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Sample records for alamos hiv database

  1. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  2. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic database analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.V.; Rogers, P.S.Z.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; LeBrun, D.B.

    1997-02-01

    This paper represents an overview of analyses conducted on the TRU database maintained by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This evaluation was conducted to support the ``TRU Waste Workoff Strategies`` document and provides an estimation of the waste volume that potentially could be certified and ready for shipment to (WIPP) in April of 1998. Criteria defined in the WIPP WAC, including container type, weight limits, plutonium fissile gram equivalents and decay heat, were used to evaluated the waste for compliance. LANL evaluated the containers by facility and by waste stream to determining the most efficient plan for characterization and certification of the waste. Evaluation of the waste presently in storage suggested that 40- 60% potentially meets the WIPP WAC Rev. 5 criteria.

  3. Los Alamos National Laboratory 4D Database

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-02

    4D is an integrated development platform - a single product comprised of the components you need to create and distribute professional applications. You get a graphical design environment, SQL database, a programming language, integrated PHP execution, HTTP server, application server, executable generator, and much more. 4D offers multi-platform development and deployment, meaning whatever you create on a Mac can be used on Windows, and vice-versa. Beyond productive development, 4D is renowned for its great flexibility in maintenance and modification of existing applications, and its extreme ease of implementation in its numerous deployment options. Your professional application can be put into production more quickly, at a lower cost, and will always be instantly scalable. 4D makes it easy, whether you're looking to create a classic desktop application, a client-server system, a distributed solution for Web or mobile clients - or all of the above!

  4. Integrated sequence and immunology filovirus database at Los Alamos.

    PubMed

    Yusim, Karina; Yoon, Hyejin; Foley, Brian; Feng, Shihai; Macke, Jennifer; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Abfalterer, Werner; Szinger, James; Fischer, Will; Kuiken, Carla; Korber, Bette

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2013-15 infected more than 28 000 people and claimed more lives than all previous filovirus outbreaks combined. Governmental agencies, clinical teams, and the world scientific community pulled together in a multifaceted response ranging from prevention and disease control, to evaluating vaccines and therapeutics in human trials. As this epidemic is finally coming to a close, refocusing on long-term prevention strategies becomes paramount. Given the very real threat of future filovirus outbreaks, and the inherent uncertainty of the next outbreak virus and geographic location, it is prudent to consider the extent and implications of known natural diversity in advancing vaccines and therapeutic approaches. To facilitate such consideration, we have updated and enhanced the content of the filovirus portion of Los Alamos Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses Database. We have integrated and performed baseline analysis of all family ITALIC! Filoviridaesequences deposited into GenBank, with associated immune response data, and metadata, and we have added new computational tools with web-interfaces to assist users with analysis. Here, we (i) describe the main features of updated database, (ii) provide integrated views and some basic analyses summarizing evolutionary patterns as they relate to geo-temporal data captured in the database and (iii) highlight the most conserved regions in the proteome that may be useful for a T cell vaccine strategy.Database URL:www.hfv.lanl.gov. PMID:27103629

  5. Integrated sequence and immunology filovirus database at Los Alamos

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyejin; Foley, Brian; Feng, Shihai; Macke, Jennifer; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Abfalterer, Werner; Szinger, James; Fischer, Will; Kuiken, Carla; Korber, Bette

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2013–15 infected more than 28 000 people and claimed more lives than all previous filovirus outbreaks combined. Governmental agencies, clinical teams, and the world scientific community pulled together in a multifaceted response ranging from prevention and disease control, to evaluating vaccines and therapeutics in human trials. As this epidemic is finally coming to a close, refocusing on long-term prevention strategies becomes paramount. Given the very real threat of future filovirus outbreaks, and the inherent uncertainty of the next outbreak virus and geographic location, it is prudent to consider the extent and implications of known natural diversity in advancing vaccines and therapeutic approaches. To facilitate such consideration, we have updated and enhanced the content of the filovirus portion of Los Alamos Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses Database. We have integrated and performed baseline analysis of all family Filoviridae sequences deposited into GenBank, with associated immune response data, and metadata, and we have added new computational tools with web-interfaces to assist users with analysis. Here, we (i) describe the main features of updated database, (ii) provide integrated views and some basic analyses summarizing evolutionary patterns as they relate to geo-temporal data captured in the database and (iii) highlight the most conserved regions in the proteome that may be useful for a T cell vaccine strategy. Database URL: www.hfv.lanl.gov PMID:27103629

  6. Integrated sequence and immunology filovirus database at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Yusim, Karina; Yoon, Hyejin; Foley, Brian; Feng, Shihai; Macke, Jennifer; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Abfalterer, Werner; Szinger, James; Fischer, Will; Kuiken, Carla; Korber, Bette

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2013–15 infected more than 28,000 people and claimed more lives than all previous filovirus outbreaks combined. Governmental agencies, clinical teams, and the world scientific community pulled together in a multifaceted response ranging from prevention and disease control, to evaluating vaccines and therapeutics in human trials. We report that as this epidemic is finally coming to a close, refocusing on long-term prevention strategies becomes paramount. Given the very real threat of future filovirus outbreaks, and the inherent uncertainty of the next outbreak virus and geographic location, it is prudent to consider the extent and implications of known natural diversity in advancing vaccines and therapeutic approaches. To facilitate such consideration, we have updated and enhanced the content of the filovirus portion of Los Alamos Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses Database. We have integrated and performed baseline analysis of all family Filoviridae sequences deposited into GenBank, with associated immune response data, and metadata, and we have added new computational tools with web-interfaces to assist users with analysis. Here, we (i) describe the main features of updated database, (ii) provide integrated views and some basic analyses summarizing evolutionary patterns as they relate to geo-temporal data captured in the database and (iii) highlight the most conserved regions in the proteome that may be useful for a T cell vaccine strategy.

  7. Integrated sequence and immunology filovirus database at Los Alamos

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yusim, Karina; Yoon, Hyejin; Foley, Brian; Feng, Shihai; Macke, Jennifer; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Abfalterer, Werner; Szinger, James; Fischer, Will; Kuiken, Carla; et al

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2013–15 infected more than 28,000 people and claimed more lives than all previous filovirus outbreaks combined. Governmental agencies, clinical teams, and the world scientific community pulled together in a multifaceted response ranging from prevention and disease control, to evaluating vaccines and therapeutics in human trials. We report that as this epidemic is finally coming to a close, refocusing on long-term prevention strategies becomes paramount. Given the very real threat of future filovirus outbreaks, and the inherent uncertainty of the next outbreak virus and geographic location, it is prudent to consider the extent and implications of knownmore » natural diversity in advancing vaccines and therapeutic approaches. To facilitate such consideration, we have updated and enhanced the content of the filovirus portion of Los Alamos Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses Database. We have integrated and performed baseline analysis of all family Filoviridae sequences deposited into GenBank, with associated immune response data, and metadata, and we have added new computational tools with web-interfaces to assist users with analysis. Here, we (i) describe the main features of updated database, (ii) provide integrated views and some basic analyses summarizing evolutionary patterns as they relate to geo-temporal data captured in the database and (iii) highlight the most conserved regions in the proteome that may be useful for a T cell vaccine strategy.« less

  8. HIV/STD/TB PREVENTION NEWS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN) is the U.S. reference, referral, and distribution service for information on HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB). NPIN produces, collects, catalogs, processes, stocks, and disseminates materi...

  9. HIV Structural Database using Chem BLAST for all classes of AIDS inhibitors

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 155 HIV Structural Database using Chem BLAST for all classes of AIDS inhibitors (Web, free access)   The HIV structural database (HIVSDB) is a comprehensive collection of the structures of HIV protease, both of unliganded enzyme and of its inhibitor complexes. It contains abstracts and crystallographic data such as inhibitor and protein coordinates for 248 data sets, of which only 141 are from the Protein Data Bank (PDB).

  10. HIV and aging: insights from the Asia Pacific HIV Observational Database (APHOD)

    PubMed Central

    Han, N; Wright, ST; O'Connor, CC; Hoy, J; Ponnampalavanar, S; Grotowski, M; Zhao, HX; Kamarulzaman, A

    2016-01-01

    Background The proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS in the ageing population (>50 years) is increasing. We aim to explore the relationship between older age and treatment outcomes in HIV-positive persons from the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) were included in the analysis. We used survival methods to assess the association between older age and all-cause mortality, as well as time-to treatment modification. We used regression analyses to evaluate changes in CD4 counts after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation and determined the odds of detectable viral load, up to 24 months of treatment. Results A total of 7142 patients were included in these analyses (60% TAHOD, 40% AHOD), of which, 25% were >50 years old. In multivariable analyses those aged >50 were at least twice as likely to die as those aged 30-39 years [HR (50-59 years): 2.27, 95% CI: 1.34-3.83; HR (>60years) 4.28, 95% CI: 2.42-7.55]. The effect of older age on CD4 count changes was insignificant (p-trend=0.06). The odds of detectable viral load after cART initiation decreased with age (p-trend=<0.0001). The effect of older age on time-to first treatment modification was insignificant (p-trend=0.21). We found no statistically significant differences in outcomes between AHOD and TAHOD participants for all endpoints examined. Conclusion The associations between older age and typical patient outcomes in HIV-positive patients from the Asia-Pacific region are similar in AHOD and TAHOD. Our data indicate that ‘age-effects’ traverse the resource-rich and resource-limited divide and indicate that future ageing-related findings might be applicable to each setting. PMID:25407085

  11. Virtual screening of Indonesian herbal database as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Syahdi, Rezi Riadhi; Mun'im, Abdul; Suhartanto, Heru; Yanuar, Arry

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 (Human immunodeficiency virus type 1) is a member of retrovirus family that could infect human and causing AIDS disease. AIDS epidemic is one of most destructive diseases in modern era. There were more than 33 million people infected by HIV until 2010. Various studies have been widely employed to design drugs that target the essential enzymes of HIV-1 that is, reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase. In this study, in silico virtual screening approach is used to find lead molecules from the library or database of natural compounds as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Virtual screening against Indonesian Herbal Database using AutoDock4 performed on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. From the virtual screening, top ten compounds were mulberrin, plucheoside A, vitexilactone, brucine N-oxide, cyanidin 3-arabinoside, alpha-mangostin, guaijaverin, erycristagallin, morusin and sanggenol N. PMID:23275721

  12. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC) Database: an integrated database for HIV-related studies

    PubMed Central

    Cserhati, Matyas F.; Pandey, Sanjit; Beaudoin, James J.; Baccaglini, Lorena; Guda, Chittibabu; Fox, Howard S.

    2015-01-01

    We herein present the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium-Data Coordinating Center (NNTC-DCC) database, which is the only available database for neuroAIDS studies that contains data in an integrated, standardized form. This database has been created in conjunction with the NNTC, which provides human tissue and biofluid samples to individual researchers to conduct studies focused on neuroAIDS. The database contains experimental datasets from 1206 subjects for the following categories (which are further broken down into subcategories): gene expression, genotype, proteins, endo-exo-chemicals, morphometrics and other (miscellaneous) data. The database also contains a wide variety of downloadable data and metadata for 95 HIV-related studies covering 170 assays from 61 principal investigators. The data represent 76 tissue types, 25 measurement types, and 38 technology types, and reaches a total of 33 017 407 data points. We used the ISA platform to create the database and develop a searchable web interface for querying the data. A gene search tool is also available, which searches for NCBI GEO datasets associated with selected genes. The database is manually curated with many user-friendly features, and is cross-linked to the NCBI, HUGO and PubMed databases. A free registration is required for qualified users to access the database. Database URL: http://nntc-dcc.unmc.edu PMID:26228431

  13. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC) Database: an integrated database for HIV-related studies.

    PubMed

    Cserhati, Matyas F; Pandey, Sanjit; Beaudoin, James J; Baccaglini, Lorena; Guda, Chittibabu; Fox, Howard S

    2015-01-01

    We herein present the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium-Data Coordinating Center (NNTC-DCC) database, which is the only available database for neuroAIDS studies that contains data in an integrated, standardized form. This database has been created in conjunction with the NNTC, which provides human tissue and biofluid samples to individual researchers to conduct studies focused on neuroAIDS. The database contains experimental datasets from 1206 subjects for the following categories (which are further broken down into subcategories): gene expression, genotype, proteins, endo-exo-chemicals, morphometrics and other (miscellaneous) data. The database also contains a wide variety of downloadable data and metadata for 95 HIV-related studies covering 170 assays from 61 principal investigators. The data represent 76 tissue types, 25 measurement types, and 38 technology types, and reaches a total of 33,017,407 data points. We used the ISA platform to create the database and develop a searchable web interface for querying the data. A gene search tool is also available, which searches for NCBI GEO datasets associated with selected genes. The database is manually curated with many user-friendly features, and is cross-linked to the NCBI, HUGO and PubMed databases. A free registration is required for qualified users to access the database. PMID:26228431

  14. Virtual Screening of Indonesian Herbal Database as HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Yanuar, Arry; Suhartanto, Heru; Mun׳im, Abdul; Anugraha, Bram Hik; Syahdi, Rezi Riadhi

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 (Human immunodeficiency virus type 1)׳s infection is considered as one of most harmful disease known by human, the survivability rate of the host reduced significantly when it developed into AIDS. HIV drug resistance is one of the main problems of its treatment and several drug designs have been done to find new leads compound as the cure. In this study, in silico virtual screening approach was used to find lead molecules from the library or database of natural compounds as HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Virtual screening against Indonesian Herbal Database with AutoDock was performed on HIV-1 protease. From the virtual screening, top ten compounds obtained were 8-Hydroxyapigenin 8-(2",4"-disulfatoglucuronide), Isoscutellarein 4'-methyl ether, Amaranthin, Torvanol A, Ursonic acid, 5-Carboxypyranocyanidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), Oleoside, Jacoumaric acid, Platanic acid and 5-Carboxypyranocyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside. PMID:24616554

  15. HIV-1, human interaction database: current status and new features

    PubMed Central

    Ako-Adjei, Danso; Fu, William; Wallin, Craig; Katz, Kenneth S.; Song, Guangfeng; Darji, Dakshesh; Brister, J. Rodney; Ptak, Roger G.; Pruitt, Kim D.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), Human Interaction Database’, available through the National Library of Medicine at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/retroviruses/hiv-1/interactions, serves the scientific community exploring the discovery of novel HIV vaccine candidates and therapeutic targets. Each HIV-1 human protein interaction can be retrieved without restriction by web-based downloads and ftp protocols and includes: Reference Sequence (RefSeq) protein accession numbers, National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene identification numbers, brief descriptions of the interactions, searchable keywords for interactions and PubMed identification numbers (PMIDs) of journal articles describing the interactions. In addition to specific HIV-1 protein–human protein interactions, included are interaction effects upon HIV-1 replication resulting when individual human gene expression is blocked using siRNA. A total of 3142 human genes are described participating in 12 786 protein–protein interactions, along with 1316 replication interactions described for each of 1250 human genes identified using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Together the data identifies 4006 human genes involved in 14 102 interactions. With the inclusion of siRNA interactions we introduce a redesigned web interface to enhance viewing, filtering and downloading of the combined data set. PMID:25378338

  16. Cohort Profile: French hospital database on HIV (FHDH-ANRS CO4).

    PubMed

    Mary-Krause, Murielle; Grabar, Sophie; Lièvre, Laurence; Abgrall, Sophie; Billaud, Eric; Boué, François; Boyer, Laurence; Cabié, André; Cotte, Laurent; De Truchis, Pierre; Duval, Xavier; Duvivier, Claudine; Enel, Patricia; Gasnault, Jacques; Gaud, Catherine; Gilquin, Jacques; Guiguet, Marguerite; Katlama, Christine; Khuong-Josses, Marie-Aude; Lacombe, Jean-Marc; Lang, Sylvie; Lascaux, Anne-Sophie; Launay, Odile; Mahamat, Aba; Matheron, Sophie; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Pavie, Juliette; Pilorgé, Fabrice; Piroth, Lionel; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Potard, Valérie; Pradier, Christian; Reynes, Jacques; Rouveix, Elisabeth; Selinger-Leneman, Hana; Simon, Anne; Tattevin, Pierre; Tissot-Dupont, Hervé; Viard, Jean-Paul; Viget, Nathalie; Costagliola, Dominique

    2014-10-01

    The French Hospital Database on HIV (FHDH) is a hospital-based multicentre open cohort with inclusions ongoing since 1989. The research objectives focus mainly on mid- and long-term clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies, as well as severe AIDS and non-AIDS morbidities, and public health issues relative to HIV infection. FHDH also serves to describe HIV-infected patients receiving hospital care in France. FHDH includes data on more than 120,000 HIV-infected patients from 70 French general or university hospitals distributed throughout France. Patients are eligible for inclusion if they are infected by HIV-1 or HIV-2 and give their written informed consent. Standardized variables are collected at each outpatient visit or hospital admission during which a new clinical manifestation is diagnosed, a new treatment is prescribed or a change in biological markers is noted, and/or at least every 6 months. Since its inception, variables collected in FHDH include demographic characteristics, HIV-related biological markers, the date and type of AIDS and non AIDS-defining events, antiretroviral treatments and the date and causes of death, as reported in the medical records. Since 2005, data have also been collected on: co-infection with hepatitis B or C virus; alcohol and tobacco use; and non HIV-related biomarkers. Anyone can submit a research project by completing a standardized form available on the FHDH website (http://www.ccde.fr/_fold/fl-1385734776-429.pdf) or from the corresponding author, describing the context and objectives of the study. All projects are reviewed by the scientific committee. PMID:24550249

  17. Astrophysics Production in INSU until 2000: What Image is Conveyed by the Los Alamos and ADS Databases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Nathalie

    First, we defined a list of astrophysics laboratories from INSU, the French Institut des Sciences de l'Univers, and a corpus of 793 researchers who worked at these laboratories. We then compared their publications with both the LANL and ADS databases. This paper provides bibliometric results about the researchers. One notes a strong concentration of publications present in the LANL database, but less so in the ADS database due to its recording of a larger number of reviews and conference proceedings.

  18. Hepatitis B and C Co-Infection in HIV Patients from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database: Analysis of Risk Factors and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Marcelo; Wong, Wing-Wai; Law, Matthew G.; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Yunihastuti, Evy; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Lim, Poh Lian; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Lee, Man Po; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Ditangco, Rossana; Sim, Benedict L. H.; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Pujari, Sanjay; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Zhang, Fujie; Pham, Thuy Thanh; Choi, Jun Yong; Oka, Shinichi; Kantipong, Pacharee; Mustafa, Mahiran; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Durier, Nicolas; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Background We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models. Factors associated with post-ART HIV immunological response (CD4 change after six months) and virological response (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml after 12 months) were also determined. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test. Results A total of 7,455 subjects were recruited by December 2012. Of patients tested, 591/5656 (10.4%) were HBsAg positive, 794/5215 (15.2%) were HCVAb positive, and 88/4966 (1.8%) were positive for both markers. In multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection, age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, and HIV-1 subtype were associated with immunological recovery. Age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, ART regimen, prior ART and HIV-1 subtype, but not HBV or HCV co-infection, affected HIV RNA suppression. Risk factors affecting mortality included HCV co-infection, age, CDC stage, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA and prior mono/dual ART. Shortest survival was seen in subjects who were both HBV- and HCV-positive. Conclusion In this Asian cohort of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection, but not HBV co-infection, was associated with lower CD4 cell recovery after ART and increased mortality. PMID:26933963

  19. Waste management and technologies analytical database project for Los Alamos National Laboratory/Department of Energy. Final report, June 7, 1993--June 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-17

    The Waste Management and Technologies Analytical Database System (WMTADS) supported by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Technology Development (EM-50), was developed and based at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, to collect, identify, organize, track, update, and maintain information related to existing/available/developing and planned technologies to characterize, treat, and handle mixed, hazardous and radioactive waste for storage and disposal in support of EM strategies and goals and to focus area projects. WMTADS was developed as a centralized source of on-line information regarding technologies for environmental management processes that can be accessed by a computer, modem, phone line, and communications software through a Local Area Network (LAN), and server connectivity on the Internet, the world`s largest computer network, and with file transfer protocol (FTP) can also be used to globally transfer files from the server to the user`s computer through Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) using Mosaic.

  20. Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on Opportunistic Infections of HIV-Infected Children in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Kariminia, Azar; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Moy, Fong Siew; Law, Matthew; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Razali, Kamarul; Sirisanthana, Virat; Sohn, Annette H.; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2014-01-01

    Background There are limited data on opportunistic infections (OI) and factors associated with their occurrence after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Asian children. The use of HAART in Asia started much later than in developed countries and therefore reported findings may not be fully applicable to the pediatric HIV epidemic in Asia. Methods Retrospective and prospectively collected data from the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database cohort study from March 1993 to March 2009 were analyzed. OIs were defined according to WHO clinical staging criteria, and incidence rates calculated. Factors associated with the incidence of severe OIs were analyzed using random effects Poisson regression modeling. Results Of 2280 children in the cohort, 1752 were ever reported to have received ART, of whom 1480 (84%) started on HAART. Before commencing any ART, OIs occurred at a rate of 89.5 per 100 person-years. The incidence rate was 28.8 infections per 100 person-years during mono- or dual-therapy, and 10.5 infections per 100 person-years during HAART. The most common OIs both before and after ART initiation were recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, persistent oral candidiasis, and pulmonary tuberculosis. The incidence rates of WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 OIs after HAART were highest among children <18 months of age and those with low weight-for-age z scores, CD4 cell percentage <15%, and WHO stage 3 at HAART initiation. Conclusions Despite dramatic declines in their incidence, OIs remained important causes of morbidity after HAART initiation in this regional cohort of HIV-infected children in Asia. PMID:24378942

  1. QSAR Modeling Using Large-Scale Databases: Case Study for HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tarasova, Olga A; Urusova, Aleksandra F; Filimonov, Dmitry A; Nicklaus, Marc C; Zakharov, Alexey V; Poroikov, Vladimir V

    2015-07-27

    Large-scale databases are important sources of training sets for various QSAR modeling approaches. Generally, these databases contain information extracted from different sources. This variety of sources can produce inconsistency in the data, defined as sometimes widely diverging activity results for the same compound against the same target. Because such inconsistency can reduce the accuracy of predictive models built from these data, we are addressing the question of how best to use data from publicly and commercially accessible databases to create accurate and predictive QSAR models. We investigate the suitability of commercially and publicly available databases to QSAR modeling of antiviral activity (HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibition). We present several methods for the creation of modeling (i.e., training and test) sets from two, either commercially or freely available, databases: Thomson Reuters Integrity and ChEMBL. We found that the typical predictivities of QSAR models obtained using these different modeling set compilation methods differ significantly from each other. The best results were obtained using training sets compiled for compounds tested using only one method and material (i.e., a specific type of biological assay). Compound sets aggregated by target only typically yielded poorly predictive models. We discuss the possibility of "mix-and-matching" assay data across aggregating databases such as ChEMBL and Integrity and their current severe limitations for this purpose. One of them is the general lack of complete and semantic/computer-parsable descriptions of assay methodology carried by these databases that would allow one to determine mix-and-matchability of result sets at the assay level. PMID:26046311

  2. HIV patients in the HCUP database: a study of hospital utilization and costs.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Fred J

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the utilization of hospital care by HIV patients in all hospitals in eight states (California, Colorado, Florida, Kansas, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina), and examines the cost of hospital care for HIV patients in six of these states (California, Colorado, Kansas, New Jersey, New York, and South Carolina). The eight states in the sample account for more than 52% of all persons living with AIDS in the United States; the six states account for 39%. The unit of observation in both studies is a hospital admission by a patient with HIV. Hospital data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), State Inpatient Database (SID), which is maintained by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The HCUP contains hospital discharge data and is a federal/state/industry partnership to build a multistate health care data system. Using multivariate analytic techniques and data from 2000, results indicate that cost and length of a hospital stay vary significantly across states after accounting for a patient's gender, insurance type, race, age, and number of diagnoses, as well as the teaching status and ownership category of the hospital. PMID:15224963

  3. Loss to follow-up in the Australian HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Hamish; Petoumenos, Kathy; Brown, Katherine; Baker, David; Russell, Darren; Read, Tim; Smith, Don; Wray, Lynne; Giles, Michelle; Hoy, Jennifer; Carr, Andrew; Law, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up (LTFU) in HIV-positive cohorts is an important surrogate for interrupted clinical care which can potentially influence the assessment of HIV disease status and outcomes. After preliminary evaluation of LTFU rates and patient characteristics, we evaluated the risk of mortality by LTFU status in a high resource setting. Methods Rates of LTFU were measured in the Australian HIV Observational Database for a range of patient characteristics. Multivariate repeated measures regression methods were used to identify determinants of LTFU. Mortality by LTFU status was ascertained using linkage to the National Death Index. Survival following combination antiretroviral therapy initiation was investigated using the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method and Cox proportional hazards models. Results Of 3,413 patients included in this analysis, 1,632 (47.8%) had at least one episode of LTFU after enrolment. Multivariate predictors of LTFU included viral load (VL)>10,000 copies/ml (Rate ratio (RR) 1.63 (95% confidence interval (CI):1.45–1.84) (ref ≤400)), time under follow-up (per year) (RR 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02–1.04)) and prior LTFU (per episode) (RR 1.15 (95% CI: 1.06–1.24)). KM curves for survival were similar by LTFU status (p=0.484). LTFU was not associated with mortality in Cox proportional hazards models (univariate hazard ratio (HR) 0.93 (95% CI: 0.69–1.26) and multivariate HR 1.04 (95% CI: 0.77–1.43)). Conclusions Increased risk of LTFU was identified amongst patients with potentially higher infectiousness. We did not find significant mortality risk associated with LTFU. This is consistent with timely re-engagement with treatment, possibly via high levels of unreported linkage to other health care providers. PMID:25377928

  4. A Decade of Combination Antiretroviral Treatment in Asia: The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database Cohort.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Asian countries have seen the expansion of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over the past decade. The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) was established in 2003 comprising 23 urban referral sites in 13 countries across the region. We examined trends in treatment outcomes in patients who initiated cART between 2003 and 2013. Time of cART initiation was grouped into three periods: 2003-2005, 2006-2009, and 2010-2013. We analyzed trends in undetectable viral load (VL; defined as VL <400 copies/ml), CD4 changes from pre-cART levels, and overall survival. Of 6,521 patients included, the overall median CD4 count at cART initiation was 120 cells/μl (interquartile range: 38-218). Despite an increase over time, pre-cART CD4 counts remained <200 cells/μl. Adjusted analyses showed undetectable VL was more likely when starting cART in later years [2006-2009: odds ratio (OR) = 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.45, 2.15); and 2010-2013: OR = 3.04, 95% CI (2.33, 3.97), all p < .001, compared to 2003-2005], and survival was improved [2006-2009: subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 0.41, 95% CI (0.27, 0.61), 2010-2013: SHR = 0.29, 95% CI (0.17, 0.49), all p < .001, compared to 2003-2005]. No differences in CD4 response was observed over time. Age and CD4 levels prior to cART initiation were associated with all three treatment outcomes, with older age and higher CD4 counts being associated with undetectable VL. Survival and VL response on cART have improved over the past decade in TAHOD, although CD4 count at cART initiation remained low. Greater effort should be made to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis and linkage to care and treatment, to achieve greater improvements in treatment outcomes. PMID:27030657

  5. Efficacy of second-line antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Asia: Results from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    BOETTIGER, David C; NGUYEN, Van Kinh; DURIER, Nicolas; BUI, Huy Vu; SIM, Benedict Lim Heng; AZWA, Iskandar; LAW, Matthew; RUXRUNGTHAM, Kiat

    2014-01-01

    Background Roughly 4% of the 1.25 million patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Asia are using second-line therapy. To maximize patient benefit and regional resources it is important to optimize the timing of second-line ART initiation and use the most effective compounds available. Methods HIV positive patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database who had used second-line ART for ≥6 months were included. ART use and rates and predictors of second-line treatment failure were evaluated. Results There were 302 eligible patients. Most were male (76.5%) and exposed to HIV via heterosexual contact (71.5%). Median age at second-line initiation was 39.2 years, median CD4 cell count was 146 cells/mm3, and median HIV viral load was 16,224 copies/mL. Patients started second-line ART before 2007 (n=105), 2007-2010 (n=147) and after 2010 (n=50). Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and atazanavir accounted for the majority of protease inhibitor use after 2006. Median follow-up time on second-line was 2.3 years. The rates of treatment failure and mortality per 100 patient/years were 8.8 (95%CI 7.1 to 10.9) and 1.1 (95%CI 0.6 to 1.9), respectively. Older age, high baseline viral load and use of a protease inhibitor other than lopinavir or atazanavir were associated with a significantly shorter time to second-line failure. Conclusions Increased access to viral load monitoring to facilitate early detection of first-line ART failure and subsequent treatment switch is important for maximizing the durability of second-line therapy in Asia. Although second-line ART is highly effective in the region, the reported rate of failure emphasizes the need for third-line ART in a small portion of patients. PMID:25590271

  6. Prevalence, Characteristics, Management, and Outcome of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Children in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database (TApHOD)

    PubMed Central

    Sudjaritruk, Tavitiya; Maleesatharn, Alan; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Fong, Siew Moy; Le, Ngoc Oanh; Le, Thanh Thuy Thi; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Kurniati, Nia; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Yusoff, Nik Khairulddin Nik; Razali, Kamarul Azahar Mohd; Kariminia, Azar; Sohn, Annette H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted to determine prevalence, characteristics, management, and outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Asian HIV-infected children in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database (TApHOD). Data on PTB episodes diagnosed during the period between 12 months before antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and December 31, 2009 were extracted. A total of 2678 HIV-infected children were included in TApHOD over a 13-year period; 457 developed PTB, giving a period prevalence of 17.1% (range 5.7–33.0% per country). There were a total of 484 PTB episodes; 27 children had 2 episodes each. There were 21 deaths (4.3%). One third of episodes (n=175/484) occurred after ART initiation at a median of 14.1 months (interquartile range [IQR] 2.5–28.8 months). The median (IQR) CD4+ values were 9.0% (3.0–16.0%) and 183.5 (37.8–525.0) cells/mm3 when PTB was diagnosed. Most episodes (n=424/436, 97.3%) had abnormal radiographic findings compatible with PTB, whereas half (n=267/484, 55.2%) presented with clinical characteristics of PTB. One third of those tested (n=42/122, 34.4%) had bacteriological evidence of PTB. Of the 156 episodes (32.2%) that were accompanied with extrapulmonary TB, pleuritis was the most common manifestation (81.4%). After treatment completion, most episodes (n=396/484, 81.9%) were recorded as having positive outcomes (cured, treatment completed and child well, and improvement). The prevalence of PTB among Asian HIV-infected children in our cohort was high. Children with persistent immunosuppression remain vulnerable to PTB even after ART initiation. PMID:24206012

  7. Southern African Treatment Resistance Network (SATuRN) RegaDB HIV drug resistance and clinical management database: supporting patient management, surveillance and research in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Manasa, Justen; Lessells, Richard; Rossouw, Theresa; Naidu, Kevindra; Van Vuuren, Cloete; Goedhals, Dominique; van Zyl, Gert; Bester, Armand; Skingsley, Andrew; Stott, Katharine; Danaviah, Siva; Chetty, Terusha; Singh, Lavanya; Moodley, Pravi; Iwuji, Collins; McGrath, Nuala; Seebregts, Christopher J; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2014-01-01

    Substantial amounts of data have been generated from patient management and academic exercises designed to better understand the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and design interventions to control it. A number of specialized databases have been designed to manage huge data sets from HIV cohort, vaccine, host genomic and drug resistance studies. Besides databases from cohort studies, most of the online databases contain limited curated data and are thus sequence repositories. HIV drug resistance has been shown to have a great potential to derail the progress made thus far through antiretroviral therapy. Thus, a lot of resources have been invested in generating drug resistance data for patient management and surveillance purposes. Unfortunately, most of the data currently available relate to subtype B even though >60% of the epidemic is caused by HIV-1 subtype C. A consortium of clinicians, scientists, public health experts and policy markers working in southern Africa came together and formed a network, the Southern African Treatment and Resistance Network (SATuRN), with the aim of increasing curated HIV-1 subtype C and tuberculosis drug resistance data. This article describes the HIV-1 data curation process using the SATuRN Rega database. The data curation is a manual and time-consuming process done by clinical, laboratory and data curation specialists. Access to the highly curated data sets is through applications that are reviewed by the SATuRN executive committee. Examples of research outputs from the analysis of the curated data include trends in the level of transmitted drug resistance in South Africa, analysis of the levels of acquired resistance among patients failing therapy and factors associated with the absence of genotypic evidence of drug resistance among patients failing therapy. All these studies have been important for informing first- and second-line therapy. This database is a free password-protected open source database available on

  8. Quantification of the Epitope Diversity of HIV-1-Specific Binding Antibodies by Peptide Microarrays for Global HIV-1 Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-01-01

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6,564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth of IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research. PMID:25445329

  9. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-14

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth of IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research.

  10. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-14

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth ofmore » IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research.« less

  11. Treatment and disease outcomes of migrants from low- and middle-income countries in the Australian HIV Observational Database cohort.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Donna M; Griggs, Elizabeth; Hoy, Jennifer; Wright, Stephen T; Woolley, Ian; Burke, Michael; O'Connor, Catherine C

    2015-01-01

    People from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, including low- and middle-income countries, account for a third of new HIV diagnoses in Australia and are a priority for HIV prevention and treatment programs. We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of participants in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and compare disease outcomes, progression to AIDS and treatment outcomes of those born in low- and middle-income countries, with those born in high-income countries and Australia. All participants enrolled in AHOD sites where country of birth is routinely collected were included in the study. Age, CD4 count, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy, hepatitis co-infection, all-cause mortality and AIDS illness were analysed. Of 2403 eligible participants, 77.3% were Australian born, 13.7% born in high-income countries and 9.0% born in middle- or low-income countries. Those born in Australia or high-income countries were more likely to be male (96%) than those from middle- or low-income countries (76%), p < .0001 and more likely to have acquired HIV via male to male sexual contact (77%; 79%) compared with those from middle- or low-income countries (50%), p < .0001. At enrolment, mean CD4 cell count was higher in Australian born (528 cells/µL) than both those born in high-income countries (468 cells/µL) and those born in middle- and low-income countries (451 cells/µL), p < .0001; whereas the mean HIV RNA level (log10 copies/mL) was similar in all three groups (4.44, 4.76 and 4.26, respectively), p = .19.There was no difference in adjusted incidence risk ratios for all-cause mortality and AIDS incidence in all three groups, p = .39. These findings reflect successful outcomes of people born in low- and middle-income countries once engaged in HIV care. PMID:26679270

  12. High Rates of Sexually transmitted infections in HIV-positive patients in the Australian HIV Observational Database - a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mulhall, Brian P; Wright, Stephen; Allen, Debbie; Brown, Katherine; Dickson, Bridget; Grotowski, Miriam; Jackson, Eva; Petoumenos, Kathy; Read, Phillip; Read, Timothy; Russell, Darren; Smith, David J; Templeton, David J; Fairley, Christopher K; Law, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STI) may directly increase the risk of HIV infection, or may indicate sexual practices that increase the risk of HIV infection. In persons with HIV they probably also increase the infectiousness of HIV, even in the context of treatment with antiretroviral drugs (ARV). Estimating STI in this group has proved problematic, and there are few longitudinal studies able to accurately measure incidence. Methods In 2010, we established a cohort of individuals from ten widely dispersed sexual health clinics that were already enrolled in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD). We calculated retrospective diagnosis rates for four STI (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, infectious syphilis, anogenital warts) from 2005-2010, and prospective incidence rates from 2010-2011. Results At baseline (2010) , the patient characteristics (n=554) were similar to the rest of AHOD (n=1767), namely they were predominantly male, homosexual, middle-aged, and pre- treated with ARV. Overall, the incidence of any STI was 12.5/100 person years (py). There was a gradual increase in chlamydial infections , from 3.4/100 py (95% CI 1.9-5.7) in 2005 to 6.7/100py (95% CI 4.5-9.5) in 2011, with a substantial peak of 8.1/100py (95% CI 5.6-11.2) in 2010. The cases were distributed between rectal ( 61.9%), urethral (34%), and pharyngeal (6.3%) sites. Similarly, gonococcal infections increased, with a peak in 2010 of 4.7/100py (95% CI 5.6-11.2), (p value for trend=0.0099), distributed between rectal (63.9%), urethral (27.9%), and pharyngeal (14.8%) sites. Infectious syphilis showed several peaks, the largest in 2008 (5.3/100py , (95% CI 3.3-8.0), but the overall trend was not significant (p=0.113). Diagnoses of genital warts declined from 7.5/100py (95% CI 4.8-11.3) in 2005 (95% CI 4.8-11.3) to 2.4/100py (95% CI 1.1-4.5) in 2011 (p value for trend=0.0016). Conclusions The incidence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in this cohort was higher than previous

  13. Clinically significant interactions between antiretroviral and co-prescribed drugs for HIV-infected children: profiling and comparison of two drug databases

    PubMed Central

    Oshikoya, Kazeem A; Oreagba, Ibrahim A; Ogunleye, Olayinka O; Lawal, Saheed; Senbanjo, Idowu O

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug–drug interactions are an important therapeutic challenge among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Early recognition of drug–drug interactions is important, but conflicts do exist among drug compendia on drug interaction information. We aimed to evaluate the consistencies of two drug information resources with regards to the severity rating and categorization of the potential interactions between antiretroviral and co-prescribed drugs. Methods We reviewed the case files of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children who were receiving treatment at the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi Araba, between January 2005 and December 2010. All of the co-prescribed and antiretroviral drug pairs were screened for potential interactions using the Medscape Drug Interaction Checker and the Monthly Index of Medical Specialties Interaction Checker. Drug–drug interaction (DDI) severity and categorization were rated on a scale of A (no known interaction); B (minor/no action needed); C (moderate/monitor therapy); D (major/therapy modification); and X (contraindicated/avoid combination). Results A total of 280 patients were at risk of 596 potential DDIs. The databases showed discrepancies, with Medscape database identifying 504 (84.6%) and USA MIMS database identifying 302 (50.7%) potential DDIs. Simultaneous identification of DDIs by both databases occurred for only 275 (46.1%) listed interactions. Both databases have a weak correlation on the severity rating (rs = 0.45; P < 0.001). The most common DDIs identified by the databases were nevirapine and artemisinin-based combination therapy (170; 28.5%), nevirapine and fluconazole (58; 9.7%), and zidovudine and fluconazole (55; 9.2%). There were 272 (45.6%) interaction severity agreements between the databases. Conclusion Discrepancies occurred in DDI listings between Medscape and USA MIMS databases. Health care professionals may need to consult

  14. HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sumit; Sahoo, Soumya Swaroop; Jain, Rambilas; Khanna, Pardeep; Mehta, Bharti; Singh, Inderjeet

    2014-01-01

    Getting to zero: zero new HIV infections, zero deaths from AIDS-related illness, zero discrimination is the theme of World AIDS Day 2012. Given the spread of the epidemic today, getting to zero may sound difficult, but significant progress is underway. The total annual loss for the entire country due to HIV is 7% of GDP, which exceeds India’s annual health expenditure in 2004. The additional loss due to loss of labor income and increased medical expenditure as measured by the external transfers, account for 5% of the country’s health expenditure and 0.23% of GDP. Given that the HIV incidence rate is only 0.27% in India, these losses are quite staggering. Despite the remarkable achievements in development of anti-retroviral therapies against HIV and the recent advances in new prevention technologies, the rate of new HIV infections continue to outpace efforts on HIV prevention and control. Thus, the development of a safe and effective vaccine for prevention and control of AIDS remains a global public health priority and the greatest opportunity to eventually end the AIDS pandemic. PMID:24056755

  15. Intercontinental Dispersal of HIV-1 Subtype B Associated with Transmission among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Yuki; Raghwani, Jayna; Fearnhill, Esther; Sano, Takako; Kusagawa, Shigeru; Mbisa, Jean L.; Zhang, Hongyi; Matano, Tetsuro; Leigh Brown, Andrew J.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Dunn, David; Kondo, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transmission clusters of HIV-1 subtype B uniquely associated with the epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in East Asia have recently been identified. Using the Los Alamos HIV sequence database and the UK HIV drug resistance database, we explored possible links between HIV MSM epidemics in East Asia and the rest of the world by using phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses. We found that JP.MSM.B-1, a subtype B MSM variant that accounts for approximately one-third of the infections among Japanese MSM, was detected worldwide, in the United Kingdom (n = 13), mainland China (n = 3), the United States, Germany, Canada, and Taiwan (n = 1 each). Interestingly, 10 United Kingdom samples plus two from Germany and the United States formed a distinct monophyletic subgroup within JP.MSM.B-1. The estimated divergence times of JP.MSM.B-1 and the latter subgroup were ∼1989 and ∼1999, respectively. These dates suggest that JP.MSM.B-1 was circulating for many years in Japan among MSM before disseminating to other countries, most likely through global MSM networks. A significant number of other Asian MSM HIV lineages were also detected in the UK HIV drug resistance database. Our study provides insight into the regional and global dispersal of Asian MSM HIV lineages. Further study of these strains is warranted to elucidate viral migration and the interrelationship of HIV epidemics on a global scale. IMPORTANCE We previously identified several transmission clusters of HIV-1 subtype B uniquely associated with the epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in East Asia. Using the Los Alamos HIV sequence database and the UK HIV drug resistance database, we explored the possible interplay of HIV MSM epidemics in the different geographic regions and found previously unrecognized interrelationships among the HIV-1 epidemics in East Asia, the United Kingdom, and the rest of the world. Our study provides insight into the regional and global dispersal of Asian MSM

  16. HIV and lower risk of multiple sclerosis: beginning to unravel a mystery using a record-linked database study

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Julian; Goldacre, Raph; Maruszak, Hubert; Giovannoni, Gavin; Yeates, David; Goldacre, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Even though multiple sclerosis (MS) and HIV infection are well-documented conditions in clinical medicine, there is only a single case report of a patient with MS and HIV treated with HIV antiretroviral therapies. In this report, the patient's MS symptoms resolved completely after starting combination antiretroviral therapy and remain subsided for more than 12 years. Authors hypothesised that because the pathogenesis of MS has been linked to human endogenous retroviruses, antiretroviral therapy for HIV may be coincidentally treating or preventing progression of MS. This led researchers from Denmark to conduct an epidemiological study on the incidence of MS in a newly diagnosed HIV population (5018 HIV cases compared with 50 149 controls followed for 31 875 and 393 871 person-years, respectively). The incidence rate ratio for an HIV patient acquiring MS was low at 0.3 (95% CI 0.04 to 2.20) but did not reach statistical significance possibly due to the relatively small numbers in both groups. Our study was designed to further investigate the possible association between HIV and MS. Methods We conducted a comparative cohort study accessing one of the world’s largest linked medical data sets with a cohort of 21 207 HIV-positive patients and 5 298 496 controls stratified by age, sex, year of first hospital admission, region of residence and socioeconomic status and ‘followed up’ by record linkage. Results Overall, the rate ratio of developing MS in people with HIV, relative to those without HIV, was 0.38 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.79). Conclusions HIV infection is associated with a significantly decreased risk of developing MS. Mechanisms of this observed possibly protective association may include immunosuppression induced by chronic HIV infection and antiretroviral medications. PMID:25091370

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Edward F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Current and post World War II scientific research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) is discussed. The operation of the laboratory, the Los Alamos consultant program, and continuation education, and continuing education activities at the laboratory are also discussed. (JN)

  18. Audit of personal property management at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-07

    The Department of Energy`s (Department) Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) are responsible for ensuring that Los Alamos maintains an efficient and effective personal property management system that protects, identifies, and controls Government-owned personal property in accordance with applicable regulations. Albuquerque is responsible for reviewing and approving Los Alamos` personal property management system. Los Alamos is responsible for ensuring that personal property is properly protected, identified, and controlled. The audit disclosed that Los Alamos did not have an efficient and effective personal property management system to ensure that personal property was adequately protected, identified, and controlled. In addition, Albuquerque did not approve or disapprove Los Alamos` personal property management system consistent with Federal and Department regulations. Specifically, the audit showed that Los Alamos did not account for $11.6 million of personal property. In addition, $22.2 million of personal property was not properly recorded in the database, $61.7 million of personal property could not be inventoried, and loans to employees and other entities were not adequately justified. As a result, from a total personal property inventory of approximately $1 billion, it is estimated that $100 million of personal property may not be accounted for, and $207 million may not be correctly recorded in the database. Moreover, substantial amounts of personal property on loan to employees and other entities were at risk of unauthorized use. Albuquerque concurred with the finding and agreed to implement the corrective actions recommended in the report.

  19. Prevalence of K65R in patients treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: recommendations based on the Frankfurt HIV Cohort Study Resistance Database (FHCS-RD).

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, Claudia; Wesner, Anna; Keppler, Oliver T; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Herrmann, Eva; Stürmer, Martin; Stephan, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in the genome of HIV-1 can compromise the success of antiretroviral treatments (ARTs) in HIV-1-infected individuals. The Frankfurt HIV Cohort Study Resistance Database (FHCS-RD) has previously documented a decline in the burden of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) following the implementation of several new antiretroviral therapy regimens in 2007. In the current study, the annual burden of RAMs documented in the FHCS-RD in 2005-2013 was set in relation to the annual number of all cohort patients, drug regimens, available resistance tests, and prevalence for each RAM on relevant codons of reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) genes. A specific focus was put on the prevalence of the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) signature mutation K65R in HIV-1 RT in relation to the application of TDF within ART. Between 2005 and 2012, a total of 4423 HIV genotyping data sets from 4509 patients were analysed. All mutations show a consistent decline, and the most impressive decrease was observed for thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs). The frequency of non-TAMs and PR mutations also decreased, but generally to a lower extent. The prevalence of K65R decreased from 2.6 % in 2005 to 0.2 % in 2012 despite increased use of TDF-containing ART. Both the improved strategic use of TDF in ARTs and generally more effective ART regimens may have resulted in decreasing RAM prevalences in FHCS-RD since 2007. These trends challenge the cost-effectiveness of resistance testing prior to failing ART. PMID:26746222

  20. Trends in First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Asia: Results from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    Boettiger, David Charles; Kerr, Stephen; Ditangco, Rossana; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Pham, Thuy Thi Thanh; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Li, Chung Ki Patrick; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Lee, Christopher; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Pujari, Sanjay; Wong, Wing Wai; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Zhang, Fujie; Yunihastuti, Evy; Choi, Jun Yong; Oka, Shinichi; Ng, Oon Tek; Kantipong, Pacharee; Mustafa, Mahiran; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Sohn, Annette; Law, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has evolved rapidly since its beginnings. This analysis describes trends in first-line ART use in Asia and their impact on treatment outcomes. Methods Patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database receiving first-line ART for ≥6 months were included. Predictors of treatment failure and treatment modification were assessed. Results Data from 4662 eligible patients was analysed. Patients started ART in 2003–2006 (n = 1419), 2007–2010 (n = 2690) and 2011–2013 (n = 553). During the observation period, tenofovir, zidovudine and abacavir use largely replaced stavudine. Stavudine was prescribed to 5.8% of ART starters in 2012/13. Efavirenz use increased at the expense of nevirapine, although both continue to be used extensively (47.5% and 34.5% of patients in 2012/13, respectively). Protease inhibitor use dropped after 2004. The rate of treatment failure or modification declined over time (22.1 [95%CI 20.7–23.5] events per 100 patient/years in 2003–2006, 15.8 [14.9–16.8] in 2007–2010, and 11.6 [9.4–14.2] in 2011–2013). Adjustment for ART regimen had little impact on the temporal decline in treatment failure rates but substantially attenuated the temporal decline in rates of modification due to adverse event. In the final multivariate model, treatment modification due to adverse event was significantly predicted by earlier period of ART initiation (hazard ratio 0.52 [95%CI 0.33–0.81], p = 0.004 for 2011–2013 versus 2003–2006), older age (1.56 [1.19–2.04], p = 0.001 for ≥50 years versus <30years), female sex (1.29 [1.11–1.50], p = 0.001 versus male), positive hepatitis C status (1.33 [1.06–1.66], p = 0.013 versus negative), and ART regimen (11.36 [6.28–20.54], p<0.001 for stavudine-based regimens versus tenofovir-based). Conclusions The observed trends in first-line ART use in Asia reflect changes in drug availability, global treatment recommendations and

  1. Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

    2012-01-26

    "Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

  2. Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos

    ScienceCinema

    McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

    2014-08-12

    "Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

  3. Measures of site resourcing predict virologic suppression, immunologic response and HIV disease progression following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD)

    PubMed Central

    Oyomopito, R; Lee, MP; Phanuphak, P; Lim, PL; Ditangco, R; Zhou, J; Sirisanthana, T; Chen, YMA; Pujari, S; Kumarasamy, N; Sungkanuparph, S; Lee, CKC; Kamarulzaman, A; Oka, S; Zhang, FJ; Mean, CV; Merati, T; Tau, G; Smith, J; Li, PCK

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Surrogate markers of HIV disease progression are HIV RNA in plasma viral load (VL) and CD4 cell count (immune function). Despite improved international access to antiretrovirals, surrogate marker diagnostics are not routinely available in resource-limited settings. Therefore, the objective was to assess effects of economic and diagnostic resourcing on patient treatment outcomes. Methods Analyses were based on 2333 patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) from 2000 onwards. Sites were categorized by World Bank country income criteria (high/low) and annual frequency of VL (≥ 3, 1–2 or <1) or CD4 (≥ 3 or <3) testing. Endpoints were time to AIDS/death and change in CD4 cell count and VL suppression (<400 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) at 12 months. Demographics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classification, baseline VL/CD4 cell counts, hepatitis B/C coinfections and HAART regimen were covariates. Time to AIDS/death was analysed by proportional hazards models. CD4 and VL endpoints were analysed using linear and logistic regression, respectively. Results Increased disease progression was associated with site-reported VL testing less than once per year [hazard ratio (HR)=1.4; P=0.032], severely symptomatic HIV infection (HR=1.4; P=0.003) and hepatitis C virus coinfection (HR=1.8; P=0.011). A total of 1120 patients (48.2%) had change in CD4 cell count data. Smaller increases were associated with older age (P<0.001) and `Other' HIV source exposures, including injecting drug use and blood products (P=0.043). A total of 785 patients (33.7%) contributed to the VL suppression analyses. Patients from sites with VL testing less than once per year [odds ratio (OR)=0.30; P<0.001] and reporting `Other' HIV exposures experienced reduced suppression (OR=0.28; P<0.001). Conclusion Low measures of site resourcing were associated with less favourable patient outcomes, including a 35% increase in disease progression in patients from sites

  4. Prognostic significance of the intervals between the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and anti-tuberculosis treatment in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients: Results from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Hoon; Zhou, Jialun; Lee, Man Po; Zhao, Hongxin; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Pujari, Sanjay; Lee, Christopher; Faridah Syed Omar, Sharifah; Ditangco, Rossana; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Yunihastuti, Evy; Tanuma, Junko; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Sohn, Annette H.; Choi, Jun Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the effect of time intervals between the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculosis (TB) treatment on clinical outcomes in HIV-TB co-infected patients in an Asian regional cohort. Methods Adult HIV-TB co-infected patients in an observational HIV cohort database who had a known date of ART initiation and history of TB treatment were eligible for study inclusion. The time intervals between the initiation of ART and TB treatment were categorized as follows: TB diagnosed while on ART, early ART (<90 days after TB treatment), delayed ART (>90 days after TB treatment), and ART not started. Outcomes were assessed using survival analyses. Results A total of 768 HIV-TB co-infected patients were included in this study. Median CD4 T-cell count at TB diagnosis was 100 (IQR 40–208) cells/µL. The treatment outcomes between early ART and delayed ART initiation were not significantly different. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that mortality was highest for those diagnosed with TB while on ART (3.77 deaths per 100 person-years), and the prognoses of other groups were not different (in deaths per 100 person-years: 2.12 early ART, 1.46 delayed ART, and 2.94 ART not started). In a multivariate model, the interval between ART initiation and TB therapy did not significantly impact all-cause mortality. Conclusions The negative impact of delayed ART in patients co-infected with TB was not observed in this observational cohort of moderately to severely immunosuppressed patients. The broader impact of earlier ART in actual clinical practice should be monitored more closely. PMID:23980589

  5. Los Alamos offers Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico is calling for applications for postdoctoral appointments and research fellowships. The positions are available in geoscience as well as other scientific disciplines.The laboratory, which is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy, awards J. Robert Oppenheimer Research Fellowships to scientists that either have or will soon complete doctoral degrees. The appointments are for two years, are renewable for a third year, and carry a stipend of $51,865 per year. Potential applicants should send a resume or employment application and a statement of research goals to Carol M. Rich, Div. 89, Human Resources Development Division, MS P290, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 by mid-November.

  6. Acquisition of HIV by African-Born Residents of Victoria, Australia: Insights from Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Lemoh, Chris; Ryan, Claire E.; Sekawi, Zamberi; Hearps, Anna C.; Aleksic, Eman; Chibo, Doris; Grierson, Jeffrey; Baho, Samia; Street, Alan; Hellard, Margaret; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Crowe, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    African-born Australians are a recognised “priority population” in Australia's Sixth National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We compared exposure location and route for African-born people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Victoria, Australia, with HIV-1 pol subtype from drug resistance assays and geographical origin suggested by phylogenetic analysis of env gene. Twenty adult HIV positive African-born Victorian residents were recruited via treating doctors. HIV exposure details were obtained from interviews and case notes. Viral RNA was extracted from participant stored plasma or whole blood. The env V3 region was sequenced and compared to globally representative reference HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Library HIV Database. Twelve participants reported exposure via heterosexual sex and two via iatrogenic blood exposures; four were men having sex with men (MSM); two were exposed via unknown routes. Eight participants reported exposure in their countries of birth, seven in Australia, three in other countries and two in unknown locations. Genotype results (pol) were available for ten participants. HIV env amplification was successful in eighteen cases. HIV-1 subtype was identified in all participants: eight both pol and env; ten env alone and two pol alone. Twelve were subtype C, four subtype B, three subtype A and one subtype CRF02_AG. Reported exposure location was consistent with the phylogenetic clustering of env sequences. African Australians are members of multiple transnational social and sexual networks influencing their exposure to HIV. Phylogenetic analysis may complement traditional surveillance to discern patterns of HIV exposure, providing focus for HIV prevention programs in mobile populations. PMID:24391866

  7. Acquisition of HIV by African-born residents of Victoria, Australia: insights from molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lemoh, Chris; Ryan, Claire E; Sekawi, Zamberi; Hearps, Anna C; Aleksic, Eman; Chibo, Doris; Grierson, Jeffrey; Baho, Samia; Street, Alan; Hellard, Margaret; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2013-01-01

    African-born Australians are a recognised "priority population" in Australia's Sixth National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We compared exposure location and route for African-born people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Victoria, Australia, with HIV-1 pol subtype from drug resistance assays and geographical origin suggested by phylogenetic analysis of env gene. Twenty adult HIV positive African-born Victorian residents were recruited via treating doctors. HIV exposure details were obtained from interviews and case notes. Viral RNA was extracted from participant stored plasma or whole blood. The env V3 region was sequenced and compared to globally representative reference HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Library HIV Database. Twelve participants reported exposure via heterosexual sex and two via iatrogenic blood exposures; four were men having sex with men (MSM); two were exposed via unknown routes. Eight participants reported exposure in their countries of birth, seven in Australia, three in other countries and two in unknown locations. Genotype results (pol) were available for ten participants. HIV env amplification was successful in eighteen cases. HIV-1 subtype was identified in all participants: eight both pol and env; ten env alone and two pol alone. Twelve were subtype C, four subtype B, three subtype A and one subtype CRF02_AG. Reported exposure location was consistent with the phylogenetic clustering of env sequences. African Australians are members of multiple transnational social and sexual networks influencing their exposure to HIV. Phylogenetic analysis may complement traditional surveillance to discern patterns of HIV exposure, providing focus for HIV prevention programs in mobile populations. PMID:24391866

  8. The Los Alamos primer

    SciTech Connect

    Serber, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the 1943 lecture notes of Robert Serber. Serber was a protege of J. Robert Oppenheimer and member of the team that built the first atomic bomb - reveal what the Los Alamos scientists knew, and did not know, about the terrifying weapon they were building.

  9. A survey of macromycete diversity at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bandelier National Monument, and Los Alamos County; A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J.

    1997-11-01

    The authors have completed a 5-year survey (1991--1995) of macromycetes found in Los Alamos County, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Bandelier National Monument. The authors have compiled a database of 1,048 collections, their characteristics, and identifications. The database represents 123 (98%) genera and 175 (73%) species reliably identified. Issues of habitat loss, species extinction, and ecological relationships are addressed, and comparisons with other surveys are made. With this baseline information and modeling of this baseline data, one can begin to understand more about the fungal flora of the area.

  10. The LANL hemorrhagic fever virus database, a new platform for analyzing biothreat viruses.

    PubMed

    Kuiken, Carla; Thurmond, Jim; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Yoon, Hyejin

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are a diverse set of over 80 viral species, found in 10 different genera comprising five different families: arena-, bunya-, flavi-, filo- and togaviridae. All these viruses are highly variable and evolve rapidly, making them elusive targets for the immune system and for vaccine and drug design. About 55,000 HFV sequences exist in the public domain today. A central website that provides annotated sequences and analysis tools will be helpful to HFV researchers worldwide. The HFV sequence database collects and stores sequence data and provides a user-friendly search interface and a large number of sequence analysis tools, following the model of the highly regarded and widely used Los Alamos HIV database [Kuiken, C., B. Korber, and R.W. Shafer, HIV sequence databases. AIDS Rev, 2003. 5: p. 52-61]. The database uses an algorithm that aligns each sequence to a species-wide reference sequence. The NCBI RefSeq database [Sayers et al. (2011) Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Nucleic Acids Res., 39, D38-D51.] is used for this; if a reference sequence is not available, a Blast search finds the best candidate. Using this method, sequences in each genus can be retrieved pre-aligned. The HFV website can be accessed via http://hfv.lanl.gov. PMID:22064861

  11. Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Harald H.; Haas, Bernhard; Stelzl, Evelyn; Weninger, Karin; Little, Susan J.; Mehta, Sanjay R.

    2016-01-01

    To gain deeper insight into the epidemiology of HIV-1 transmission in South-East Austria we performed a retrospective analysis of 259 HIV-1 partial pol sequences obtained from unique individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection in South-East Austria from 2008 through 2014. After quality filtering, putative transmission linkages were inferred when two sequences were ≤1.5% genetically different. Multiple linkages were resolved into putative transmission clusters. Further phylogenetic analyses were performed using BEAST v1.8.1. Finally, we investigated putative links between the 259 sequences from South-East Austria and all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV sequence database. We found that 45.6% (118/259) of the sampled sequences were genetically linked with at least one other sequence from South-East Austria forming putative transmission clusters. Clustering individuals were more likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM; p<0.001), infected with subtype B (p<0.001) or subtype F (p = 0.02). Among clustered males who reported only heterosexual (HSX) sex as an HIV risk, 47% clustered closely with MSM (either as pairs or within larger MSM clusters). One hundred and seven of the 259 sequences (41.3%) from South-East Austria had at least one putative inferred linkage with sequences from a total of 69 other countries. In conclusion, analysis of HIV-1 sequences from newly diagnosed individuals residing in South-East Austria revealed a high degree of national and international clustering mainly within MSM. Interestingly, we found that a high number of heterosexual males clustered within MSM networks, suggesting either linkage between risk groups or misrepresentation of sexual risk behaviors by subjects. PMID:26967154

  12. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Stephany N; Farr, Amanda M; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Blevins, Meridith; Wester, C William; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Ekouevi, Didier K; Egger, Matthias; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Cooper, David A; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine C; Nash, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20), Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7), North America (n=7), Central Africa (n=12), East Africa (n=51), Southern Africa (n=16) and West Africa (n=15). We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr): 33–100%) and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%). Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB) screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%), combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) (94%) and other prevention and clinical management services (97%) – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46%) of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI), especially those in the President's Emergency Plan

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dogliani, Harold O

    2011-01-19

    The purpose of the briefing is to describe general laboratory technical capabilities to be used for various groups such as military cadets or university faculty/students and post docs to recruit into a variety of Los Alamos programs. Discussed are: (1) development and application of high leverage science to enable effeictive, predictable and reliability outcomes; (2) deter, detect, characterize, reverse and prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their use by adversaries and terrorists; (3) modeling and simulation to define complex processes, predict outcomes, and develop effective prevention, response, and remediation strategies; (4) energetic materials and hydrodynamic testing to develop materials for precise delivery of focused energy; (5) materials cience focused on fundamental understanding of materials behaviors, their quantum-molecular properties, and their dynamic responses, and (6) bio-science to rapidly detect and characterize pathogens, to develop vaccines and prophylactic remedies, and to develop attribution forensics.

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Neu, Mary

    2010-06-02

    Mary Neu, Associate Director for Chemistry, Life and Earth Sciences at Los Alamos National Laboratory, delivers opening remarks at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  15. Triple NF-kB binding sites and LTR sequence similarities in HIV-1C isolates irrespective of helminth co-infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminth infections as well as structural alternations in the long-terminal repeat (LTR) regions of HIV-1 are known to contribute to elevated HIV RNA level and enhance HIV-1 diseases progression. However, the impact of helminths infections on the occurrences of triple NF-κB and genetic variability in LTR region of HIV-1C isolates is not known. We aimed to examine the presence of genetic variability in the LTR region of HIV-1C isolates during chronic HIV-helminth co-infection. Methods HIV-1C infected Ethiopians with (n = 22) and without (n = 20) helminth infection were included. The LTR region of HIV was amplified and sequenced. Sequences were aligned with reference set from the Los Alamos HIV database. Phylogenetic analysis and frequency of polymorphic changes was performed by the neighbour-joining method using Geneious Basic software. Results All LTR sequences from patients with or without of helminth co-infection clustered with HIV-1 subtype C with two distinct subclusters (C and C’). The enhancer element was found to have three copies of 10-base pair binding sites for NF-κBs which is an evidence for predominance of triple NF-κB sites (94%) in HIV-1C isolates irrespective of helminths co-infection and subclusters. Moreover, irrespective of helminth co-infection and C/C’ subclusters high sequences similarity in LTR was observed. There was no significant difference in plasma HIV RNA level between HIV-1 C and C’ subclusters. Conclusions Despite the small sample size, the predominance of triple NF-κB binding sites and high sequence similarities in LTR region irrespective of helminths infection suggest the natural occurrence of the three NF-κB binding sites in HIV-1C isolates without the influence of secondary infection. Thus, the higher HIV-1C viraemia in helminth co-infected individuals is more likely a result of immune activation rather than LTR sequence variation. Moreover, the lack of significant difference in plasma HIV RNA level

  16. Performance of genotypic tools for prediction of tropism in HIV-1 subtype C V3 loop sequences.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Soham; Neogi, Ujjwal; Srinivasa, Hiresave; Shet, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no consensus on the genotypic tools to be used for tropism analysis in HIV-1 subtype C strains. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the different V3 loop-based genotypic algorithms available. We compiled a dataset of 645 HIV-1 subtype C V3 loop sequences of known coreceptor phenotypes (531 R5-tropic/non-syncytium-inducing and 114 X4-tropic/R5X4-tropic/syncytium-inducing sequences) from the Los Alamos database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/) and previously published literature. Coreceptor usage was predicted based on this dataset using different software-based machine-learning algorithms as well as simple classical rules. All the sophisticated machine-learning methods showed a good concordance of above 85%. Geno2Pheno (false-positive rate cutoff of 5-15%) and CoRSeqV3-C were found to have a high predicting capability in determining both HIV-1 subtype C X4-tropic and R5-tropic strains. The current sophisticated genotypic tropism tools based on V3 loop perform well for tropism prediction in HIV-1 subtype C strains and can be used in clinical settings. PMID:25573618

  17. RFQ development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Crandall, K.R.; Stokes, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac are reviewed and a summary of past and present Los Alamos work is presented. Some beam-dynamics effects, important for RFQ design, are discussed. A design example is shown for xenon and a brief discussion of low-frequency RFQ structures is given.

  18. Airport-Noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    A guide for the use of the Airport-Noise Level and Annoyance MOdel (ALAMO) at the Langley Research Center computer complex is provided. This document is divided into 5 primary sections, the introduction, the purpose of the model, and an in-depth description of the following subsystems: baseline, noise reduction simulation and track analysis. For each subsystem, the user is provided with a description of architecture, an explanation of subsystem use, sample results, and a case runner's check list. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the operations at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) computer complex, the Network Operating System (NOS 1.4) and CYBER Control Language. Incorporated within the ALAMO model is a census database system called SITE II.

  19. Similarity landscapes: An improved method for scientific visualization of information from protein and DNA database searches

    SciTech Connect

    Dogget, N.; Myers, G.; Wills, C.J.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have used computer simulations and examination of a variety of databases to answer questions about a wide range of evolutionary questions. The authors have found that there is a clear distinction in the evolution of HIV-1 and HIV-2, with the former and more virulent virus evolving more rapidly at a functional level. The authors have discovered highly non-random patterns in the evolution of HIV-1 that can be attributed to a variety of selective pressures. In the course of examination of microsatellite DNA (short repeat regions) in microorganisms, the authors have found clear differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in their distribution, differences that can be tied to different selective pressures. They have developed a new method (topiary pruning) for enhancing the phylogenetic information contained in DNA sequences. Most recently, the authors have discovered effects in complex rainforest ecosystems that indicate strong frequency-dependent interactions between host species and their parasites, leading to the maintenance of ecosystem variability.

  20. HIV Molecular Immunology 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Yusim, Karina; Korber, Bette Tina Marie; Barouch, Dan; Koup, Richard; de Boer, Rob; Moore, John P.; Brander, Christian; Haynes, Barton F.; Walker, Bruce D.

    2015-02-03

    HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2014 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as crossreactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins are provided.

  1. RFQ development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.D.; Cornelius, W.D.; Purser, F.O.; Jameson, R.A.; Wangler, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    We report recent progress on the two radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) structures being developed at Los Alamos. First, we report on the second 425-MHz RFQ for H/sup -/ acceleration, which is being built in a research effort to understand and further develop the RFQ. Second, we discuss progress on the 80-MHz cw RFQ for deuterons, which is being built for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility.

  2. On the Physicochemical and Structural Modifications Associated with HIV-1 Subtype B Tropism Transition.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Susanna L; Fogel, Gary B; Liu, Enoch S; Salemi, Marco; McGrath, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    HIV-1 enters immune cells via binding the viral envelope to a host cell CD4 receptor, and then a secondary co-receptor, usually CCR5 (R5) or CXCR4 (X4), and some HIV can utilize both co-receptors (R5X4). Although a small set of amino-acid properties such as charge and sequence length applied to HIV-1 envelope V3 loop sequence data can be used to predict co-receptor usage, we sought to expand the fundamental understanding of the physiochemical basis of tropism by analyzing many, perhaps less obvious, amino-acid properties over a diverse array of HIV sequences. We examined 74 amino-acid physicochemical scales over 1,559 V3 loop sequences with biologically tested tropisms downloaded from the Los Alamos HIV sequence database. Linear regressions were then calculated for each feature relative to three tropism transitions (R5→X4; R5→R5X4; R5X4→X4). Independent correlations were rank ordered to determine informative features. A structural analysis of the V3 loop was performed to better interpret these findings relative to HIV tropism states. Similar structural changes are required for R5 and R5X4 to transition to X4, thus suggesting that R5 and R5X4 types are more similar than either phenotype is to X4. Overall, the analysis suggests a continuum of viral tropism that is only partially related to charge; in fact, the analysis suggests that charge modification may be primarily attributed to decreased R5 usage, and further structural changes, particularly those associated with β-sheet structure, are likely required for full X4 usage. PMID:27071630

  3. HIV Sequence Compendium 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Brian Thomas; Leitner, Thomas Kenneth; Apetrei, Cristian; Hahn, Beatrice; Mizrachi, Ilene; Mullins, James; Rambaut, Andrew; Wolinsky, Steven; Korber, Bette Tina Marie

    2015-10-05

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. We try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2015. Hence, though it is published in 2015 and called the 2015 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2014 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing. In total, at the end of 2014, there were 624,121 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 7% since the previous year. This is the first year that the number of new sequences added to the database has decreased compared to the previous year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 5834 by end of 2014. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a fraction of these. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  4. Incidence of WHO Stage 3 and 4 Events, Tuberculosis, and Mortality in Untreated, HIV-Infected Children Enrolling in Care Before 1 Year of Age: An Iedea (International Epidemiologic Databases To Evaluate AIDS) East Africa Regional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea; Lu, Zhigang; Ayaya, Samuel; Losina, Elena; Musick, Beverly; Vreeman, Rachel; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Dillabaugh, Lisa; Doherty, Katie; Ssali, John; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported CD4%- and age-stratified rates of WHO Stage 3 (WHO3) events, WHO Stage 4 (WHO4) events, tuberculosis (TB), and mortality in HIV-infected infants before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods HIV-infected children enrolled before 1 year of age in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) East Africa region (10/01/2002-11/30/2008) were included. We estimated incidence rates of earliest clinical event (WHO3, WHO4, and TB), prior to ART initiation per local guidelines, stratified by current age (< or ≥6 months) and current CD4% (<15%, 15–24%, ≥25%). CD4%-stratified mortality rates were estimated separately for children who did not experience a clinical event (“background” mortality) and for children who experienced an event, including “acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) and “later” mortality (>30 days post-event). Results Among 847 children (median enrollment age: 4.8 months; median pre-ART follow-up: 10.8 months; 603 (71%) with ≥1 CD4% recorded), event rates were comparable for those aged <6 and ≥6 months. Current CD4% was associated with risk of WHO4 events for children <6 months old, and with all evaluated events for children ≥6 months old (p<0.05). “Background” mortality was 3.7–8.4/100py. “Acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) was 33.8/100py (after TB) and 41.1/100py (after WHO3 or WHO4). “Later” mortality (>30 days post-event) ranged by CD4% from 4.7–29.1/100py. Conclusions In treatment-naïve, HIV-infected infants, WHO3, WHO4, and TB events were common before and after 6 months of age and led to substantial increases in mortality. Early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment are critically important, regardless of CD4%. PMID:24378935

  5. Continuous evidence of fast HIV disease progression related to class-wide resistance to antiretroviral drugs: a 6 year follow-up analysis of a large observational database.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Zaccarelli; Federica, Forbici; Patrizia, Lorenzini; Francesca, Ceccherini-Silberstein; Valerio, Tozzi; Paola, Trotta Maria; Patrizia, Marconi; Pasquale, Narciso; Federico, Perno Carlo; Andrea, Antinori

    2007-08-20

    Class-wide resistance (CWR) was increasingly associated with a higher risk of HIV progression after 72 months of follow-up among 1392 patients genotypic-tested after failure (AIDS risk 13% for no CWR to 34% for three CWR; AIDS/death risk 21-54%). At multivariate analysis, the detection of two and three CWR was significantly associated with a two and threefold increased risk, respectively, of death and AIDS/death, suggesting that extended resistance is a marker of disease progression in long-term observation. PMID:17690586

  6. Trichomoniasis and HIV interactions: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kissinger, Patricia; Adamski, Alys

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and HIV co-infections, the role of TV in acquisition and transmission of HIV, special treatment considerations for TV among women with HIV and the prevention of TV among HIV-infected persons. Design Systematic review. Data source Review of literature of EMBASE and PubMed databases from January 1990 to February 2013. Search keywords included TV, HIV co-infections, HIV acquisition, HIV transmission, HIV shedding, TV treatment, HIV and couples studies. Review method We included studies of any design that contained the selected search words and were published during the specified time frame. We then searched the reference lists of included papers for additional papers and included these when relevant. Results There is strong evidence that TV increases both transmission and acquisition of HIV among women, and that successful treatment for TV can reduce HIV genital shedding. Single dose metronidazole (MTZ) should no longer be used for HIV+ women with TV given the high rates of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis co-infections and other factors that may render MTZ less effective in HIV+ women. Prevention of TV among HIV+ persons is similar to among HIV, including promotion of condoms as well as regular screening and prompt treatment. There may be a role for expedited partner treatment for the prevention of repeat infections, but most repeat infections are clinical treatment failures. Diligence in screening and treating TV among both HIV− susceptible and HIV+ persons is an important public health strategy. PMID:23605851

  7. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  8. V3 sequences and paired HIV isolates from 52 non-subtype B HIV type 1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Monno, Laura; Brindicci, Gaetano; Saracino, Annalisa; Punzi, Grazia; Cibelli, Donatella; Lagioia, Antonella; Angarano, Gioacchino

    2010-03-01

    Viral isolation and V3 sequencing were performed for 52 patients with non-subtype B viruses. The HIV-1 isolation rate was 93%, and 98% of isolates were characterized as NSI. V3 sequences corresponding to NSI isolates were compared to non-subtype B sequences with corresponding SI isolates from the Los Alamos database. The two sequence groups significantly differed in number of sequences with 35 amino acids, net charge, Brigg's coefficient, loss of NGS at positions 6-8, and 11/25 genotype (p < 0.0001). Substantial discrepancies in V3 variability were also observed. Basic amino acids at positions 8, 21, 23, and 24 were more frequent in SI sequences as were uncharged amino acids at positions 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 25, and 34. When characterizing paired viral isolates and V3 sequences from patients with non-subtype B HIV-1, current V3 sequence-based criteria from subtype B appeared to discriminate well between NSI and SI sequences from non-subtype B patients. PMID:20334572

  9. Los Alamos Science: Number 16

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    It was an unusually stimulating day and a half at Los Alamos when two Nobel Laureates in physiology, a leading paleontologist, and a leading bio-astrophysicist came together to discuss ''Unsolved Problems in the Science of Life,'' the topic of the second in a series of special meetings sponsored by the Fellows of the Laboratory. Just like the first one on ''Creativity in Science,'' this colloquium took us into a broader arena of ideas and viewpoints than is our usual daily fare. To contemplate the evolution and mysteries of intelligent life from the speakers' diverse points of view at one time, in one place was indeed a rare experience.

  10. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  11. HIV Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat HIV infection (called antiretroviral therapy, or ART) the right way, every day and his or ... way, every day, the medicine to treat HIV (ART) reduces the amount of HIV (called “viral ...

  12. Los Alamos PC estimating system

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R.A.; Lemon, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Los Alamos Cost Estimating System (QUEST) is being converted to run on IBM personal computers. This very extensive estimating system is capable of supporting cost estimators from many different and varied fields. QUEST does not dictate any fixed method for estimating. QUEST supports many styles and levels of detail estimating. QUEST can be used with or without data bases. This system allows the estimator to provide reports based on levels of detail defined by combining work breakdown structures. QUEST provides a set of tools for doing any type of estimate without forcing the estimator to use any given method. The level of detail in the estimate can be mixed based on the amount of information known about different parts of the project. The system can support many different data bases simultaneously. Estimators can modify any cost in any data base.

  13. Biofuel Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  14. Electronic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha E.

    1985-01-01

    Presents examples of bibliographic, full-text, and numeric databases. Also discusses how to access these databases online, aids to online retrieval, and several issues and trends (including copyright and downloading, transborder data flow, use of optical disc/videodisc technology, and changing roles in database generation and processing). (JN)

  15. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  16. Sunset at the ALaMO

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new color all-sky camera has opened its eyes at the ALaMO, or Automated Lunar and Meteor Observatory, at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. Watch its inaugural video below, s...

  17. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1994. Data were collected to assess external penetrating radiation, airborne emissions, liquid effluents, radioactivity of environmental materials and food stuffs, and environmental compliance.

  18. New Rad Lab for Los Alamos

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    The topping out ceremony for a key construction stage in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's newest facility, the Radiological Laboratory Utility & Office Building. This is part of the National Nu...  

  19. Publications of Los Alamos research 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Varjabedian, K.; Dussart, S.A.; McClary, W.J.; Rich, J.A.

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography lists unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1988. The entries, which are subdivided by broad subject categories, are cross-referenced with an author index and a numeric index.

  20. New Rad Lab for Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-06

    The topping out ceremony for a key construction stage in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's newest facility, the Radiological Laboratory Utility & Office Building. This is part of the National Nu...  

  1. Edward Teller Returns to LOS Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2010-01-01

    I was asked to share some reflections of Edward Teller's return to Los Alamos during my directorship. I met Teller late in his life. My comments focus on that time and they will be mostly in the form of stories of my interactions and those of my colleagues with Teller. Although the focus of this symposium is on Teller's contributions to science, at Los Alamos it was never possible to separate Teller's science from policy and controversy ...

  2. Internship at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Ryan Q.

    2012-07-11

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is located in Los Alamos, New Mexico. It provides support for our country's nuclear weapon stockpile as well as many other scientific research projects. I am an Undergraduate Student Intern in the Systems Design and Analysis group within the Nuclear Nonproliferation division of the Global Security directorate at LANL. I have been tasked with data analysis and modeling of particles in a fluidized bed system for the capture of carbon dioxide from power plant flue gas.

  3. Los Alamos Laser Eye Investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Odom, C. R.

    2005-01-01

    A student working in a laser laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory sustained a serious retinal injury to her left eye when she attempted to view suspended particles in a partially evacuated target chamber. The principle investigator was using the white light from the flash lamp of a Class 4 Nd:YAG laser to illuminate the particles. Since the Q-switch was thought to be disabled at the time of the accident, the principal investigator assumed it would be safe to view the particles without wearing laser eye protection. The Laboratory Director appointed a team to investigate the accident and to report back to him the events and conditions leading up to the accident, equipment malfunctions, safety management causal factors, supervisory and management action/inaction, adequacy of institutional processes and procedures, emergency and notification response, effectiveness of corrective actions and lessons learned from previous similar events, and recommendations for human and institutional safety improvements. The team interviewed personnel, reviewed documents, and characterized systems and conditions in the laser laboratory during an intense six week investigation. The team determined that the direct and primary failures leading to this accident were, respectively, the principle investigator's unsafe work practices and the institution's inadequate monitoring of worker performance. This paper describes the details of the investigation, the human and institutional failures, and the recommendations for improving the laser safety program.

  4. Integrating the digital library puzzle: The library without walls at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Luce, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    Current efforts at the Research Library, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to develop digital library services are described. A key principle of LANL`s approach to delivering library information is the integration of products into a common interface and the use of the Web as the medium of service provision. Products described include science databases such as the SciSearch at LANL and electronic journals. Project developments described have significant ramifications for delivering library services over the Internet.

  5. Preexisting compensatory amino acids compromise fitness costs of a HIV-1 T cell escape mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Donglai; Zuo, Tao; Hora, Bhavna; Song, Hongshuo; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xianghui; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Perelson, Alan S.; Haynes, Barton F.; McMichael, Andrew J.; Gao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fitness costs and slower disease progression are associated with a cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutation T242N in Gag in HIV-1-infected individuals carrying HLA-B*57/5801 alleles. However, the impact of different context in diverse HIV-1 strains on the fitness costs due to the T242N mutation has not been well characterized. To better understand the extent of fitness costs of the T242N mutation and the repair of fitness loss through compensatory amino acids, we investigated its fitness impact in different transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses. Results: The T242N mutation resulted in various levels of fitness loss in four different T/F viruses. However, the fitness costs were significantly compromised by preexisting compensatory amino acids in (Isoleucine at position 247) or outside (glutamine at position 219) the CTL epitope. Moreover, the transmitted T242N escape mutant in subject CH131 was as fit as the revertant N242T mutant and the elimination of the compensatory amino acid I247 in the T/F viral genome resulted in significant fitness cost, suggesting the fitness loss caused by the T242N mutation had been fully repaired in the donor at transmission. Analysis of the global circulating HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database showed a high prevalence of compensatory amino acids for the T242N mutation and other T cell escape mutations. Conclusions: Our results show that the preexisting compensatory amino acids in the majority of circulating HIV-1 strains could significantly compromise the fitness loss due to CTL escape mutations and thus increase challenges for T cell based vaccines.

  6. Preexisting compensatory amino acids compromise fitness costs of a HIV-1 T cell escape mutation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Donglai; Zuo, Tao; Hora, Bhavna; Song, Hongshuo; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xianghui; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Perelson, Alan S.; Haynes, Barton F.; et al

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fitness costs and slower disease progression are associated with a cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutation T242N in Gag in HIV-1-infected individuals carrying HLA-B*57/5801 alleles. However, the impact of different context in diverse HIV-1 strains on the fitness costs due to the T242N mutation has not been well characterized. To better understand the extent of fitness costs of the T242N mutation and the repair of fitness loss through compensatory amino acids, we investigated its fitness impact in different transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses. Results: The T242N mutation resulted in various levels of fitness loss in four different T/F viruses. However, themore » fitness costs were significantly compromised by preexisting compensatory amino acids in (Isoleucine at position 247) or outside (glutamine at position 219) the CTL epitope. Moreover, the transmitted T242N escape mutant in subject CH131 was as fit as the revertant N242T mutant and the elimination of the compensatory amino acid I247 in the T/F viral genome resulted in significant fitness cost, suggesting the fitness loss caused by the T242N mutation had been fully repaired in the donor at transmission. Analysis of the global circulating HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database showed a high prevalence of compensatory amino acids for the T242N mutation and other T cell escape mutations. Conclusions: Our results show that the preexisting compensatory amino acids in the majority of circulating HIV-1 strains could significantly compromise the fitness loss due to CTL escape mutations and thus increase challenges for T cell based vaccines.« less

  7. High-accuracy identification of incident HIV-1 infections using a sequence clustering based diversity measure.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xia-Yu; Ge, Meng; Hsi, Jenny H; He, Xiang; Ruan, Yu-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Shao, Yi-Ming; Pan, Xian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of HIV-1 incidence are essential for monitoring epidemic trends and evaluating intervention efforts. However, the long asymptomatic stage of HIV-1 infection makes it difficult to effectively distinguish incident infections from chronic ones. Current incidence assays based on serology or viral sequence diversity are both still lacking in accuracy. In the present work, a sequence clustering based diversity (SCBD) assay was devised by utilizing the fact that viral sequences derived from each transmitted/founder (T/F) strain tend to cluster together at early stage, and that only the intra-cluster diversity is correlated with the time since HIV-1 infection. The dot-matrix pairwise alignment was used to eliminate the disproportional impact of insertion/deletions (indels) and recombination events, and so was the proportion of clusterable sequences (Pc) as an index to identify late chronic infections with declined viral genetic diversity. Tested on a dataset containing 398 incident and 163 chronic infection cases collected from the Los Alamos HIV database (last modified 2/8/2012), our SCBD method achieved 99.5% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity, with an overall accuracy of 99.3%. Further analysis and evaluation also suggested its performance was not affected by host factors such as the viral subtypes and transmission routes. The SCBD method demonstrated the potential of sequencing based techniques to become useful for identifying incident infections. Its use may be most advantageous for settings with low to moderate incidence relative to available resources. The online service is available at http://www.bioinfo.tsinghua.edu.cn:8080/SCBD/index.jsp. PMID:24925130

  8. Women and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  9. Statistical databases

    SciTech Connect

    Kogalovskii, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a review of problems related to statistical database systems, which are wide-spread in various fields of activity. Statistical databases (SDB) are referred to as databases that consist of data and are used for statistical analysis. Topics under consideration are: SDB peculiarities, properties of data models adequate for SDB requirements, metadata functions, null-value problems, SDB compromise protection problems, stored data compression techniques, and statistical data representation means. Also examined is whether the present Database Management Systems (DBMS) satisfy the SDB requirements. Some actual research directions in SDB systems are considered.

  10. HIV Sequence Compendium 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Carla; Foley, Brian; Leitner, Thomas; Apetrei, Christian; Hahn, Beatrice; Mizrachi, Ilene; Mullins, James; Rambaut, Andrew; Wolinsky, Steven; Korber, Bette

    2010-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2010. Hence, though it is called the 2010 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2009 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing exponentially. In total, at the time of printing, there were 339,306 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 45% since last year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 2576 by end of 2009, reflecting a smaller increase than in previous years. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a small fraction of these. Included in the alignments are a small number of sequences representing each of the subtypes and the more prevalent circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) such as 01 and 02, as well as a few outgroup sequences (group O and N and SIV-CPZ). Of the rarer CRFs we included one representative each. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html. Reprints are available from our website in the form of both HTML and PDF files. As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  11. Distributed data access in the LAMPF (Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) control system

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, S.C.; Bjorklund, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    We have extended the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) control system software to allow uniform access to data and controls throughout the control system network. Two aspects of this work are discussed here. Of primary interest is the use of standard interfaces and standard messages to allow uniform and easily expandable inter-node communication. A locally designed remote procedure call protocol will be described. Of further interest is the use of distributed databases to allow maximal hardware independence in the controls software. Application programs use local partial copies of the global device description database to resolve symbolic device names.

  12. Database Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is normal practice today for organizations to store large quantities of records of related information as computer-based files or databases. Purposeful information is retrieved by performing queries on the data sets. The purpose of DATABASE MANAGER is to communicate to students the method by which the computer performs these queries. This…

  13. Maize databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

  14. New Generation of Los Alamos Opacity Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, James; Kilcrease, D. P.; Magee, N. H.; Sherrill, M. E.; Abdallah, J.; Hakel, P.; Fontes, C. J.; Guzik, J. A.; Mussack, K. A.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new generation of Los Alamos OPLIB opacity tables that have been computed using the ATOMIC code. Our tables have been calculated for all 30 elements from hydrogen through zinc and are publicly available through our website. In this poster we discuss the details of the calculations that underpin the new opacity tables. We also show several recent applications of the use of our opacity tables to solar modeling and other astrophysical applications. In particular, we demonstrate that use of the new opacities improves the agreement between solar models and helioseismology, but does not fully resolve the long-standing `solar abundance' problem. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC5206NA25396.

  15. Status of Monte Carlo at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.L.; Cashwell, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    At Los Alamos the early work of Fermi, von Neumann, and Ulam has been developed and supplemented by many followers, notably Cashwell and Everett, and the main product today is the continuous-energy, general-purpose, generalized-geometry, time-dependent, coupled neutron-photon transport code called MCNP. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo research and development effort is concentrated in Group X-6. MCNP treats an arbitrary three-dimensional configuration of arbitrary materials in geometric cells bounded by first- and second-degree surfaces and some fourth-degree surfaces (elliptical tori). Monte Carlo has evolved into perhaps the main method for radiation transport calculations at Los Alamos. MCNP is used in every technical division at the Laboratory by over 130 users about 600 times a month accounting for nearly 200 hours of CDC-7600 time.

  16. Publications of Los Alamos Research, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, C.J.; McClary, W.J.; Rich, J.A.; Rodriguez, L.L.

    1984-10-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1983. Papers published in 1982 are included regardless of when they were actually written. Publications received too late for inclusion in earlier compilations have also been listed. Declassification of previously classified reports is considered to constitute publication. All classified issuances are omitted - even those papers, themselves unclassified, which were published only as part of a classified document. If a paper was published more than once, all places of publication are included. The bibliography includes Los Alamos National Laboratory reports, papers released as non-Laboratory reports, journal articles, books, chapters of books, conference papers either published separately or as part of conference proceedings issued as books or reports, papers publishd in congressional hearings, theses, and US patents. Publications by Los Alamos authors that are not records of Laboratory-sponsored work are included when the Library becomes aware of them.

  17. Publications of Los Alamos research 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, C.A.; Willis, J.K.

    1981-09-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1980. Papers published in 1980 are included regardless of when they were actually written. Publications received too late for inclusion in earlier compilations have also been listed. Declassification of previously classified reports is considered to constitute publication. All classified issuances are omitted-even those papers, themselves unclassified, which were published only as part of a classified document. If a paper was pubished more than once, all places of publication are included. The bibliography includes Los Alamos National Laboratory reports, papers released as non-laboratory reports, journal articles, books, chapters of books, conference papers published either separately or as part of conference proceedings issued as books or reports, papers published in congressional hearings, theses, and US patents. Publications by Los Alamos authors that are not records of Laboratory-sponsored work are included when the Library becomes aware of them.

  18. A Wildfire Behavior Modeling System at Los Alamos National Laboratory for Operational Applications

    SciTech Connect

    S.W. Koch; R.G.Balice

    2004-11-01

    To support efforts to protect facilities and property at Los Alamos National Laboratory from damages caused by wildfire, we completed a multiyear project to develop a system for modeling the behavior of wildfires in the Los Alamos region. This was accomplished by parameterizing the FARSITE wildfire behavior model with locally gathered data representing topography, fuels, and weather conditions from throughout the Los Alamos region. Detailed parameterization was made possible by an extensive monitoring network of permanent plots, weather towers, and other data collection facilities. We also incorporated a database of lightning strikes that can be used individually as repeatable ignition points or can be used as a group in Monte Carlo simulation exercises and in other randomization procedures. The assembled modeling system was subjected to sensitivity analyses and was validated against documented fires, including the Cerro Grande Fire. The resulting modeling system is a valuable tool for research and management. It also complements knowledge based on professional expertise and information gathered from other modeling technologies. However, the modeling system requires frequent updates of the input data layers to produce currently valid results, to adapt to changes in environmental conditions within the Los Alamos region, and to allow for the quick production of model outputs during emergency operations.

  19. SEDs at Los Alamos: A Personal Memoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2001-03-01

    I have written this personal memoir approximately 55 years after the events I describe. It is based almost exclusively on memory, since apart from the diary I kept while on Tinian, I have few documents concerning it. It covers my service in the U.S. Army's Special Engineering Detachment (SED) in Oak Ridge and Los Alamos in 1944-45, on Tinian island, the launching pad for the bombing raids on Japan, in the summer and fall of 1945, and my return to Los Alamos until my discharge in January 1946.

  20. Upper Los Alamos canyon fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Jeffrey H

    2007-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is planning to make environmental assessments in portions of Upper Los Alamos Canyon. Upper Los Alamos Canyon is one of the areas included in the 2005 Consent Order agreed to by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and the New Mexico Environment Department. As such, it must be evaluated for potential contamination. The area is located within and south of the Los Alamos townsite in Technical Areas 00, 01, 03, 32, 41, 43, and 61 of Los Alamos National Laboratory and includes a total of 115 solid waste management units and areas of concern. This area was home to some of the earliest operations at Los Alamos, dating from the 1940s. Of the 115 solid-waste management units and areas of concern, 54 have been addressed previously. The remaining 61 are the focus of this project. These include septic tanks and outfalls, sanitary and industrial waste lines, storm drains, soil contamination areas, landfill and surface disposal areas, transformer sites, and incinerators. The Consent Order requires the Laboratory to evaluate historical work sites for the potential presence of residual contamination. It also requires the Laboratory to identify and implement corrective actions should contamination be found. The Laboratory began performing these types of activities in the 1990s. The Upper Los Alamos Canyon project entails: (1) collecting soil and rock samples using the most efficient and least-invasive methods practicable; (2) defining the nature and extent of any residual contamination associated with each solid waste management unit or area of concern; and (3) gathering additional data if needed to evaluate potential remedial alternatives. A variety of methods, including studies of engineering drawings, nonintrusive geophysical surveys, and trenching, may be used to identify the final sampling locations. The field team then determines which collection method to use at each location, based on such site

  1. Plutonium 238 facilities at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, Gary H.

    1991-01-01

    Plutonium 238 operations at Los Alamos are performed at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55), the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building, and the Radioisotope Fuels Impact Test Facility. The plutonium 238 facilities at Los Alamos support a wide variety of heat source activities including development of new fuel forms and containment materials, research on the high temperature properties of containment materials, investigation of the high temperature compatibility of fuels with potential container materials, processing plutonium 238 fuel forms, manufacture of heat sources under quality assurance surveillance, and performing safety testing on heat sources and radioisotope thermoelectric generators.

  2. Plutonium-238 facilities at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, Gary H.

    Plutonium-238 operations at Los Alamos are performed at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55), the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building, and the Radioisotope Fuels Impact Test Facility. The plutonium-238 facilities at Los Alamos support a wide variety of heat source activities including development of new fuel forms and containment materials, research on the high temperature properties of containment materials, investigation of the high temperature compatibility of fuels with potential container materials, processing plutonium-238 fuel forms, manufacture of heat sources under quality assurance surveillance, and performing safety testing on heat sources and radioisotope thermoelectric generators.

  3. Shaping the library of the future: Digital library developments at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Research Library

    SciTech Connect

    Luce, R. E.

    1994-10-01

    This paper offers an overview of current efforts at the Research Library, Los Alamos National Laboratory, (LANL), to develop digital library services. Current projects of LANL`s Library without Walls initiative are described. Although the architecture of digital libraries generally is experimental and subject to debate, one principle of LANL`s approach to delivering library information is the use of Mosaic as a client for the Research Library`s resources. Several projects under development have significant ramifications for delivering library services over the Internet. Specific efforts via Mosaic include support for preprint databases, providing access to citation databases, and access to a digital image database of unclassified Los Alamos technical reports.

  4. Genome databases

    SciTech Connect

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  5. HIV sequence compendium 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Carla; Foley, Brian; Freed, Eric; Hahn, Beatrice; Marx, Preston; McCutchan, Francine; Mellors, John; Wolinsky, Steven; Korber, Bette

    2002-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Traditionally, we present the sequence data themselves in the form of alignments: Section II, an alignment of a selection of HIV-1/SIVcpz full-length genomes (a lot of LAI-like sequences, for example, have been omitted because they are so similar that they bias the alignment); Section III, a combined HIV-1/HIV-2/SIV whole genome alignment; Sections IV–VI, amino acid alignments for HIV-1/SIV-cpz, HIV-2/SIV, and SIVagm. The HIV-2/SIV and SIVagm amino acid alignments are separate because the genetic distances between these groups are so great that presenting them in one alignment would make it very elongated because of the large number of gaps that have to be inserted. As always, tables with extensive background information gathered from the literature accompany the whole genome alignments. The collection of whole-gene sequences in the database is now large enough that we have abundant representation of most subtypes. For many subtypes, and especially for subtype B, a large number of sequences that span entire genes were not included in the printed alignments to conserve space. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://hiv-web.lanl.gov/content/hiv-db/ALIGN_CURRENT/ALIGN-INDEX.html. Importantly, all these alignments have been edited to include only one sequence per person, based on phylogenetic trees that were created for all of them, as well as on the literature. Because of the number of sequences available, we have decided to use a different selection principle this year, based on the epidemiological importance of the subtypes. Subtypes A–D and CRFs 01 and 02 are by far the most widespread variants, and for these (when available) we have included 8–10 representatives in the alignments. The other

  6. BIOMARKERS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This database was developed by assembling and evaluating the literature relevant to human biomarkers. It catalogues and evaluates the usefulness of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and effect which may be relevant for a longitudinal cohort study. In addition to describing ...

  7. Proceedings of the Los Alamos neutrino workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, F.; Stephenson, G.J. Jr.

    1982-08-01

    A workshop on neutrino physics was held at Los Alamos from June 8 to 12, 1981. The material presented has been provided in part by the organizers, in part by the chairmen of the working sessions. Closing date for contributions was October 1981.

  8. Induction inserts at the Los Alamos PSR

    SciTech Connect

    King-Yuen Ng

    2002-09-30

    Ferrite-loaded induction tuners installed in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring have been successful in compensating space-charge effects. However, the resistive part of the ferrite introduces unacceptable microwave instability and severe bunch lengthening. An effective cure was found by heating the ferrite cores up to {approx} 130 C. An understanding of the instability and cure is presented.

  9. Los Alamos waste drum shufflers users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Painter, J.

    1993-08-24

    This user manual describes the Los Alamos waste drum shufflers. The primary purpose of the instruments is to assay the mass of {sup 235}U (or other fissile materials) in drums of assorted waste. It can perform passive assays for isotopes that spontaneously emit neutrons or active assays using the shuffler technique as described on this manual.

  10. Los Alamos Fires From Landsat 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 9, 2000, the Landsat 7 satellite acquired an image of the area around Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Landsat 7 satellite acquired this image from 427 miles in space through its sensor called the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Evident within the imagery is a view of the ongoing Cerro Grande fire near the town of Los Alamos and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Combining the high-resolution (30 meters per pixel in this scene) imaging capacity of ETM+ with its multi-spectral capabilities allows scientists to penetrate the smoke plume and see the structure of the fire on the surface. Notice the high-level of detail in the infrared image (bottom), in which burn scars are clearly distinguished from the hotter smoldering and flaming parts of the fire. Within this image pair several features are clearly visible, including the Cerro Grande fire and smoke plume, the town of Los Alamos, the Los Alamos National Laboratory and associated property, and Cerro Grande peak. Combining ETM+ channels 7, 4, and 2 (one visible and two infrared channels) results in a false color image where vegetation appears as bright to dark green (bottom image). Forested areas are generally dark green while herbaceous vegetation is light green. Rangeland or more open areas appear pink to light purple. Areas with extensive pavement or urban development appear light blue or white to purple. Less densely-developed residential areas appear light green and golf courses are very bright green. The areas recently burned appear black. Dark red to bright red patches, or linear features within the burned area, are the hottest and possibly actively burning areas of the fire. The fire is spreading downslope and the front of the fire is readily detectable about 2 kilometers to the west and south of Los Alamos. Combining ETM+ channels 3, 2, and 1 provides a true-color image of the greater Los Alamos region (top image). Vegetation is generally dark to medium green. Forested areas are very dark green

  11. Heterogeneous Evolution of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and Other Populations in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiaorong; Wu, Haibo; Peng, Xiuming; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Nanping

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) continues to grow in most countries. However, the phylodynamic and virological differences among HIV-1 strains circulating in MSM and other populations are not well characterized. Methods Nearly full-length genomes (NFLGs) of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE were obtained from the Los Alamos HIV database. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the NFLG, gag, pol and env genes, using the maximum likelihood method. Selection pressure analyses at the codon level were performed for each gene in the phylogenetic clusters using PAML. Results Sequences isolated from MSM in China clustered in Clusters 1 (92.5%) and 2 (85.71%). The major risk factor for Cluster 3 was heterosexual transmission (62.16%). The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions in the env gene (0.7–0.75) was higher than the gag (0.26–0.34) or pol (0.21–0.26) genes. In env gene, Cluster 1 (4.56×10-3subs/site/year) and 2 (6.01×10-3subs/site/year) had higher evolutionary rates than Cluster 3 (1.14×10-3subs/site/year). Positive selection affected 4.2–6.58% of the amino acid sites in the env gene. Two sites (HXB2:136 and 316) evolved similarly in Clusters 1 and 2, but not Cluster 3. Conclusion The HIV-1 CRF01_AE in MSM is evolving differently than in other populations. PMID:26623642

  12. Get Tested for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for HIV Browse Sections The Basics Overview What Is HIV? ... 1 of 7 sections The Basics: What Is HIV? What is HIV? HIV stands for human immunodeficiency ...

  13. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  14. The Epidemic Dynamics of Four Major Lineages of HIV-1 CRF01_AE Strains After Their Introduction into China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Haiyan; Li, Tingting; Wang, Yan; Sun, Binlian; Yang, Rongge

    2016-05-01

    The epidemic of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in China was driven by multiple lineages of HIV-1 viruses introduced in the 1990s and increasing; it is important to investigate their epidemic status in China. In this study, we download all available CRF01_AE sequences (n = 2,931) from China and their associated epidemiological information in the Los Alamos HIV database for our analysis to explore their epidemic status in China. The results showed there were 11 distinct clusters of CRF01_AE strains in China, and 4 major clusters that accounted for 80.0% (1,793/2,241) of Chinese CRF01_AE strains in total had led a real epidemic. Clusters 1 and 2 were epidemic among heterosexuals and injecting drug users in southern and southwestern China, while Clusters 3 and 4 were predominant among homosexuals in eastern and central China and northeastern China, respectively. HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains detected in heterosexuals had the most complex characteristic, underscoring its important role in the occurrence of multiple CRF01_AE lineages. Furthermore, epidemic history reconstruction analysis using the birth-death susceptible-infected-removed package revealed that the four clusters had gone through varying epidemic stages. Clusters 2 and 3 were near the peak of the local epidemic, while Clusters 1 and 4 were just in the very early stage of their epidemic. The epidemic status of CRF01_AE clusters in the future is mainly determined by the effect of prevention and control. Our study provides new insights into the understanding of the epidemic dynamics of CRF01_AE in China. PMID:26830205

  15. Experiment Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  16. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  17. Long-term energetic-particle databases from geosynchronous and GPS orbits

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R.C.; Belian, R.D.; Clayton, T.E.

    1998-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has flown thirteen energetic particle instruments on geosynchronous satellites since 1976 and on seven GPS satellites since 1983. These instruments measure electrons and protons over a wide range of energies. The various instruments and the particles and energies that they measure are described. The measured fluxes are stored at Los Alamos in several databases that are available to outside users.

  18. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Podlesak, David W; Steiner, Robert E.; Burns, Carol J.; LaMont, Stephen P.; Tandon, Lav

    2012-08-09

    The overview of this presentation is: (1) Introduction to nonproliferation efforts; (2) Scope of activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory; (3) Facilities for radioanalytical work at LANL; (4) Radiochemical characterization capabilities; and (5) Bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities. Some conclusions are: (1) Analytical chemistry measurements on plutonium and uranium matrices are critical to numerous defense and non-defense programs including safeguards accountancy verification measurements; (2) Los Alamos National Laboratory operates capable actinide analytical chemistry and material science laboratories suitable for nuclear material forensic characterization; (3) Actinide analytical chemistry uses numerous means to validate and independently verify that measurement data quality objectives are met; and (4) Numerous LANL nuclear facilities support the nuclear material handling, preparation, and analysis capabilities necessary to evaluate samples containing nearly any mass of an actinide (attogram to kilogram levels).

  19. Amphibians and Reptiles of Los Alamos County

    SciTech Connect

    Teralene S. Foxx; Timothy K. Haarmann; David C. Keller

    1999-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that amphibians and reptiles are good indicators of environmental health. They live in terrestrial and aquatic environments and are often the first animals to be affected by environmental change. This publication provides baseline information about amphibians and reptiles that are present on the Pajarito Plateau. Ten years of data collection and observations by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the University of New Mexico, the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, and hobbyists are represented.

  20. Los Alamos Novel Rocket Design Flight Tested

    ScienceCinema

    Tappan, Bryce

    2015-01-05

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that also delivers a high degree of safety. Researchers will now work to scale-up the design, as well as explore miniaturization of the system, in order to exploit all potential applications that would require high-energy, high-velocity, and correspondingly high safety margins.

  1. Los Alamos Novel Rocket Design Flight Tested

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, Bryce

    2014-10-23

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that also delivers a high degree of safety. Researchers will now work to scale-up the design, as well as explore miniaturization of the system, in order to exploit all potential applications that would require high-energy, high-velocity, and correspondingly high safety margins.

  2. Los Alamos Team Demonstrates Bottle Scanner Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle; Schultz, Larry

    2014-05-06

    Los Alamos scientists are demonstrating a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR) technology that may provide a breakthrough for screening liquids at airport security. By adding low-power X-ray data to the NMR mix, scientists believe they have unlocked a new detection technology. Funded in part by the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the new technology is called MagRay.

  3. The Los Alamos accelerator code group

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, F.L.; Billen, J.H.; Ryne, R.D.; Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    The Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group (LAACG) is a national resource for members of the accelerator community who use and/or develop software for the design and analysis of particle accelerators, beam transport systems, light sources, storage rings, and components of these systems. Below the authors describe the LAACG`s activities in high performance computing, maintenance and enhancement of POISSON/SUPERFISH and related codes and the dissemination of information on the INTERNET.

  4. Los Alamos Team Demonstrates Bottle Scanner Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Espy, Michelle; Schultz, Larry

    2014-06-02

    Los Alamos scientists are demonstrating a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR) technology that may provide a breakthrough for screening liquids at airport security. By adding low-power X-ray data to the NMR mix, scientists believe they have unlocked a new detection technology. Funded in part by the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the new technology is called MagRay.

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory Facility Review

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ronald Owen

    2015-06-05

    This series of slides depicts the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The Center's 800-MeV linac produces H+ and H- beams as well as beams of moderated (cold to 1 MeV) and unmoderated (0.1 to 600 MeV) neutrons. Experimental facilities and their capabilities and characteristics are outlined. Among these are LENZ, SPIDER, and DANCE.

  6. Los Alamos synchronous orbit data set

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.N.; Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Hones, E.W.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Energetic electron (30-15000 keV) and proton 145 keV to 150 MeV) measurements made by Los Alamos National Laboratory sensors at geostationary orbit (6.6 R/sub E/) are summarized. The instrumentation employed and the satellite positions are described. The spacecraft have been variously located, but in their present configuration the Los Alamos satellites designated 1976-059, 1977-007, and 1979-053 are located, respectively, at approx. 70/sup 0/W, approx. 70/sup 0/E, and approx. 135/sup 0/W longitude. Several examples of the high temporal and full three-dimensional spatial measurement capabilities of these instruments are illustrated by examples from the published literature. Discussion is also given for the Los Alamos Synoptic Data Set (SDS) which gives a broad overview of the Los Alamos geostationary orbit measurements. The SDS data are plotted in terms of daily average spectra, 3-hour local time averages, and in a variety of statistical formats. The data summarize conditions from mid-1976 through 1978 (S/C 1976-059) and from early 1977 through 1978 (S/C 1977-007). The SDS compilations presented correspond to measurements at 35/sup 0/W, 70/sup 0/W, and 135/sup 0/W geographic longitude and thus are indicative of conditions at 9/sup 0/, 11/sup 0/, and 4.8/sup 0/ geomagnetic latitude, respectively. The bulk of the SDS report presents data plots which are organized according to Carrington solar rotations and, as such, the data are readily comparable to solar rotation-dependent interplanetary conditions. Potential applications of the Synoptic Data Set (available to all interested users in June 1981) are discussed.

  7. Status of the Los Alamos Anger camera

    SciTech Connect

    Seeger, P.A.; Nutter, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Results of preliminary tests of the neutron Anger camera being developed at Los Alamos are presented. This detector uses a unique encoding scheme involving parellel processing of multiple receptive fields. Design goals have not yet been met, but the results are very encouraging and improvements in the test procedures are expected to show that the detector will be ready for use on a small-angle scattering instrument next year. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Critical partnerships: Los Alamos, universities, and industry

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.L.

    1997-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, situated 35 miles northwest of Santa Fe, NM, is one of the Department of Energy`s three Defense Programs laboratories. It encompasses 43 square miles, employees approximately 10,000 people, and has a budget of approximately $1.1B in FY97. Los Alamos has a strong post-cold war mission, that of reducing the nuclear danger. But even with that key role in maintaining the nation`s security, Los Alamos views partnerships with universities and industry as critical to its future well being. Why is that? As the federal budget for R&D comes under continued scrutiny and certain reduction, we believe that the triad of science and technology contributors to the national system of R&D must rely on and leverage each others capabilities. For us this means that we will rely on these partners to help us in 5 key ways: We expect that partnerships will help us maintain and enhance our core competencies. In doing so, we will be able to attract the best scientists and engineers. To keep on the cutting edge of research and development, we have found that partnerships maintain the excellence of staff through new and exciting challenges. Additionally, we find that from our university and corporate partners we often learn and incorporate {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} in organizational management and operations. Finally, we believe that a strong national system of R&D will ensure and enhance our ability to generate revenues.

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory Building Cost Index

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, H.D.; Lemon, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Building Cost Index indicates that actual escalation since 1970 is near 10% per year. Therefore, the Laboratory will continue using a 10% per year escalation rate for construction estimates through 1985 and a slightly lower rate of 8% per year from 1986 through 1990. The computerized program compares the different elements involved in the cost of a typical construction project, which for our purposes, is a complex of office buildings and experimental laboratores. The input data used in the program consist primarily of labor costs and material and equipment costs. The labor costs are the contractural rates of the crafts workers in the Los Alamos area. For the analysis, 12 field-labor draft categories are used; each is weighted corresponding to the labor craft distribution associated with the typical construction project. The materials costs are current Los Alamos prices. Additional information sources include material and equipment quotes obtained through conversations with vendors and from trade publications. The material and equipment items separate into 17 categories for the analysis and are weighted corresponding to the material and equipment distribution associated with the typical construction project. The building cost index is compared to other national building cost indexes.

  10. Los Alamos National Laboratory building cost index

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, H.D.; Lemon, G.D.

    1982-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Building Cost Index indicates that actual escalation since 1970 is near 10% per year. Therefore, the Laboratory will continue using a 10% per year escalation rate for construction estimates through 1985 and a slightly lower rate of 8% per year from 1986 through 1990. The computerized program compares the different elements involved in the cost of a typical construction project, which for our purposes, is a complex of office buildings and experimental laboratories. The input data used in the program consist primarily of labor costs and material and equipment costs. The labor costs are the contractual rates of the crafts workers in the Los Alamos area. For the analysis, 12 field-labor craft categories are used; each is weighted corresponding to the labor craft distribution associated with the typical construction project. The materials costs are current Los Alamos prices. Additional information sources include material and equipment quotes obtained through conversations with vendors and from trade publications. The material and equipment items separate into 17 categories for the analysis and are weighted corresponding to the material and equipment distribution associated with the typical construction project. The building cost index is compared to other national building cost indexes.

  11. Exploration geochemistry: The Los Alamos experience

    SciTech Connect

    Maassen, L.W.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory became actively involved in geochemical exploration in 1975 by conducting a reconnaissance-scale exploration program for uranium as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Initially, only uranium and thorium were analyzed. By 1979 Los Alamos was analyzing a multielement suite. The data were presented in histograms and as black and white concentration plots for uranium and thorium only. Data for the remaining elements were presented as hard copy data listings in an appendix to the report. In 1983 Los Alamos began using exploration geochemistry for the purpose of finding economic mineral deposits to help stimulate the economies of underdeveloped countries. Stream-sediment samples were collected on the Caribbean island of St. Lucia and a geochemical atlas of that island was produced. The data were statistically smoothed and presented as computer-generated color plots of each element of the multielement suite. Studies for the US Bureau of Land Management in 1984 consisted of development of techniques for the integration of several large data sets, which could then be used for computer-assisted mineral resource assessments. A supervised classification technique was developed which compares the attributes of grid cells containing mines or mineral occurrences with attributes of unclassified cells not known to contain mines or occurrences. Color maps indicate how closely unclassified cells match in attributes the cells with mines or occurrences. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Improved therapy-success prediction with GSS estimated from clinical HIV-1 sequences

    PubMed Central

    Pironti, Alejandro; Pfeifer, Nico; Kaiser, Rolf; Walter, Hauke; Lengauer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rules-based HIV-1 drug-resistance interpretation (DRI) systems disregard many amino-acid positions of the drug's target protein. The aims of this study are (1) the development of a drug-resistance interpretation system that is based on HIV-1 sequences from clinical practice rather than hard-to-get phenotypes, and (2) the assessment of the benefit of taking all available amino-acid positions into account for DRI. Materials and Methods A dataset containing 34,934 therapy-naïve and 30,520 drug-exposed HIV-1 pol sequences with treatment history was extracted from the EuResist database and the Los Alamos National Laboratory database. 2,550 therapy-change-episode baseline sequences (TCEB) were assigned to test set A. Test set B contains 1,084 TCEB from the HIVdb TCE repository. Sequences from patients absent in the test sets were used to train three linear support vector machines to produce scores that predict drug exposure pertaining to each of 20 antiretrovirals: the first one uses the full amino-acid sequences (DEfull), the second one only considers IAS drug-resistance positions (DEonlyIAS), and the third one disregards IAS drug-resistance positions (DEnoIAS). For performance comparison, test sets A and B were evaluated with DEfull, DEnoIAS, DEonlyIAS, geno2pheno[resistance], HIVdb, ANRS, HIV-GRADE, and REGA. Clinically-validated cut-offs were used to convert the continuous output of the first four methods into susceptible-intermediate-resistant (SIR) predictions. With each method, a genetic susceptibility score (GSS) was calculated for each therapy episode in each test set by converting the SIR prediction for its compounds to integer: S=2, I=1, and R=0. The GSS were used to predict therapy success as defined by the EuResist standard datum definition. Statistical significance was assessed using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results A comparison of the therapy-success prediction performances among the different interpretation systems for test set A can be

  13. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  14. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth ... pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth ...

  15. Lessons learned from occurrences involving procedures at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Frostenson, C.K.

    1995-07-01

    This study used the Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) data to investigate occurrences reported during one year at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ORPS provides a centralized database and computerized support for the Collection, distribution, updating, analysis, and validation of information in occurrence reports about abnormal events related to facility operation. Human factors causes for occurrences are not always defined in ORPS. Content analysis of narrative data revealed that 33% of all LANL 1994 adverse operational events have human factors causes related to procedures. Procedure-caused occurrences that resulted in injury to workers, damage to facilities or equipment, or a near-miss are analyzed.

  16. DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT METHODS AND CODES AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. MOREL

    1999-06-01

    The purposes of this paper are to: Present a brief history of deterministic transport methods development at Los Alamos National Laboratory from the 1950's to the present; Discuss the current status and capabilities of deterministic transport codes at Los Alamos; and Discuss future transport needs and possible future research directions. Our discussion of methods research necessarily includes only a small fraction of the total research actually done. The works that have been included represent a very subjective choice on the part of the author that was strongly influenced by his personal knowledge and experience. The remainder of this paper is organized in four sections: the first relates to deterministic methods research performed at Los Alamos, the second relates to production codes developed at Los Alamos, the third relates to the current status of transport codes at Los Alamos, and the fourth relates to future research directions at Los Alamos.

  17. Profile of the HIV epidemic in Cape Verde: molecular epidemiology and drug resistance mutations among HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected patients from distinct islands of the archipelago.

    PubMed

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M; Guimarães, Monick L; Bello, Gonzalo; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Morgado, Mariza G

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been detected in Cape Verde since 1987, but little is known regarding the genetic diversity of these viruses in this archipelago, located near the West African coast. In this study, we characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and described the occurrence of drug resistance mutations (DRM) among antiretroviral therapy naïve (ARTn) patients and patients under treatment (ARTexp) from different Cape Verde islands. Blood samples, socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory data were obtained from 221 HIV-positive individuals during 2010-2011. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses of the pol region (1300 bp) were performed for viral subtyping. HIV-1 and HIV-2 DRM were evaluated for ARTn and ARTexp patients using the Stanford HIV Database and HIV-GRADE e.V. Algorithm Homepage, respectively. Among the 221 patients (169 [76.5%] HIV-1, 43 [19.5%] HIV-2 and 9 [4.1%] HIV-1/HIV-2 co-infections), 67% were female. The median ages were 34 (IQR = 1-75) and 47 (IQR = 12-84) for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively. HIV-1 infections were due to subtypes G (36.6%), CRF02_AG (30.6%), F1 (9.7%), URFs (10.4%), B (5.2%), CRF05_DF (3.0%), C (2.2%), CRF06_cpx (0.7%), CRF25_cpx (0.7%) and CRF49_cpx (0.7%), whereas all HIV-2 infections belonged to group A. Transmitted DRM (TDRM) was observed in 3.4% (2/58) of ARTn HIV-1-infected patients (1.7% NRTI, 1.7% NNRTI), but not among those with HIV-2. Among ARTexp patients, DRM was observed in 47.8% (33/69) of HIV-1 (37.7% NRTI, 37.7% NNRTI, 7.4% PI, 33.3% for two classes) and 17.6% (3/17) of HIV-2-infections (17.6% NRTI, 11.8% PI, 11.8% both). This study indicates that Cape Verde has a complex and unique HIV-1 molecular epidemiological scenario dominated by HIV-1 subtypes G, CRF02_AG and F1 and HIV-2 subtype A. The occurrence of TDRM and the relatively high level of DRM among treated patients are of concern. Continuous monitoring of patients on ART, including genotyping, are public policies to be implemented

  18. Profile of the HIV Epidemic in Cape Verde: Molecular Epidemiology and Drug Resistance Mutations among HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infected Patients from Distinct Islands of the Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M.; Guimarães, Monick L.; Bello, Gonzalo; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Morgado, Mariza G.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been detected in Cape Verde since 1987, but little is known regarding the genetic diversity of these viruses in this archipelago, located near the West African coast. In this study, we characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and described the occurrence of drug resistance mutations (DRM) among antiretroviral therapy naïve (ARTn) patients and patients under treatment (ARTexp) from different Cape Verde islands. Blood samples, socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory data were obtained from 221 HIV-positive individuals during 2010–2011. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses of the pol region (1300 bp) were performed for viral subtyping. HIV-1 and HIV-2 DRM were evaluated for ARTn and ARTexp patients using the Stanford HIV Database and HIV-GRADE e.V. Algorithm Homepage, respectively. Among the 221 patients (169 [76.5%] HIV-1, 43 [19.5%] HIV-2 and 9 [4.1%] HIV-1/HIV-2 co-infections), 67% were female. The median ages were 34 (IQR = 1–75) and 47 (IQR = 12–84) for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively. HIV-1 infections were due to subtypes G (36.6%), CRF02_AG (30.6%), F1 (9.7%), URFs (10.4%), B (5.2%), CRF05_DF (3.0%), C (2.2%), CRF06_cpx (0.7%), CRF25_cpx (0.7%) and CRF49_cpx (0.7%), whereas all HIV-2 infections belonged to group A. Transmitted DRM (TDRM) was observed in 3.4% (2/58) of ARTn HIV-1-infected patients (1.7% NRTI, 1.7% NNRTI), but not among those with HIV-2. Among ARTexp patients, DRM was observed in 47.8% (33/69) of HIV-1 (37.7% NRTI, 37.7% NNRTI, 7.4% PI, 33.3% for two classes) and 17.6% (3/17) of HIV-2-infections (17.6% NRTI, 11.8% PI, 11.8% both). This study indicates that Cape Verde has a complex and unique HIV-1 molecular epidemiological scenario dominated by HIV-1 subtypes G, CRF02_AG and F1 and HIV-2 subtype A. The occurrence of TDRM and the relatively high level of DRM among treated patients are of concern. Continuous monitoring of patients on ART, including genotyping, are public policies to be

  19. Chemical decontamination technical resources at Los Alamos National Laboratory (2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E

    2008-01-01

    This document supplies information resources for a person seeking to create planning or pre-planning documents for chemical decontamination operations. A building decontamination plan can be separated into four different sections: Pre-planning, Characterization, Decontamination (Initial response and also complete cleanup), and Clearance. Of the identified Los Alamos resources, they can be matched with these four sections: Pre-planning -- Dave Seidel, EO-EPP, Emergency Planning and Preparedness; David DeCroix and Bruce Letellier, D-3, Computational fluids modeling of structures; Murray E. Moore, RP-2, Aerosol sampling and ventilation engineering. Characterization (this can include development projects) -- Beth Perry, IAT-3, Nuclear Counterterrorism Response (SNIPER database); Fernando Garzon, MPA-11, Sensors and Electrochemical Devices (development); George Havrilla, C-CDE, Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering; Kristen McCabe, B-7, Biosecurity and Public Health. Decontamination -- Adam Stively, EO-ER, Emergency Response; Dina Matz, IHS-IP, Industrial hygiene; Don Hickmott, EES-6, Chemical cleanup. Clearance (validation) -- Larry Ticknor, CCS-6, Statistical Sciences.

  20. Los Alamos Before and After the Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 4, 2000, a prescribed fire was set at Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, to clear brush and dead and dying undergrowth to prevent a larger, subsequent wildfire. Unfortunately, due to high winds and extremely dry conditions in the surrounding area, the prescribed fire quickly raged out of control and, by May 10, the blaze had spread into the nearby town of Los Alamos. In all, more than 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes and more than 200 houses were destroyed as the flames consumed about 48,000 acres in and around the Los Alamos area. The pair of images above were acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor, flying aboard NASA's Landsat 7 satellite, shortly before the Los Alamos fire (top image, acquired April 14) and shortly after the fire was extinguished (lower image, June 17). The images reveal the extent of the damage caused by the fire. Combining ETM+ channels 7, 4, and 2 (one visible and two infrared channels) results in a false-color image where vegetation appears as bright to dark green. Forested areas are generally dark green while herbaceous vegetation is light green. Rangeland or more open areas appear pink to light purple. Areas with extensive pavement or urban development appear light blue or white to purple. Less densely-developed residential areas appear light green and golf courses are very bright green. In the lower image, the areas recently burned appear bright red. Landsat 7 data courtesy United States Geological Survey EROS DataCenter. Images by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  1. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  2. HIV among Transgender People

    MedlinePlus

    ... of transgender Virginians . Richmond, VA: Virginia HIV Community Planning Committee and Virginia Department of Health; 2007. Accessed April 14, 2016. Additional ... HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ...

  3. LAMPF II workshop, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, February 1-4, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the first LAMPF II Workshop held at Los Alamos February 1 to 4, 1982. Included are the talks that were available in written form. The conclusion of the participants was that there are many exciting areas of physics that will be addressed by such a machine.

  4. Biological assessment for the effluent reduction program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, S.P.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the biological assessment for the effluent recution program proposed to occur within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential effects on wetland plants and on threatened and endangered species are discussed, along with a detailed description of the individual outfalls resulting from the effluent reduction program.

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory computer benchmarking 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Evaluating the performance of computing machinery is a continual effort of the Computer Research and Applications Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This report summarizes the results of the group's benchmarking activities performed between October 1981 and September 1982, presenting compilation and execution times as well as megaflop rates for a set of benchmark codes. Tests were performed on the following computers: Cray Research, Inc. (CRI) Cray-1S; Control Data Corporation (CDC) 7600, 6600, Cyber 73, Cyber 825, Cyber 835, Cyber 855, and Cyber 205; Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX 11/780 and VAX 11/782; and Apollo Computer, Inc., Apollo.

  6. Ultraprecision machining of optics at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Rhorer, R.L.; Gauler, A.L.; Colston, E.W.; Ruhe, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraprecision machine tools are used at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for single-point diamond turning of optics and other precision parts. Measurements of a 50-mm-diam copper flat illustrate the quality of a part that can be machined on the Moore No. 3 lathe. Measurements of a 0.4-m-diam aluminum mirror with a 20-m radius of curvature are presented as an example of a part machined on the Moore No. 5 lathe. A varying frequency sine wave grating shows a type of special optical grating that can be produced using the Pneumo lathe.

  7. Ultraprecision machining of optics at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Rhorer, R.L.; Gauler, A.L.; Colston, E.W.; Ruhe, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ultraprecision machine tools are used at Los Alamos for single point diamond turning of optics and other precision parts. Measurements of a 50-mm-dia copper flat are used to illustrate the quality of a part which can be machined on the Moore No. 3 lathe. Measurements of a 0.4-m-dia aluminum mirror with a 20-m radius-of-curvature are presented as an example of a part machined on the Moore No. 5 lathe. A varying frequency sine wave grating is used to show a type of special optical grating which can be produced using the Pneumo lathe.

  8. Environmental Programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Patricia

    2012-07-11

    Summary of this project is: (1) Teamwork, partnering to meet goals - (a) Building on cleanup successes, (b) Solving legacy waste problems, (c) Protecting the area's environment; (2) Strong performance over the past three years - (a) Credibility from four successful Recovery Act Projects, (b) Met all Consent Order milestones, (c) Successful ramp-up of TRU program; (3) Partnership between the National Nuclear Security Administration's Los Alamos Site Office, DOE Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico Environment Department, and contractor staff enables unprecedented cleanup progress; (4) Continued focus on protecting water resources; and (5) All consent order commitments delivered on time or ahead of schedule.

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory strategic directions

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, S.

    1995-10-01

    It is my pleasure to welcome you to Los Alamos. I like the idea of bringing together all aspects of the research community-defense, basic science, and industrial. It is particularly important in today`s times of constrained budgets and in fields such as neutron research because I am convinced that the best science and the best applications will come from their interplay. If we do the science well, then we will do good applications. Keeping our eye focused on interesting applications will spawn new areas of science. This interplay is especially critical, and it is good to have these communities represented here today.

  10. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... A positive result on a screening test does not confirm that the person has HIV infection. More tests are needed to confirm HIV infection. A negative test ...

  11. HIV among Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ... HIV infection—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2013 . HIV Surveillance Special Report 13 . Accessed January ...

  12. The Albion Street Centre database, Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gold, J

    1998-01-01

    The Albion Street Centre was established in 1985 as an HIV testing and early management center. More than 22,000 people have been screened for HIV and other blood-borne infections at the Centre, and approximately 3,600 people with HIV/AIDS have been managed there. Approximately 1,600 patients with various stages of HIV disease are currently managed at the Centre by a staff of 60 health care professionals and about 1,000 volunteers. The Albion Street Centre's computer database began recording selected demographic, epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics when the first patient presented in 1985. Since then, the complexity and utilization of the database has increased in parallel with improvement in the understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection. Over 100 peer-reviewed publications and presentations have been produced from the database and 45 clinical trials have used the database to identify potential subjects. All data are de-identified and are protected by multiple password codes. Approximately 700 variables are collected from each HIV-positive patient at the initial visit to the Centre and up to 200 variables are added at each subsequent routine clinic visit. The variables collected include the following: standard epidemiologic characteristics; transmission and behavioral parameters, clinical signs and symptoms; laboratory test results; treatments; nutritional history; body composition parameters; psychological assessment results; and management history, including neuropsychological testing. The overall number and characteristics of patients recorded in the database are reported monthly, and are used to plan services, for prevention and educational programs, and as an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to encourage HIV-positive people to attend clinics for early management. When these patients have been identified they are invited to participate in the study. Individual patient records are identified and

  13. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  14. Stackfile Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVarvalho, Robert; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gilmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This software provides storage retrieval and analysis functionality for managing satellite altimetry data. It improves the efficiency and analysis capabilities of existing database software with improved flexibility and documentation. It offers flexibility in the type of data that can be stored. There is efficient retrieval either across the spatial domain or the time domain. Built-in analysis tools are provided for frequently performed altimetry tasks. This software package is used for storing and manipulating satellite measurement data. It was developed with a focus on handling the requirements of repeat-track altimetry missions such as Topex and Jason. It was, however, designed to work with a wide variety of satellite measurement data [e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment -- GRACE). The software consists of several command-line tools for importing, retrieving, and analyzing satellite measurement data.

  15. The Climate at Los Alamos; Are we measurement changes?

    SciTech Connect

    Dewart, Jean Marie

    2015-04-16

    A new report shows new graphic displays of the weather trends in Los Alamos, New Mexico, and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The graphs show trends of average, minimum average, and maximum average temperature for summer and winter months going back decades. Records of summer and winter precipitation are also included in the report.

  16. Los Alamos personnel and area criticality dosimeter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilik, D.G.; Martin, R.W.

    1981-06-01

    Fissionable materials are handled and processed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Although the probability of a nuclear criticality accident is very remote, it must be considered. Los Alamos maintains a broad spectrum of dose assessment capabilities. This report describes the methods employed for personnel neutron, area neutron, and photon dose evaluations with passive dosimetry systems.

  17. Database Marketplace 2002: The Database Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Robinson, William

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the database industry over the past year, including new companies and services, company closures, popular database formats, popular access methods, and changes in existing products and services. Lists 33 firms and their database services; 33 firms and their database products; and 61 company profiles. (LRW)

  18. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Co-Infections in People Living with HIV/AIDS: Systematic Review with Implications for using HIV Treatments for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Pellowski, Jennifer; Turner, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted co-infections increase HIV infectiousness through local inflammatory processes. The prevalence of STI among people living with HIV/AIDS has implications for containing the spread of HIV in general and the effectiveness of HIV treatments for prevention in particular. Methods A systematic review of studies examining STI co-infections in people living with HIV/AIDS. The review focuses on STI contracted after becoming HIV infected. Electronic database and manual searches located clinical and epidemiological studies of STI that increase HIV infectiousness. Results Thirty seven studies of STI-HIV co-infection prevalence were located. Studies of adults living with HIV/AIDS from developed and developing countries reported STI rates for 46 different samples (33 samples had clinical/laboratory confirmed STI). The overall mean point-prevalence for confirmed STI was16.3% (SD = 16.4), and median 12.4% STI prevalence in people living with HIV/AIDS. The most common STI studied were Syphilis with median 9.5% prevalence, gonorrhea 9.5%, Chlamydia 5%, and Trichamoniasis 18.8% prevalence. STI prevalence was greatest at the time of HIV diagnosis, reflecting the role of STI in HIV transmission. Prevalence of STI among individuals receiving HIV treatment was not appreciably different from untreated persons. Conclusions The prevalence of STI in people infected with HIV suggests that STI co-infections could undermine efforts to use HIV treatments for prevention by increasing genital secretion infectiousness. PMID:21330572

  19. Portable MRI developed at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle

    2015-04-22

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are developing an ultra-low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system that could be low-power and lightweight enough for forward deployment on the battlefield and to field hospitals in the World's poorest regions. "MRI technology is a powerful medical diagnostic tool," said Michelle Espy, the Battlefield MRI (bMRI) project leader, "ideally suited for imaging soft-tissue injury, particularly to the brain." But hospital-based MRI devices are big and expensive, and require considerable infrastructure, such as large quantities of cryogens like liquid nitrogen and helium, and they typically use a large amount of energy. "Standard MRI machines just can't go everywhere," said Espy. "Soldiers wounded in battle usually have to be flown to a large hospital and people in emerging nations just don't have access to MRI at all. We've been in contact with doctors who routinely work in the Third World and report that MRI would be extremely valuable in treating pediatric encephalopathy, and other serious diseases in children." So the Los Alamos team started thinking about a way to make an MRI device that could be relatively easy to transport, set up, and use in an unconventional setting. Conventional MRI machines use very large magnetic fields that align the protons in water molecules to then create magnetic resonance signals, which are detected by the machine and turned into images. The large magnetic fields create exceptionally detailed images, but they are difficult and expensive to make. Espy and her team wanted to see if images of sufficient quality could be made with ultra-low-magnetic fields, similar in strength to the Earth's magnetic field. To achieve images at such low fields they use exquisitely sensitive detectors called Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices, or SQUIDs. SQUIDs are among the most sensitive magnetic field detectors available, so interference with the signal is the primary stumbling block. "SQUIDs are

  20. Recent developments in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility Waste Tracking System-automated data collection pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Montoya, A.; Klein, W.

    1999-02-01

    The waste management and environmental compliance group (NMT-7) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a pilot project for demonstrating the feasibility and utility of automated data collection as a solution for tracking waste containers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. This project, the Los Alamos Waste Tracking System (LAWTS), tracks waste containers during their lifecycle at the facility. LAWTS is a two-tiered system consisting of a server/workstation database and reporting engine and a hand-held data terminal-based client program for collecting data directly from tracked containers. New containers may be added to the system from either the client unit or from the server database. Once containers are in the system, they can be tracked through one of three primary transactions: Move, Inventory, and Shipment. Because LAWTS is a pilot project, it also serves as a learning experience for all parties involved. This paper will discuss many of the lessons learned in implementing a data collection system in the restricted environment. Specifically, the authors will discuss issues related to working with the PPT 4640 terminal system as the data collection unit. They will discuss problems with form factor (size, usability, etc.) as well as technical problems with wireless radio frequency functions. They will also discuss complications that arose from outdoor use of the terminal (barcode scanning failures, screen readability problems). The paper will conclude with a series of recommendations for proceeding with LAWTS based on experience to date.

  1. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1979. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances was conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1979 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground water, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs.

  2. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kohen, K.; Stoker, A.; Stone, G.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1992. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1992 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, laboratory employees, or the environment.

  3. Foreign National Involvement at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmy, Jerry

    2000-04-01

    Since the beginning of the spring of 1999 there has been an intense national media focus on alleged security breaches by a foreign born scientist employed at LANL. Alarmed by an apparent growing sense of xenophobia, the Fellows of the Los Alamos National Laboratory addressed this issue by preparing a white paper on Foreign National Involvement at LANL (www.fellows.lanl.gov). Its purpose was to recognize and acknowledge the vital role that foreign scientists have played and continue to play in making LANL a forefront scientific institution. This legacy will be discussed, as well as concerns that constraining regulations triggered by this episode and subsequent reactions to this by our scientific peer community could have long term consequences on the vitality of the Laboratory.

  4. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1989. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1989 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 58 refs., 31 figs., 39 tabs.

  5. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1995. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring result to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1995 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  6. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1987. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1987 cover: external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are insignificant and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 113 refs., 33 figs., 120 tabs.

  7. Information about Practicums at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Paul A.

    2012-07-24

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center is the premier facility for neutron science experiments ranging from cross section measurements, neutron scattering experiments, proton radiography, cold neutrons, actinide neutronic properties, and many other exciting topics. The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is home to several powerful magnets, including the one that created the first non-destructive 100 Tesla field in March 2012. They probe the electronic structure of superconductors, magnetic properties of materials (including magneto-quantum effects). Research is also conducted in correlated materials, thermoacoustics, and magnetic properties of actinides. The Trident Laser has a unique niche with very high power, short pulse experiments, with a peak power of 10{sup 20} W in short pulse mode. Discoveries range from production of monoenergetic MeV ion beam, nonlinear kinetic plasma waves, the transition between kinetic and fluid nonlinear behavior and other laser-plasma interaction processes.

  8. Environmental analysis of Lower Pueblo/Lower Los Alamos Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Buhl, T.E.; Stoker, A.K.; Becker, N.M.; Rodgers, J.C.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-12-01

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, Pueblo Canyon, and Los Alamos Canyon found residual contamination at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of residual radioactivity is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. However, residual radioactivity does not exceed proposed cleanup criteria in either lower Pueblo or lower Los Alamos Canyons. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to construct a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon to prevent further transport of residual radioactivity onto San Ildefonso Indian Pueblo land, and (3) to clean the residual radioactivity from the canyon system. Alternative 2, to cleanup the canyon system, is rejected as a viable alternative. Thousands of truckloads of sediment would have to be removed and disposed of, and this effort is unwarranted by the low levels of contamination present. Residual radioactivity levels, under either present conditions or projected future conditions, will not result in significant radiation doses to persons exposed. Modeling efforts show that future transport activity will not result in any residual radioactivity concentrations higher than those already existing. Thus, although construction of a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon is a viable alternative, this effort also is unwarranted, and the no-action alternative is the preferred alternative.

  9. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David; Gallagher, Pat; Hjeresen, Denny; Isaacson, John; Johson, Scot; Morgan, Terry; Paulson, David; Rogers, David

    2009-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) Environmental Programs Directorate, as required by US Department of Energy Order 450.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2007. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, air; Chapters 5 and 6, water and sediments; Chapter 7, soils; and Chapter 8, foodstuffs and biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory’s technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information.

  10. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) environmental organization, as required by US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.IA, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory's efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory's major environmental programs. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory's compliance status for 2005. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, Air; Chapters 5 and 6, Water and Sediments; Chapter 7, Soils; and Chapter 8, Foodstuffs and Biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9, new for this year, provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list ofacronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory's technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information.

  11. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David; Poff, Ben; Hjeresen, Denny; Isaacson, John; Johnson, Scot; Morgan, Terry; Paulson, David; Salzman, Sonja; Rogers, David

    2010-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) environmental organization, as required by US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2009. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (air in Chapter 4; water and sediments in Chapters 5 and 6; soils in Chapter 7; and foodstuffs and biota in Chapter 8) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. The new Chapter 10 describes the Laboratory’s environmental stewardship efforts and provides an overview of the health of the Rio Grande. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory’s technical

  12. HIV-1 Envelope Resistance to Proteasomal Cleavage: Implications for Vaccine Induced Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Steers, Nicholas J.; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; de Souza, Mark S.; Currier, Jeffrey R.; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Alving, Carl R.; Rao, Mangala

    2012-01-01

    Background Antigen processing involves many proteolytic enzymes such as proteasomes and cathepsins. The processed antigen is then presented on the cell surface bound to either MHC class I or class II molecules and induces/interacts with antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells, respectively. Preliminary immunological data from the RV144 phase III trial indicated that the immune responses were biased towards the Env antigen with a dominant CD4+ T-cell response. Methods In this study, we examined the susceptibility of HIV-1 Env-A244 gp120 protein, one of the protein boost subunits of the RV144 Phase III vaccine trial, to proteasomes and cathepsins and identified the generated peptide epitope repertoire by mass spectrometry. The peptide fragments were tested for cytokine production in CD4+ T-cell lines derived from RV144 volunteers. Results Env-A244 was resistant to proteasomes, thus diminishing the possibility of the generation of class I epitopes by the classical MHC class I pathway. However, Env-A244 was efficiently cleaved by cathepsins generating peptide arrays identified by mass spectrometry that contained both MHC class I and class II epitopes as reported in the Los Alamos database. Each of the cathepsins generated distinct degradation patterns containing regions of light and dense epitope clusters. The sequence DKKQKVHALF that is part of the V2 loop of gp120 produced by cathepsins induced a polyfunctional cytokine response including the generation of IFN-γ from CD4+ T-cell lines-derived from RV144 vaccinees. This sequence is significant since antibodies to the V1/V2-loop region correlated inversely with HIV-1 infection in the RV144 trial. Conclusions Based on our results, the susceptibility of Env-A244 to cathepsins and not to proteasomes suggests a possible mechanism for the generation of Env-specific CD4+T cell and antibody responses in the RV144 vaccinees. PMID:22880042

  13. Improving HIV proteome annotation: new features of BioAfrica HIV Proteomics Resource

    PubMed Central

    Druce, Megan; Hulo, Chantal; Masson, Patrick; Sommer, Paula; Xenarios, Ioannis; Le Mercier, Philippe; De Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the pathogens that cause the greatest global concern, with approximately 35 million people currently infected with HIV. Extensive HIV research has been performed, generating a large amount of HIV and host genomic data. However, no effective vaccine that protects the host from HIV infection is available and HIV is still spreading at an alarming rate, despite effective antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. In order to develop effective therapies, we need to expand our knowledge of the interaction between HIV and host proteins. In contrast to virus proteins, which often rapidly evolve drug resistance mutations, the host proteins are essentially invariant within all humans. Thus, if we can identify the host proteins needed for virus replication, such as those involved in transporting viral proteins to the cell surface, we have a chance of interrupting viral replication. There is no proteome resource that summarizes this interaction, making research on this subject a difficult enterprise. In order to fill this gap in knowledge, we curated a resource presents detailed annotation on the interaction between the HIV proteome and host proteins. Our resource was produced in collaboration with ViralZone and used manual curation techniques developed by UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. Our new website also used previous annotations of the BioAfrica HIV-1 Proteome Resource, which has been accessed by approximately 10 000 unique users a year since its inception in 2005. The novel features include a dedicated new page for each HIV protein, a graphic display of its function and a section on its interaction with host proteins. Our new webpages also add information on the genomic location of each HIV protein and the position of ARV drug resistance mutations. Our improved BioAfrica HIV-1 Proteome Resource fills a gap in the current knowledge of biocuration. Database URL: http://www.bioafrica.net/proteomics/HIVproteome.html PMID:27087306

  14. Improving HIV proteome annotation: new features of BioAfrica HIV Proteomics Resource.

    PubMed

    Druce, Megan; Hulo, Chantal; Masson, Patrick; Sommer, Paula; Xenarios, Ioannis; Le Mercier, Philippe; De Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the pathogens that cause the greatest global concern, with approximately 35 million people currently infected with HIV. Extensive HIV research has been performed, generating a large amount of HIV and host genomic data. However, no effective vaccine that protects the host from HIV infection is available and HIV is still spreading at an alarming rate, despite effective antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. In order to develop effective therapies, we need to expand our knowledge of the interaction between HIV and host proteins. In contrast to virus proteins, which often rapidly evolve drug resistance mutations, the host proteins are essentially invariant within all humans. Thus, if we can identify the host proteins needed for virus replication, such as those involved in transporting viral proteins to the cell surface, we have a chance of interrupting viral replication. There is no proteome resource that summarizes this interaction, making research on this subject a difficult enterprise. In order to fill this gap in knowledge, we curated a resource presents detailed annotation on the interaction between the HIV proteome and host proteins. Our resource was produced in collaboration with ViralZone and used manual curation techniques developed by UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. Our new website also used previous annotations of the BioAfrica HIV-1 Proteome Resource, which has been accessed by approximately 10 000 unique users a year since its inception in 2005. The novel features include a dedicated new page for each HIV protein, a graphic display of its function and a section on its interaction with host proteins. Our new webpages also add information on the genomic location of each HIV protein and the position of ARV drug resistance mutations. Our improved BioAfrica HIV-1 Proteome Resource fills a gap in the current knowledge of biocuration.Database URL:http://www.bioafrica.net/proteomics/HIVproteome.html. PMID:27087306

  15. Dispersion of the HIV-1 Epidemic in Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Netherlands: A Combined Mathematical Model and Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ratmann, Oliver; van Sighem, Ard; Hermanides, Hillegonda S.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Gras, Luuk; Rodrigues Faria, Nuno; van den Hengel, Rob; Duits, Ashley J.; Reiss, Peter; de Wolf, Frank; Fraser, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 subtype B epidemic amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) is resurgent in many countries despite the widespread use of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). In this combined mathematical and phylogenetic study of observational data, we aimed to find out the extent to which the resurgent epidemic is the result of newly introduced strains or of growth of already circulating strains. Methods and Findings As of November 2011, the ATHENA observational HIV cohort of all patients in care in the Netherlands since 1996 included HIV-1 subtype B polymerase sequences from 5,852 patients. Patients who were diagnosed between 1981 and 1995 were included in the cohort if they were still alive in 1996. The ten most similar sequences to each ATHENA sequence were selected from the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database, and a phylogenetic tree was created of a total of 8,320 sequences. Large transmission clusters that included ≥10 ATHENA sequences were selected, with a local support value ≥ 0.9 and median pairwise patristic distance below the fifth percentile of distances in the whole tree. Time-varying reproduction numbers of the large MSM-majority clusters were estimated through mathematical modeling. We identified 106 large transmission clusters, including 3,061 (52%) ATHENA and 652 Los Alamos sequences. Half of the HIV sequences from MSM registered in the cohort in the Netherlands (2,128 of 4,288) were included in 91 large MSM-majority clusters. Strikingly, at least 54 (59%) of these 91 MSM-majority clusters were already circulating before 1996, when cART was introduced, and have persisted to the present. Overall, 1,226 (35%) of the 3,460 diagnoses among MSM since 1996 were found in these 54 long-standing clusters. The reproduction numbers of all large MSM-majority clusters were around the epidemic threshold value of one over the whole study period. A tendency towards higher numbers was visible in recent years, especially in the more recently

  16. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/8/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  17. Overlap in Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the topic of Fuzzy Set Theory to determine the overlap of coverage in bibliographic databases. Highlights include examples of comparisons of database coverage; frequency distribution of the degree of overlap; records with maximum overlap; records unique to one database; intra-database duplicates; and overlap in the top ten databases.…

  18. HIV quality of care assessment at an academic hospital: outcomes and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Christine A; Neeman, Naama; Davis, Roger B; Schulze, Joanne; Libman, Howard; Markson, Larry; Aronson, Mark; Bell, Sigall K

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in HIV treatment guidelines and antiretroviral therapy drug safety data add to the increasing complexity of caring for HIV-infected patients and amplify the need for continuous quality monitoring. The authors created an electronic HIV database of 642 patients who received care in the infectious disease (ID) and general medicine clinics in their academic center to monitor HIV clinical performance indicators. The main outcome measures of the study include process measures, including a description of how the database was constructed, and clinical outcomes, including HIV-specific quality improvement (QI) measures and primary care (PC) measures. Performance on HIV-specific QI measures was very high, but drug toxicity monitoring and PC-specific QI performance were deficient, particularly among ID specialists. Establishment of HIV QI data benchmarks as well as standards for how data will be measured and collected are needed and are the logical counterpart to treatment guidelines. PMID:22326983

  19. The EXOSAT database system. Available databases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, C.

    1991-02-01

    This User's Guide describes the databases that are currently available by remote login to the EXOSAT/ESTEC site of the EXOSAT database system. This includes where ever possible the following: brief descriptions of each observatory, telescope and instrument references to more complete observatory descriptions a list of the contents of each database and how it was generated, parameter descriptions.

  20. Review of liquid metal heat pipe work at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.S.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of space-power related liquid metal heat pipe work at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. Heat pipe development at Los Alamos has been on-going since 1963. Heat pipes were initially developed for thermionic nuclear-electrical power production in space. Since then Los Alamos has developed liquid metal heat pipes for numerous applications related to high temperature systems in both the space and terrestrial environments. Some of these applications include thermionic electrical generators, thermoelectric energy conversion (both in-core and direct radiation), thermal energy storage, hypersonic vehicle leading edge cooling, and heat pipe vapor laser cells. Some of the work performed at Los Alamos has been documented in internal reports that are often little-known. A representative description and summary of progress in space-related liquid metal heat pipe technology is provided followed by a reference section citing sources where these works may be found. 53 refs.

  1. Explosive Flux Compression: 50 Years of Los Alamos Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.; Thomson, D.B.; Garn, W.B.

    1998-10-18

    Los Alamos flux compression activities are surveyed, mainly through references in view of space limitations. However, two plasma physics programs done with Sandia National Laboratory are discussed in more detail.

  2. Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos during 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) Environmental Directorate, as required by US Department of Energy Order 450.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2007. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, air; Chapters 5 and 6, water and sediments; Chapter 7, soils; and Chapter 8, foodstuffs and biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the laboratory’s technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information. In printed copies of this report or Executive Summary, we have

  3. HIV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the right way, every day. If you have health insurance, your insurer is required to cover some medicines ... to treat HIV. If you don’t have health insurance, or you’re unable to afford your co- ...

  4. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  5. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  6. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most ...

  7. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  8. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  9. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  10. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV infections. HIV infection is often diagnosed through rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which detect the presence or absence of ... accuracy. It is important to note that serological tests detect antibodies produced ... pathogens, rather than direct detection of HIV itself. Most ...

  11. Older People and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... common than they were before the use of anti-HIV drugs. It is difficult to know what is causing mental problems in older people with HIV. Is it normal aging, or is it HIV disease? Research studies have ...

  12. Los Alamos low-level waste performance assessment status

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, W.J.; Purtymun, W.D.; Dewart, J.M.; Rodgers, J.E.

    1986-06-01

    This report reviews the documented Los Alamos studies done to assess the containment of buried hazardous wastes. Five sections logically present the environmental studies, operational source terms, transport pathways, environmental dosimetry, and computer model development and use. This review gives a general picture of the Los Alamos solid waste disposal and liquid effluent sites and is intended for technical readers with waste management and environmental science backgrounds but without a detailed familiarization with Los Alamos. The review begins with a wide perspective on environmental studies at Los Alamos. Hydrology, geology, and meteorology are described for the site and region. The ongoing Laboratory-wide environmental surveillance and waste management environmental studies are presented. The next section describes the waste disposal sites and summarizes the current source terms for these sites. Hazardous chemical wastes and liquid effluents are also addressed by describing the sites and canyons that are impacted. The review then focuses on the transport pathways addressed mainly in reports by Healy and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. Once the source terms and potential transport pathways are described, the dose assessment methods are addressed. Three major studies, the waste alternatives, Hansen and Rogers, and the Pantex Environmental Impact Statement, contributed to the current Los Alamos dose assessment methodology. Finally, the current Los Alamos groundwater, surface water, and environmental assessment models for these mesa top and canyon sites are described.

  13. Expanded recycling at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Betschart, J.F.; Malinauskas, L.; Burns, M.

    1996-07-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Office has increased recycling activities, reuse, and options to reduce the solid waste streams through streamlining efforts that applied best management practices. The program has prioritized efforts based on volume and economic considerations and has greatly increased Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) recycle volumes. The Pollution Prevention Program established and chairs a Solid Waste Management Solutions Group to specifically address and solve problems in nonradioactive, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), state-regulated, and sanitary and industrial waste streams (henceforth referred to as sanitary waste in this paper). By identifying materials with recycling potential, identifying best management practices and pathways to return materials for reuse, and introducing the concept and practice of {open_quotes}asset management,{open_quotes} the Group will divert much of the current waste stream from disposal. This Group is developing procedures, agreements, and contracts to stage, collect, sort, segregate, transport and process materials, and is also garnering support for the program through the involvement of upper management, facility managers, and generators.

  14. Saving Water at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Andy

    2015-03-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory decreased its water usage by 26 percent in 2014, with about one-third of the reduction attributable to using reclaimed water to cool a supercomputing center. The Laboratory's goal during 2014 was to use only re-purposed water to support the mission at the Strategic Computing Complex. Using reclaimed water from the Sanitary Effluent Reclamation Facility, or SERF, substantially decreased water usage and supported the overall mission. SERF collects industrial wastewater and treats it for reuse. The reclamation facility contributed more than 27 million gallons of re-purposed water to the Laboratory's computing center, a secured supercomputing facility that supports the Laboratory’s national security mission and is one of the institution’s larger water users. In addition to the strategic water reuse program at SERF, the Laboratory reduced water use in 2014 by focusing conservation efforts on areas that use the most water, upgrading to water-conserving fixtures, and repairing leaks identified in a biennial survey.

  15. Historic Manhattan Project Sites at Los Alamos

    ScienceCinema

    McGehee, Ellen

    2014-05-22

    The Manhattan Project laboratory constructed at Los Alamos, New Mexico, beginning in 1943, was intended from the start to be temporary and to go up with amazing speed. Because most of those WWII-era facilities were built with minimal materials and so quickly, much of the original infrastructure was torn down in the late '40s and early '50s and replaced by more permanent facilities. However, a few key facilities remained, and are being preserved and maintained for historic significance. Four such sites are visited briefly in this video, taking viewers to V-Site, the buildings where the first nuclear explosive device was pre-assembled in preparation for the Trinity Test in Southern New Mexico. Included is another WWII area, Gun Site. So named because it was the area where scientists and engineers tested the so-called "gun method" of assembling nuclear materials -- the fundamental design of the Little Boy weapon that was eventually dropped on Hiroshima. The video also goes to Pajarito Site, home of the "Slotin Building" and "Pond Cabin." The Slotin Building is the place where scientist Louis Slotin conducted a criticality experiment that went awry in early 1946, leading to his unfortunate death, and the Pond Cabin served the team of eminent scientist Emilio Segre who did early chemistry work on plutonium that ultimately led to the Fat Man weapon.

  16. Characteristics of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 Dually Seropositive Adults in West Africa Presenting for Care and Antiretroviral Therapy: The IeDEA-West Africa HIV-2 Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ekouevi, Didier K.; Balestre, Eric; Coffie, Patrick A.; Minta, Daouda; Messou, Eugene; Sawadogo, Adrien; Minga, Albert; Sow, Papa Salif; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Eholie, Serge P.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.; Dabis, François; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Ahouada, Carin; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Ahomadegbé, Christelle; Bashi, Jules; Gougounon-Houéto, Alice; Azon-Kouanou, Angèle; Houngbé, Fabien; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Alihonou, Florence; d’Almeida, Marcelline; Hodonou, Irvine; Hounhoui, Ghislaine; Sagbo, Gracien; Tossa-Bagnan, Leïla; Adjide, Herman; Drabo, Joseph; Bognounou, René; Dienderé, Arnaud; Traore, Eliezer; Zoungrana, Lassane; Zerbo, Béatrice; Sawadogo, Adrien Bruno; Zoungrana, Jacques; Héma, Arsène; Soré, Ibrahim; Bado, Guillaume; Tapsoba, Achille; Yé, Diarra; Kouéta, Fla; Ouedraogo, Sylvie; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Hiembo, William; Gansonré, Mady; Messou, Eugène; Gnokoro, Joachim Charles; Koné, Mamadou; Kouakou, Guillaume Martial; Bosse, Clarisse Amani; Brou, Kouakou; Assi, Achi Isidore; Chenal, Henri; Hawerlander, Denise; Soppi, Franck; Minga, Albert; Abo, Yao; Bomisso, Germain; Eholié, Serge Paul; Amego, Mensah Deborah Noelly; Andavi, Viviane; Diallo, Zelica; Ello, Frédéric; Tanon, Aristophane Koffi; Koule, Serge Olivier; Anzan, Koffi Charles; Guehi, Calixte; Aka, Edmond Addi; Issouf, Koffi Ladji; Kouakou, Jean-Claude; N’Gbeche, Marie-Sylvie; Touré, Pety; Avit-Edi, Divine; Kouakou, Kouadio; Moh, Magloire; Yao, Valérie Andoblé; Folquet, Madeleine Amorissani; Dainguy, Marie-Evelyne; Kouakou, Cyrille; Méa-Assande, Véronique Tanoh; Oka-Berete, Gladys; Zobo, Nathalie; Acquah, Patrick; Kokora, Marie-Berthe; Eboua, Tanoh François; Timité-Konan, Marguerite; Ahoussou, Lucrèce Diecket; Assouan, Julie Kebé; Sami, Mabéa Flora; Kouadio, Clémence; Renner, Lorna; Goka, Bamenla; Welbeck, Jennifer; Sackey, Adziri; Owiafe, Seth Ntiri; Wejse, Christian; Silva, Zacarias José Da; Paulo, Joao; Rodrigues, Amabelia; da Silva, David; Medina, Candida; Oliviera-Souto, Ines; Østergaard, Lars; Laursen, Alex; Sodemann, Morten; Aaby, Peter; Fomsgaard, Anders; Erikstrup, Christian; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Maïga, Moussa Y; Diakité, Fatoumata Fofana; Kalle, Abdoulaye; Katile, Drissa; Traore, Hamar Alassane; Minta, Daouda; Cissé, Tidiani; Dembelé, Mamadou; Doumbia, Mohammed; Fomba, Mahamadou; Kaya, Assétou Soukho; Traoré, Abdoulaye M; Traoré, Hamady; Toure, Amadou Abathina; Dicko, Fatoumata; Sylla, Mariam; Berthé, Alima; Traoré, Hadizatou Coulibaly; Koïta, Anta; Koné, Niaboula; N'Diaye, Clémentine; Coulibaly, Safiatou Touré; Traoré, Mamadou; Traoré, Naïchata; Charurat, Man; Ajayi, Samuel; Dapiap, Stephen; Otu; Igbinoba, Festus; Benson, Okwara; Adebamowo, Clément; James, Jesse; Obaseki; Osakede, Philip; Olasode, John; Sow, Papa Salif; Diop, Bernard; Manga, Noël Magloire; Tine, Judicael Malick; Signate Sy, Haby; Ba, Abou; Diagne, Aida; Dior, Hélène; Faye, Malick; Gueye, Ramatoulaye Diagne; Mbaye, Aminata Diack; Patassi, Akessiwe; Kotosso, Awèrou; Kariyare, Benjamin Goilibe; Gbadamassi, Gafarou; Komi, Agbo; Mensah-Zukong, Kankoé Edem; Pakpame, Pinuwe; Lawson-Evi, Annette Koko; Atakouma, Yawo; Takassi, Elom; Djeha, Améyo; Ephoévi-gah, Ayoko; Djibril, Sherifa El-Hadj; Dabis, François; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Arrivé, Elise; Coffie, Patrick; Ekouevi, Didier; Jaquet, Antoine; Leroy, Valériane; Lewden, Charlotte; Sasco, Annie; Azani, Jean-Claude; Allou, Gérard; Balestre, Eric; Bohossou, Franck; Karcher, Sophie; Gonsan, Jules Mahan; Carrou, Jérôme Le; Lenaud, Séverin; Nchot, Célestin; Malateste, Karen; Yao, Amon Roseamonde; Siloué, Bertine; Clouet, Gwenaelle; Djetouan, Hugues; Doring, Alexandra; Kouakou, Adrienne; Rabourdin, Elodie; Rivenc, Jean; Anglaret, Xavier; Ba, Boubacar; Essanin, Jean Bosco; Ciaranello, Andrea; Datté, Sébastien; Desmonde, Sophie; Diby, Jean-Serge Elvis; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.; Horo, Apollinaire Gninlgninrin; Kangah, Serge N'zoré; Malvy, Denis; Meless, David; Mounkaila-Harouna, Aida; Ndondoki, Camille; Shiboski, Caroline; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; PAC-CI; Abidjan

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA). Methods We collected data on all HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually seropositive patients (both ARV-naive and starting ART) and followed-up in clinical centres in the IeDEA-WA network including a total of 13 clinics in five countries: Benin, Burkina-Faso Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal, in the West Africa region. Results Data was merged for 1,754 patients (56% female), including 1,021 HIV-2 infected patients (551 on ART) and 733 dually seropositive for both HIV-1 and HIV 2 (463 on ART). At ART initiation, the median age of HIV-2 patients was 45.3 years, IQR: (38.3–51.7) and 42.4 years, IQR (37.0–47.3) for dually seropositive patients (p = 0.048). Overall, 16.7% of HIV-2 patients on ART had an advanced clinical stage (WHO IV or CDC-C). The median CD4 count at the ART initiation is 166 cells/mm3, IQR (83–247) among HIV-2 infected patients and 146 cells/mm3, IQR (55–249) among dually seropositive patients. Overall, in ART-treated patients, the CD4 count increased 126 cells/mm3 after 24 months on ART for HIV-2 patients and 169 cells/mm3 for dually seropositive patients. Of 551 HIV-2 patients on ART, 5.8% died and 10.2% were lost to follow-up during the median time on ART of 2.4 years, IQR (0.7–4.3). Conclusions This large multi-country study of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infection in West Africa suggests that routine clinical care is less than optimal and that management and treatment of HIV-2 could be further informed by ongoing studies and randomized clinical trials in this population. PMID:23824279

  17. HIV research productivity and structural factors associated with HIV research output in European Union countries: a bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Uusküla, A; Toompere, K; Laisaar, K T; Rosenthal, M; Pürjer, M L; Knellwolf, A; Läärä, E; Des Jarlais, D C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV/AIDS research productivity in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU), and the structural level factors associated with levels of HIV/AIDS research productivity. Methods A bibliometric analysis was conducted with systematic search methods used to locate HIV/AIDS research publications (period of 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2011; search databases: MEDLINE (Ovid, PubMed), EMBASE, ISI-Thomson Web of Science; no language restrictions). The publication rate (number of HIV/AIDS research publications per million population in 10 years) and the rate of articles published in HIV/AIDS journals and selected journals with moderate to very high (IF ≥3) 5-year impact factors were used as markers for HIV research productivity. A negative binomial regression model was fitted to assess the impact of structural level factors (sociodemographic, health, HIV prevalence and research/development indicators) associated with the variation in HIV research productivity. Results The total numbers of HIV/AIDS research publications in 2002–2011 by country ranged from 7 to 9128 (median 319). The median publication rate (per million population in 10 years) was 45 (range 5–150) for all publications. Across all countries, 16% of the HIV/AIDS research was published in HIV/AIDS journals and 7% in selected journals with IF ≥3. Indicators describing economic (gross domestic product), demographic (size of the population) and epidemiological (HIV prevalence) conditions as well as overall scientific activity (total research output) in a country were positively associated with HIV research productivity. Conclusions HIV research productivity varies noticeably across EU countries, and this variation is associated with recognisable structural factors. PMID:25649212

  18. Databases: Beyond the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Robert

    This presented paper offers an elementary description of database characteristics and then provides a survey of databases that may be useful to the teacher and researcher in Slavic and East European languages and literatures. The survey focuses on commercial databases that are available, usable, and needed. Individual databases discussed include:…

  19. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  20. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  1. Recent UCN source developments at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Seestrom, S.J.; Anaya, J.M.; Bowles, T.J.

    1998-12-01

    The most intense sources of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) have bee built at reactors where the high average thermal neutron flux can overcome the low UCN production rate to achieve usable densities of UCN. At spallation neutron sources the average flux available is much lower than at a reactor, though the peak flux can be comparable or higher. The authors have built a UCN source that attempts to take advantage of the high peak flux available at the short pulse spallation neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) to generate a useful number of UCN. In the source UCN are produced by Doppler-shifted Bragg scattering of neutrons to convert 400-m/s neutrons down into the UCN regime. This source was initially tested in 1996 and various improvements were made based on the results of the 1996 running. These improvements were implemented and tested in 1997. In sections 2 and 3 they discuss the improvements that have been made and the resulting source performance. Recently an even more interesting concept was put forward by Serebrov et al. This involves combining a solid Deuterium UCN source, previously studied by Serebrov et al., with a pulsed spallation source to achieve world record UCN densities. They have initiated a program of calculations and measurements aimed at verifying the solid Deuterium UCN source concept. The approach has been to develop an analytical capability, combine with Monte Carlo calculations of neutron production, and perform benchmark experiments to verify the validity of the calculations. Based on the calculations and measurements they plan to test a modified version of the Serebrov UCN factory. They estimate that they could produce over 1,000 UCN/cc in a 15 liter volume, using 1 {micro}amp of 800 MeV protons for two seconds every 500 seconds. They will discuss the result UCN production measurements in section 4.

  2. Beam funneling studies at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, J.E.; Guy, F.W.; Stokes, R.H.; Wangler, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Funneling two ion beams by interlacing their bunches can reduce the cost and complexity of systems producing intense beams. Applications of funneling could include accelerators for heavy ion inertial fusion, electronuclear breeding, and fusion materials irradiation. Funneling in an RFQ-like structure is an elegant solution at low energy where electric fields are needed to provide strong focusing. Discrete-element funnels, with separate focusing elements, bending magnets, rebunchers and if deflectors, are more flexible. At sufficiently high energies, magnetic-quadrupole lenses can provide strong focusing in a discrete-element funnel. Such a funnel has been designed as a preliminary example of a second funnel in the HIBALL-II accelerator system. In a simulation, two Bi/sup +1/ (mass = 209 amu) beams at 0.5 MeV/A, 20 MHz, 40-mA, separated by 55 cm and angled at +-6/degree/ were combined into a single 80-mA beam at 40 MHz. Emittance growth was calculated, by a modified version of the PIC (particle-in-cell) code PARMILA, to be about 1%. Funnel design experience at Los Alamos has evolved rules-of-thumb that reduce emittance growth. Some of these are to maintain focusing periodicity and strength in both transverse and longitudinal directions; use strong focusing so that the bunch will be small; minimize angles of bend and rf deflection; adjust longitudinal focusing to produce a short bunch at the rf deflector; and design rf deflectors for a uniform electrical field. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Molecular Characterization of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Mekong Delta, Vietnam, and Impact of T-Cell Epitope Mutations on HLA Recognition (ANRS 12159)

    PubMed Central

    Bellecave, Pantxika; Guidicelli, Gwenda-Line; Anies, Guerric; Hoang Khanh Thu, Huynh; Pillot Debelleix, Marie; Vray, Muriel; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Thi Xuan Lien, Truong; Fleury, Herve

    2011-01-01

    Background To date, 11 HIV-1 subtypes and 48 circulating recombinant forms have been described worldwide. The underlying reason why their distribution is so heterogeneous is not clear. Host genetic factors could partly explain this distribution. The aim of this study was to describe HIV-1 strains circulating in an unexplored area of Mekong Delta, Vietnam, and to assess the impact of optimal epitope mutations on HLA binding. Methods We recruited 125 chronically antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected subjects from five cities in the Mekong Delta. We performed high-resolution DNA typing of HLA class I alleles, sequencing of Gag and RT-Prot genes and phylogenetic analysis of the strains. Epitope mutations were analyzed in patients bearing the HLA allele restricting the studied epitope. Optimal wild-type epitopes from the Los Alamos database were used as reference. T-cell epitope recognition was predicted using the immune epitope database tool according to three different scores involved in antigen processing (TAP and proteasome scores) and HLA binding (MHC score). Results All sequences clustered with CRF01_AE. HLA class I genotyping showed the predominance of Asian alleles as A*11:01 and B*46:01 with a Vietnamese specificity held by two different haplotypes. The percentage of homology between Mekong and B consensus HIV-1 sequences was above 85%. Divergent epitopes had TAP and proteasome scores comparable with wild-type epitopes. MHC scores were significantly lower in divergent epitopes with a mean of 2.4 (±0.9) versus 2 (±0.7) in non-divergent ones (p<0.0001). Conclusions Our study confirms the wide predominance of CRF01_AE in the Mekong Delta where patients harbor a specific HLA pattern. Moreover, it demonstrates the lower MHC binding affinity among divergent epitopes. This weak immune pressure combined with a narrow genetic diversity favors immune escape and could explain why CRF01_AE is still predominant in Vietnam, particularly in the Mekong area. PMID:22039450

  4. Detecting errors and anomalies in computerized materials control and accountability databases

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Hench, K.; Yarbro, T.; Baumgart, C.

    1998-12-31

    The Automated MC and A Database Assessment project is aimed at improving anomaly and error detection in materials control and accountability (MC and A) databases and increasing confidence in the data that they contain. Anomalous data resulting in poor categorization of nuclear material inventories greatly reduces the value of the database information to users. Therefore it is essential that MC and A data be assessed periodically for anomalies or errors. Anomaly detection can identify errors in databases and thus provide assurance of the integrity of data. An expert system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that examines these large databases for anomalous or erroneous data. For several years, MC and A subject matter experts at Los Alamos have been using this automated system to examine the large amounts of accountability data that the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility generates. These data are collected and managed by the Material Accountability and Safeguards System, a near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system. This year they have expanded the user base, customizing the anomaly detector for the varying requirements of different groups of users. This paper describes the progress in customizing the expert systems to the needs of the users of the data and reports on their results.

  5. The Factors Related to CD4+ T-Cell Recovery and Viral Suppression in Patients Who Have Low CD4+ T Cell Counts at the Initiation of HAART: A Retrospective Study of the National HIV Treatment Sub-Database of Zhejiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Pan, Xiaohong; Dou, Zhihui; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Peng, Zhihang; Zheng, Jinlei; Zhang, Jiafeng; Yang, Jiezhe; Xu, Yun; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Lin; Jiang, Jianmin; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Since China has a unique system of delivering HIV care that includes all patients’ records. The factors related to CD4+ T-cell recovery and viral suppression in patients who have low CD4+ T cell counts at the initiation of HAART are understudied in the China despite subsequent virological suppression (viral load < 50 copies/mL) is unknown. Methods The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the national HIV treatment sub-database of Zhejiang province to identify records of HIV+ patients. Patient records were included if they were ≥ 16 years of age, had an initial CD4 count < 100 cells/μL, were on continuous HAART for at least one year by the end of December 31, 2014; and achieved and maintained continued maximum virological suppression (MVS) (< 50 copies/ml) by 9 months after starting HAART. The primary endpoint for analysis was time to first CD4+ T cell count recovery (≥ 200, 350, 500 cells/μL). Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify the risk factors for CD4+ T cell count recovery to key thresholds (200–350, 350–500, ≥ 500 cells/μL) by the time of last clinical follow-up (whichever occurred first), key thresholds (follow-up date for analysis), with patients still unable to reach the endpoints being censored by the end December 31, 2014 (follow-up date for analysis). Results Of the 918 patients who were included in the study, and the median CD4+ T cell count was 39 cells/μL at the baseline. At the end of follow-up, 727 (79.2%), 363 (39.5%) and 149 (16.2%) patients had return to ≥ 200, 350, and 500 cells/μL, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the rate of patients with CD4+ count recovery to ≥ 200, 350, and 500 cells/μL after 1 year on HAART was 43.6, 8.6, and 2.5%, respectively, after 3 years on treatment was 90.8, 46.3, and 17.9%, respectively, and after 5 years on HAART was 97.1, 72.2, and 36.4%, respectively. The median time to return to 200–350, 350–500, ≥ 500cells

  6. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  7. HIV transmission and related risk factors among serodiscordant couples in Liuzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Feng, Xian-Xiang; Fan, Yin-Guang; Jiang, Zhi-Yu; Zhong, Xiang-Hai; Li, Ming-Qiang; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion of HIV-negative partners among HIV-discordant couples in Liuzhou, China, 1854 eligible HIV-serodiscordant couples were retrospectively identified through the HIV epidemiology and follow-up database from January 1, 1996 to June 30, 2013. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to examine risk factors related to HIV seroconversion of negative partners. Finally, 125 HIV seroconversion occurred over 4963.5 person-years, resulting in an overall HIV incidence of 2.52/100 person-years. HIV-positive partners with the last CD4 counts of 350 cells/ul or more were significantly protected against HIV seroconversion compared with those CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/ul (aHR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27-0.81, P < 0.01). Men with HIV-positive wives (aHR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.27-3.02, P < 0.01), HIV-positive partners who did not receive ART before their HIV-negative partners' seroconversion (aHR: 2.22, 95% CI, 1.41-3.51, P < 0.01) and patients reported intermittent condom use (aHR: 7.60, 95% CI, 4.37-13.21, P < 0.01) were associated with increased risk of HIV seroconversion. HIV-negative partners remain high risk of HIV infection in Liuzhou city. Comprehensive package of HIV prevention services should contribute to reduction in HIV transmission of discordant couples. PMID:25583348

  8. HIV testing and counselling for migrant populations living in high-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Susana; Azcoaga, Amaya; Rio, Isabel; Hernando, Victoria; Gonzalez, Cristina; Alejos, Belen; Caro, Ana Maria; Perez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar, Francisco; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Background: The barriers to HIV testing and counselling that migrants encounter can jeopardize proactive HIV testing that relies on the fact that HIV testing must be linked to care. We analyse available evidence on HIV testing and counselling strategies targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in high-income countries. Methods: Systematic literature review of the five main databases of articles in English from Europe, North America and Australia between 2005 and 2009. Results: Of 1034 abstracts, 37 articles were selected. Migrants, mainly from HIV-endemic countries, are at risk of HIV infection and its consequences. The HIV prevalence among migrants is higher than the general population’s, and migrants have higher frequency of delayed HIV diagnosis. For migrants from countries with low HIV prevalence and for ethnic minorities, socio-economic vulnerability puts them at risk of acquiring HIV. Migrants have specific legal and administrative impediments to accessing HIV testing—in some countries, undocumented migrants are not entitled to health care—as well as cultural and linguistic barriers, racism and xenophobia. Migrants and ethnic minorities fear stigma from their communities, yet community acceptance is key for well-being. Conclusions: Migrants and ethnic minorities should be offered HIV testing, but the barriers highlighted in this review may deter programs from achieving the final goal, which is linking migrants and ethnic minorities to HIV clinical care under the public health perspective. PMID:23002238

  9. 1993 Northern goshawk inventory on portions of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, D.T.; Kennedy, P.L.

    1994-06-01

    Northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) (hereafter referred to as goshawk) is a large forest dwelling hawk. Goshawks may be declining in population and reproduction in the southwestern United States. Reasons for the possible decline in goshawk populations include timber harvesting resulting in the loss of nesting habitat, toxic chemicals, and the effects of drought, fire, and disease. Thus, there is a need to determine their population status and assess impacts of management activities in potential goshawk habitat. Inventory for the goshawk was conducted on 2,254 ha of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to determine the presence of nesting goshawks on LANL lands. This information can be incorporated into LANL`s environmental management program. The inventory was conducted by Colorado State University personnel from May 12 to July 30, 1993. This report summarizes the results of this inventory.

  10. Doctors Report Groundbreaking HIV-To-HIV Organ Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158039.html Doctors Report Groundbreaking HIV-to-HIV Organ Transplants One donor supplied a kidney to ... News) -- Trailblazing liver and kidney transplants from an HIV-positive donor to HIV-positive recipients were announced ...

  11. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lactic Acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV medicines. All HIV medicines in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug class may cause lactic acidosis, but ... some HIV medicines. HIV medicines in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug class can cause the body to ...

  12. DATATRIEVE used in a control-system database

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, N.E.

    1983-01-01

    Process control of the Proton Storage Ring at Los Alamos will be accomplished by LSI-11/23 computers networked with a VAX-11/750. The database contains descriptions, status, and parameters of the hardware channels and equipment connected to the LSIs. Database entry and processing occur on the VAX, largely through DATATRIEVE user-friendly procedures. Data validity is checked during and after data entry by DATATRIEVE and FORTRAN language procedures. The database then is distilled into a machine-efficient form and distributed to the LSIs and VAX for use by the process-control software. This paper includes an overview of our application, an overview of DATATRIEVE, examples of DATATRIEVE concepts, features of DATATRIEVE that have been especially useful, features of DATATRIEVE that have been troublesome in this project, notes about the conversion from DATATRIEVE-11 to VAX-11 DATATRIEVE, and observations on data-management software in a control-system environment.

  13. Genetic Characteristics, Coreceptor Usage Potential and Evolution of Nigerian HIV-1 Subtype G and CRF02_AG Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ajoge, Hannah O.; Gordon, Michelle L.; de Oliveira, Tulio; Green, Taryn N.; Ibrahim, Sani; Shittu, Oladapo S.; Olonitola, Stephen O.; Ahmad, Aliyu A.; Ndung'u, Thumbi

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 CRF02_AG and subtype G (HIV-1G) account for most HIV infections in Nigeria, but their evolutionary trends have not been well documented. To better elucidate the dynamics of the epidemic in Nigeria we characterised the gag and env genes of North-Central Nigerian HIV-1 isolates from pregnant women. Of 28 samples sequenced in both genes, the predominant clades were CRF02_AG (39%) and HIV-1G (32%). Higher predicted proportion of CXCR4-tropic (X4) HIV-1G isolates was noted compared to CRF02_AG (p = 0.007, Fisher's exact test). Phylogenetic and Bayesian analysis conducted on our sequences and all the dated available Nigerian sequences on the Los Alamos data base showed that CRF02_AG and HIV-1G entered into Nigeria through multiple entries, with presence of HIV-1G dating back to early 1980s. This study underlines the genetic complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic in Nigeria, possible subtype-specific differences in co-receptor usage, and the evolutionary trends of the predominant HIV-1 strains in Nigeria, which may have implications for the design of biomedical interventions and better understanding of the epidemic. PMID:21423811

  14. Publications of Los Alamos research, 1977-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, C.J.; Garcia, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1977-1981. Papers published in those years are included regardless of when they were actually written. Publications received too late for inclusion in earlier compilations have also been listed. Declassification of previously classified reports is considered to constitute publication. All classified issuances are omitted - even those papers, themselves unclassified, which were published only as part of a classified document. If a paper was published more than once, all places of publication are included. The bibliography includes Los Alamos National Laboratory reports, papers released as non-Laboratory reports, journal articles, books, chapters of books, conference papers either published separately or as part of conference proceedings issued as books or reports, papers published in congressional hearings, theses, and US patents. Publications by Los Alamos authors that are not records of Laboratory-sponsored work are included when the Library becomes aware of them.

  15. Water Supply at Los Alamos 1998-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Richard J. Koch; David B. Rogers

    2003-03-01

    For the period 1998 through 2001, the total water used at Los Alamos from all sources ranged from 1325 million gallons (Mg) in 1999 to 1515 Mg in 2000. Groundwater production ranged from 1323 Mg in 1999 to 1506 Mg in 2000 from the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi fields. Nonpotable surface water used from Los Alamos reservoir ranged from zero gallons in 2001 to 9.3 Mg in 2000. For years 1998 through 2001, over 99% of all water used at Los Alamos was groundwater. Water use by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) between 1998 and 2001 ranged from 379 Mg in 2000 to 461 Mg in 1998. The LANL water use in 2001 was 393 Mg or 27% of the total water use at Los Alamos. Water use by Los Alamos County ranged from 872 Mg in 1999 to 1137 Mg in 2000, and averaged 1006 Mg/yr. Four new replacement wells in the Guaje field (G-2A, G-3A, G-4A, and G-5A) were drilled in 1998 and began production in 1999; with existing well G-1A, the Guaje field currently has five producing wells. Five of the old Guaje wells (G-1, G-2, G-4, G-5, and G-6) were plugged and abandoned in 1999, and one well (G-3) was abandoned but remains as an observation well for the Guaje field. The long-term water level observations in production and observation (test) wells at Los Alamos are consistent with the formation of a cone of depression in response to water production. The water level decline is gradual and at most has been about 0.7 to 2 ft per year for production wells and from 0.4 to 0.9 ft/yr for observation (test) wells. The largest water level declines have been in the Guaje field where nonpumping water levels were about 91 ft lower in 2001 than in 1951. The initial water levels of the Guaje replacement wells were 32 to 57 ft lower than the initial water levels of adjacent original Guaje wells. When production wells are taken off-line for pump replacement or repair, water levels have returned to within about 25 ft of initial static levels within 6 to 12 months. Thus, the water-level trends suggest no adverse

  16. A progress report on UNICOS misuse detection at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.; Jackson, K.A.; Stallings, C.A.; Simmonds, D.D.; Siciliano, C.L.B.; Pedicini, G.A.

    1995-10-01

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic monitoring and analysis of on-line user activity. During the past year, Los Alamos enhanced its Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) to include analysis of user activity on Los Alamos` UNICOS Crays. In near real-time, NADIR compares user activity to historical profiles and tests activity against expert rules. The expert rules express Los Alamos` security policy and define improper or suspicious behavior. NADIR reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. This paper describes the implementation to date of the UNICOS component of NADIR, along with the operational experiences and future plans for the system.

  17. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Letiner, Thomas K; Korber, Bette T

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  18. Los Alamos Using Neutrons to Stop Nuclear Smugglers

    ScienceCinema

    Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn

    2014-06-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers have successfully demonstrated for the first time that laser-generated neutrons can be enlisted as a useful tool in the War on Terror. The international research team used the short-pulse laser at Los Alamos's TRIDENT facility to generate a neutron beam with novel characteristics that interrogated a closed container to confirm the presence and quantity of nuclear material inside. The successful experiment paves the way for creation of a table-top-sized or truck-mounted neutron generator that could be installed at strategic locations worldwide to thwart smugglers trafficking in nuclear materials.

  19. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  20. Fifty-one years of Los Alamos Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-09-04

    From 1963 to 2014, the Los Alamos National Laboratory was involved in at least 233 spacecraft. There are probably only one or two institutions in the world that have been involved in so many spacecraft. Los Alamos space exploration started with the Vela satellites for nuclear test detection, but soon expanded to ionospheric research (mostly barium releases), radioisotope thermoelectric generators, solar physics, solar wind, magnetospheres, astrophysics, national security, planetary physics, earth resources, radio propagation in the ionosphere, and cubesats. Here, we present a list of the spacecraft, their purpose, and their launch dates for use during RocketFest

  1. Los Alamos Using Neutrons to Stop Nuclear Smugglers

    SciTech Connect

    Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn

    2013-06-03

    Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers have successfully demonstrated for the first time that laser-generated neutrons can be enlisted as a useful tool in the War on Terror. The international research team used the short-pulse laser at Los Alamos's TRIDENT facility to generate a neutron beam with novel characteristics that interrogated a closed container to confirm the presence and quantity of nuclear material inside. The successful experiment paves the way for creation of a table-top-sized or truck-mounted neutron generator that could be installed at strategic locations worldwide to thwart smugglers trafficking in nuclear materials.

  2. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  3. THE ECOTOX DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The database provides chemical-specific toxicity information for aquatic life, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial wildlife. ECOTOX is a comprehensive ecotoxicology database and is therefore essential for providing and suppoirting high quality models needed to estimate population...

  4. Network II Database

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  5. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More ... holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2015 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. ...

  6. Needs assessment for fire department services and resources for the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    This report has been developed in response to a request from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to evaluate the need for fire department services so as to enable the Laboratory to plan effective fire protection and thereby: meet LANL`s regulatory and contractual obligations; interface with the Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies on matters relating to fire and emergency services; and ensure appropriate protection of the community and environment. This study is an outgrowth of the 1993 Fire Department Needs Assessment (prepared for DOE) but is developed from the LANL perspective. Input has been received from cognizant and responsible representatives at LANL, DOE, Los Alamos County (LAC) and the Los Alamos Fire Department (LAFD).

  7. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Individuals with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Shia T.; Bromfield, Samantha G.; Burkholder, Greer A.; Falzon, Louise; Oparil, Suzanne; Overton, Edgar T.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP) rhythms may contribute to the high cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. To synthesize the current literature on ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in HIV+ individuals, a systematic literature review and meta-analysis were performed. Methods Medical databases were searched through November 11, 2015 for studies that reported ABPM results in HIV+ individuals. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and pooled differences between HIV+ and HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals in clinic BP and ABPM measures were calculated using random-effects inverse variance weighted models. Results Of 597 abstracts reviewed, 8 studies with HIV+ cohorts met the inclusion criteria. The 420 HIV+ and 714 HIV- individuals in 7 studies with HIV- comparison groups were pooled for analyses. The pooled absolute nocturnal systolic and diastolic BP declines were 3.16% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13%, 5.20%) and 2.92% (95% CI: 1.64%, 4.19%) less, respectively, in HIV+ versus HIV- individuals. The pooled odds ratio for non-dipping systolic BP (nocturnal systolic BP decline <10%) in HIV+ versus HIV- individuals was 2.72 (95% CI: 1.92, 3.85). Differences in mean clinic, 24-hour, daytime, or nighttime BP were not statistically significant. I2 and heterogeneity chi-squared statistics indicated the presence of high heterogeneity for all outcomes except percent DBP dipping and non-dipping SBP pattern. Conclusions An abnormal diurnal BP pattern may be more common among HIV+ versus HIV- individuals. However, results were heterogeneous for most BP measures, suggesting more research in this area is needed. PMID:26882469

  8. Women and HIV in a moderate prevalence setting: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Almost 32,000 people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The primary route of transmission in this moderate prevalence setting is through heterosexual sex. Thus a gendered understanding of HIV is required to inform HIV prevention, treatment and care options. The aim of this review is to investigate understandings specifically about women and HIV in PNG and to identify gaps in the literature to inform future HIV research. Methods An integrative review of literature about women, HIV and PNG was conducted using a systematic search of online databases, including book chapters and grey literature. Prior to inclusion, literature was assessed using inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) appraisal tool. Selected articles, book chapters and reports were coded and a constant comparative method of analysis used to construct a series of themes. Results The 26 articles, book chapters and reports included in the review were predominantly descriptive, original research (23/26 pieces of literature). Six themes were identified in the literature: economic, social and cultural factors (including mobility); gender issues (including violence against women); knowledge about HIV (including perception of risk of HIV); religious beliefs about HIV; women perceived as responsible for HIV transmission; and prevention of HIV. Literature about women and HIV in PNG is predominantly focussed upon women who sell sex, women as mothers or young women. Women are usually represented as either victims of HIV or responsible for transmitting HIV. Anthropological and social research has described the economic, social and cultural context along with the lived experience of HIV in PNG, but there is limited operations research or implementation research available. Conclusions The literature reviewed has highlighted the importance of a gendered analysis of HIV prevention, care and treatment in PNG. There is an

  9. MPlus Database system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-20

    The MPlus Database program was developed to keep track of mail received. This system was developed by TRESP for the Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Operations. The MPlus Database program is a PC application, written in dBase III+'' and compiled with Clipper'' into an executable file. The files you need to run the MPLus Database program can be installed on a Bernoulli, or a hard drive. This paper discusses the use of this database.

  10. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  11. Mission and Assets Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, John; Zendejas, Silvino; Gutheinz, Sandy; Borden, Chester; Wang, Yeou-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Mission and Assets Database (MADB) Version 1.0 is an SQL database system with a Web user interface to centralize information. The database stores flight project support resource requirements, view periods, antenna information, schedule, and forecast results for use in mid-range and long-term planning of Deep Space Network (DSN) assets.

  12. Plant and Crop Databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Databases have become an integral part of all aspects of biological research, including basic and applied plant biology. The importance of databases continues to increase as the volume of data from direct and indirect genomics approaches expands. What is not always obvious to users of databases is t...

  13. Recognition of HIV-1 Peptides by Host CTL Is Related to HIV-1 Similarity to Human Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Morgane; Nickle, David C.; Deng, Wenjie; Frahm, Nicole; Brander, Christian; Learn, Gerald H.; Heckerman, David; Jojic, Nebosja; Jojic, Vladimir; Walker, Bruce D.; Mullins, James I.

    2007-01-01

    Background While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes preferentially target specific regions of the viral proteome, HIV-1 features that contribute to immune recognition are not well understood. One hypothesis is that similarities between HIV and human proteins influence the host immune response, i.e., resemblance between viral and host peptides could preclude reactivity against certain HIV epitopes. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the extent of similarity between HIV-1 and the human proteome. Proteins from the HIV-1 B consensus sequence from 2001 were dissected into overlapping k-mers, which were then probed against a non-redundant database of the human proteome in order to identify segments of high similarity. We tested the relationship between HIV-1 similarity to host encoded peptides and immune recognition in HIV-infected individuals, and found that HIV immunogenicity could be partially modulated by the sequence similarity to the host proteome. ELISpot responses to peptides spanning the entire viral proteome evaluated in 314 individuals showed a trend indicating an inverse relationship between the similarity to the host proteome and the frequency of recognition. In addition, analysis of responses by a group of 30 HIV-infected individuals against 944 overlapping peptides representing a broad range of individual HIV-1B Nef variants, affirmed that the degree of similarity to the host was significantly lower for peptides with reactive epitopes than for those that were not recognized. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that antigenic motifs that are scarcely represented in human proteins might represent more immunogenic CTL targets not selected against in the host. This observation could provide guidance in the design of more effective HIV immunogens, as sequences devoid of host-like features might afford superior immune reactivity. PMID:17786195

  14. Long-Term Energetic-Particle Databases From Geosynchronous and GPS Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Belian, R. D.; Cayton, T. E.; Henderson, M. G.; Ingraham, J. C.; Jahn, J.-M.; Mclachlan, P. S.; Meier, M. M.; Reeves, G. D.; Weiss, L. A.

    Since the Vela satellites, first launched in 1963, Los Alamos has had a number of instruments in space to measure energetic radiations from nuclear tests, such as x rays, neutrons, and gamma rays. It soon became clear that we also needed instruments dedicated to the study of the space environment, including energetic particles and the plasma. Energetic particles in space can induce some serious radiation effects in spacecraft. Electrons with energies above about 10 keV can charge the surfaces of spacecraft and change the surface potential. Relativistic electrons (energies greater than approx. 1 MeV) can penetrate deep into material and create hazardous deep dielectric charging. High fluxes of solar energetic particles can create anomalies in electronics and degrade the performance of solar panels and other spacecraft components. A good knowledge of the temporal and spatial variations of these energetic particles is needed in planning future spacecraft and in understanding the Earth's space environment. Energetic particle and plasma measurements by Los Alamos in space began with the second Vela satellite launch in 1963. Since then, Los Alamos has had energetic-particle instruments on twelve spacecraft at geosynchronous orbit since 1976 and on seven satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS) since 1983. Data from these and other instruments, such as plasma analyzers, have been sent to Los Alamos for processing and analysis. Databases using these data have been or are being established at Los Alamos and are described here.

  15. Airport-Noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) system's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The airport-noise levels and annoyance model (ALAMO) is described in terms of the constituent modules, the execution of ALAMO procedure files, necessary for system execution, and the source code documentation associated with code development at Langley Research Center. The modules constituting ALAMO are presented both in flow graph form, and through a description of the subroutines and functions that comprise them.

  16. Bacterial vaginosis and HIV acquisition: A meta-analysis of published studies

    PubMed Central

    Atashili, Julius; Poole, Charles; Ndumbe, Peter M; Adimora, Adaora A.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess and summarize the published literature on the extent to which bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase the risk of HIV acquisition. Design Meta-analysis of published studies. Methods MEDLINE and other electronic databases were systematically searched for eligible publications. The association between BV and incident HIV was separately analyzed from that between BV and prevalent HIV. The latter were further analyzed stratified by BV diagnostic method, HIV risk profile of the study population and whether or not adjusted estimates were presented. Results Twenty-three eligible publications were identified, including a total of 30,739 women. BV was associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HIV-incidence studies (relative risk = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.1). All but one of 21 HIV-prevalence studies reported estimates above the null. The latter results were heterogeneous and showed some evidence of funnel plot asymmetry, precluding the estimation of a single summary measure. The association between BV and HIV in prevalence studies appeared stronger for women without high-risk sexual behavior. Conclusions BV was consistently associated with an increased risk of HIV infection. High BV prevalence may result in a high number of HIV infections being attributable to BV. More prospective studies are needed to accurately evaluate the role of BV in HIV acquisition in low versus high risk women. Furthermore, randomized clinical trials may be worth considering to determine the effect of BV control measures on HIV acquisition. PMID:18614873

  17. Inertial confinement fusion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lindman, E.; Baker, D.; Barnes, C.; Bauer, B.; Beck, J.B.

    1997-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is contributing to the resolution of key issues in the US Inertial-Confinement-Fusion Program and plans to play a strong role in the experimental program at the National Ignition Facility when it is completed.

  18. The Los Alamos Space Science Outreach (LASSO) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, P. L.; Skoug, R. M.; Alexander, R. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Gary, S. P.

    2002-12-01

    The Los Alamos Space Science Outreach (LASSO) program features summer workshops in which K-14 teachers spend several weeks at LANL learning space science from Los Alamos scientists and developing methods and materials for teaching this science to their students. The program is designed to provide hands-on space science training to teachers as well as assistance in developing lesson plans for use in their classrooms. The program supports an instructional model based on education research and cognitive theory. Students and teachers engage in activities that encourage critical thinking and a constructivist approach to learning. LASSO is run through the Los Alamos Science Education Team (SET). SET personnel have many years of experience in teaching, education research, and science education programs. Their involvement ensures that the teacher workshop program is grounded in sound pedagogical methods and meets current educational standards. Lesson plans focus on current LANL satellite projects to study the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere. LASSO is an umbrella program for space science education activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that was created to enhance the science and math interests and skills of students from New Mexico and the nation. The LASSO umbrella allows maximum leveraging of EPO funding from a number of projects (and thus maximum educational benefits to both students and teachers), while providing a format for the expression of the unique science perspective of each project.

  19. Direct-current proton-beam measurements at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Joseph; Stevens, Ralph R.; Schneider, J. David; Zaugg, Thomas

    1995-09-15

    Recently, a CW proton accelerator complex was moved from Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to Los Alamos National Laboratory. This includes a 50-keV dc proton injector with a single-solenoid low-energy beam transport system (LEBT) and a CW 1.25-MeV, 267-MHz radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ). The move was completed after CRL had achieved 55-mA CW operation at 1.25 MeV using 250-kW klystrode tubes to power the RFQ. These accelerator components are prototypes for the front end of a CW linac required for an accelerator-driven transmutation linac, and they provide early confirmation of some CW accelerator components. The injector (ion source and LEBT) and emittance measuring unit are installed and operational at Los Alamos. The dc microwave ion source has been operated routinely at 50-keV, 75-mA hydrogen-ion current. This ion source has demonstrated very good discharge and H2 gas efficiencies, and sufficient reliability to complete CW RFQ measurements at CRL. Proton fraction of 75% has been measured with 550-W discharge power. This high proton fraction removes the need for an analyzing magnet. Proton LEBT emittance measurements completed at Los Alamos suggest that improved transmission through the RFQ may be achieved by increasing the solenoid focusing current. Status of the final CW RFQ operation at CRL and the installation of the RFQ at Los Alamos will be given.

  20. Direct-current proton-beam measurements at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, J.; Stevens, R.R.; Schneider, J.D.; Zaugg, T.

    1994-08-01

    Recently, a CW proton accelerator complex was moved from Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to Los Alamos National Laboratory. This includes a 50-keV dc proton injector with a single-solenoid low-energy beam transport system (LEBT) and a CW 1.25-MeV, 267-MHz radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ). The move was completed after CRL had achieved 55-mA CW operation at 1.25 MeV using 250-kW klystrode tubes to power the RFQ. These accelerator components are prototypes for the front end of a CW linac required for an accelerator-driven transmutation linac, and they provide early confirmation of some CW accelerator components. The injector (ion source and LEBT) and emittance measuring unit are installed and operational at Los Alamos. The dc microwave ion source has been operated routinely at 50-keV, 75-mA hydrogen-ion current. This ion source has demonstrated very good discharge and H{sub 2} gas efficiencies, and sufficient reliability to complete CW RFQ measurements at CRL. Proton fraction of 75% has been measured with 550-W discharge power. This high proton fraction removes the need for an analyzing magnet. Proton LEBT emittance measurements completed at Los Alamos suggest that improved transmission through the RFQ may be achieved by increasing the solenoid focusing current. Status of the final CW RFQ operation at CRL and the installation of the RFQ at Los Alamos is given.

  1. High-energy density physics at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrnes, P.

    1993-03-01

    This brochure describes the facilities of the Above Ground Experiments 2 (AGEX 2) and the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs at Los Alamo. Combined, these programs represent, an unparalleled capability to address important issues in high-energy density physics that are critical to the future defense, energy, and research needs of the United States. The mission of the AGEX 2 program at Los Alamos is to provide additional experimental opportunities for the nuclear weapons program. For this purpose we have assembled at Los Alamos the broadest array of high-energy density physics facilities of any laboratory in the world. Inertial confinement fusion seeks to achieve thermonuclear burn on a laboratory scale through the implosion of a small quantity of deuterium and tritium fuel to very high pressure and temperature. The Los Alamos ICF program is focused on target physics. With the largest scientific computing center in the world, We can perform calculations of unprecedented sophistication and precision. We field experiments at facilities worldwide--including our own Trident and Mercury lasers--to confirm our understanding and to provide the necessary data base to proceed toward the historic goal of controlled fusion in the laboratory. The ultrahigh magnetic fields produced in our high explosive pulsed-power generators can be used in a wide variety of solid state physics and temperature superconductor studies. The structure and dynamics of planetary atmospheres can be simulated through the compression of gas mixtures.

  2. The Los Alamos nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation technology development program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Menlove, H.O.; Reilly, T.D.; Bosler, G.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Eccleston, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    For nearly three decades, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed and implemented nuclear measurement technology and training in support of national and international nuclear safeguards. This paper outlines the major elements of those technologies and highlights some of the latest developments.

  3. Working with Fermi at Chicago and Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2010-02-01

    I discuss my experience with Enrico Fermi as student and fellow faculty member at Chicago and with him as consultants to the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1950-1952. The talk shares observations about this great physicist and exemplary human being. )

  4. Optical velocimetry at the Los Alamos Proton Radiography Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupa, Dale; Tainter, Amy; Neukirch, Levi; Hollander, Brian; Buttler, William; Holtkamp, David; The Los Alamos Proton Radiography Team Team

    2016-05-01

    The Los Alamos Proton Radiography Facility (pRad) employs a high-energy proton beam to image the properties and behavior of materials driven by high explosives. We will discuss features of pRad and describe some recent experiments, highlighting optical diagnostics for surface velocity measurements.

  5. Technical manpower needs and resources at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Freese, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has begun a program to share its scientific and technological expertise with students and teachers in the surrounding area. The goal of the Laboratory's Educational Outreach Program is to stimulate an awareness of professional opportunities in the sciences and engineering.

  6. The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Newmyer, J.N.

    1994-04-01

    The Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) at Los Alamos is being modified and upgraded to begin routine operations treating low-level mixed waste (LLMW), radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes, low-level liquid wastes, and possibly transuranic (TRU) wastes. This paper describes those modifications. Routine waste operations should begin in late FY95.

  7. [Los Alamos National Laboratory industrial applications and technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-30

    In October 1989, the Los Alamos Economic Development Corporation (LAEDC) entered into a contract with the Industrial Applications office (IAO) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) whereby the LAEDC was to provide support services to IAO. More specifically, according to the Statement of Work in this contract The Los Alamos Economic Development Corporation shall assist the Los Alamos National Laboratory Industrial Applications Office in establishing and strengthening connections between potential entrepreneurs at the Laboratory and the business assistance community throughout New Mexico, directed toward enhancing the number, of successful start up businesses spinning off the Laboratory's technology base.'' As part of this contract and subsequent modifications thereof, the LAEDC was to perform seven tasks: 1. Provide business planning assistance to potential entrepreneurs. 2. (Assist IAO in preparing and distributing) informational materials on technology transfer. 3. (Organize and manage) meetings and seminars on technology transfer and entrepreneurship. 4. Identify new opportunities for technology transfer. 5. (Identify and implement programs for the) recognition of Laboratory Entrepreneurs. 6. Training Lab personnel, in the area of technology transfer and Laboratory industrial interactions. 7. Review and summarize prior New Mexico economic development studies. The purpose of this report, is to summarize the accomplishments of the LAEDC under its contract with IAO, and to fulfill its reporting requirements. This report covers the period from October 1989 to September 1992.

  8. Brief review of Rover fuel development at Los Alamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Keith V.

    1991-01-01

    A brief review of the graphite matrix uranium fuel development efforts at Los Alamos from 1955 through 1972 is presented. The uses of graphite flour carbon black, various binders, uranium dioxide, coated UC2 particles, and zirconium carbide in this development are described.

  9. Visualization of multidimensional database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung

    2008-01-01

    The concept of multidimensional databases has been extensively researched and wildly used in actual database application. It plays an important role in contemporary information technology, but due to the complexity of its inner structure, the database design is a complicated process and users are having a hard time fully understanding and using the database. An effective visualization tool for higher dimensional information system helps database designers and users alike. Most visualization techniques focus on displaying dimensional data using spreadsheets and charts. This may be sufficient for the databases having three or fewer dimensions but for higher dimensions, various combinations of projection operations are needed and a full grasp of total database architecture is very difficult. This study reviews existing visualization techniques for multidimensional database and then proposes an alternate approach to visualize a database of any dimension by adopting the tool proposed by Kiviat for software engineering processes. In this diagramming method, each dimension is represented by one branch of concentric spikes. This paper documents a C++ based visualization tool with extensive use of OpenGL graphics library and GUI functions. Detailed examples of actual databases demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness in visualizing multidimensional databases.

  10. Enhancing HIV Prevention Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Systematic Review of HIV Behavioral Interventions for Young Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Emmanuel, Diona; Durant, Sarah; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-06-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent 64.0% of people living with HIV (PLWH) over the age of 13 years. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are particularly affected by HIV/AIDS; the rate of HIV infection for YMSM between the ages of 13 and 24 represents 72.0% of new infections among youth. To understand the current state of the science meant to prevent HIV for YMSM, we reviewed studies of HIV behavioral prevention interventions for YMSM. Five literature databases were searched, from their inception through October 2015, using key words associated with HIV prevention intervention evaluation studies for YMSM. The review criteria included behavioral HIV/AIDS prevention interventions, articles published in English-language peer-reviewed journals, YMSM between 13 and 24 years of age, and longitudinal repeated measures design. A total of 15 YMSM behavioral HIV prevention intervention studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and reported statistically significant findings. Common outcomes included unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV/AIDS risk behavior, condom use, HIV testing, safer sex attitude, and HIV prevention communication. Participant age, representation of Black/African American YMSM, application of theoretical and model underpinnings, congruence of assessment measures used, follow-up assessment times, and application of process evaluation were inconsistent across studies. To advance HIV prevention intervention research for YMSM, future studies should be theory-based, identify common constructs, utilize standard measures, include process evaluation, and evaluate sustained change over standard periods of time. HIV prevention interventions should incorporate the needs of the diverse, well-educated, web-connected millennial generation and differentiate between adolescent YMSM (13 to 18 years of age) and young adulthood YMSM (19 to 24 years of age). Because Black/African American YMSM represent more than 50% of new HIV infections, future HIV

  11. Audit Report, "Fire Protection Deficiencies at Los Alamos National Laboratory"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) maintains some of the Nation's most important national security assets, including nuclear materials. Many of Los Alamos' facilities are located in close proximity to one another, are occupied by large numbers of contract and Federal employees, and support activities ranging from nuclear weapons design to science-related activities. Safeguarding against fires, regardless of origin, is essential to protecting employees, surrounding communities, and national security assets. On June 1, 2006, Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), became the managing and operating contractor for Los Alamos, under contract with the Department's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In preparation for assuming its management responsibilities at Los Alamos, LANS conducted walk-downs of the Laboratory's facilities to identify pre-existing deficiencies that could give rise to liability, obligation, loss or damage. The walk-downs, which identified 812 pre-existing fire protection deficiencies, were conducted by subject matter professionals, including fire protection experts. While the Los Alamos Site Office has overall responsibility for the effectiveness of the fire protection program, LANS, as the Laboratory's operating contractor, has a major, day-to-day role in minimizing fire-related risks. The issue of fire protection at Los Alamos is more than theoretical. In May 2000, the 'Cerro Grande' fire burned about 43,000 acres, including 7,700 acres of Laboratory property. Due to the risk posed by fire to the Laboratory's facilities, workforce, and surrounding communities, we initiated this audit to determine whether pre-existing fire protection deficiencies had been addressed. Our review disclosed that LANS had not resolved many of the fire protection deficiencies that had been identified in early 2006: (1) Of the 296 pre-existing deficiencies we selected for audit, 174 (59 percent) had not been corrected

  12. An Introduction to Database Structure and Database Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detweiler, Karen

    1984-01-01

    Enumerates principal management objectives of database management systems (data independence, quality, security, multiuser access, central control) and criteria for comparison (response time, size, flexibility, other features). Conventional database management systems, relational databases, and database machines used for backend processing are…

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), conducted March 29, 1987 through April 17, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the LANL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at the LANL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the LANL Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the Survey for the LANL. 65 refs., 68 figs., 73 tabs.

  14. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

  15. [A new unique HIV-1 recombinant form detected in Belarus].

    PubMed

    Eremin, V F; Gasich, E L; Sosinovich, S V

    2012-01-01

    Republican Research-and-Practical Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of Belarus, Minsk The paper presents data on the molecular genetic characteristics of a new HIV-1 recombinant form. The study has shown that the virus is referred to as HIV-1 subtype B in terms of the gag gene and HIV-1 subtype A in terms of the pol and env genes. At the same time the new isolate is closer, in terms of the gag gene, to the HIV-1 DQ207943 strain isolated in Georgia, in terms of the pol gene, to the HIV-1 AF413987.1 strain isolated in Ukraine and, in terms of the env gene to the HIV-1 AY500393 strain isolated in Russia. Thus, the described new HIV-1 recombinant form has the following structure: BgagApolAenv. The gag, pol, and env gene sequences from the new unique HIV-1 recombinant form have been registered in the international database EMBL/Genbank/DDBJ under accession numbers FR775442.1, FN995656.1, and FR775443.1. PMID:22905420

  16. Testing for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  17. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ... cancers. When that happens, the illness is called AIDS. Once a person has the virus, it stays ...

  18. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  19. Microbiome in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Salas, January T.; Chang, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammation are associated with increased risks of HIV acquisition, suggesting the role of microbiome in HIV transmission. In this review, we will focus on microbiome in HIV infection at various mucosal compartments. Understanding the relationship between microbiome and HIV may offer insights into development of better strategies for HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:25439273

  20. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... CVD. ART can increase blood fats (cholesterol and triglycerides, see fact sheet 123.) It can also help ... disease. HIV infection decreases good cholesterol and increases triglycerides. HIV causes inflammation. This can also contribute to ...

  1. Older People and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many older people believe that HIV only affects younger people Most older people get little training in ... diseases among older people, as they do for younger people. Physicians may not diagnose HIV infection in ...

  2. Smoking and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... 28, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 803 Smoking and HIV WHY IS SMOKING MORE DANGEROUS FOR ... It can also worsen liver problems like hepatitis. Smoking and Side Effects People with HIV who smoke ...

  3. HIV and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs HIV and Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, December 2012 PDF Format ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  4. Commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, R.; Carton, D.; Rhyne, T.

    1997-06-01

    Appendices are presented from a study performed on a concept model system for the commercialization of Los Alamos National Laboratory technologies via small businesses. Topics include a summary of information from the joint MCC/Los Alamos technology conference; a comparison of New Mexico infrastructure to other areas; a typical licensing agreement; technology screening guides; summaries of specific DOE/UC/Los Alamos documents; a bibliography; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TCRD; The Ames Center for Advanced Technology Development; Los Alamos licensing procedures; presentation of slides from monthly MCC/Los Alamos review meetings; generalized entrepreneurship model; and a discussion on receiving equity for technology.

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory DOE M441.1-1 implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Worl, Laura A; Veirs, D Kirk; Smith, Paul H; Yarbro, Tresa F; Stone, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Department of Energy (DOE) issued DOE M 441.1-1, Nuclear Materials Packaging Manual on March 7, 2008 in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2005-1. The Manual directs DOE facilities to follow detailed packaging requirements to protect workers from exposure to nuclear materials stored outside of approved engineered-contamination barriers. Los Alamos National Laboratory has identified the activities that will be performed to bring LANL into compliance with DOE M 441.1-1. These include design, qualification and procurement of new containers, repackaging based on a risk-ranking methodology, surveillance and maintenance of containers, and database requirements. The primary purpose is to replace the out-dated nuclear material storage containers with more robust containers that meet present day safety and quality standards. The repackaging campaign is supported by an integrated risk reduction methodology to prioritize the limited resources to the highest risk containers. This methodology is systematically revised and updated based on the collection of package integrity data. A set of seven nested packages with built-in filters have been designed. These range in size from 1 qt. to 10 gallon. Progress of the testing to meet Manual requirements will be given. Due to the number of packages at LANL, repackaging to achieve full compliance will take five to seven years.

  6. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-05-01

    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV. PMID:25844941

  7. Immunogenetics of HIV and HIV associated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, S; Alagarasu, K; Selvaraj, P

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the frequent major opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients, and is the leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients. Genetic susceptibility to TB in HIV negative subjects is well documented. Since coinfections can influence the way in which immune system respond to different pathogens, genetic susceptibility to TB in HIV patients might also change. Studies from India and other parts of the world have shown that genetic susceptibility to TB is influenced by HIV infection. In the present review, we emphasize the role of genetic factors in determining susceptibility to HIV infection, disease progression and development of TB in HIV-infected patients. Polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigen (HLA), MBL2, CD209, vitamin D receptor, cytokine, chemokine and chemokine receptor genes have been shown to be associated with development of TB in HIV patients. However, the results are inconclusive and larger well-defined studies with precise clinical data are required to validate these associations. Apart from candidate gene approach, genome-wide association studies are also needed to unravel the unknown or to establish the previously reported genetic associations with HIV associated TB. Despite the preliminary status of the reported associations, it is becoming clear that susceptibility to development of TB in HIV patients is influenced by both environmental and genetic components. Understanding the genetic and immunologic factors that influence susceptibility to TB in HIV patients could lead to novel insights for vaccine development as well as diagnostic advances to target treatment to those who are at risk for developing active disease. PMID:21943869

  8. Reduce HIV Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... are increasing among younger people from 13 to 30 years of age. The key to defeating HIV lies ... Control and Prevention (CDC) has used them as models, and Dr. Jemmott was invited to South Africa to help decrease HIV/AIDS there. "For the past 15 years, I have observed how the HIV/AIDS epidemic ...

  9. HIV and the menopause.

    PubMed

    Fan, Maria D; Maslow, Bat-Sheva; Santoro, Nanette; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2008-12-01

    Dramatic improvement in the survival of the HIV population has occurred with the ascendance of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In the foreseeable future, HIV-infected women who acquired disease during the peak years of the epidemic are expected to survive to experience menopause and even years beyond. The HIV epidemic may be viewed as 'mature', as its earlier victims become part of the geriatric population. Research about the process of menopause in HIV-infected women and, conversely, about HIV infection in women undergoing menopause is currently limited. Existing research suggests that the process of menopause is affected by HIV infection, inasmuch as infected women appear to experience menopause at an earlier age, with greater symptomatology, and with different reproductive hormone profiles compared with HIV-uninfected women. HIV infection also appears to affect bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease and cognition, with some age-related interactions. Lifestyle and demographic factors have pervasive importance for both HIV infection and the menopause in women. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the menopausal process in HIV-infected women, and the common conditions in postmenopausal women that are likely to be affected by HIV infection. Clinicians should appreciate the potential role of HIV infection in caring for menopause-aged women. PMID:19037065

  10. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  11. The Immune Epitope Database 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Vita, Randi; Zarebski, Laura; Greenbaum, Jason A.; Emami, Hussein; Hoof, Ilka; Salimi, Nima; Damle, Rohini; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2010-01-01

    The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB, www.iedb.org) provides a catalog of experimentally characterized B and T cell epitopes, as well as data on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) binding and MHC ligand elution experiments. The database represents the molecular structures recognized by adaptive immune receptors and the experimental contexts in which these molecules were determined to be immune epitopes. Epitopes recognized in humans, nonhuman primates, rodents, pigs, cats and all other tested species are included. Both positive and negative experimental results are captured. Over the course of 4 years, the data from 180 978 experiments were curated manually from the literature, which covers ∼99% of all publicly available information on peptide epitopes mapped in infectious agents (excluding HIV) and 93% of those mapped in allergens. In addition, data that would otherwise be unavailable to the public from 129 186 experiments were submitted directly by investigators. The curation of epitopes related to autoimmunity is expected to be completed by the end of 2010. The database can be queried by epitope structure, source organism, MHC restriction, assay type or host organism, among other criteria. The database structure, as well as its querying, browsing and reporting interfaces, was completely redesigned for the IEDB 2.0 release, which became publicly available in early 2009. PMID:19906713

  12. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  13. ITS-90 Thermocouple Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 60 NIST ITS-90 Thermocouple Database (Web, free access)   Web version of Standard Reference Database 60 and NIST Monograph 175. The database gives temperature -- electromotive force (emf) reference functions and tables for the letter-designated thermocouple types B, E, J, K, N, R, S and T. These reference functions have been adopted as standards by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

  14. 75 FR 24957 - Decision to Evaluate a Petition to Designate a Class of Employees From the Los Alamos National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Decision to Evaluate a Petition to Designate a Class of Employees From the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, To Be Included in the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National... designate a class of employees from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, to...

  15. Opening CEM vendor databases

    SciTech Connect

    Long, A.; Patel, D.

    1995-12-31

    CEM database performance requirements (i.e., voluminous data storage, rapid response times) often conflict with the concept of an open, accessible database. Utilities would like to use their CEM data for more purposes than simply submitting environmental reports. But in most cases, other uses are inhibited because today`s sophisticated CEM systems incorporate databases that have forsaken openness and accessibility in favor of performance. Several options are available for CEM vendors wishing to move in the direction of open, accessible CEM databases.

  16. Databases for Microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Databases play an increasingly important role in biology. They archive, store, maintain, and share information on genes, genomes, expression data, protein sequences and structures, metabolites and reactions, interactions, and pathways. All these data are critically important to microbiologists. Furthermore, microbiology has its own databases that deal with model microorganisms, microbial diversity, physiology, and pathogenesis. Thousands of biological databases are currently available, and it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with their development. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a brief survey of current databases that are of interest to microbiologists. PMID:26013493

  17. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  18. Backing up DMF Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A complete backup of the Cray Data Migration Facility (DMF) databases should include the data migration databases, all media specific process' (MSP's) databases, and the journal file. The backup should be able to accomplished without impacting users or stopping DMF. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center undertook the task of finding an effective and efficient way to backup all DMF databases. This has been accomplished by taking advantage of new features introduced in DMF 2.0 and adding a minor modification to the dmdaemon. This paper discusses the investigation and the changes necessary to implement these enhancements.

  19. Thermodynamic and phylogenetic insights into hnRNP A1 recognition of the HIV-1 exon splicing silencer 3 element.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Carrie; Levengood, Jeffrey D; Rife, Brittany D; Salemi, Marco; Tolbert, Blanton S

    2014-04-01

    Complete expression of the HIV-1 genome requires balanced usage of suboptimal splice sites. The 3' acceptor site A7 (ssA7) is negatively regulated in part by an interaction between the host hnRNP A1 protein and a viral splicing silencer (ESS3). Binding of hnRNP A1 to ESS3 and other upstream silencers is sufficient to occlude spliceosome assembly. Efforts to understand the splicing repressive properties of hnRNP A1 on ssA7 have revealed hnRNP A1 binds specific sites within the context of a highly folded RNA structure; however, biochemical models assert hnRNP A1 disrupts RNA structure through cooperative spreading. In an effort to improve our understanding of the ssA7 binding properties of hnRNP A1, herein we have performed a combined phylogenetic and biophysical study of the interaction of its UP1 domain with ESS3. Phylogenetic analyses of group M sequences (x̅ = 2860) taken from the Los Alamos HIV database reveal the ESS3 stem loop (SL3(ESS3)) structure has been conserved throughout HIV-1 evolution, despite variations in primary sequence. Calorimetric titrations with UP1 clearly show the SL3(ESS3) structure is a critical binding determinant because deletion of the base-paired region reduces the affinity by ∼150-fold (Kd values of 27.8 nM and 4.2 μM). Cytosine substitutions of conserved apical loop nucleobases show UP1 preferentially binds purines over pyrimidines, where site-specific interactions were detected via saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance. Chemical shift mapping of the UP1-SL3(ESS3) interface by (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectroscopy titrations reveals a broad interaction surface on UP1 that encompasses both RRM domains and the inter-RRM linker. Collectively, our results describe a UP1 binding mechanism that is likely different from current models used to explain the alternative splicing properties of hnRNP A1. PMID:24628426

  20. The engineering institute of Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles R; Park, Gyuhae; Cornwell, Phillip J; Todd, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) have taken the unprecedented step of creating a collaborative, multi-disciplinary graduate education program and associated research agenda called the Engineering Institute. The mission of the Engineering Institute is to develop a comprehensive approach for conducting LANL mission-driven, multidisciplinary engineering research and to improve recruiting, revitalization, and retention of the current and future staff necessary to support the LANL' s national security responsibilities. The components of the Engineering Institute are (1) a joint LANL/UCSD degree program, (2) joint LANL/UCSD research projects, (3) the Los Alamos Dynamic Summer School, (4) an annual workshop, and (5) industry short courses. This program is a possible model for future industry/government interactions with university partners.

  1. Tiger Team Assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) located in Los Alamos, New Mexico. LANL is operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the University of California. The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from September 23 to November 8, 1991, under the auspices of the DOE Office of Special Projects, Office of Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety, and health (ES H) disciplines; management; and contractor and DOE self-assessments. Compliance with applicable Federal, state, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal LANL site requirements was assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and the site contractors' management of ES H/quality assurance programs was conducted. This volume discusses findings concerning the environmental assessment.

  2. Penetrating radiation: applications at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Scott; Hunter, James; Morris, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Los Alamos has used penetrating radiography extensively throughout its history dating back to the Manhattan Project where imaging dense, imploding objects was the subject of intense interest. This interest continues today as major facilities like DARHT1 have become the mainstay of the US Stockpile Stewardship Program2 and the cornerstone of nuclear weapons certification. Meanwhile, emerging threats to national security from cargo containers and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have invigorated inspection efforts using muon tomography, and compact x-ray radiography. Additionally, unusual environmental threats, like those from underwater oil spills and nuclear power plant accidents, have caused renewed interest in fielding radiography in severe operating conditions. We review the history of penetrating radiography at Los Alamos and survey technologies as presently applied to these important problems.

  3. Status of optical model activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    An update will be given of activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory aimed at developing optical model potentials for applied calculations. Recent work on a coupled-channels potential for neutron reactions on {sup 241,243}Am and spherical neutron potential updates for {sup 56}Fe and {sup 59}Co will be presented, together with examples of their application in nuclear reaction calculations with the GNASH code system. New potentials utilized in evaluations at Livermore for {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N and {sup 16}O are described and additional potentials from earlier analyses at Los Alamos of Ti, V, and Ni data are made available for possible inclusion in the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL) for nuclear model calculations of nuclear data. Specific activities directed at development of the optical potential segment of the RIPL will be summarized.

  4. A New Generation of Los Alamos Opacity Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Magee, N. H.; Sherrill, M. E.; Abdallah, J., Jr.; Hakel, P.; Fontes, C. J.; Guzik, J. A.; Mussack, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a new, publicly available set of Los Alamos OPLIB opacity tables for the elements hydrogen through zinc. Our tables are computed using the Los Alamos ATOMIC opacity and plasma modeling code, and make use of atomic structure calculations that use fine-structure detail for all the elements considered. Our equation of state model, known as ChemEOS, is based on the minimization of free energy in a chemical picture and appears to be a reasonable and robust approach to determining atomic state populations over a wide range of temperatures and densities. In this paper we discuss in detail the calculations that we have performed for the 30 elements considered, and present some comparisons of our monochromatic opacities with measurements and other opacity codes. We also use our new opacity tables in solar modeling calculations and compare and contrast such modeling with previous work.

  5. Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Bruchfeld, Judith; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Källenius, Gunilla

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) constitute the main burden of infectious disease in resource-limited countries. In the individual host, the two pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV, potentiate one another, accelerating the deterioration of immunological functions. In high-burden settings, HIV coinfection is the most important risk factor for developing active TB, which increases the susceptibility to primary infection or reinfection and also the risk of TB reactivation for patients with latent TB. M. tuberculosis infection also has a negative impact on the immune response to HIV, accelerating the progression from HIV infection to AIDS. The clinical management of HIV-associated TB includes the integration of effective anti-TB treatment, use of concurrent antiretroviral therapy (ART), prevention of HIV-related comorbidities, management of drug cytotoxicity, and prevention/treatment of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). PMID:25722472

  6. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2014, ...

  7. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  8. Evolution of some Los Alamos flux compression programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.; Goforth, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    When we were approached to give a general discussion of some aspects of the Los Alamos flux compression program, we decided to present historical backgrounds of a few topics that have some relevance to programs that we very much In the forefront of activities going on today. Of some thirty abstracts collected at Los Alamos for this conference, ten of them dealt with electromagnetic acceleration of materials, notably the compression of heavy liners, and five dealt with plasma compression. Both of these topics have been under investigation, off and on, from the time a formal flux compression program was organized at Los Alamos. We decided that a short overview of work done In these areas would be of some interest. Some of the work described below has been discussed in Laboratory reports that, while referenced and available, are not readily accessible. For completeness, some previously published, accessible work Is also discussed but much more briefly. Perhaps the most striking thing about the early work In these two areas is how primitive much of it was when compared to the far more sophisticated, related activities of today. Another feature of these programs, actually for most programs, Is their cyclic nature. Their relevance and/or funding seems to come land go. Eventually, many of the older programs come back into favor. Activities Involving the dense plasma focus (DPF), about which some discussions will be given later, furnish a classic example of this kind, coming Into and then out of periods of heightened interest. We devote the next two sections of this paper to a review of our work In magnetic acceleration of solids and of plasma compression. A final section gives a survey of our work In which thin foils are imploded to produce intense quantities of son x-rays. The authors are well aware of much excellent work done elsewhere In all of these topics, but partly because of space limitations, have confined this discussion to work done at Los Alamos.

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory's high-performance data system

    SciTech Connect

    Mercier, C.; Chorn, G.; Christman, R.; Collins, B.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is designing a High-Performance Data System (HPDS) that will provide storage for supercomputers requiring large files and fast transfer speeds. The HPDS will meet the performance requirements by managing data transfers from high-speed storage systems connected directly to a high-speed network. File and storage management software will be distributed in workstations. Network protocols will ensure reliable, wide-area network data delivery to support long-distance distributed processing. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  10. [Los Alamos National Laboratory industrial applications and technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-31

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Los Alamos Economic Development Corporation (LAEDC) under its contract with the Industrial Applications Office (IAO). The LAEDC has: provided business planning assistance to potential entrepreneurs, assisted IAO in preparing and distributing informational materials on technology, organized and managed meetings and seminars on technology transfer and entrepreneurship, identified new opportunities for technology transfer, and identified and implemented programs for the recognition of Laboratory entrepreneurs.

  11. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  12. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  13. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  14. Database Searching by Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen E.

    Managers and executives need the easy and quick access to business and management information that online databases can provide, but many have difficulty articulating their search needs to an intermediary. One possible solution would be to encourage managers and their immediate support staff members to search textual databases directly as they now…

  15. Morchella MLST database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Welcome to the Morchella MLST database. This dedicated database was set up at the CBS-KNAW Biodiversity Center by Vincent Robert in February 2012, using BioloMICS software (Robert et al., 2011), to facilitate DNA sequence-based identifications of Morchella species via the Internet. The current datab...

  16. First Look: TRADEMARKSCAN Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne Conway; Davidson, Alan B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes database produced by Thomson and Thomson and available on Dialog which contains over 700,000 records representing all active federal trademark registrations and applications for registrations filed in United States Patent and Trademark Office. A typical record, special features, database applications, learning to use TRADEMARKSCAN, and…

  17. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  18. Assignment to database industy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kohichiroh

    Various kinds of databases are considered to be essential part in future large sized systems. Information provision only by databases is also considered to be growing as the market becomes mature. This paper discusses how such circumstances have been built and will be developed from now on.

  19. Dictionary as Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Derrick

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of dictionaries as databases focuses on the digitizing of The Oxford English dictionary (OED) and the use of Standard Generalized Mark-Up Language (SGML). Topics include the creation of a consortium to digitize the OED, document structure, relational databases, text forms, sequence, and discourse. (LRW)

  20. A Quality System Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, William H.; Turner, Anne M.; Gifford, Luther; Stites, William

    2010-01-01

    A quality system database (QSD), and software to administer the database, were developed to support recording of administrative nonconformance activities that involve requirements for documentation of corrective and/or preventive actions, which can include ISO 9000 internal quality audits and customer complaints.

  1. BioImaging Database

    2006-10-25

    The Biolmaging Database (BID) is a relational database developed to store the data and meta-data for the 3D gene expression in early Drosophila embryo development on a cellular level. The schema was written to be used with the MySQL DBMS but with minor modifications can be used on any SQL compliant relational DBMS.

  2. The intelligent database machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancey, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    The IDM data base was compared with the data base crack to determine whether IDM 500 would better serve the needs of the MSFC data base management system than Oracle. The two were compared and the performance of the IDM was studied. Implementations that work best on which database are implicated. The choice is left to the database administrator.

  3. Build Your Own Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter; Lancaster, F. W.

    This book is intended to help librarians and others to produce databases of better value and quality, especially if they have had little previous experience in database construction. Drawing upon almost 40 years of experience in the field of information retrieval, this book emphasizes basic principles and approaches rather than in-depth and…

  4. Database Reviews: Legal Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiser, Virginia

    Detailed reviews of two legal information databases--"Laborlaw I" and "Legal Resource Index"--are presented in this paper. Each database review begins with a bibliographic entry listing the title; producer; vendor; cost per hour contact time; offline print cost per citation; time period covered; frequency of updates; and size of file. A detailed…

  5. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  6. Structural Ceramics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  7. National Vulnerability Database (NVD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    National Vulnerability Database (NVD) (Web, free access)   NVD is a comprehensive cyber security vulnerability database that integrates all publicly available U.S. Government vulnerability resources and provides references to industry resources. It is based on and synchronized with the CVE vulnerability naming standard.

  8. Knowledge Discovery in Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, M. Jay

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) revolves around the investigation and creation of knowledge, processes, algorithms, and mechanisms for retrieving knowledge from data collections. The article is an introductory overview of KDD. The rationale and environment of its development and applications are discussed. Issues related to database design…

  9. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  10. CPDB: Carcinogenic Potency Database.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2008-01-01

    The Carcinogenic Potency Database reports analyses of animal cancer tests on 1,547 chemicals. These tests are used in support of cancer risk assessments for humans. Results are searchable and are made available via the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) TOXNET system. This column will provide background information on the database, as well as present search basics. PMID:19042710

  11. AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

  12. Using the Internet in Middle Schools: A Model for Success. A Collaborative Effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Los Alamos Middle School (LAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addessio, Barbara K.; And Others

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a model for school networking using Los Alamos Middle School as a testbed. The project was a collaborative effort between the school and the laboratory. The school secured administrative funding for hardware and software; and LANL provided the network architecture, installation, consulting, and…

  13. Spatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran

    PubMed Central

    Eybpoosh, Sana; Bahrampour, Abbas; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Zolala, Farzaneh; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 35_AD (CRF35_AD) has an important position in the epidemiological profile of Afghanistan and Iran. Despite the presence of this clade in Afghanistan and Iran for over a decade, our understanding of its origin and dissemination patterns is limited. In this study, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dispersion pattern of this clade using eligible CRF35_AD gag and pol sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV database (432 sequences available from Iran, 16 sequences available from Afghanistan, and a single CRF35_AD-like pol sequence available from USA). Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented in BEAST v1.8.1. Between-country dispersion rates were tested with Bayesian stochastic search variable selection method and were considered significant where Bayes factor values were greater than three. The findings suggested that CRF35_AD sequences were genetically similar to parental sequences from Kenya and Uganda, and to a set of subtype A1 sequences available from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. Our results also showed that across all phylogenies, Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD sequences formed a monophyletic cluster (posterior clade credibility> 0.7). The divergence date of this cluster was estimated to be between 1990 and 1992. Within this cluster, a bidirectional dispersion of the virus was observed across Afghanistan and Iran. We could not clearly identify if Afghanistan or Iran first established or received this epidemic, as the root location of this cluster could not be robustly estimated. Three CRF35_AD sequences from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan nested among Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD branches. However, the CRF35_AD-like sequence available from USA diverged independently from Kenyan subtype A1 sequences, suggesting it not to be a true CRF35_AD lineage. Potential factors contributing to viral exchange between Afghanistan and Iran could be injection drug

  14. Spatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran.

    PubMed

    Eybpoosh, Sana; Bahrampour, Abbas; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Zolala, Farzaneh; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 35_AD (CRF35_AD) has an important position in the epidemiological profile of Afghanistan and Iran. Despite the presence of this clade in Afghanistan and Iran for over a decade, our understanding of its origin and dissemination patterns is limited. In this study, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dispersion pattern of this clade using eligible CRF35_AD gag and pol sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV database (432 sequences available from Iran, 16 sequences available from Afghanistan, and a single CRF35_AD-like pol sequence available from USA). Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented in BEAST v1.8.1. Between-country dispersion rates were tested with Bayesian stochastic search variable selection method and were considered significant where Bayes factor values were greater than three. The findings suggested that CRF35_AD sequences were genetically similar to parental sequences from Kenya and Uganda, and to a set of subtype A1 sequences available from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. Our results also showed that across all phylogenies, Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD sequences formed a monophyletic cluster (posterior clade credibility> 0.7). The divergence date of this cluster was estimated to be between 1990 and 1992. Within this cluster, a bidirectional dispersion of the virus was observed across Afghanistan and Iran. We could not clearly identify if Afghanistan or Iran first established or received this epidemic, as the root location of this cluster could not be robustly estimated. Three CRF35_AD sequences from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan nested among Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD branches. However, the CRF35_AD-like sequence available from USA diverged independently from Kenyan subtype A1 sequences, suggesting it not to be a true CRF35_AD lineage. Potential factors contributing to viral exchange between Afghanistan and Iran could be injection drug

  15. Los Alamos Science: The Human Genome Project. Number 20, 1992

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cooper, N. G.; Shea, N. eds.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a broad overview of the Human Genome Project, with particular emphasis on work being done at Los Alamos. It tries to emphasize the scientific aspects of the project, compared to the more speculative information presented in the popular press. There is a brief introduction to modern genetics, including a review of classic work. There is a broad overview of the Genome Project, describing what the project is, what are some of its major five-year goals, what are major technological challenges ahead of the project, and what can the field of biology, as well as society expect to see as benefits from this project. Specific results on the efforts directed at mapping chromosomes 16 and 5 are discussed. A brief introduction to DNA libraries is presented, bearing in mind that Los Alamos has housed such libraries for many years prior to the Genome Project. Information on efforts to do applied computational work related to the project are discussed, as well as experimental efforts to do rapid DNA sequencing by means of single-molecule detection using applied spectroscopic methods. The article introduces the Los Alamos staff which are working on the Genome Project, and concludes with brief discussions on ethical, legal, and social implications of this work; a brief glimpse of genetics as it may be practiced in the next century; and a glossary of relevant terms.

  16. Los Alamos Science: The Human Genome Project. Number 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N G; Shea, N

    1992-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of the Human Genome Project, with particular emphasis on work being done at Los Alamos. It tries to emphasize the scientific aspects of the project, compared to the more speculative information presented in the popular press. There is a brief introduction to modern genetics, including a review of classic work. There is a broad overview of the Genome Project, describing what the project is, what are some of its major five-year goals, what are major technological challenges ahead of the project, and what can the field of biology, as well as society expect to see as benefits from this project. Specific results on the efforts directed at mapping chromosomes 16 and 5 are discussed. A brief introduction to DNA libraries is presented, bearing in mind that Los Alamos has housed such libraries for many years prior to the Genome Project. Information on efforts to do applied computational work related to the project are discussed, as well as experimental efforts to do rapid DNA sequencing by means of single-molecule detection using applied spectroscopic methods. The article introduces the Los Alamos staff which are working on the Genome Project, and concludes with brief discussions on ethical, legal, and social implications of this work; a brief glimpse of genetics as it may be practiced in the next century; and a glossary of relevant terms.

  17. Overview of laser technology at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. K.; Cremers, D. A.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has had a long history of involvement in laser sciences and has been recognized both for its large laser programs and smaller scale developments in laser technology and applications. The first significant program was with the Rover nuclear-based rocket propulsion system in 1968 to study laser initiated fusion. From here applications spread to programs in laser isotope separation and development of large lasers for fusion. These programs established the technological human resource base of highly trained laser physicists, engineers, and chemists that remain at the Laboratory today. Almost every technical division at Los Alamos now has some laser capability ranging from laser development, applications, studies on nonlinear processes, modeling and materials processing. During the past six years over eight R&D-100 Awards have been received by Los Alamos for development of laser-based techniques and instrumentation. Outstanding examples of technology developed include LIDAR applications to environmental monitoring, single molecule detection using fluorescence spectroscopy, a laser-based high kinetic energy source of oxygen atoms produced by a laser-sustained plasma, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for compositional, analysis, thin film high temperature superconductor deposition, multi-station laser welding, and direct metal deposition and build-up of components by fusing powder particles with a laser beam.

  18. Los Alamos, Toshiba probing Fukushima with cosmic rays

    ScienceCinema

    Morris, Christopher

    2014-06-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has announced an impending partnership with Toshiba Corporation to use a Los Alamos technique called muon tomography to safely peer inside the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors and create high-resolution images of the damaged nuclear material inside without ever breaching the cores themselves. The initiative could reduce the time required to clean up the disabled complex by at least a decade and greatly reduce radiation exposure to personnel working at the plant. Muon radiography (also called cosmic-ray radiography) uses secondary particles generated when cosmic rays collide with upper regions of Earth's atmosphere to create images of the objects that the particles, called muons, penetrate. The process is analogous to an X-ray image, except muons are produced naturally and do not damage the materials they contact. Muon radiography has been used before in imaginative applications such as mapping the interior of the Great Pyramid at Giza, but Los Alamos's muon tomography technique represents a vast improvement over earlier technology.

  19. Los Alamos, Toshiba probing Fukushima with cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher

    2014-06-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has announced an impending partnership with Toshiba Corporation to use a Los Alamos technique called muon tomography to safely peer inside the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors and create high-resolution images of the damaged nuclear material inside without ever breaching the cores themselves. The initiative could reduce the time required to clean up the disabled complex by at least a decade and greatly reduce radiation exposure to personnel working at the plant. Muon radiography (also called cosmic-ray radiography) uses secondary particles generated when cosmic rays collide with upper regions of Earth's atmosphere to create images of the objects that the particles, called muons, penetrate. The process is analogous to an X-ray image, except muons are produced naturally and do not damage the materials they contact. Muon radiography has been used before in imaginative applications such as mapping the interior of the Great Pyramid at Giza, but Los Alamos's muon tomography technique represents a vast improvement over earlier technology.

  20. Overview of laser technology at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.K.; Cremers, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has had a long history of involvement in laser sciences and has been recognized both for its large laser programs and smaller scale developments in laser technology and applications. The first significant program was with the Rover nuclear-based rocket propulsion system in 1968 to study laser initiated fusion. From here applications spread to programs in laser isotope separation and development of large lasers for fusion. These programs established the technological human resource base of highly trained laser physicists, engineers, and chemists that remain at the Laboratory today. Almost every technical division at Los Alamos now has some laser capability ranging from laser development, applications, studies on nonlinear processes, modeling and materials processing. During the past six years over eight R&D-100 Awards have been received by Los Alamos for development of laser-based techniques and instrumentation. Outstanding examples of technology developed include LIDAR applications to environmental monitoring, single molecule detection using fluorescence spectroscopy, a laser-based high kinetic energy source of oxygen atoms produced by a laser-sustained plasma, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for compositional, analysis, thin film high temperature superconductor deposition, multi-station laser welding, and direct metal deposition and build-up of components by fusing powder particles with a laser beam.

  1. James L. Tuck Los Alamos ball lightning pioneer

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1999-07-01

    James Tuck was well known for starting the Project Sherwood group at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1952. This group was formed to study and develop concepts for controlled fusion energy. In his later years after retiring from Controlled Fusion Division, he continued research at Los Alamos on the topic of ball lightning. He traveled widely giving lectures on both observations of others and his own experimental efforts. He collected anecdotal observations obtained from those in his lecture audiences during his travels and from responses from newspaper articles where he asked for specific information from ball lightning observers. He finally cut off this collection of data when the number of responses became overwhelming. The author's primary publication on ball lightning was a short laboratory report. He planned on publishing a book on the subject but this was never completed before his death. Tuck focused his experimental effort on attempting to duplicate the production of plasma balls claimed to be observed in US Navy submarines when a switch was opened under overload conditions with battery power. During lunch breaks he made use of a Los Alamos N-division battery bank facility to mock up a submarine power pack and switch gear. This non-funded effort was abruptly terminated when an explosion occurred in the facility. An overview of Tuck's research and views will be given. The flavor Jim's personality as well as a ball produced with his experimental apparatus will be shown using video chips.

  2. Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

    2003-01-01

    The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

  3. Protein sequence databases.

    PubMed

    Apweiler, Rolf; Bairoch, Amos; Wu, Cathy H

    2004-02-01

    A variety of protein sequence databases exist, ranging from simple sequence repositories, which store data with little or no manual intervention in the creation of the records, to expertly curated universal databases that cover all species and in which the original sequence data are enhanced by the manual addition of further information in each sequence record. As the focus of researchers moves from the genome to the proteins encoded by it, these databases will play an even more important role as central comprehensive resources of protein information. Several the leading protein sequence databases are discussed here, with special emphasis on the databases now provided by the Universal Protein Knowledgebase (UniProt) consortium. PMID:15036160

  4. Types of HIV/AIDS Antiretroviral Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... reverse transcriptase (RT) from converting single-stranded HIV RNA into double-stranded HIV DNA―a process called ... RT, interfering with its ability to convert HIV RNA into HIV DNA Integrase Inhibitors block the HIV ...

  5. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Osteoporosis (Last updated 1/11/2016; last reviewed 1/11/2016) Key ... in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents: Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Agents From the National Institutes of ...

  6. The HIV Care Cascade Before, During, and After Incarceration: A Systematic Review and Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Iroh, Princess A.; Mayo, Helen

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review of the data on HIV testing, engagement in care, and treatment in incarcerated persons, and estimated the care cascade in this group. We identified 2706 titles in MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases for studies indexed to January 13, 2015, and included 92 for analysis. We summarized HIV testing results by type (blinded, opt-out, voluntary); reviewed studies on HIV care engagement, treatment, and virological suppression; and synthesized these results into an HIV care cascade before, during, and after incarceration. The HIV care cascade following diagnosis increased during incarceration and declined substantially after release, often to levels lower than before incarceration. Incarceration provides an opportunity to address HIV care in hard-to-reach individuals, though new interventions are needed to improve postrelease care continuity. PMID:25973818

  7. Is HIV/AIDS Epidemic Outcome of Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Dzimnenani Mbirimtengerenji, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Undisputable fact is that 14 000 people in Sub-Saharan Africa are being infected daily with HIV and 11 000 are dying every day due to HIV/AIDS related illnesses. In this region more than 60% of the people live below UN poverty line of US$ 1 per day. Some studies have shown that poverty and HIV infection are in correlation, but none has shown whether HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa is an outcome of poverty. This article, therefore, shows that HIV is an important outcome of poverty, with sexual trade, migration, polygamy, and teenage marriages as its predictors in the Sub Saharan region. I used the examples of 20 countries with the highest poverty level in the region to demonstrate the gravity of the HIV scourge, using the data from different international databases. PMID:17948947

  8. The HIV Care Cascade Before, During, and After Incarceration: A Systematic Review and Data Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Iroh, Princess A; Mayo, Helen; Nijhawan, Ank E

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review of the data on HIV testing, engagement in care, and treatment in incarcerated persons, and estimated the care cascade in this group. We identified 2706 titles in MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases for studies indexed to January 13, 2015, and included 92 for analysis. We summarized HIV testing results by type (blinded, opt-out, voluntary); reviewed studies on HIV care engagement, treatment, and virological suppression; and synthesized these results into an HIV care cascade before, during, and after incarceration. The HIV care cascade following diagnosis increased during incarceration and declined substantially after release, often to levels lower than before incarceration. Incarceration provides an opportunity to address HIV care in hard-to-reach individuals, though new interventions are needed to improve postrelease care continuity. PMID:25973818

  9. Safer disclosure of HIV serostatus for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Haberlen, Sabina; Amin, Avni; Baggaley, Rachel; Narasimhan, Manjulaa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Supporting individuals as they disclose their HIV serostatus may lead to a variety of individual and public health benefits. However, many women living with HIV are hesitant to disclose their HIV status due to fear of negative outcomes such as violence, abandonment, relationship dissolution and stigma. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating interventions to facilitate safer disclosure of HIV status for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence. Articles, conference abstracts and programme reports were included if they reported post-intervention evaluation results and were published before 1 April 2015. Searching was conducted through electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles and conference abstracts, reviewing websites of relevant organizations for grey literature, hand searching reference lists of included studies and contacting experts. Systematic methods were used for screening and data abstraction, which was conducted in duplicate. Study quality (rigor) was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Two interventions met the inclusion criteria: the Safe Homes and Respect for Everyone cluster-randomized trial of combination HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV) services in Rakai, Uganda, and the South Africa HIV/AIDS Antenatal Post-Test Support study individual randomized trial of an enhanced counselling intervention for pregnant women undergoing HIV testing and counselling. Both programmes integrated screening for IPV into HIV testing services and trained counsellors to facilitate discussions about disclosure based on a woman's risk of violence. However, both were implemented as part of multiple-component interventions, making it impossible to isolate the impact of the safer disclosure components. Conclusions The existing evidence base for interventions to facilitate safe HIV serostatus disclosure for women who experience or fear violence is limited. Development and implementation of new

  10. Identification of Siglec-1 null individuals infected with HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; McLaren, Paul J.; Erkizia, Itziar; Martin, Maureen P.; Benet, Susana; Rotger, Margalida; Dalmau, Judith; Ouchi, Dan; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Penugonda, Sudhir; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Fellay, Jacques; Carrington, Mary; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Telenti, Amalio

    2016-01-01

    Siglec-1/CD169 is a myeloid-cell surface receptor critical for HIV-1 capture and infection of bystander target cells. To dissect the role of SIGLEC1 in natura, we scan a large population genetic database and identify a loss-of-function variant (Glu88Ter) that is found in ∼1% of healthy people. Exome analysis and direct genotyping of 4,233 HIV-1-infected individuals reveals two Glu88Ter homozygous and 97 heterozygous subjects, allowing the analysis of ex vivo and in vivo consequences of SIGLEC1 loss-of-function. Cells from these individuals are functionally null or haploinsufficient for Siglec-1 activity in HIV-1 capture and trans-infection ex vivo. However, Siglec-1 protein truncation does not have a measurable impact on HIV-1 acquisition or AIDS outcomes in vivo. This result contrasts with the known in vitro functional role of Siglec-1 in HIV-1 trans-infection. Thus, it provides evidence that the classical HIV-1 infectious routes may compensate for the lack of Siglec-1 in fuelling HIV-1 dissemination within infected individuals. PMID:27510803

  11. The Use of Technology to Advance HIV Prevention for Couples.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2015-12-01

    The majority of HIV prevention studies and programs have targeted individuals or operated at the community level. This has also been the standard approach when incorporating technology (e.g., web-based, smartphones) to help improve HIV prevention efforts. The tides have turned for both approaches: greater attention is now focusing on couple-based HIV prevention and using technology to help improve these efforts for maximizing reach and potential impact. To assess the extent that technology has been used to help advance HIV prevention with couples, a literature review was conducted using four databases and included studies that collected data from 2000 to early 2015. Results from this review suggest that technology has primarily been used to help advance HIV prevention with couples as a tool for (1) recruitment and data collection and (2) intervention development. Challenges and limitations of conducting research (e.g., validity of dyadic data) along with future directions for how technology (e.g., mHealth, wearable sensors) can be used to advance HIV prevention with couples are then discussed. Given the growing and near ubiquitous use of the Internet and smartphones, further efforts in the realm of mHealth (e.g., applications or "apps") and eHealth are needed to develop novel couple-focused HIV-preventive interventions. PMID:26412083

  12. Identification of Siglec-1 null individuals infected with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; McLaren, Paul J; Erkizia, Itziar; Martin, Maureen P; Benet, Susana; Rotger, Margalida; Dalmau, Judith; Ouchi, Dan; Wolinsky, Steven M; Penugonda, Sudhir; Günthard, Huldrych F; Fellay, Jacques; Carrington, Mary; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Telenti, Amalio

    2016-01-01

    Siglec-1/CD169 is a myeloid-cell surface receptor critical for HIV-1 capture and infection of bystander target cells. To dissect the role of SIGLEC1 in natura, we scan a large population genetic database and identify a loss-of-function variant (Glu88Ter) that is found in ∼1% of healthy people. Exome analysis and direct genotyping of 4,233 HIV-1-infected individuals reveals two Glu88Ter homozygous and 97 heterozygous subjects, allowing the analysis of ex vivo and in vivo consequences of SIGLEC1 loss-of-function. Cells from these individuals are functionally null or haploinsufficient for Siglec-1 activity in HIV-1 capture and trans-infection ex vivo. However, Siglec-1 protein truncation does not have a measurable impact on HIV-1 acquisition or AIDS outcomes in vivo. This result contrasts with the known in vitro functional role of Siglec-1 in HIV-1 trans-infection. Thus, it provides evidence that the classical HIV-1 infectious routes may compensate for the lack of Siglec-1 in fuelling HIV-1 dissemination within infected individuals. PMID:27510803

  13. Importance of Viral Sequence Length and Number of Variable and Informative Sites in Analysis of HIV Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Novitsky, Vlad; Moyo, Sikhulile; Lei, Quanhong; DeGruttola, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To improve the methodology of HIV cluster analysis, we addressed how analysis of HIV clustering is associated with parameters that can affect the outcome of viral clustering. The extent of HIV clustering and tree certainty was compared between 401 HIV-1C near full-length genome sequences and subgenomic regions retrieved from the LANL HIV Database. Sliding window analysis was based on 99 windows of 1,000 bp and 45 windows of 2,000 bp. Potential associations between the extent of HIV clustering and sequence length and the number of variable and informative sites were evaluated. The near full-length genome HIV sequences showed the highest extent of HIV clustering and the highest tree certainty. At the bootstrap threshold of 0.80 in maximum likelihood (ML) analysis, 58.9% of near full-length HIV-1C sequences but only 15.5% of partial pol sequences (ViroSeq) were found in clusters. Among HIV-1 structural genes, pol showed the highest extent of clustering (38.9% at a bootstrap threshold of 0.80), although it was significantly lower than in the near full-length genome sequences. The extent of HIV clustering was significantly higher for sliding windows of 2,000 bp than 1,000 bp. We found a strong association between the sequence length and proportion of HIV sequences in clusters, and a moderate association between the number of variable and informative sites and the proportion of HIV sequences in clusters. In HIV cluster analysis, the extent of detectable HIV clustering is directly associated with the length of viral sequences used, as well as the number of variable and informative sites. Near full-length genome sequences could provide the most informative HIV cluster analysis. Selected subgenomic regions with a high extent of HIV clustering and high tree certainty could also be considered as a second choice. PMID:25560745

  14. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  15. PADB : Published Association Database

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hwanseok; Lee, Jin-Sung

    2007-01-01

    Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; ) that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases. PMID:17877839

  16. ResPlan Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellers, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    The main project I was involved in was new application development for the existing CIS0 Database (ResPlan). This database application was developed in Microsoft Access. Initial meetings with Greg Follen, Linda McMillen, Griselle LaFontaine and others identified a few key weaknesses with the existing database. The weaknesses centered around that while the database correctly modeled the structure of Programs, Projects and Tasks, once the data was entered, the database did not capture any dynamic status information, and as such was of limited usefulness. After the initial meetings my goals were identified as follows: Enhance the ResPlan Database to include qualitative and quantitative status information about the Programs, Projects and Tasks Train staff members about the ResPlan database from both the user perspective and the developer perspective Give consideration to a Web Interface for reporting. Initially, the thought was that there would not be adequate time to actually develop the Web Interface, Greg wanted it understood that this was an eventual goal and as such should be a consideration throughout the development process.

  17. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  18. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  19. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  20. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  1. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  2. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... action on HIV/AIDS National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day – March 10 Programs Share your story Anonymous from Illinois says... Although I am HIV negative, I would like to share my story. ...

  3. HIV/AIDS in Women

    MedlinePlus

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV often ...

  4. HIV-Positive-to-HIV-Positive Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Calmy, A; van Delden, C; Giostra, E; Junet, C; Rubbia Brandt, L; Yerly, S; Chave, J-P; Samer, C; Elkrief, L; Vionnet, J; Berney, T

    2016-08-01

    Most countries exclude human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients from organ donation because of concerns regarding donor-derived HIV transmission. The Swiss Federal Act on Transplantation has allowed organ transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients since 2007. We report the successful liver transplantation from an HIV-positive donor to an HIV-positive recipient. Both donor and recipient had been treated for many years with antiretroviral therapy and harbored multidrug-resistant viruses. Five months after transplantation, HIV viremia remains undetectable. This observation supports the inclusion of appropriate HIV-positive donors for transplants specifically allocated to HIV-positive recipients. PMID:27109874

  5. Database for propagation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1991-01-01

    A propagation researcher or a systems engineer who intends to use the results of a propagation experiment is generally faced with various database tasks such as the selection of the computer software, the hardware, and the writing of the programs to pass the data through the models of interest. This task is repeated every time a new experiment is conducted or the same experiment is carried out at a different location generating different data. Thus the users of this data have to spend a considerable portion of their time learning how to implement the computer hardware and the software towards the desired end. This situation may be facilitated considerably if an easily accessible propagation database is created that has all the accepted (standardized) propagation phenomena models approved by the propagation research community. Also, the handling of data will become easier for the user. Such a database construction can only stimulate the growth of the propagation research it if is available to all the researchers, so that the results of the experiment conducted by one researcher can be examined independently by another, without different hardware and software being used. The database may be made flexible so that the researchers need not be confined only to the contents of the database. Another way in which the database may help the researchers is by the fact that they will not have to document the software and hardware tools used in their research since the propagation research community will know the database already. The following sections show a possible database construction, as well as properties of the database for the propagation research.

  6. The Gaia Parameter Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Lammers, U.; Perryman, M. A. C.

    2005-01-01

    The parallel development of many aspects of a complex mission like Gaia, which includes numerous participants in ESA, industrial companies, and a large and active scientific collaboration throughout Europe, makes keeping track of the many design changes, instrument and operational complexities, and numerical values for the data analysis a very challenging problem. A comprehensive, easily-accessible, up-to-date, and definitive compilation of a large range of numerical quantities is required, and the Gaia parameter database has been established to satisfy these needs. The database is a centralised repository containing, besides mathematical, physical, and astronomical constants, many satellite and subsystem design parameters. At the end of 2004, more than 1600 parameters had been included. Version control has been implemented, providing, next to a `live' version with the most recent parameters, well-defined reference versions of the full database contents. The database can be queried or browsed using a regular Web browser (http://www.rssd.esa.int/Gaia/paramdb). Query results are formated by default in HTML. Data can also be retrieved as Fortran-77, Fortran-90, Java, ANSIC, C++, or XML structures for direct inclusion into software codes in these languages. The idea is that all collaborating scientists can use the database parameters and values, once retrieved, directly linked to computational routines. An off-line access mode is also available, enabling users to automatically download the contents of the database. The database will be maintained actively, and significant extensions of the contents are planned. Consistent use in the future of the database by the Gaia community at large, including all industrial teams, will ensure correct numerical values throughout the complex software systems being built up as details of the Gaia design develop. The database is already being used for the telemetry simulation chain in ESTEC, and in the data simulations for GDAAS2.

  7. Human variation databases

    PubMed Central

    Küntzer, Jan; Eggle, Daniela; Klostermann, Stefan; Burtscher, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    More than 100 000 human genetic variations have been described in various genes that are associated with a wide variety of diseases. Such data provides invaluable information for both clinical medicine and basic science. A number of locus-specific databases have been developed to exploit this huge amount of data. However, the scope, format and content of these databases differ strongly and as no standard for variation databases has yet been adopted, the way data is presented varies enormously. This review aims to give an overview of current resources for human variation data in public and commercial resources. PMID:20639550

  8. International Comparisions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    International Comparisions Database (Web, free access)   The International Comparisons Database (ICDB) serves the U.S. and the Inter-American System of Metrology (SIM) with information based on Appendices B (International Comparisons), C (Calibration and Measurement Capabilities) and D (List of Participating Countries) of the Comit� International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). The official source of the data is The BIPM key comparison database. The ICDB provides access to results of comparisons of measurements and standards organized by the consultative committees of the CIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations.

  9. Hybrid Terrain Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey

    2006-01-01

    A prototype hybrid terrain database is being developed in conjunction with other databases and with hardware and software that constitute subsystems of aerospace cockpit display systems (known in the art as synthetic vision systems) that generate images to increase pilots' situation awareness and eliminate poor visibility as a cause of aviation accidents. The basic idea is to provide a clear view of the world around an aircraft by displaying computer-generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information.

  10. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  11. JICST Factual Database(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Keisuke

    The computer programme, which builds atom-bond connection tables from nomenclatures, is developed. Chemical substances with their nomenclature and varieties of trivial names or experimental code numbers are inputted. The chemical structures of the database are stereospecifically stored and are able to be searched and displayed according to stereochemistry. Source data are from laws and regulations of Japan, RTECS of US and so on. The database plays a central role within the integrated fact database service of JICST and makes interrelational retrieval possible.

  12. Databases for materials selection

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Cambridge Materials Selector (CMS2.0) materials database was developed by the Engineering Dept. at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. This database makes it possible to select a material for a specific application from essentially all classes of materials. Genera, Predict, and Socrates software programs from CLI International, Houston, Texas, automate materials selection and corrosion problem-solving tasks. They are said to significantly reduce the time necessary to select a suitable material and/or to assess a corrosion problem and reach cost-effective solutions. This article describes both databases and tells how to use them.

  13. Analysis results from the Los Alamos 2D/3D program

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Cappiello, M.W.; Harmony, S.C.; Shire, P.R.; Siebe, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a participant in the 2D/3D program. Activities conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory in support of 2D/3D program goals include analysis support of facility design, construction, and operation; provision of boundary and initial conditions for test-facility operations based on analysis of pressurized water reactors; performance of pretest and posttest predictions and analyses; and use of experimental results to validate and assess the single- and multi-dimensional, nonequilibrium features in the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC). During fiscal year 1987, Los Alamos conducted analytical assessment activities using data from the Slab Core Test Facility, The Cylindrical Core Test Facility, and the Upper Plenum Test Facility. Finally, Los Alamos continued work to provide TRAC improvements. In this paper, Los Alamos activities during fiscal year 1987 will be summarized; several significant accomplishments will be described in more detail to illustrate the work activities at Los Alamos.

  14. Factors mediating HIV risk among female sex workers in Europe: a systematic review and ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Lucy; Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Reynolds, Lucy; Wilson, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We reviewed the epidemiology of HIV and selected sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in WHO-defined Europe. There were three objectives: (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and STIs (chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea); (2) to describe structural and individual-level risk factors associated with prevalence and (3) to examine the relationship between structural-level factors and national estimates of HIV prevalence among FSWs. Design A systematic search of published and unpublished literature measuring HIV/STIs and risk factors among FSWs, identified through electronic databases published since 2005. ‘Best’ estimates of HIV prevalence were calculated from the systematic review to provide national level estimates of HIV. Associations between HIV prevalence and selected structural-level indicators were assessed using linear regression models. Studies reviewed Of the 1993 papers identified in the search, 73 peer-reviewed and grey literature documents were identified as meeting our criteria of which 63 papers provided unique estimates of HIV and STI prevalence and nine reported multivariate risk factors for HIV/STI among FSWs. Results HIV in Europe remains low among FSWs who do not inject drugs (<1%), but STIs are high, particularly syphilis in the East and gonorrhoea. FSWs experience high levels of violence and structural risk factors associated with HIV, including lack of access to services and working on the street. Linear regression models showed HIV among FSWs to link with injecting drug use and imprisonment. Conclusions Findings show that HIV prevention interventions should be nested inside strategies that address the social welfare of sex workers, highlighting in turn the need to target the social determinants of health and inequality, including regarding access to services, experience of violence and migration. Future epidemiological and intervention studies of HIV among vulnerable populations need to better

  15. NCCDPHP PUBLICATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts of publications produced by the CDC's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) including journal articles, monographs, book chapters, reports, policy documents, and fact sheets. Full...

  16. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  17. THE CTEPP DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CTEPP (Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants) database contains a wealth of data on children's aggregate exposures to pollutants in their everyday surroundings. Chemical analysis data for the environmental media and ques...

  18. Hawaii bibliographic database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.L.; Takahashi, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and abstracts or (if no abstract) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  19. Chemical Kinetics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  20. Requirements Management Database

    2009-08-13

    This application is a simplified and customized version of the RBA and CTS databases to capture federal, site, and facility requirements, link to actions that must be performed to maintain compliance with their contractual and other requirements.

  1. Navigating Public Microarray Databases

    PubMed Central

    Bähler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources. PMID:18629145

  2. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  3. Navigating public microarray databases.

    PubMed

    Penkett, Christopher J; Bähler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources. PMID:18629145

  4. Household Products Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commercial / Institutional Product Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More Resources What's under your kitchen sink, in your garage, in your bathroom, and ...

  5. TREATABILITY DATABASE DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities, first responders to spills or emergencies, treatment process designers, research organizations, academics, regulato...

  6. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  7. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase-out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  8. Barriers to HIV Cure.

    PubMed

    Stein, J; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, M; Streeck, H

    2016-10-01

    Since the beginning of the epidemic, more than 70 million people have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and about 38 million have died from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses. While the discovery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid 90's has saved millions of lives, a complete eradication of HIV is still not possible as HIV can persist for decades in a small reservoir of latently infected cells. Once reactivated, these latently infected cells can actively produce viral particles. Recent studies suggest that several sanctuaries exist within infected individuals where HIV can remain undetected by the immune system. These cellular, anatomical and microanatomical viral reservoirs represent a major obstacle for the eradication of HIV. Here we review recent findings on potential sanctuaries of HIV and address potential avenues to overcome these immunological barriers. PMID:27620852

  9. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (Bookshelf, PubMed Central (PMC) and PubReader); medical genetics (ClinVar, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen); genes and genomics (BioProject, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Genome, HomoloGene, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, PopSet, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser, Trace Archive and UniGene); and proteins and chemicals (Biosystems, COBALT, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), Protein Clusters, Protein and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for many of these databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:25398906

  10. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (PubMed Central (PMC), Bookshelf and PubReader), health (ClinVar, dbGaP, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen), genomes (BioProject, Assembly, Genome, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser and the Trace Archive), genes (Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), HomoloGene, PopSet and UniGene), proteins (Protein, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), COBALT, Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB) and Protein Clusters) and chemicals (Biosystems and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for most of these databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized datasets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:26615191

  11. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank(®) nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (PubMed Central (PMC), Bookshelf and PubReader), health (ClinVar, dbGaP, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen), genomes (BioProject, Assembly, Genome, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser and the Trace Archive), genes (Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), HomoloGene, PopSet and UniGene), proteins (Protein, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), COBALT, Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB) and Protein Clusters) and chemicals (Biosystems and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for most of these databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized datasets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:26615191

  12. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank(®) nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (Bookshelf, PubMed Central (PMC) and PubReader); medical genetics (ClinVar, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen); genes and genomics (BioProject, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Genome, HomoloGene, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, PopSet, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser, Trace Archive and UniGene); and proteins and chemicals (Biosystems, COBALT, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), Protein Clusters, Protein and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for many of these databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:25398906

  13. Querying genomic databases

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Hagstrom, R.; Joerg, D.; Overbeek, R.

    1991-09-01

    A natural-language interface has been developed that retrieves genomic information by using a simple subset of English. The interface spares the biologist from the task of learning database-specific query languages and computer programming. Currently, the interface deals with the E. coli genome. It can, however, be readily extended and shows promise as a means of easy access to other sequenced genomic databases as well.

  14. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  15. The ribosomal database project.

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, N; Olsen, G J; Maidak, B L; McCaughey, M J; Overbeek, R; Macke, T J; Marsh, T L; Woese, C R

    1993-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome data along with related programs and services. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams and various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via ftp and electronic mail. Certain analytic services are also provided by the electronic mail server. PMID:8332524

  16. Database computing in HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; MacFarlane, J.F. ); May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L.E. ); Baden, A. . Dept. of Physics); Grossman, R.; Qin, X. . Dept. of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science); Cormell, L.; Leibold, P.; Liu, D

    1992-01-01

    The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors. I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototype based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.

  17. Database computing in HEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, C. T.; Loken, S.; Macfarlane, J. F.; May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L. E.; Baden, A.; Grossman, R.; Qin, X.

    1992-01-01

    The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors, I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototypes based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.

  18. Defense, basic, and industrial research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Longshore, A.; Salgado, K.

    1995-10-01

    The Workshop on Defense, Basic, and Industrial Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss the use of neutrons in science-based stockpile stewardship, The workshop began with presentations by government officials, senior representatives from the three weapons laboratories, and scientific opinion leaders. Workshop participants then met in breakout sessions on the following topics: materials science and engineering; polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials; fundamental neutron physics; applied nuclear physics; condensed matter physics and chemistry; and nuclear weapons research. They concluded that neutrons can play an essential role in science-based stockpile stewardship and that there is overlap and synergy between defense and other uses of neutrons in basic, applied, and industrial research from which defense and civilian research can benefit. This proceedings is a collection of talks and papers from the plenary, technical, and breakout session presentations. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. The Integrated Cloud-based Environmental Data Management System at Los Alamos National Laboratory - 13391

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz Paige, Karen; Gomez, Penny; Patel, Nita P.; EchoHawk, Chris; Dorries, Alison M.

    2013-07-01

    In today's world, instant access to information is taken for granted. The national labs are no exception; our data users expect immediate access to their data. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected over ten million records, and the data needs to be accessible to scientists as well as the public. The data span a wide range of media, analytes, time periods, formats, and quality and have traditionally existed in scattered databases, making comprehensive work with the data impossible. Recently, LANL has successfully integrated all their environmental data into a single, cloud-based, web-accessible data management system. The system combines data transparency to the public with immediate access required by the technical staff. The use of automatic electronic data validation has been critical to immediate data access while saving millions of dollars and increasing data consistency and quality. The system includes a Google Maps based GIS tool that is simple enough for people to locate potentially contaminated sites near their home or workplace, and complex enough to allow scientists to plot and trend their data at the surface and at depth as well as over time. A variety of formatted reports can be run at any desired frequency to report the most current data available in the data base. The advanced user can also run free form queries of the data base. This data management system has saved LANL time and money, an increasingly important accomplishment during periods of budget cuts with increasing demand for immediate electronic services. (authors)

  20. HIV Evolution and Escape.

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.; Wrin, Terri; Petropoulos, Christos; Wong, Joseph K.

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exemplifies the principles of Darwinian evolution with a telescoped chronology. Because of its high mutation rate and remarkably high rates of replication, evolution can be appreciated over periods of days in contrast to the durations conceived of by Darwin. Certain selective pressures that drive the evolution of HIV include chemotherapy, anatomic compartmentalization and the immune response. Examples of these selective forces on HIV evolution are described. Images Fig. 5 PMID:17060974

  1. Databases: Peter's Picks and Pans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the best and worst in databases on disk, CD-ROM, and online, and offers judgments and observations on database characteristics. Two databases are praised and three are criticized. (Author/JMV)

  2. Specialist Bibliographic Databases.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D

    2016-05-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  3. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  4. The comprehensive peptaibiotics database.

    PubMed

    Stoppacher, Norbert; Neumann, Nora K N; Burgstaller, Lukas; Zeilinger, Susanne; Degenkolb, Thomas; Brückner, Hans; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Peptaibiotics are nonribosomally biosynthesized peptides, which - according to definition - contain the marker amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and possess antibiotic properties. Being known since 1958, a constantly increasing number of peptaibiotics have been described and investigated with a particular emphasis on hypocrealean fungi. Starting from the existing online 'Peptaibol Database', first published in 1997, an exhaustive literature survey of all known peptaibiotics was carried out and resulted in a list of 1043 peptaibiotics. The gathered information was compiled and used to create the new 'The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database', which is presented here. The database was devised as a software tool based on Microsoft (MS) Access. It is freely available from the internet at http://peptaibiotics-database.boku.ac.at and can easily be installed and operated on any computer offering a Windows XP/7 environment. It provides useful information on characteristic properties of the peptaibiotics included such as peptide category, group name of the microheterogeneous mixture to which the peptide belongs, amino acid sequence, sequence length, producing fungus, peptide subfamily, molecular formula, and monoisotopic mass. All these characteristics can be used and combined for automated search within the database, which makes The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database a versatile tool for the retrieval of valuable information about peptaibiotics. Sequence data have been considered as to December 14, 2012. PMID:23681723

  5. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  6. The Transporter Classification Database

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Tamang, Dorjee G.; Västermark, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; http://www.tcdb.org) serves as a common reference point for transport protein research. The database contains more than 10 000 non-redundant proteins that represent all currently recognized families of transmembrane molecular transport systems. Proteins in TCDB are organized in a five level hierarchical system, where the first two levels are the class and subclass, the second two are the family and subfamily, and the last one is the transport system. Superfamilies that contain multiple families are included as hyperlinks to the five tier TC hierarchy. TCDB includes proteins from all types of living organisms and is the only transporter classification system that is both universal and recognized by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It has been expanded by manual curation, contains extensive text descriptions providing structural, functional, mechanistic and evolutionary information, is supported by unique software and is interconnected to many other relevant databases. TCDB is of increasing usefulness to the international scientific community and can serve as a model for the expansion of database technologies. This manuscript describes an update of the database descriptions previously featured in NAR database issues. PMID:24225317

  7. Specialist Bibliographic Databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  8. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  9. HIV Associated Opportunistic Pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Ismail, T; Lee, C

    2011-03-01

    Opportunistic pneumonias are major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. The majority of new HIV infections in Malaysia are adults aged 20 to 39 years old and many are unaware of their HIV status until they present with an opportunistic infection. HIV associated opportunistic pneumonias can progress rapidly without appropriate therapy. Therefore a proper diagnostic evaluation is vital and prompt empiric treatment of the suspected diagnosis should be commenced while waiting for the results of the diagnostic studies. Tuberculosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and recurrent bacterial pneumonias are common causes of AIDS-defining diseases and are discussed in this article. PMID:23765154

  10. Examining the Relationship between Urogenital Schistosomiasis and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mbabazi, Pamela Sabina; Andan, Olivia; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Chitsulo, Lester; Engels, Dirk; Downs, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma haematobium, is widespread and causes substantial morbidity on the African continent. The infection has been suggested as an unrecognized risk factor for incident HIV infection. Current guidelines recommend preventive chemotherapy, using praziquantel as a public health tool, to avert morbidity due to schistosomiasis. In individuals of reproductive age, urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly prevalent and, likely, underdiagnosed. This comprehensive literature review was undertaken to examine the evidence for a cause-effect relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS. The review aims to support discussions of urogenital schistosomiasis as a neglected yet urgent public health challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic search of the literature including online databases, clinical guidelines, and current medical textbooks. We describe plausible local and systemic mechanisms by which Schistosoma haematobium infection could increase the risk of HIV acquisition in both women and men. We also detail the effects of S. haematobium infection on the progression and transmissibility of HIV in co-infected individuals. We briefly summarize available evidence on the immunomodulatory effects of chronic schistosomiasis and the implications this might have for populations at high risk of both schistosomiasis and HIV. Conclusions/Significance Studies support the hypothesis that urogenital schistosomiasis in women and men constitutes a significant risk factor for HIV acquisition due both to local genital tract and global immunological effects. In those who become HIV-infected, schistosomal co-infection may accelerate HIV disease progression and facilitate viral transmission to sexual partners. Establishing effective prevention strategies using praziquantel, including better definition of treatment age, duration, and frequency of treatment for urogenital

  11. Towards an advanced hadron facility at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, Henry A.

    1988-11-01

    In the 1987 AHF Workshop, it was pointed out that activation of the accelerator is a serious problem. At this workshop, it was suggested that a new type of slow extraction system is needed to reduce the activation. We report on the response to this need. The Los Alamos plan is reviewed including as elements the long lead-time R&D in preparation for a 1993 construction start, a menu of accelerator designs, improved losses at injection and extraction time, active participation in the development of PSR, an accelerated hardware R&D program, and close collaboration with TRIUMF. We review progress on magnets and power supplies, on ceramic vacuum chambers, and on ferrite-tuned rf systems. We report on the plan for a joint TRIUMF-Los Alamos main-ring cavity to be tested in PSR in 1989. The problem of beam losses is discussed in detail and a recommendation for a design procedure for the injection system is made. This recommendation includes taking account of single Coulomb scattering, a painting scheme for minimizing foil hits, and a collimator and dump system for containing the expected spills. The slow extraction problem is reviewed and progress on an improved design is discussed. The problem of designing the accelerators for minimum operation and maintenance cost is briefly discussed. The question of the specifications for an advanced hadron facility is raised and it is suggested that the Los Alamos Proposal of a dual energy machine—1.6 GeV and 60 GeV—is a better match to the needs of the science program than the single-energy proposals made elsewhere. It is suggested that design changes need be made in all of the world's hadron facility proposals to prepare for high-intensity operation.

  12. Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Keepin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented.

  13. Groundwater Level Status Report for 2005 Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    S.P. Allen; R.J. Koch

    2006-05-15

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2005 is provided in this report. The Groundwater Level Monitoring Project was instituted in 2005 to provide a framework for the collection and processing of quality controlled groundwater level data. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 137 monitoring wells, including 41 regional aquifer wells, 22 intermediate wells, and 74 alluvial wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 118 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well.

  14. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Vision Project

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a project to examine possible futures associated with the global nuclear enterprise over the course of the next 50 years. All major components are included in this study--weapons, nonproliferation, nuclear power, nuclear materials, and institutional and public factors. To examine key issues, the project has been organized around three main activity areas--workshops, research and analyses, and development of linkages with other synergistic world efforts. This paper describes the effort--its current and planned activities--as well as provides discussion of project perspectives on nuclear weapons, nonproliferation, nuclear energy, and nuclear materials focus areas.

  15. Los Alamos Science, Number 25 -- 1997: Celebrating the Neutrino

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cooper, N. G. ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue is devoted to the neutrino and its remaining mysteries. It is divided into the following areas: (1) The Reines-Cowan experiment -- detecting the poltergeist; (2) The oscillating neutrino -- an introduction to neutrino masses and mixing; (3) A brief history of neutrino experiments at LAMPF; (4) A thousand eyes -- the story of LSND (Los Alamos neutrino oscillation experiment); (5) The evidence for oscillations; (6) The nature of neutrinos in muon decay and physics beyond the Standard Model; (7) Exorcising ghosts -- in pursuit of the missing solar neutrinos; (8) MSW -- a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem; (8) Neutrinos and supernovae; and (9) Dark matter and massive neutrinos.

  16. Recent developments in the Los Alamos radiation transport code system

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, R.A.; Parsons, K.

    1997-06-01

    A brief progress report on updates to the Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) for solving criticality and fixed-source problems is provided. LARTCS integrates the Diffusion Accelerated Neutral Transport (DANT) discrete ordinates codes with the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The LARCTS code is being developed with a graphical user interface for problem setup and analysis. Progress in the DANT system for criticality applications include a two-dimensional module which can be linked to a mesh-generation code and a faster iteration scheme. Updates to MCNP Version 4A allow statistical checks of calculated Monte Carlo results.

  17. Laser protective eyewear program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Winburn, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The proliferation of lasers at Los Alamos focused considerable attention on providing adequate eye protection for experimenters involved in the use of a wide variety of nonionizing radiation. Experiments with fast-pulsed lasers (Nd:YAG, HF, and CO/sub 2/) were performed to gain biological threshold data on ocular damage. In parallel, eye protection devices were evaluated, which resulted in the development of lightweight, comfortable spectacles of colored glass filters that can be ground to prescription specifications. Goggle styles are employed in specific applications.

  18. Mac configuration management at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Allan B

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) had a need for central configuration management of non-Windows computers. LANL has three to five thousand Macs and an equal number of Linux based systems. The primary goal was to be able to inventory all non-windows systems and patch Mc OS X systems. LANL examined a number of commercial and open source solutions and ultimately selected Puppet. This paper will discuss why we chose Puppet, how we implemented it, and some lessons we learned along the way.

  19. Los Alamos Science, Number 25 -- 1997: Celebrating the neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N.G.

    1997-12-31

    This issue is devoted to the neutrino and its remaining mysteries. It is divided into the following areas: (1) The Reines-Cowan experiment -- detecting the poltergeist; (2) The oscillating neutrino -- an introduction to neutrino masses and mixing; (3) A brief history of neutrino experiments at LAMPF; (4) A thousand eyes -- the story of LSND (Los Alamos neutrino oscillation experiment); (5) The evidence for oscillations; (6) The nature of neutrinos in muon decay and physics beyond the Standard Model; (7) Exorcising ghosts -- in pursuit of the missing solar neutrinos; (8) MSW -- a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem; (8) Neutrinos and supernovae; and (9) Dark matter and massive neutrinos.

  20. Auditing nuclear weapons quality programs at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the problems involved in introducing quality assurance on a broad scale in a national laboratory are discussed. A philosophy of how QA can be utilized beneficially in research and development activities is described briefly, and our experiences at Los Alamos in applying QA to nuclear weapons activities are outlines. The important role of audits is emphasized; audits are used not merely to determine the effectiveness of QA programs but also to explain and demonstrate the usefulness of QA to a generally sceptical body of engineers and scientists. Finally, some ways of easing the application of QA in the future are proposed. 1 ref.

  1. Gamma-ray isotopic analysis development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Sampson

    1999-11-01

    This report describes the development history and characteristics of software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology group at Los Alamos for gamma-ray isotopic analysis. This software analyzes the gamma-ray spectrum from measurements performed on actinide samples (principally plutonium and uranium) of arbitrary size, geometry, and physical and chemical composition. The results are obtained without calibration using only fundamental tabulated nuclear constants. Characteristics of the current software versions are discussed in some detail and many examples of implemented measurement systems are shown.

  2. Groundwater level status report for 2010, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Richard J.; Schmeer, Sarah

    2011-03-01

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2010 is provided in this report. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 194 monitoring wells, including 63 regional aquifer wells (including 10 regional/intermediate wells), 34 intermediate wells, 97 alluvial wells, and 12 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 162 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well. The report also summarizes the groundwater temperatures recorded in intermediate and regional aquifer monitoring wells and seasonal responses to snowmelt runoff observed in intermediate wells.

  3. Industrial applications of computed tomography at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, R.P.; Morris, R.A.; Wecksung, G.W.; Wonn, G.; London, R.

    1980-06-01

    A research and development program was begun two years ago at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) to study nonmedical applications of computed tomography. This program had several goals. The first goal was to develop the necessary reconstruction algorithms to accurately reconstruct cross sections of nonmedical industrial objects. The second goal was to be able to perform extensive tomographic simulations to determine the efficacy of tomographic reconstruction with a variety of hardware configurations. The final goal was to construct an inexpensive industrial prototype scanner with a high degree of design flexibility. The implementation of these program goals is described.

  4. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1985: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Becker, N.M.; Maes, M.N.

    1986-10-01

    Well field operations during 1985 were satisfactory with municipal and industrial supplies consisting of 1587 x 10/sup 6/ gal from wells in three well fields and 37 x 10/sup 6/ gal from the gallery in Water Canyon. About 2.8 x 10/sup 6/ gal of water from Guaje Reservoir and 0.9 x 10/sup 6/ gal from Los Alamos Reservoir were used for irrigation; thus the total water usage in 1985 was about 1628 x 10/sup 6/ gal. Primary and secondary chemical quality of water in the distribution system is in compliance with federal regulations.

  5. Upgrade of the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility control system

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, N.G.; Turner, W.J.; Brown, R.E.; Bibeau, R.A.; Davis, R.R.; Hogan, K.

    1996-05-01

    After 20 yrs service, the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is undergoing an upgrade to its aging Facility Control System. The new system design includes a network of redundantly-paired programmable logic controllers that will interface with about 2200 field data points. The data communications network that has been designed includes a redundant, self-healing fiber optic data highway as well as a fiber optic ethernet. Commercially available human-machine interface software running on a UNIX-based system displays facility subsystem status operator X-terminals. Project design features, methods, costs, and schedule are discussed.

  6. Tiger Team Assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of the safety and health assessment was to determine the effectiveness of representative safety and health programs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within the safety and health programs at LANL, performance was assessed in the following technical areas: Organization and Administration, Quality Verification, Operations, Maintenance, Training and Certification, Auxiliary Systems, Emergency Preparedness, Technical Support, Packaging and Transportation, Nuclear Criticality Safety, Security/Safety Interface, Experimental Activities, Site/Facility Safety Review, Radiological Protection, Personnel Protection, Worker Safety and Health (OSHA) Compliance, Fire Protection, Aviation Safety, Explosives Safety, Natural Phenomena, and Medical Services.

  7. Chemical Explosion Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Peder; Brachet, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    A database containing information on chemical explosions, recorded and located by the International Data Center (IDC) of the CTBTO, should be established in the IDC prior to entry into force of the CTBT. Nearly all of the large chemical explosions occur in connection with mining activity. As a first step towards the establishment of this database, a survey of presumed mining areas where sufficiently large explosions are conducted has been done. This is dominated by the large coal mining areas like the Powder River (U.S.), Kuznetsk (Russia), Bowen (Australia) and Ekibastuz (Kazakhstan) basins. There are also several other smaller mining areas, in e.g. Scandinavia, Poland, Kazakhstan and Australia, with large enough explosions for detection. Events in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the IDC that are located in or close to these mining areas, and which therefore are candidates for inclusion in the database, have been investigated. Comparison with a database of infrasound events has been done as many mining blasts generate strong infrasound signals and therefore also are included in the infrasound database. Currently there are 66 such REB events in 18 mining areas in the infrasound database. On a yearly basis several hundreds of events in mining areas have been recorded and included in the REB. Establishment of the database of chemical explosions requires confirmation and ground truth information from the States Parties regarding these events. For an explosion reported in the REB, the appropriate authority in whose country the explosion occurred is encouraged, on a voluntary basis, to seek out information on the explosion and communicate this information to the IDC.

  8. High HIV Prevalence among Asylum Seekers Who Gave Birth in the Netherlands: A Nationwide Study Based on Antenatal HIV Tests

    PubMed Central

    Goosen, Simone; Waldhober, Quita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Asylum seekers are considered to be a particularly vulnerable group with respect to HIV. Data on the HIV prevalence among asylum seekers, however, are scarce. The aim of this study is to map the HIV prevalence among asylum seekers who gave birth in The Netherlands. Methods We used a nationwide electronic medical records database from the community health services for asylum seekers (MOA). The study population consisted of 4,854 women and girls who delivered in asylum reception between 2000 and 2008. A unique electronic health data base was used and case allocation was based on ICPC-codes. Results The number of women and girls that was HIV positive during their last pregnancy was 80, of which 79 originated from sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence for women from this region of origin (3.4%) was high compared to women from all other regions of origin (0.04%; OR = 90.2; 95%CI 12.5–648.8). The highest HIV prevalence rates were found for women from Rwanda (17.0%) and Cameroon (13.2%). HIV prevalence rates were higher among women who arrived in reception without partner (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 0.75–4.44) and unaccompanied minors (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 0.79–8.49), compared to women who arrived in reception with partner. Conclusions We conclude that, among asylum-seeking women from sub-Saharan Africa giving birth in The Netherlands, the HIV prevalence is high compared to the host population. For women from other regions of origin, the prevalence is at the same level as in the host population. The high HIV prevalence underlines the importance of preventive interventions and voluntary HIV testing for sub-Saharan African asylum seekers as from shortly after arrival. PMID:26296093

  9. HIV Screening Rates among Medicaid Enrollees Diagnosed with Other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A.; Abara, Winston E.; Xu, Junjun; Lee, Joel M.; Rust, George; Satcher, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 20 million new sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diagnosed yearly in the United States costing the healthcare system an estimated $16 billion in direct medical expenses. The presence of other STIs increases the risk of HIV transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has long recommended routine HIV screening for individuals with a diagnosed STI. Unfortunately, HIV screening prevalence among STI diagnosed patients are still sub-optimal in many healthcare settings. Objective To determine the proportion of STI-diagnosed persons in the Medicaid population who are screened for HIV, examine correlates of HIV screening, and to suggest critical intervention points to increase HIV screening in this population. Methods A retrospective database analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of HIV screening among participants. Participant eligibility was restricted to Medicaid enrollees in 29 states with a primary STI diagnosis (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis) or pelvic inflammatory disease claim in 2009. HIV-positive persons were excluded from the study. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample in general and by STI diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to estimate unadjusted odds ratios and adjusted odds ratio respectively and the 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression models that included the independent variables (race, STI diagnosis, and healthcare setting) and covariates (gender, residential status, age, and state) were analyzed to examine independent associations with HIV screening. Results About 43% of all STI-diagnosed study participants were screened for HIV. STI-diagnosed persons that were between 20–24 years, female, residing in a large metropolitan area and with a syphilis diagnosis were more likely to be screened for HIV. Participants who received their STI diagnosis in the emergency

  10. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hepatotoxicity

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Hepatotoxicity (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Hepatotoxicity means damage to the ... the liver can be life-threatening. What HIV medicines can cause hepatotoxicity? HIV medicines in the following ...

  11. Examining the associations between HIV-related stigma and health outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS: a series of meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sanjana; Chen, Shiyi; Gogolishvili, David; Globerman, Jason; Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Logie, Carmen H; Shi, Qiyun; Morassaei, Sara; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and series of meta-analyses on the association between HIV-related stigma and health among people living with HIV. Data sources A structured search was conducted on 6 electronic databases for journal articles reporting associations between HIV-related stigma and health-related outcomes published between 1996 and 2013. Study eligibility criteria Controlled studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies in people living with HIV were considered for inclusion. Outcome measures Mental health (depressive symptoms, emotional and mental distress, anxiety), quality of life, physical health, social support, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, access to and usage of health/social services and risk behaviours. Results 64 studies were included in our meta-analyses. We found significant associations between HIV-related stigma and higher rates of depression, lower social support and lower levels of adherence to antiretroviral medications and access to and usage of health and social services. Weaker relationships were observed between HIV-related stigma and anxiety, quality of life, physical health, emotional and mental distress and sexual risk practices. While risk of bias assessments revealed overall good quality related to how HIV stigma and health outcomes were measured on the included studies, high risk of bias among individual studies was observed in terms of appropriate control for potential confounders. Additional research should focus on elucidating the mechanisms behind the negative relationship between stigma and health to better inform interventions to reduce the impact of stigma on the health and well-being of people with HIV. Conclusions This systematic review and series of meta-analyses support the notion that HIV-related stigma has a detrimental impact on a variety of health-related outcomes in people with HIV. This review can inform the development of multifaceted, intersectoral interventions to

  12. [HIV and reproductive choices].

    PubMed

    Boer, K; de Vries, J W; de Beaufort, I E

    1995-05-13

    It is estimated that there are about 120-150 hemophilic men infected with HIV in the Netherlands as well as 1000 men infected via intravenous drug use. The majority of them are in reproductive age with relationships with seronegative women. In the event they want to have a child, artificial insemination with donor sperm (KID) is an option. In 1994 there were 147 instances of insemination of 66 women with the processed semen of HIV-positive men and no infection resulted. The annual risk of HIV infection was 7.2% of a woman engaging in unprotected intercourse, according to a prospective Italian study. The risk of HIV infection per contact was estimated at 0.1-5.6%. However, it is not yet proven that processed sperm of an HIV-seropositive man can produce a pregnancy without the risk of infecting the woman. The risk of transmission of HIV to the fetus is higher in artificial insemination of a seropositive woman with the sperm of her partner. In vitro fertilization is not a sure method either for the prevention of HIV infection of the mother because of the possibility of an egg cell being infected before fertilization. HIV-infected pregnant women face the problems of caring for HIV-infected offspring. For HIV discordant couples the advice is to use both condoms for the prevention of infection and oral contraceptives for the prevention of pregnancy. In the case of a lesbian relationship, if the partners want to have a child, HIV infection is still a factor because of previous heterosexual contacts. PMID:7753239

  13. ADANS database specification

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  14. The Chandra Bibliography Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, A. H.; Winkelman, S. L.; Paltani, S.; Blecksmith, S. E.; Bright, J. D.

    2004-07-01

    Early in the mission, the Chandra Data Archive started the development of a bibliography database, tracking publications in refereed journals and on-line conference proceedings that are based on Chandra observations, allowing our users to link directly to articles in the ADS from our archive, and to link to the relevant data in the archive from the ADS entries. Subsequently, we have been working closely with the ADS and other data centers, in the context of the ADEC-ITWG, on standardizing the literature-data linking. We have also extended our bibliography database to include all Chandra-related articles and we are also keeping track of the number of citations of each paper. Obviously, in addition to providing valuable services to our users, this database allows us to extract a wide variety of statistical information. The project comprises five components: the bibliography database-proper, a maintenance database, an interactive maintenance tool, a user browsing interface, and a web services component for exchanging information with the ADS. All of these elements are nearly mission-independent and we intend make the package as a whole available for use by other data centers. The capabilities thus provided represent support for an essential component of the Virtual Observatory.

  15. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three missions outstanding, the Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database has nearly 3000 entries. The data is divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. Details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics will be provided. Post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will also be discussed. Potential enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers will be addressed in the Future Work section. A related database of returned surfaces from the International Space Station will also be introduced.

  16. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James I.; Christiansen, Eric I.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three flights remaining on the manifest, the shuttle impact hypervelocity database has over 2800 entries. The data is currently divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. The paper will provide details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics using the impact data. A discussion of post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will be presented. Future work to be discussed will be possible enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers. A related database of ISS returned surfaces that are under development will also be introduced.

  17. Using the Reactome Database

    PubMed Central

    Haw, Robin

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the bioinformatics community in creating pathway databases. The Reactome project (a collaboration between the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York University Medical Center and the European Bioinformatics Institute) is one such pathway database and collects structured information on all the biological pathways and processes in the human. It is an expert-authored and peer-reviewed, curated collection of well-documented molecular reactions that span the gamut from simple intermediate metabolism to signaling pathways and complex cellular events. This information is supplemented with likely orthologous molecular reactions in mouse, rat, zebrafish, worm and other model organisms. This unit describes how to use the Reactome database to learn the steps of a biological pathway; navigate and browse through the Reactome database; identify the pathways in which a molecule of interest is involved; use the Pathway and Expression analysis tools to search the database for and visualize possible connections within user-supplied experimental data set and Reactome pathways; and the Species Comparison tool to compare human and model organism pathways. PMID:22700314

  18. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  19. NASA Records Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callac, Christopher; Lunsford, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Records Database, comprising a Web-based application program and a database, is used to administer an archive of paper records at Stennis Space Center. The system begins with an electronic form, into which a user enters information about records that the user is sending to the archive. The form is smart : it provides instructions for entering information correctly and prompts the user to enter all required information. Once complete, the form is digitally signed and submitted to the database. The system determines which storage locations are not in use, assigns the user s boxes of records to some of them, and enters these assignments in the database. Thereafter, the software tracks the boxes and can be used to locate them. By use of search capabilities of the software, specific records can be sought by box storage locations, accession numbers, record dates, submitting organizations, or details of the records themselves. Boxes can be marked with such statuses as checked out, lost, transferred, and destroyed. The system can generate reports showing boxes awaiting destruction or transfer. When boxes are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the system can automatically fill out NARA records-transfer forms. Currently, several other NASA Centers are considering deploying the NASA Records Database to help automate their records archives.

  20. Integrating Paleoecological Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blois, Jessica; Goring, Simon; Smith, Alison

    2011-02-01

    Neotoma Consortium Workshop; Madison, Wisconsin, 23-26 September 2010 ; Paleoecology can contribute much to global change science, as paleontological records provide rich information about species range shifts, changes in vegetation composition and productivity, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem responses to abrupt climate change, and paleoclimate reconstruction, for example. However, while paleoecology is increasingly a multidisciplinary, multiproxy field focused on biotic responses to global change, most paleo databases focus on single-proxy groups. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database (http://www.neotomadb.org) aims to remedy this limitation by integrating discipline-specific databases to facilitate cross-community queries and analyses. In September, Neotoma consortium members and representatives from other databases and data communities met at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to launch the second development phase of Neotoma. The workshop brought together 54 international specialists, including Neotoma data stewards, users, and developers. Goals for the meeting were fourfold: (1) develop working plans for existing data communities; (2) identify new data types and sources; (3) enhance data access, visualization, and analysis on the Neotoma Web site; and (4) coordinate with other databases and cooperate in tool development and sharing.

  1. VIEWCACHE: An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.

  2. Open Geoscience Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data

  3. Living with HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    Infection with HIV is serious. But the outlook for people with HIV/AIDS is improving. If you are infected with HIV, there are many things you can do to ... health care provider who knows how to treat HIV. You may want to join a support group. ...

  4. Positive: HIV Affirmative Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kain, Craig D.

    At the end of the 1980s, counselors largely lacked an integrated approach to counseling people living with HIV disease. This book describes the experience of counseling this group of persons. The major premise here is that counselors who counsel HIV-positive clients must come to understand and affirm their clients' experiences. The text defines a…

  5. Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoni, Michael H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents evidence describing benefits of behavioral interventions such as aerobic exercise training on both psychological and immunological functioning among high risk human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) seronegative and very early stage seropositive homosexual men. HIV-1 infection is cast as chronic disease for which early…

  6. HIV and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to plague many countries across the globe, including the United States, Africa, China and India. Children and adults have been infected with HIV, and both populations can present with communication disorders that coexist with the presence of the virus. The purpose of this paper is to present an…

  7. Overview of HIV.

    PubMed

    Klimas, Nancy; Koneru, Anne O'Brien; Fletcher, Mary Ann

    2008-06-01

    This article provides an overview and reviews the HIV pandemic, the basic biology and immunology of the virus (e.g., genetic diversity of HIV and the viral life cycle), the phases of disease progression, modes of HIV transmission, HIV testing, immune response to the infection, and current therapeutic strategies. HIV is occurring in epidemic proportions, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the US, men who have sex with men account for over half of AIDS diagnoses; racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionally affected. Factors influencing the progression and severity of HIV infection include type of immune response, coinfection (e.g., another sexually transmitted infection, including hepatitis B or C), age and behavioral and psychosocial factors. Antiretroviral therapies can achieve reduction in blood levels of the HIV virus below the limits of detection by current technology. However, effective treatment requires adherence to therapy. Patient failure to adhere to treatment regimens results in detectible circulating virus and in HIV disease progression, and is the primary cause of drug resistance. In addition to research on the immunology and virology of the disease, other studies focus on behavioral and psychosocial factors that may affect medication adherence and risk behaviors. PMID:18541903

  8. Smart HIV testing system.

    PubMed

    El Kateeb, Ali; Law, Peter; Chan, King

    2005-06-01

    The quick HIV testing method called "MiraWell Rapid HIV Test" uses a specialized testing kit to determine whether an individual's blood is contaminated with the HIV virus or not. When a drop of blood is placed on the center of the testing kit, a simple pattern will appear in the middle of the kit to indicate the test status, i.e., positive or negative. This HIV test should be done in a small clinic or in a lab and the test must be conducted by a trained technician. A smart HIV testing system was developed through this research to eliminate the human error that is associated with the use of the quick HIV testing kits. Also, the smart HIV system will improve the testing productivity in comparison to those achieved by the trained technicians. In this research, we have developed a cost-effective system that analyzes the image produced by the HIV kits. We have used a System-On-Chip (SOC) design approach based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology and the Xilinx Virtex SOC chip in building the system's prototype. The system used a CMOS digital camera to capture the image and an FPGA chip to process the captured image and send the testing results to the display unit. The system can be used in small clinics and pharmacies and eliminates the need for trained technicians. The system has been tested successfully and 98% of the tests were correct. PMID:16078623

  9. Women and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... The impact of HIV is especially great among young women of color. More than one third of new ... legs. Abnormal pre-cancerous cell types related to cervical cancer are more frequent and severe in women who are HIV-positive. See fact sheet 510 ...

  10. Protein Structure Databases.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Roman A

    2016-01-01

    Web-based protein structure databases come in a wide variety of types and levels of information content. Those having the most general interest are the various atlases that describe each experimentally determined protein structure and provide useful links, analyses, and schematic diagrams relating to its 3D structure and biological function. Also of great interest are the databases that classify 3D structures by their folds as these can reveal evolutionary relationships which may be hard to detect from sequence comparison alone. Related to these are the numerous servers that compare folds-particularly useful for newly solved structures, and especially those of unknown function. Beyond these are a vast number of databases for the more specialized user, dealing with specific families, diseases, structural features, and so on. PMID:27115626

  11. Cytochrome P450 database.

    PubMed

    Lisitsa, A V; Gusev, S A; Karuzina, I I; Archakov, A I; Koymans, L

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a specialized database dedicated exclusively to the cytochrome P450 superfamily. The system provides the impression of superfamily's nomenclature and describes structure and function of different P450 enzymes. Information on P450-catalyzed reactions, substrate preferences, peculiarities of induction and inhibition is available through the database management system. Also the source genes and appropriate translated proteins can be retrieved together with corresponding literature references. Developed programming solution provides the flexible interface for browsing, searching, grouping and reporting the information. Local version of database manager and required data files are distributed on a compact disk. Besides, there is a network version of the software available on Internet. The network version implies the original mechanism, which is useful for the permanent online extension of the data scope. PMID:11769119

  12. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  13. National Ambient Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect

    Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

  14. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  15. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  16. The PROSITE database.

    PubMed

    Hulo, Nicolas; Bairoch, Amos; Bulliard, Virginie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; De Castro, Edouard; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S; Pagni, Marco; Sigrist, Christian J A

    2006-01-01

    The PROSITE database consists of a large collection of biologically meaningful signatures that are described as patterns or profiles. Each signature is linked to a documentation that provides useful biological information on the protein family, domain or functional site identified by the signature. The PROSITE database is now complemented by a series of rules that can give more precise information about specific residues. During the last 2 years, the documentation and the ScanProsite web pages were redesigned to add more functionalities. The latest version of PROSITE (release 19.11 of September 27, 2005) contains 1329 patterns and 552 profile entries. Over the past 2 years more than 200 domains have been added, and now 52% of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries (release 48.1 of September 27, 2005) have a cross-reference to a PROSITE entry. The database is accessible at http://www.expasy.org/prosite/. PMID:16381852

  17. The PROSITE database

    PubMed Central

    Hulo, Nicolas; Bairoch, Amos; Bulliard, Virginie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; De Castro, Edouard; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S.; Pagni, Marco; Sigrist, Christian J. A.

    2006-01-01

    The PROSITE database consists of a large collection of biologically meaningful signatures that are described as patterns or profiles. Each signature is linked to a documentation that provides useful biological information on the protein family, domain or functional site identified by the signature. The PROSITE database is now complemented by a series of rules that can give more precise information about specific residues. During the last 2 years, the documentation and the ScanProsite web pages were redesigned to add more functionalities. The latest version of PROSITE (release 19.11 of September 27, 2005) contains 1329 patterns and 552 profile entries. Over the past 2 years more than 200 domains have been added, and now 52% of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries (release 48.1 of September 27, 2005) have a cross-reference to a PROSITE entry. The database is accessible at . PMID:16381852

  18. Investigation of excess thyroid cancer incidence in Los Alamos County

    SciTech Connect

    Athas, W.F.

    1996-04-01

    Los Alamos County (LAC) is home to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear research and design facility. In 1991, the DOE funded the New Mexico Department of Health to conduct a review of cancer incidence rates in LAC in response to citizen concerns over what was perceived as a large excess of brain tumors and a possible relationship to radiological contaminants from the Laboratory. The study found no unusual or alarming pattern in the incidence of brain cancer, however, a fourfold excess of thyroid cancer was observed during the late-1980`s. A rapid review of the medical records for cases diagnosed between 1986 and 1990 failed to demonstrate that the thyroid cancer excess had resulted from enhanced detection. Surveillance activities subsequently undertaken to monitor the trend revealed that the excess persisted into 1993. A feasibility assessment of further studies was made, and ultimately, an investigation was conducted to document the epidemiologic characteristics of the excess in detail and to explore possible causes through a case-series records review. Findings from the investigation are the subject of this report.

  19. Electronic full-image reports at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mosier, M.L.

    1998-03-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a Department of Energy laboratory operated by the University of California. There are over 10,000 laboratory employees and contractors, many engaged in a variety of scientific and technical research. The laboratory covers forty-three square miles in northern New Mexico, one hundred miles from the nearest city which might reasonably be expected to meet the needs of the researchers. Because of the remoteness of the institution, the Research Library is a vital source for scientific and technical information. Due to the size of the institution, access to the physical library is difficult. These barriers, along with advances in technology, have led the Research Library to provide desktop access to all formal, unlimited Los Alamos reports. Older reports have been scanned and newer ones are received in electronic format. Currently over 10,000 reports are available in portable document format (PDF) via the World Wide Web (http://lib-www.lanl.gov). Researchers can search the library Web catalog (on a Z39.50 server), find a report, and click on a link to automatically bring up the report. This has been an extremely successful project as shown by the high usage, over 3,000 files retrieved per month in 1997 compared with around 100 for the hardcopy. This paper will discuss the reasons for, and the mechanics of, digitizing the reports, the results that have been observed, and plans for the future.

  20. Cleanup at Los Alamos National Laboratory - the challenges - 9493

    SciTech Connect

    Stiger, Susan G; Hargis, Kenneth M; Graham, Michael J; Rael, George J

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of environmental cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and some of the unique aspects and challenges. Cleanup of the 65-year old Department of Energy Laboratory is being conducted under a RCRA Consent Order with the State of New Mexico. This agreement is one of the most recent cleanup agreements signed in the DOE complex and was based on lessons learned at other DOE sites. A number of attributes create unique challenges for LANL cleanup -- the proximity to the community and pueblos, the site's topography and geology, and the nature of LANL's on-going missions. This overview paper will set the stage for other papers in this session, including papers that present: Plans to retrieve buried waste at Material Disposal Area B, across the street from oen of Los Alamos' commercial districts and the local newspaper; Progress to date and joint plans with WIPP for disposal of the remaining inventory of legacy transuranic waste; Reviews of both groundwater and surface water contamination and the factors complicating both characterization and remediation; Optimizing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste from ongoing LANL missions; A stakeholder environmental data transparency project (RACER), with full public access to all available information on contamination at LANL, and A description of the approach to waste processing cost recovery from the programs that generate hazardous and radioactive waste at LANL.

  1. Summary of safeguards interactions between Los Alamos and Chinese scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Eccleston, G.W.

    1994-04-20

    Los Alamos has been collaborating since 1984 with scientists from the Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) to develop nuclear measurement instrumentation and safeguards systems technologies that will help China support implementation of the nonproliferation treaty (NPT). To date, four Chinese scientists have visited Los Alamos, for periods of six months to two years, where they have studied nondestructive assay instrumentation and learned about safeguards systems and inspection techniques that are used by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. Part of this collaboration involves invitations from the CIAE to US personnel to visit China and interact with a larger number of Institute staff and to provide a series of presentations on safeguards to a wider audience. Typically, CIAE scientists, Beijing Institute of Nuclear Engineering (BINE) staff, and officials from the Government Safeguards Office attend the lectures. The BINE has an important role in developing the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle. BINE is designing a reprocessing plant for spent nuclear fuel from Chinese nuclear Power reactors. China signed the nonproliferation treaty in 1992 and is significantly expanding its safeguards expertise and activities. This paper describes the following: DOE support for US and Chinese interactions on safeguards; Chinese safeguards; impacts of US-China safeguards interactions; and possible future safeguards interactions.

  2. Los Alamos Center for Computer Security formal computer security model

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.; Hunteman, W.J.; Markin, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a brief presentation of the formal computer security model currently being developed at the Los Alamos Department of Energy (DOE) Center for Computer Security (CCS). The need to test and verify DOE computer security policy implementation first motivated this effort. The actual analytical model was a result of the integration of current research in computer security and previous modeling and research experiences. The model is being developed to define a generic view of the computer and network security domains, to provide a theoretical basis for the design of a security model, and to address the limitations of present formal mathematical models for computer security. The fundamental objective of computer security is to prevent the unauthorized and unaccountable access to a system. The inherent vulnerabilities of computer systems result in various threats from unauthorized access. The foundation of the Los Alamos DOE CCS model is a series of functionally dependent probability equations, relations, and expressions. The model is undergoing continued discrimination and evolution. We expect to apply the model to the discipline of the Bell and LaPadula abstract sets of objects and subjects. 6 refs.

  3. The Los Alamos universe: Using multimedia to promote laboratory capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kindel, J.

    2000-03-01

    This project consists of a multimedia presentation that explains the technological capabilities of Los Alamos National Laboratory. It takes the form of a human-computer interface built around the metaphor of the universe. The project is intended promote Laboratory capabilities to a wide audience. Multimedia is simply a means of communicating information through a diverse set of tools--be they text, sound, animation, video, etc. Likewise, Los Alamos National Laboratory is a collection of diverse technologies, projects, and people. Given the ample material available at the Laboratory, there are tangible benefits to be gained by communicating across media. This paper consists of three parts. The first section provides some basic information about the Laboratory, its mission, and its needs. The second section introduces this multimedia presentation and the metaphor it is based on along with some basic concepts of color and user interaction used in the building of this project. The final section covers construction of the project, pitfalls, and future improvements.

  4. Seismic vulnerability study Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, M.; Goen, L.K.

    1995-12-01

    The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), located at TA-53 of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), features an 800 MeV proton accelerator used for nuclear physics and materials science research. As part of the implementation of DOE Order 5480.25 and in preparation for DOE Order 5480.28, a seismic vulnerability study of the structures, systems, and components (SSCs) supporting the beam line from the accelerator building through to the ends of die various beam stops at LAMPF has been performed. The study was accomplished using the SQUG GIP methodology to assess the capability of the various SSCs to resist an evaluation basis earthquake. The evaluation basis earthquake was selected from site specific seismic hazard studies. The goals for the study were as follows: (1) identify SSCs which are vulnerable to seismic loads; and (2) ensure that those SSCs screened during die evaluation met the performance goals required for DOE Order 5480.28. The first goal was obtained by applying the SQUG GIP methodology to those SSCS represented in the experience data base. For those SSCs not represented in the data base, information was gathered and a significant amount of engineering judgment applied to determine whether to screen the SSC or to classify it as an outlier. To assure the performance goals required by DOE Order 5480.28 are met, modifications to the SQUG GIP methodology proposed by Salmon and Kennedy were used. The results of this study ire presented in this paper.

  5. Recent progress in the Los Alamos KrF Program

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.E.; Cartwright, D.C.; Coggeshall, S.V.; Fenstermacher, C.A.; Figueira, J.F.; Foreman, L.R.; Goldstone, P.D.; Hanson, D.E.; Harris, D.B.; Hauer, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program (ICF) is to develop the ability to ignite and burn small masses of thermonuclear fuel. Although the present near-term objectives of the program are directed toward defense applications, ICF research continues to be carried out with a view to the longer term goal of commercial power production. The characteristics of a KrF laser make it an attractive candidate as an ICF driver. The KrF wavelength of 248 nm provides a target coupling that is very high at intensities of 10/sup 14/w/cm/sup 2/. In addition, the KrF laser can be repetitively operated at frequencies appropriate for a power reactor and has an intrinsically high efficiency, which allows projections to the long-term goal of energy production. The ICF program at Los Alamos consists of driver development, target design and fabrication, and target experimentation. The major effort at present is the investigation and development of KrF technology to determine its applicability for use in a laboratory driver at Los Alamos. Such a driver would be used in defense related technology studies and in areas of scientific study such as highly ionized materials and high-energy-density physics.

  6. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1987: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Stoker, A.K.; Maes, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    Municipal and industrial water supply during 1987 was 1594 /times/ 10W gal from wells in three fields and 34 /times/ 10W gal from the spring gallery in Water Canyon. About 2.8 /times/ 10W gal of nonpotable water from the Guaje Reservoir and 3.2 /times/ 10W gal from the Los Alamos Reservoir were used for irrigation; thus, the total water usage in 1987 was about 1634 /times/ 10W gal. Water supply was satisfactory in that the production met demand and water quality in the distribution system was in compliance with state and federal regulations. However, in 1987 two wells were lost because of deterioration of the casing and screen. In spite of rehabilitation attempts to maintain the yield, production from the older wells continued to decline. A comprehensive evaluation of the wells and well fields made in late 1987 concluded that replacement wells and new wells were needed soon to ensure a reliable water supply for the Laboratory and the county of Los Alamos. 25 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Solar pond research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.F.; Meyer, K.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Grimmer, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    A description of solar pond research at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. The main issues in the theory of solar ponds are discussed. Among these are the interfacial-boundary-layer model, models for interface motion and pond performance, heat extraction, and ground heat loss. The core of the research effort at Los Alamos was the development of a one-dimensional computer program to accurately predict dynamic performance of a solar pond. The computer model and the experiments that were designed and performed to validate it are described. The experiments include two laboratory tanks wherein temperature, salinity, and flow visualization data were obtained and a 232 m/sup 2/ outdoor solar pond. Results from preliminary validation show good agreement between the pond's predicted dynamic behavior and that which actually occurred in the experiments. More validation using data from full-sized solar ponds is needed. A new correlation for the ratio of interfacial salt-flux to heat-flux is proposed which agrees well with our data. Recommendations for future research are given.

  8. An organizational survey of the Los Alamos Site

    SciTech Connect

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-11-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administered at the Los Alamos Site that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concern, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of ``culture;`` that is, the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization. While comparisons among groups are made, it is not the purpose of this report to make evaluative statements of which profile may be positive or negative. However, using the data presented in this report in conjunction with other evaluative activities, may provide useful insight into the organization. The OS administration at the Los Alamos Site was the ninth to occur at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. All data from the OS is presented in group summaries, by organization, department or directorate within organization, supervisory level both overall and within organization, and staff classification within organization. Statistically significant differences between groups are identified and discussed. 9 refs., 94 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. An organizational survey of the Los Alamos Site

    SciTech Connect

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-11-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administered at the Los Alamos Site that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concern, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of culture;'' that is, the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization. While comparisons among groups are made, it is not the purpose of this report to make evaluative statements of which profile may be positive or negative. However, using the data presented in this report in conjunction with other evaluative activities, may provide useful insight into the organization. The OS administration at the Los Alamos Site was the ninth to occur at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. All data from the OS is presented in group summaries, by organization, department or directorate within organization, supervisory level both overall and within organization, and staff classification within organization. Statistically significant differences between groups are identified and discussed. 9 refs., 94 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes

    SciTech Connect

    Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Jr, J. Abdallah; Clark, R. E. H.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Colgan, J.; Cunningham, R. T.; Hakel, P.; Magee, N. H.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2015-05-28

    The Los Alamos SuitE of Relativistic (LASER) atomic physics codes is a robust, mature platform that has been used to model highly charged ions in a variety of ways. The suite includes capabilities for calculating data related to fundamental atomic structure, as well as the processes of photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation and ionization, photoionization and autoionization within a consistent framework. These data can be of a basic nature, such as cross sections and collision strengths, which are useful in making predictions that can be compared with experiments to test fundamental theories of highly charged ions, such as quantum electrodynamics. The suite can also be used to generate detailed models of energy levels and rate coefficients, and to apply them in the collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas over a wide range of conditions. Such modeling is useful, for example, in the interpretation of spectra generated by a variety of plasmas. In this work, we provide a brief overview of the capabilities within the Los Alamos relativistic suite along with some examples of its application to the modeling of highly charged ions.

  11. Fuels Inventories in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Region: 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Balice, R.G.; Oswald, B.P.; Martin, C.

    1999-03-01

    Fifty-four sites were surveyed for fuel levels, vegetational structures, and topographic characteristics. Most of the surveyed sites were on Los Alamos National Laboratory property, however, some surveys were also conducted on U.S. Forest Service property. The overall vegetation of these sites ranged from pinon-juniper woodlands to ponderosa pine forests to mixed conifer forests, and the topographic positions included canyons, mesas, and mountains. The results of these surveys indicate that the understory fuels are the greatest in mixed conifer forests and that overstory fuels are greatest in both mixed conifer forests and ponderosa pine forests on mesas. The geographic distribution of these fuels would suggest a most credible wildfire scenario for the Los Alamos region. Three major fires have occurred since 1954 and these fires behaved in a manner that is consistent with this scenario. The most credible wildfire scenario was also supported by the results of BEHAVE modeling that used the fuels inventory data as inputs. Output from the BEHAVE model suggested that catastrophic wildfires would continue to occur during any season with sufficiently dry, windy weather.

  12. Los Alamos energetic particle sensor systems at geostationary orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.N.; Aiello, W.; Asbridge, J.R.; Belian, R.D.; Higbie, P.R.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.; Tech, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has provided energetic particle sensors for a variety of spacecraft at the geostationary orbit (36,000 km altitude). The sensor system called the Charged Particle Analyzer (CPA) consists of four separate subsystems. The LoE and HiE subsystems measure electrons in the energy ranges 30 to 300 keV and 200 to 2000 keV, respectively. The LoP and HiP subsystems measure ions in the ranges 100 to 600 keV and 0.40 to 150 MeV, respectively. A separate sensor system called the spectrometer for energetic electrons (SEE) measures very high-energy electrons (2 to 15 MeV) using advanced scintillator design. In this paper we describe the relationship of operational anomalies and spacecraft upsets to the directly measured energetic particle environments at 6.6 R/sub E/. We also compare and contrast the CPA and SEE instrument design characteristics with the next generation of Los Alamos instruments to be flown at geostationary altitudes.

  13. The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Jr, J. Abdallah; Clark, R. E. H.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Colgan, J.; Cunningham, R. T.; Hakel, P.; Magee, N. H.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2015-05-28

    The Los Alamos SuitE of Relativistic (LASER) atomic physics codes is a robust, mature platform that has been used to model highly charged ions in a variety of ways. The suite includes capabilities for calculating data related to fundamental atomic structure, as well as the processes of photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation and ionization, photoionization and autoionization within a consistent framework. These data can be of a basic nature, such as cross sections and collision strengths, which are useful in making predictions that can be compared with experiments to test fundamental theories of highly charged ions, such as quantum electrodynamics. The suitemore » can also be used to generate detailed models of energy levels and rate coefficients, and to apply them in the collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas over a wide range of conditions. Such modeling is useful, for example, in the interpretation of spectra generated by a variety of plasmas. In this work, we provide a brief overview of the capabilities within the Los Alamos relativistic suite along with some examples of its application to the modeling of highly charged ions.« less

  14. Social Media and HIV: A Systematic Review of Uses of Social Media in HIV Communication

    PubMed Central

    Grewe, Mary Elisabeth; Conserve, Donaldson F; Gliwa, Catherine; Roman Isler, Malika

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media, including mobile technologies and social networking sites, are being used increasingly as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment efforts. As an important avenue for communication about HIV, social media use may continue to increase and become more widespread. Objective The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive systematic review of the current published literature on the design, users, benefits, and limitations of using social media to communicate about HIV prevention and treatment. Methods This review paper used a systematic approach to survey all literature published before February 2014 using 7 electronic databases and a manual search. The inclusion criteria were (1) primary focus on communication/interaction about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), (2) discusses the use of social media to facilitate communication, (3) communication on the social media platform is between individuals or a group of individuals rather than the use of preset, automated responses from a platform, (4) published before February 19, 2014, and (5) all study designs. Results The search identified 35 original research studies. Thirty studies had low or unclear risk of at least one of the bias items in the methodological quality assessment. Among the 8 social media platform types described, short message service text messaging was most commonly used. Platforms served multiple purposes including disseminating health information, conducting health promotion, sharing experiences, providing social support, and promoting medication adherence. Social media users were diverse in geographic location and race/ethnicity; studies commonly reported users aged 18-40 years and users with lower income. Although most studies did not specify whether use was anonymous, studies reported the importance of anonymity in social media use to communicate about HIV largely due to the stigma associated with HIV. The ability to share and

  15. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, E. C.; Ashworth, A. C.; Barnosky, A. D.; Betancourt, J. L.; Bills, B.; Booth, R.; Blois, J.; Charles, D. F.; Graham, R. W.; Goring, S. J.; Hausmann, S.; Smith, A. J.; Williams, J. W.; Buckland, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Neotoma Paleoecology Database (www.neotomadb.org) is a multiproxy, open-access, relational database that includes fossil data for the past 5 million years (the late Neogene and Quaternary Periods). Modern distributional data for various organisms are also being made available for calibration and paleoecological analyses. The project is a collaborative effort among individuals from more than 20 institutions worldwide, including domain scientists representing a spectrum of Pliocene-Quaternary fossil data types, as well as experts in information technology. Working groups are active for diatoms, insects, ostracodes, pollen and plant macroscopic remains, testate amoebae, rodent middens, vertebrates, age models, geochemistry and taphonomy. Groups are also active in developing online tools for data analyses and for developing modules for teaching at different levels. A key design concept of NeotomaDB is that stewards for various data types are able to remotely upload and manage data. Cooperatives for different kinds of paleo data, or from different regions, can appoint their own stewards. Over the past year, much progress has been made on development of the steward software-interface that will enable this capability. The steward interface uses web services that provide access to the database. More generally, these web services enable remote programmatic access to the database, which both desktop and web applications can use and which provide real-time access to the most current data. Use of these services can alleviate the need to download the entire database, which can be out-of-date as soon as new data are entered. In general, the Neotoma web services deliver data either from an entire table or from the results of a view. Upon request, new web services can be quickly generated. Future developments will likely expand the spatial and temporal dimensions of the database. NeotomaDB is open to receiving new datasets and stewards from the global Quaternary community

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated manifestations in otolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    lacovou, Emily; Vlastarakos, Petros V.; Papacharalampous, George; Kampessis, George; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Almost 30 years after its first description, HIV still remains a global pandemic. The present paper aims to review the current knowledge on the ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations of HIV infection, and present the available diagnostic and treatment options. A literature review was conducted in Medline and other available database sources. Information from related books was also included in the data analysis. It is well acknowledged that up to 80% of HIV-infected patients eventually develop ENT manifestations; among which, oral disease appears to be the most common. Oro-pharyngeal manifestations include candidiasis, periodontal and gingival disease, HSV and HPV infection, oral hairy leucoplakia, Kaposi's sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. ENT manifestations in the neck can present as cervical lymphadenopathy or parotid gland enlargement. Respective nasal manifestations include sinusitis (often due to atypical bacteria), and allergic rhinitis. Finally, otological manifestations include otitis (externa, or media), inner ear involvement (sensorineural hearing loss, disequilibrium), and facial nerve palsy (up to 100 times more frequently compared to the general population). Although ENT symptoms are not diagnostic of the disease, they might be suggestive of HIV infection, or related to its progression and the respective treatment failure. ENT doctors should be aware of the ENT manifestations associated with HIV disease, and the respective diagnosis and treatment. A multi-disciplinary approach may be required to provide the appropriate level of care to HIV patients. PMID:24470939

  17. HIV disclosure among adults living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mayfield Arnold, E; Rice, E; Flannery, D; Rotheram-Borus, M J

    2008-01-01

    Research on disclosure among heterosexual adult person(s) living with HIV (PLH) was reviewed, omitting disclosure of parental HIV to children. Disclosure has been studied within five additional relational contexts: with partners, family members, friends, healthcare professionals and in work settings. Disclosure is higher among women than men, among Latino and white compared to African-American families, and among younger compared to older HIV-positive adults. Most PLH disclose to their sexual partners and family members, yet there is a significant minority who do not disclose. Similarly, rates of disclosure to employers range from 27-68%, suggesting broad variability in perceived consequences of employment disclosures. Of concern, 40% of PLH do not consistently disclose to their healthcare professionals. Rather than examine HIV disclosures in the context of relationships, it is possible to understand disclosures around personal identity. Disclosure decisions are often made to tell everyone (making HIV status a central attribute of one's identity), no one (requiring strategies for securing social support while remaining anonymous) or some people (requiring strategic decisions based on context). Given that disclosure decisions are central to personal identity, future data on disclosure and interventions designed to increase disclosure or comfort with disclosure must focus on communication strategies adopted by PLH to present a coherent identity. PMID:18278618

  18. HIV-Associated Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Kogieleum; Naidoo, Kasavan; Padayatchi, Nesri; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2011-01-01

    The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6. PMID:20871843

  19. Ethical issues in HIV.

    PubMed

    Dhai, Amaboo; Noble, Ray

    2005-04-01

    The number of people with HIV/AIDS continues to increase globally. Women, who represent the subgroup with the fastest rate of increase, are usually informed of their serostatus by the obstetrician/gynaecologist. As treatment of infected women raises a number of ethical issues, an understanding of the theoretical background for ethical decision making is requisite to ensure these problems are resolved within a morally appropriate framework. Vigorous debate has arisen from the tensions between the competing goals of HIV testing, third party disclosure, management of the critically ill HIV-infected woman, infertility management in the background of HIV/AIDS, and gender-based violence as cause or result of acquiring HIV infection. Women may be differently empowered economically, socially and culturally. What may be a satisfactory solution in the context of the USA and Europe may be far from ideal in that of the developing world. PMID:15778114

  20. HIV and neurocognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Spudich, Serena

    2013-09-01

    The spectrum of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) has been dramatically altered in the setting of widely available effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Once culminating in dementia in many individuals infected with HIV, HAND now typically manifests as more subtle, though still morbid, forms of cognitive impairment in persons surviving long-term with treated HIV infection. Despite the substantial improvement in severity of this disorder, the fact that neurologic injury persists despite ART remains a challenge to the community of patients, providers and investigators aiming to optimize quality of life for those living with HIV. Cognitive dysfunction in treated HIV may reflect early irreversible CNS injury accrued before ART is typically initiated, ongoing low-level CNS infection and progressive injury in the setting of ART, or comborbidities including effects of treatment which may confound the beneficial reduction in viral replication and immune activation effected by ART. PMID:23860944

  1. Database Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1981 Wayne Erickson founded Microrim, Inc, a company originally focused on marketing a microcomputer version of RIM (Relational Information Manager). Dennis Comfort joined the firm and is now vice president, development. The team developed an advanced spinoff from the NASA system they had originally created, a microcomputer database management system known as R:BASE 4000. Microrim added many enhancements and developed a series of R:BASE products for various environments. R:BASE is now the second largest selling line of microcomputer database management software in the world.

  2. The Genopolis Microarray Database

    PubMed Central

    Splendiani, Andrea; Brandizi, Marco; Even, Gael; Beretta, Ottavio; Pavelka, Norman; Pelizzola, Mattia; Mayhaus, Manuel; Foti, Maria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Background Gene expression databases are key resources for microarray data management and analysis and the importance of a proper annotation of their content is well understood. Public repositories as well as microarray database systems that can be implemented by single laboratories exist. However, there is not yet a tool that can easily support a collaborative environment where different users with different rights of access to data can interact to define a common highly coherent content. The scope of the Genopolis database is to provide a resource that allows different groups performing microarray experiments related to a common subject to create a common coherent knowledge base and to analyse it. The Genopolis database has been implemented as a dedicated system for the scientific community studying dendritic and macrophage cells functions and host-parasite interactions. Results The Genopolis Database system allows the community to build an object based MIAME compliant annotation of their experiments and to store images, raw and processed data from the Affymetrix GeneChip® platform. It supports dynamical definition of controlled vocabularies and provides automated and supervised steps to control the coherence of data and annotations. It allows a precise control of the visibility of the database content to different sub groups in the community and facilitates exports of its content to public repositories. It provides an interactive users interface for data analysis: this allows users to visualize data matrices based on functional lists and sample characterization, and to navigate to other data matrices defined by similarity of expression values as well as functional characterizations of genes involved. A collaborative environment is also provided for the definition and sharing of functional annotation by users. Conclusion The Genopolis Database supports a community in building a common coherent knowledge base and analyse it. This fills a gap between a local

  3. JICST Factual Database(1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Shinji

    The outline of JICST factual database (JOIS-F), which JICST has started from January, 1988, and its online service are described in this paper. First, the author mentions the circumstances from 1973, when its planning was started, to the present, and its relation to "Project by Special Coordination Founds for Promoting Science and Technology". Secondly, databases, which are now under development aiming to start its services from fiscal 1988 or fiscal 1989, of DNA, metallic material intensity, crystal structure, chemical substance regulations, and so forth, are described. Lastly, its online service is briefly explained.

  4. The Ribosomal Database Project.

    PubMed Central

    Maidak, B L; Larsen, N; McCaughey, M J; Overbeek, R; Olsen, G J; Fogel, K; Blandy, J; Woese, C R

    1994-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome-related data, analysis services, and associated computer programs. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams, and various software for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (rdp.life.uiuc.edu), electronic mail (server/rdp.life.uiuc.edu) and gopher (rdpgopher.life.uiuc.edu). The electronic mail server also provides ribosomal probe checking, approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences, screening for chimeric nature of newly sequenced rRNAs, and automated alignment. PMID:7524021

  5. Use of screening action levels in risk management at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.R.; Hueske, K.L.; Dorries, A.M.

    1994-04-01

    The screening assessment approach used at Los Alamos National Laboratory has proved to be a valuable risk management tool in making decisions that are cost-effective, efficient, and defensible. Los Alamos has successfully used screening action levels to prioritize RFI activities, streamline data evaluation, and insure analytical methods are adequately sensitive to be protective of human health.

  6. Recollections of a very junior physicist at Los Alamos, 1944-1946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Anthony P.

    2008-04-01

    The author came to Los Alamos as a member of the British Mission after two years of making fission cross section measurements at the Cavendish Laboratory. He worked in a group headed by Egon Bretscher in Enrico Fermi's F Division. The talk presents his personal memories and experiences at Los Alamos as compared to his life and work in wartime Britain.

  7. School Finance in a Federal City: Los Alamos as a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Duane W.

    The Los Alamos schools obtain support from a combination of local, state, and Department of Energy funds mandated by the Atomic Energy Commission Community Act. Each year the Los Alamos schools prepare three budgets, and during any week the schools may work directly with all three levels of government concerning funding. In 1974 the state of New…

  8. The Pajarito Site operating procedures for the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-12-01

    Operating procedures consistent with DOE Order 5480.6, and the American National Standard Safety Guide for the Performance of Critical Experiments are defined for the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These operating procedures supersede and update those previously published in 1983 and apply to any criticality experiment performed at the facility. 11 refs.

  9. [Epidemiology of HIV].

    PubMed

    Ledergerber, Bruno; Battegay, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Globally, an estimated 35 million people were living with HIV in 2012; of these, 69 % in sub-Saharan Africa. There were 2.3 million new HIV infections globally and 1.6 million AIDS deaths in 2012. As a result of large roll-out programs with integrated voluntary counselling and testing and prevention programs in resource limited settings, sexual transmission of HIV decreased substantially over the last years. However, the world is not on track to reduced HIV transmission among people who inject drugs. Especially in Eastern Europe and Asia prevention coverage for people who inject drugs remains low. In addition, effective prevention among these people is undermined by stigmatisation, discrimination, punitive policy frameworks and law enforcement practices, which discourage people from seeking the health and social services they need. Antiretroviral coverage among pregnant women living with HIV reached 62 % in 2012 resulting in a reduction of newly infected children by 35 % from 2009. In 2012, 9.7 million people in low and middle-income countries received antiretroviral therapy, representing 61 % of all who were eligible under the 2010 WHO HIV treatment guidelines. Under the 2013 guidelines, this represents only 34 % of the 28.3 million people eligible in 2013. A new concept to curb the HIV epidemic is "Test and Treat" which involves population-wide HIV tests with immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy among all HIV infected individuals. However, there are concerns regarding the sustainability of such treatment programs for decades due to lost to follow up and insufficient adherence and the danger of a large increase of resistant HIV which jeopardize the effectiveness of affordable treatments. PMID:25093307

  10. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David L; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A; Bryant, Stephen H; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M; Dicuccio, Michael; Edgar, Ron; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Geer, Lewis Y; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Khovayko, Oleg; Landsman, David; Lipman, David J; Madden, Thomas L; Maglott, Donna R; Miller, Vadim; Ostell, James; Pruitt, Kim D; Schuler, Gregory D; Shumway, Martin; Sequeira, Edwin; Sherry, Steven T; Sirotkin, Karl; Souvorov, Alexandre; Starchenko, Grigory; Tatusov, Roman L; Tatusova, Tatiana A; Wagner, Lukas; Yaschenko, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data available through NCBI's web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, My NCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genome, Genome Project and related tools, the Trace, Assembly, and Short Read Archives, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Influenza Viral Resources, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Database of Genotype and Phenotype, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. These resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:18045790

  11. DataBase on Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar Aparicio, R.; Gomez, D.; Coterillo Coz, I.; Wojcik, D.

    2012-12-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  12. Temporal trends of time to antiretroviral treatment initiation, interruption and modification: examination of patients diagnosed with advanced HIV in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephen T; Law, Matthew G; Cooper, David A; Keen, Phillip; McDonald, Ann; Middleton, Melanie; Woolley, Ian; Kelly, Mark; Petoumenos, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV prevention strategies are moving towards reducing plasma HIV RNA viral load in all HIV-positive persons, including those undiagnosed, treatment naïve, on or off antiretroviral therapy. A proxy population for those undiagnosed are patients that present late to care with advanced HIV. The objectives of this analysis are to examine factors associated with patients presenting with advanced HIV, and establish rates of treatment interruption and modification after initiating ART. Methods We deterministically linked records from the Australian HIV Observational Database to the Australian National HIV Registry to obtain information related to HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with advanced HIV diagnosis. We used survival methods to evaluate rates of ART initiation by diagnosis CD4 count strata and by calendar year of HIV diagnosis. Cox models were used to determine hazard of first ART treatment interruption (duration >30 days) and time to first major ART modification. Results Factors associated (p<0.05) with increased odds of advanced HIV diagnosis were sex, older age, heterosexual mode of HIV exposure, born overseas and rural–regional care setting. Earlier initiation of ART occurred at higher rates in later periods (2007–2012) in all diagnosis CD4 count groups. We found an 83% (69, 91%) reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption comparing 2007–2012 versus 1996–2001 (p<0.001), and no difference in ART modification for patients diagnosed with advanced HIV. Conclusions Recent HIV diagnoses are initiating therapy earlier in all diagnosis CD4 cell count groups, potentially lowering community viral load compared to earlier time periods. We found a marked reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption, and found no difference in rates of major modification to ART by HIV presentation status in recent periods. PMID:25865372

  13. Higher HIV RNA Viral Load in Recent Patients with Symptomatic Acute HIV Infection in Lyon University Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Girerd-Genessay, Isabelle; Baratin, Dominique; Ferry, Tristan; Chidiac, Christian; Ronin, Vincent; Vanhems, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virulence at infection has been suggested by a meta-analysis based on viral load and CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4) count during acute infection. This result was obtained after secondary analyses of large databases, facilitating the detection of differences. Similar finding in cohorts of more modest sample size would indicate that the effect could be more substantial. Methods Change from initial CD4 count and HIV viral load after acute HIV infection by calendar year was explored in patients treated at Lyon University hospitals. All patients admitted to our hospitals with acute HIV infection between 1996 and 2013 were included in our study. Initial CD4 count and viral load before the start of anti-retroviral treatment were analyzed. Trends over time were assessed in linear models. Results Initial CD4 count remained similar over time. However, in 2006–2013, initial viral load rose significantly (+1.12 log10/ml/year, p = 0.01). Conclusion Our data, obtained from a single hospital cohort, confirmed findings from a large meta-analysis, showed increased initial viremia at acute HIV infection since 2006 and suggesting potentially higher HIV virulence in recent years. PMID:26799390

  14. The CEBAF Element Database

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce

    2011-03-01

    With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

  15. GENERAL PERMITS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:This database was used to provide permit writers with a library of examples for writing general permits. It has not been maintained and is outdated and will be removed. Water Permits Division is trying to determine whether or not to recreate this databas...

  16. Triatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 117 Triatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 55 triatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  17. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  18. Redis database administration tool

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  19. NATIONAL NUTRIENTS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Nutrient Criteria Program has initiated development of a National relational database application that will be used to store and analyze nutrient data. The ultimate use of these data will be to derive ecoregion- and waterbody-specific numeric nutrient...

  20. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT DATABASE (NAD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The National Assessment Database stores State water quality assessments that are reported under Section 305(b) of the Clean Water Act. The data are stored by individual water quality assessments. Threatened, partially and not supporting waters also have da...

  1. Patent Family Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Edlyn S.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table noting country…

  2. The Exoplanet Orbit Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. T.; Fakhouri, O.; Marcy, G. W.; Han, E.; Feng, Y.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, A. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Valenti, J. A.; Anderson, J.; Piskunov, N.

    2011-04-01

    We present a database of well-determined orbital parameters of exoplanets, and their host stars' properties. This database comprises spectroscopic orbital elements measured for 427 planets orbiting 363 stars from radial velocity and transit measurements as reported in the literature. We have also compiled fundamental transit parameters, stellar parameters, and the method used for the planets discovery. This Exoplanet Orbit Database includes all planets with robust, well measured orbital parameters reported in peer-reviewed articles. The database is available in a searchable, filterable, and sortable form online through the Exoplanets Data Explorer table, and the data can be plotted and explored through the Exoplanet Data Explorer plotter. We use the Data Explorer to generate publication-ready plots, giving three examples of the signatures of exoplanet migration and dynamical evolution: We illustrate the character of the apparent correlation between mass and period in exoplanet orbits, the different selection biases between radial velocity and transit surveys, and that the multiplanet systems show a distinct semimajor-axis distribution from apparently singleton systems.

  3. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  4. NATIONAL CONTAMINANT OCCURRENCE DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Under the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments, EPA is to assemble a National Drinking Water Occurrence Database (NCOD) by August 1999. The NCOD is a collection of data of documented quality on unregulated and regulated chemical, radiological, microbia...

  5. Database Technologies for RDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Souripriya; Srinivasan, Jagannathan

    Efficient and scalable support for RDF/OWL data storage, loading, inferencing and querying, in conjunction with already available support for enterprise level data and operations reliability requirements, can make databases suitable to act as enterprise-level RDF/OWL repository and hence become a viable platform for building semantic applications for the enterprise environments.

  6. Biomedical term mapping databases.

    PubMed

    Wren, Jonathan D; Chang, Jeffrey T; Pustejovsky, James; Adar, Eytan; Garner, Harold R; Altman, Russ B

    2005-01-01

    Longer words and phrases are frequently mapped onto a shorter form such as abbreviations or acronyms for efficiency of communication. These abbreviations are pervasive in all aspects of biology and medicine and as the amount of biomedical literature grows, so does the number of abbreviations and the average number of definitions per abbreviation. Even more confusing, different authors will often abbreviate the same word/phrase differently. This ambiguity impedes our ability to retrieve information, integrate databases and mine textual databases for content. Efforts to standardize nomenclature, especially those doing so retrospectively, need to be aware of different abbreviatory mappings and spelling variations. To address this problem, there have been several efforts to develop computer algorithms to identify the mapping of terms between short and long form within a large body of literature. To date, four such algorithms have been applied to create online databases that comprehensively map biomedical terms and abbreviations within MEDLINE: ARGH (http://lethargy.swmed.edu/ARGH/argh.asp), the Stanford Biomedical Abbreviation Server (http://bionlp.stanford.edu/abbreviation/), AcroMed (http://medstract.med.tufts.edu/acro1.1/index.htm) and SaRAD (http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/idl/projects/abbrev.html). In addition to serving as useful computational tools, these databases serve as valuable references that help biologists keep up with an ever-expanding vocabulary of terms. PMID:15608198

  7. The Indra Simulation Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falck, Bridget; Budavari, T.; Cole, S.; Crankshaw, D.; Dobos, L.; Lemson, G.; Neyrinck, M.; Szalay, A.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-01

    We present the Indra suite of cosmological N-body simulations and the design of its companion database. Indra consists of 512 different instances of a 1 Gpc/h-sided box, each with 100 million dark matter particles and the same input cosmology, enabling a characterization of very large-scale modes of the matter power spectrum with galaxy-scale mass resolution and an excellent handle on cosmic variance. Each simulation outputs 64 snapshots, giving over 100 TB of data for the full set of simulations, all of which will be loaded into a SQL database. We discuss the database design for the particle data, consisting of the positions and velocities of each particle; the FOF halos, with links to the particle data so that halo properties can be calculated within the database; and the density field on a power-of-two grid, which can be easily linked to each particle's Peano-Hilbert index. Initial performance tests and example queries will be given. The authors are grateful for support from the Gordon and Betty Moore and the W.M. Keck Foundations.

  8. Diatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 114 Diatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 121 diatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty, and reference are given for each transition reported.

  9. Databases and data mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the course of the past decade, the breadth of information that is made available through online resources for plant biology has increased astronomically, as have the interconnectedness among databases, online tools, and methods of data acquisition and analysis. For maize researchers, the numbe...

  10. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  11. The Ribosomal Database Project

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Gary J.; Overbeek, Ross; Larsen, Niels; Marsh, Terry L.; McCaughey, Michael J.; Maciukenas, Michael A.; Kuan, Wen-Min; Macke, Thomas J.; Xing, Yuqing; Woese, Carl R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) compiles ribosomal sequences and related data, and redistributes them in aligned and phylogenetically ordered form to its user community. It also offers various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying sequences. In addition, the RDP offers (or will offer) certain analytic services. At present the project is in an intermediate stage of development. PMID:1598241

  12. LQTS gene LOVD database.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Moss, Arthur; Cong, Peikuan; Pan, Min; Chang, Bingxi; Zheng, Liangrong; Fang, Quan; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer; Lin, Changsong; Li, Zhongxiang; Wei, Junfang; Zeng, Qiang; Qi, Ming

    2010-11-01

    The Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that predisposes young individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. LQTS is mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of cardiac ion channels (KCNQ1, KCNH2,SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2). Many other genes involved in LQTS have been described recently(KCNJ2, AKAP9, ANK2, CACNA1C, SCNA4B, SNTA1, and CAV3). We created an online database(http://www.genomed.org/LOVD/introduction.html) that provides information on variants in LQTS-associated genes. As of February 2010, the database contains 1738 unique variants in 12 genes. A total of 950 variants are considered pathogenic, 265 are possible pathogenic, 131 are unknown/unclassified, and 292 have no known pathogenicity. In addition to these mutations collected from published literature, we also submitted information on gene variants, including one possible novel pathogenic mutation in the KCNH2 splice site found in ten Chinese families with documented arrhythmias. The remote user is able to search the data and is encouraged to submit new mutations into the database. The LQTS database will become a powerful tool for both researchers and clinicians. PMID:20809527

  13. LHCb distributed conditions database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.

    2008-07-01

    The LHCb Conditions Database project provides the necessary tools to handle non-event time-varying data. The main users of conditions are reconstruction and analysis processes, which are running on the Grid. To allow efficient access to the data, we need to use a synchronized replica of the content of the database located at the same site as the event data file, i.e. the LHCb Tier1. The replica to be accessed is selected from information stored on LFC (LCG File Catalog) and managed with the interface provided by the LCG developed library CORAL. The plan to limit the submission of jobs to those sites where the required conditions are available will also be presented. LHCb applications are using the Conditions Database framework on a production basis since March 2007. We have been able to collect statistics on the performance and effectiveness of both the LCG library COOL (the library providing conditions handling functionalities) and the distribution framework itself. Stress tests on the CNAF hosted replica of the Conditions Database have been performed and the results will be summarized here.

  14. WETLANDS TREATMENT DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA sponsored a project to collect and catalog information from wastewater treatment wetlands into a computer database. PA has also written a user friendly, stand-alone, menu-driven computer program to allow anyone with DOS 3.3 or higher to access the information in the ...

  15. ECOREGION SPATIAL DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This spatial database contains boundaries and attributes describing Level III ecoregions in EPA Region 8. The ecoregions shown here have been derived from Omernik (1987) and from refinements of Omernik's framework that have been made for other projects. These ongoing or re...

  16. HIV treatment for prevention.

    PubMed

    Ambrosioni, Juan; Calmy, Alexandra; Hirschel, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions) is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear.Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission.More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated waves of testing would precisely

  17. The AMMA database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Cloche, Sophie; Eymard, Laurence; Fleury, Laurence; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Moulaye, Oumarou; Ramage, Karim

    2010-05-01

    The AMMA project includes aircraft, ground-based and ocean measurements, an intensive use of satellite data and diverse modelling studies. Therefore, the AMMA database aims at storing a great amount and a large variety of data, and at providing the data as rapidly and safely as possible to the AMMA research community. In order to stimulate the exchange of information and collaboration between researchers from different disciplines or using different tools, the database provides a detailed description of the products and uses standardized formats. The AMMA database contains: - AMMA field campaigns datasets; - historical data in West Africa from 1850 (operational networks and previous scientific programs); - satellite products from past and future satellites, (re-)mapped on a regular latitude/longitude grid and stored in NetCDF format (CF Convention); - model outputs from atmosphere or ocean operational (re-)analysis and forecasts, and from research simulations. The outputs are processed as the satellite products are. Before accessing the data, any user has to sign the AMMA data and publication policy. This chart only covers the use of data in the framework of scientific objectives and categorically excludes the redistribution of data to third parties and the usage for commercial applications. Some collaboration between data producers and users, and the mention of the AMMA project in any publication is also required. The AMMA database and the associated on-line tools have been fully developed and are managed by two teams in France (IPSL Database Centre, Paris and OMP, Toulouse). Users can access data of both data centres using an unique web portal. This website is composed of different modules : - Registration: forms to register, read and sign the data use chart when an user visits for the first time - Data access interface: friendly tool allowing to build a data extraction request by selecting various criteria like location, time, parameters... The request can

  18. JDD, Inc. Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David A., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    JDD Inc, is a maintenance and custodial contracting company whose mission is to provide their clients in the private and government sectors "quality construction, construction management and cleaning services in the most efficient and cost effective manners, (JDD, Inc. Mission Statement)." This company provides facilities support for Fort Riley in Fo,rt Riley, Kansas and the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field here in Cleveland, Ohio. JDD, Inc. is owned and operated by James Vaughn, who started as painter at NASA Glenn and has been working here for the past seventeen years. This summer I worked under Devan Anderson, who is the safety manager for JDD Inc. in the Logistics and Technical Information Division at Glenn Research Center The LTID provides all transportation, secretarial, security needs and contract management of these various services for the center. As a safety manager, my mentor provides Occupational Health and Safety Occupation (OSHA) compliance to all JDD, Inc. employees and handles all other issues (Environmental Protection Agency issues, workers compensation, safety and health training) involving to job safety. My summer assignment was not as considered "groundbreaking research" like many other summer interns have done in the past, but it is just as important and beneficial to JDD, Inc. I initially created a database using a Microsoft Excel program to classify and categorize data pertaining to numerous safety training certification courses instructed by our safety manager during the course of the fiscal year. This early portion of the database consisted of only data (training field index, employees who were present at these training courses and who was absent) from the training certification courses. Once I completed this phase of the database, I decided to expand the database and add as many dimensions to it as possible. Throughout the last seven weeks, I have been compiling more data from day to day operations and been adding the

  19. PMAG: Relational Database Definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keizer, P.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Genevey, A.; Staudigel, H.; Helly, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Scripps center for Physical and Chemical Earth References (PACER) was established to help create databases for reference data and make them available to the Earth science community. As part of these efforts PACER supports GERM, REM and PMAG and maintains multiple online databases under the http://earthref.org umbrella website. This website has been built on top of a relational database that allows for the archiving and electronic access to a great variety of data types and formats, permitting data queries using a wide range of metadata. These online databases are designed in Oracle 8.1.5 and they are maintained at the San Diego Supercomputer Center. They are directly available via http://earthref.org/databases/. A prototype of the PMAG relational database is now operational within the existing EarthRef.org framework under http://earthref.org/databases/PMAG/. As will be shown in our presentation, the PMAG design focuses around the general workflow that results in the determination of typical paleo-magnetic analyses. This ensures that individual data points can be traced between the actual analysis and the specimen, sample, site, locality and expedition it belongs to. These relations guarantee traceability of the data by distinguishing between original and derived data, where the actual (raw) measurements are performed on the specimen level, and data on the sample level and higher are then derived products in the database. These relations may also serve to recalculate site means when new data becomes available for that locality. The PMAG data records are extensively described in terms of metadata. These metadata are used when scientists search through this online database in order to view and download their needed data. They minimally include method descriptions for field sampling, laboratory techniques and statistical analyses. They also include selection criteria used during the interpretation of the data and, most importantly, critical information about the

  20. HIV among people who inject drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a systematic review with implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Donoghoe, Martin; Wilson, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. HIV transmission in this group is growing and over 27 000 HIV cases were diagnosed among PWID in 2010 alone. The objective of this systematic review was to examine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among PWID in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to describe the response to HIV in this population and the policy environments in which they live. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV prevalence among PWID and a synthesis of key resources describing the response to HIV in this population. We used a comprehensive search strategy across multiple electronic databases to collect original research papers addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors among PWID since 2005. We summarised the extent of key harm reduction interventions, and using a simple index of ‘enabling’ environment described the policy environments in which they are implemented. Studies reviewed Of the 5644 research papers identified from electronic databases and 40 documents collected from our grey literature search, 70 documents provided unique estimates of HIV and 14 provided multivariate risk factors for HIV among PWID. Results HIV prevalence varies widely, with generally low or medium (<5%) prevalence in Central Europe and high (>10%) prevalence in Eastern Europe. We found evidence for a number of structural factors associated with HIV including gender, socio-economic position and contact with law enforcement agencies. Conclusions The HIV epidemic among PWID in the region is varied, with the greatest burden generally in Eastern Europe. Data suggest that the current response to HIV among PWID is insufficient, and hindered by multiple environmental barriers including restricted access to services and unsupportive policy or social environments. PMID:23087014