer in Moody County is a 55 sq mi, water table aquifer hydraulically connected to the Big Sioux River. The average thickness is 22 ft and the maximum thickness is 54 ft. A digital model was developed to simulate groundwater flow in the Big Sioux aquifer in Moody County. The model was calibrated for steady-state conditions using average hydrologic conditions from 1970 through 1979. Steady-state simulated water levels from 11 wells averaged 0.4 ft higher than measured water levels. The model was calibrated for transient conditions using 1983 water levels. The average monthly difference in 27 observation wells between simulated and measured water levels was 2.63 ft. Sensitivity analyses showed that recharge rate and evapotranspiration extinction depth had the largest effect on simulated water levels. A 4-inch/year increase in the recharge rate caused simulated water levels to rise 1.7 ft. A 2.5-ft increase in the extinction depth caused simulated water levels to decline 0.8 ft. The calibrated model was used to simulate the effects of three hypothetical hydrologic situations. The first situation simulated the transient effects of 1983 pumpage under severe drought conditions. The second hypothetical situation simulated the steady-state effects of increased pumping at a rate of 5,200 acre-ft/year under average hydrologic conditions. The third hypothetical situation simulated the transient effects of pumping 5,200 acre-ft/year under severe drought conditions. Stored water was not depleted in any nodes after these simulations. (USGS)

  17. Drought-Trigger Ground-Water Levels in Chester County, Pennsylvania, for the Period of Record Ending May 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA), to update the drought-trigger water levels for the Chester County observation-well network. The Chester County observation-well network was established in 1973 through a cooperative agreement between the CCWRA and the USGS to monitor local ground-water levels and trends and to determine drought conditions. In 1990 and again in 1997, drought-warning and drought-emergency water-level triggers were determined for the majority of wells in the existing Chester County observation-well network of 23 wells. Since 1997, the Chester County observation-well network expanded to 29 wells, some of the original wells were destroyed, and additional monthly water-level observations were made to allow for better statistical relations. Because of these changes, new statistics for water-level triggers were required. For this study, 19 of the 29 wells in the observation-well network were used to compute drought-trigger water levels. An additional 'drought-watch water-level trigger' category was developed to make the Chester County drought-trigger water-level categories consistent with those implemented by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP). The three drought-trigger water-level categories, as defined by PaDEP are 1) 'drought watch' when at the 75th-percentile level; 2) 'drought warning' when at the 90th-percentile level; and 3) 'drought emergency' when at the 95th-percentile level. A revised methodology, resulting from longer periods of record representing ground-water and climatic conditions and changes in local water use, has resulted in some observed differences in drought-trigger water levels. A comparison of current drought-trigger water levels to those calculated in 1997 shows the largest mean annual change in percentile values was in northeastern Chester County. In this northeastern region, the

  18. Geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer, Garden County, Western Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, Gregory V.; Cannia, James C.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, a 3-year study was begun to describe the geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer near Oshkosh, Garden County, Nebraska. The study's objectives are to evaluate the geohydrologic characteristics of the alluvial aquifer and to establish a network of observation wells for long-term monitoring of temporal variations and spatial distributions of nitrate and major-ion concentrations. Monitor wells were installed at 11 sites near Oshkosh. The geohydrology of the aquifer was characterized based on water-level measurements and two short-term aquifer tests. Bimonthly water samples were collected and analyzed for pH, specific conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients that included dissolved nitrate. Concentrations of major ions were defined from analyses of semiannual water samples. Analyses of the geohydrologic and water-quality data indicate that the aquifer is vulnerable to nitrate contamination. These data also show that nitrate concentrations in ground water flowing into and out of the study area are less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Concentration Level of 10 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Ground water from Lost Creek Valley may be mixing with ground water in the North Platte River Valley, somewhat moderating nitrate concentrations near Oshkosh.

  19. FLOOD REDUCTION EFFICIENCY OF THE WATER-MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN DADE COUNTY (MIAMI), FLORIDA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Bradley G.

    1986-01-01

    Two tropical weather systems, Hurricane Donna (1960) and Tropical Storm Dennis (1981), produced nearly equivalent amounts of rainfall in a 48-hour period south of the Miami (Florida) area. These two systems caused extensive flooding over a 600-square mile area, which is primarily agricultural and low density residential. The 1960 and 1981 storms caused the highest water levels recorded in south Dade County since flood-control measures were initiated for south Florida in 1949. Ground-water levels during both storms rose 4 to 8 feet over most of the area causing widespread inundation. Operation of the water-management system in 1981 provided flood protection and rapid recession of ground-water levels thereby minimizing damage.

  20. Geohydrological characterization, water-chemistry, and ground-water flow simulation model of the Sonoma Valley area, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Sonoma Valley, located about 30 miles north of San Francisco, is one of several basins in Sonoma County that use a combination of ground water and water delivered from the Russian River for supply. Over the past 30 years, Sonoma Valley has experienced rapid population growth and land-use changes. In particular, there has been a significant increase in irrigated agriculture, predominantly vineyards. To provide a better understanding of the ground-water/surface-water system in Sonoma Valley, the U.S. Geological Survey compiled and evaluated existing data, collected and analyzed new data, and developed a ground-water flow model to better understand and manage the ground-water system. The new data collected include subsurface lithology, gravity measurements, groundwater levels, streamflow gains and losses, temperature, water chemistry, and stable isotopes. Sonoma Valley is drained by Sonoma Creek, which discharges into San Pablo Bay. The long-term average annual volume of precipitation in the watershed is estimated to be 269,000 acre-feet. Recharge to the ground-water system is primarily from direct precipitation and Sonoma Creek. Discharge from the ground-water system is predominantly outflow to Sonoma Creek, pumpage, and outflow to marshlands and to San Pablo Bay. Geologic units of most importance for groundwater supply are the Quaternary alluvial deposits, the Glen Ellen Formation, the Huichica Formation, and the Sonoma Volcanics. In this report, the ground-water system is divided into three depth-based geohydrologic units: upper (less than 200 feet below land surface), middle (between 200 and 500 feet), and lower (greater than 500 feet). Synoptic streamflow measurements were made along Sonoma Creek and indicate those reaches with statistically significant gains or losses. Changes in ground-water levels in wells were analyzed by comparing historical contour maps with the contour map for 2003. In addition, individual hydrographs were evaluated to assess temporal

  1. Water management challenges in the context of agricultural intensification and endemic fluorosis: the case of Yuanmou County.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing; Wu, Xinan; Xu, Jianchu; Yang, Xuefei; Song, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Guangan; Yan, Maosheng; Yan, Mei; Wang, Danni

    2011-12-01

    Yuanmou County in Yunnan Province, China is situated in a dry hot valley where annual evaporation is almost six times the annual rainfall and thus the county suffers from chronic water shortages. Since the early 1980s the county has taken advantage of local warm climate and focused its economic development strategy on commercial vegetable plantations. This strategy successfully brings high income to the local government and farmers, but increases water consumption and adds an extra stressor to the already diminished water resources. Yuanmou County is one of the endemic fluorosis hotspots in China where both dental and skeletal fluorosis cases have been found among local villagers that were diagnosed as being water-borne. Despite measures to adapt to water shortages and control fluorosis taken by the local government and communities, new challenges are emerging. Herein, we describe the water management challenges facing the county as well as document the coping strategies adopted by the government and communities, analyze remaining and emerging challenges, and suggest an ecohealth framework for better management of water resources in Yuanmou. PMID:22388462

  2. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary: In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships retained continuous waterlevel recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships reverted primarily to periodic or quarterly measurement status. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 25 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 25 periodically or quarterly-measured wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville or Harbor Beach, or both (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05), and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period from 1991 through 2005 was

  3. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships retained continuous waterlevel recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships reverted primarily to periodic or quarterly measurement status. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 25 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 25 periodically or quarterly-measured wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville or Harbor Beach, or both (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05), and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period from 1991 through 2005 was measured in Lake Huron

  4. Hydrology and water quality of lakes and streams in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, Edward R.; Adamski, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Orange County, Florida, is continuing to experience a large growth in population. In 1920, the population of Orange County was less than 20,000; in 2000, the population was about 896,000. The amount of urban area around Orlando has increased considerably, especially in the northwest part of the County. The eastern one-third of the County, however, had relatively little increase in urbanization from 1977-97. The increase of population, tourism, and industry in Orange County and nearby areas changed land use; land that was once agricultural has become urban, industrial, and major recreation areas. These changes could impact surface-water resources that are important for wildlife habitat, for esthetic reasons, and potentially for public supply. Streamflow characteristics and water quality could be affected in various ways. As a result of changing land use, changes in the hydrology and water quality of Orange County's lakes and streams could occur. Median runoff in 10 selected Orange County streams ranges from about 20 inches per year (in/yr) in the Wekiva River to about 1.1 in/yr in Cypress Creek. The runoff for the Wekiva River is significantly higher than other river basins because of the relatively constant spring discharge that sustains streamflow, even during drought conditions. The low runoff for the Cypress Creek basin results from a lack of sustained inflow from ground water and a relatively large area of lakes within the drainage basin. Streamflow characteristics for 13 stations were computed on an annual basis and examined for temporal trends. Results of the trend testing indicate changes in annual mean streamflow, 1-day high streamflow, or 7-day low streamflow at 8 of the 13 stations. However, changes in 7-day low streamflow are more common than changes in annual mean or 1-day high streamflow. There is probably no single reason for the changes in 7-day low streamflows, and for most streams, it is difficult to determine definite reasons for the flow

  5. Geohydrology and quality of water in aquifers in Lucas, Sandusky, and Wood counties, northwestern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breen, K.J.; Dumouchelle, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The hydrology and quality of ground water were evaluated for the surficial sand and carbonate aquifers in northwestern Ohio. A locally important surficial sand aquifer in western Lucas County was evaluated on the basis of data from 10 wells completed in undeveloped and developed areas. The carbonate aquifer in Silurian and Devonian bedrock at its northernmost extent on the Ohio mainland was evaluated on the basis of data from previous studies and data from 466 wells and 11 springs. Most data are for the period 1985-88. The unconfined surficial sand aquifer is less than 50 ft. (feet) thick. Clay-rich drift, which restricts vertical movement of water, underlines the aquifer. Recharge is from precipitation, and discharge is by evapotranspiration and by flow to local streams and drainage ditches. Water levels are generally 2 to 8 ft. below land surface and fluctuate a total of about 3.5 ft. seasonally in a forested area. Concentrations of iron and manganese in ground water are excessive in some areas. Waters from shallow drive-point wells in residential areas contained larger concentrations of dissolved solids, hardness, sodium, and chloride than did waters from identical wells in undeveloped areas. The presence of nitrate nitrogen an other selected constituents in ground water in residential areas, and the absence of these constituents in ground water in undeveloped areas, indicate that the surficial sand aquifer has been affected by development. In carbonate aquifer, fractures, bedding-plane joints, and other secondary openings are the principal water-bearing zones. These zones can be areally and stratigraphically separated by low-permeability rock. Leaky artesian or semiconfined conditions predominate beneath most of the 1,400-mi? study area. The aquifer is confined by relatively impermeable underlying shale of Silurian age and overlying clay-rich drift of Quaternary age. Unproductive strata, including evaporites, within the sequence of carbonate rocks also confine

  6. Availability of ground water in the area surrounding the Trident submarine construction facility, Kitsap County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Arnold J.; Molenaar, Dee

    1976-01-01

    General information is presented on water resources--with emphasis on ground-water occurrence and availability--in that part of Kitsap County (referred to as Trident Impact Area) that would be most affected by the development of the Trident submarine construction facility at Bangor, Washington. The estimated 1970 water use in the study area averaged about 13 million gallons per day (mgd); of this amount about 9 mgd came from surface-water sources--from a large reservoir outside the study area--and about 4 mgd came from ground water pumped from two aquifers in the area. Anticipated water use soon will be about 18 to 21 mgd; virtually all the additional quantity required (about 5 to 8 mgd) above present use must come from ground-water sources. Preliminary evaluation of the aquifers suggests that an additional 1.5 mgd can be developed from the upper aquifer and 7 mgd from the lower aquifer. Existing wells tapping the lower aquifer might yield additional water and increase the total yield in the area by 3.5 mgd, and new wells drilled in selected areas could produce an additional 3.5 mgd from this aquifer. However, additional, large-scale ground-water withdrawal from the lower aquifer could induce saltwater intrusion into wells situated in coastal areas. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Investigation of ethylene dibromide (EDB) in ground water in Seminole County, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, James B.; Hicks, D.W.; Lowe, L. E.; Cohen, S.Z.; Jovanovich, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation of ground water in Seminole County, Georgia, for ethylene dibromide (EDB) was conducted in August 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Exposure Assessment Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether EDB, which was previously detected in ground-water samples from four neighboring wells, was localized in the vicinity of the wells or was more widespread in the ground-water system. EDB was detected in 6 of 19 wells sampled. Concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 11.8 micrograms per liter. Five of the six samples that contained EDB were collected from irrigation wells, and one was collected from a domestic well. Concentrations of 4.5 and 11.8 micrograms per liter were found in two irrigation wells located near Buck Hole, a sinkhole in a swampy depression in central Seminole County. EDB was not detected in samples from the remaining 10 irrigation and 3 domestic wells and the surface-water site (detection level less than 0.01 microgram per liter). Nine core samples were collected from a borehole near one of the irrigation wells that had high EDB concentrations. EDB was found in a core sample near the surface and in samples from depths of 24 to 25, 34 to 35, and 39 to 40 feet in the residuum. EDB concentrations in the core samples ranged from 0.06 to 2.4 micrograms per kilogram. EDB in the aquifer was found in a 4-square-mile area of the county in the vicinity of Buck Hole. EDB application information and the local hydrogeology indicate that EDB contamination in ground water in Seminole County probably is due to soil fumigation with EDB. Apparently, EDB moves downward through the residuum and, through undetermined pathways, enters the aquifer. However, because the high concentration of EDB in the aquifer seems to be localized in the Buck Hole area, the possibility of contamination from an EDB fumigant spill cannot be disregarded at this time.

  8. Ground-water resources of McKenzie County, North Dakota. Part III

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Ground water suitable for domestic and livestock supplies in McKenzie County is available from three aquifer systems in semiconsolidated rocks of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Ground water from aquifers in unconsolidated sand and gravel of Quaternary age is suitable for domestic, livestock, municipal, industrial, and irrigation uses. Rocks older than Late Cretaceous age extend to 15,000 feet (4572 meters) and generally contain brackish water that is unsuitable for most purposes. The Fox Hills and basal Hell Creek aquifer system is used as a source for livestock and domestic supplies. It generally is 1100 to 1800 feet (335 to 549 meters) in depth, and the transmissivity is 200 to 300 feet squared per day (19 to 28 meters squared per day). The water is lower in dissolved solids than water in overlying aquifers of Tertiary age and has a median dissolved-solids concentration of about 1325 milligrams per liter. Wells may yield 100 gallons per minute (6.3 liters per second). Six aquifers, each consisting of 50 to 176 feet (15 to 54 meters) of unconsolidated sand and gravel of Quaternary age, occur in McKensie County. The sand and gravel could yield 100 to more than 500 gallons per minute (6.3 to 32 liters per second). The water from four of the aquifers generally is a sodium bicarbonate type and has a median dissolved-solids concentration of 1100 to 2330 milligrams per liter. Water from the Charbonneau, Tobacco Garden, and Yellowstone-Missouri aquifers is suitable for irrigation. 26 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Potential Chemical Effects of Changes in the Source of Water Supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical modeling was used by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (henceforth, Authority), to gain insight into the potential chemical effects that could occur in the Authority's water distribution system as a result of changing the source of water used for municipal and industrial supply from ground water to surface water, or to some mixture of the two sources. From historical data, representative samples of ground-water and surface-water chemistry were selected for modeling under a range of environmental conditions anticipated to be present in the distribution system. Mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water were compared with the compositions of precipitate samples collected from the current water distribution system and with mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from surface water and ground-water/surface-water mixtures. Several minerals that were calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water in the current distribution system were identified in precipitate samples from pipes, reservoirs, and water heaters. These minerals were the calcium carbonates aragonite and calcite, and the iron oxides/hydroxides goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite. Several other minerals that were indicated by modeling to have the potential to precipitate were not found in precipitate samples. For most of these minerals, either the kinetics of formation were known to be unfavorable under conditions present in the distribution system or the minerals typically are not formed through direct precipitation from aqueous solutions. The minerals with potential to precipitate as simulated for surface-water samples and ground-water/surface-water mixtures were quite similar to the minerals with potential to precipitate from ground-water samples. Based on the modeling results along with kinetic considerations, minerals that appear most likely to

  10. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Blumer, S.P.; Crowley, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to collect water-level altitudes (hereafter referred to as water levels) at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships will have continuous water-level recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships will revert to quarterly measurement status. USGS has also provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 23 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 23 quarterly-measured wells is also summarized in the annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for groundwater levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville and Harbor Beach, and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA], 2002-04; Danny Costello, NOAA hydrologist, written commun., 2003-04). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period of this study was measured in

  11. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability in Clark County, Washington. Using the particle-tracking program, particles were placed in every cell of the flow model (about 60,000 particles) and tracked backwards in time and space upgradient along flow paths to their recharge points. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the results from a particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results. Ground-water vulnerability was evaluated by selecting parts of the ground-water flow system and combining the results with ancillary information stored in the GIS to determine recharge areas, characteristics of recharge areas, downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and age of ground water. Maps of the recharge areas for each hydrogeologic unit illustrate the presence of local, intermediate, or regional ground-water flow systems and emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the ground-water flow system in Clark County. Maps of the recharge points for each hydrogeologic unit were overlaid with maps depicting aquifer sensitivity as determined by DRASTIC (a measure of the pollution potential of ground water, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the near-surface unsaturated and saturated zones) and recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems. A large number of recharge areas were identified, particularly in southern Clark County, that have a high aquifer sensitivity, coincide with areas of recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems, or both. Using the GIS, the characteristics of the recharge areas were related to the downgradient parts of the ground-water system that will eventually receive flow that has recharged through these areas. The aquifer sensitivity, as indicated by DRASTIC, of the recharge areas for downgradient parts of the flow system was mapped for each hydrogeologic unit. A number of

  12. Ground-water resources of Griggs and Steele Counties, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downey, Joe S.; Armstrong, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Griggs and Steele Counties, in east-central North Dakota, are underlain by bedrock of Ordovician, Jurassic, and Cretaceous ages. The Fall River and Lakota Formations of Cretaceous age form the Dakota aquifer. The fractured upper part of the Pierre Formation (shale), also of Cretaceous age, forms another bedrock aquifer. The Dakota aquifer, which consists mainly of interbedded shale and sandstone units, may yield as much as 500 gallons per minute (32 liters per second) of sodium sulfate water to wells at selected locations. The Pierre aquifer yields from 1 to 10 gallons per minute (0.06 to 0.63 liters per second) of sodium bicarbonate or sodium sulfate water to wells. Four major glacial-drift aquifers are present in the study area. The Spiritwood aquifer system may supply as much as 1,500 gallons per minute (95 liters per second) of water to wells. Water samples contained dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 244 to 9,800 milligrams per liter. The Galesburg aquifer will yield as much as 1,000 gallons per minute (63 liters per second) of water to wells. Water samples contained dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 317 to 2,170 milligrams per liter. The McVille aquifer will yield as much as 500 gallons per minute (32 liters per second) to wells. Water samples contained dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 449 to 2,200 milligrams per liter. The Elk Valley aquifer could yield 30 gallons per minute (2 liters per second) to wells. Water samples contained dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 397 to 2,890 milligrams per liter. Six communities in the project area use ground-water supplies. Rural water districts are being developed in the two-county area that will provide dependable ground-water supplies for many farms and small municipalities. The Spiritwood aquifer system and the McVille and Galesburg aquifers are capable of supplying the water needs of these districts and could also provide water for irrigation.

  13. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow near the Lantana Landfill, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, G.M.; Wexler, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Lantana landfill in Palm Beach County has a surface that is 40 to 50 feet above original ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash. Parts of the landfill are below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate that leachate-enriched ground water along the eastern perimeter of the landfill has moved about 500 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride and nutrients within the leachate-enriched ground water were greater than background concentrations. The surficial aquifer system in the area of the landfill consists primarily of sand of moderate permeability, from land surface to a depth of about 68 feet deep, and consists of sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone of high permeability from a depth of about 68 feet to a depth of 200 feet. The potentiometric surface in the landfill is higher than that in adjacent areas to the east, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow was made using a telescoping-grid technique where a model covering a large area is used to determine boundaries and fluxes for a finer scale model. A regional flow model encompassing a 500-square mile area in southeastern Palm Beach County was used to calculate ground-water fluxes in a 126.5-square mile subregional area. Boundary fluxes calculated by the subregional model were then used to calculate boundary fluxes for a local model of the 3.75-square mile area representing the Lantana landfill site and vicinity. Input data required for simulating ground-water flow in the study area were obtained from the regional flow models, thus, effectively coupling the models. Additional simulations were made using the local flow model to predict effects of possible remedial actions on the movement of solutes in the ground-water system. Possible remedial actions simulated included capping the landfill with an impermeable layer

  14. Water quality at and adjacent to the south Dade County solid-waste disposal facility, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    A water-quality reconnaissance was conducted at the south Dade County solid-waste landfill near Goulds, Florida, from December 1977 through August 1978. The landfill is located directly on the unconfined Biscayne aquifer, which, in the study area, is affected by saltwater intrusion. Water samples collected from six monitor well sites at two depths and four surface-water sites were analyzed to determine the chemical, physical, and biological conditions of the ground water and surface water of the study area. Results indicated that water quality beneath the landfill was highly variable with location and depth. Leachate was generally more evident in the shallow wells and during the dry-season sampling, but was greatly diluted and dispersed in the deep wells and during the wet season. High concentrations of contaminants were generated primarily in areas of the landfill with the most recent waste deposits. Chloride (limited to the shallow wells and the dry season), alkalinity, ammonia, iron, manganese, lead, phosphorus, and organic nitrogen indicate leachate contamination of the aquifer. Water-quality characteristics in the surface waters were generally only slightly above background levels. (USGS)

  15. Classification of ground-water recharge potential in three parts of Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.; Johnson, Michael J.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water recharge potential was classified in the Santa Cruz coastal area, North-central area, and Soquel-Aptos area in Santa Cruz County, Calif., for three data elements that affect recharge; slope, soils, and geology. Separate numerical maps for each element were composited into a single numerical map using a classification system that ranked the numbers into areas of good , fair, and poor recharge potential. Most of the Santa Cruz coastal area and the Norht-central area have a poor recharge potential, and much of the Soquel-Aptos area has a good to fair recharge potential. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. Unconventional oil and gas development and its stresses on water resources in the context of Water-Energy-Food Nexus: The case of Weld County, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, P. D.; Waskom, R.; Boone, K.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas resources in Colorado started to rapidly increase since the early 2000's. The recent oil price plunge resulted in a decline of well starts' rate in the US, but in Weld County, Colorado, it is currently at the 2013-levels. The additional water demand, despite its insignificant percentage in overall state's demand (0.1% in 2012), it competes with traditional ones, since Colorado's water is almost fully appropriated. Presently, the state has 53,597 active producing oil and gas wells. More than 40% of these are located in Weld County, which happens also to be one of top food production U.S. counties. The competition for land and water resources between the energy and agricultural sectors in water stressed areas, like the western U.S., is further intensified if recycle and reuse practices are not preferred to water disposal by the energy industry. Satisfying the multiple objectives of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in order to achieve sustainable economic development requires balanced management of these resources. Identifying pressures on key areas that food and energy sectors are competing for water, is essential for prudent water management and developing appropriate policies. Weld County, as a water stressed and fossil fuel producing area, was selected for investigating current stresses on local water resources alongside with future climatic and water demand scenarios for exploring probable long-term effects.

  17. Hydrogeology and Ground-Water Quality, Chippewa Township, Isabella County, Michigan, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westjohn, David B.; Hoard, Chris J.

    2006-01-01

    The ground-water resource potential of Chippewa Township, Isabella County, Mich. was characterized on the basis of existing hydrogeologic data, water-level records, analyses of water samples, and interpretation of geophysical survey data. Eight ground-water samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and trace-metal composition. In addition, 10 direct current-resistivity soundings were collected throughout Chippewa and Coe Townships to identify potential freshwater in the aquifer system. The aquifer system includes complexly interbedded glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, and basal-lodgment tills, which overlie Jurassic or Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks. In parts of the township, freshwater is present in all geologic units, but in most areas saline water is encountered near the base of Pleistocene glacial deposits and in the Jurassic or Pennsylvanian bedrock. A near-surface sheet of relatively dense basal-lodgment till likely prevents, or substantially retards, significant direct recharge of ground water to glacial and bedrock aquifers in Chippewa and adjacent townships. Glacial sands and gravels form the principal aquifer for domestic wells (97.5 percent of wells in the township). The single community water supply in the township has wells screened in glacial deposits near the base of the glacial drift. Increased withdrawals of ground water in response to increasing demand has led to a slight decline in water quality from this supply. This water-quality decline is related primarily to an increase of dissolved sulfate, which is probably a function of well depth and dissolution of gypsum, a common mineral constituent in the Jurassic 'red beds,' which form the uppermost bedrock unit throughout most of the township. One explanation for the increase in sulfate is upconing of saline water from bedrock sources, which may contain saline water.

  18. Ground-water levels and related hydrologic data from selected observation wells in Nassau County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isbister, John

    1959-01-01

    Nassau County has experienced a rapid growth in population and industry in the past 20 years that has resulted in increased development of its ground-water resources. The county is located in west-central Long Island and its boundaries enclose a land area of 274 square miles. The climate is relatively mild and precipitation averages 43 inches a year. The precipitation is the ultimate source of natural replenishment to the ground-water reservoir. Ground water is found in the pore spaces of unconsolidated sands, gravels, and clays which overlay a basement of crystalline bedrock.

  19. Average daily withdrawals of water for public supply from Kings, Queens, and Nassau Counties in Long Island, New York, from 1904 through 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusczynski, N.J.; Spiegel, S.J.

    1954-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Water Power and Control Commission, the Nassau County Department of Public Works, the Suffolk County Board of Supervisors, and the Suffolk County Water Authority has been conducting continuing investigations since 1932 on the ground-water resources in Long Island, N. Y. One of the several phases of these studies is the collection and tabulation of data on the withdrawals by pumpage for public supply.

  20. Nature and chlorine reactivity of organic constituents from reclaimed water in groundwater, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Rostad, C.E.; Barber, L.B.; Schroeder, R.A.; Anders, R.; Davisson, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The nature and chlorine reactivity of organic constituents in reclaimed water (tertiary-treated municipal wastewater) before, during, and after recharge into groundwater at the Montebello Forebay in Los Angeles County, CA, was the focus of this study. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in reclaimed water from this site is primarily a mixture of aromatic sulfonates from anionic surfactant degradation, N-acetyl amino sugars and proteins from bacterial activity, and natural fulvic acid, whereas DOM from native groundwaters in the aquifer to which reclaimed water was recharged consists of natural fulvic acids. The hydrophilic neutral N-acetyl amino sugars that constitute 40% of the DOM in reclaimed water are removed during the first 3 m of vertical infiltration in the recharge basin. Groundwater age dating with 3H and 3He isotopes, and determinations of organic and inorganic C isotopes, enabled clear differentiation of recent recharged water from older native groundwater. Phenol structures in natural fulvic acids in DOM isolated from groundwater produced significant trihalomethanes (THM) and total organic halogen (TOX) yields upon chlorination, and these structures also were responsible for the enhanced SUVA and specific fluorescence characteristics relative to DOM in reclaimed water. Aromatic sulfonates and fulvic acids in reclaimed water DOM produced minimal THM and TOX yields.

  1. Water in sand and gravel deposits in McHenry County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, J.R.; Krohelski, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    Two general types of sand and gravel occur in McHenry County - unconfined aquifers, which are at or near the land surface, and semiconfined aquifers, which are overlain by one or more till members. Water levels in both types of aquifers are mapped from measurements made in the spring of 1979. The water-level configuration roughly parallels the land surface. Moraines and other topographically high features coincide with ground-water divides of local flow systems. Flow paths from divides to low-lands are relatively short - a few miles or less. Recharge predominates in uplands, whereas discharge predominates in lowlands. Water levels change seasonally in response to variations in recharge and discharge conditions. The highest water levels occur during spring and decline during the rest of the year. Ground water is of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type and is of acceptable quality for most uses. However, for domestic and some industrial uses, treatment may be required to reduce hardness and to remove iron. Hardness ranged from 130 to 600 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate, and dissolved iron concentrations ranges from less than 10 to 6200 micrograms per liter. The specific conductance of ground water ranged from 260 to 1170 micromhos per centimeter. Specific conductance exceeded 1000 micromhos per centimeter near Huntley and Hebron. Nitrate concentration was generally less than 0.68 milligrams per liter. 22 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Natural radioactivity in geothermal waters, Alhambra Hot Springs and nearby areas, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Robert B.; Janzer, Victor J.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive hot springs issue from a fault zone in crystalline rock of the Boulder batholith at Alhambra, Jefferson County, in southwestern Montana. The discharge contains high concentrations of radon, and the gross alpha activity and the concentration of adium-226 exceed maximum levels recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Part of the discharge is diverted for space heating, bathing, and domestic use. The radioactive thermal waters at measured temperatures of about 60°C are of the sodium bicarbonate type and saturated with respect to calcium carbonate. Radium-226 in the rock and on fractured surfaces or coprecipitated with calcium carbonate probably is the principal source of radon that is dissolved in the thermal water and discharged with other gases from some wells and springs. Local surface water and shallow ground water are of the calcium bicarbonate type and exhibit low background activity. The temperature, percent sodium, and radioactivity of mixed waters adjacent to the fault zone increase with depth. Samples from most of the major hot springs in southwestern Montana have been analyzed for gross alpha and beta activity. The high level of radioactivity at Alhambra appears to be related to leaching of radioactive material from siliceous veins by ascending thermal waters and is not a normal characteristic of hot springs issuing from fractured crystalline rock in Montana.

  3. How can hydrology inform economic policymaking? An assessment of water stress at the county level for the Northeastern United States using two concepts of water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Nicoletti, C.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vörösmarty, C.; Fekete, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by the Dublin-Rio Principles for water management, there is a global call to recognize the economic dimension of the interaction between societies and water resources. As frequently stated in the scientific water literature, the complexity of this interaction demands conceptual integration among diverse disciplines to both understand the critical issues and to design a set of policies to regulate the use of this resource. Water economic policy, economists are frequently told, is to be based not only on sound economic principles and knowledge, but also on hydrological realities. This paper offers a contribution for such an integration by showing how the use of two hydrological concepts for available water changes the evaluation of water stress at the county level for the Northeastern US. The analysis further suggests patterns of source-dependency that are proposed as relevant for economic policy design. Using USGS estimations for water economic withdrawals for 1985 through 2005, and benefiting from runoff data for the same period obtained from the WBMplus hydrological model, two sets of county-specific water stress indicators (WSIs) are built as ratios of withdrawals to two concepts of available water: internal runoff generated within each county, and internal runoff plus incoming surface flows generated elsewhere. A vis-a-vis value comparison between these sets yields two main findings. First, changes in the values of WSIs higher than 50% are observed for almost 70% of the 433 counties considered, a fact that suggests that small-scale stress assessments are highly sensitive to the utilized concept of water supply. Second, counties’ dependence on water sources is heterogeneous and can be classified into three groups by whether they mainly depend on internal runoff, on incoming flows, or on the mining of groundwater. The classification criterion interprets counties as mainly depending on internal runoff or on groundwater when their pairs of WSIs are of

  4. Availability and Quality of Water from Underground Coal Mines in Johnson and Martin Counties, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, D.S.; Cordivio1a, Steven; Risser, Dennis W.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides water users with detailed information on the location, quantity, and quality of water available from underground coal mines in the Breathitt Formation of Pennsylvanian age in part of eastern Kentucky. The principal coal seams mined are the Van Lear in Johnson County and the Alma in Martin County. Coal mines that contained water were located by field inventory and coal-mine maps. The principal factors that affect the occurrence of water in coal mines are the size of the recharge area overlying the mine, the intensity and duration of precipitation, and the altitude of the mine relative to that of the nearest perennial stream. Ten above-drainage mines (that is, mines at higher elevations than that of the nearest perennial stream) are considered potential sources of water. Discharge from these mines ranged from 12 to 1,700 gallons per minute. The highest sustained discharge from a mine ranged from 750 to 1,200 gallons per minute. The water in coal mines is part of the hydrologic system and varies seasonally with precipitation. Annual discharge from most above-drainage mines ranged from 3 to 10 percent of annual precipitation on the 1and-surface area above the mine. Eight below-drainage mines are considered potential sources of water. Two were test-pumped at rates of 560 to 620 gallons per minute for as long as 6 hours. After test pumping the Warfield Mining No. 1 mine during September 1977 and March 1978, the recovery (or recharge) rates were significantly different. In September, the recharge rate was about 1,150 gallons per minute, but in March the recharge rate was 103,500 gallons per minute. This difference reflects the seasonal variations in the amount of water available to the ground-water system. Estimates of water stored in below-drainage mines ranged from 22 to 1,462 million gallons. This storage represents a safety factor sufficient to provide water through periods of limited recharge to the mine. Most mine water is of the calcium

  5. Insights into the Interactions between Educational Messages: Looking across Multiple Organizations Addressing Water Issues in Maricopa County, Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Bethany; Saltz, Charlene; Elser, Monica

    2008-01-01

    The public receives environmental information from a variety of sources. Evaluation of a single program or one organization's effort is incomplete. Through surveys and interviews, we evaluate the cumulative impact of outreach by 20 water-related organizations in Maricopa County, Arizona. Household water conservation is a topic addressed by 18…

  6. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and potential for water-supply contamination near the Shelby County landfill in Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, W.S.; Mirecki, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was conducted from 1989 to 1991 to collect and interpret hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data specific to the Shelby County landfill in east Memphis, Tennessee. Eighteen wells were installed in the alluvial and Memphis aquifers at the landfill. Hydrogeologic data collected showed that the confining unit separating the alluvial aquifer from the Memphis aquifer was thin or absent just north of the landfill and elsewhere consists predominantly of fine sand and silt with lenses of clay. A water-table map of the landfill vicinity confirms the existence of a depression in the water table north and northeast of the landfill and indicates that ground water flows northeast from the Wolf River passing beneath the landfill toward the depression in the water table. A map of the potentiometric surface of the Memphis aquifer shows that water levels were anomalously high just north of the landfill, indicating downward leakage of water from the alluvial aquifer to the Memphis aquifer. An analysis of water-quality data for major and trace inorganic constituents and nutrients confirms that leachate from the landfill has migrated northeastward in the alluvial aquifer toward the depression in the water table and that contaminants in the alluvial aquifer have migrated downward into the Memphis aquifer. The leachate plume can be characterized by concentrations of certain major and trace inorganic constituents that are 2 to 20 times higher than samples from upgradient and background alluvial aquifer wells. The major and trace constituents that best characterize the leachate plume are total organic carbon, chloride, dissolved solids, iron, ammonia nitrogen, calcium, sodium, iodide, barium, strontium, boron, and cadmium. Several of these constituents (specifically dissolved solids, calcium, sodium, and possibly ammonia nitrogen, chloride, barium, and strontium) were detected in elevated concentrations in samples from certain Memphis aquifer wells. Elevated

  7. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  8. Geochemical Investigation of Source Water to Cave Springs, Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.; Glancy, Patrick A.

    2009-01-01

    Cave Springs supply the water for the Lehman Caves Visitor Center at Great Basin National Park, which is about 60 miles east of Ely, Nevada, in White Pine County. The source of water to the springs was investigated to evaluate the potential depletion caused by ground-water pumping in areas east of the park and to consider means to protect the supply from contamination. Cave Springs are a collection of several small springs that discharge from alluvial and glacial deposits near the contact between quartzite and granite. Four of the largest springs are diverted into a water-collection system for the park. Water from Cave Springs had more dissolved strontium, calcium, and bicarbonate, and a heavier value of carbon-13 than water from Marmot Spring at the contact between quartzite and granite near Baker Creek campground indicating that limestone had dissolved into water at Cave Springs prior to discharging. The source of the limestone at Cave Springs was determined to be rounded gravels from a pit near Baker, Nevada, which was placed around the springs during the reconstruction of the water-collection system in 1996. Isotopic compositions of water at Cave Springs and Marmot Spring indicate that the source of water to these springs primarily is from winter precipitation. Mixing of water at Cave Springs between alluvial and glacial deposits along Lehman Creek and water from quartzite is unlikely because deuterium and oxygen-18 values from a spring discharging from the alluvial and glacial deposits near upper Lehman Creek campground were heavier than the deuterium and oxygen-18 values from Cave Springs. Additionally, the estimated mean age of water determined from chlorofluorocarbon concentrations indicates water discharging from the spring near upper Lehman Creek campground is younger than that discharging from either Cave Springs or Marmot Spring. The source of water at Cave Springs is from quartzite and water discharges from the springs on the upstream side of the

  9. 1994 Water-Table Contours of the Morongo Ground-Water Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Morongo Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Morongo ground-water basin for ground-water levels measured during the period January-October 1994. Water-level data were collected from 248 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:125,000. The contour interval ranges from 3,400 to 1,500 feet above sea level.

  10. Preliminary selection of storm-water basins suitable for infiltration of reclaimed water in Nassau County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aronson, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    A survey was made of 205 storm-water basins south of the ground-water divide and north of Hempstead Turnpike in Nassau County, Long Island, N.Y., to determine which would be best suited for infiltration of reclaimed water. Selection depended on infiltration area, location with respect to the ground-water divide and to planned transmission mains, tendency to retain storm runoff, underlying lithology, and depth to water table. The total maximum infiltration area of 14 selected basins is 60.2 acres, or 2,620,900 square feet (0.24 square kilometers). If 5-foot (1.5-meter) -high partitions were constructed in the basins to divide each into approximately equal halves and reclaimed water were applied in half of each basin to a depth of 5 feet (1.5 meters), using an application-rest cycle, a total area of 25.2 acres (0.10 square kilometers) would be available for supplemental recharge; the remaining infiltration area could be used for disposal of storm runoff. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Availability of fresh ground water, Montauk Point area, Suffolk County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perlmutter, Nathaniel Matthew; DeLuca, Frank A.

    1963-01-01

    Ground water is the only source of supply at the Montauk Air Force Station n eastern Suffolk County. The water is contained in the upper 200 feet of deposits of late Pleistocene age, which are broadly divided into an upper unit of undifferentiated till and stratified drift and a lower unit of stratified drift. Fresh water in the principal aquifer, which is in the lower unit, is a lens-shaped body, which lies above salty water containing as much as 11,300 ppm of chloride. The fresh water is under artesian pressure and has a head ranging from about sea level to 3.5 feet above sea level. Pumping rates of 50 to 100 gpm cause salty water to move toward the. supply wells from below. The optimum pumping rate of most wells is about 30 gpm. New wells should be drilled as remote as possible from existing wells, and the well screens should be set as high above the zone of diffusion as the deposits permit.

  12. Aldicarb-pesticide contamination of ground water in eastern Suffolk County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soren, Julian; Stelz, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Aldicarb, a toxic oxime-carbamate pesticide that was believed incapable of reaching ground water, was used in potato-farming areas of eastern Suffolk County, New York during 1975-80. In 1979, aldicarb was found in substantial concentrations in ground water throughout the area. The New York State Department of Health set a limit of 7 micrograms per liter for aldicarb in drinking water. Extensive ground-water sampling into 1980 showed widespread contamination ranging from small amounts to as much as 515 micrograms per liter. In 1980, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency banned the use of aldicarb on Long Island at the manufacturer 's request. A 1982 sampling study found aldicarb to have penetrated to about 40 feet below the water table in concentrations ranging from below detection limit to 239 micrograms per liter. Despite reputed toxicity, no instance of aldicarb poisoning on Long Island has been documented. The excessive aldicarb concentrations in the ground water of eastern Long Island may persist for decades; the duration has not been precisely determined and remains under investigation. (USGS)

  13. Ground water in the Twenty-Nine Palms Indian Reservation and vicinity, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freckleton, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Twenty-Nine Palms Indian Reservation is in San Bernardino County, California. Movement of ground water in the area is impeded locally by faults which act as ground-water barriers. There are indications that a fault probably crosses the reservation in an east-west direction; such a fault may interfere with ground-water pumping. The water-table altitude near the northern boundary of the reservation is estimated to be 120 to 130 feet below land surface datum; the aquifer thickness in the area is unknown. Pumping-test results for wells near the reservation show specific capacities ranging from 9.2 to 70.0 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. Wells drilled on the reservation would probably fall within this range. Sodium concentrations, which may pose a hazard to those who must restrict its intake, and excessive fluoride are present in water samples from wells near the reservation. High sodium and fluoride concentrations are probably present in water in the saturated material underlying the reservation. (USGS)

  14. Availability of Additional Water for Chiricahua National Monument, Cochise County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Phillip W.

    1962-01-01

    The Chiricahua National Monument is in the eastern part of Cochise County, Ariz. The monument is about 35 miles southeast of Wilicox in the north end of the Chiricahua Mountains which border Sulphur Springs Valley on the west. The area is drained by two intermittent washes, one in Bonita and the other in Rhyolite Canyons. Shake Spring is the present source of water for the monument. It ranges in rate of flow from 2 to 12 gpm (gallons per minute) and during dry periods It is not adequate to support the requirements of the monument. Ample water to meet the present and future needs of the Chiricahua National Monument is available from a combination of several sources - undeveloped springs or seeps, capture of runoff out of the canyons, and wells drilled in the alluvium.

  15. Construction, geologic, and water-level data for observation wells near Brentwood, Williamson County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanchar, Dorothea Withington

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-four observation wells were installed at 17 sites in the area of a hazardous-waste disposal site near Brentwood, in Williamson County, Tennessee. These wells were installed to supplement data collected from domestic wells in the area, to help define the geology of the study area and to determine the water levels. Both lithologic and geophysical logs were obtained for each well drilled to help define the formations encountered. Four limestone units, corresponding to the Bigby-Cannon limestone, the Hermitage Formation, the Carters Limestone (including the T-3 bentonite), and the Lebanon Limestone, were described from well cuttings and borehole geophysical logs. Water levels have been collected at both the shallow and deep wells at each site. (USGS)

  16. Rainfall-runoff relationships and water-quality assessment of Coon Creek watershed, Anoka County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arntson, A.D.; Tornes, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    Water-quality characteristics were determined based on 14 water samples from 4 sites and 1 bottom-mate rial sample from each site. Results of the analyses indicated that streams draining urban areas carry the highest concentrations of most constituents sampled. Sand Creek at Xeon Boulevard, which drains the most urbanized area, had the highest mean concentration of metals, chloride, dissolved solids, and suspended sediment. Concentrations of total phosphorus ranged from 0.04 to 0.43 milligram per liter at the rural sites on County Ditch 58 at Andover Boulevard and Coon Creek at Raddison Road. Average phosphorus concentrations at the rural sites are comparable to concentrations at the urban sites.

  17. Ground-water appraisal of the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snavely, Deborah S.

    1980-01-01

    The most productive aquifers in the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, N.Y., are the sand and gravel beds in the northeast corner of the area and along the valleys of Fishkill and Clove Creeks. The average yield of these aquifers to wells is 190 gal/min (gallons per minute). The most productive bedrock aquifer is limestone, which yields an average of about 150 gal/min. Shale and granite each yield an average of less than 35 gal/min. About 4 billion gallons of available ground water is estimated to be in storage in the sand and gravel aquifers in the area. The area withdraws an average of 3.3 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of water in June, July, and August and 2 Mgal/d during the remainder of the year. (USGS)

  18. Baseline water quality of Schmidt, Hornbeam, and Horseshore Lakes, Dakota County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Three lakes in Dakota County were sampled five times during an 18-month period to determine baseline water quality prior to construction of an interstate highway. Results of physical measurements and chemical analyses showed that the lakes were shallow, nonstratified, and nutrient enriched. Considerable seasonal variations in dissolved solids, nutrient, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were observed. Oxygen depletion and high nutrient concentrations were characteristics of conditions under an ice cover. Blue-green algal blooms typically were established soon after ice breakup and persisted until late fall. Data from the study will be supplemented with data--collected during and after construction of the highway to assess the impact of highway construction s \\d drainage on water quality of the lakes.

  19. Cogeneration system using digester gas for Macon-Bibb county water and sewerage authority

    SciTech Connect

    Priester, D.C.

    1984-05-01

    With rise in energy cost, there is renewed focus on alternate energy sources, and especially sources that previously were not feasible to utilize, but were readily available. One of these is methane gas generated in biomass conversion in wastewater treatment plant anaerobic digestion process. The gas generated has been historically wasted and only used where it has been convenient. Now it is economically feasible to engineer systems to make the best use of the gas. The combination of cogeneration and digester gas utilization is particularly attractive for medium to large wastewater treatment plants. This paper describes the system designed for the Poplar Street Water Pollution Control Plant of the Macon-Bibb County Water and Sewerage Authority. The system consists of gas collection, cleaning and drying systems, storage vessel, and a utilization system of gas turbine generators.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of the potential for artificial ground-water recharge in eastern San Joaquin County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitten, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    In response to increasing demand on water supplies and declining water levels in San Joaquin County, the U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Joaquin County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, is evaluating the potential for artificially recharging the aquifer system in eastern San Joaquin County, California. Through a well canvass and analyses of existing data on geology, soils, and drillers logs, this study (phase one of three phases) resulted in identification of 20 sites for exploratory test drilling in areas potentially favorable for artificial recharge. Ten of the sites are in areas adjacent to the Mokelumne River, six are in areas adjacent to the Calaveras River and Mormon Slough, and four are north of Littlejohns Creek. (USGS)

  1. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of Valley Forge National Historical Park, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; McManus, B. Craig

    1996-01-01

    Valley Forge National Historical Park is just southwest of the Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) National Priorities List (Superfund) Site, a source of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground water. The 7.5-square-mile study area includes the part of the park in Lower Providence and West Norriton Townships in Montgomery County, Pa., and surrounding vicinity. The park is underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Upper Triassic age stockton Formation. A potentiometric-surface map constructed from water levels measured in 59 wells shows a cone of depression, approximately 0.5 mile in diameter, centered near the CSG Site. The cone of depression is caused by the pumping of six public supply wells. A ground-water divide between the cone of depression and Valley Forge National Historical Park provides a hydraulic barrier to the flow of ground water and contaminants from the CSG Site to the park. If pumping in the cone of depression was to cease, water levels would recover, and the ground-water divide would shift to the north. A hydraulic gradient between the CSG Site and the Schuylkill River would be established, causing contaminated ground water to flow to the park. Water samples were collected from 12 wells within the park boundary and 9 wells between the park boundary and the ground-water divide to the north of the park. All water samples were analyzed for physical properties (field determinations), nutrients, common ions, metals and other trace constituents, and VOC's. Water samples from the 12 wells inside the park boundary also were analyzed for pesticides. Concentrations of inorganic constituents in the water samples did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels. Very low concentrations of organic compounds were detected in some of the water samples. VOC's were detected in water from 76 percent of the wells sampled; the maximum concentration detected was 5.8 micrograms per liter of chloroform. The most commonly detected VOC was

  2. Inventory of forest resources (including water) by multi-level sampling. [nine northern Virginia coastal plain counties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Dana, R. W.; Roberts, E. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A stratified random sample using LANDSAT band 5 and 7 panchromatic prints resulted in estimates of water in counties with sampling errors less than + or - 9% (67% probability level). A forest inventory using a four band LANDSAT color composite resulted in estimates of forest area by counties that were within + or - 6.7% and + or - 3.7% respectively (67% probability level). Estimates of forest area for counties by computer assisted techniques were within + or - 21% of operational forest survey figures and for all counties the difference was only one percent. Correlations of airborne terrain reflectance measurements with LANDSAT radiance verified a linear atmospheric model with an additive (path radiance) term and multiplicative (transmittance) term. Coefficients of determination for 28 of the 32 modeling attempts, not adverseley affected by rain shower occurring between the times of LANDSAT passage and aircraft overflights, exceeded 0.83.

  3. Analysis of ground water by different laboratories: a comparison of chloride and nitrate data, Nassau and Suffolk counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Brian G.; Krulikas, Richard K.

    1979-01-01

    Water samples from wells in Nassau and Suffolk Counties were analyzed for chloride and nitrate. Two samples were collected at each well; one was analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the other by a laboratory in the county from which the sample was taken. Results were compared statistically by paired-sample t-test to indicate the degree of uniformity among laboratory results. Chloride analyses from one of the three county laboratories differed significantly (0.95 confidence level) from that of a Geological Survey laboratory. For nitrate analyses, a significant difference (0.95 confidence level) was noted between results from two of the three county laboratories and the Geological Survey laboratory. The lack of uniformity among results reported by the participating laboratories indicates a need for continuing participation in a quality-assurance program and exercise of strong quality control from time of sample collection through analysis so that differences can be evaluated. (Kosco-USGS)

  4. Electrical-analog-model study of water resources of the Columbus area, Bartholomew County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Frank A.; Heisel, J.E.

    1970-01-01

    The Columbus study area is in part of a glacial outwash sand and gravel aquifer that was deposited in a preglacial bedrock valley. The study area extends from the north line of Bartholomew County to the south county line and includes a small part of Jackson County south of Sand Creek and east of the East Fork White River. This report area includes about 100 square miles of the aquifer. In the Columbus area, ground water in the outwash aquifer is unconfined. Results of pumping tests and estimates derived from specific-capacity data indicate that the average horizontal permeability for this aquifer is about 3,500 gallons per day per square foot. An average coefficient of storage of about 0.2 was determined from pumping tests. Transmissibilities range from near zero in some places along the boundary to about 500,000 gallons per day per foot in the thicker parts of the aquifer. About 800,000 acre-feet of water is in storage in the aquifer. This storage is equivalent to an average yield of 34 million gallons per day for about 21 years without recharge. An electrical-analog model was built to analyze the aquifer system and determine the effects of development. Analysis of the model indicates that there is more than enough water to meet the estimated needs of the city of Columbus without seriously depleting the aquifer. Additional withdrawals will affect the flow in the Flatrock River, but if the withdrawals are made south of the city, they will not affect the river any more than present pumping. Future pumping should be confined to the deepest part of the outwash aquifer and (or) to the area adjacent to the streams. On the basis of an hypothesized amount and distribution of pumping, the decline in water levels in the Columbus area as predicted by the model for the period 1970-2015 ranged from about 20 feet in the center of the areas of pumping to 3 feet or less in the areas upstream and downstream from these areas of pumping.

  5. Reconnaissance of water quality at four swine farms in Jackson County, Florida, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    The quality of ground water on four typical swine farms in Jackson County, Florida, was studied by analyzing water samples from wastewater lagoons, monitoring wells, and supply wells. Water samples were collected quarterly for 1 year and analyzed for the following dissolved species: nitrate, nitrite, ammonium nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, total ammonium plus organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, alkalinity, carbonate, and bicarbonate. Additionally, the following field constituents were determined in the water samples: temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, and fecal streptococcus and fecal coliform bacteria. Chemical changes in swine waste as it leaches and migrates through the saturated zone were examined by comparing median values and ranges of water- quality data from farm wastewater in lagoons, shallow pond, shallow monitoring wells, and deeper farm supply wells. The effects of hydrogeologic settings and swine farmland uses on shallow ground-water quality were examined by comparing the shallow ground-water-quality data set with the results of the chemical analyses of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer, and to land uses adjacent to the monitoring wells. Substantial differences occur between the quality of diluted swine waste in the wastewater lagoons, and that of the water quality found in the shallow pond, and the ground water frm all but two of the monitoring wells of the four swine farms. The liquid from the wastewater lagoons and ground water from two wells adjacent to and down the regional gradient from a lagoon on one site, have relatively high values for the following properties and constituents: specific conductance, dissolved ammonia nitrogen, dissolved potassium, and dissolved chloride. Ground water from all other monitoring wells and farm supply wells and the surface water pond, have relatively much lower values for the same properties and constituents. To determine the relation

  6. Effect of urbanization on the water resources of Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.; Davis, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    median and the median in nearby Chester County. High concentrations of sulfate and dissolved solids in ground water are probably caused by restricted gournd-water circulation and may be reduced by long-term pumping, which flushes the aquifer. Effluent from sewage treatment plants has degraded the quality of low streamflow.

  7. Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1980-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddins, W.H.; Cardinell, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, to study, among other things, the effects of solid waste disposal on the water quality in Mecklenburg County. Water quality samples (747 inorganic and 168 organic) were collected at 20 surface water sites and 53 monitoring wells at four selected landfills from 1980 to 1986. Samples were analyzed for 142 selected physical and biological parameters, major ions, nutrients, trace metals, and (or) organic compounds. Results from all analyses are presented in tabular form in the appendices. Each appendix is divided into a surface water and a groundwater section. Within each water quality table the data is presented in the following order: field measurements, physical properties, biological constituents (if analyzed), major cations, major anions, dissolved and total solids, nutrients, trace inorganic constituents, and organic constituents.

  8. Ground-water resources of the White River basin, Madison County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, Wayne W.

    1981-01-01

    The ground-water resources of the White River basin in and near Madison County, Ind., were investigated by mapping the aquifers, estimating their hydraulic properties, determining the distribution of potentiometric head in the aquifers, and estimating some of the components of the ground-water budget from data collected in the field. This information was used to construct and calibrate a five-layer digital groundwater flow model. The model was used to provide estimates of the ground-water potential in terms of yield, drawdown, and streamflow depletion. Four confined sand and gravel aquifers interbedded in the glacial drift, a bedrock aquifer, and an unconfined outwash aquifer are the three most important aquifer systems in the study area. Model analysis of eight pumping plans provide a general assessment of the water-yielding potential of the three major aquifer systems in the study area. Model results indicate that, at some locations, yields of as much as 2.5 million gallons per day can be developed. Model simulations also indicate that only pumping near the small streams will reduce streamflow by more than a few percent. In developing the ground-water system in the area, use of many small, scattered well fields that produce less than about 3 million gallons per day, may be more favorable hydrologically than a few, heavily pumped well fields, like the well field northwest of Anderson. (USGS)

  9. Water resources of the Santa Rosa Indian Reservation and vicinity, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buono, Anthony; Moyle, W.R.; Dana, Patricia

    1979-01-01

    Additional water for irrigation is needed by the Santa Rosa Indian Reservation, Riverside County, California. Water in the area is derived from precipitation, which averages 12 inches annually, on three subbasins nearly surrounding the 17-square-mile reservation. No ground water flows in from outside the area. A supply well that taps sandy material overlying the pre-Tertiary basement complex showed a specific capacity of 0.4 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown. Estimates of specific yield for material encountered during drilling of three wells and a test hole ranged from 5 to 10 percent. A gravity survey outlined the thickest section of the aquifer in the Vandeventer Flat area, and test wells are proposed to determine its potential well yield. Damming streams to retain runoff (about 1,500 acre-feet per year, and more during periods of heavy precipitation) is also proposed. Analyses of water from the supply well and five major springs showed that ground water is suitable for irrigation except at Sulphur Spring, where the percent sodium of 97 exceeds recommended maximums, and at Bull Canyon Spring, where the specific conductance of 1,300 micromhos indicate a salinity hazard. (Kosco-USGS)

  10. A Preliminary evaluation of hydrology and water quality near the Tacoma Landfill, Pierce County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lum, W.E.; Turney, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Tacoma landfill, located in western Pierce County, Washington, has been used for the disposal of waste since about 1960. Disposal operations are planned to continue at this site until at least 1990. Data were compiled and interpreted to help understand the possible effects of the landfill on water quality in the surrounding area. Data were collected from published and unpublished reports of the U.S. Geological Survey, and from predominantly unpublished data in the files of other government agencies. The Tacoma landfill is underlain by unconsolidated, glacially derived deposits that consist of a wide variety of mixtures of clay to boulder-sized materials. Ground water is mostly the result of rainfall on the land surface, and moves through artesian aquifers (under the landfill) that are tapped for both domestic and municipal use. Hazardous liquid and dissolved wastes are probably present in the landfill, and potential flow paths for waste migration exist. An undetermined number of single-family domestic wells and 18 public-supply wells are within 3 miles of the landfill, three as close as 0.2 miles. There is only limited evidence indicating ground- and surface-water contamination. Further investigations of the geology, hydrology and water quality are needed to characterize the impact the landfill has on ground- and surface-water of the surrounding area. (USGS)

  11. Assessment of water quality in canals of eastern Broward County, Florida, 1969-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Bradley G.; Miller, Wesley L.

    1982-01-01

    An intensive water-quality monitoring program was started in 1969 to determine the effects of man-induced contaminants on the water quality in the primary canal system of eastern Broward County, Florida. This report covers the first 6 years of the program and provides a data base that can be used to compare future changes in water-quality conditions. Most data indicate that beyond the small seasonal fluctuation in constituent level, the greatest adverse effect on the quality of water is caused by discharge of sewage and treated sewage effluent to the canals. The areas affected by sewage have greater concentrations of macronutrients, trace metals, and pesticides than unaffected areas. Major-ion concentrations were affected only by season and local lithology. Over the 6-year study a gradual decrease in macronutrient concentration and an increase in dissolved oxygen have occurred. This improvement in water quality is attributed to a decrease of sewage discharge into canals and better treatment of sewage effluents. (USGS)

  12. Geology and ground-water conditions in southern Nassau and southeastern Queens Counties, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perlmutter, N.M.; Geraghty, J.J.

    1963-01-01

    Test drilling, electrical logging, and water sampling of 'outpost' and other wells have revealed the existence of a deep confined body of salt water in the Magothy(?) formation beneath southwestern Nassau and southeastern Queens Counties, Long Island, N.Y. In connection with a test-drilling program, cooperatively sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Nassau County Department of Public Works, and the New York State Water Resources Commission (formerly Water Power and Control Commission), 13 wells ranging in depth from about 130 to 800 feet were drilled during 1952 and 1953 and screened at various depths in the Magothy(?) formation and Jameco gravel. On the basis of the preliminary geologic, hydrologic, and chemical data from these wells, a detailed investigation of ground-water conditions from the water table to the bedrock was begun in a 200-square-mile area in southern Nassau and southeastern Queens Counties. The Inain purposes of the investigation were to delineate the bodies of fresh and salty ground water in the project area, to relate their occurrence and movement to geologic and hydrologic conditions, to estimate the rate of encroachment, if any, of the salty water, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the existing network of outpost wells as detectors of salt-water encroachment. About a million people in the report area, residing mainly in southern Nassau County, are completely dependent on ground water as a source of supply. Fortunately, precipitation averages about 44 inches per year, of which approximately half is estimated to percolate into the ground-water reservoir. The ground water is contained in and moves through eight differentiated geologic units composed of unconsolidated gravel, sand, and clay, of Late Cretaceous, Pleistocene, and Recent age, having a maximum total thickness of about 1,700 feet. The underlying metamorphic and igneous crystalline basement rocks are of Precambrian age and are not water bearing. The water-yielding units from

  13. Environmental setting, water budget, and stream assessment for the Broad Run watershed, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.; Reif, Andrew G.; Olson, Leif E.

    2005-01-01

    The Broad Run watershed lies almost entirely in West Bradford Township, Chester County, Pa., and drains 7.08 square miles to the West Branch Brandywine Creek. Because of the potential effect of encroaching development and other stresses on the Broad Run watershed, West Bradford Township, the Chester County Water Resources Authority, and the Chester County Health Department entered into a cooperative study with the U.S. Geological Survey to complete an annual water budget and stream assessment of overall conditions. The annual water budget quantified the basic parameters of the hydrologic cycle for the climatic conditions present from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2004. These water-budget data identified immediate needs and (or) deficits that were present within the hydrologic cycle during that period, if present; however, an annual water budget encompassing a single year does not identify long-term trends. The stream assessment was conducted in two parts and assessed the overall condition of the watershed, an overall assessment of the fluvial-geomorphic conditions within the watershed and an overall assessment of the stream-quality conditions. The data collected will document present (2004) conditions and identify potential vulnerabilities to future disturbances. For the annual period from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2004, determination of an annual water budget indicated that of the 67.8 inches of precipitation that fell on the Broad Run watershed, 38.8 inches drained by way of streamflow to the West Branch Brandywine Creek. Of this 38.8 inches of streamflow, local-minimum hydrograph separation techniques determined that 7.30 inches originated from direct runoff and 31.5 inches originated from base flow. The remaining precipitation went into ground-water storage (1.71 inches) and was lost to evapotranspiration (27.3 inches). Ground-water recharge for this period-35.2 inches-was based on these values and an estimated ground-water evapotranspiration rate of 2 inches

  14. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the county road a disposal site on the Bad River Indian Reservation, Ashland County, Wisconsin: 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunning, C.P.; Yeskis, Douglas J.

    2001-01-01

    The County Road A disposal site, located on the Bad River Indian Reservation, Ashland County, Wisconsin, contains papermill sludge generated by a former mill in the City of Ashland. Since the time of disposal (1968-1970) the site has been the subject of investigations by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and private consultants. During 1997- 1998, an investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Natural Resources Department of the Bad River Indian Tribe, to evaluate the hydrogeology and groundwater quality of the disposal site, particularly with respect to the hydraulic connection between two ponds at the site and the shallow ground-waterflow system. Additional monitoring wells and well points were installed, and additional hydrogeologic, ground-water quality, and geophysical data were collected. The data from this and previous studies were integrated and interpreted.

  15. Recycling ground water in Waushara County, Wisconsin : resource management for cold-water fish hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Other recharge-recycling schemes can also be evaluated. Estimating the recycling efficiency (of recharge ponds, trenches, spreading areas, or irrigated fields) provides a basis for predicting water-level declines, the concentration of conservative ions (conservative in the sense that no reaction other than mixing occurs to change the character of the ion being considered) in the water supply and in the regional ground-water system, and the tem

  16. Water volume and sediment accumulation in Lake Linganore, Frederick County, Maryland, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sekellick, Andrew J.; Banks, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    To assist in understanding sediment and phosphorus loadings and the management of water resources, a bathymetric survey was conducted at Lake Linganore in Frederick County, Maryland in June 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Frederick and Frederick County, Maryland. Position data and water-depth data were collected using a survey grade echo sounder and a differentially corrected global positioning system. Data were compiled and edited using geographic information system software. A three-dimensional triangulated irregular network model of the lake bottom was created to calculate the volume of stored water in the reservoir. Large-scale topographic maps of the valley prior to inundation in 1972 were provided by the City of Frederick and digitized. The two surfaces were compared and a sediment volume was calculated. Cartographic representations of both water depth and sediment accumulation were produced along with an area/capacity table. An accuracy assessment was completed on the resulting bathymetric model. Vertical accuracy at the 95-percent confidence level for the collected data, the bathymetric surface model, and the bathymetric contour map was calculated to be 0.95 feet, 1.53 feet, and 3.63 feet, respectively. The water storage volume of Lake Linganore was calculated to be 1,860 acre-feet at full pool elevation. Water volume in the reservoir has decreased by 350 acre-feet (about 16 percent) in the 37 years since the dam was constructed. The total calculated volume of sediment deposited in the lake since 1972 is 313 acre-feet. This represents an average rate of sediment accumulation of 8.5 acre-feet per year since Linganore Creek was impounded. A sectional analysis of sediment distribution indicates that the most upstream third of Lake Linganore contains the largest volume of sediment whereas the section closest to the dam contains the largest amount of water. In comparison to other Maryland Piedmont reservoirs, Lake Linganore

  17. Spatial and temporal statistical analysis of a ground-water level network, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; Sonenshein, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method to evaluate the spatial and temporal statistics of a continuous ground-water level recorder network in Broward County, Florida. Because the Broward County network is sparse for most spatial statistics, a technique has been developed to define polygons for each well that represent the area monitored by the well within specified criteria. The boundaries of these "confidence polygons" are defined by the endpoints of radial lines oriented toward the other wells. The lengths of these lines are determined as the statistically estimated distances to the points at which ground-water levels can be predicted within specirfied criteria. The confidence polygons indicate: (1) the areal coverage of the network, (2) locations where data are unavailable, and (3) areas of redundant data collection. Comparison with data from a noncontinuous recorder well indicates that the confidence polygons are a good represen- tation of areal coverages. The temporal analysis utilizes statistical techniques similar to those used in the spatial method, defining variations in time rather than in space. Consequently, instead of defining radial distances to points, time intervals are defined over which water-level values can be predicted within a specified confidence. These "temporal confidence intervals" correspond to maximum allowable periods between field measure- ments. To combine all results from the analyses, a single coefficient reflecting the spatial and temporal results has been developed. The coefficient is referred to as the Spatial and Temporal Adequacy and Redundancy Evaluation (STARE) and is determined by three factors: the size of the confidence polygon, the number of times the well is part of a redundant pair, and the temporal confidence interval. This coefficient and the individual results of each analysis are used in evaluating the present network and determining future management decisions.

  18. Development, description, and application of a geographic information system data base for water resources in karst terrane in Greene County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, L.A.; Thomson, Kenneth C.

    1993-01-01

    A geographic information system data base was developed for Greene County, Missouri, to provide data for use in the protection of water resources. The geographic information system data base contains the following map layers: geology, cave entrances and passages, county and quadrangle boundary, dye traces, faults, geographic names, hypsography, hydrography, lineaments, Ozark aquifer potentio- metric surface, public land survey system, sink- holes, soils, springs, and transportation. Several serious incidents of ground-water contamination have been reported in the karst terrane developed in soluble carbonate rocks in Greene County. Karst terranes are environmentally sensitive because any contaminant carried by surface runoff has the potential for rapid transport through solution enlarged fractures to the ground-water system. In the karst terrane in Greene County, about 2,500 sinkholes have been located; these sinkholes are potential access points for contamination to the ground-water system. Recent examples of ground-water contamination by sewage, fertilizers, and hydrocarbon chemicals have demonstrated the sensitivity of ground water in the Greene County karst terrane to degradation. The ground-water system is a major source of drinking water for Greene County. The population in Greene County, which includes Springfield, the third largest city in Missouri, is rapidly increasing and the protection of the water resources of Greene County is an increasing concern.

  19. Ground-Water Quality and Potential Effects of Individual Sewage Disposal System Effluent on Ground-Water Quality in Park County, Colorado, 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, began a study to evaluate ground-water quality in the various aquifers in Park County that supply water to domestic wells. The focus of this study was to identify and describe the principal natural and human factors that affect ground-water quality. In addition, the potential effects of individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent on ground-water quality were evaluated. Ground-water samples were collected from domestic water-supply wells from July 2001 through October 2004 in the alluvial, crystalline-rock, sedimentary-rock, and volcanic-rock aquifers to assess general ground-water quality and effects of ISDS's on ground-water quality throughout Park County. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, bacteria, and boron; and selected samples also were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, human-related (wastewater) compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, and age-dating constituents (tritium and chlorofluorocarbons). Drinking-water quality is adequate for domestic use throughout Park County with a few exceptions. Only about 3 percent of wells had concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, and (or) uranium that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national, primary drinking-water standards. These primary drinking-water standards were exceeded only in wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers in eastern Park County. Escherichia coli bacteria were detected in one well near Guffey, and total coliform bacteria were detected in about 11 percent of wells sampled throughout the county. The highest total coliform concentrations were measured southeast of the city of Jefferson and west of Tarryall Reservoir. Secondary drinking-water standards were exceeded more frequently. About 19 percent of wells had concentrations of one or more constituents (pH, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and dissolved solids) that exceeded secondary drinking-water standards

  20. Soil, water, and vegetation conditions in south Texas. [Hildago County, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. To distinguish dead from live vegetation, spectrophotometrically measured infinite reflectance of dead and live corn (Zea mays L.) leaves were compared over the 0.5 to 2.5 micron waveband. Dead leaf reflectance was reached over the entire 0.5 to 2.5 micron waveband by stacking only two to three leaves. Live leaf reflectance was attained by stacking two leaves for the 0.5 to 0.75 micron waveband (chlorophyll absorption region), eight leaves for the 0.75 to 1.35 micron waveband (near infrared region), and three leaves for the 1.35 to 2.5 micron waveband (water absorption region). LANDSAT-1 MSS digital data for 11 December 1973 overpass were used to estimate the sugar cane acreage in Hidalgo County. The computer aided estimate was 22,100 acres compared with the Texas Crop and Livestock Reporting Service estimate of 20,500 acres for the 1973-'74 crop year. Although there were errors of omission from harvested fields that were identified as bare soil and some citrus and native vegetation that were mistakenly identified as sugar cane, the mapped location of sugar cane fields in the county compared favorably with their location on the thematic map generated by the computer.

  1. Water quality of lake Waramaug and surrounding watershed, Litchfield County, Connecticut. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, K.P.; Grason, D.

    1992-01-01

    Lake Waramaug and its watershed in western Connecticut were sampled from March 1977 to March 1978 to develop information for a lake-management plan. Nutrient enrichment has degraded the lake water quality, resulting in increased algal population in recent years. Chemical analyses of surface-water inflow, ground-water inflow, and atmospheric deposition in the watershed indicate that surface-water inflow at the northeastern corner of the lake is the major source of nutrients discharged to the lake. Atmospheric deposition contains 0.01 to 0.47 milligrams per liter total phosphorus and 0.52 to 3.2 milligrams per liter total nitrogen. During the 7.3-month period of investigation, atmospheric deposition contributed 61,400 pounds of nitrogen and 3,150 pounds of phosphorus to the lake's watershed. Nutrient concentrations in ground water were relatively low, with total phosphorus ranging from 0.008 to 0.14 milligrams per liter.

  2. Future Water-Supply Scenarios, Cape May County, New Jersey, 2003-2050

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Carleton, Glen B.; Pope, Daryll A.; Rice, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Stewards of the water supply in New Jersey are interested in developing a plan to supply potable and non-potable water to residents and businesses of Cape May County until at least 2050. The ideal plan would meet projected demands and minimize adverse effects on currently used sources of potable, non-potable, and ecological water supplies. This report documents past and projected potable, non-potable, and ecological water-supply demands. Past and ongoing adverse effects to production and domestic wells caused by withdrawals include saltwater intrusion and water-level declines in the freshwater aquifers. Adverse effects on the ecological water supplies caused by groundwater withdrawals include premature drying of seasonal wetlands, delayed recovery of water levels in the water-table aquifer, and reduced streamflow. To predict the effects of future actions on the water supplies, three baseline and six future scenarios were created and simulated. Baseline Scenarios 1, 2, and 3 represent withdrawals using existing wells projected until 2050. Baseline Scenario 1 represents average 1998-2003 withdrawals, and Scenario 2 represents New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) full allocation withdrawals. These withdrawals do not meet projected future water demands. Baseline Scenario 3 represents the estimated full build-out water demands. Results of simulations of the three baseline scenarios indicate that saltwater would intrude into the Cohansey aquifer as much as 7,100 feet (ft) to adversely affect production wells used by Lower Township and the Wildwoods, as well as some other near-shore domestic wells; water-level altitudes in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand would decline to -156 ft; base flow in streams would be depleted by 0 to 26 percent; and water levels in the water-table aquifer would decline as much as 0.7ft. [Specific water-level altitudes, land-surface altitudes, and present sea level when used in this report are referenced to the North American

  3. Geohydrology and water chemistry in the Rialto-Colton Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Kadhim, Dina

    1997-01-01

    The 40-square-mile Rialto-Colton ground- water basin is in western San Bernardino County, California, about 60 miles east of Los Angeles.This basin was chosen for storage of imported water because of the good quality of native ground water, the known capacity for additional ground-water storage in the basin, and the availability of imported water. Because the movement and mixing of imported water needed to be determined, the San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District entered into a cooperative program with the U.S.Geological Survey in 1991 to study the geohydrology and water chemistry in the Rialto- Colton basin. Ground-water flow and chemistry were investigated using existing data, borehole- geophysical and lithologic logs from newly drilled test holes, measurement of water levels, and chemical analyses of water samples. The Rialto-Colton basin is bounded on the northwest and southeast by the San Gabriel Mountains and the Badlands, respectively. The San Jacinto Fault and Barrier E form the northeastern boundary, and the Rialto-Colton Fault forms the southwestern boundary. Except in the southeastern part of the basin, the San Jacinto and Rialto-Colton Faults act as groundwater barriers that impede ground- water flow into and out of the basin.Barrier E generally does not impede ground- water flow into the basin. The ground-water system consists primarily of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The maximum thickness is greater than 1,000 feet. The ground- water system is divided into four water-bearing units: river-channel deposits, and upper, middle, and lower water-bearing units. Relatively impermeable consolidated deposits underlie the lower water- bearing unit and form the lower boundary of the ground- water system. Ground water moves from east to west in the river-channel deposits and upper water-bearing unit in the southeastern part of the basin, and from northwest to southeast in the middle and lower water-bearing units. Two major internal faults, Barrier J and

  4. Data collection and compilation for a geodatabase of groundwater, surface-water, water-quality, geophysical, and geologic data, Pecos County Region, Texas, 1930-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Daniel K.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Houston, Natalie A.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Teeple, Andrew P.; Thomas, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Middle Pecos Groundwater Conservation District, Pecos County, City of Fort Stockton, Brewster County, and Pecos County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1, compiled groundwater, surface-water, water-quality, geophysical, and geologic data for site locations in the Pecos County region, Texas, and developed a geodatabase to facilitate use of this information. Data were compiled for an approximately 4,700 square mile area of the Pecos County region, Texas. The geodatabase contains data from 8,242 sampling locations; it was designed to organize and store field-collected geochemical and geophysical data, as well as digital database resources from the U.S. Geological Survey, Middle Pecos Groundwater Conservation District, Texas Water Development Board, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality,and numerous other State and local databases. The geodatabase combines these disparate database resources into a simple data model. Site locations are geospatially enabled and stored in a geodatabase feature class for cartographic visualization and spatial analysis within a Geographic Information System. The sampling locations are related to hydrogeologic information through the use of geodatabase relationship classes. The geodatabase relationship classes provide the ability to perform complex spatial and data-driven queries to explore data stored in the geodatabase.

  5. Predicting water quality changes from artificial recharge sources to nearby wellfields

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J.E.

    1998-01-23

    Isotope tracer technologies have proven to be powerful tools for addressing questions related to surface water-ground water interactions. The Alameda County Water District artificially recharges tens of thousands of acre-ft of water annually, delivered from Alameda Creek in order to augment dwindling ground water supplies, and to maintain a barrier to seawater intrusion. The authors are using a suite of isotope tracers to track water movement, source characteristics and accompanying water quality changes from ACWD recharge facilities to nearby wells. The data gathered during the three year project will allow quantification of dilution by ambient basin ground water, subsurface travel times, and several key water quality parameters, including degree of degradation of organic compounds, the fate of trace metals during recharge and subsurface transport, and sources and transport of major ions (salts). Reconnaissance work was carried out on naturally occurring isotopes in order to better understand the hydrogeology of the ground water basin. The basin is dissected by the Hayward Fault, and geologic conditions vary greatly on either side of the fault. Stable isotopes of oxygen, carbon, helium and other noble gases, along with radiocarbon and tritium were measured on water samples from production and monitoring wells. The goal of the reconnaissance work was to age date the water at various depths and distances from the recharge ponds, to examine the chemical evolution of the water with age, and to examine the water for source-related variations in isotope composition. Ground water ages were calculated by the tritium-helium method for three production wells in the Peralta-Tyson wellfield (in the Above Hayward Fault sub-basin), and for a monitoring well positioned between the recharge facilities and production wells, screened at three discreet intervals.

  6. Hydrogeology and ground-water-quality conditions at the Geary County landfill, northeast Kansas, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, N.C.; Bigsby, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical analysis of water from monitoring wells upgradient and downgradient of the Geary County Landfill in Kansas near Junction City indicate the presence of several chemically distinct water types. For the dominant calcium bicarbonate water type, concentrations of inorganic and organic constituents indicate the presence of reducing conditions within the landfill and increased concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, ammonia, iron, manganese, and other trace elements downgradient within a leachate plume that extends northeasterly away from the landfill. The orientation of the long axis of the leachate plume does not coincide with the August or September directions of groundwater flow, possibly due to the effect of abundant rainfall and high river stages at other times of the year or preferential flow in very transmissive zones, and thus may indicate the dominant direction of groundwater flow. None of the organic-constituent or inorganic-constituent concentrations exceeded secondary drinking-water standards. Concentrations of benzene, vinyl chloride, and 1,2-trans-dichloroethene exceeded Kansas notification levels. (USGS)

  7. Ground-water resources of coastal Citrus, Hernando, and southwestern Levy counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fretwell, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water in the coastal parts of Citrus, Hernando, and Levy Counties is obtained almost entirely from the Floridan aquifer. The aquifer is unconfined near the coast and semiconfined in the ridge area. Transmissivity ranges from 20,000 feet squared per day in the ridge area to greater than 2,000,000 feet squared per day near major springs. Changes in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer are small between the wet and dry seasons. Water quality within the study area is generally very good except immediately adjacent to the coast where saltwater from the Gulf of Mexico poses a threat to freshwater supply. This threat can be compensated for by placing well fields a sufficient distance away from the zone of transition from saltwater to freshwater so as not to reduce or reverse the hydraulic gradient in that zone. Computer models are presently available to help predict the extent of influence of ground-water withdrawals in an area. These may be used as management tools in planning ground-water development of the area. (USGS)

  8. Effect of pumpage on ground-water levels as modeled in Laramie County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, Marvin A.

    1980-01-01

    Groundwater is being extensively developed for domestic, agricultural, and industrial use in a 2,320-square mile area in Laramie County, WY., bounded approximately by Horse Creek on the north, Nebraska on the east, Colorado on the south, and pre-Tertiary outcrops on the west. Currently (1977) about 47,300 acres of land are irrigated with groundwater. Groundwater levels are declining in some areas as much as 4 feet per year. The investigation was made to provide State water administrators with data on water-level changes resulting from present (1977) groundwater withdrawals and to provide a means of predicting the future effect of groundwater development. A digital model was developed of the hydrologic system in the post-Cretaceous rocks. The ability of the model to simulate the hydrologic system was determined by comparing the water-level changes measured at 37 observation wells located in areas of irrigation pumping with the water-level changes calculated by the model for 1971-77. Comparison of the measured and calculated changes showed agreement with a root-mean-square deviation of + or - 3.6 feet with 8 feet as the maximum deviation. It is concluded that the model adequately simulates present hydrologic conditions in the post-Cretaceous rocks and may be used to predict the effect of applied stress to the system. (USGS)

  9. Quality of water and time of travel in Yockanookany River, Choctaw County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, Gene A.

    1980-01-01

    An intensive water-quality study along a 3.3 mile reach of the Yockanookany River, Choctaw County, Miss., was conducted on August 29-31, 1978. Water-quality data were collected during a period of generally low streamflow and seasonally high air temperatures. The dissolved-solids concentrations were less than 50 milligrams per liter. In the water leaving the study reach, the ammonia nitrogen concentration ranged from 0.10 to 0.40 milligrams per liter and total phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 0.43 milligrams per liter. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand was generally less than 6.0 milligrams per liter and dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from 5.5 to 8.1 milligrams per liter. Fecal bacteria densities were high. Fecal streptococcal bacteria in the water leaving the study reach ranged from 460 to 13,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. The rate of solute travel was 0.15 miles per hour through the study reach. (USGS)

  10. Quality of water and bed material in streams of Logan Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Hochreiter, J.J.; Kozinski, J.

    1985-01-01

    The surface water and surficial-bed material at seven stations on three streams in Logan Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, were sampled in the fall of 1984. Samples of water were analyzed for volatile organic compounds, trace metals, and organochlorine and organophosphorous compounds. Surficial-bed material was analyzed for extractable trace metals and organochloroine compounds. Water samples from two closely spaced sampling locations along Raccoon Creek contained elevated concentrations of methylene chloride, a volatile organic solvent. Bed-material samples taken from Little Timber and birch Creeks contained elevated levels of trace metals and organochlorine compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). contaminant concentrations in bed-material samples taken from Raccoon Creek were much lower than those found previously by the US Geological Survey in 1980. Only a trace of PCB's was detected in any bed material sample taken from Raccoon Creek. Gas chromatographic flame-ionization detector scans, performed on solvent extracts of all water and sediment samples, were useful in characterizing the presence or absence of organic contaminants in those samples. Changes in the character of organic contamination along the reaches of two streams were apparent when the fingerprints of chromatograms representing upstream sites were compared to those representing downstream sites. 23 refs., 7 figs, 7 tabs.

  11. Test holes drilled in support of ground-water investigations, Project Gnome, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    Project Gnome is a proposed underground nuclear shot to be detonated within a massive salt bed in Eddy County, N. Mex. Potable and neat potable ground water is present in rocks above the salt and is being studied in relation to this nuclear event. This report presents details of two test holes which were drilled to determine ground-water conditions in the near vicinity of the shot point. A well-defined aquifer is present at the site of USGS test hole 1, about 1,000 feet south of the access shaft to the underground shot point. Water with 75 feet of artesian pressure head is contained in the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler formation. The dolomite aquifer is 32 feet thick and its top lies at a depth of 517 feet below land surface. The aquifer yielded 100 gpm (gallons per minute) with a drawdown of 40 feet during a pumping period of 24 hours. Water was not found in rocks above or below the Culebra dolomite. At the site of USGS test hole 2, about 2 miles southwest of the access shaft no distinctive aquifer exists. About one-half gpm was yielded to the well from the rocks between the Culebra dolomite and the top of the salt. Water could not be detected in the Culebra dolomite or overlying rocks. The report contains drawdown and recovery curves of yield tests, drilling-time charts, and electric logs. The data are given in tables; they include summaries of hole construction, sample description logs, water measurements, drilling-time logs, and water analyses.

  12. Ground-water resources of Wheeler and eastern Gray Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maderak, M.L.

    1973-01-01

    Wheeler and eastern Gray Counties are in the east·central part of the Texas Panhandle. The two counties are characterized by rolling to fairly rugged topography with many sand-dune areas and a well developed drainage system.

  13. Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1979-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water-quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. As part of this study, a water-quality monitoring network was established at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County. Water-quality samples were collected at 27 surface-water sites and 97 ground-water sites at 5 landfills from 1979-92. Samples were analyzed for selected physical and biological characteristics, major inorganic ions, nutrients, trace elements, organic compounds, and suspended sediment. Analyses for constituents of concern are presented in tables and as graphical time series plots. Results from all analyses are compiled in tabular form in appendixes.

  14. Geology and ground-water resources of Laramie County, Wyoming; with a section on Chemical quality of ground water and of surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowry, Marlin E.; Crist, Marvin A.; Tilstra, John R.

    1967-01-01

    Laramie County, an area of 2,709 square miles, is in the southeast corner of Wyoming. Rocks exposed there range in age from Precambrian to Recent. The most extensive aquifers in the county are the White River Formation of Oligocene age, which is as much as 500 feet thick and consists predominantly of siltstone ; the Arikaree Formation of Miocene age, which consists of as much as 450 feet of very fine grained to fine-grained sandstone; and the Ogallala Formation of Miocene and Pliocene age, which consists ,of as much as 330 feet of gravel, sand, silt, and some cobbles and boulders. These formations are capable of yielding large ,supplies of water locally. Terrace deposits of Quaternary age yield moderate .to large supplies of water in the southeastern and northeastern parts of the county. In the Federal well field, large yields of water from the White River Formation are obtained from gravel lenses. In the eastern part of the county near Pine Bluffs, large yields are obtained from openings in .the siltstone of the White River. Previous investigators reported that the large yields were obtained in areas where the formation is fractured and fissured. The authors of this report believe that .the large yields from siltstone in the White River Formation are from pipes, sometimes called natural tunnels, rather than from fractures ,or fissures. Little is known about the water-bearing properties of the pro-Tertiary aquifers in the county, but water derived from the pro-Tertiary formations would probably be of poor quality, except in the vicinity of the outcrop near the western edge of the county. Precipitation is the principal source of recharge to the ground-water reservoirs. About 5 percent of the annual precipitation, or about 108,400 acre-feet per year, is estimated to be recharged. Only a small amount of additional recharge is from streams. The general movement of ground water is eastward, and the average gradient of the water table is about 40 feet per mile. The total

  15. Mineral resources of the New Water Mountains Wilderness Study Area, La Paz County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, D.B.; Koch, R.D.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Lane, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The New Water Mountains Wilderness Study Area, situated in La Paz County, west-central Arizona, locally has a moderate resource potential for gold and silver from replacement-type deposits occurring in Paleozoic marble in the western and north-central parts of the area, and a low resource potential for copper, lead, zinc, and manganese localized in fault zones that cut Tertiary volcanic rocks near the eastern edge of the range. Resource potential is low for geothermal energy or oil and gas. There is an unknown resource potential for lime, which could be developed from Paleozoic marble in the north-central part of the area. Sand and gravel occur in the area, but these materials are abundant closer to markets in the region.

  16. Methane Gas Concentration in Soils and Ground Water, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, 1995-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolp, B.J.; Burr, A.L.; Johnson, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    The release of methane gas from coal beds creates the potential for it to move into near-surface environments through natural and human-made pathways. To help ensure the safety of communities and determine the potential effects of development of coal-bed resources, methane gas concentrations in soils and ground water in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, were monitored from 1995 to 2003. A total of 420 samples were collected, which contained an average methane concentration of 2,740 parts per million by volume (ppmv) and a median concentration of less than 10 ppmv. On the basis of spatial and temporal methane concentration data collected during the monitoring period, there does not appear to be an obvious, widespread, or consistent migration of methane gas to the near-surface environment.

  17. Chlorofluorocarbon dating of herbicide-containing well waters in Fresno and Tulare counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spurlock, F.; Burow, K.; Dubrovsky, N.

    2000-01-01

    Simazine, diuron, and bromacil are the most frequently detected currently registered pesticides in California groundwater. These herbicides have been used for several decades in Fresno and Tulare counties, California; however, previous data are inadequate to determine whether the detections are a result of recent or historical applications (i.e., within the last decade, or 20-30 yr ago). Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) groundwater age-dating was used in conjunction with one-dimensional transport modeling to address this question. The estimated times between herbicide application and subsequent detection in groundwater samples from 18 domestic wells ranged from 3 to 33 yr; the aggregate data indicate that more than half of the detections are associated with applications in the last decade. The data also suggest that changes in groundwater quality arising from modified management practices will probably not be discernible for at least a decade. A secondary objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of simazine degradates deethylsimazine (DES; 2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-s-triazine) and diaminochlorotriazine (DACT; 2,4-diamino-6-chloro-s-triazine) to total triazine concentrations (defined here as simazine + DES + DACT) in 30 domestic wells. The N-dealkylated s- chlorotriazine degradates DES and DACT substantially contribute to total triazine concentrations in Fresno and Tulare County groundwater, composing 24 to 100% of the total triazines, with a median of 82%. If s-chlorotriazines display a common mode of toxicological action, the prevalence of triazine degradates in water samples found in this and other studies indicate that drinking water standards based on total s-chlorotriazine concentrations may be most appropriate.

  18. Streamflow and water-quality data for Meadow Run Basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988. Open file report

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Witt, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected throughout the Meadow Run basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, from December 7, 1987 through November 15, 1988, to determine the prevailing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. The data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal-mine permit applications. A water-quality station near the mouth of Meadow Run provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water-quality samples collected at the station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations and anions, and suspended-sediment concentrations.

  19. Water-level records for Adams, Larimer, Logan, Morgan, Sedgwick, Washington, and Weld Counties, Colorado, 1973-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Thomas J.; Vaught, Kenneth D.

    1977-01-01

    Water levels measured during March 1977 in 350 wells tapping alluvial aquifers in Adams, Larimer, Logan, Morgan, Sedgwick, Washington, and Weld Counties, Colo., are presented. Water-level records for the 4 preceding years are included to serve as references illustrating declining or rising water levels. These data can be used by well owners for planning their irrigation schedules for the next irrigation season and can be used by water managers for developing plans to manage the ground-water resources. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Water resources of Jackson and Independence Counties, Arkansas; Contributions to the Hydrology of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albin, Donald R.; Hines, Marion S.; Stephens, John W.

    1967-01-01

    The present (1965) water use in Jackson and Independence Counties is about 55.6 million gallons per day, and quantities sufficient for any foreseeable use are available. Supplies for the large-scale uses--municipal, industrial, and irrigation--can best be obtained from wells in the Coastal Plain and from streams in the highlands. Wells in the Coastal Plain will yield 1,000-2,000 gallons of water per minute when screened at depths from 100 to 150 feet in alluvial sand and gravel of Quaternary age. The water will require treatment for the removal of iron and the reduction of hardness to be suitable for municipal and industrial uses. Wells in the highlands generally yield less than 50 gallons per minute of water that is of good quality, though hard. The dependable flow of .the White River at Newport is about 4.2 billion gallons per day. The dependable 'base flows of the small streams tributary to the White River in the Salem Plateau and Springfield Plateau sections range from 0.25 to 5 million gallons per day, and the dependable flow of Polk Bayou at Batesville is about 21 million gallons per day. These streams can be utilized for water supply with little or no artificial storage required. Streams in the Boston Mountains section and in the Arkansas Valley section recede to very low flow or to no flow during extended dry periods, but dependable, supplies can be obtained from these streams 'by construction of storage facilities Water from all the highland streams is af excellent chemical quality except that it generally is hard.

  1. Susceptibility of the Memphis water supply to contamination from the pesticide waste-disposal site in northeastern Hardeman County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert

    1979-01-01

    Public concern has been expressed over the possiblity that leachates from a pesticide waste-disposal site in northeastern Hardeman County, Tennessee, might eventually reach the Memphis area and endanger the city 's water supply. An examination of the possible pathways and means of transport of these contaminants reveals that, the Memphis area in detectable concentrations is unlikely. (USGS)

  2. Aquifers in melt-water channels along the southwest flank of the Des Moines Lobe, Lyon County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert; Rodis, Harry G.

    1961-01-01

    The melt-water channels in Lyon County trend southeastward because the flank of the ice sheet was confined by a landmass that sloped to the northeast. Similar buried channels may be present elsewhere along the southwest flank of the Des Moines lobe. If so, they probably can be located by the methods described.

  3. Land-use and ground-water data, Cheyenne-Arapaho Tribes, Concho Reserve, Canadian County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergman, DeRoy L.; Savoca, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, conducted the present study to determine the vulnerability to contamination of ground water beneath tribal lands within the 3,991-acre Concho Reserve in Canadian County, Oklahoma (map A).

  4. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared to the concentrations of the conventional fuel oxygenate Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE). In t...

  5. Hydrologic feasibility of water-supply-development alternatives in Cape May County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing public-supply withdrawals in Cape May County, New Jersey associated with increasing residential and seasonal tourist populations have led to regionally lowered ground-water levels, a reversal of ground-water flow directions toward onshore, and landward encroachment of saltwater in the shallow aquifer system. The three aquifers composing the shallow system are, in order of increasing depth, the unconfined Holly Beach water-bearing zone and the confined estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers. The changes to the ground-water system have been greatest in the confined aquifers near the three major well fields on the Cape May peninsula. Formerly productive water-supply wells have been abandoned because of saltwater contamination. Concern about anthropogenic contamination has prevented shifting of withdrawals to the unconfined aquifer. Surface- water sources have also been little used. Further development on the peninsula involving increased water demand will exacerbate the current saltwater-encroachment problems. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of possible water-supply-development alternatives by use of predictive ground-water flow simulations. The alternatives involve (1) injection of tertiary- treated wastewater to replenish aquifer storage and create a hydraulic barrier to saltwater encroachment, (2) withdrawal of brackish water in order to create a hydraulic barrier, (3) conjunctive use of ground water and surface water, enabling the reduction of ground-water withdrawals, and (4) redistribution of withdrawals inland to the unconfined aquifer. Results of these simulations can potentially be used in the design of a water-supply-development strategy that preserves supply and a monitoring program that ensures early warning of saltwater encroachment, thereby allowing sufficient time for development of an alternative supply. The water-supply- development alternatives were evaluated by comparison of results of predictive simulations made with

  6. Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

  7. Model simulation of the Manasquan water-supply system in Monmouth County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Ming; Tasker, Gary D.; Nieswand, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Model simulation of the Manasquan Water Supply System in Monmouth County, New Jersey, was completed using historic hydrologic data to evaluate the effects of operational and withdrawal alternatives on the Manasquan reservoir and pumping system. Changes in the system operations can be simulated with the model using precipitation forecasts. The Manasquan Reservoir system model operates by using daily streamflow values, which were reconstructed from historical U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station records. The model is able to run in two modes--General Risk analysis Model (GRAM) and Position Analysis Model (POSA). The GRAM simulation procedure uses reconstructed historical streamflow records to provide probability estimates of certain events, such as reservoir storage levels declining below a specific level, when given an assumed set of operating rules and withdrawal rates. POSA can be used to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes, such as streamflows falling below statutory passing flows, associated with a specific working plan for the water-supply system over a period of months. The user can manipulate the model and generate graphs and tables of streamflows and storage, for example. This model can be used as a management tool to facilitate the development of drought warning and drought emergency rule curves and safe yield values for the water-supply system.

  8. Hydrogeology and water quality of areas with persistent ground- water contamination near Blackfoot, Bingham County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Groveland-Collins area near Blackfoot, Idaho, has a history of either periodic or persistent localized groundwater contamination. Water users in the area report offensive smell, metallic taste, rust deposits, and bacteria in water supplies. During 1984 and 1985, data were collected to define regional and local geologic, hydrologic, and groundwater quality conditions, and to identify factors that may have affected local groundwater quality. Infiltration or leakage of irrigation water is the major source of groundwater recharge, and water levels may fluctuate 15 ft or more during the irrigation season. Groundwater movement is generally northwestward. Groundwater contains predominantly calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions and characteristically has more than 200 mg/L hardness. Groundwater near the Groveland-Collins area may be contaminated from one or more sources, including infiltration of sewage effluent, gasoline or liquid fertilizer spillage, or land application of food processing wastewater. Subsurface basalt ridges impede lateral movement of water in localized areas. Groundwater pools temporarily behind these ridges and anomalously high water levels result. Maximum concentrations or values of constituents that indicate contamination were 1,450 microsiemens/cm specific conductance, 630 mg/L bicarbonate (as HCO3), 11 mg/L nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen), 7.3 mg/L ammonia (as nitrogen), 5.9 mg/L organic nitrogen, 4.4 mg/L dissolved organic carbon, 7,000 micrograms/L dissolved iron, 5 ,100 microgram/L dissolved manganese, and 320 microgram/L dissolved zinc. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 8.9 mg/L in uncontaminated areas to 0 mg/L in areas where food processing wastewater is applied to the land surface. Stable-isotope may be useful in differentiating between contamination from potato-processing wastewater and whey in areas where both are applied to the land surface. Development of a ground-water model to evaluate effects of land applications

  9. Water Conservation Study for Manastash Creek Water Users, Kittias County, Washington, Final Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery Watson Harza

    2002-12-31

    Manastash Creek is tributary of the Yakima River and is located southwest and across the Yakima River from the City of Ellensburg. The creek drains mountainous terrain that ranges in elevation from 2,000 feet to over 5,500 feet and is primarily snowmelt fed, with largest flows occurring in spring and early summer. The creek flows through a narrow canyon until reaching a large, open plain that slopes gently toward the Yakima River and enters the main stem of the Yakima River at river mile 154.5. This area, formed by the alluvial fan of the Creek as it leaves the canyon, is the subject of this study. The area is presently dominated by irrigated agriculture, but development pressures are evident as Ellensburg grows and develops as an urban center. Since the mid to late nineteenth century when irrigated agriculture was established in a significant manner in the Yakima River Basin, Manastash Creek has been used to supply irrigation water for farming in the area. Adjudicated water rights dating back to 1871 for 4,465 acres adjacent to Manastash Creek allow appropriation of up to 26,273 acre-feet of creek water for agricultural irrigation and stock water. The diversion of water from Manastash Creek for irrigation has created two main problems for fisheries. They are low flows or dewatered reaches of Manastash Creek and fish passage barriers at the irrigation diversion dams. The primary goal of this study, as expressed by Yakama Nation and BPA, is to reestablish safe access in tributaries of the Yakima River by removing physical barriers and unscreened diversions and by adding instream flow where needed for fisheries. The goal expressed by irrigators who would be affected by these projects is to support sustainable and profitable agricultural use of land that currently uses Manastash Creek water for irrigation. This study provides preliminary costs and recommendations for a range of alternative projects that will partially or fully meet the goal of establishing safe access

  10. Water-Quality Characterization of Surface Water in the Onondaga Lake Basin, Onondaga County, New York, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Hayhurst, Brett A.; Kappel, William M.; Eckhardt, David A. V.; Szabo, Carolyn O.

    2009-01-01

    Water-resources managers in Onondaga County, N.Y., have been faced with the challenge of improving the water-quality of Onondaga Lake. To assist in this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a 3-year basinwide study to assess the water quality of surface water in the Onondaga Lake Basin. The study quantified the relative contributions of nonpoint sources associated with the major land uses in the basin and also focused on known sources (streams with large sediment loads) and presumed sinks (Onondaga Reservoir and Otisco Lake) of sediment and nutrient loads, which previously had not been evaluated. Water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and suspended sediment at 26 surface-water sites and 4 springs in the 285-square-mile Onondaga Lake Basin from October 2005 through December 2008. More than 1,060 base-flow, stormflow, snowmelt, spring-water, and quality-assurance samples collected during the study were analyzed for ammonia, nitrite, nitrate-plus-nitrite, ammonia-plus-organic nitrogen, orthophosphate, phosphorus, and suspended sediment. The concentration of total suspended solids was measured in selected samples. Ninety-one additional samples were collected, including 80 samples from 4 county-operated sites, which were analyzed for suspended sediment or total suspended solids, and 8 precipitation and 3 snowpack samples, which were analyzed for nutrients. Specific conductance, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and water temperature were periodically measured in the field. The mean concentrations of selected constituents in base-flow, stormflow, and snowmelt samples were related to the land use or land cover that either dominated the basin or had a substantial effect on the water quality of the basin. Almost 40 percent of the Onondaga Lake Basin is forested, 30 percent is in agricultural uses, and almost 21 percent, including the city of Syracuse, is in developed uses. The data indicated expected relative differences among the land types for

  11. Operational and maintenance instruction manual for the Ingham County Geriatric Medical Care Facility solar water-heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-29

    The Ingham County solar system consists of approximately 10,000 square feet of solar collectors connected in a closed configuration loop. The primary loop solution is a 1:12 mixture of water and propylene glycol which flows through the tube side of a heat exchanger connected to the primary storage tank. The heat energy which is supplied to the primary storage tank is subsequently used to preheat the temperature of the laundry water, kitchen water, and domestic potable water. Included in this report are: detailed drawings and flow chart; operational methodology; preventive maintenance instructions; general instructions and safety precautions; and a corrective maintenance and tabulation of failure modes. Appendices include: manufacturers technical manual and component specifications; IBM data sensors and responsibilities; digital county monitor operations manual; and on site monitor operations manual. Reference CAPE-2834. (LS)

  12. Solar water-heating system for the Ingham County geriatric medical care facility, Okemos, Michigan. Operational and maintenance instruction manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-29

    The objectives of the Ingham County Solar Project include: the demonstration of a major operational supplement to fossil fuels, thereby reducing the demand for non-renewable energy sources, demonstration of the economic and technical feasibility of solar systems as an important energy supplement over the expected life of the building, and to encourage Michigan industry to produce and incorporate solar systems in their own facility. The Ingham County solar system consists of approximately 10,000 square feet of solar collectors connected in a closed configuration loop. The primary loop solution is a mixture of water and propylene glycol which flows through the tube side of a heat exchanger connected to the primary storage tank. The heat energy which is supplied to the primary storage tank is subsequently utilized to increase the temperature of the laundry water, kitchen water, and domestic potable water.

  13. Ground-water resources in the vicinity of Cortland, Trumbull County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, G.J.; Wright, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    The city of Cortland lies on the southeast ern shoreline of the 12.3-square-mile Mosquito Creek Lake in Trumbull County, Ohio. Cortland relies upon public wells completed in the Cussewago Sandstone for potable water. The Cussewago Sandstone, the principal aquifer in the study area, is a subcrop of the glaciofluvial sediments in the lake; the unit dips gently towards the southeast. Thickness of the Cussewago Sandstone ranges from less than 20 feet in south-central Bazetta Township to 152 feet in Cortland. The Bedford Shale overlies and confines the Cussewago Sandstone and separates it hydraulically from the Berea Sandstone. The Bedford Shale and Berea Sandstone are not a prolific source of ground water. In places, the Bedford Shale was completely eroded away prior to deposition of the Berea Sandstone. Where the Bedford Shale is absent, such as at the City of Cortland North Well Field, the Berea Sandstone and Cussewago Sandstone are likely in hydraulic connection. Throughout most of the study area, the Cussewago Sandstone is a confined aquifer. Ground-water flow is to the east and southeast. Pumping at both Cortland well fields has created cones of depression in the potentiometric surface. These cones of depression cause a local reversal in ground-water flow immediately east of both well fields. The absence of detectable concentrations of tritium in water samples from wells completed in the Cussewago Sandstone at Cortland indicates that ground water predates the atmospheric nuclear testing of the 1950's. Ground water requires about 60 to 110 years to flow from the Cussewago Sandstone subcrop of the glaciofluvial sediments in the lake to the Cortland public-supply wells. A comparison of aquifer storage and pumpage in the study area shows that the Cussewago Sandstone receives adequate recharge to support current withdrawals by Cortland public-supply wells. In the immediate vicinity of Cortland- between Route 305 and the Bazetta-Mecca Town ship line and between the

  14. Ground-water recharge to and storage in the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system, Guilford County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C. C., III; Harned, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative information concerning recharge rates to aquifers and ground water in storage is needed to manage the development of ground- water resources. The amount of ground water available from the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system in Guilford County, North Carolina, is largely unknown. If historical patterns seen throughout the Piedmont continue into the future, the number of ground- water users in the county can be expected to increase. In order to determine the maximum population that can be supplied by ground water, planners and managers of suburban development must know the amount of ground water that can be withdrawn without exceeding recharge and(or) overdrafting water in long-term storage. Results of the study described in this report help provide this information. Estimates of seasonal and long-term recharge rates were estimated for 15 selected drainage basins and subbasins using streamflow data and an anlytical technique known as hydrograph separation. Methods for determining the quantity of ground water in storage also are described. Guilford County covers approximately 658 square miles in the central part of the Piedmont Province. The population of the county in 1990 was about 347,420; approximately 21 percent of the population depends on ground water as a source of potable supplies. Ground water is obtained from wells tapping the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system that underlies all of the county. Under natural conditions, recharge to the ground-water system in the county is derived from infiltration of precipitation. Ground-water recharge from precipitation cannot be measured directly; however, an estimate of the amount of precipitation that infiltrates into the ground and ultimately reaches the streams of the region can be determined by the technique of hydrograph separation. Data from 19 gaging stations that measure streamflow within or from Guilford County were analyzed to produce daily estimates of ground-water

  15. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA

  16. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2004-05-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA

  17. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon : Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2005-06-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA

  18. Chloride and total hardness concentrations of water from the upper part of the Floridan Aquifer in St. Johns County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampson, Paul S.; Hayes, Eugene C.

    1982-01-01

    Data collected from 1976 to 1979 indicate large water-quality variations in the upper 300 feet of the Floridan aquifer in St. Johns County, Florida. Chloride concentrations range from less than 10 milligrams per liter in the northwestern part of the county to more than 1,000 milligrams per liter in the southeast and extreme southwest. Total hardness concentrations range from 110 milligrams per liter in the northwest to 1,700 milligrams per liter in the southeast. In most of the county, high chloride and total hardness concentrations indicate the presence of saline water that entered the aquifer during the Pleistocene Epoch and has not been flushed out. Water quality in the aquifer has also been influenced by submarine discharge in the southeast and by heavy pumpage for irrigation in the southwest. High total hardness concentrations not accompanied by high chloride values in the western part of the county may be structurally controlled or may indicate the presence of gypsum evaporite beds in the upper 300 feet of the aquifer. (USGS)

  19. Well-construction, water-quality, and water-level data, and pond-infiltration estimates, for three ground-water subbasins, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, C.A.; Kaehler, C.A.; Christensen, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Reclaimed water in the Eastern Municipal Water District of Riverside County,California, is used within the service area for agricultural irrigation.Owing to the seasonal demand for reclaimed water, storage/infiltration ponds were constructed in the Winchester, Menifee, and south Perris subbasins.Reclaimed water infiltrates from these ponds and enters the groundwater system. Little is known of the effects of the reclaimed water on groundwater quality. In cooperation with the Eastern MunicipalWater District, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1995 to determine the quantity and fate of reclaimed water percolating from these storage ponds. Data compiled during the first phase of this study are presented in this report. Field reconnaissance of the Winchester, Menifee, and south Perris subbasins indicated the existence of many wells. Wellconstruction data for 115 of these wells were tabulated. Available historical waterquality and waterlevel data for 178 wells in the subbasins also were tabulated. In addition, water levels in 86 wells were measured during the spring and autumn of 1995. On the basis of these data, waterlevel contour lines were drawn and the direction of groundwater flow was determined.Three lithologic sections through the subbasins were constructed from drillers' logs of 26 wells.

  20. Modeling the geomorphological impact on Alameda Creek, CA, and associated change in flood risk, due to the removal of Sunol and Niles Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, D. E.; Tjerry, S.; Saleh, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Sunol and Niles Dams on Alameda Creek, CA, were removed in 2006 to improve fish passage. Though the total sediment storage in the reservoirs was estimated to be at no more than one-quarter of the mean annual sediment load of Alameda Creek, there was concern that a downstream sediment pulse resulting from dam removal would induce a transient water level increase in the flood control channel (FCC) requiring that costly channel dredging (done as a flood control measure) be carried out earlier than originally anticipated. To assess the impact of the dams" removal, the morphological evolution of the FCC over an 11-year period (Oct. 2003 to Oct. 2014) was simulated with MIKE 21C, a curvilinear 2-dimensional (2D) morphological model. Simulations of over a decade at very fine time steps were feasible due to recent parallelization of the model code. Nine scenarios were simulated covering three different reservoir scouring potentials (high, low, and none - the 'baseline' case) and three different future stream discharge patterns (wet, dry, historic). The channel bed evolution from these nine scenarios was examined to determine four points in time at which the impact of the additional reservoir sediments might pose the greatest increase in flood risk compared to the dams remaining in place (i.e. the no-scouring baseline cases). The channel bathymetries for these four cases plus the baselines were carried over to a 1D+2D hydrodynamic model (MIKE FLOOD) of the channel (1D) and floodplain (2D). The hydrodynamic flood model was run using the 100-yr, 500-yr, and FCC standard design hydrographs as input to determine if the additional sedimentation resulted in increased, or any, overtopping of the channel levees and consequent flooding. The study therefore provided quantification of the temporary impact on flooding induced by the dam removal.

  1. Geochemical data from waters in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado, that span pre- and post-Lark Mine remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Yager, Douglas B.; Johnson, Hugh D.

    2011-01-01

    In San Juan County, Colorado, the effects of historical mining continue to contribute dissolved metals to groundwater and surface water. Water samples in Prospect Gulch near Silverton, Colorado, were collected at selected locations that span pre- and post-reclamation activities at the Lark Mine, located in the Prospect Gulch watershed. Geochemical results from those water samples are presented in this report. Water samples were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen with handheld field meters, and metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

  2. Groundwater levels and water quality during a 96-hour aquifer test in Pickaway County, Ohio, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haefner, Ralph J.; Runkle, Donna L.; Mailot, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    During October–November 2012, a 96-hour aquifer test was performed at a proposed well field in northern Pickaway County, Ohio, to investigate groundwater with elevated nitrate concentrations. Earlier sampling done by the City of Columbus revealed that some wells had concentrations of nitrate that approached 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L), whereas other wells and the nearby Scioto River had concentrations from 2 to 6 mg/L. The purpose of the current test was to examine potential changes in water quality that may be expected if the site was developed into a public water-supply source; therefore, water-transmitting properties determined during a previous test were not determined a second time. Before and during the test, water-level data and water-quality samples were obtained from observation wells while a test production well was pumped at 1,300 gallons per minute. Before the test, local groundwater levels indicated that groundwater was being discharged to the nearby Scioto River, but during the test, the stream was losing streamflow owing to infiltration. Water levels declined in the pumping well, in adjacent observation wells, and in a nearby streambed piezometer as pumping commenced. The maximum drawdown in the pumping well was 29.75 feet, measured about 95 hours after pumping began. Water-quality data, including analyses for field parameters, major and trace elements, nutrients, and stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen in nitrate, demonstrated only small variations before and during the test. Concentrations of nitrate in five samples from the pumping well ranged from about 5.10 to 5.42 mg/L before and during the test, whereas concentrations of nitrate in five samples on or about the same sampling dates and times at a monitoring site on the Scioto River adjacent to the pumping well ranged from 3.46 to 4.97 mg/L. Water from two nearby observation wells had nitrate concentrations approaching 10 mg/L, which is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Maximum

  3. Potential For Denitrification near Reclaimed Water Application Sites in Orange County, Florida, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Michael J., Sr.; Smith, Richard L.; Repert, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential for denitrification was tested in water samples from four Upper Floridan aquifer wells near a reclaimed water application site, in west Orange County Florida, and two adjacent springs. Results of the study indicate that denitrifying bacteria are present in the groundwater and spring water samples, and that these bacteria can readily denitrify the waters when suitable geochemical conditions exist. The acetylene block technique was used to assess nitrous oxide in the samples that was produced by denitrification. The laboratory incubation experiment consisted of four different treatments to each of the six samples: (1) ambient water (no added nitrate or glucose), (2) ambient water amended with 1.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) nitrate as nitrogen (N), (3) ambient water amended with 5.0 mg/L nitrate as N, and (4) ambient water amended with 5.0 mg/L nitrate as N and 10 mg/L glucose as C6H12O6. A companion set of incubations using treatment 2 tracked changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration with time. The rate of denitrification in treatment 2 ranged from 0.059 to 0.124 milligram per liter per day nitrogen [(mg/L)/d N] and in treatment 3 ranged from 0.071 to 0.226 (mg/L)/d N. At all of the sampling sites, treatment 4 yielded denitrification rates at least an order of magnitude greater than those measured for the other treatments; rates ranged from 2.3 to 4.4 (mg/L)/d N. The electron donor supply, dissolved organic carbon, in the groundwater and springwater is sufficient to remove at least 1.1-1.4 mg/L nitrate as N in 20 to 30 days, as indicated by nitrous oxide production rates under ambient conditions (treatment 1). The even higher nitrate removal observed with addition of supplemental carbon in treatment 4 suggests that carbon is a limiting nutrient in this reaction. Denitrifying activity might explain the low ambient nitrate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer in this area.

  4. Saline contamination of soil and water on Pawnee tribal trust land, eastern Payne County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, Donna L.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management reported evidence of saline contamination of soils and water in Payne County on Pawnee tribal trust land. Representatives of the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Geological Survey inspected the site, in September 1997, and observed dead grass, small shrubs, and large trees near some abandoned oil production wells, a tank yard, an pit, and pipelines. Soil and bedrock slumps and large dead trees were observed near a repaired pipeline on the side of the steep slope dipping toward an unnamed tributary of Eagle Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, initiated an investigation in March 1998 to examine soil conductance and water quality on 160 acres of Pawnee tribal trust land where there was evidence of saline contamination and concern about saline contamination of the Ada Group, the shallowest freshwater aquifer in the area. The proximity of high specific conductance in streams to areas containing pipeline spill, abandoned oil wells, the tank yard, and the pit indicates that surface-water quality is affected by production brines. Specific conductances measured in Eagle Creek and Eagle Creek tributary ranged from 1,187 to 10,230 microsiemens per centimeter, with the greatest specific conductance measured downgradient of a pipeline spill. Specific conductance in an unnamed tributary of Salt Creek ranged from 961 to 11,500 microsiemens per centimeter. Specific conductance in three ponds ranged from 295 to 967 microsiemens per centimeter, with the greatest specific conductance measured in a pond located downhill from the tank yard and the abandoned oil well. Specific conductance in water from two brine storage pits ranged from 9,840 to 100,000 microsiemens per centimeter, with water from the pit near a tank yard having the greater specific conductance. Bartlesville brine samples from the oil well and injection well have the greatest specific conductance, chloride concentration, and dissolved

  5. Hydrologic and water-quality characterization and modeling of the Chenoweth Run basin, Jefferson County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Gary R.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Shipp, Allison A.

    2001-01-01

    Rainfall, streamflow, and water-quality data collected in the Chenoweth Run Basin during February 1996?January 1998, in combination with the available historical sampling data, were used to characterize hydrologic conditions and to develop and calibrate a Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF) model for continuous simulation of rainfall, streamflow, suspended-sediment, and total-orthophosphate (TPO4) transport relations. Study results provide an improved understanding of basin hydrology and a hydrologic-modeling framework with analytical tools for use in comprehensive waterresource planning and management. Chenoweth Run Basin, encompassing 16.5 mi2 in suburban eastern Jefferson County, Kentucky, contains expanding urban development, particularly in the upper third of the basin. Historical water-quality problems have interfered with designated aquatic-life and recreation uses in the stream main channel (approximately 9 mi in length) and have been attributed to organic enrichment, nutrients, metals, and pathogens in urban runoff and wastewater inflows. Hydrologic conditions in Jefferson County are highly varied. In the Chenoweth Run Basin, as in much of the eastern third of the county, relief is moderately sloping to steep. Also, internal drainage in pervious areas is impeded by the shallow, fine-textured subsoils that contain abundant silts and clays. Thus, much of the precipitation here tends to move rapidly as overland flow and (or) shallow subsurface flow (interflow) to the stream channels. Data were collected at two streamflowgaging stations, one rain gage, and four waterquality- sampling sites in the basin. Precipitation, streamflow, and, consequently, constituent loads were above normal during the data-collection period of this study. Nonpoint sources contributed the largest portion of the sediment loads. However, the three wastewatertreatment plants (WWTP?s) were the source of the majority of estimated total phosphorus (TP) and TPO4 transport

  6. Historical streamflows of Double Mountain Fork of Brazos River and water-surface elevations of Lake Alan Henry, Garza County, Texas, water years 1962-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Vrabel, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Lubbock, Texas, operates two surface-water stations in Garza County, Tex.: USGS streamflow-gaging station 08079600 Double Mountain Fork Brazos River at Justiceburg, Tex., and 08079700 Lake Alan Henry Reservoir, a water-supply reservoir about 60 miles southeast of Lubbock, Tex., and about 10 miles east of Justiceburg, Tex. The streamflow and water-surface elevation data from the two stations are useful to water-resource managers and planners in support of forecasting and water-resource infrastructure operations and are used in regional hydrologic studies.

  7. Identification and Mapping of Soils, Vegetation, and Water Resources of Lynn County, Texas, by Computer Analysis of ERTS MSS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, M. F.; Kristof, S. J.; Henderson, J. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of the analysis and interpretation of ERTS multispectral data obtained over Lynn County, Texas, are presented. The test site was chosen because it embodies a variety of problems associated with the development and management of agricultural resources in the Southern Great Plains. Lynn County is one of ten counties in a larger test site centering around Lubbock, Texas. The purpose of this study is to examine the utility of ERTS data in identifying, characterizing, and mapping soils, vegetation, and water resources in this semiarid region. Successful application of multispectral remote sensing and machine-processing techniques to arid and seminarid land-management problems will provide valuable new tools for the more than one-third of the world's lands lying in arid-semiarid regions.

  8. Geology and ground water in the central part of Apache County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.

    1965-01-01

    The central part of Apache County, Ariz., includes an area of about 3,300 square miles between the Navajo Indian Reservation to the north and U.S. Highway 60 to the south. Sedimentary rocks in the area range from Pennsylvanian to Quaternary in age and from 2,000 to more than 6,000 feet in thickness. The strata were tilted to the northeast, and part of the Upper Triassic and all the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous rocks were eroded away before strata of Late Cretaceous age were deposited. Basaltic lava flows and cinder cones, representing four general periods of eruption in late Miocene to Quaternary time, are widespread in the southern part of the area. Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks overlie basement rocks of granite and diorite and include the Supai Formation, the Coconino Sandstone, and the Kaibab Limestone. The Supai Formation is 1,000 to 2,000 feet thick and consists of interbedded red and brown mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, limestone, and evaporites. It contains water of very poor quality outside Apache County. The Coconino Sandstone is 200 to 250 feet thick and consists of light-gray fine- to medium-grained sandstone. It contains water suitable for domestic use in the south and water unsuitable for most purposes in the north. The Coconino Sandstone underlies all Central Apache County in the subsurface. The yellowish-gray to dark-gray Kaibab Limestone is present in the southern two-thirds of the area and is 0 to 350 feet thick. It contains water where it is fractured and combines with the Coconino Sandstone to form a single hydrologic unit that yields from 6 to 74 gpm (gallons per minute) of water per foot of drawdown. An unconformity Heparates the Permian rocks from the overlying Triassic rocks, which comprise the Moenkopi and Chinle Formations and the Wingate Sandstone. The Moenkopi Formation is 35 to 250 feet thick and consists of intercalated brownish-red siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate. It contains salty water in some areas but is dry in most. The

  9. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli pathotypes and factors associated with well and boreholes water contamination in Mombasa County

    PubMed Central

    Thani, Thani Suleiman; Symekher, Samwel Morris Lifumo; Boga, Hamadi; Oundo, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Safe water for human consumption is important, but there is a limited supply. Mombasa County has water shortages making residences rely on other sources of water including boreholes and wells. Microbiological evaluation of drinking water is important to reduce exposure to water borne enteric diseases. This cross sectional study aimed at determining the frequency and characterization of Escherichia coli (E. coli) pathotypes from water samples collected from wells and boreholes in Mombasa County. Methods One hundred and fifty seven (157) water samples were collected from four divisions of the county and a questionnaire administered. The samples were inoculated to double strength MacConkey broth and incubated at 370C for up to 48 hours. Positive results were compared to the 3 tube McCrady MPN table. The E. coli were confirmed by Eijkman's test and antibiotic susceptibility carried out. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the E. coli were characterized to establish pathotypes. Results One hundred and thirty one (n = 131; 83.4%) samples had coliform bacteria with only 79 (60.3%) samples having E. coli. Significant values (<0.05) were noted when coliforms were compared to variables with E. Coli showing no significance when compared to similar variables. E. coli (n = 77; 100%) tested were sensitive to Gentamicin, while all (n = 77; 100%) isolates were resistant to Ampicillin. PCR typed isolates as enteroinvasive E. Coli (EIEC). Conclusion Findings suggest that coliforms and E. coli are major contaminants of wells and boreholes in Mombasa County. The isolates have a variety of resistant and sensitivity patterns to commonly used antibiotics. PMID:27200121

  10. Report of the Preliminary Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Site 300, San Joaquin County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, C

    2009-11-24

    The area subject to this investigation is the existing Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Site 300, located in the region north of Corral Hollow; approximately eight and one half miles southwest of Tracy, San Joaquin County, California. Cartographic location can be determined from the Tracy and Midway USGS 7.5 minute topographic quadrangles, the appropriate portions of which are herein reproduced as Maps 1 and 2. The majority of the approximate 7000 acres of the location lies within San Joaquin County. This includes all of the area arbitrarily designated the 'Eastern Portion' on Map 2 and the majority of the area designated the 'Western Portion' on Map 1. The remaining acreage, along the western boundary of the location, lies within Alameda County. The area is located in the region of open rolling hills immediately north of Corral Hollow, and ranges in elevation from approximately 600 feet, on the flood plain of Corral Hollow Creek, to approximately 1700 feet in the northwest portion of the project location. Proposed for the area under investigation are various, unspecified improvements or modifications to the existing Site 300 facilities. Present facilities consist of scattered buildings, bunkers and magazines, utilized for testing and research purposes, including the necessary water, power, and transportation improvements to support them. The vast majority of the 7000 acres location is presently open space, utilized as buffer zones between test locations and as firing ranges.

  11. Biostratigraphic and lithologic correlations of two Sonoma County Water Agency pilot wells with the type Wilson Grove Formation, Sonoma County, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Wan, Elmira

    2006-01-01

    Small mollusk faunas characteristic of the uppermost part of the Wilson Grove Formation at Wilson Grove and along River Road at Trenton (Pliocene) were encountered in Sonoma County Water Agency pilot wells at Occidental Road well field between 320-500 ft (98-152 m), depth, and in the Sebastopol Road pilot well field between 560-570 ft (171-174 m), depth. These mollusks support correlations between the two wells made on lithologic grounds. A benthic foraminifer was recovered from between 380-390 ft (116-119 m), depth, in the Sonoma County Water Agency Occidental Road pilot well. Though an isolated specimen, the presence of this well-preserved foraminifer supports the environmental interpretation of less than 100 m on the continental shelf indicated by the molluscan assemblages at this site. For this marine stratigraphic interval of the Wilson Grove Formation, we suggest a relatively narrow age range of 5.3 (Miocene-Pliocene boundary) to ~ 4.5 Ma based on the stratigraphic relations of correlative marine strata around the upland margin of Santa Rosa plain and correlative strata in the Santa Cruz area, although an age between 5.3 and ~ 2.8 Ma cannot be discounted.

  12. Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals in Shallow Ground-Water of Suffolk County, New York, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benotti, Mark J.; Fisher, Shawn; Terracciano, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Seventy (70) water samples were collected from 61 wells in the upper glacial and Magothy aquifers (9 wells were sampled twice) during 2002-05 and analyzed for 24 pharmaceuticals. Wells were selected for their proximity to known wastewater-treatment facilities that discharge to the shallow upper glacial aquifer. Pharmaceuticals were detected in 28 of the 70 samples, 19 of which contained one compound, and 9 of which contained two or more compounds. Concentrations of detected compounds were extremely low; most ranged from 0.001 to 0.1 microgram per liter (part per billion). The two most commonly detected compounds were carbamazepine (an antiepileptic drug) and sulfamethoxazole (an antibiotic). Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in Suffolk County ground-water is less prevalent than in susceptible streams of the United States that were tested in 1998-2000, but the similarity of median concentrations of the detected compounds of the two data sets indicates that current wastewater practices can serve to introduce pharmaceuticals to this shallow aquifer.

  13. Water budget and mathematical model of the Coconino Aquifer, southern Navajo County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, Larry J.

    1979-01-01

    The main source of water in the 3,400-square-mile area of southern Navajo County, Ariz., is the large volume in storage in the Coconino aquifer. Withdrawals from the aquifer increased from about 13,800 acre-feet in 1960 to 38,400 acre-feet in 1972. Aquifer tests indicate that hydraulic conductivity ranges from 8 to 40 feet per day; the flow-net analysis indicates that the hydraulic conductivity may be as much as 80 feet per day in places. In the southern and central parts the aquifer is unconfined, and the storage coefficient is estimated to be about 0.15. In the northern and eastern parts the aquifer is confined, and the storage coefficient ranges from 0.00013 to 0.0014. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the groundwater system and to provide a management tool for estimating the effects of pumping. The model indicates that the inflow to and outflow from the aquifer were about 105,600 acre-feet in 1960 and that about 192,000 acre-feet of water was derived from storage in 1960-72. The model provides an approximation of the Coconino aquifer. (USGS)

  14. Occurrence of sulfonamide antimicrobials in private water wells in Washington County, Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Batt, Angela L; Snow, Daniel D; Aga, Diana S

    2006-09-01

    Samples from six private wells formerly used as sources for drinking water by the residents of Washington County (Weiser, Idaho) were collected to assess the impact of a nearby confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) on the quality of the local groundwater. All six samples were found contaminated by two veterinary antimicrobials, sulfamethazine (at concentrations from 0.076 to 0.22 microg/l) and sulfadimethoxine (at concentrations from 0.046 to 0.068 microg/l). These groundwater samples also contained elevated concentrations of nitrate and ammonium. Three of the sampled wells have nitrate levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level set by the US Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water, with nitrate concentration as high as 39.1mg/l. All but one well showed nitrate, which instead contained ammonium at 1.22 mg/l. Analysis of the nitrate and ammonium in these samples by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry indicated delta(15)N characteristic of an animal or human waste source. Results from this study underscore the role of CAFO as an important source of antibiotic contamination of groundwater. PMID:16497355

  15. Risk analyses for a water-supply system; Occoquan Reservoir, Fairfax and Prince William Counties, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    Two techniques for evaluation risks in the operation of a water-supply system are demonstrated. Both rely on reconstructed historical streamflow data to develop estimates of the probabilities of certain specific events occurring in the future. These techniques are applied to the Occoquan Reservoir in Fairfax and Prince William Counties, Va., which was experiencing an unprecedented low level of storage in the autumn of 1977. In the first technique, the general risk analysis model (GRAM), simulations of the reservoir 's contents are carried out under a set of assumptions about withdrawal rates and emergency procedures. The results of the GRAM simulation for the Occoquan Reservoir are in the form of estimates of the probabilities that in any year certain emergency procedures will have to be invoked. These estimates are given for a range of rates of withdrawals and for four different stages of emergency actions. The second technique is position analysis. In this procedure probability distributions of future storages are estimated under existing storage conditions and an assumed rate of withdrawal from the reservoir. The position analysis which was initialized at the October 1, 1977, conditions indicates that the probability of entering a Stage III emergency (the prohibition of all uses of water nonessential to life, health, and safety) in the autumn of 1977 or winter of 1978 was 10 percent at that time. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in relation to water contamination, Santa Clara County, California, 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Deane, M.; Swan, S.H.; Harris, J.A.; Epstein, D.M.; Neutra, R.R.

    1989-05-01

    An epidemiologic study was conducted to investigate a suspected cluster of adverse outcomes of pregnancies conceived in 1980-1981 among women who resided in a census tract in Santa Clara County, California that was thought to be exposed to drinking water from a well contaminated by an organic solvent, trichloroethane. A comparison census tract that received water from a different source was selected on the basis of demographic comparability. The cluster was confirmed; the odds ratio for spontaneous abortion was 2.3 (95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.3-4.2) after adjustment by multiple logistic regression for maternal risk factors, including maternal age, alcohol consumption, smoking, and prior fetal loss. The relative risk for congenital malformations was 3.1 (95% Cl 1.1-10.4). Because of the lack of precise information on the timing and extent of contamination, the pattern of spontaneous abortion rates throughout the study period cannot be used to either support or refute a causal inference.

  17. Approximate water-level changes in wells in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, 1977-79, and measured compaction, 1973-79, in Harris and Galveston Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrysch, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    This report consists of: (1) Four maps that present data on water-level changes during 1977-79 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers and; (2) one set of graphs that present data on the compaction of subsurface materials for 1973-79. During 1977-79, groundwater pumping decreased in Galveston County and southern Harris County, Tex., and increased in northern and western Harris County. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Ground-water resources of the Ainsworth unit, Cherry and Brown Counties, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, James G.; Newport, Thomas G.; Krieger, R.A.

    1956-01-01

    The Ainsworth unit, so named by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, is in north-central Nebraska and is in the drainage basin of the Niobrara River. It is an area of about 1,000 square miles in the east-central part of Cherry County and northern part of Brown County. The east-west length of the area is about 60 miles and the width ranges from 9 to 21 miles. About 80 percent of the area consists of grass-covered sandhills; the remainder is the Ainsworth tableland, which is flat to gently rolling farmland between Plum and Long Pine Creeks in the eastern part of the area. The average annual precipitation is about 23 inches. Although most of the C).ops are raised by dry-farming methods, some farmland is irrigated with water pumped from wells. The U. S. Bureau of Reclamation has proposed to irrigate much of the Ainsworth tableland with surface water to be stored in a reservoir on the Snake River at the west border of the Ainsworth unit. The rocks exposed in the Ainsworth unit range in age from Tertiary (Pliocene) to Quaternary (Recent). The Ogallala formation of Pliocene age is exposed along the lower part of the Snake River valley and underlies the entire Ainsworth unit. It is composed of silt, sand, and gravel, and contains layers of sandstone and conglomerate, much of which is cross bedded and cemented with lime; coarser sediments generally are more prominent in the lower part. Overlying the Ogallala formation are deposits of Pleistocene age consisting in part of layers of saturated sand and gravel which are the most important sources of ground water in the Ainsworth unit. Throughout most of the area the ground water is under watertable conditions, but locally it is confined by lenses of clay or silty clay. Some wells tap only the sand and gravel of Pleistocene age, some tap both the deposits of Pleistocene age and the underlying Ogallala formation, and some tap only the Ogallala formation; no wells are known to extend into rocks older than the Ogallala. Dune sand

  19. Geohydrology and ground-water quality on Shelter Island, Suffolk County, New York, 1983-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Shelter Island, with an area of about 11 sq mi, lies between the north and south forks of eastern Long Island in Suffolk County. The thin upper glacial (water table) aquifer contains the lens-shaped freshwater body that is the sole source of freshwater for the Town 's population of about 2,200 year-round and 10,000 summer residents. Chloride concentrations in groundwater above the freshwater/saltwater interface, defined as 40 mg/L Cl-, are relatively constant with depth. Below the interface, however, chloride concentrations increase rapidly--as much as an order of magnitude within 10 ft--until they reach 19 ,000 mg/L, the chloride concentration of seawater. Chloride concentrations in shallow groundwater from wells screened in or near the zone of diffusion may range over two orders of magnitude in response to variations in recharge and groundwater withdrawal. After the summer season of relatively low recharge and peak water demand, the thickness of the freshwater lens is < 20 ft in many nearshore areas. A map showing the configuration of the water table in December 1983 indicates freshwater mounds in the center of the island, in the Mashomack Preserve, on the Dering Harbor-Hay Beach peninsula, and in the area between Shelter Island Heights and West Neck Bay. Areas in which the supply of fresh groundwater is severely limited include all coastal areas, the southernmost part of the West Neck peninsula, and Little Ram Island. Water levels in most locations are < 6 ft above sea level. During 1974-83, seasonal water table fluctuations were greater than variations that occurred from year to year. Groundwater quality on Shelter Island is generally good and usually meets Federal and State drinking water standards. However, many wells contain water that has excessive concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese (up to 5.0 mg/L and 3.0 mg/L, respectively), and elevated chloride and dissolved solids concentrations (up to 310 mg/L and 585 mg/L, respectively) have been found in

  20. Ground-water exploration in the Bosque del Apache Grant, Socorro County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, James B.

    1968-01-01

    Test drilling along the Rio Grande in the Bosque del Apache Grant in Socorro County, New Mexico has shown that the area is hydrologically complex and that the quality of the ground water varies from saline to fresh within short distances both laterally and vertically. Nearly all of the riverside land in the Grant is occupied by the migratory waterfowl refuge of the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. Potable and near-potable water is obtained from 12 wells in this area that tap sand and gravel, and the wells are capable of yielding 1,000 gallons per minute or more. Stallion Range Center, a military installation on the White Sands Missile Range, about 15 miles east of =he waterfowl refuge, needs about 100,000 gallons per day of potable water. Potable water in large quantities is not known to be available at a location closer to the Center than the refuge area. The Fish and Wildlife Service, which operates the waterfowl refuge, gave permission to White Sands Missile Range to test drill and to develop a supply well in certain areas along the Rio Grande outside the managed lands of the refuge. The U.S. Geological Survey was then asked by White Sands Missile Range to choose locations for test drilling and to monitor drilling and testing of the wells. Between 1963 and 1967 test wells were drilled and a suitable location for a supply well as found. The well would be about 250 feet deep and would tap a body of potable water that is about 100 feet in thickness and is thought to underlie an area of at least 5 square miles. This report contains diagrammatic sections that show the lateral and vertical relation of waters of different quality along the Rio Grande in a part of the Bosque del Apache Grant. Basic data are given in tables; they include records of 7 test wells and 12 high-yield supply wells, and 52 chemical analyses of ground water from the wells.

  1. Total suspended solids concentrations and yields for water-quality monitoring stations in Gwinnett County, Georgia, 1996-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, established a water-quality monitoring program during late 1996 to collect comprehensive, consistent, high-quality data for use by watershed managers. As of 2009, continuous streamflow and water-quality data as well as discrete water-quality samples were being collected for 14 watershed monitoring stations in Gwinnett County. This report provides statistical summaries of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations for 730 stormflow and 710 base-flow water-quality samples collected between 1996 and 2009 for 14 watershed monitoring stations in Gwinnett County. Annual yields of TSS were estimated for each of the 14 watersheds using methods described in previous studies. TSS yield was estimated using linear, ordinary least-squares regression of TSS and explanatory variables of discharge, turbidity, season, date, and flow condition. The error of prediction for estimated yields ranged from 1 to 42 percent for the stations in this report; however, the actual overall uncertainty of the estimated yields cannot be less than that of the observed yields (± 15 to 20 percent). These watershed yields provide a basis for evaluation of how watershed characteristics, climate, and watershed management practices affect suspended sediment yield.

  2. Aquifer properties, stream base flow, water use, and water levels in the Pohatcong Valley, Warren County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, G.B.; Gordon, A.D.; Wieben, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the hydrogeology and describe the ground-water flow in the Pohatcong Valley in Warren County, N.J. near the Pohatcong Valley Ground Water Contamination Site. The area is underlain by glacial till and alluvial sediments and weathered and competent carbonate bedrock. The northwest and southeast valley boundaries are regional-scale thrust faults and ridges underlain by crystalline rocks. The unconsolidated sediments and weathered bedrock form a minor surficial aquifer. The carbonate rocks form a highly transmissive fractured-rock aquifer with well yields commonly as high as 500 gallons per minute. Ground-water recharge and flow in the crystalline-rock aquifer bordering the valley is minor compared to flow in the carbonate-rock aquifer, and little ground water flows into the carbonate-rock aquifer directly from the crystalline-rock aquifer. The thrust faults separating the carbonate and crystalline rocks may further impede flow between the two rock types. Interpretations of water-level and transmissivity data collected during 2000 to 2003 indicate that the carbonate formations generally can be considered to be one aquifer. The transmissivity of the carbonate-rock aquifer was estimated from the results of four aquifer tests conducted with two public supply wells. The transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests at a well located in Washington Borough is about 8,600 square feet per day. An aquifer test at a well located near the southwest border of Washington Borough was conducted to estimate transmissivity and the direction and magnitude of anisotropy. The estimated direction of maximum horizontal transmissivity near the second well is about 58? east of north and the magnitude is 7,600 square feet per day. The minimum horizontal transmissivity is 3,500 square feet per day and the ratio of anisotropy (maximum transmissivity to minimum transmissivity) is 2.2 to 1. Stream base-flow data indicate that Pohatcong Creek steadily gains flow, but

  3. Ground-water recharge to the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system, Orange County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C. C., III

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative information concerning recharge rates to aquifers and ground water in storage is needed to manage the development of ground-water resources. The amount of ground water available from the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system in Orange County, North Carolina, is largely unknown. If historical patterns seen throughout the Piedmont continue into the future, the number of ground-water users in the county can be expected to increase. In order to determine the maximum population that can be supplied by ground water, planners and managers of suburban development must know the amount of ground water that can be withdrawn without exceeding recharge and(or) overdrafting water in long-term storage. Results of the study described in this report help provide this information. Estimates of seasonal and long-term recharge rates were estimated for 12 selected drainage basins and subbasins using streamflow data and an analytical technique known as hydrograph separation. Methods for determining the quality of ground water in storage also are described. Orange County covers approximately 401 square miles in the eastern part of the Piedmont Province. The population of the county in 1990 was about 93,850; approximately 41 percent of the population depends on ground water as a source of potable supplies. Ground water is obtained from wells tapping the regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system that underlies most of the county. Ground water also is obtained from Triassic age sedimentary rocks that occur in a small area in southeastern Orange County. Under natural conditions, recharge to the county's ground-water system is derived from the infiltration of precipitation. Ground-water recharge from precipitation cannot be measured directly; however, an estimate of the amount of precipitation that infiltrates into the ground and ultimately reaches the streams of the region can be determined by the technique of hydrograph separation. Data from 17 gaging

  4. Availability, Sustainability, and Suitability of Ground Water, Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado - Types of Analyses and Data for Use in Subdivision Water-Supply Reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    The population of Delta County, Colorado, like that in much of the Western United States, is forecast to increase substantially in the next few decades. A substantial portion of the increased population likely will reside in rural subdivisions and use residential wells for domestic water supplies. In Colorado, a subdivision developer is required to submit a water-supply plan through the county for approval by the Colorado Division of Water Resources. If the water supply is to be provided by wells, the water-supply plan must include a water-supply report. The water-supply report demonstrates the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the water supply for the proposed subdivision. During 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Delta County, Colorado, began a study to develop criteria that the Delta County Land Use Department can use to evaluate water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. A table was prepared that lists the types of analyses and data that may be needed in a water-supply report for a water-supply plan that proposes the use of ground water. A preliminary analysis of the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the ground-water resources of Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado, was prepared for a hypothetical subdivision to demonstrate hydrologic analyses and data that may be needed for water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. Rogers Mesa is a 12-square-mile upland mesa located along the north side of the North Fork Gunnison River about 15 miles east of Delta, Colorado. The principal land use on Rogers Mesa is irrigated agriculture, with about 5,651 acres of irrigated cropland, grass pasture, and orchards. The principal source of irrigation water is surface water diverted from the North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek. The estimated area of platted subdivisions on or partially on Rogers Mesa in 2007 was about 4,792 acres of which about 2,756 acres was irrigated land in 2000. The principal aquifer on Rogers

  5. Ground-water investigations of the Project Gnome area, Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, through the Office of Test Operations, Albuquerque Operations Office, plans to detonate a nuclear device in a massive salt bed 1,200 feet beneath the land surface. The project, known as Project Gnome, is an element of the Plowshare program--a study of peacetime applications of nuclear fission. The location of the proposed underground shot is in a sparsely-populated area in southeastern Eddy County, N. Mex., east of the Pecos River and about 25 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad. The area is arid to Semiarid and ground water is a vital factor in the economic utilization of the land, which is primarily used for stock raising. An investigation of the Project Gnome site and surrounding area for the purposes of evaluating the ground-water resources and the possible effect upon them from the detonation of the nuclear shot was desired by the Commission. This report describes work done by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Commission and presents results of the investigation of the ground-water resources and geology of the area. The most intensive investigations were made within a 15-mile radius of the site of Project Gnome and mainly on the east side of the Pecos River. The total area of study of over 1,200 square miles includes parts of Eddy and Lea Counties, N. Mex. The Project Gnome site is in the sedimentary Delaware Basin. It is underlain by about 18,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Ordovician to Recent. Upper Permian evaporitic rocks, which contain the principal source of potash available in the United States, are worked in nearby mines. The potash minerals are found in a massive salt bed about 1,400 feet thick in the Salado Formation of Permian age. The land surface of the area is covered mostly by a wind-blown sand and caliche; however, rocks of the Rustler Formation of Permian age and younger rocks of Permian, Triassic, Pleistocene(?) and Recent age crop out at several localities. Solution by

  6. Ground-Water Flow Model for the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer, Spokane County, Washington, and Bonner and Kootenai Counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsieh, Paul A.; Barber, Michael E.; Contor, Bryce A.; Hossain, Md. Akram; Johnson, Gary S.; Jones, Joseph L.; Wylie, Allan H.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a computer model of ground-water flow in the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie (SVRP) aquifer in Spokane County, Washington, and Bonner and Kootenai Counties, Idaho. The aquifer is the sole source of drinking water for more than 500,000 residents in the area. In response to the concerns about the impacts of increased ground-water withdrawals resulting from recent and projected urban growth, a comprehensive study was initiated by the Idaho Department of Water Resources, the Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Geological Survey to improve the understanding of ground-water flow in the aquifer and of the interaction between ground water and surface water. The ground-water flow model presented in this report is one component of this comprehensive study. The primary purpose of the model is to serve as a tool for analyzing aquifer inflows and outflows, simulating the effects of future changes in ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer, and evaluating aquifer management strategies. The scale of the model and the level of detail are intended for analysis of aquifer-wide water-supply issues. The SVRP aquifer model was developed by the Modeling Team formed within the comprehensive study. The Modeling Team consisted of staff and personnel working under contract with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, personnel working under contract with the Washington Department of Ecology, and staff of the U.S. Geological Survey. To arrive at a final model that has the endorsement of all team members, decisions on modeling approach, methodology, assumptions, and interpretations were reached by consensus. The ground-water flow model MODFLOW-2000 was used to simulate ground-water flow in the SVPR aquifer. The finite-difference model grid consists of 172 rows, 256 columns, and 3 layers. Ground-water flow was simulated from September 1990 through September 2005 using 181 stress periods of 1 month each. The areal extent of the model encompasses an area of

  7. Isotopic composition of water from a mine drainage site in Creede County in south central Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R. L.; Williams, M. W.; Krupicka, A.; Wireman, M.; Graves, J.

    2011-12-01

    Creede County in South Central Colorado was an active area of silver mining beginning in the early 1890s. To relieve flooding in some of the mines, the Nelson Tunnel was built in the late 1890s. This tunnel still exists and acid mine drainage from the tunnel eventually flows into the Willow Creek Watershed which eventually flows into the Upper Rio Grande. The water coming out of the tunnel is high in toxic metals and the area has become part of an EPA Superfund site in an effort to find a suitable method to remediate the metal problems. Among the approaches used in the program is the use of isotopes of water and carbon to identify sources and estimate ages of the water in the drainage. Samples were collected for analysis of isotopic ratios and tritium concentrations at a series of sites within the tunnel complex from 2008-2010. In 2009 samples were also collected for analysis of isotopes in groundwater and surface water. In 2010 sampling was expanded to include four precipitation and one snow sample. Tritium concentrations in precipitation and snowfall in 2010 ranged from 3-6 tritium units with the lowest concentration found in the snow sample. The 18O isotopic ratios in precipitation for this site ranged from an average of -8.9 o/oo in summer to about -19 o/oo in winter. The six groundwater samples collected in 2009 had an average 18O isotopic concentration of -15 o/oo and tritium concentrations ranging from 7.4-9.3 TU. These results suggest that the groundwater sampled is composed largely of a mixture of summer and winter precipitation with the latter source being dominant. The tritium concentrations in groundwater exceed recent precipitation concentrations, suggesting the presence of water from the bomb-tritium transient and an age of a decade or more for the groundwater. Eight sites in the tunnel were sampled I from 2008-2010, although not all sites were sampled every year. The sampling sites included waters seeping into the tunnel as well as the outlet water

  8. Characterization and origin of dissolved organic carbon in Yegua ground water in Brazos County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Routh, J; Grossman, E L; Murphy, E M; Benner, R

    2001-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in five shallow (< 20 m) and three deeper wells (27 to 30 m) in the Eocene Yegua Formation (Brazos County in east-central Texas) ranged from 92 to 500 microns. Characterization of high, intermediate, and low molecular weight DOC fractions (HMW > 3000 amu, IMW 1000 to 3000 amu, and LMW 500 to 1000 amu) and combined neutral sugar analyses provide information on organic matter sources in the Yegua aquifers. Combined neutral sugars ranged in concentration from 0.6 to 2.7 mumol/L and comprised 0.8% to 6.7% of DOC in ground water. Glucose was the most abundant neutral sugar, followed by xylose and galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, and fucose. These combined neutral sugars were more diagenetically altered in shallow, oxic ground water as indicated by high mole % fucose + rhamnose and low neutral sugar yield. The precursors for neutral sugars are most probably angiosperm leaves, which show a similar distribution pattern of neutral sugars. Ground water DOC was depleted in 13C relative to soil-zone organic matter (OM) (-16@1000 to -19@1000). The delta 13C values of bulk DOC and HMW DOC ranged from -24@1000 to -32@1000, whereas LMW and IMW DOC ranged from -32@1000 to -34@1000 and -16@1000 to -28@1000, respectively. This variability in delta 13C values is probably related to microbial processes and selective preservation of OM. Carbon isotope analyses in bulk and different molecular weight DOC fractions imply a predominantly C3 OM source and a low contribution of soil-zone OM to DOC. PMID:11554255

  9. Radium and uranium concentrations and associated hydrogeochemistry in ground water in southwestern Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felmlee, J. Karen; Cadigan, Robert Allen

    1979-01-01

    Radium and uranium concentrations in water from 37 wells tapping the aquifer system of the Dakota Sandstone and Purgatoire Formation in southwestern Pueblo County, Colorado, have a wide range of values and define several areas of high radioactivity in the ground water. Radium ranges from 0.3 to 420 picocuries per liter and has a median value of 8.8, and uranium ranges from 0.02 to 180 micrograms per liter and has a median value of 2.4. Radon concentrations, measured in 32 of the 37 wells, range from less than 100 picocuries per liter to as much as 27,000 and have a median value of 580. Relationships among the radioactive elements and 28 other geochemical parameters were studied by using correlation coefficients and R-mode factor analysis. Five factor groups were determined to represent major influences on water chemistry: (1) short-term solution reactions, (2) oxidation reactions, (3) hydrolysis reactions, (4) uranium distribution, and (5) long-term solution reactions. Uranium concentrations are most strongly influenced by oxidation reactions but also are affected by solution reactions and distribution of uranium in the rocks of the aquifer system. Radon and radium concentrations are mostly controlled by uranium distribution; radium also shows a moderate negative relationship with oxidation. To explain the statistical and spatial relationships among the parameters, a model was developed involving the selective leaching of uranium-bearing phases and metal sulfides which occur in discontinuous zones in sandstone and shale. When reducing conditions prevail, uranium is immobile, but radium can be taken into solution. When faults and associated fractured rocks allow oxidizing conditions to dominate, uranium can be taken into solution; radium can also be taken into solution, or it may become immobilized by coprecipitation with iron and manganese oxides or with barite. Several areas within the study area are discussed in terms of the model.

  10. Community Needs Assessment After Microcystin Toxin Contamination of a Municipal Water Supply - Lucas County, Ohio, September 2014.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Carolyn L; Nelson, Leigh; Eitniear, Samantha; Zgodzinski, Eric; Zabala, Amanda; Billing, Laurie; DiOrio, Mary

    2016-01-01

    On August 1, 2014, routine testing at the Collins Park Water Treatment Plant in Lucas County, Ohio, revealed microcystin toxin levels in drinking water had reached 3.19 μg/L, surpassing the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water advisory threshold of 1.0 μg/L. Microcystin is a hepatoxin released by cyanobacteria in certain harmful algal blooms. Exposure to microcystin has been associated with gastrointestinal and hepatic illness in both humans and animals (1-3). On August 2, a do-not-drink advisory was issued, warning community members not to drink, boil, or use the water for cooking or brushing teeth. Public health officials used traditional and social media outlets to disseminate public health messages to affected communities. On August 4, 2014, the advisory was lifted after multiple water samples confirmed microcystin toxin levels had dropped below the advisory threshold. To assess communication strategies, water exposure, and household needs, the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) and Toledo-Lucas County Health Department (TLCHD) conducted a Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) in Lucas County. Most households (88.1%) reported hearing about the advisory the morning it was issued, but 11% reported drinking and 21% reported brushing teeth with municipal water during the advisory. Household members reported physical (16%) and mental (10%) health concerns that they believed were related to the advisory and activity disruptions including temporarily staying outside of the home (6%) during the advisory and continued use of alternative water sources after the advisory was lifted (82%). During a do-not-drink advisory, governmental agencies and community partners need to engage in joint prevention and response efforts to decrease water exposure and prevent activity disruptions. PMID:27607896

  11. California Child Care Workforce Study: Family Child Care Providers and Assistants in Alameda County, Kern County, Monterey County, San Benito County, San Francisco County, San Mateo County, Santa Cruz County, and Santa Clara County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; Almaraz, Mirella; Jo-Yung, Joon; Sakai, Laura; Boots, Shelley Waters; Voisin, Irene; Young, Marci; Burton, Alice; Duff, Brian; Laverty, Kassin; Bellm, Dan; Jay, E. Deborah; Krishnaswamy, Nandini; Kipnis, Fran

    An important first step toward more effectively addressing the complexities of child care as a service for families and as an employment setting for workers in California is to develop a detailed picture of the child care workforce. On this premise, a study examined licensed family child care provider demographics, professional preparation, length…

  12. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 25 river kilometers long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek have been increasing in recent years. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the water quality and biological communities in Fish Creek. Water-quality samples were collected for analyses of physical properties and water chemistry (nutrients, nitrate isotopes, and wastewater chemicals) between March 2007 and October 2008 from seven surface-water sites and three groundwater wells. During this same period, aquatic plant and macroinvertebrate samples were collected and habitat characteristics were measured at the surface-water sites. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate nutrient concentrations (that influence biological indicators of eutrophication) and potential sources of nutrients by using stable isotope analysis and other indicator chemicals (such as caffeine and disinfectants) that could provide evidence of anthropogenic sources, such as wastewater or septic tank contamination in Fish Creek and adjacent groundwater, and (2) characterize the algal, macrophyte, and macroinvertebrate communities and habitat of Fish Creek. Nitrate was the dominant species of dissolved nitrogen present in all samples and was the only bioavailable species detected at concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level in all surface-water samples. Average concentrations of dissolved nitrate in surface water were largest in samples collected from the two sites with seasonal flow near Teton Village and decreased downstream; the smallest concentration was at downstream site A-Wck. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate in groundwater were consistently greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event

  13. Analysis of ground-water flow and saltwater encroachment in the shallow aquifer system of Cape May County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, Frederick J.

    1998-01-01

    Cape May County, New Jersey, is on a natural peninsula that is virtually surrounded by saltwater. A calibrated quasi-three-dimensional sharp-interface model was used to simulate ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer system under two water-supply-development alternatives for a 30-year planning period. The alternatives involve modest increases in withdrawals in combination with desalination of brackish ground water or inland relocation of wells. Simulation results indicate that projected withdrawals for the two alternatives can be sustained without significant additional saltwater encroachment over the planning period.

  14. Radiological survey of the Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Alameda Naval Air Station, and Hunters Point Shipyard

    SciTech Connect

    Semler, M.O.; Blanchard, R.L. . Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility)

    1989-06-01

    Since 1963, the Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF), US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in cooperation with the US Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) has surveyed facilities serving nuclear-powered warships on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and the Gulf of Mexico. These surveys assess whether the operation of nuclear-powered warships, during construction, maintenance, overhaul, or refueling, have created elevated levels of radioactivity. The surveys emphasize sampling those areas and pathways that could expose the public. In 1984, NAVSEA requested that EPA survey all active facilities serving nuclear-powered warships over the next three years. This report contains the results of surveys conducted at Naval facilities located at Mare Island, Alameda, and Hunters Point in the San Francisco region. The locations of these facilities are shown. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, Southeast New Mexico-Lea County Underground Water Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. The Lea County portion of the aquifer covers approximately the northern two thirds of the 4,393-square-mile county. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context from which to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. Maps representing water-level declines, current (2007) water levels, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Lea County Underground Water Basin were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. Results of this mapping effort show the water level has declined as much as 97 feet in the Lea County Underground Water Basin from predevelopment (1914-54) to 2007 with rates as high as 0.88 feet per year.

  16. Brine contamination of shallow ground water and streams in the Brookhaven Oil Field, Lincoln County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    A hydrologic investigation to define areas of brine contamination in shallow freshwater aquifers commonly used for streams that drain the Brookhaven Oil Field, was conducted from October 1983 to September 1984. The Brookhaven Oil Field covers approximately 15 sq mi in northwestern Lincoln County, Mississippi. Since 1943, disposal of approximately 544.2 million barrels of brine pumped from the oil producing zone (lower part of the Tuscaloosa Formation) has contaminated the Citronelle aquifer, the Hattiesburg aquifers, and streams that drain the oil field. Approximately 5 sq mi of the shallow Citronelle aquifer contain water with chloride concentrations higher than normal for this area ( > 20 mg/L). Brine contamination has moved from the source laterally through the Citronelle aquifer to discharge into nearby streams and vertically into the underlying Hattiesburg aquifers. Contamination is most noticeable in Shaws Creek when streamflow originates primarily from groundwater inflow (approximately 87% of the time during the study). Additional study is required to define contaminant plumes, rates of groundwater movement and geohydrochemical reactions between the contaminant and aquifer materials. These data would allow accurate predictions of location, extent and degree of contamination in the study area. (Author 's abstract)

  17. A hydrogeologic approach to identify land uses that overlie ground-water flow paths, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonenshein, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogeologic approach that integrates the use of hydrogeologic and spatial tools aids in the identification of land uses that overlie ground- water flow paths and permits a better understanding of ground-water flow systems. A mathematical model was used to simulate the ground-water flow system in Broward County, particle-tracking software was used to determine flow paths leading to the monitor wells in Broward County, and a Geographic Information System was used to identify which land uses overlie the flow paths. A procedure using a geographic information system to evaluate the output from a ground-water flow model has been documented. The ground-water flow model was used to represent steady-state conditions during selected wet- and dry-season months, and an advective flow particle- tracking program was used to simulate the direction of ground-water flow in the aquifer system. Digital spatial data layers were created from the particle pathlines that lead to the vicinity of the open interval of selected wells in the Broward County ground-water quality monitoring network. Buffer zone data layers were created, surrounding the particle pathlines to represent the area of contribution to the water sampled from the monitor wells. Spatial data layers, combined with a land-use data layer, were used to identify the land uses that overlie the ground-water flow paths leading to the monitor wells. The simulation analysis was performed on five Broward County wells with different hydraulic parameters to determine the source of ground-water stress, determine selected particle pathlines, and identify land use in buffer zones in the vicinity of the wells. The flow paths that lead to the grid cells containing wells G-2355, G-2373, and G-2373A did not vary between the wet- and dry-season conditions. Changes in the area of contribution for wells G-2345X and G-2369 were attributed to variations in rainfall patterns, well-field pumpage, and surface-water management practices

  18. Epidemiology study of the use of asbestos-cement pipe for the distribution of drinking water in Escambia County, Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Millette, J R; Craun, G F; Stober, J A; Kraemer, D F; Tousignant, H G; Hildago, E; Duboise, R L; Benedict, J

    1983-01-01

    Cancer mortality for the population census tracts of Escambia County, FL, which use asbestos-cement (AC) pipe for public potable water distribution, was compared with cancer mortality data collected from census tracts in the same county where other types of piping materials are used. An analysis of covariance was run to test for differences in standard mortality ratios for seven cancer sites among three potential asbestos exposure groups based on AC pipe usage. Twelve variables representing nonexposure-related influences on disease rates were combined in four independent factors and used as covariates in these analyses. No evidence for an association between the use of AC pipe for carrying drinking water and deaths due to gastrointestinal and related cancers was found. The limitations on the sensitivity of the analysis are discussed. PMID:6559131

  19. Effect of urbanization on the water resources of eastern Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of human activity on the water resources of a 207-square-mile area of eastern Chester County was evaluated. The most serious consequence of urbanization is the contamination of ground water by volatile organic compounds, which were detected in 39 percent of the 70 wells sampled. As many as nine compounds were found in one water sample, and the concentration of total volatile organic compounds was as high as 17,400 ug/L (micrograms per liter). In the Chester Valley, volatile organic compounds are moving down the hydraulic gradient caused by quarry dewatering. Movement through the quarries reduces concentrations of these compounds and removes most of them. Phenol was detected in 28 percent of 54 wells sampled, with concentrations up to 7 ug/L. Metals, except for iron and manganese, and other trace constituents generally are not a water-quality problem. However, ground water in an area in Chester Valley has been contaminated by concentrations of boron as high as 20,000 ug/L and lithium as high as 13,000 ug/L. The ground water discharges to Valley Creek, where concentrations of boron are as high as 130 ug/L and lithium as high as 800 ug/L. Concentrations of chloride as high as 2,100 mg/L (milligrams per liter) were found in a well at a former highway salt storage site. Wells completed in carbonate rock downgradient from the Pennsylvania Turnpike had chloride concentrations as high as 350 mg/L. The base-neutral organic compounds bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and the pesticides alachlor, aldrian, diazanon, DDD, DDT, dieldrin, methyl parathion, picloram, and 2,4-D were detected in a few water samples in low concentrations, However, these organic compounds do not present a widespread water-quality problem. Neither acid organic compounds nor polychlorinated napthalenes (PCN) were detected in ground water. The growth of public water and sewer systems has resulted in a significant interbasin transfer of water

  20. Appraisal of water-quality conditions, lower Black River, Windsor County, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toppin, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    Six hydroelectric power dams are planned along a 22-mile reach of the lower Black River in southeastern Windsor County, Vermont. Data were collected at 10 stations, during water years 1977-81, to appraise quality conditions before construction. Average specific conductance of Black River is 101 micromhos indicating low concentrations of dissolved solids. Concentrations of common constituents and minor elements were generally low and within safe levels for aquatic life. Near-saturated dissolved oxygen concentrations and relatively low mean total organic carbon concentrations indicate little oxygen-consuming substances in Black River. Mean total nitrogen concentrations ranged from 0.31 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to 0.61 mg/L. The highest concentrations were most likely due to secondary waste discharges entering the river. Nitrate was the primary form of inorganic nitrogen, mean concentrations ranged from 0.13 to 0.27 mg/L. Concentrations seem high enough to promote excessive algal growth in the proposed Hawks Mountain Reservoir. Mean concentrations of total phosphorus ranged from 0.014 to 0.112 mg/L as P. Maximum concentrations at all stations generally exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency suggested levels for water entering lakes and reservoirs. Mean orthophosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.005 to 0.029 mg/L, suggesting a potential for nuisance algal conditions to develop in the proposed reservoir. Mean algal growth potential concentrations ranged from 1.3 to 8.8 mg/L, falling within the moderately high to high productivity range. No pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were detected. (USGS)

  1. Geohydrologic data for the St. Charles County well field and public-water supply 1985-91, and projected public-water supply, 1995 and 2000, for St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Mugel, D.N.

    1996-10-01

    Geohydrologic data for this well field and public water supply data for St. Charles County were compiled to assist US DOE in developing the St. Charles County well field contingency plan to ensure a supply of water in the event that the well field becomes contaminated from wastes (radioactive, nitroaromatic, other) stored in the Weldon Spring quarry. The well field consists of 8 wells penetrating the entire thickness of the Missouri River alluvial aquifer and is 98-116 feet deep. Aquifer tests were conducted on 3 occasions at 3 different locations in the well field. Calculated transmissivities range from 900 to 60,200 feet squared per day; hydraulic conductivities ranged from 23 to 602 feet/day. Calculated/estimated storage coefficients ranged from 0.005 to 0.2. Tracer test showed effective porosity of 0. 21-0.32. Point dilution showed a ground-water velocity of 0.83 foot/day. From 1985-91, ave daily water supply from the well field and water treatment plant increased from 5.76 to 10.23 Mgd; this is projected to increase to 11.0 Mgd in 1995 and to 12.2 Mgd in 2000. The water department`s projections of peak daily demands from customers indicate that these demands will exceed the capacity of the treatment plant in 1995 and will exceed the capacities of the well field and plant during 2000.

  2. Streamflow and water-quality data for Meadow Run Basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Witt, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water quality data were collected throughout the Meadow Run basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, from December 7, 1987 through November 15, 1988, to determine the prevailing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. This data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal-mine permit applications. A water-quality station near the mouth of Meadow Run provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water quality samples collected at this station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations and anions and suspended-sediment concentrations. Fourteen partial-record sites, located throughout the basin, were similarly sampled four times during the study. Streamflow and water quality data obtained at these sites during a winter base flow, a spring rainfall event, a summer rainfall event, and a low summer base flow also are presented. 16 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Streamflow and water-quality data for Little Clearfield Creek basin, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Durlin, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water quality data were collected throughout the Little Clearfield Creek basin, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, from December 1987 through November 1988, to determine the existing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. This data will assist the Pennsylvanian Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal mine permit applications. A water quality station near the mouth of Little Clearfield Creek provided continuous record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water quality samples collected at this station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations, and suspended sediment concentrations. Seventeen partial record sites, located throughout the basin, were similarly sampled four times during the study. Streamflow and water quality data obtained at these sites during a winter base flow, a spring storm event, a low summer base flow, and a more moderate summer base flow also are presented. 16 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Geochemical Data from Produced Water Contamination Investigations: Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thordsen, James J.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Ambats, Gil; Kakouros, Evangelos; Abbott, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    We report chemical and isotopic analyses of 345 water samples collected from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) project. Water samples were collected as part of an ongoing multi-year USGS investigation to study the transport, fate, natural attenuation, and ecosystem impacts of inorganic salts and organic compounds present in produced water releases at two oil and gas production sites from an aging petroleum field located in Osage County, in northeast Oklahoma. The water samples were collected primarily from monitoring wells and surface waters at the two research sites, OSPER A (legacy site) and OSPER B (active site), during the period March, 2001 to February, 2005. The data include produced water samples taken from seven active oil wells, one coal-bed methane well and two domestic groundwater wells in the vicinity of the OSPER sites.

  5. Bathymetric maps and water-quality profiles of Table Rock and North Saluda Reservoirs, Greenville County, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Jimmy M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Nagle, Doug D.; Lanier, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs are the water-supply source for many communities. As such, water-resource managers that oversee these water supplies require monitoring of the quantity and quality of the resource. Monitoring information can be used to assess the basic conditions within the reservoir and to establish a reliable estimate of storage capacity. In April and May 2013, a global navigation satellite system receiver and fathometer were used to collect bathymetric data, and an autonomous underwater vehicle was used to collect water-quality and bathymetric data at Table Rock Reservoir and North Saluda Reservoir in Greenville County, South Carolina. These bathymetric data were used to create a bathymetric contour map and stage-area and stage-volume relation tables for each reservoir. Additionally, statistical summaries of the water-quality data were used to provide a general description of water-quality conditions in the reservoirs.

  6. Evaluation of the potential for artificial ground-water recharge in eastern San Joaquin County, California; Phase 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ireland, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    In response to the increasing demand on water supplies and declining water levels in eastern San Joaquin County, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Joaquin County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, is evaluating the potential for artificially recharging the aquifer system in eastern San Joaquin County, Calif. Phase 1 of this study evaluated the geologic and hydrological conditions in the area and selected 20 drill sites in three areas of high potential for artificial recharge of the aquifer system. In phase 2, test holes were drilled. This report is on phase 2, and summarizes the data collected during the drilling and evaluates the suitability of the drilled areas for their potential for artificial recharge. Two areas seem to have a fair potential for artificial recharge of the aquifer system using the basin-spreading method: (1) The flood plain area along the Mokelumne River north of Lockeford, and (2) an area northeast of Linden along the Calaveras River. (USGS)

  7. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  8. Identification of Water-Quality Trends Using Sediment Cores from Dillon Reservoir, Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greve, Adrienne I.; Spahr, Norman E.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2001-01-01

    Since the construction of Dillon Reservoir, in Summit County, Colorado, in 1963, its drainage area has been the site of rapid urban development and the continued influence of historical mining. In an effort to assess changes in water quality within the drainage area, sediment cores were collected from Dillon Reservoir in 1997. The sediment cores were analyzed for pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements. Pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs were used to determine the effects of urban development, and trace elements were used to identify mining contributions. Water-quality and streambed-sediment samples, collected at the mouth of three streams that drain into Dillon Reservoir, were analyzed for trace elements. Of the 14 pesticides and 3 PCBs for which the sediment samples were analyzed, only 2 pesticides were detected. Low amounts of dichloro-diphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichloro-diphenyldichloroethane (DDD), metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were found at core depths of 5 centimeters and below 15 centimeters in a core collected near the dam. The longest core, which was collected near the dam, spanned the entire sedimentation history of the reservoir. Concentrations of total combustion PAH and the ratio of fluoranthene to pyrene in the core sample decreased with core depth and increased over time. This relation is likely due to growth in residential and tourist populations in the region. Comparisons between core samples gathered in each arm of the reservoir showed the highest PAH concentrations were found in the Tenmile Creek arm, the only arm that has an urban area on its shores, the town of Frisco. All PAH concentrations, except the pyrene concentration in one segment in the core near the dam and acenaphthylene concentrations in the tops of three cores taken in the reservoir arms, were below Canadian interim freshwater sediment-quality guidelines. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium

  9. Hydrogeologic setting and hydrologic data of the Smoke Creek Desert basin, Washoe County, Nevada, and Lassen County, California, water years 1988-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Smoke Creek Desert is a potential source of water for urban development in Washoe County, Nevada. Hydrogeologic data were collected from 1988 to 1990 to learn more about surface- and ground-water flow in the basin. Impermeable rocks form a boundary to ground-water flow on the east side of the basin and at unknown depths at the base of the flow system. Permeable volcanic rocks on the west and north sides of the basin represent a previously unrecognized aquifer and provide potential avenues for interbasin flow. Geophysical data indicate that basin-fill sediments are about 2,000 feet thick near the center of the basin. The geometry of the aquifers, however, remains largely unknown. Measurements of water levels, pressure head, flow rate, water temperature, and specific conductance at 19 wells show little change from 1988 to 1990. Chemically, ground water begins as a dilute sodium and calcium bicarbonate water in the mountain blocks, changes to a slightly saline sodium bicarbonate solution beneath the alluvial fans, and becomes a briny sodium chloride water near the playa. Concentrations of several inorganic constituents in the briny water near the playa commonly exceed Nevada drinking-water standards. Ground water in the Honey Lake basin and Smoke Creek Desert basin has similar stable-isotope composition, except near Sand Pass. If interbasin flow takes place, it likely occurs at depths greater than 400-600 feet beneath Sand Pass or through volcanic rocks to the north of Sand Pass. Measure- ments of streamflow indicate that about 2,800 acre-feet/year discharged from volcanic rocks to streamflow and a minimum of 7.300 acre-feet/year infiltrated and recharged unconsolidated sediments near Smoke, Buffalo, and Squaw Creeks during the period of study. Also about 1,500 acre-feet per year was lost to evapotranspiration along the channel of Smoke Creek, and about 1,680 acre-feet per year of runoff from Smoke, Buffalo, and Squaw Creeks was probably lost to evaporation from the

  10. HYDROGIOLOGIC FRAMEWORK, GROUND-WATER GEOCHEMISTRY, AND ASSESSMENT OF NITROGEN YIELD FROM BASE FLOW IN TWO AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS, KENT COUNTY, MARYLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrostratigraphic and geochemical data collected in two adjacent watersheds on the Delmarva Peninsula, in Kent County, Maryland, indicate that shallow subsurface stratigraphy is an important factor that affects the concentrations of nitrogen in ground water discharging as stream...

  11. HYDROGEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK, GROUND-WATER GEOCHEMISTRY, AND ASSESSMENT OF NITROGEN YIELD FROM BASE FLOW IN TWO AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS, KENT COUNTY, MARYLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrostratigraphic and geochemical data collected in two adjacent watersheds on the Delmarva Peninsula, in Kent County, Maryland, indicate that shallow subsurface stratigraphy is an important factor that affects the concentrations of nitrogen in ground water discharging as stream...

  12. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resource problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, and adjacent areas in Oklahoma and Missouri. Discontinuities and perforations, which were produced by mining in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact, have created artificial groundwater recharge and discharge areas. Abandoned wells and drill holes present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer. There is a potential for downward movement from the shallow to the deep aquifer throughout the study area, with greatest potential in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Principal effects of abandoned mines on groundwater quality are lowered pH and increased concentrations of sulfate and trace metals of water in the mines. No conclusive evidence of lateral migration of contaminated mine water from the mines into the water-supply wells adjacent to the mines was found. Analyses of water from the deep aquifer did not indicate trace-metal contamination. The effects of abandoned mines on streamwater quality are most severe in Short Creek and Tar Creek. Increased concentrations of zinc and manganese were observed in the Spring River below Short Creek Kansas. (USGS)

  13. Characteristics of water-well yields in part of the blue ridge geologic Province in Loudoun County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutphin, D.M.; Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Burton, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    Loudoun County, Virginia, which is located about 50 km to the west of Washington, DC, was the site of intensive suburban development during the 1980s and 1990s. In the western half of the county, the source of water for domestic use has been from wells drilled into the fractured crystalline bedrock of the Blue Ridge Geologic Province. A comprehensive digital database that contains information on initial yield, location, depth, elevation, and other data for 3651 wells drilled in this 825.5-km2 area was combined with a digital geologic map to form the basis for a study of geologic and temporal controls on water-well yields. Statistical modeling procedures were used to determine that mean yields for the wells were significantly different as a function of structural setting, genetic rock type, and geologic map unit. The Bonferroni procedure then was used to determine which paired comparisons contributed to these significant differences. The data were divided into 15 temporal drilling increments to determine if the time-dependent trends that exist for the Loudoun County data are similar to those discovered in a previous study of water-well yields in the Pinardville 7.5-min quadrangle, New Hampshire. In both regions, trends, which include increasing proportions of very low yield wells and increasing well depths through time, and the counterintuitive result of increasing mean well yields through time, were similar. In addition, a yield-to-depth curve similar to that discovered in the Pinardville quadrangle was recognized in this study. Thus, the temporal model with a feed-forward-loop mechanism to explain the temporal trends in well characteristics proposed for the New Hampshire study appears to apply to western Loudoun County. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  14. Geohydrology and water utilization in the Willcox Basin, Graham and Cochise Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.G.; Schumann, Herbert H.

    1969-01-01

    The Willcox basin is an area of interior drainage in the northern part of Sulphur Springs Valley, Cochise and Graham Counties, Ariz. The basin comprises about 1,500 square miles, of which the valley floor occupies about 950 square miles. The basin probably formed during middle and late Tertiary time, when the area was subjected to large-scale faulting accompanied by the uplift of the mountain ranges that presently border it. During and after faulting, large quantities of alluvium were deposited in the closed basin. The rocks in the basin are divided into two broad groups--the rocks of the mountain blocks, of Precambrian through Tertiary age, and the rocks of the basin, of Tertiary and Quaternary age. The mountain blocks consist of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks; the water-bearing characteristics of these rocks depend primarily on their degree of weathering and fracturing. Even in areas where these rocks are fractured and jointed, only small amounts of water have been developed. The rocks of the basin consist of moderately consolidated alluvium, poorly consolidated alluvium, and unconsolidated alluvium. The water-bearing characteristics of the moderately and poorly consolidated alluvium are not well known. The unconsolidated alluvium underlies most of the valley floor and consists of two facies, stream deposits and lake beds associated with the old playa. The lenticular sand and gravel layers interbedded in silt- and clay-size material of the unconsolidated alluvium constitute the principal aquifer in the basin. The other aquifers, which yield less water, consist of beds of poorly to moderately consolidated sand- and gravel-size material; these beds occur in both the poorly consolidated and moderately consolidated alluvium. In the Stewart area the median specific capacity of wells per 100 feet of saturated unconsolidated alluvium was 20 gallons per minute, and in the Kansas Settlement area the specific capacity of wells penetrating the poorly and

  15. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2003-06-23

    This project was designed to provide project coordination and technical assistance to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality enhancement and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Enhancement Reserve Program (CREP) and other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Three of those four streams and one other major Sherman County stream are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Temperature in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns

  16. Geology and ground-water resources of northwestern King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liesch, Bruce A.; Price, Charles E.; Walters, Kenneth L.

    1963-01-01

    King County, in the west-central part of the State of Washington, includes about 2,135 square miles. The eastern part of the county lies in the Sierra-Cascade Mountains province and the remainder is in the Puget Trough of the Pacific Border province. The area covered by the present investigation is almost entirely within the Puget Trough and includes about 450 square miles.

  17. Ground-water conditions in Avra Valley, Pima and Pinal Counties, Arizona -1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuff, Melinda K.; Anderson, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Avra Valley is a north-trending alluvial basin about 15 mi west of Tucson in Pima and Pinal Counties in south-central Arizona. The valley includes about 520 sq mi of which about 100 sq mi is in the San Xavier Indian Reservation. The basin is bounded on the east by the Tortolita, Tucson, and Sierrita Mountains and on the west by the Picacho, Silverbell, and Roskruge Mountains. The climate of the valley is semiarid, the average annual precipitation ranges from 8 to 12 in., and the average annual lake evaporation ranges from 58 to 62 in. Two major ephemeral streams--Santa Cruz River and Brawley Wash--drain the area. Santa Cruz River and Brawley Wash and their tributaries provide a source of recharge to an extensive alluvial aquifer that underlies the valley floor. Since 1940, the amount of groundwater pumped from the aquifer has been greater than the amount of natural recharge from infiltration and underflow. Overdraft of the aquifer resulted in substantial water level declines throughout the valley. Until 1969, use of groundwater in Avra Valley was for irrigation. Since 1969, the city of Tucson has pumped and transported groundwater for municipal use in the adjacent Tucson basin from lands that were purchased and retired from agriculture. The purpose of this report is to describe groundwater conditions in Avra Valley as of 1985. A brief discussion of the geohydrologic setting and history of groundwater development are given to define aquifer characteristics, changes in groundwater levels, and groundwater pumpage since 1940. (Lantz-PTT)

  18. Selected hydrologic data for the Mesilla ground-water basin, 1987 through 1992 water years, Dona Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickerson, Edward L.

    1995-01-01

    The Mesilla ground-water basin monitoring program was established in 1987 to document hydrologic conditions and establish a long-term, continuous data base to permit future quantitative evaluation of the ground-water flow system and stream/aquifer relations. Data collection is divided into three program elements. These are the (1) Mesilla ground- water basin observation-well program; (2) Mesilla Valley hydrologic sections; and (3) Rio Grande seepage investigations. This report is a compilation of hydrologic data collected for the Mesilla ground- water basin monitoring program during the 1987 through 1992 water years. Hydrologic data presented in the report include well records and water levels for 181 wells; mean daily river stage and ground- water levels at 37 sites; seepage investigations of the Rio Grande from Radium Springs, New Mexico, to El Paso, Texas; and chemical analyses of 29 water samples collected from the Rio Grande.

  19. Hydrogeology and simulation of the effects of reclaimed-water application in west Orange and southeast Lake counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse has become increasingly popular as water agencies search for alternative water-supply and wastewater-disposal options. Several governmental agencies in central Florida currently use the land-based application of reclaimed water (wastewater that has been treated beyond secondary treatment) as a management alternative to surface-water disposal of wastewater. Water Conserv II, a water reuse project developed jointly by Orange County and the City of Orlando, began operation in December 1986. In 1995, the Water Conserv II facility distributed approximately 28 Mgal/d of reclaimed water for discharge to rapid-infiltration basins (RIBs) and for use as agricultural irrigation. The Reedy Creek Improvement District (RCID) began operation of RIBs in September 1990, and in 1995 these RIBs received approximately 6.7 Mgal/d of reclaimed water. Analyses of existing data and data collected during the course of this study were combined with ground-water flow modeling and particle-tracking analyses to develop a process-oriented evaluation of the regional effects of reclaimed water applied by Water Conserv II and the RCID RIBs on the hydrology of west Orange and southeast Lake Counties. The ground-water flow system beneath the study area is a multi-aquifer system that consists of a thick sequence of highly permeable carbonate rocks overlain by unconsolidated sediments. The hydrogeologic units are the unconfined surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the confined Floridan aquifer system, which consists of two major permeable zones, the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, separated by the less permeable middle semiconfining unit. Flow in the surficial aquifer system is dominated regionally by diffuse downward leakage to the Floridan aquifer system and is affected locally by lateral flow systems produced by streams, lakes, and spatial variations in recharge. Ground water generally flows laterally through the Upper Floridan aquifer

  20. Estimated public-water supply and industrial-commercial ground-water withdrawals and returns in Nassau County, Long Island, New York, 1973-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snavely, D.S.; Williams, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Nassau County, New York depends upon ground water for its freshwater supply. The primary water uses are for public-water supply and industrial-commercial purposes, which together accounted for 202 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in 1975. Public-water suppliers withdrew 85 percent of their water from the Magothy Formation. About 133 Mgal/d was returned to the ground after use in 1975, and about 69; Mgal/d was discharged to tidewater. In addition, about 34 Mgal/d infiltrated into sewerlines in 1975 and was also discharged to tidewater. Because of the importance of this freshwater supply, the New York State Department of Environmental conservation reviews applications for the installation of wells and compiles data on pumpage throughout Long Island. It also reviews applications to discharge wastewater into the surface water and ground water of the State. This report summarizes the data filed with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for Nassau County during 1973-79. It presents data and estimates on withdrawals for public and industrial-commercial supply, returns to the ground, and discharges through sewer systems. It also includes information on population and land use. (USGS)

  1. A strategy for collecting ground-water data and developing a ground-water model of the Missouri River alluvial aquifer, Woodbury and Monona Counties, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    A ground-water-flow model and plan for obtaining supporting data are proposed for a part of the Missouri River alluvial aquifer in Woodbury and Monona Counties, Iowa. The proposed model and the use of the principle of superposition will aid in the interpretation of the relation between ground water and surface water in the study area, particularly the effect of lowered river stages on water levels in the alluvial aquifer. Information on the geometry, hydraulic characteristics, and water levels in the alluvial aquifer needs to be collected for use in the model and for model calibration. A plan to obtain hydrologic and geologic information by use of exploratory test-well drilling is proposed. Also proposed is a monitoring network to obtain information on the spatial and temporal variability of water levels within the study area.

  2. Data on ground-water quality, Carson Valley and Topaz Lake areas, Douglas County, Nevada, for year ending September 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thodal, Carl E.

    1989-01-01

    Douglas County, Nevada encompasses 708 sq mi and has been one of the fastest growing counties in the Nation, according to the 1980 census. This rapid population growth has led to concern about the present and future impacts of development upon the groundwater. A network of 33 wells was recently established (1985) in the Carson Valley and Topaz Lake areas of Douglas County to characterize the current groundwater quality and its seasonal variability and to monitor temporal responses to changing land-use activities. This report presents data collected from that network during November 1985 through September 1986. The primary drinking water standard was exceeded for fluoride at two domestic wells, for nitrate-nitrogen at one domestic well, and for arsenic in one non-domestic shallow monitoring well. Secondary drinking water standards were exceeded as follows: pH at one public-supply well and one domestic well; sulfate at one shallow monitoring well; and manganese at three shallow monitoring wells and one public-supply well. Concentrations of unidentified organic compounds were estimated by gas chromatograph and flame ionization detector for groundwater samples collected from 30 network wells. Seven wells (2 domestic and 5 non-domestic) had concentrations greater than 10 micrograms/L relative to the internal standard compound perdeuteronaphthalene. (Thacker-USGS)

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Georgia Water Science Center and City of Brunswick- Glynn County Cooperative Water Program-Summary of Activities, July 2005 through June 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cooperative water resources program (CWP) with the City of Brunswick and Glynn County in the Brunswick, Georgia, area. Since the late 1950s, the salinity of ground water in the Upper Floridan aquifer near downtown Brunswick, Georgia, has been increasing, and its occurrence has been detected across an area of increasing size. Pumping of the Upper Floridan aquifer near downtown Brunswick has lowered water levels in the aquifer and resulted in an upward hydraulic gradient between the highly saline parts of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the normally fresh Upper Floridan aquifer. Saltwater likely enters the Upper Floridan aquifer through localized, vertically oriented conduits of relatively high permeability and moves laterally in response to the distribution of stresses within the aquifer. The Brunswick-Glynn County CWP for fiscal year 2006 includes the operation and maintenance of 12 continuous water-level recorders. In addition, water-level data were collected from 52 wells and water from 70 wells was analyzed for chloride concentration during June 2005. Geophysical logs were obtained from one well to assess whether the cause of elevated chloride concentration could be due to leaky well casing. A summary of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division (GaEPD) Georgia Coastal Sound Science Initiative (CSSI) activities that directly benefit the CWP-Brunswick-Glynn County is included in this report. The GaEPD CSSI is a program of scientific and feasibility studies to support development of a final strategy to protect the Upper Floridan aquifer from saltwater contamination. These data presented in this report are needed by State and local authorities to manage water resources effectively in the coastal area of Georgia.

  4. Geohydrology and simulated ground-water flow in northwestern Elkhart County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arihood, L.D.; Cohen, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the City of Elkhart, developed a ground-water model of the Elkhart, Indiana, area to determine the avail-ability and source of water at potential new well fields. The modeled area covered 190 square miles of northwestern Elkhart County and a small part of southern Michigan. Three Superfund sites and several other sites in this area are undergoing environmental cleanup. The model would be used to guide the location of well fields so that Superfund sites and environmental cleanup areas would not be within recharge areas for the well fields. The City of Elkhart obtains its water supply from two aquifers separated by a generally continuous confining unit. The upper aquifer is composed primarily of sand and gravel of glacial origin. Thickness of the upper aquifer ranges from 0 to 116 feet and averages 47 feet. The lower aquifer is composed of sand and gravel with interbedded lenses of silt and clay. Thickness of the lower aquifer ranges from 1 to 335 feet and averages 35 feet. The intervening confining unit is composed of silt and clay with interbedded sand and gravel; the confining unit ranges from 0 to 177 feet, with an average thickness of 27 feet. Flow through the aquifers is generally horizontal vertically downward from the upper aquifer, through the confining unit, and into the lower aquifer, except where flow is vertically upward at the St. Joseph River and other large streams. The hydraulic characteristics of the aquifers and confining unit were estimated by analyzing aquifer-test data from well drillers? logs and by calibration of the model. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper aquifer is 170 feet per day within about 1 mile of the St. Joseph and Elkhart Rivers and 370 feet per day at distances greater than about 1 mile. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the lower aquifer is 370 feet per day throughout the modeled area, with the exception

  5. Hydrogeologic framework of the shallow ground-water system in the Cox Hall Creek basin, Cape May County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    2006-01-01

    Cape May County is investigating the feasibility of restoring the lowermost reach of Cox Hall Creek to its former state as a tidal saltwater wetland; however, the potential for contamination of the shallow ground-water system, which provides water to hundreds of nearby privately owned domestic wells, with saltwater from the restored wetland is of particular concern. To evaluate the potential effectiveness and risks of restoring the saltwater wetlands, the County needs information about the hydrogeologic framework in the area, and about the potential vulnerability of the domestic wells to contamination. The shallow ground-water system in the Cox Hall Creek area consists of unconsolidated Holocene and Pleistocene deposits. The Holly Beach water-bearing zone, the unconfined (water-table) aquifer, is about 35 feet thick and contains a 2- to 4-foot-thick clay lens about 10 feet below land surface; a lower, more discontinuous clay lens about 30 to 35 feet below land surface ranges up to 5 feet in thickness. A 75-foot-thick confining unit separates the Holly Beach water-bearing zone from the underlying estuarine sand aquifer. The clay lenses in the Holly Beach water-bearing zone likely retard the movement of contaminants from septic tanks, lawns, and other surficial sources, protecting wells that tap the lower, sandy part of the aquifer. The clay lenses also may protect these wells from salty surface water if withdrawals from the Holly Beach water-bearing zone are not increased substantially. Deeper wells that tap the estuarine sand aquifer are more effectively protected from saltwater from surface sources because of the presence of the overlying confining unit.

  6. Water-surface elevations and channel characteristics for a selected reach of the Applegate River, Jackson County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, David Dell; Alexander, Clyde W.

    1970-01-01

    In land-use planning for the Applegate River and its flood plain, consideration should be given to (1) preservation of the recreational attributes of the area, (2) allowance for optimum development of the flood plain's natural resources, and (3) protection of the rights of private landowners. Major factors that influence evaluation of the above considerations are the elevations and characteristics of floods. Heretofore, such flood data for the Applegate River have been inadequate to evaluate the flood potential or to use as a basis for delineating reasonable land-use zones. Therefore, at the request of Jackson County, this study was made to provide flood elevations, water-surface profiles, and channel characteristics (geometry and slope) for a reach of the Applegate River from the Jackson-Josephine County line upstream to the Applegate damsite (fig. 1). A similar study was previously made for reaches of adjacent Rogue River and Elk Creek (Harris, 1970).

  7. Hydrology and water quality of Little Cross Creek, Cumberland County, North Carolina, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giorgino, Mary J.; Middleton, Terry L.

    2000-01-01

    Little Cross Creek is a small stream located in Cumberland County, North Carolina, in the Sand Hills area of the Coastal Plain Province. From August 1996 through August 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey collected streamflow, water-quality, and time-of-travel data at 10 sites in Little Cross Creek Basin to assess ambient conditions and compute loads of suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon. Streamflows in the Little Cross Creek Basin responded to climatic factors and to human activities such as water withdrawals and controlled releases from impoundments. Peak streamflows were observed during the passages of Hurricane Fran in September 1996 and Hurricane Josephine in October 1996. Streamflows generally were lowest during the summer and early fall of 1997, reflecting drought conditions associated with a prevailing El Nino. At most sites, average streamflow per unit drainage area, or yield, was higher than yields reported previously for the Sand Hills. High yields may have resulted from unidentified inputs of water to the study basins or from underestimation of the contributing drainage area. Bonnie Doone Lake, Kornbow Lake, Mintz Pond, and Glenville Lake, four impoundments of Little Cross Creek, notably influence hydrology and water quality in the basin. Streamflow records indicate that these impoundments dampen peak stormflows and delay the downstream release of stormwater. Time of travel also is affected by seasonal stratification in the reservoirs. In general, sites downstream from reservoirs have lower concentrations of suspended sediment, turbidity, and total phosphorus than sites upstream from reservoirs or sites that receive stormwater runoff. Few water-quality problems were observed in the Little Cross Creek Basin for the constituents that were sampled. However, fecal coliform bacteria commonly exceeded 200 colonies per 100 milliliters at two of the seven monitored sites during the study. Relatively high concentrations

  8. Hydrogeology, water quality, water budgets, and simulated responses to hydrologic changes in Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creek ground-water basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Eugene B.; Van Konyenburg, Kathryn M.

    1998-01-01

    Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creeks are underlain by thin, narrow ground-water basins that supply nearly all water used for local agricultural and municipal purposes. The creeks discharge to the Pacific Ocean near the northwestern corner of San Luis Obispo County, California. The basins contain heterogeneous, unconsolidated alluvial deposits and are underlain by relatively impermeable bedrock. Both creeks usually stop flowing during the summer dry season, and most of the pumpage during that time is derived from ground-water storage. Annual pumpage increased substantially during 1956?88 and is now a large fraction of basin storage capacity. Consequently, dry-season water levels are lower and the water supply is more vulnerable to drought. The creeks are the largest source of ground-water recharge, and complete basin recharge can occur within the first few weeks of winter streamflow. Agricultural and municipal pumpages are the largest outflows and cause dry-season water-level declines throughout the San Simeon Basin. Pumping effects are more localized in the Santa Rosa Basin because of subsurface flow obstructions. Even without pumpage, a large quantity of water naturally drains out of storage at the upper ends of the basins during the dry season. Ground water is more saline in areas close to the coast than in inland areas. Although seawater intrusion has occurred in the past, it probably was not the cause of high salinity in 1988?89. Ground water is very hard, and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, iron, and manganese exceed drinking-water standards in some locations. Probability distributions of streamflow were estimated indirectly from a 120-year rainfall record because the periods of record for local stream-gaging stations were wetter than average. Dry-season durations with recurrence intervals between 5 and 43 years are likely to dry up some wells but not cause seawater intrusion. A winter with no streamflow is likely to occur about every 32 years and to

  9. Delineation of Waters of the United States for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R E

    2006-09-25

    This report presents the results of a delineation of waters of the United States, including wetlands, for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 in Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California. Jones & Stokes mapped vegetation at Site 300 in August, 2001, using Global Positioning System (GPS) data recorders to collect point locations and to record linear features and map unit polygons. We identified wetlands boundaries in the field on the basis of the plant community present. We returned to collect additional information on wetland soils on July 3, 2002. Forty-six wetlands were identified, with a total area of 3.482 hectares (8.605 acres). The wetlands include vernal pools, freshwater seeps, and seasonal ponds. Wetlands appearing to meet the criteria for federal jurisdictional total 1.776 hectares (4.388 acres). A delineation map is presented and a table is provided with information on the type, size, characteristic plant species of each wetland, and a preliminary jurisdictional assessment.

  10. Variations in population exposure and evacuation potential to multiple tsunami evacuation phases on Alameda and Bay Farm Islands, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J.

    2015-12-01

    Planning for a tsunami evacuation is challenging for California communities due to the variety of earthquake sources that could generate a tsunami. A maximum tsunami inundation zone is currently the basis for all tsunami evacuations in California, although an Evacuation Playbook consisting of specific event-based evacuation phases relating to flooding severity is in development. We chose to investigate the Evacuation Playbook approach for the island community of Alameda, CA since past reports estimated a significant difference in numbers of residents in the maximum inundation zone when compared to an event-based inundation zone. In order to recognize variations in the types of residents and businesses within each phase, a population exposure analysis was conducted for each of the four Alameda evacuation phases. A pedestrian evacuation analysis using an anisotropic, path distance model was also conducted to understand the time it would take for populations to reach high ground by foot. Initial results suggest that the two islands of the City of Alameda have different situations when it comes to the four tsunami evacuation phases. Pedestrian evacuation results suggest that Bay Farm Island would have more success evacuating by vehicle due to limited nearby high ground for pedestrians to reach safety. Therefore, agent-based traffic simulation software was used to model vehicle evacuation off Bay Farm Island. Initial results show that Alameda Island could face challenges evacuating numerous boat docks and a large beach for phases 1 and 2, whereas Bay Farm Island is unaffected at these phases but might be challenged with evacuating by vehicle for phases 3 and maximum due to congestion on limited egress routes. A better understanding of the population exposure within each tsunami Evacuation Playbook phase and the time it would take to evacuate out of each phase by foot or vehicle will help emergency managers implement the evacuation phases during an actual tsunami event.

  11. Watershed Data Management (WDM) database for Salt Creek streamflow simulation, DuPage County, Illinois, water years 2005-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bera, Maitreyee

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with DuPage County Stormwater Management Division, maintains a USGS database of hourly meteorologic and hydrologic data for use in a near real-time streamflow simulation system, which assists in the management and operation of reservoirs and other flood-control structures in the Salt Creek watershed in DuPage County, Illinois. Most of the precipitation data are collected from a tipping-bucket rain-gage network located in and near DuPage County. The other meteorologic data (wind speed, solar radiation, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) are collected at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Ill. Potential evapotranspiration is computed from the meteorologic data. The hydrologic data (discharge and stage) are collected at USGS streamflow-gaging stations in DuPage County. These data are stored in a Watershed Data Management (WDM) database. An earlier report describes in detail the WDM database development including the processing of data from January 1, 1997, through September 30, 2004, in SEP04.WDM database. SEP04.WDM is updated with the appended data from October 1, 2004, through September 30, 2011, water years 2005–11 and renamed as SEP11.WDM. This report details the processing of meteorologic and hydrologic data in SEP11.WDM. This report provides a record of snow affected periods and the data used to fill missing-record periods for each precipitation site during water years 2005–11. The meteorologic data filling methods are described in detail in Over and others (2010), and an update is provided in this report.

  12. Water-quality data from a landfill-leachate treatment and disposal site, Pinellas County, Florida, January 1979-August 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.; Fernandez, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Water-quality data collected between January 1979 and August 1980 at the landfill leachate treatment site in Pinellas County, Fla., are presented. Data include field and laboratory measurements of physical properties, major chemical constituents , nitrogen and phosphorus species, chemical oxygen demand, trace metals, coliform bacteria, taxonomy of macroinvertebrates and phytoplankton, and chlorophyll analyses. Data were collected as part of a study to determine water-quality changes resulting from aeration and ponding of leachate pumped from landfill burial trenches and for use in determining the rate of movement and quality changes as the leachate migrates through the surficial aquifer. Samples were collected from 81 surficial-aquifer water-quality monitoring wells constructed in January 1975, February 1979, and March 1979, and 8 surface-water quality monitoring sites established in January 1975, February 1978, and November 1978. (USGS)

  13. Ground-water resources in the vicinity of the Crown Point fish hatchery, Essex County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrowitz, I.H.

    1968-01-01

    The Crown Point Fish Hatchery, one of several hatcheries operated by the New York State Conservation Department, is located in Crown Point Center, Essex County, on the eastern edge of the Adirondack Highlands and about 2 miles west of lake Champlain. Figure 1 is a location map of the vicinity of the Hatchery. This report summarizes an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York State Conservation Department, Division of Water Resources, to locate and evaluate sources of additional ground-water supply for the Hatchery. In order to expand the facilities at the Hatchery, an additional water supply of about 100 gpm (gallons per minute) to as much as 350 gpm is needed. In addition, the type of fish culture practiced requires a water temperature of about 7 to 13 degrees Celsius (centigrade) for optimum results.

  14. Selected ground-water-quality data of the Lockport Dolomite in Darke, Miami, Montgomery, and Preble Counties, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, 25 samples of ground water from the Lockport Dolomite in western Ohio were analyzed for major ions, trace elements, and arsenic. Samples were collected from residential wells in Darke, Miami, Montgomery, and Preble Counties. The water sampled was untreated, except perhaps for water from one well. In general, samples from the northern part of the study area had the highest concentrations of common constituents such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfate, boron, and strontium. Iron and strontium concentrations were generally high throughout the study area, with median concentrations of 4,500 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) and 1,500 ?g/L, respectively. Arsenic concentrations, which ranged from less than 1 ?g/L to 29 ?g/L, did not exceed the drink ing-water standard of 50 ?g/L.

  15. Ground-water levels in the lower Paleozoic and Precambrian crystalline rocks, southeastern Chester County, Pennsylvania, July and August 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garges, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A water table contour map of the lower Paleozoic and Precambrian crystalline rocks of southeastern Chester County, Pennsylvania was constructed on the basis of water levels measured in 261 wells in July and August 1986, elevations of 11 springs that were flowing in July and August 1986, and water levels measured in 15 wells. Pre-1986 measurements were incorporated on the map to provide control in areas where more-recent data were not available. The area of crystalline rocks underlies Thornbury, Westtown, East Goshen, and West Goshen Townships, parts of East Whiteland and West Whiteland Townships; and West Chester Borough. Water table altitudes under natural conditions range from 544 ft. above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD of 1929) near Immaculata College to 234 ft. above NGVD of 1929 near Cheyney College. (USGS)

  16. Ground-water conditions in the Grand County area Utah, with emphasis on the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley Area

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater conditions were evaluated in bedrock aquifers in Grand County and parts of northern San Juan County, Utah. Special emphasis was given to the aquifers in the Entrada, Navajo, and Wingate Sandstones, and to the Glen Canyon aquifer in the Mill Creek-Spanish Valley area. Springs and flowing wells producing water from the Cedar Mountain Formation and the Brushy Basin Shale and Salt Wash Sandstone Members of the Morrison Formation locally discharges lightly saline water at rates typically less than 1 gal/min. Springs issuing from the Entrada, Navajo, and Wingate Sandstone locally discharge freshwater throughout their outcrop areas at rates typically less than 5 gal/min. Wells drilled in the Cutler Formation on the west side of Castle Valley produce slightly saline to moderately saline water at rates of about 1 to 40 gal/min, and the water typically has concentrations of selenium larger than the State of Utah's primary drinking-water standard of 10 microg/L. In the City of Moab well field, spring and well discharges from the Glen Canyon aquifer reportedly area as large as 390 gal/min and 2,000 gal/min, respectively, and concentrations of dissolved solids are typically less than 200 mg/L. The largest discharges are from the fractured rocks of the Glen Canyon aquifer. Small concentrations of dissolved solids similar to values for water in recharge areas are the result of groundwater mocing in the area primarily from outcrops of the Glen Canyon Group to the east. West and south of the city of Moab well field, the concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate increase as the ratio of water from the outcrop area to water from farther up Spanish Valley decreases.

  17. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  18. Availability of water in the Floridan aquifer in southern Duval and northern Clay and St Johns counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer within the area of investigation consists of 1,100 to 1,800 feet of soft, porous limestone interbedded with hard, dense limestone and dolomite overlain by several hundred feet of confining beds. From late 1948 to May 1972, water levels in wells tapping the Floridan aquifer declined as much as 14 feet in northern Clay and St. Johns Counties and more than 20 feet at Jacksonville in Duval County, Florida. These trends will probably continue as withdrawals from the aquifer increase. Water-level depressions exist at Green Cove Springs and Jacksonville because of natural discharge and large scale withdrawals. Withdrawals from wells could result in well interference unless the wells are spaced at least 1,000 ft apart. Two- to four-inch diameter wells drilled 100 ft or less into the aquifer yield 50 to 250 gal/min. Larger and deeper wells yield 1,000 gal/min or more. Hardness of water is generally less than 10 mg/liter. Quality of water from wells sampled over a span of 10 to 30 years has not changed noticeably. Principal recharge to the Floridan occurs southwest of the area in a lake region where rainfall percolates directly into the aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Hydrogeology and ground-water-quality conditions at the Linn County landfill, eastern Kansas, 1988-89

    SciTech Connect

    Falwell, R.; Bigsby, P.R.; Myers, N.C. )

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the hydrogeology and groundwater quality conditions near the Linn County Landfill, eastern Kansas was conducted from July 1988 through June 1989. The landfill is located in an unreclaimed coal strip-mine area near Prescott. Analysis of water levels from nine temporary wells and from strip-mine ponds indicated that groundwater flows southwest through the present landfill. A county road west of the landfill acts as a barrier to shallow westerly groundwater flow. Seasonal variations in the direction of groundwater flow may occur. Water samples from monitoring wells and a strip-mine pond were analyzed for inorganic and organic compounds. Iron, manganese, and dissolved-organic-carbon concentrations were good indicators of the presence of landfill leachate in the groundwater. Benzene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were also detected. None of the inorganic or organic compounds detected exceeded Kansas primary drinking-water standards. Chemical concentrations and water levels in some nested wells indicate there is a hydraulic connection between the strip-mine spoil material and the underlying limestone. Leachate-contaminated groundwater has the potential to migrate southwest corner of the landfill through either strip-mine spoil material or through the underlying Pawnee Limestone.

  20. Water-level conditions in the upper Cape Fear Aquifer, 1994-98, in parts of Bladen and Robeson counties, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Water-level measurements were made on a periodic basis from October 1994 through November 1998 in 17 wells that tap the upper Cape Fear aquifer. The approximately 730-square-mile study area in Bladen and Robeson Counties is in the southern Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Water-level declines occurred in the aquifer throughout much of the area as a result of pumping during this period. The greatest decline was about 42 feet in Bladen County. Water levels from the wells in the fall of 1998 were used to construct a map of the potentiometric surface of the upper Cape Fear aquifer. This map can be used to infer the direction of ground-water movement in the aquifer. Withdrawals from wells at pumping centers, such as in the Tar Heel and Elizabethtown areas in Bladen County, have caused ground water to flow toward pumped wells, resulting in cones of depression in the potentiometric surface.

  1. Speciation and Fate of Trace Metals in Estuarine Sediments Under Reduced and Oxidized Conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S A; Day, P A; Esser, B; Randall, S

    2002-10-18

    We have identified important chemical reactions that control the fate of metal-contaminated estuarine sediments if they are left undisturbed (in situ) or if they are dredged. We combined information on the molecular bonding of metals in solids from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with thermodynamic and kinetic driving forces obtained from dissolved metal concentrations to deduce the dominant reactions under reduced and oxidized conditions. We evaluated the in situ geochemistry of metals (cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese and zinc) as a function of sediment depth (to 100 cm) from a 60-year record of contamination at the Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Results from XAS and thermodynamic modeling of porewaters show that cadmium and most of the zinc form stable sulfide phases, and that lead and chromium are associated with stable carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals. Therefore, there is minimal risk associated with the release of these trace metals from the deeper sediments contaminated prior to the Clean Water Act (1975) as long as reducing conditions are maintained. Increased concentrations of dissolved metals with depth were indicative of the formation of metal HS- complexes. The sediments also contain zinc, chromium, and manganese associated with detrital iron-rich phyllosilicates and/or oxides. These phases are recalcitrant at near-neutral pH and do not undergo reductive dissolution within the 60-year depositional history of sediments at this site. The fate of these metals during dredging was evaluated by comparing in situ geochemistry with that of sediments oxidized by seawater in laboratory experiments. Cadmium and zinc pose the greatest hazard from dredging because their sulfides were highly reactive in seawater. However, their dissolved concentrations under oxic conditions were limited eventually by sorption to or co-precipitation with an iron (oxy)hydroxide. About 50% of the reacted CdS and 80% of the reacted ZnS were

  2. Ground-water potentialities in the Crescent Valley, Eureka and Lander Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zones, Christie Paul

    1961-01-01

    The Crescent Valley is an intermontane basin in Eureka and Lander Counties, just south of the Humboldt River in north-central Nevada. The valley floor, with an area of about 150 square miles, has a shape that more nearly resembles a Y than a crescent, although the valley apparently was named after the arc described by its southern part and northeastern arm. The northwestern arm of the Y extends northward to the small railroad town of Beowawe on the Humboldt River; the northeastern arm lies east of the low Dry Hills. The leg of the Y extends southwestward toward a narrow gap which separates the Crescent Valley from the Carico Lake Valley. The total drainage area of the Crescent Valley-about 700 square miles--includes also the slopes of the bordering mountain ranges: the Shoshone Range to the west, the Cortez Mountains to the east, and the Toiyabe Range to the south. The early history of the Crescent Valley was dominated by mining of silver and gold, centered at Lander in the Shoshone Range and at Cortez and Mill Canyon in the Cortez Mountains, but in recent years the only major mining activity has been at Gold Acres; there open-pit mining of low-grade gold ore has supported a community of about 200. For many years the only agricultural enterprises in the valley were two cattle ranches, but recently addition lands have been developed for the raising of crops in the west-central part of the valley. The average annual precipitation upon the floor of the Crescent Valley is probably less than 7 inches, of which only a little more than 1 inch formally falls during the growing season (from June through September). This is far less than the requirement of any plants of economic value, and irrigation is essential to agricultural development. Small perennial streams rising in the mountains have long been utilized for domestic supply, mining and milling activities of the past, and irrigation, and recently some large wells have been developed for irrigation. In 1956 the total

  3. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer-long tributary to Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Fish Creek is an important water body because it is used for irrigation, fishing, and recreation and adds scenic value to the Jackson Hole properties it runs through. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and biologic communities of Fish Creek during 2007–11. The hydrology of Fish Creek is strongly affected by groundwater contributions from the area known as the Snake River west bank, which lies east of Fish Creek and west of Snake River. Because of this continuous groundwater discharge to the creek, land-use activities in the west bank area can affect the groundwater quality. Evaluation of nitrate isotopes and dissolved-nitrate concentrations in groundwater during the study indicated that nitrate was entering Fish Creek from groundwater, and that the source of nitrate was commonly a septic/sewage effluent or manure source, or multiple sources, potentially including artificial nitrogen fertilizers, natural soil organic matter, and mixtures of sources. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, which are key nutrients for growth of aquatic plants, generally were low in Fish Creek and occasionally were less than reporting levels (not detected). One potential reason for the low nutrient concentrations is that nutrients were being consumed by aquatic plant life that increases during the summer growing season, as a result of the seasonal increase in temperature and larger number of daylight hours. Several aspects of Fish Creek’s hydrology contribute to higher productivity and biovolume of aquatic plants in Fish Creek than typically observed in streams of its size in

  4. Model documentation for relations between continuous real-time and discrete water-quality constituents in Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through May 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Johnson County is the fastest growing county in Kansas, with a population of about 560,000 people in 2012. Urban growth and development can have substantial effects on water quality, and streams in Johnson County are affected by nonpoint-source pollutants from stormwater runoff and point-source discharges such as municipal wastewater effluent. Understanding of current (2014) water-quality conditions and the effects of urbanization is critical for the protection and remediation of aquatic resources in Johnson County, Kansas and downstream reaches located elsewhere. The Indian Creek Basin is 194 square kilometers and includes parts of Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. Approximately 86 percent of the Indian Creek Basin is located in Johnson County, Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, operated a series of six continuous real-time water-quality monitoring stations in the Indian Creek Basin during June 2011 through May 2013; one of these sites has been operating since February 2004. Five monitoring sites were located on Indian Creek and one site was located on Tomahawk Creek. The purpose of this report is to document regression models that establish relations between continuously measured water-quality properties and discretely collected water-quality constituents. Continuously measured water-quality properties include streamflow, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nitrate. Discrete water-quality samples were collected during June 2011 through May 2013 at five new sites and June 2004 through May 2013 at a long-term site and analyzed for sediment, nutrients, bacteria, and other water-quality constituents. Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely sampled constituent concentrations and continuously measured physical properties to estimate concentrations of those constituents of interest that are not easily measured in real time

  5. Conceptual Model and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water-Flow System in the Unconsolidated Sediments of Thurston County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, B.W.; Ely, D.M.; Lum, W. E., II

    1999-01-01

    The demand for water in Thurston County has increased steadily in recent years because of a rapid growth in population. Surface-water resources in the county have been fully appropriated for many years and Thurston County now relies entirely on ground water for new supplies of water. Thurston County is underlain by up to 2,000 feet of unconsolidated glacial and non-glacial Quaternary sediments which overlie consolidated rocks of Tertiary age. Six geohydrologic units have been identified within the unconsolidated sediments. Between 1988 and 1990, median water levels rose 0.6 to 1.9 feet in all geohydrologic units except bedrock, in which they declined 1.4 feet. Greater wet-season precipitation in 1990 (43 inches) than in 1988 (26 inches) was the probable cause of the higher 1990 water levels. Ground-water flow in the unconsolidated sediments underlying Thurston County was simulated with a computerized numerical model (MODFLOW). The model was constructed to simulate 1988 ground-water conditions as steady state. Simulated inflow to the model area from precipitation and secondary recharge was 620,000 acre-feet per year (93 percent), leakage from streams and lakes was 38,000 acre-ft/yr (6 percent), and ground water entering the model along the Chehalis River valley was 5,800 acre-ft/yr (1 percent). Simulated outflow from the model was primarily leakage to streams, springs, lakes, and seepage faces (500,000 acre-ft/yr or 75 percent of the total outflow). Submarine seepage to Puget Sound was simulated to be 88,000 acre-ft/yr (13 percent). Simulated ground-water discharge along the Chehalis River valley was simulated to be 12,000 acreft/yr (2 percent). Simulated withdrawals by wells for all purposes was 62,000 acre-ft/yr (9 percent). The numerical model was used to simulate the possible effects of increasing ground-water withdrawals by 23,000 acre-ft/yr above the 1988 rate of withdrawal. The model indicated that the increased withdrawals would come from reduced discharge

  6. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  7. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  8. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters. PMID:26769702

  9. Hydrologic and water-quality data, Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, August 2001-September 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slattery, Richard N.; Furlow, Allen L.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and rainfall and stormflow water-quality data from seven sites in two adjacent watersheds in the Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, during August 2001–September 2003, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the San Antonio Water System. Data collected during this period represent baseline hydrologic and water-quality conditions before proposed removal of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) from one of the two watersheds. Juniper removal is intended as a best-management practice to increase water quantity (aquifer recharge and streamflow) and to protect water quality. Continuous (5-minute interval) rainfall data are collected at four sites; continuous (5-minute interval) streamflow data are collected at three sites. Fifteen-minute averages of meteorological and solar-energy-related data recorded at two sites are used to compute moving 30-minute evapotranspiration values on the basis of the energy-balance Bowen ratio method. Periodic rainfall water-quality data are collected at one site and stormflow water-quality data at three sites. Daily rainfall, streamflow, and evapotranspiration totals are presented in tables; detailed data are listed in an appendix. Results of analyses of the periodic rainfall and stormflow water-quality samples collected during runoff events are summarized in the appendix; not all data types were collected at all sites nor were all data types collected during the entire 26-month period.

  10. Ponding-test procedure for assessing the infiltration capacity of storm-water basins, Nassau County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prill, Robert C.; Aronson, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure to obtain field data for assessing performance of storm-water basins having high infiltration rates is described. The basin selected is divided into test plots, and treated municipal water from a fire hydrant is ponded to the desired depth so that infiltration rates and flow patterns in the unsaturated zone can be determined by standard methods. The study was made at a storm-water basin excavated in glacial outwash deposits in Nassau County, Long Island, N.Y. in 1971-72. The types of interpretations and evaluations that can be made from test data are described, and applications of the procedure as well as guidelines for developing a similar testing program are given. Observations of special significance were: (1) Infiltration rate of the basin at low water stage is about 1.5 feet per hour but increases with increased water level; (2) flow through the unsaturated zone is essentially vertical; (3) infiltration rate is controlled by a surface stratum --in this case a gravelly, sandy loam; and (4) the position of the water table has little effect on infiltration rate provided it is below the lower boundary of the controlling zone. These observations can be used in evaluating a storm-water basin's suitability for supplemental recharge with treated wastewater, in comparing procedures for increasing a basin's infiltration capacity, or in the design of new storm-water basin systems.

  11. Analog-model analysis of effect of wastewater management on the ground-water reservoir in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York: Report I: Proposed and current sewerage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimmel, Grant E.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    1976-01-01

    By 1995, the water table may fall by as much as 5 metres (16 feet) in east-central Nassau County and as much as 1.8 metres (6 feet) in central Suffolk County as a result of proposed sewerage programs. similar, but generally slightly less, change may occur in the potentiometric head in the Magothy aquifer. Streamflow may decrease by as much as 55 percent in streams draining from Nassau County Sewage Disposal District 3 and as much as 56 percent in streams draining from the Huntington-Northport Sewer District.

  12. Digital-model evaluation of the ground-water resources in Ocotillo-Coyote Wells Basin, Imperial County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skrivan, James A.

    1977-01-01

    A flow model using finite-element techniques has been constructed for an alluvial aquifer in the Ocotillo-Coyote Wells Basin, Imperial County, Calif. Natural recharge is about 2,600 acre-feet per year, and estimated ground water in storage is 640 ,000 acre-feet. Pumpage totaled 880 acre-feet in 1975. The computed decline from steady-state conditions in 1925 to December 1975 was 15 feet in Ocotillo. The projected decline from 1976 to 1995 with annual pumpage of 1,000 acre-feet is 6 feet and with annual pumpage of 2,000 acre-feet is 17 feet in Ocotillo. In the latter projection, continued pumping after 1995 may cause saline water to flow toward the potable ground water in and around Ocotillo. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Effects of landfill leaching on water quality and biology of a nearby stream, South Cairo, Greene County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ehlke, Theodore A.

    1979-01-01

    A 1-kilometer stream reach receiving leachate-enriched water from a small municipal landfill in Greene County, N.Y., was studied from 1971-75 to document streamflow rates and chemical quality of the stream and ground water. The distribution of benthic invertebrates and microorganisms in the stream above the landfill was markedly different from that below it; the difference is attributed to the inflow of leachate. The Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, and Nematomorpha have been eliminated from the reach adjacent to and below the landfill and have been replaced by large numbers of Tendipedidae and Niadidae. Certain chemical constituents, especially iron and manganese, were extremely concentrated in the ground water immediately beneath the streambed. The elevated concentrations of these and other metals may be the direct cause of the abrupt faunal shift. Algae were replaced by large masses of the iron bacterium Leptothrix in the stream reach below the landfill. (Kosco-USGS)

  14. Hydrogeology and simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals for citrus irrigation, Hardee and De Soto counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrogeology of Hardee and De Soto Counties in west-central Florida was evaluated, and a ground-water flow model was developed to simulate the effects of expected increases in ground-water withdrawals for citrus irrigation on the potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system and the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1988, total citrus acreage in Hardee and De Soto Counties was 89,041 acres. By the year 2020, citrus acreage is projected to increase to 130,000 acres. Ground water is the major source of water supply in the study area, and 94 percent of the ground-water withdrawn in the area is used for irrigation purposes. The principal sources of ground water in the study area are the surficial aquifer, the intermediate aquifer system, and upper water-yielding units of the Floridan aquifer system, commonly referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The surficial aquifer is a permeable hydrogeo1ogic unit contiguous with land surface that is comprised predominately of surficial quartz sand deposits that generally are less than 100 feet thick. The intermediate aquifer system is a somewhat less permeable hydrogeologic unit that lies between and retards the exchange of water between the overlying surficial aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. Thickness of the intermediate aquifer system ranges from about 200 to 500 feet and transmissivity ranges from 400 to 7,000 feet squared per day. The highly productive Upper Floridan aquifer consists of 1,200 to 1,400 feet of solution-riddled and fractured limestone and dolomite. Transmissivity values for this aquifer range from 71,000 to 850,000 feet squared per day. Wells open to the Upper Floridan aquifer. the major source of water in the area, can yield as much as 2,500 gallons of water per minute. The potential effects of projected increases in water withdrawals for citrus irrigation on groundwater heads were evaluated by the use of a quasi-three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model. The

  15. Calibration and potential uses of a digital water-quality model for the Arkansas River in Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, Kimball E.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 1-year study to calibrate and demonstrate the use of a steady-state water quality model for a 42-mile reach of the Arkansas River in Pueblo County, Colo. Based on the calibration, the model is capable of accurately predicting concentrations of carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total organic nitrogen, total nitrite, and total orthophosphate; predicted concentrations of total ammonia, total nitrate, and dissolved oxygen will be somewhat less accurate. Additional data are needed to determine the model 's capability to predict concentrations of coliform bacteria. Potential uses of the model were demonstrated by simulating the effects of different waste water discharges on streamflow quality, using water-quality and stream-discharge data provided by the Pueblo Area Council of Governments. Selected results for carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and total ammonia from three simulations illustrate the capability of the model. (USGS)

  16. 75 FR 19632 - San Diego County Water Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Vicente dam and reservoir on San Vicente Creek in San Diego County, California. The project would consist of the existing San Vicente reservoir functioning as the lower reservoir of the project and one of three alternatives as an upper reservoir: the Iron Mountain Alternative, the Foster Canyon...

  17. ROCK CREEK, POWER COUNTY, IDAHO. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1977-1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey was conducted on Rock Creek, Power County, Idaho (17040209) to assess the levels of transported sediment, various chemical and physical parameters, and macroinvertebrate fauna during base and peak flow periods. The survey was initiated in October 1977 and sampling was c...

  18. Drinking-water quality and variations in water levels in the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer, west-central Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Dennis C.; Johnson, Carl J.

    1979-01-01

    In parts of Jefferson County, CO, water for domestic use from the fractured crystalline-rock aquifer contained excessive concentrations of major ions, coliform bacteria, trace elements, or radiochemicals. Based on results of analyses from 26 wells, water from 21 of the wells contained excessive concentrations of one or more constituents. Drinking water standards were exceeded for fluoride in water from 2 wells, nitrate plus nitrite in 2 wells, dissolved solids in 1 well, iron in 6 wells, manganese in 8 wells, zinc in 2 wells, coliform bacteria in 4 wells, gross alpha radiation in 11 wells and possibly 4 more, and gross beta radiation possibly in 1 well. Local variations in concentrations of 15 chemical constituents, specific conductance, and water temperature were statistically significant. Specific conductance increased significantly during 1973-75 only in the vicinity of Indian Hills. Annual range in depths to water in 11 observation wells varied from 1 to 15 feet. The shallowest water levels were recorded in late winter, usually in February. The deepest water levels occurred during summer or fall, depending on the well and the year. Three-year trends in water level changes in 6 of the 11 wells indicated decreasing water storage in the aquifer. (USGS).

  19. Taking the Next Step: Using Water Quality Data in a Decision Support System for County, State, and Federal Land Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raby, K. S.; Williams, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    Each passing year amplifies the demands placed on communities across the US in terms of population growth, increased tourism, and stresses resulting from escalated use. The conflicting concerns of recreational users, local citizens, environmentalists, and traditional economic interests cause land managers to contend with controversial decisions regarding development and protection of watersheds. Local history and culture, politics, economic goals, and science are all influential factors in land use decision making. Here we report on a scientific study to determine the sensitivity of alpine areas, and the adaptation of this study into a decision support framework. We use water quality data as an indicator of ecosystem health across a variety of alpine and subalpine landscapes, and input this information into a spatially-based decision support tool that planners can use to make informed land use decisions. We develop this tool in a case study in San Juan County, Colorado, a site chosen because its largest town, Silverton, is a small mountain community experiencing a recent surge in tourism and development, and its fragile high elevation locale makes it more sensitive to environmental changes. Extensive field surveys were conducted in priority drainages throughout the county to map the spatial distribution and aerial extent of landscape types during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Surface water samples were collected and analyzed for inorganic and organic solutes, and water quality values were associated with different land covers to enable sensitivity analysis at the landscape scale. Water quality results for each watershed were entered into a module linked to a geographic information system (GIS), which displays maps of sensitive areas based on criteria selected by the user. The decision support system initially incorporates two major water quality parameters: acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and nitrate (NO3-) concentration, and several categories of sensitivity were

  20. Quality assurance and analysis of water levels in wells on Pahute Mesa and vicinity, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Periodic and continual water-level data from 1963 to 1998 were compiled and quality assured for 65 observation wells on Pahute Mesa and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada. As part of the quality assurance of all water levels, ancillary data pertinent to computing hydraulic heads in wells were compiled and analyzed. Quality-assured water levels that were not necessarily in error but which did not represent static heads in the regional aquifer system, or required some other qualification, were flagged. Water levels flagged include those recovering from recent pumping or well construction, water levels affected by nuclear tests, and measurements affected by borehole deviations. A cursory examination of about 30 wells with available water-level and down-hole temperature data indicate that water levels in most wells on Pahute Mesa would not be significantly affected by temperature if corrected to 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Wells with large corrections (greater than 10 feet) are those with long water columns (greater than 1,500 feet of water above the assumed point of inflow) in combination with mean water-column temperatures exceeding 105 degrees Fahrenheit. Water-level fluctuations in wells on Pahute Mesa are caused by several factors including infiltration of precipitation, barometric pressure, Earth tides, ground-water pumpage, and seismic events caused by tectonic activity and underground nuclear testing. No observed water-level fluctuations were attributed to a naturally occurring earthquake. The magnitude and duration of changes in water levels caused by nuclear tests are affected by the test size and the distance from a well to the test. Identifying water levels that might be affected by past nuclear tests is difficult because pre-testing water-level data are sparse. Hydrologically significant trends were found in 13 of 25 wells with multiple years of water-level record. The largest change in water levels (1,029 feet in 25 years) occurred in well U-19v PS 1D as a result of

  1. Log of Trench 04A Across the Hayward Fault at Tyson's Lagoon (Tule Pond), Fremont, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.; Williams, Patrick L.; Sickler, Robert R.; Fumal, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    This publication makes available a detailed trench log (sheets 1 and 2) of a 110-m trench we excavated in 2004 across a tectonic sag pond in the Hayward fault zone. Also included are revised stratigraphic unit descriptions from this fifth field season of subsurface investigation of the Hayward fault at Tyson's Lagoon (Tule Pond). Preliminary findings based on fieldwork done in 2000 have been published (Lienkaemper and others: data archive, 2002a; report, 2002b), as were the logs and data for 2001-2003 (Lienkaemper and others, 2003, L03). A continuous exposure of the geologic section across the entire pond made in 2004 (Fig. 1, 04A) has revealed some critical miscorrelations of units made in the original on-line version of L03, hence users of these earlier trench data should only use the 2005 revised version 2.0 of L03 for correlation purposes. Lienkaemper, Williams, and Sickler interpreted the geology and logged the trenches. Fumal did most of the trench photography. The Hayward fault is recognized to be among the most hazardous in the United States (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 2003). Establishing a chronology of prehistoric or paleoearthquakes is of immediate use in resolving the likelihood of future large earthquakes Hayward fault. This document makes available geologic evidence for historical and prehistoric surface-rupturing earthquakes preserved at the site. A second, formal report on our conclusions based on these data is in preparation.

  2. Logs and data from trenches across the Hayward Fault at Tyson's Lagoon (Tule Pond), Fremont, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linenkaemper, James J.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Personius, Stephen F.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Reidy, Liam M.; Schwartz, David P.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The purpose of this publication is to make available detailed trench logs (sheets 1, 2), radiocarbon dates (table 1) and pollen data (fig. 1) obtained as a result of an intensive subsurface investigation of the Hayward Fault at Tyson's Lagoon (Tule Pond) from August to November 2000 (figs. 1, 2 on sheet 1). The Hayward Fault is recognized to be among the most hazardous in the United States (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). This document makes available geologic evidence for historical and prehistoric surfacerupturing earthquakes that were recorded at the site. Prehistoric earthquakes deduced from geologic evidence are called paleoearthquakes. Establishing a chronology of paleoearthquakes is of immediate use in resolving the level of hazard posed by the Hayward Fault for producing large earthquakes in the future. Preliminary findings of this investigation have been presented in Lienkaemper and others (2001). A formal report on our conclusions based on these data is in preparation. The investigation at Tyson's Lagoon is ongoing, so these products should not be considered final. Lienkaemper, Dawson, and Personius interpreted the geology and logged the trenches. Seitz and Reidy performed analyses on radiocarbon and pollen samples, respectively. Schwartz led the critical-review field team. Previous trenching work was done at Tyson's Lagoon (figs. 2, 3 on sheet 1). Lienkaemper (1992) references the location of most of those trenches. The earlier trenching was generally for the evaluation of local faultrupture hazard, except for the study of Williams (1993), which was a paleoearthquake investigation. An unpublished study by J.N. Alt in 1998 (shown on our site map as trenches 98A and 98B, fig. 3, on sheet 1), also sought evidence of paleoearthquakes. Alt's study and one by Woodward-Clyde and Associates (1970; trenches 70A to 70G, fig. 3) were located south of Walnut Avenue in one of the few areas that still remain undisturbed and were, thus, useful in planning our work in 2000.

  3. Geologic Map and Map Database of the Oakland Metropolitan Area, Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction This report contains a new geologic map at 1:50,000 scale, derived from a set of geologic map databases containing information at a resolution associated with 1:24,000 scale, and a new description of geologic map units and structural relationships in the mapped area. The map database represents the integration of previously published reports and new geologic mapping and field checking by the author (see Sources of Data index map on the map sheet or the Arc-Info coverage pi-so and the textfile pi-so.txt). The descriptive text (below) contains new ideas about the Hayward fault and other faults in the East Bay fault system, as well as new ideas about the geologic units and their relations. These new data are released in digital form in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency Project Impact in Oakland. The goal of Project Impact is to use geologic information in land-use and emergency services planning to reduce the losses occurring during earthquakes, landslides, and other hazardous geologic events. The USGS, California Division of Mines and Geology, FEMA, California Office of Emergency Services, and City of Oakland participated in the cooperative project. The geologic data in this report were provided in pre-release form to other Project Impact scientists, and served as one of the basic data layers for the analysis of hazard related to earthquake shaking, liquifaction, earthquake induced landsliding, and rainfall induced landsliding. The publication of these data provides an opportunity for regional planners, local, state, and federal agencies, teachers, consultants, and others outside Project Impact who are interested in geologic data to have the new data long before a traditional paper map could be published. Because the database contains information about both the bedrock and surficial deposits, it has practical applications in the study of groundwater and engineering of hillside materials, as well as the study of geologic hazards and the academic research on the geologic history and development of the region.

  4. 2002-2003 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300, Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    Condor Country Consulting conducted surveys for listed branchiopods in the 2002-2003 wet season to complete requirements of the Guidelines (USFWS 1996) used to determine the distribution of federally-listed branchiopods within the study area. The first survey was performed during the previous wet season (2001-2002). The 2002-2003 wet season survey, combined with the previous season's survey, is intended to provide LLNL with information that will assist them in determining the effects of the proposed action on federally listed branchiopods and provide information useful in the preparation of the associated environmental documentation. It is also expected to satisfy the survey requirements of the USFWS. For the purpose of this report, the term branchiopod refers specifically to phyllopodous branchiopods and not cladocerans. Fairy shrimp, tadpole shrimp, and clam shrimp are all categorized as phyllopodous branchiopods and are currently the only members of the Class Branchiopoda that contain species that are listed under the federal Endangered Species Act. Although cladocerans are branchiopods and were found on the site, they are only referred to by the Order in this report because they are not the target species of this study.

  5. Geologic map of the Hayward fault zone, Contra Costa, Alameda, and Santa Clara counties, California: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, R.W.; Jones, D.L.; Brabb, E.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Hayward is one of three major fault zones of the San Andreas system that have produced large historic earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area (the others being the San Andreas and Calaveras). Severe earthquakes were generated by this fault zone in 1836 and in 1868, and several large earthquakes have been recorded since 1868. The Hayward fault zone is considered to be the most probable source of a major earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area, as much as 28% chance for a magnitude 7 earthquake before the year 2021 (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1990). The Hayward fault zone, as described in this work, is a zone of highly deformed rocks, trending north 30 degrees west and ranging in width from about 2 to 10 kilometers. The historic earthquake generating activity has been concentrated in the western portion of the zone, but the zone as a whole reflects deformation derived from oblique right-lateral and compressive tectonic stress along a significant upper crustal discontinuity for the past 10 million or more years. The Hayward fault zone is bounded on the east by a series of faults that demarcate the beginning of one or more structural blocks containing rocks and structures unrelated to the Hayward fault zone. The eastern bounding faults are, from the south, the Calaveras, Stonybrook, Palomares, Miller Creek, and Moraga faults. These faults are not considered to be part of the Hayward fault zone, although they are shown on the map to demarcate its boundary. The western boundary of the zone is less clearly defined, because the alluvium of the San Francisco Bay and Santa Clara Valley basins obscures bedrock and structural relationships. Although several of the westernmost faults in the zone clearly project under or through the alluvium, the western boundary of the fault is generally considered to be the westernmost mapped fault, which corresponds more or less with the margin of thick unconsolidated surficial deposits. The Hayward fault zone is truncated to the south by the Calaveras fault, which trends about north 10 west, and so forms an oblique east and south boundary. All of the faults within the southern part of the zone probably splay into the Calaveras fault. The northern margin of the zone as dealt with herein is San Pablo Bay, but the zone of deformation undoubtedly continues north of the Bay through the area bounded by the Rodgers Creek and Tolay faults.

  6. Geologic map and map database of parts of Marin, San Francisco, Alameda, Contra Costa, and Sonoma counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blake, M.C., Jr.; Jones, D.L.; Graymer, R.W.; digital database by Soule, Adam

    2000-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (mageo.txt, mageo.pdf, or mageo.ps), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (mageo.txt, mageo.pdf, or mageo.ps), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller.

  7. Age and source of water in springs associated with the Jacksonville Thrust Fault Complex, Calhoun County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Water from wells and springs accounts for more than 90 percent of the public water supply in Calhoun County, Alabama. Springs associated with the Jacksonville Thrust Fault Complex are used for public water supply for the cities of Anniston and Jacksonville. The largest ground-water supply is Coldwater Spring, the primary source of water for Anniston, Alabama. The average discharge of Coldwater Spring is about 32 million gallons per day, and the variability of discharge is about 75 percent. Water-quality samples were collected from 6 springs and 15 wells in Calhoun County from November 2001 to January 2003. The pH of the ground water typically was greater than 6.0, and specific conductance was less than 300 microsiemens per centimeter. The water chemistry was dominated by calcium, carbonate, and bicarbonate ions. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of the water samples indicates the occurrence of a low-temperature, water-rock weathering reaction known as silicate hydrolysis. The residence time of the ground water, or ground-water age, was estimated by using analysis of chlorofluorocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride, and regression modeling. Estimated ground-water ages ranged from less than 10 to approximately 40 years, with a median age of about 18 years. The Spearman rho test was used to identify statistically significant covariance among selected physical properties and constituents in the ground water. The alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved solids increased as age increased; these correlations reflect common changes in ground-water quality that occur with increasing residence time and support the accuracy of the age estimates. The concentration of sodium and chloride increased as age increased; the correlation of these constituents is interpreted to indicate natural sources for chloride and sodium. The concentration of silica increased as the concentration of potassium increased; this correlation, in addition to the isotopic data, is evidence that

  8. Description and field analysis of a coupled ground-water/surface-water flow model (MODFLOW/BRANCH) with modifications for structures and wetlands in southern Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; Howie, Barbara; Dixon, Joann

    1996-01-01

    A coupled surface-water model (BRANCH) and ground-water model (MODFLOW) model were tested to simulate the interacting wetlands/surface-water/ ground-water system of southern Dade County. Several options created for the MODFLOW ground- ground-water model were used in representing this field situation. The primary option is the MODBRANCH interfacing software, which allows leakage to be accounted for between the MODFLOW ground-water model and the BRANCH dynamic model for simulation of flow in an interconnected network of open channels. A modification to an existing software routine, which is referred to as BCF2, allows cells in MODFLOW to rewet when dry--a requirement in representing the seasonal wetlands in Dade County. A companion to BCF2 is the modified evapotranspiration routine EVT2. The EVT2 routine changes the cells where evapotranspiration occurs, depending on which cells are wet. The Streamlink package represents direct connections between the canals and wetlands at locations where canals open directly into overland flow. Within the BRANCH model, the capability to represent the numerous hydraulic structures, gated spillways, gated culverts, and pumps was added. The application of these modifications to model surface-water/ground-water interactions in southern Dade County demonstrated the usefulness of the coupled MODFLOW/BRANCH model. Ground-water and surface-water flows are both simulated with dynamic models. Flow exchange between models, intermittent wetting and drying, evapotranspiration, and hydraulic structure operations are all represented appropriately. Comparison was made with a simulation using the RIV1 package instead of MODBRANCH to represent the canals. RIV1 represents the canals by user-defined stages, and computes leakage to the aquifer. Greater accuracy in reproducing measured ground- water heads was achieved with MODBRANCH, which also computes dynamic flow conditions in the canals, unlike RIV1. The surface-water integrated flow and transport

  9. Hydrogeologic factors affecting the availability and quality of ground water in the Temple Terrace area : Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Joseph William; Goetz, Carole L.; Mills, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    Ground water occurs in two aquifers in the Temple Terrace area of Hillsborough County, Fla. The lower one is the artesian Floridan aquifer; the upper is the water-table aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is a thick sequence of limestone and dolomite layers which include several permeable zones that generally are treated as a single hydrologic unit. The top of the Tampa Limestone is considered to be the top of the Floridan in the Temple Terrace area. The public supply wells of the city tap the Tampa Limestone and the underlying Suwannee Limestone, in the upper part of the Floridan. The general direction of ground-water movement in the Floridan aquifer is from north to south, but within the city the direction of movement is from northeast to southwest. The quantity of water moving southwest through a 1.8 mile section of the aquifer is about 2.7 million gallons per day. Ample supplies of water in a cavernous limestone, considered to be the most productive water-yielding zone in the aquifer, are available for additional development from the Floridan aquifer. Water-quality data are included also. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and bottom sediment at three stormwater detention ponds, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario, Jr.; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of three detention ponds in Pinellas County, Florida indicated little potential for chemical contamination of surficial-aquifer ground water; however, concentrations of contami- nants in some sediments are sufficient to indicate possible hazardous levels of bioconcentration in benthic organisms. The general direction of ground- water movement at three pond sites indicates that the ponds are ground-water discharge points. Shallow ground water tends to move laterally toward these ponds, which have surface outflow, instead of from the ponds into the aquifer. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from a 1-year-old pond were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The concentrations were either near or below analytical detection limits. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from the other two ponds, 20- and 30-years old, respectively, also were analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The water quality of these older ponds was not significantly different from that of the 1-year-old pond. However, bottom sediments in the 20- and 30-year-old ponds contained 16 and 23 organic compounds, respectively. None of the organic compounds were in sufficient concentrations to cause concern about their chronic effects on aquatic life. Concentrations of dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethane, dieldrin, and heptachlor were above the hazardous level with respect to bioconcentration in the food chain.

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Dublin Water Supply, Bucks County, PA. (First remedial action), December 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-30

    The 4.5-acre Dublin Water Supply is a former manufacturing facility located in Dublin Borough, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. The site consists of a one-story tower building and parking lot. The surrounding area is mixed commercial and residential, with a fruit orchard bordering the site to the north and west. Groundwater beneath the site contributes to the aquifer by providing a drinking water source to area residents. In 1986, the current owner purchased the site for antique car restoration. A portion of the site is currently leased to Laboratory Testing, Inc., for metallurgical testing. During a routine drinking water survey in 1986, the state discovered elevated levels of TCE affecting approximately 170 area homes. The early action ROD addresses the provision of a permanent clean drinking water supply to affected area residents and businesses. An additional RI/FS, which commenced in 1991, will focus on remediation of the soil, ground water, and surface water in a separate clean-up action. The primary contaminants of concern affecting ground water are VOCs, including TCE, PCE, and vinyl chloride. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  12. Characterization of liquid-water percolation in tuffs in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kume, J.; Rousseau, J.P.

    1989-12-31

    A surface-based borehole investigation currently (1989) is being done to characterize liquid-water percolation in tuffs of Miocene age in the unsaturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada Active in-situ testing and passive in-situ monitoring will be used in this investigation to estimate the present-day liquid-water percolation (flux). The unsaturated zone consists of a gently dipping sequence of fine-grained, densely fractured, and mostly welded ash-flow tuffs that are interbedded with fine-grained, slightly fractured, non-welded ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs that are partly vitric and zeolitized near the water table. Primary study objectives are to define the water potential field within the unsaturated zone and to determine the in-situ bulk permeability and bulk hydrologic properties of the unsaturated tuffs. Borehole testing will be done to determine the magnitude and spatial distribution of physical and hydrologic properties of the geohydrologic units, and of their water potential fields. The study area of this investigation is restricted to that part of Yucca Mountain that immediately overlies and is within the boundaries of the perimeter drift of a US Department of Energy proposed mined, geologic, high-level radioactive-waste repository. Vertically, the study area extends from near the surface of Yucca Mountain to the underlying water table, about 500 to 750 meters below the ground surface. The average distance between the proposed repository and the underlying water table is about 205 meters.

  13. Assessing potential effects of changes in water use with a numerical groundwater-flow model of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Richard M.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Mayers, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth and development within Carson Valley in Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California, has caused concern over the continued availability of groundwater, and whether the increased municipal demand could either impact the availability of water or result in decreased flow in the Carson River. Annual pumpage of groundwater has increased from less than 10,000 acre feet per year (acre-ft/yr) in the 1970s to about 31,000 acre-ft/yr in 2004, with most of the water used in agriculture. Municipal use of groundwater totaled about 10,000 acre-feet in 2000. In comparison, average streamflow entering the valley from 1940 to 2006 was 344,100 acre-ft/yr, while average flow exiting the valley was 297,400 acre-ft/yr. Carson Valley is underlain by semi-consolidated Tertiary sediments that are exposed on the eastern side and dip westward. Quaternary fluvial and alluvial deposits overlie the Tertiary sediments in the center and western side of the valley. The hydrology of Carson Valley is dominated by the Carson River, which supplies irrigation water for about 39,000 acres of farmland and maintains the water table less than 5 feet (ft) beneath much of the valley floor. Perennial and ephemeral watersheds drain the Carson Range and the Pine Nut Mountains, and mountain-front recharge to the groundwater system from these watersheds is estimated to average 36,000 acre-ft/yr. Groundwater in Carson Valley flows toward the Carson River and north toward the outlet of the Carson Valley. An upward hydraulic gradient exists over much of the valley, and artesian wells flow at land surface in some areas. Water levels declined as much as 15 ft since 1980 in some areas on the eastern side of the valley. Median estimated transmissivities of Quaternary alluvial-fan and fluvial sediments, and Tertiary sediments are 316; 3,120; and 110 feet squared per day (ft2/d), respectively, with larger transmissivity values in the central part of the valley and smaller values near the valley

  14. Assessment of the fresh-and brackish-water resources underlying Dunedin and adjacent areas on northern Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, L.A.; Swenson, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The city of Dunedin is enhancing their potable ground-water resources through desalination of brackish ground water. An assessment of the fresh- and brackish-water resources in the Upper Floridan aquifer was needed to estimate the changes that may result from brackish-water development. The complex hydrogeologic framework underlying Dunedin and adjacent areas of northern Pinellas County is conceptualized as a multilayered sequence of permeable zones and confining and semiconfining units. The permeable zones contain vertically spaced, discrete, water-producing zones with differing water quality. Water levels, water-level responses, and water quality are highly variable among the different permeable zones. The Upper Floridan aquifer is best characterized as a local flow system in most of northern Pinellas County. Pumping from the Dunedin well field is probably not influencing water levels in the aquifer outside Dunedin, but has resulted in localized depressions in the potentiometric surface surrounding production-well clusters. The complex geologic layering combined with the effects of production-well distribution probably contribute to the spatial and temporal variability in chloride concentrations in the Dunedin well field. Chloride concentrations in ground water underlying the Dunedin well field vary both vertically and laterally. In general, water-quality rapidly changes below depths of 400 feet below sea level. Additionally, randomly distributed water-producing zones with higher chloride concentrations may occur at shallow, discrete intervals above 400 feet. A relation between chloride concentration and distance from St. Joseph Sound is not apparent; however, a possible relation exists between chloride concentration and production-well density. Chloride-concentration data from production wells show a consistently increasing pattern that has accelerated since the late 1980's. Chloride-concentration data from 15 observation wells show increasing trends for 6 wells

  15. Simulation of projected water demand and ground-water levels in the Coffee Sand and Eutaw-McShan aquifers in Union County, Mississippi, 2010 through 2050

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Susan S.; Strom, E.W.; Burt, D.E.; Mallory, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water from the Eutaw-McShan and the Coffee Sand aquifers is the major source of supply for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes in Union County, Mississippi. Unbiased, scientifically sound data and assessments are needed to assist agencies in better understanding and managing available water resources as continuing development and growth places more stress on available resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Valley Authority, conducted an investigation using water-demand and ground-water models to evaluate the effect of future water demand on groundwater levels. Data collected for the 12 public-supply facilities and the self-supplied commercial and industrial facilities in Union County were used to construct water-demand models. The estimates of water demand to year 2050 were then input to a ground-water model based on the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference computer code, MODFLOW. Total ground-water withdrawals for Union County in 1998 were estimated as 2.85 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Of that amount, municipal withdrawals were 2.55 Mgal/d with about 1.50 Mgal/d (59 percent) delivered to residential users. Nonmunicipal withdrawals were 0.296 Mgal/d. About 80 percent (2.27 Mgal/d) of the total ground-water withdrawal is produced from the Eutaw-McShan aquifer and about 13 percent (0.371 Mgal/d) from the Coffee Sand aquifer. Between normal- and high-growth conditions, total water demand could increase from 72 to 131 percent (2.9 Mgal/d in 1998 to 6.7 Mgal/d in year 2050) with municipal demand increasing from 77 to 146 percent (2.6 to 6.4 Mgal/d). Increased pumping to meet the demand for water was simulated to determine the effect on water levels in the Coffee Sand and Eutaw- McShan aquifers. Under baseline-growth conditions, increased water use by year 2050 could result in an additional 65 feet of drawdown in the New Albany area below year 2000 water levels in the Coffee Sand aquifer and about 120 feet of

  16. Estimated agricultural ground-water pumpage in parts of Fresno, Kings, and Madera Counties, San Joaquin Valley, California, 1974-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitten, Hugh T.

    1978-01-01

    Agricultural ground-water pumpage data are presented for 1974-77 for the area on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley in parts of Fresno, Kings, and Madera Counties, Calif., which has approximately the boundaries of the Westlands Water District. The method of estimating pumpage was based on electric-power consumption at the agricultual wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Water-level conditions in the Black Creek and upper Cape Fear aquifers, 1992, in parts of Bladen and Robeson counties, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, Alfred Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Water-level measurements were made in 68 wells throughout an area of about 860 square miles in Bladen and Robeson Counties, North Carolina, during September and October 1992. Water levels from 58 wells were used to determine the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Black Creek aquifer. A map of the potentiometric surface shows the potential for ground water to flow from recharge areas in the local uplands to discharge areas, such as local streams and wells. Pumping from wells at major pumping centers, such as Elizabethtown in Bladen County and Lumberton in Robeson County, where water-level declines of more than 12 feet were recorded from 1988 to 1992, has resulted in cones of depression in the potentiometric surface. The cones were about 4 and 6 miles long across the major axes beneath the Elizabethtown and Lumberton areas, respectively, in 1992. Water levels measured in eight wells in 1988 and 1992, supplemented with water levels in two additional wells from driller's well- construction records, were used to estimate average yearly rates of ground-water change for the upper Cape Fear aquifer for part of the study area. During 1988-92, water-level declines occurred in the aquifer throughout much of the area as a result of pumping. The greatest decline, an average of 4.1 feet per year, was in Bladen County.

  18. Interim report on the ground-water resources of Manatee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peek, Harry M.; Anders, Robert B.

    1955-01-01

    Manatee County comprises an area of about 800 square miles adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico in the southwestern part of the Florida peninsula. The county is underlain at depths ranging from about 200 to 350 feet by a series of limestone formations of Tertiary age having a total thickness of several thousand feet. The upper part of the limestone section consists of the Ocala group of Eocene age, the Suwannee limestone of Oligocene age, and the Tampa formation of early Miocene age. These limestone formations are overlain by the Hawthorn formation of middle Miocene age which consists of interbedded clay, limestone, and sand. The Hawthorn is overlain by undifferentiated deposits of sand, limestone, and shell of Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene age that range in thickness from a few feet to about 75 feet.

  19. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for the counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District in Florida, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.; Berry, Darbi R.

    2016-01-01

    The irrigated acreage that was field verified in 2015 for the 13 counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District (113,134 acres) is about 6 percent higher than the estimated acreage published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (107,217 acres) for 2012; however, this 2012 value represents acreage for the entire portion of all 13 counties, not just the Suwannee River Water Management District portion. Differences between the 2015 field-verified acreage totals and those published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for 2012 may occur because (1) irrigated acreage for some specific crops increased or decreased substantially during the 3-year interval due to commodity prices or economic changes, (2) calculated field-verified irrigated acreage may be an overestimate because irrigation was assumed if an irrigation system was present and therefore the acreage was counted as irrigated, when in fact that may not have been the case as some farmers may not have used their irrigation systems during this growing period even if they had a crop in the field, or (3) the amount of irrigated acreages published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for selected crops may be underestimated in some cases.

  20. Characteristics of water-well yields in the Blue Ridge of Loudoun County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutphin, David M.; Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Burton, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    Mean yields and the numbers of wells drilled are presented for 35 rock types containing 4,115 wells in the Blue Ridge of Loudoun County, Virginia. Analysis of variance of the well yields shows that Harper's Formation phyllite and Catoctin Formation metabasalt have yields significantly different from those of other rock types. Preliminary variography has identified an anisotropy that roughly parallels the general compressional trend of the Blue Ridge.

  1. Statistical analysis and mapping of water levels in the Biscayne aquifer, water conservation areas, and Everglades National Park, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2000–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prinos, Scott T.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2016-01-01

    during 2000–2009 than during 1990–1999. Mean October water levels during 2000–2009 were generally higher than during 1990–1999 in much of western Miami-Dade County, but were lower in a large part of eastern Miami-Dade County.

  2. Investigation of acidity and other water-quality characteristics of Upper Oyster Creek, Ocean County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fusillo, Thomas V.; Schornick, J.C., Jr.; Koester, H.E.; Harriman, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Water-quality data collected in the upper Oyster Creek drainage basin, Ocean County, N.J., indicate that the stream has excellent water quality except for a persistently low pH. The mean concentrations of the major inorganic ions were all less than 6.0 milligrams per liter. Mean concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 0.15 mg/L and 0.01 mg/L, respectively. Dissolved oxygen averaged 8.7 mg/L and 81% saturation. Low pH levels are typical of streams draining cedar swamps. In Oyster Creek, the pH tended to decrease downstream due to chemical and biological processes. The pH levels in swamps were one-half unit or more lower than the pH levels in the adjacent stream. Sharp declines in stream pH were noted during runoff periods as the result of the mixing of poorly-buffered stream water with more highly acidic water from surrounding swamp areas. The quality of ground water within the study area was similar to the quality of streamflow, except for higher iron and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations and a higher pH range of 4.9 to 6.5. Precipitation represented a major source of many chemical constituents in the ground- and surface-waters of the Oyster Creek basin. (USGS)

  3. Records of ground-water levels and effects of pumping in the Ardmore well-field area, Carter County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, P.R.

    1965-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to outline the results of work done by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Ardmore well-field area, near Newport, Carter County. The work, completed in two periods between April 1964 and June 1965, was done as part of the ground-water program carried out by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The study in the report area included: (1) a physical inventory of wells in the vicinity of the Ardmore well field (fig. 1); (2) information on depths, perforated intervals, ground-water levels, and water use (table 1); (3) records of water-level fluctuations in deep and shallow wells (table 2) to determine if there is a hydraulic connection between the deep zones tapped by Ardmore's wells and the shallow and intermediate zones tapped by domestic and stock wells in the surrounding area; and (4) general information on the geologic and hydrologic features that may be of use in evaluating the ground-water potential of the Wichita Formation, the principal aquifer in the area. (available as photostat copy only)

  4. Ground-water data for the Suck Creek area of Walden Ridge, southern Cumberland Plateau, Marion County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanchar, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was made of the ground-water resources of the Suck Creek area, Marion County, Tennessee, 1990-91. Suck Creek is located on the Walden Ridge section of the Cumberland Plateau, and is about 16 miles northwest of Chattanooga. Eight wells were drilled into bedrock of Pennsylvania age. Drilling sites were chosen at or near fracture traces. Yields of the eight wells ranged from less than 1 to as much as 80 gallons of water per minute. Three wells had yields of 50 gallons per minute or more; two of these had estimated yields of 75 to 80 gallons per minute. These three wells produced water from a well- developed fracture within the Sewanee Conglomerate. Specific capacities for these three wells were 1.1, 1.3, 2.2 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. Samples of water from six test wells and three domestic wells were analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nurients, major metals, trace elements, and bacteria. In addition, water samples from two of the test wells were analyzed for volatile organic compounds and scanned for the presence of semi-volatile organic compounds. Iron exceeded 300 micrograms per liter in five of the nine samples, and manganese exceeded 50 micrograms per liter in seven of the nine water samples. Toluene, a volatile organic compound, was detected in a concentration slightly above the reporting level; no other volatile organic compounds were detected.

  5. Construction, geologic, and ground-water data for observation wells near the Shelby County landfill, Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-one observation wells and two stratigraphic test holes were drilled near the Shelby County landfill in east Memphis. These wells were installed as part of an investigation on possible vertical leakage of groundwater from the alluvial aquifer into the Memphis Sand aquifer. The alluvial aquifer consists of about 45 to 55 ft of alluvial silt, sand, and gravel. This is separated from the underlying Memphis Sand aquifer by about 30 to 60 ft of silt, silty sand, and clay in the confining layer. Thirty wells completed in the alluvium were generally less than 50 ft deep. The depth to the water table ranged from about 15 to more than 45 ft below land surface. Four observation wells were completed in the upper part of the Memphis Sand aquifer. Water levels in the Memphis Sand aquifer were generally 35 to 40 ft below land surface. (USGS)

  6. Water levels in periodically measured wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, 1981-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Stephens, D.M.; Luckey, R.R.; Baldwin, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains data on groundwater levels beneath Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas, Nye County, Nevada. In addition to new data collected since 1983, the report contains data that has been updated from previous reports, including added explanations of the data. The data was collected in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy to help that agency evaluate the suitability of the area of storing high-level nuclear waste. The water table in the Yucca Mountain area occurs in ash-flow and air-fall tuff of Tertiary age. West of the crest of Yucca Mountain, water level altitudes are about 775 m above sea level. Along the eastern edge and southern end of Yucca Mountain, the potentiometric surface generally is nearly flat, ranging from about 730 to 728 m above sea level. (USGS)

  7. Precipitation, Ground-water Hydrology, and Recharge Along the Eastern Slopes of the Sandia Mountains, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Kurt J.; Blanchard, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of recharge to carbonate and clastic aquifers along the eastern slopes of the Sandia Mountains was investigated by using precipitation, water-level, dissolved chloride, and specific-conductance data. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bernalillo County Public Works Division, conducted a study to assess ground-water conditions and provide technical data that could be used as a basis for management and future planning of eastern Bernalillo County water resources. The intent of the investigation was to improve the current understanding of subsurface mechanisms controlling recharge dynamics in a geologically complex aquifer system. In the Sandia Mountains, precipitation events are generally limited to snowfalls in winter months and monsoon rainfall in late summer. Monthly meteorological data from weather stations in the study area indicate that monsoon rainfall during July and August constitutes close to one-third of annual precipitation totals. Following precipitation and snowmelt events, daily ground-water level data show low-amplitude, long-duration peaks in hydrographs of wells north and west of the Tijeras Fault. Hydrographs of monthly and biannual water-level data from across the study area show seasonal variation and water-level fluctuations in excess of 30 ft during a period of below-average precipitation. Water level observations in 67 percent of wells showing drought-induced water-level declines rebounded to at or near predrought conditions within 6 months of return to normal climate conditions. Cross-correlation of annual hydrologic data shows aquifer response to periods of monsoon recharge to persist from 1 to 6 months following events. The lag time between precipitation input and response of water levels or solute concentrations was largest near the Tijeras and Gutierrez Faults. These results indicate regional faults hydrologically isolate the Tijeras Graben from groundwater recharge originating

  8. Temporal variations of ecological security with soil and water loss stress in black soil region of northeast China: a case study on Baiquan County.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liying; Liu, Zhenju; Zheng, Mingguo; Cai, Qiangguo; Fang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    The deterioration of ecological situation with serious soil and water loss in black soil region of northeast China has attracted more attention due to its significant role on food security of China. To investigate the temporal characteristics of ecological status in typical black soil areas, Baiquan County is selected. Based on the model of Press-Status-Response (P-S-R), indicators are established and the ecological security situations with soil and water loss of Baiquan County are evaluated for the years of 1979, 1990, 2000 and 2005. The results show that the ecological insecurity indicator changes from 0.701 to 0.435 from 1979 to 2005, with a decrease of 37.9% for Baiquan County. And the contributions of physical and human factors to the temporal variations of the ecological security are discussed in detail. Moreover, several problems are recognized to be the potential threats to the ecological security in Baiquan county, including reduction of the effective thickness, excessive application of the fertilizer and low efficiency of the agricultural irrigation system. It is found that effective soil and water loss control actions have made great contribution to the improvement of the ecological security in Baiquan county. All these results and discussions are very helpful for the further investigation on the quantitative relationship between soil and water loss and ecological security in black soil region of northeast China. PMID:24701389

  9. Hydrogeology, Water Quality, and Distribution and Sources of Salinity in the Floridan Aquifer System, Martin and St. Lucie Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2004-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system is considered to be a valuable source for agricultural and municipal water supply in Martin and St. Lucie Counties, despite its brackish water. Increased withdrawals, however, could increase salinity and threaten the quality of withdrawn water. The Floridan aquifer system consists of limestone, dolomitic limestone, and dolomite and is divided into three hydrogeologic units: the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. An informal geologic unit at the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer, referred to as the basal Hawthorn/Suwannee unit, is bound above by a marker unit in the Hawthorn Group and at its base by the Ocala Limestone; a map of this unit shows an area where substantial eastward thickening begins near the coast. This change in thickness is used to divide the study area into inland and coastal areas. In the Upper Floridan aquifer, an area of elevated chloride concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter and water temperature greater than 28 degrees Celsius exists in the inland area and trends northwest through north-central Martin County and western St. Lucie County. A structural feature coincides with this area of greater salinity and water temperature; this feature is marked by a previously mapped northwest-trending basement fault and, based on detailed mapping in this study of the structure at the top of the basal Hawthorn/Suwannee unit, an apparent southeast-trending trough. Higher hydraulic head also has been mapped in this northwest-trending area. Another area of high chloride concentration in the Upper Floridan aquifer occurs in the southern part of the coastal area (in eastern Martin County and northeastern Palm Beach County); chloride concentration in this area is more than 2,000 milligrams per liter and is as great as 8,000 milligrams per liter. A dissolved-solids concentration of less than 10,000 milligrams per liter defines the brackish-water zone in the Floridan aquifer

  10. Drilling Addendum to Resource Assessment of Low- and Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Gary C.; Bacon, C. Forrest; Chapman, Rodger H.; Chase, Gordon W.; Majmundar, Hasmukhrai H.

    1981-05-01

    This addendum report presents the results of the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) drilling program at Calistoga, California, which was the final geothermal-resource assessment investigation performed under terms of the second year contract (1979-80) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CDMG under the State Coupled Program. This report is intended to supplement information presented in CDMG's technical report for the project year, ''Resource Assessment of Low- and Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California''. During the investigative phase of the CDMG's Geothermal Project, over 200 well-driller's reports were obtained from the Department of Water Resources (DWR). It was hoped that the interpretation and correlation of these logs would reveal the subsurface geology of the Upper Napa Valley and also provide a check for the various geophysical surveys that were performed in the course of the study. However, these DWR driller logs proved to be inadequate due to the brief, non-technical, and erroneous descriptions contained on the logs. As a result of the lack of useable drill-hole data, and because information was desired from,deeper horizons, it became evident that drilling some exploratory holes would be necessary in order to obtain physical evidence of the stratigraphy and aquifers in the immediate Calistoga area. Pursuant to this objective, a total of twelve sites were selected--four under jurisdiction of Napa County and eight under jurisdiction of the City of Calistoga. A moratorium is currently in existence within Napa County on most geothermal drilling, and environmental and time constraints precluded CDMG from obtaining the necessary site permits within the county. However, a variance was applied for and obtained from the City of Calistoga to allow CDMG to drill within the city limits. With this areal constraint and also funding limits in mind, six drilling sites were selected on the basis of (1

  11. Map of the Carpinteria area and vicinity, Santa Barbara County, California, showing water-level contours for March 1983, and net change in water level between March 1982 and March 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, W.R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A water-level contour map of the Carpinteria area, California, was constructed using 34 water-level measurements made by the Carpinteria County Water District in March 1983. Also shown on the map are five hydrographs that show water-level fluctuations in each well between 1978 and 1983. In addition, a water-level net-change map for March 1982 to March 1983 is shown. (USGS)

  12. 1992 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River Ground-Water Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Mojave River Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mojave Water Agency, constructed a water-table map of the Mojave River ground-water basin for ground-water levels measured in November 1992. Water-level data were collected from approximately 300 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:125,000. The contour interval ranges from 3,200 to 1,600 feet above sea level.

  13. 2000 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins for ground-water levels measured during the spring of 2000. Water-level data were collected from 498 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:175,512. The contour interval ranges from 3,400 to 1,500 feet above sea level.

  14. 1998 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins for ground-water levels measured during the spring of 1998. Water-level data were collected from 418 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:175,512. The contour interval rangs from 3,400 to 1,500 feet above sea level.

  15. METHODOLOGY TO ESTABLISH WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS ON THE U.S. COUNTY LEVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) collects water quality data at approximately 1.5 million sites in the United States (US) for both surface water and ground water locations. These data are provided publicly through the National Water Information System (NWIS) web interfa...

  16. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the Douglas Basin area, Cochise County, Arizona; 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, Larry J.; English, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Douglas basin area includes about 1,200 square miles in southeastern Arizona. The main use of ground water is for irrigation. For 1955-77, the estimated ground-water pumpage equaled or exceeded 50,000 acre-feet per year, and for 1966-77, the ground-water pumpage averaged about 109,000 acre-feet per year. Ground-water withdrawals have resulted in water-level declines in most of the area. Information shown on the maps includes change in water level (1966-78) and irrigated area; depth to water and altitude of the water level; and chemical quality of the water and well depth. Hydrographs of the water level in selected wells and a table of historical pumpage also are included. Scale 1:125,000. (USGS)

  17. Water-table fluctuations in the Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Paces, James B.; Whelan, Joseph

    2001-04-29

    Pleistocene ground-water discharge deposits approximately 20 km southwest of Yucca Mountain were previously thought to represent pluvial water-table rises of 80 to 120 m. Data from new boreholes at two of the three discharge sites indicate that the modern water-table is at depths of only 17 to 30 m and that this shallow water is part of the regional ground-water flow system rather than being perched. Calcite in equilibrium with this modern ground water would have isotopic compositions similar to those in Pleistocene calcite associated with the discharge deposits. Carbon and uranium isotopes in both ground water and discharge deposits imply that past discharge consisted of a mixture of both shallow and deep ground water. These data limit Pleistocene water-table fluctuations at the specified Amargosa Desert discharge sites to between 17 and 30 m and eliminate the need to invoke large water-table rises.

  18. Effects of septic tank effluent on ground-water quality, Dade County, Florida: an interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Except at one site, no fecal coliforms were found below the 10-foot depth. Total coliforms exceeded a count of one colony per ml at the 60- foot depth at two sites. At one site a fecal streptococci count of 53 colonies per ml was found at the 60-foot depth and at another a count of seven colonies was found at the 40-foot depth. The three types of bacteria occur in higher concentration in the northern areas of the county than in the south. Bacteria concentrations were also higher where the septic tanks were more concentrated. 

  19. Hydrology and relation of selected water-quality constituents to selected physical factors in Dakota County, Minnesota, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almendinger, J.E.; Mitton, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    Selected water-quality constituents were determined in water from 5 surface-water sites and 29 wells in Dakota County, Minnesota, to search for possible relations to selected physical factors, including waste-water discharge, agricultural land, Quaternary deposits, bedrock, soil-leaching potential, and water-table depth. All surface-water samples were from the Vermillion River Basin, whose hydrologic setting was studied to determine its relation to the ground-water flow in the surrounding surficial sand aquifer. Each site was sampled from 1 to 12 times during 1990- 91. A total of 198 samples were collected; selected samples were analyzed for major inorganic ions, nutrients, and triazine content. Physical factors within the area of land assumed to be contributing water to each sampling site were determined from existing mapped or digitized sources. Nitrate concentrations in ground water were related to agricultural land and soil-leaching potential. Nitrate concentrations were large (median 13.2 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) where the percentage of agricultural land in the contributing area was large (equal to or greater than 75 percent) and where the soils had a large soil-leaching potential. Nitrate concentrations were small (median 3.2 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) where the soils had a small soil-leaching potential, despite a large percentage of agricultural land. The statistical relation was not particularly strong, however: the null hypothesis that sites with different soil-leaching potentials had the same nitrate concentrations in ground water was rejected by the Kruskal-Wallis test at only the probability P = 0.15 level. Water-table depth was not an important factor in the relation between nitrate concentrations in ground water and agricultural land. Discharge from a waste-water treatment plant provided most of the downstream loading of nitrate into the Vermillion River mainstem. Triazines were found in small concentrations (less than 2 micrograms per

  20. Chemical Analyses of Ground Water in the Carson Desert near Stillwater, Churchill County, Nevada, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosbury, DeEtta; Walker, Mark; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the chemical analyses of ground-water samples collected in 2005 from domestic wells located in the Stillwater area of the Carson Desert (fig. 1). These data were evaluated for evidence of mixing with nearby geothermal waters (Fosbury, 2007). That study used several methods to identify mixing zones of ground and geothermal waters using trace elements, chemical equilibria, water temperature, geothermometer estimates, and statistical techniques. In some regions, geothermal sources influence the chemical quality of ground water used for drinking water supplies. Typical geothermal contaminants include arsenic, mercury, antimony, selenium, thallium, boron, lithium, and fluoride (Webster and Nordstrom, 2003). The Environmental Protection Agency has established primary drinking water standards for these, with the exception of boron and lithium. Concentrations of some trace metals in geothermal water may exceed drinking water standards by several orders of magnitude. Geothermal influences on water quality are likely to be localized, depending on directions of ground water flow, the relative volumes of geothermal sources and ground water originating from other sources, and depth below the surface from which water is withdrawn. It is important to understand the areal extent of shallow mixing of geothermal water because it may have adverse chemical and aesthetic effects on domestic drinking water. It would be useful to understand the areal extent of these effects.