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Sample records for alamos ta-55 plutonium

  1. High-precision geologic mapping to evaluate the potential for seismic surface rupture at TA-55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.N.; Lavine, A.; Vaniman, D.; WoldeGabriel, G.

    1998-06-01

    In this report the authors document results of high-precision geologic mapping in the vicinity of TA-55 that has been done to identify parts of the southern portion of the Rendija Canyon Fault, or any other faults, with the potential for seismic surface rupture. To assess the potential for surface rupture at TA-55, an area of approximately 3 square miles that includes the Los Alamos County Landfill and Twomile, Mortandad, and Sandia Canyons has been mapped in detail. Map units are mostly cooling or flow units within the Tshirege Member (1.2 Ma) of the Bandelier Tuff. Stratigraphic markers that are useful for determining offsets in the map area include a distinct welding break at or near the cooling Unit 2-Unit 3 contact, and the Unit 3-Unit 4 contact. At the County Landfill the contact between the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff and overlying Quaternary alluvium has also been mapped. The mapping indicates that there is no faulting in the near-surface directly below TA-55, and that the closest fault is about 1500 feet west of the Plutonium Facility. Faulting is more abundant on the western edge of the map area, west of TA-48 in uppermost Mortandad Canyon, upper Sandia Canyon, and at the County Landfill. Measured vertical offsets on the faults range from 1 to 8 feet on mapped Bandelier Tuff contacts. Faulting exposed at the Los Alamos County Landfill has deformed a zone over 1000 feet wide, and has a net vertical down-to-the-west displacement of at least 15 feet in the Bandelier Tuff. Individual faults at the landfill have from less than 1 foot to greater than 15 feet of vertical offset on the Bandelier Tuff. Most faults in the landfill trend N-S, N20W, or N45E. Results of the mapping indicate that the Rendija Canyon Fault does not continue directly south to TA-55. At present, the authors have insufficient data to connect faulting they have mapped to areas of known faulting to the north or south of the study area.

  2. Plutonium 238 facilities at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, Gary H.

    1991-01-01

    Plutonium 238 operations at Los Alamos are performed at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55), the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building, and the Radioisotope Fuels Impact Test Facility. The plutonium 238 facilities at Los Alamos support a wide variety of heat source activities including development of new fuel forms and containment materials, research on the high temperature properties of containment materials, investigation of the high temperature compatibility of fuels with potential container materials, processing plutonium 238 fuel forms, manufacture of heat sources under quality assurance surveillance, and performing safety testing on heat sources and radioisotope thermoelectric generators.

  3. Plutonium-238 facilities at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinehart, Gary H.

    Plutonium-238 operations at Los Alamos are performed at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55), the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building, and the Radioisotope Fuels Impact Test Facility. The plutonium-238 facilities at Los Alamos support a wide variety of heat source activities including development of new fuel forms and containment materials, research on the high temperature properties of containment materials, investigation of the high temperature compatibility of fuels with potential container materials, processing plutonium-238 fuel forms, manufacture of heat sources under quality assurance surveillance, and performing safety testing on heat sources and radioisotope thermoelectric generators.

  4. TA-55 change control manual

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, T.W.; Selvage, R.D.; Courtney, K.H.

    1997-11-01

    This manual is the guide for initiating change at the Plutonium Facility, which handles the processing of plutonium as well as research on plutonium metallurgy. It describes the change and work control processes employed at TA-55 to ensure that all proposed changes are properly identified, reviewed, approved, implemented, tested, and documented so that operations are maintained within the approved safety envelope. All Laboratory groups, their contractors, and subcontractors doing work at TA-55 follow requirements set forth herein. This manual applies to all new and modified processes and experiments inside the TA-55 Plutonium Facility; general plant project (GPP) and line item funded construction projects at TA-55; temporary and permanent changes that directly or indirectly affect structures, systems, or components (SSCs) as described in the safety analysis, including Facility Control System (FCS) software; and major modifications to procedures. This manual does not apply to maintenance performed on process equipment or facility SSCs or the replacement of SSCs or equipment with documented approved equivalents.

  5. Issues for reuse of gloveboxes at LANL TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Pinson, P.A.; Miller, C.F.

    1998-08-01

    This report is a summary of issues that face plutonium glovebox designers and users at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55). Characterizing the issues is a step in the task of enhancing the next generation glovebox design to minimize waste streams while providing the other design functions. This report gives an initial assessment of eight important design and operation issues that can benefit from waste minimization.

  6. Waste-form development for conversion to portland cement at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55)

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, G.W.; Schake, A.R.; Shalek, P.D.; Romero, D.A.; Smith, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    The process used at TA-55 to cement transuranic (TRU) waste has experienced several problems with the gypsum-based cement currently being used. Specifically, the waste form could not reliably pass the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) prohibition for free liquid and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) standard for chromium. This report describes the project to develop a portland cement-based waste form that ensures compliance to these standards, as well as other performance standards consisting of homogeneous mixing, moderate hydration temperature, timely initial set, and structural durability. Testing was conducted using the two most common waste streams requiring cementation as of February 1994, lean residue (LR)- and oxalate filtrate (OX)-based evaporator bottoms (EV). A formulation with a pH of 10.3 to 12.1 and a minimum cement-to-liquid (C/L) ratio of 0.80 kg/l for OX-based EV and 0.94 kg/L for LR-based EV was found to pass the performance standards chosen for this project. The implementation of the portland process should result in a yearly cost savings for raw materials of approximately $27,000 over the gypsum process.

  7. Structural Geology of the Northwestern Portion of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico: Implications for Seismic Surface Rupture Potential from TA-3 to TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    Jamie N. Gardner: Alexis Lavine; Giday WoldeGabriel; Donathon Krier; David Vaniman; Florie Caporuscio; Claudia Lewis; Peggy Reneau; Emily Kluk; M. J. Snow

    1999-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory lies at the western boundary of the Rio Grande rift, a major tectonic feature of the North American Continent. Three major faults locally constitute the modem rift boundary, and each of these is potentially seismogenic. In this study we have gathered structural geologic data for the northwestern portion of Los Alamos National Laboratory through high-precision geologic mapping, conventional geologic mapping, stratigraphic studies, drilling, petrologic studies, and stereographic aerial photograph analyses. Our study area encompasses TA-55 and TA-3, where potential for seismic surface rupture is of interest, and is bounded on the north and south by the townsite of Los Alamos and Twomile Canyon, respectively. The study area includes parts of two of the potentially active rift boundary faults--the Pajarito and Rendija Canyon faults-that form a large graben that we name the Diamond Drive graben. The graben embraces the western part of the townsite of Los Alamos, and its southern end is in the TA-3 area where it is defined by east-southeast-trending cross faults. The cross faults are small, but they accommodate interactions between the two major fault zones and gentle tilting of structural blocks to the north into the graben. North of Los Alamos townsite, the Rendija Canyon fault is a large normal fault with about 120 feet of down-to-the-west displacement over the last 1.22 million years. South from Los Alamos townsite, the Rendija Canyon fault splays to the southwest into a broad zone of deformation. The zone of deformation is about 2,000 feet wide where it crosses Los Alamos Canyon and cuts through the Los Alamos County Landfill. Farther southwest, the fault zone is about 3,000 feet wide at the southeastern corner of TA-3 in upper Mortandad Canyon and about 5,000 feet wide in Twomile Canyon. Net down-to-the-west displacement across the entire fault zone over the last 1.22 million years decreases to the south as the fault zone broadens as

  8. Measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility in Support of Global Security Mission Space

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Mayo, Douglas R.; Herrera, Gary D.; McLaughlin, Anastasia D.; Montoya, Charles M.; Quihuis, Becky A.; Trujillo, Julio B.; Van Pelt, Craig E.; Wenz, Tracy R.

    2012-07-13

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility at Technical Area (TA) 55 is one of a few nuclear facilities in the United States where Research & Development measurements can be performed on Safeguards Category-I (CAT-I) quantities of nuclear material. This capability allows us to incorporate measurements of CAT-IV through CAT-I materials as a component of detector characterization campaigns and training courses conducted at Los Alamos. A wider range of measurements can be supported. We will present an overview of recent measurements conducted in support of nuclear emergency response, nuclear counterterrorism, and international and domestic safeguards. This work was supported by the NNSA Office of Counterterrorism.

  9. INRAD work at TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinschmidt, Phillip D; Lacy, Keith A; Hahn, Wendy K; Shonrock, Clinton O

    2011-01-18

    The INRAD Facility at TA-55 is described. Safety considerations in operating the facility are described in the Detailed Operating Procedure (DOP) format. Other considerations on the future operation of the facility are discussed.

  10. Retrofit of an Engineered Glove-port to a Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility Glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Rael, P.E.D.; Cournoyer, M.E.Ph.D.; Chunglo, S.D.; Vigil, T.J.; Schreiber, P.E.S.

    2008-07-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility (TA-55), various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides are routinely handled such that the spread of radiological contamination and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox coupled with adequate negativity providing primary confinement). The current technique for changing glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. 1300 pairs of gloves are replaced each year at TA-55, generating approximately 500 m{sup 3}/yr of transuranic (TRU) waste and Low Level Waste (LLW) waste that represents an annual disposal cost of about 4 million dollars. By retrofitting the LANL 8'' glove-port ring, a modern 'Push-Through' technology is utilized. This 'Push-Through' technology allows relatively fast glove changes to be done by operators with much less training and experience and without breaching containment. A dramatic reduction in waste is realized; exposure of the worker to residual contamination reduced, and the number of breaches due to installation issues is eliminated. In the following presentation, the evolution of the 'Push- Through' technology, the features of the glove-port retrofit, and waste savings are discussed. (author)

  11. PLUTONIUM METALLOGRAPHY AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    PEREYRA, RAMIRO A.; LOVATO, DARRYL

    2007-01-08

    From early days of the Manhattan program to today, scientists and engineers have continued to investigate the metallurgical properties of plutonium (Pu). Although issues like aging was not a concern to the early pioneers, today the reliability of our aging stockpile is of major focus. And as the country moves toward a new generation of weapons similar problems that the early pioneers faced such as compatibility, homogeneity and malleability have come to the forefront. And metallography will continue to be a principle tool for the resolution of old and new issues. Standard metallographic techniques are used for the preparation of plutonium samples. The samples are first cut with a slow speed idamond saw. After mounting in Epon 815 epoxy resin, the samples are ground through 600 grit silicon carbide paper. PF 5070 (a Freon substitute) is used as a coolant, lubricant, and solvent for most operations. Rough mechanical polished is done with 9-{mu} diamond using a nap less cloth, for example nylon or cotton. Final polish is done with 1-{mu} diamond on a nappy cloth such as sylvet. Ethyl alcohol is then used ultrasonically to clean the samples before electro polishing. The sample is then electro-polished and etched in an electrolyte containing 10% nitric acid, and 90% dimethyleneformalmide. Ethyl alcohol is used as a final cleaning agent. Although standard metallographic preparation techniques are used, there are several reasons why metallography of Pu is difficult and challenging. Firstly, because of the health hazards associated with its radioactive properties, sample preparation is conducted in glove boxes. Figure 1 shows the metallography line, in an R and D facility. Since they are designed to be negative in pressure to the laboratory, cross-contamination of abrasives is a major problem. In addition, because of safety concerns and waste issues, there is a limit to the amount of solvent that can be used. Secondly, Pu will readily hydride or oxidize when in contact

  12. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  13. Plutonium recovery at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, E.L.

    1980-06-01

    Research programs have led to the adoption of procedures for all phases of plutonium recovery and purification. This report discusses some of the many procedures required to recover and purify the plutonium contained in the residues generated by LASL research, process development, and production activities. The report also discusses general plant facilities, the liquid and gaseous effluents, and solid waste management practices at the New Plutonium Facility, TA-55. Many of the processes or operations are merely steps in preparing the feed for one of the purification systems. For example, the plutonium is currently removed from noncombustibles in the pickling operation with an HNO/sub 3/ leach. The HNO/sub 3/ leach solution is the product of this operation and is sent to one of the nitrate anion-exchange systems for concentration and purification.

  14. VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING WASTE AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    R. NAKAOKA; G. VEAZEY; ET AL

    2001-05-01

    A glove box vitrification system is being fabricated to process aqueous evaporator bottom waste generated at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The system will be the first within the U.S. Department of Energy Complex to routinely convert Pu{sup 239}-bearing transuranic (TRU) waste to a glass matrix for eventual disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Currently at LANL, this waste is solidified in Portland cement. Radionuclide loading in the cementation process is restricted by potential radiolytic degradation (expressed as a wattage limit), which has been imposed to prevent the accumulation of flammable concentrations of H{sub 2} within waste packages. Waste matrixes with a higher water content (e.g., cement) are assigned a lower permissible wattage limit to compensate for their potential higher generation of H{sub 2}. This significantly increases the number of waste packages that must be prepared and shipped, thus driving up the costs of waste handling and disposal. The glove box vitrification system that is under construction will address this limitation. Because the resultant glass matrix produced by the vitrification process is non-hydrogenous, no H{sub 2} can be radiolytically evolved, and drums could be loaded to the maximum allowable limit of 40 watts. In effect, the glass waste form shifts the limiting constraint for loading disposal drums from wattage to the criticality limit of 200 fissile gram equivalents, thus significantly reducing the number of drums generated from this waste stream. It is anticipated that the number of drums generated from treatment of evaporator bottoms will be reduced by a factor of 4 annually when the vitrification system is operational. The system is currently undergoing non-radioactive operability testing, and will be fully operational in the year 2003.

  15. Reliability analysis for the facility data acquisition interface system upgrade at TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.J.; Pope, N.G.; Brown, R.E.

    1995-05-01

    Because replacement parts for the existing facility data acquisition interface system at TA-55 have become scarce and are no longer being manufactured, reliability studies were conducted to assess various possible replacement systems. A new control system, based on Allen-Bradley Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), was found to have a likely reliability 10 times that of the present system, if the existing Continuous Air Monitors (CAMS) were used. Replacement of the old CAMs with new CAMs will result in even greater reliability as these are gradually phased in. The new PLC-based system would provide for hot standby processors, redundant communications paths, and redundant power supplies, and would be expandable and easily maintained, as well as much more reliable. TA-55 is the Plutonium Processing Facility which processes and recovers Pu-239 from scrap materials.

  16. Upgrade of the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility control system

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, N.G.; Turner, W.J.; Brown, R.E.; Bibeau, R.A.; Davis, R.R.; Hogan, K.

    1996-05-01

    After 20 yrs service, the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is undergoing an upgrade to its aging Facility Control System. The new system design includes a network of redundantly-paired programmable logic controllers that will interface with about 2200 field data points. The data communications network that has been designed includes a redundant, self-healing fiber optic data highway as well as a fiber optic ethernet. Commercially available human-machine interface software running on a UNIX-based system displays facility subsystem status operator X-terminals. Project design features, methods, costs, and schedule are discussed.

  17. Regulation study for the facility control system design at the Facility Operations Center at TA55

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-16

    NMT-8 is proposing to upgrade the existing Facility Control System (FCS) located within the Facility Operations Center (FOC) at the TA-55 Plutonium Processing and Handling Facility (PPHF). The FCS modifications will upgrade the existing electronics to provide better reliability of system functions. Changes include replacement of the FCS computers and field multiplex units which are used for transmitting systems data. Data collected at the FCS include temperature, pressure, contact closures, etc., and are used for monitoring and/or control of key systems at TA-55. Monitoring is provided for the electrical power system status, PF-4 HVAC air balance status (Static Differential pressure), HVAC fan system status, site chill water return temperature, fire system information, and radioactive constant air monitors alarm information, site compressed air pressure and other key systems used at TA-55. Control output signals are provided for PF-4 HVAC systems, and selected alarms for criticality, fire, loss of pressure in confinement systems. A detailed description of the FCS modifications is provided in Section 2.

  18. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated TRU waste certification

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from expensive characterization activities such as those associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form.

  19. Cost/benefit analysis for selected waste minimization technologies at TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    Boerigter, S.T.

    1996-05-01

    The TA-55 plutonium facility at LANL is one of the remaining plutonium-handling facilities in the United States with significant operational capability. In recent years a great deal of attention has been focused on the waste streams generated by this facility. Costs of properly treating these streams have risen significantly. This paper discusses the characterization of several proposed radioactive waste minimization technologies as a function of Return on Investment (ROI). In particular, the DOE Environmental Management program has identified a specific funding channel for such technology development activities, but this funding channel requires a restrictive definition of ROI. Here, a simple extension to the required ROI equation is used to capture the lifecycle ROI due to offsets in future capital charges resulting from present spending.

  20. Improved recovery and purification of plutonium at Los Alamos using macroporous anion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Mann, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    For almost 30 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has used anion exchange in nitric acid as the major aqueous process or the recovery and purification of plutonium. One of the few disadvantages of this system is the particularly slow rate at which the anionic nitrato complex of Pu(IV) equilibrates with the resin. The Nuclear Materials Process Technology Group at Los Alamos recently completed an ion exchange development program that focused on improving the slow sorption kinetics that limits this process. A comprehensive investigation of modern anion exchange resins identified porosity and bead size as the properties that most influence plutonium sorption kinetics. Our study found that small beads of macroporous resin produced a dramatic increase in plutonium process efficiency. The Rocky Flats Plant has already adopted this improved ion exchange technology, and it currently is being evaluated for use in other DOE plutonium-processing facilities.

  1. Los Alamos plutonium facility applied systems integration project status report for period ending August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Shirk, D.G.; Bearse, R.C.; Marshall, R.S.; Baker, A.L.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The conceptual design of an on-line, near-real-time nondestructive assay instrumentation network for the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is complete. Analysis of instrument history data indicates that the instrument certification procedures need improvement. Analysis of exhaust filter data has led to the derivation of a buildup prediction equation that is a function of throughput. This suggests that development of a generalized model is possible. A number of routine reports are now available from the Plutonium Facility/Los Alamos Safeguards System including inventories and active reports.

  2. Review of operating experience at the Los Alamos Plutonium Electrorefining Facility, 1963-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, L.J.; Morgan, A.N.

    1981-12-01

    This report reviews the operation of the Los Alamos Plutonium Electrorefining Plant at Technical Area 21 for the period 1964 through 1977. During that period, approximately 1568 kg of plutonium metal, > 99.95% pure, was produced in 653 runs from 1930 kg of metal fabrication scrap, 99% pure. General considerations of the electrorefining process and facility operation and recommendations for further improvement of the process are discussed.

  3. Training and exercises of the Emergency Response Team at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Yearwood, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility has an active Emergency Response Team. The Emergency Response Team is composed of members of the operating and support groups within the Plutonium Facility. In addition to their initial indoctrination, the members are trained and certified in first-aid, CPR, fire and rescue, and the use of self-contained-breathing-apparatus. Training exercises, drills, are conducted once a month. The drills consist of scenarios which require the Emergency Response Team to apply CPR and/or first aid. The drills are performed in the Plutonium Facility, they are video taped, then reviewed and critiqued by site personnel. Through training and effective drills and the Emergency Response Team can efficiently respond to any credible accident which may occur at the Plutonium Facility. 3 tabs.

  4. Transport and deposition of plutonium-contaminated sediments by fluvial processes, Los Alamos Canyon, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, W.L.

    1996-10-01

    Between 1945 and 1952 the development of nuclear weapons at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, resulted in the disposal of plutonium into the alluvium of nearby Acid and (to a lesser degree) DP Canyons. The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between the disposal sites and the main river, a 20 km link formed by the fluvial system of Acid, Pueblo, DP, and Los Alamos Canyons. Empirical data from 15 yr of annual sediment sampling throughout the canyon system has produced 458 observations of plutonium concentration in fluvial sediments. These data show that, overall, mean plutonium concentrations in fluvial sediment decline from 10,000 fCi/g near the disposal area to 100 fCi/g at the confluence of the canyon system and the Rio Grande. Simulations using a computer model for water, sediment, and plutonium routing in the canyon system show that discharges as large as the 25 yr event would fail to develop enough transport capacity to completely remove the contaminated sediments from Pueblo Canyon. Lesser flows would move some materials to the Rio Grande by remobilization of stored sediments. The simulations also show that the deposits and their contaminants have a predictable geography because they occur where stream power is low, hydraulic resistance is high, and the geologic and/or geomorphic conditions provide enough space for storage. 38 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. An independent evaluation of plutonium body burdens in populations near Los Alamos Laboratory using human autopsy data.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Shannon H; Donovan, Ellen P; Shonka, Joseph J; Le, Matthew H; Widner, Thomas E

    2013-06-01

    In the mid-1940s, the United States began producing atomic weapon components at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In an attempt to better understand historical exposure to nearby residents, this study evaluates plutonium activity in human tissue relative to residential location and length of time at residence. Data on plutonium activity in the lung, vertebrae, and liver of nearby residents were obtained during autopsies as a part of the Los Alamos Tissue Program. Participant residential histories and the distance from each residence to the primary plutonium processing buildings at LANL were evaluated in the analysis. Summary statistics, including Student t-tests and simple regressions, were calculated. Because the biological half-life of plutonium can vary significantly by organ, data were analyzed separately by tissue type (lung, liver, vertebrae). The ratios of plutonium activity (vertebrae:liver; liver:lung) were also analyzed in order to evaluate the importance of timing of exposure. Tissue data were available for 236 participants who lived in a total of 809 locations, of which 677 were verified postal addresses. Residents of Los Alamos were found to have higher plutonium activities in the lung than non-residents. Further, those who moved to Los Alamos before 1955 had higher lung activities than those who moved there later. These trends were not observed with the liver, vertebrae, or vertebrae:liver and liver:lung ratio data, however, and should be interpreted with caution. Although there are many limitations to this study, including the amount of available data and the analytical methods used to analyze the tissue, the overall results indicate that residence (defined as the year that the individual moved to Los Alamos) may have had a strong correlation to plutonium activity in human tissue. This study is the first to present the results of Los Alamos Autopsy Program in relation to residential status and location in Los Alamos. PMID:23078914

  6. Pyrochemical Glovebox Line Replacement and Modernization Effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D. K.; McNeese, James A.; Cantrell, W. S.; Garcia, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), as part of the stockpile stewardship mission, is developing the capability to manufacture replacement pits for the United States nuclear weapon stockpile. Part of this effort requires that the various manufacturing activities formerly performed at the Rocky Flats be reconstructed at LANL, modernized to improve operation, and re-certified for pit production. Part of this effort requires that new pyrochemical metal production facilities be installed in TA-55 to replace existing outdated equipment. The purpose of this effort is design, build/procure, assemble, cold test, and support installation activities for ten pyrochemical processing gloveboxes and processing support equipment for insertion into a selected PF-4 laboratory. Eight of the gloveboxes will be connected to a common trolley tunnel with a state-of-the-art automated transport system that can access each glovebox. Five of those gloveboxes will be designed to accommodate standard water-cooled pyrochemical processing furnaces with appropriate lift mechanisms for handling the furnace products and processing hardware. Another glovebox will be designed to accommodate an improved breaking press that will be designed/procured to break alpha metal up to a thickness of l-inch, eliminate introduction of hydraulic oil to the glovebox environment, provide appropriate shielding for prevention of glovebox damage due to shrapnel projectiles, and use interchangeable impact tools in order to be able to process both contaminated and clean metals with the same machine. In addition, a storage glovebox and a distillation glovebox (already developed) will be attached to the transport system. Two other gloveboxes, one accommodating two casting furnaces and another storage glovebox, will be installed in the laboratory independent of the transport system. A transfer system (trolley) will be incorporated to handle material flow between the pyrochemical furnace gloveboxes, the press glovebox

  7. Destructive analysis capabilities for plutonium and uranium characterization at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Lav; Kuhn, Kevin J; Drake, Lawrence R; Decker, Diana L; Walker, Laurie F; Colletti, Lisa M; Spencer, Khalil J; Peterson, Dominic S; Herrera, Jaclyn A; Wong, Amy S

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Actinide Analytical Chemistry (AAC) group has been in existence since the Manhattan Project. It maintains a complete set of analytical capabilities for performing complete characterization (elemental assay, isotopic, metallic and non metallic trace impurities) of uranium and plutonium samples in different forms. For a majority of the customers there are strong quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) objectives including highest accuracy and precision with well defined uncertainties associated with the analytical results. Los Alamos participates in various international and national programs such as the Plutonium Metal Exchange Program, New Brunswick Laboratory's (NBL' s) Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SME) and several other inter-laboratory round robin exercises to monitor and evaluate the data quality generated by AAC. These programs also provide independent verification of analytical measurement capabilities, and allow any technical problems with analytical measurements to be identified and corrected. This presentation will focus on key analytical capabilities for destructive analysis in AAC and also comparative data between LANL and peer groups for Pu assay and isotopic analysis.

  8. Disposition of Mixed Waste Organics at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, E.M.; Coriz, F.; Schreiber, S.B.; Balkey, S.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1999-02-01

    Twenty-six organic solution items totaling 37 L had been stored in the Plutonium Facility vault at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, some for up to 18 years. They were residues from analytical analyses of radioactive solutions. All items had a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defined hazardous waste combined with special nuclear materials (SNM) and were stored as a mixed waste in a vault room pending disposition. Seventeen items had plutonium concentrations above established discard limits for organics. Due to their age, the containers were not suitable for long-term storage because a container failure would contaminate the vault area and personnel. Therefore, an aqueous-based flowsheet was developed to remove the plutonium so that the items could be discarded. The procedure was a wash with either sodium fluoride and/or potassium hydroxide solution followed by absorbing the discardable organic residues on vermiculite. When this approach did not work permission was obtained to discard the items as a transuranic (TRU) mixed waste without further treatment. The remaining nine solution items were consolidated into two items, repackaged, and stored for future disposition. The overall effort required approximately four months to disposition all the items. This report details the administrative and regulatory requirements that had to be addressed, the results of processing, and the current status of the items.

  9. TA-55 Final Safety Analysis Report Comparison Document and DOE Safety Evaluation Report Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bond

    2001-04-01

    This document provides an overview of changes to the currently approved TA-55 Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) that are included in the upgraded FSAR. The DOE Safety Evaluation Report (SER) requirements that are incorporated into the upgraded FSAR are briefly discussed to provide the starting point in the FSAR with respect to the SER requirements.

  10. Implementation of the DYMAC system at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    Malanify, J.J.; Amsden, D.C.

    1982-08-01

    The DYnamic Materials ACcountability System - called DYMAC - performs accountability functions at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility where it began operation when the facility opened in January 1978. A demonstration program, DYMAC was designed to collect and assess inventory information for safeguards purposes. It accomplishes 75% of its design goals. DYMAC collects information about the physical inventory through deployment of nondestructive assay instrumentation and video terminals throughout the facility. The information resides in a minicomputer where it can be immediately sorted and displayed on the video terminals or produced in printed form. Although the capability now exists to assess the collected data, this portion of the program is not yet implemented. DYMAC in its present form is an excellent tool for process and quality control. The facility operator relies on it exclusively for keeping track of the inventory and for complying with accountability requirements of the US Department of Energy.

  11. Acoustic Analysis of Plutonium and Nuclear Weapon Components at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, T. A.; Reynolds, J. J.; Rowe, C. A.; Freibert, F. J.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Ulrich, T. J.; Farrow, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the primary missions of Los Alamos National Laboratory is to use science based techniques to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile of the United States. As such we use numerous NDE techniques to monitor materials and systems properties in weapons. Two techniques will be discussed in this presentation, Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) and Acoustic Emission (AE). ARS is used to observe manufacturing variations or changes in the plutonium containing component (pit) of the weapon system. Both quantitative and qualitative comparisons can be used to determine variation in the pit components. Piezoelectric transducer driven acoustic resonance experiments will be described along with initial qualitative and more complex analysis and comparison techniques derived from earthquake analysis performed at LANL. Similarly, AE is used to measure the time of arrival of acoustic signals created by mechanical events that can occur in nuclear weapon components. Both traditional time of arrival techniques and more advanced techniques are used to pinpoint the location and type of acoustic emission event. Similar experiments on tensile tests of brittle phases of plutonium metal will be described.

  12. Multisphere neutron spectroscopy measurements at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.F.; Hajnal, F.

    1993-06-01

    Multisphere neutron spectroscopy methods are applied to measure representative working fields within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility. This facility hosts dynamic processes, which include the fabrication of {sup 238}Pu heat sources for radioisotope generators used to power space equipment and a variety of plutonium research programs that involve recovery, hydrofluorination, and metal production. Neutron fluence per unit lethargy, as a function of neutron energy measured for locations throughout this facility, are described. Dosimeter/remmeter response functions [e.g., determined for a 22.8-cm-diameter neutron rem detector (NRD), an Anderson/Braun-type neutron ``Snoopy`` monitor, track-etch CR-39, BDI-100 bubble detectors, and Kodak type A nuclear track emulsion film, (NTA)] are folded into these spectra to calculate absolute response values of counts, tracks, or bubbles per unit-dose equivalent. The relative response values per unit- dose equivalent for bare and albedo {sup 6}LiF-based thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are also calculated to estimate response scenarios encountered with use of the LANL-TLD. These results are further compared to more conventional methods of estimating neutron spectral energies such as the ``9-to-3 ratio`` method.

  13. A Study of the Stability and Characterization Plutonium Dioxide and Chemical Characterization [of] Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, A.K.; Boettger, J.C.; Behrens, Robert G.

    1999-11-29

    In the presentation ''A Study of the Stability and Characterization of Plutonium Dioxide'', the authors discuss their recent work on actinide stabilities and characterization, in particular, plutonium dioxide PuO{sub 2}. Earlier studies have indicated that PuO{sub 2} has the fluorite structure of CaF{sub 2} and typical oxide semiconductor properties. However, detailed results on the bulk electronic structure of this important actinide oxide have not been available. The authors have used all-electron, full potential linear combinations Gaussian type orbitals fitting function (LCGTO-FF) method to study PuO{sub 2}. The LCGTO-FF technique characterized by its use of three independent GTO basis sets to expand the orbitals, charge density, and exchange-correlation integral kernels. Results will be presented on zero pressure using both the Hedin-Lundquist local density approximation (LDA) model or the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximation (GGA) model. Possibilities of different characterizations of PuO{sub 2} will be explored. The paper ''Chemical Characterization Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash'' describes the results of a comprehensive study of the chemical characteristics of virgin, calcined and fluorinated incinerator ash produced at the Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory prior to 1988. The Rocky Flats and Los Alamos virgin, calcined, and fluorinated ashes were also dissolved using standard nitrate dissolution chemistry. Corresponding chemical evaluations were preformed on the resultant ash heel and the results compared with those of the virgin ash. Fluorination studies using FT spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool were also performed to evaluate the chemistry of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, and silicon containing species in the ash. The distribution of plutonium and other chemical elements with the virgin ash, ash heel, fluorinated ash, and fluorinated ash heel particulates were studied in detail using

  14. Seismic margins assessment of the plutonium processing facility Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Goen, L.K.; Salmon, M.W.

    1995-12-01

    Results of the recently completed seismic evaluation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory site indicate a need to consider seismic loads greater than design basis for many structures systems and components (SSCs). DOE Order 5480.28 requires that existing SSCs be evaluated to determine their ability to withstand the effects of earthquakes when changes in the understanding of this hazard results in greater loads. In preparation for the implementation of DOE Order 5480.28 and to support the update of the facility Safety Analysis Report, a seismic margin assessment of SSCs necessary for a monitored passive safe shutdown of the Plutonium Processing Facility (PF-4) was performed. The seismic margin methodology is given in EPRI NP-6041-SL, ``A Methodology for Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Seismic Margin (Revision 1)``. In this methodology, high confidence of low probability of failure (HCLPF) capacities for SSCs are estimated in a deterministic manner. For comparison to the performance goals given in DOE Order 5480.28, the results of the seismic margins assessment were used to estimate the annual probability of failure for the evaluated SSCs. In general, the results show that the capacity for the SSCs comprising PF-4 is high. This is to be expected for a newer facility as PF-4 was designed in the early 1970`s. The methodology and results of this study are presented in this paper.

  15. Water Resistant Container Technical Basis Document for the TA-55 Criticality Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Paul Herrick; Teague, Jonathan Gayle

    2015-04-30

    Criticality safety at TA-55 relies on nuclear material containers that are water resistant to prevent significant amounts of water from coming into contact with fissile material in the event of a fire that causes a breach of glovevbox confinement and subsequent fire water ingress. A “water tight container” is a container that will not allow more than 50ml of water ingress when fully submerged, except when under sufficient pressure to produce structural discontinuity. There are many types of containers, welded containers, hermetically sealed containers, filtered containers, etc.

  16. Recent developments in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility Waste Tracking System-automated data collection pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Montoya, A.; Klein, W.

    1999-02-01

    The waste management and environmental compliance group (NMT-7) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a pilot project for demonstrating the feasibility and utility of automated data collection as a solution for tracking waste containers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. This project, the Los Alamos Waste Tracking System (LAWTS), tracks waste containers during their lifecycle at the facility. LAWTS is a two-tiered system consisting of a server/workstation database and reporting engine and a hand-held data terminal-based client program for collecting data directly from tracked containers. New containers may be added to the system from either the client unit or from the server database. Once containers are in the system, they can be tracked through one of three primary transactions: Move, Inventory, and Shipment. Because LAWTS is a pilot project, it also serves as a learning experience for all parties involved. This paper will discuss many of the lessons learned in implementing a data collection system in the restricted environment. Specifically, the authors will discuss issues related to working with the PPT 4640 terminal system as the data collection unit. They will discuss problems with form factor (size, usability, etc.) as well as technical problems with wireless radio frequency functions. They will also discuss complications that arose from outdoor use of the terminal (barcode scanning failures, screen readability problems). The paper will conclude with a series of recommendations for proceeding with LAWTS based on experience to date.

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Plutonium Sustainment Monthly Program Report September 2012

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, Anastasia Dawn; Storey, Bradford G.; Bowidowicz, Martin; Robertson, William G.; Hobson, Beverly F.

    2012-10-22

    In March of 2012 the Plutonium Sustainment program at LANL completed or addressed the following high-level activities: (1) Delivered Revision 2 of the Plutonium Sustainment Manufacturing Study, which incorporated changes needed due to the release of the FY2013 President's Budget and the delay in the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRRNF). (2) W87 pit type development activities completed a detailed process capability review for the flowsheet in preparation for the Engineering Development Unit Build. (3) Completed revising the Laser Beam Welding schedule to address scope and resource changes. (4) Completed machining and inspecting the first set of high-fidelity cold parts on Precitech 2 for Gemini. (5) The Power Supply Assembly Area started floor cutting with a concrete saw and continued legacy equipment decommissioning. There are currently no major issues associated with achieving MRT L2 Milestones 4195-4198 or the relevant PBIs associated with Plutonium Sustainment. There are no budget issues associated with FY12 final budget guidance. Table 1 identifies all Baseline Change Requests (BCRs) that were initiated, in process, or completed during the month. The earned value metrics overall for LANL are within acceptable thresholds, so no high-level recovery plan is required. Each of the 5 major LANL WBS elements is discussed in detail.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF CURRENTLY GENERATED TRANUSRANIC WASTE AT THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY'S PLUTONIUM PRODUCTION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, Robert L.; Montoya, Andy M.

    2003-02-27

    By the time the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) completes its Disposal Phase in FY 2034, the Department of Energy (DOE) will have disposed of approximately 109,378 cubic meters (m3) of Transuranic (TRU) waste in WIPP (1). If DOE adheres to its 2005 Pollution Prevention Goal of generating less than 141m3/yr of TRU waste, approximately 5000 m3 (4%) of that TRU waste will be newly generated (2). Because of the overwhelming majority (96%) of TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP is legacy waste, the characterization and certification requirements were developed to resolve those issues related to legacy waste. Like many other DOE facilities Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has a large volume (9,010m3) of legacy Transuranic Waste in storage (3). Unlike most DOE facilities LANL will generate approximately 140m3 of newly generated TRU waste each year3. LANL's certification program was established to meet the WIPP requirements for legacy waste and does not take advantage of the fundamental differences in waste knowledge between newly generated and legacy TRU waste.

  19. Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David L.; Hecker, Siegfried S.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Neu, Mary P.

    The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations. After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium resulted fromthe dual-use scenario of domestic power production and nuclear weapons - drawing energy from an atomic nucleus that can produce a factor of millions in energy output relative to chemical energy sources. Indeed, within 5 years of its original synthesis, the primary use of plutonium was for the release of nuclear energy in weapons of unprecedented power, and it seemed that the new element might lead the human race to the brink of self-annihilation. Instead, it has forced the human race to govern itself without resorting to nuclear war over the past 60 years. Plutonium evokes the entire gamut of human emotions, from good to evil, from hope to despair, from the salvation of humanity to its utter destruction. There is no other element in the periodic table that has had such a profound impact on the consciousness of mankind.

  20. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Nixon, Archie E; Dodge, Robert L; Fife, Keith W; Sandoval, Arnold M; Garcia, Vincent E

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National

  1. Minimum Analytical Chemistry Requirements for Pit Manufacturing at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, Ming M.; Leasure, Craig S.

    1998-08-01

    Analytical chemistry is one of several capabilities necessary for executing the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Analytical chemistry capabilities reside in the Chemistry Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility and Plutonium Facility (TA-55). These analytical capabilities support plutonium recovery operations, plutonium metallurgy, and waste management. Analytical chemistry capabilities at both nuclear facilities are currently being configured to support pit manufacturing. This document summarizes the minimum analytical chemistry capabilities required to sustain pit manufacturing at LANL. By the year 2004, approximately $16 million will be required to procure analytical instrumentation to support pit manufacturing. In addition, $8.5 million will be required to procure glovebox enclosures. An estimated 50% increase in costs has been included for installation of analytical instruments and glovebox enclosures. However, no general and administrative (G and A) taxes have been included. If an additional 42.5/0 G and A tax were to be incurred, approximately $35 million would be required over the next five years to prepare analytical chemistry to support a 50-pit-per-year manufacturing capability by the year 2004.

  2. Sampling and Analysis of the Headspace Gas in 3013 Type Plutonium Storage Containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Jay M.; Berg, John M.; Hill, Dallas D.; Worl, Laura A.; Veirs, Douglas K.

    2012-07-11

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites have packaged approximately 5200 3013 containers to date. One of the requirements specified in DOESTD-3013, which specifies requirements for packaging plutonium bearing materials, is that the material be no greater than 0.5 weight percent moisture. The containers are robust, nested, welded vessels. A shelf life surveillance program was established to monitor these cans over their 50 year design life. In the event pressurization is detected by radiography, it will be necessary to obtain a head space gas sample from the pressurized container. This technique is also useful to study the head space gas in cans selected for random destructive evaluation. The atmosphere is sampled and the hydrogen to oxygen ratio is measured to determine the effects of radiolysis on the moisture in the container. A system capable of penetrating all layers of a 3013 container assembly and obtaining a viable sample of the enclosed gas and an estimate of internal pressure was designed.

  3. Plutonium aging

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, J.D.

    1999-03-01

    The author describes the plutonium aging program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aging of plutonium components in the US nuclear weapons stockpile has become a concern due to several events: the end of the cold war, the cessation of full scale underground nuclear testing as a result of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the closure of the Rocky Flats Plant--the site where the plutonium components were manufactured. As a result, service lifetimes for nuclear weapons have been lengthened. Dr. Olivas will present a brief primer on the metallurgy of plutonium, and will then describe the technical approach to ascertaining the long-term changes that may be attributable to self-radiation damage. Facilities and experimental techniques which are in use to study aging will be described. Some preliminary results will also be presented.

  4. Los Alamos national Laboratory overview of the SAVY-4000 design: meeting the challenge for worker safety

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy Amos

    2012-06-12

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based storage container design, the SAVY-4000. The SAVY-4000 is the first vented general use nuclear material container demonstrated to meet the requirements of DOE M 441.1-1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. The SAVY-4000 is an innovative and creative design demonstrated by the fact that it can be opened and closed in a few seconds without torque wrenches or other tools; has a built-in, fire-rated filter that prevents the build-up of hydrogen gas, yet retains 99.97% of plutonium particulates, and prevents release of material even in a 12 foot drop. Finally, it has been tested to 500C for 2 hours, and will reduce the risk to the public in the event of an earthquake/fire scenario. This will allow major nuclear facilities to credit the container towards source term Material at Risk (MAR) reduction. The container was approved for nuclear material storage in theTA-55 Plutonium Facility on March 15, 2011, and the first order of 79 containers was received at LANL on March 21, 2011. The first four SAVY-4000 containers were packaged with plutonium on August 2, 2011. Key aspects ofthe SAVY-4000 vented storage container design will be discussed which include design qualification and testing, implementation plan development and status, risk ranking methodology for re-packaging, in use implementation with interface to LANMAS, surveillance strategy, the design life extension program as enhanced by surveillance activities and production status with the intent to extend well beyond the current five year design life.

  5. Plutonium Equivalent Inventory for Belowground Radioactive Waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Rob

    2012-04-18

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Many aspects of the management of this waste are conducted at Technical Area 54 (TA-54); Area G plays a key role in these management activities as the Laboratory's only disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Furthermore, Area G serves as a staging area for transuranic (TRU) waste that will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. A portion of this TRU waste is retrievably stored in pits, trenches, and shafts. The radioactive waste disposed of or stored at Area G poses potential short- and long-term risks to workers at the disposal facility and to members of the public. These risks are directly proportional to the radionuclide inventories in the waste. The Area G performance assessment and composite analysis (LANL, 2008a) project long-term risks to members of the public; short-term risks to workers and members of the public, such as those posed by accidents, are addressed by the Area G Documented Safety Analysis (LANL, 2011a). The Documented Safety Analysis uses an inventory expressed in terms of plutonium-equivalent curies, referred to as the PE-Ci inventory, to estimate these risks. The Technical Safety Requirements for Technical Area 54, Area G (LANL, 2011b) establishes a belowground radioactive material limit that ensures the cumulative projected inventory authorized for the Area G site is not exceeded. The total belowground radioactive waste inventory limit established for Area G is 110,000 PE-Ci. The PE-Ci inventory is updated annually; this report presents the inventory prepared for 2011. The approach used to estimate the inventory is described in Section 2. The results of the analysis are presented in Section 3.

  6. Selection of Russian Plutonium Beryllium Sources for Inclusion in the Nuclear Mateirals Information Program Archive

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E; Padilla, Dennis D; Watts, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the former Soviet Union produced and exported Plutonium-Beryllium (PuBe) neutron sources to various Eastern European countries. The Russian sources consist of an intermetallic compound of plutonium and beryllium encapsulated in an inner welded, sealed capsule and consisting of a body and one or more covers. The amount of plutonium in the sources ranges from 0.002 g up to 15 g. A portion of the sources was originally exported to East Germany. A portion of these sources were acquired by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in the late 1990s for destruction in the Offsite Source Recovery Program. When the OSRP was canceled, the remaining 88 PuBe neutron sources were packaged and stored in a 55-gal drum at T A-55. This storage configuration is no longer acceptable for PuBe sources, and the sources must either be repackaged or disposed of. Repackaging would place the sources into Hagan container, and depending on the dose rates, some sources may be packaged individually increasing the footprint and cost of storage. In addition, each source will be subject to leak-checking every six months. Leaks have already been detected in some of the sources, and due to the age of these sources, it is likely that additional leaks may be detected over time, which will increase the overall complexity of handling and storage. Therefore, it was decided that the sources would be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) due to the cost and labor associated with continued storage at TA-55. However, the plutonium in the sources is of Russian origin and needs to be preserved for research purposes. Therefore, it is important that a representative sample of the sources retained and archived for future studies. This report describes the criteria used to obtain a representative sample of the sources. Nine Russian PuBe neutron sources have been selected out of a collection of 77 sources for inclusion in the NMIP archive. Selection criteria were

  7. Customer service model for waste tracking at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorries, Alison M

    2011-02-02

    The goal is to transition from five legacy database systems that have reached end-of-life to a single inventory system that supports workflow, data, and reporting for all waste streams. Plutonium Processing Facility (TA-55) Waste Team provides a high quality system that insures safe, efficient and compliant management of all radioactive and hazardous wastes generated, including waste characterization and repackaging of Transuranic Waste (TRU) and TRU mixed waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  8. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Cameron M

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  9. Supplement Analysis to the 1999 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Proposed Disposition of Certain Large Containment Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-02-12

    This Supplement Analysis (SA) has been prepared to determine if the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS) (DOE/EIS-0238) (DOE 1999a) adequately addresses the environmental effects of introducing a proposed project for the clean-out and decontamination (DECON) of certain large containment vessels into the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area (TA) 3, or if the SWEIS needs to be supplemented. After undergoing the clean-out and DECON steps, the subject containment vessels would be disposed of at LANL's TA-54 low-level waste (LLW) disposal site or, as appropriate, at a DOE or commercial offsite permitted LLW-regulated landfill; after actinides were recovered from the DECON solution within the CMR Building, they would be moved to LANL's TA-55 Plutonium Facility and undergo subsequent processing at that facility for reuse. Council on Environmental Quality regulations at Title 40, Section 1502.9(c) of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 1502.9[c]) require federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement (EIS) when an agency makes substantial changes in the proposed action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are changed circumstances or new or changed information relevant to concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts. This SA is prepared in accordance with Section 10 CFR 10211.314(c) of the DOE's regulations for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementation that states: ''When it is unclear whether or not an EIS supplement is required, DOE shall prepare a Supplement Analysis''. This SA specifically compares key impact assessment parameters of the proposed project action with the LANL operations capabilities evaluated in the 1999 SWEIS in support DOE's long-term hydrodynamic testing program at LANL, as well as the waste disposal capabilities evaluated in

  10. Plutonium microstructures. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    This report is the first of three parts in which Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory metallographers exhibit a consolidated set of illustrations of inclusions that are seen in plutonium metal as a consequence of inherent and tramp impurities, alloy additions, and thermal or mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of nonmetallic and intermetallic inclusions characteristic of major impurity elements as an aid to identifying unknowns. It also describes historical aspects of the increased purity of laboratory plutonium samples, and it gives the composition of the etchant solutions and describes the etching procedure used in the preparation of each illustrated sample. 25 figures.

  11. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination for TOPAZ II uranium fuel pellet production at the Plutonium Handling Facility (PF-4), Technical Area 55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.J.P.

    1993-09-29

    Enriched uranium oxide, nitride, and carbide fuel pellets have been produced at PF-4 since the facility became operational in the late 1970s. The TOPAZ II reactors require fuel enriched to 97% uranium-235. Approximately 75 kilograms (kgs) of uranium will be processed per year in support of this program. The amount of fuel processed per year at PF-4 will not be increased for these programs, but the batch size will be increased to approximately 3 kgs of uranium. The current DOE-approved Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) calls for batches containing 45 grams (gms) of plutonium-239 and 172 gms of uranium-235. The impact of increasing the uranium batch size on the facility authorization basis is analyzed in the attached Safety Evaluation Worksheet. In addition, the structural modification for the transformer and vacuum pump installation, required to support the operation, is evaluated. Based on the attached Safety Evaluation, it has been determined that the change in uranium batch size does not constitute an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ), the increase in uranium batch size does not increase the probability or consequences of any accidents previously analyzed and does not create the possibility for a new type of accident or reduce the margin of safety in the Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs). Similarly, the structural modifications required for the transformer and vacuum pump installation do not increase the probability or consequence of any accident previously analyzed and do not create the possibility for a new type of accident or reduce any margin of safety in the OSRS.

  12. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, W.L.

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

  13. Plutonium controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  14. HENC performance evaluation and plutonium calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Pecos, J.M.; Davidson, D.R.; McElroy, R.D.; Brochu, D.B.

    1997-10-01

    The authors have designed a high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) to increase the plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The counter uses totals neutron counting, coincidence counting, and multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium mass. The HENC was developed as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the Department of Energy and Canberra Industries. This report presents the results of the detector modifications, the performance tests, the add-a-source calibration, and the plutonium calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-35) in 1996.

  15. High-Precision Plutonium Isotopic Compositions Measured on Los Alamos National Laboratory’s General’s Tanks Samples: Bearing on Model Ages, Reactor Modelling, and Sources of Material. Further Discussion of Chronometry

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Khalil J.; Rim, Jung Ho; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Roback, Robert Clifford; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Stanley, Floyd E.

    2015-06-29

    In this study, we re-analyzed late-1940’s, Manhattan Project era Plutonium-rich sludge samples recovered from the ''General’s Tanks'' located within the nation’s oldest Plutonium processing facility, Technical Area 21. These samples were initially characterized by lower accuracy, and lower precision mass spectrometric techniques. We report here information that was previously not discernable: the two tanks contain isotopically distinct Pu not only for the major (i.e., 240Pu, 239Pu) but trace (238Pu ,241Pu, 242Pu) isotopes. Revised isotopics slightly changed the calculated 241Am-241Pu model ages and interpretations.

  16. Plutonium pyrophoricity

    SciTech Connect

    Stakebake, J.L.

    1992-06-02

    A review of the published literature on ignition and burning of plutonium metal was conducted in order to better define the characteristic of pyrophoric plutonium. The major parameter affecting ignition is the surface area/mass ratio of the sample. Based on this parameter, plutonium metal can be classified into four categories: (1) bulk metal, (2) film and foils, (3) chips and turnings, and (4) powder. Other parameters that can alter the ignition of the metal include experimental, chemical, physical, and environmental effects. These effects are reviewed in this report. It was concluded from this review that pyrophoric plutonium can be conservatively defined as: Plutonium metal that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 150{degrees}C or below in the absence of external heat, shock, or friction. The 150{degrees}C temperature was used to compensate for the self-heating of plutonium metal. For a practical definition of whether any given metal is pyrophoric, all of the factors affecting ignition must be considered.

  17. PLUTONIUM PROCESSING OPTIMIZATION IN SUPPORT OF THE MOX FUEL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    GRAY, DEVIN W.; COSTA, DAVID A.

    2007-02-02

    After Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel completed polishing 125 Kg of plutonium as highly purified PuO{sub 2} from surplus nuclear weapons, Duke, COGEMA, Stone, and Webster (DCS) required as the next process stage, the validation and optimization of all phases of the plutonium polishing flow sheet. Personnel will develop the optimized parameters for use in the upcoming 330 kg production mission.

  18. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  19. A Preponderance of Elastic Properties of Alpha Plutonium Measured Via Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, Tarik A.; Farrow, Adam M.; Freibert, Franz J.

    2012-06-06

    Samples of {alpha} plutonium were fabricated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility. Cylindrical samples were machined from cast pucks. Precision immersion density and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) measurements were completed on 27 new samples, yielding elastic moduli measurements. Mechanical tests were performed in compression yielding stress-strain curves as a function of rate, temperature and phase.

  20. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Podlesak, David W; Steiner, Robert E.; Burns, Carol J.; LaMont, Stephen P.; Tandon, Lav

    2012-08-09

    The overview of this presentation is: (1) Introduction to nonproliferation efforts; (2) Scope of activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory; (3) Facilities for radioanalytical work at LANL; (4) Radiochemical characterization capabilities; and (5) Bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities. Some conclusions are: (1) Analytical chemistry measurements on plutonium and uranium matrices are critical to numerous defense and non-defense programs including safeguards accountancy verification measurements; (2) Los Alamos National Laboratory operates capable actinide analytical chemistry and material science laboratories suitable for nuclear material forensic characterization; (3) Actinide analytical chemistry uses numerous means to validate and independently verify that measurement data quality objectives are met; and (4) Numerous LANL nuclear facilities support the nuclear material handling, preparation, and analysis capabilities necessary to evaluate samples containing nearly any mass of an actinide (attogram to kilogram levels).

  1. Gas pycnometry for density determination of plutonium parts

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.; Randolph, H.W.

    1997-08-19

    The traditional method for plutonium density determination is by measuring the weight loss of the component when it is immersed in a liquid of known density, Archimedes` Principle. The most commonly used heavy liquids that are compatible for plutonium measurement are freon and monobromobenzene, but these pose serious environmental and health hazards. The contaminated liquid is also a radiological waste concern with difficult disposition. A gaseous medium would eliminate these environmental and health concerns. A collaborative research effort between the Savannah River Technology Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory was undertaken to determine the feasibility of a gaseous density measurement process for plutonium hemishells.

  2. Plutonium story

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G T

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  3. Plutonium Story

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  4. Plutonium process control using an advanced on-line gamma monitor for uranium, plutonium, and americium

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Miller, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    An on-line gamma monitor has been developed to profile uranium, plutonium, and americium in waste and product streams of the anion exchange process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The gamma monitor employs passive gamma spectrometry to measure /sup 241/Am and /sup 239/Pu, based on their 59.5-keV and 129-keV gamma rays, respectively. Because natural and depleted uranium present in typical process streams have no gamma rays suitable for measurement by such passive methods, uranium measurement requires a novel and less direct technique. Plutonium-241, which is always present in plutonium processed at Los Alamos, decays primarily by beta emission to form /sup 241/Am. However, a small fraction of /sup 241/Pu decays by alpha emission to 6.8-day /sup 237/U. The short half-life and 208-keV gamma energy of /sup 237/U make it an ideal radiotracer to mark the position of macro amounts of uranium impurity in the separation process. The real-time data obtained from an operating process allow operators to optimize many process parameters. The gamma monitor also provides a permanent record of the daily performance of each ion exchange system. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Edward F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Current and post World War II scientific research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) is discussed. The operation of the laboratory, the Los Alamos consultant program, and continuation education, and continuing education activities at the laboratory are also discussed. (JN)

  6. PROCESS MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR RECOVERY OF PUBE SOURCES AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    D. KORNREICH; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains one of the premier plutonium processing facilities in the country. The plutonium facility supports several defense- and nondefense-related missions. This paper describes process-modeling efforts focused on the operations related to the Radioactive Source Recovery Program, which recovers the plutonium from plutonium-beryllium neutron sources. This program accomplishes at least two goals: it is evidence of good stewardship of a national resource, plutonium, and destroys a potential health hazard, the neutron source, by separating the plutonium from the beryllium in sources that are no longer being used in various industries or the military. We examine the processes related to source recovery operations in terms of throughput, ionizing radiation exposure to workers, and mass balances using two discrete-event simulation tools: Extend{trademark}, which is commercially available; and ProMoS, which is in-house software specifically tailored for modeling nuclear-materials operations.

  7. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  8. Additional short-term plutonium urinary excretion data from the 1945-1947 plutonium injection studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.D.; Gautier, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of plutonium excreted per day following intravenous injection was shown to be significantly higher than predicted by the Langham power function model. Each of the Los Alamos National Laboratory notebooks used to record the original analytical data was studied for details that could influence the findings. It was discovered there were additional urine excretion data for case HP-3. This report presents the additional data, as well as data on case HP-6. (ACR)

  9. Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

    2012-01-26

    "Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

  10. Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos

    ScienceCinema

    McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

    2014-08-12

    "Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

  11. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  12. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  13. The cement solidification systems at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    There are two major cement solidification systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both are focused primarily around treating waste from the evaporator at TA-55, the Plutonium Processing Facility. The evaporator receives the liquid waste stream from TA-55's nitric acid-based, aqueous-processing operations and concentrates the majority of the radionuclides in the evaporator bottoms solution. This is sent to the TA-55 cementation system. The evaporator distillate is sent to the TA-50 facility, where the radionuclides are precipitated and then cemented. Both systems treat TRU-level waste, and so are operated according to the criteria for WIPP-destined waste, but they differ in both cement type and mixing method. The TA-55 systems uses Envirostone, a gypsum-based cement and in-drum prop mixing; the TA-50 systems uses Portland cement and drum tumbling for mixing.

  14. STRIPPING PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-10-01

    A method for removing silver, nickel, cadmium, zinc, and indium coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive is described. The coated plutonium object is immersed as the anode in an electrolyte in which the plutonium is passive and the coating metal is not passive, using as a cathode a metal which does not dissolve rapidly in the electrolyte. and passing an electrical current through the electrolyte until the coating metal is removed from the plutonium body.

  15. Los Alamos offers Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico is calling for applications for postdoctoral appointments and research fellowships. The positions are available in geoscience as well as other scientific disciplines.The laboratory, which is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy, awards J. Robert Oppenheimer Research Fellowships to scientists that either have or will soon complete doctoral degrees. The appointments are for two years, are renewable for a third year, and carry a stipend of $51,865 per year. Potential applicants should send a resume or employment application and a statement of research goals to Carol M. Rich, Div. 89, Human Resources Development Division, MS P290, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 by mid-November.

  16. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates To Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Bobby, R.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Zhou, Yue; Tokarskaya, Zoya, B.; Zhuntova, Galina, V.; Osovets, Sergey, V.; Syrchikov, Victor, A.; Pesternikova, Valentina, S.; Belyaeva, Zinaida, D.; Khokhryakov, Valentin, F; Vasilenko, Evgeny, K.; Okladnikova, Nadezhda D.

    2004-12-10

    circumstances risk would not be expected to increase linearly as dose increases. Results presented in this report facilitate making such assessments. We have developed and published a novel theoretical approach to characterizing the variability among different individuals associated with inhaled plutonium dioxide (PuO2). The approach is probabilistic and explains the large variability observed in association with worker exposure to 238PuO2 at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the March 16, 2000, accident in the Plutonium Processing and Handling Facility [Technical Area (TA) -55] involving a glovebox leak.

  17. Plutonium Immobilization Puck Handling

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-01-26

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize excess plutonium and store the plutonium in a high level waste radiation field. To accomplish these goals, the PIP will process various forms of plutonium into plutonium oxide, mix the oxide powder with ceramic precursors, press the mixture into pucks, sinter the pucks into a ceramic puck, load the pucks into metal cans, seal the cans, load the cans into magazines, and load the magazines into a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) canister. These canisters will be sent to the DWPF, an existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facility, where molten high level waste glass will be poured into the canisters encapsulating the ceramic pucks. Due to the plutonium radiation, remote equipment will perform these operations in a contained environment. The Plutonium Immobilization Project is in the early design stages and the facility will begin operation in 2005. This paper will discuss the Plutonium Immobilization puck handling conceptual design and the puck handling equipment testing.

  18. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-02-01

    Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

  19. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Burger, L.L.; Roake, W.E.

    1961-07-11

    A process of producing plutonium trifluoride by reacting dry plutonium(IV) oxalate with chlorofluorinated methane or ethane at 400 to 450 deg C and cooling the product in the absence of oxygen is described.

  20. PROCESS FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Mastick, D.F.; Wigner, E.P.

    1958-05-01

    A method is described of separating plutonium from small amounts of uranium and other contaminants. An acidic aqueous solution of higher valent plutonium and hexavalent uranium is treated with a soluble iodide to obtain the plutonium in the plus three oxidation state while leaving the uranium in the hexavalent state, adding a soluble oxalate such as oxalic acid, and then separating the insoluble plus the plutonium trioxalate from the solution.

  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic database analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.V.; Rogers, P.S.Z.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; LeBrun, D.B.

    1997-02-01

    This paper represents an overview of analyses conducted on the TRU database maintained by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This evaluation was conducted to support the ``TRU Waste Workoff Strategies`` document and provides an estimation of the waste volume that potentially could be certified and ready for shipment to (WIPP) in April of 1998. Criteria defined in the WIPP WAC, including container type, weight limits, plutonium fissile gram equivalents and decay heat, were used to evaluated the waste for compliance. LANL evaluated the containers by facility and by waste stream to determining the most efficient plan for characterization and certification of the waste. Evaluation of the waste presently in storage suggested that 40- 60% potentially meets the WIPP WAC Rev. 5 criteria.

  2. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, David M.

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  3. Detection and measurement of gamma-ray self-attenuation in plutonium residues

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.; Foster, L.A.; Estep, R.J.

    1996-09-01

    A new method to correct for self-attenuation in gamma-ray assays of plutonium is presented. The underlying assumptions of the technique are based on a simple but accurate physical model of plutonium residues, particularly pyrochemical salts, in which it is assumed that the plutonium is divided into two portions, each of which can be treated separately from the standpoint of gamma-ray analysis: a portion that is in the form of plutonium metal shot; and a dilute portion that is mixed with the matrix. The performance of the technique is evaluated using assays of plutonium residues by tomographic gamma scanning at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The ability of the method to detect saturation conditions is examined.

  4. PLUTONIUM CLEANING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for rapidly removing iron, nickel, and zinc coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive. The method consists of immersing the coated plutonium object in an aqueous acid solution containing a substantial concentration of nitrate ions, such as fuming nitric acid.

  5. Plutonium immobilization -- Can loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-02-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP adds the excess plutonium to ceramic pucks, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into DWPF canisters. This paper discusses the PIP process steps, the can loading conceptual design, can loading equipment design, and can loading work completed.

  6. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  7. Inventory difference analysis at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.; Armstrong, J.M.; Longmire, V.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1997-09-01

    The authors have developed a prototype computer program that reads directly the inventory entries from a Microsoft Access data base. Based on historical data, the program then displays temporal trends and constructs a library of rules that encapsulates the system behavior. The following analysis of inventory data is illustrated by using a combination of realistic and simulated facility examples. Potential payoffs of this methodology include a reduction in time and resources needed to perform statistical tests and broad applicability to Department of Energy needs--for example, treaty verification.

  8. The Los Alamos primer

    SciTech Connect

    Serber, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the 1943 lecture notes of Robert Serber. Serber was a protege of J. Robert Oppenheimer and member of the team that built the first atomic bomb - reveal what the Los Alamos scientists knew, and did not know, about the terrifying weapon they were building.

  9. History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-18

    The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

  10. Plutonium and the Rio Grande: Environmental change and contamination in the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, W.L.

    1994-12-31

    An attempt is made to analyze questions concerning the issue of plutonium in the Rio Grande. The author describes in great detail how he arrived at the conclusions. The objective has been to produce research that is absolutely transparent, so that its results can be fairly evaluated and duplicated by anyone. The results of this work show that plutonium from Los Alamos National Laboratory and atmospheric fallout has been deposited along the Rio Grande in small, though detectable, quantities in certain predictable places.

  11. TA-55 Hot CMM Calibration Tolerance Analysis (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Montano, Joshua D.

    2012-06-12

    The Hot Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), a Brown and Sharpe Xcel 765, has specifications listed by the manufacture of 4.5 + L/250 {micro}m for volumetric performance, 3.5 {micro}m for probing and 4.5 {micro}m for scanning. An upgrade was performed on the machine increasing its performance capability. This document reviews calibration data gathered after the upgrade over a five year period (2005-2010) and recommends a new specification of 3.0 + L/250 {micro}m for size, 3.3 {micro}m for probing, and 4.3 {micro}m for scanning. The new equations are an approximate 30% increase in accuracy for size and approximately 5% increase for probing and scanning.

  12. In search of plutonium: A nonproliferation journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Siegfried

    2010-02-01

    In February 1992, I landed in the formerly secret city of Sarov, the Russian Los Alamos, followed a few days later by a visit to Snezhinsk, their Livermore. The briefings we received of the Russian nuclear weapons program and tours of their plutonium, reactor, explosives, and laser facilities were mind boggling considering the Soviet Union was dissolved only two months earlier. This visit began a 17-year, 41 journey relationship with the Russian nuclear complex dedicated to working with them in partnership to protect and safeguard their weapons and fissile materials, while addressing the plight of their scientists and engineers. In the process, we solved a forty-year disagreement about the plutonium-gallium phase diagram and began a series of fundamental plutonium science workshops that are now in their tenth year. At the Yonbyon reprocessing facility in January 2004, my North Korean hosts had hoped to convince me that they have a nuclear deterrent. When I expressed skepticism, they asked if I wanted to see their ``product.'' I asked if they meant the plutonium; they replied, ``Well, yes.'' Thus, I wound up holding 200 grams of North Korean plutonium (in a sealed glass jar) to make sure it was heavy and warm. So began the first of my six journeys to North Korea to provide technical input to the continuing North Korean nuclear puzzle. In Trombay and Kalpakkam a few years later I visited the Indian nuclear research centers to try to understand how India's ambitious plans for nuclear power expansion can be accomplished safely and securely. I will describe these and other attempts to deal with the nonproliferation legacy of the cold war and the new challenges ahead. )

  13. Personnel neutron dosimetry improvements at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.F.; Hoffman, J.M.; Brake, R.J.; Bliss, J.L.

    1992-08-01

    We are investigating methods to improve neutron dosimetry at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the track etch dosemeter CR-39. Specifically, use of CR-39 for dynamic environments, typically encountered at the LANL Plutonium Facility, is shown to be a superior method for personnel neutron dosimetry when compared to the currently used TLD system. The results of glovebox experiments simulating hydrogenous shielding used at LANL, temporal variations of neutron correction factors used at the Plutonium Facility, trial implementation at this facility and preliminary neutron spectroscopy measurements are presented and compared to reference dosimetry measurements. Our results confirm that use of a TLD system in a facility implementing hydrogenous shielding requires frequent field re-calibration. When such correction factors are not re-evaluated frequently, or are maintained at pre-shielding levels, significant (i.e., 2- to 3-fold) overestimation of the neutron dose equivalent can occur.

  14. Personnel neutron dosimetry improvements at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.F.; Hoffman, J.M.; Brake, R.J. ); Bliss, J.L. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    We are investigating methods to improve neutron dosimetry at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the track etch dosemeter CR-39. Specifically, use of CR-39 for dynamic environments, typically encountered at the LANL Plutonium Facility, is shown to be a superior method for personnel neutron dosimetry when compared to the currently used TLD system. The results of glovebox experiments simulating hydrogenous shielding used at LANL, temporal variations of neutron correction factors used at the Plutonium Facility, trial implementation at this facility and preliminary neutron spectroscopy measurements are presented and compared to reference dosimetry measurements. Our results confirm that use of a TLD system in a facility implementing hydrogenous shielding requires frequent field re-calibration. When such correction factors are not re-evaluated frequently, or are maintained at pre-shielding levels, significant (i.e., 2- to 3-fold) overestimation of the neutron dose equivalent can occur.

  15. Electronic structure, phase transitions and diffusive properties of elemental plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setty, Arun; Cooper, B. R.

    2003-03-01

    We present a SIC-LDA-LMTO based study of the electronic structure of the delta, alpha and gamma phases of plutonium, and also of the alpha and gamma phases of elemental cerium. We find excellent agreement with the experimental densities and magnetic properties [1]. Furthermore, detailed studies of the computational densities of states for delta plutonium, and comparison with the experimental photoemission spectrum [2], provide evidence for the existence of an unusual fluctuating valence state. Results regarding the vacancy formation and self-diffusion in delta plutonium will be presented. Furthermore, a study of interface diffusion between plutonium and steel (technologically relevant in the storage of spent fuel) or other technologically relevant alloys will be included. Preliminary results regarding gallium stabilization of delta plutonium, and of plutonium alloys will be presented. [1] M. Dormeval et al., private communication (2001). [2] A. J. Arko, J. J. Joyce, L. Morales, J. Wills, and J. Lashley et. al., Phys. Rev. B, 62, 1773 (2000). [3] B. R. Cooper et al, Phil. Mag. B 79, 683 (1999); B.R. Cooper, Los Alamos Science 26, 106 (2000)); B.R. Cooper, A.K. Setty and D.L.Price, to be published.

  16. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1958-11-01

    A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

  17. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  18. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Heal, H.G.

    1960-02-16

    BS>A method of separating plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions of plutonium, uranium. and high beta activity fission products is given. The pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted between 3.0 to 6.0 with ammonium acetate, ferric nitrate is added, and the solution is heated to 80 to 100 deg C to selectively form a basic ferric plutonium-carrying precipitate.

  19. Gamma-ray isotopic analysis development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Sampson

    1999-11-01

    This report describes the development history and characteristics of software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology group at Los Alamos for gamma-ray isotopic analysis. This software analyzes the gamma-ray spectrum from measurements performed on actinide samples (principally plutonium and uranium) of arbitrary size, geometry, and physical and chemical composition. The results are obtained without calibration using only fundamental tabulated nuclear constants. Characteristics of the current software versions are discussed in some detail and many examples of implemented measurement systems are shown.

  20. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-07-01

    Methods are presented for the electro-deposition of plutonium from fused mixtures of plutonium halides and halides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. Th salts, preferably chlorides and with the plutonium prefer ably in the trivalent state, are placed in a refractory crucible such as tantalum or molybdenam and heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to 600 to 850 deg C, the higher temperatatures being used to obtain massive plutonium and the lower for the powder form. Electrodes of graphite or non reactive refractory metals are used, the crucible serving the cathode in one apparatus described in the patent.

  1. Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

    1974-02-26

    This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

  2. Trawsfynydd Plutonium Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Bruce D.; Gerlach, David C.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Livingston, J.

    2009-11-20

    Report serves to document an estimate of the cumulative plutonium production of the Trawsfynydd Unit II reactor (Traws II) over its operating life made using the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The estimate of the plutonium production in Traws II provided in this report has been generated under blind conditions. In other words, the estimate ofthe Traws II plutonium production has been generated without the knowledge of the plutonium production declared by the reactor operator (Nuclear Electric). The objective of this report is to demonstrate that the GIRM can be employed to serve as an accurate tool to verify weapons materials production declarations.

  3. Russian youth forum special session: Youth and the global political challenges of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, J.C.

    1998-12-31

    This paper, given by the director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, briefly points out the unusual properties of plutonium, for example, its most unusual electronic structure, its sensitivity to changes in temperature, pressure, and chemical alloying, and its great propensity for oxygen and hydrogen. The combination of nuclear and electronic processes it undergoes complicate the behavior also.

  4. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  5. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wolter, F.J.

    1957-09-10

    A process of electrolytically recovering plutonium from dilute aqueous solutions containing plutonium ions comprises electrolyzing the solution at a current density of about 0.44 ampere per square centimeter in the presence of an acetate-sulfate buffer while maintaining the pH of the solution at substantially 5 and using a stirred mercury cathode.

  6. PROCESS OF OXIDIZING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Coryell, C.D.

    1959-08-25

    The oxidation of plutonium to the plus six valence state is described. The oxidation is accomplished by treating the plutonium in aqueous solution with a solution above 0.01 molar in argentic ion, above 1.1 molar in nitric acid, and above 0.02 molar in argentous ion.

  7. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  8. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  9. Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, E.L.

    1999-01-26

    This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

  10. 31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, A MAN-MADE SUBSTANCE, WAS RARE. SCRAPS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION AND PLUTONIUM RECOVERED FROM RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS WERE REPROCESSED INTO VALUABLE PURE-PLUTONIUM METAL (9/19/73). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  12. LANL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.; Ludwig, S.B.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. LANL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within both Category 1 and 2 areas. Technical Area (TA) 55/Plutonium Facility 4 will be used to store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, assemble rods, and store fuel bundles. Bundles will be assembled at a separate facility, several of which have been identified as suitable for that activity. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building (at TA-3) will be used for analytical chemistry support. Waste operations will be conducted in TA-50 and TA-54. Only very minor modifications will be needed to accommodate the LA program. These modifications consist mostly of minor equipment upgrades. A commercial reactor operator has not been identified for the LA irradiation. Postirradiation examination (PIE) of the irradiated fuel will take place at either Oak Ridge National Laboratory or ANL-W. The only modifications required at either PIE site would be to accommodate full-length irradiated fuel rods. Results from this program are critical to the overall plutonium distribution schedule.

  13. Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Tallent, Othar K.

    1978-01-01

    The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dogliani, Harold O

    2011-01-19

    The purpose of the briefing is to describe general laboratory technical capabilities to be used for various groups such as military cadets or university faculty/students and post docs to recruit into a variety of Los Alamos programs. Discussed are: (1) development and application of high leverage science to enable effeictive, predictable and reliability outcomes; (2) deter, detect, characterize, reverse and prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their use by adversaries and terrorists; (3) modeling and simulation to define complex processes, predict outcomes, and develop effective prevention, response, and remediation strategies; (4) energetic materials and hydrodynamic testing to develop materials for precise delivery of focused energy; (5) materials cience focused on fundamental understanding of materials behaviors, their quantum-molecular properties, and their dynamic responses, and (6) bio-science to rapidly detect and characterize pathogens, to develop vaccines and prophylactic remedies, and to develop attribution forensics.

  15. Customer service model for waste tracking at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorries, Alison M; Montoya, Andrew J; Ashbaugh, Andrew E

    2010-11-10

    The deployment of any new software system in a production facility will always face multiple hurtles in reaching a successful acceptance. However, a new waste tracking system was required at the plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) where waste processing must be integrated to handle Special Nuclear Materials tracking requirements. Waste tracking systems can enhance the processing of waste in production facilities when the system is developed with a focus on customer service throughout the project life cycle. In March 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Technical Services (WTS) replaced the aging systems and infrastructure that were being used to support the plutonium processing facility. The Waste Technical Services (WTS) Waste Compliance and Tracking System (WCATS) Project Team, using the following customer service model, succeeded in its goal to meet all operational and regulatory requirements, making waste processing in the facility more efficient while partnering with the customer.

  16. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  17. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Michael I.

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  18. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, D.

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  19. PLUTONIUM SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.; Stevenson, F.R.; Rollefson, G.K.

    1958-11-18

    The recovery of plutonium ions from neutron irradiated uranium can be accomplished by bufferlng an aqueous solutlon of the irradiated materials containing tetravalent plutonium to a pH of 4 to 7, adding sufficient acetate to the solution to complex the uranyl present, adding ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide, plutonlum, and associated fission products, removing and dissolving the colloid in aqueous nitric acid, oxldizlng the plutonium to the hexavalent state by adding permanganate or dichromate, treating the resultant solution with ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide and associated fission products, and separating the colloid from the plutonlum left in solution.

  20. PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

    1963-07-16

    Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

  1. Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Joe A; Smith, Paul H; Psaras, John D; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Costa, David A; Joyce, Jr., Edward L

    2009-01-01

    The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

  2. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  3. Plutonium: Requiem or reprieve

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Many scientific discoveries have had profound effects on humanity and its future. However, the discovery of fissionable characteristics of a man-made element, plutonium, discovered in 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and associates, has probably had the greatest impact on world affairs. Although about 20 new elements have been synthesized since 1940, element 94 unarguably had the most dramatic impact when it was introduced to the world as the core of the nuclear bomb dropped on Nagasaki. Ever since, large quantities of this element have been produced, and it has had a major role in maintaining peace during the past 50 years. in addition, the rapid spread of nuclear power technology worldwide contributed to major growth in the production of plutonium as a by-product. This article discusses the following issues related to plutonium: plutonium from Nuclear Power Generation; environmental safety and health issues; health effects; safeguards issues; extended storage; disposal options.

  4. Plutonium microstructures, part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, E. M.; Bergin, J. B.

    1981-09-01

    Illustrations of inclusions that are seen in plutonium metal as a consequence of inherent and tramp impurities, alloy additions, and thermal or mechanical treatments are presented. This part includes illustrations of nonmetallic and intermetallic inclusions characteristic of major impurity elements as an aid to identifying unknowns are included. Historical aspects of the increased purity of laboratory plutonium samples are described and the composition of the etchant solutions are given. The etching procedure used in the preparation of each illustrated sample is described.

  5. Historic Manhattan Project Sites at Los Alamos

    ScienceCinema

    McGehee, Ellen

    2014-05-22

    The Manhattan Project laboratory constructed at Los Alamos, New Mexico, beginning in 1943, was intended from the start to be temporary and to go up with amazing speed. Because most of those WWII-era facilities were built with minimal materials and so quickly, much of the original infrastructure was torn down in the late '40s and early '50s and replaced by more permanent facilities. However, a few key facilities remained, and are being preserved and maintained for historic significance. Four such sites are visited briefly in this video, taking viewers to V-Site, the buildings where the first nuclear explosive device was pre-assembled in preparation for the Trinity Test in Southern New Mexico. Included is another WWII area, Gun Site. So named because it was the area where scientists and engineers tested the so-called "gun method" of assembling nuclear materials -- the fundamental design of the Little Boy weapon that was eventually dropped on Hiroshima. The video also goes to Pajarito Site, home of the "Slotin Building" and "Pond Cabin." The Slotin Building is the place where scientist Louis Slotin conducted a criticality experiment that went awry in early 1946, leading to his unfortunate death, and the Pond Cabin served the team of eminent scientist Emilio Segre who did early chemistry work on plutonium that ultimately led to the Fat Man weapon.

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Neu, Mary

    2010-06-02

    Mary Neu, Associate Director for Chemistry, Life and Earth Sciences at Los Alamos National Laboratory, delivers opening remarks at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  7. Materials identification and surveillance project item evaluation: Items, impure plutonium oxide (ATL27960) and pure plutonium oxide (PEOR3258)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.; Appert, Q.; Davis, C.

    1997-03-01

    In this report, Los Alamos scientists characterize properties relevant to storage of an impure plutonium oxide (74 mass % plutonium) in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-3013-96. This oxide is of interest because it is the first impure plutonium oxide sample to be evaluated and it is similar to other materials that must be stored. Methods used to characterize the oxide at certain points during calcination include surface-area analyses, mass loss-on-ignition (LOI) measurements, elemental analysis, moisture-adsorption measurements, and quantitative supercritical-CO{sub 2} extraction of adsorbed water. Significant decreases in the LOI and surface area occurred as the oxide was calcined at progressively increasing temperatures. Studies indicate that supercritical-CO{sub 2} extraction is an effective method for removing adsorbed water from oxides. We extracted the water from powdered oxides (high-purity ZrO{sub 2}, pure PuO{sub 2}, and impure plutonium oxide) using CO{sub 2} at 3000 psi pressure and 75{degrees}C, and we quantitatively determined it by using gravimetric and dew-point procedures. The effectiveness of the extraction method is demonstrated by good agreement between the amounts of water extracted from pure zirconium and plutonium dioxides and the mass changes obtained from LOI analyses. However, the amount of moisture (0.025 mass %) extracted from the impure plutonium oxide after it had been calcined at 950{degrees}C and stored for a period of months is much less than the LOI value (0.97 mass %). These results imply that the impure plutonium oxide is free of adsorbed water after calcination at 950{degrees}C, even though the sample does not satisfy the LOI requirement of <0.50 mass % for storage.

  8. Evaluation and calibration of a Los Alamos National Laboratory L/sub III/-edge densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    McGonnagle, W.J.; Holland, M.K.; Reynolds, C.S.; Trahey, N.M.; Zook, A.C.

    1983-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) has evaluated and calibrated an L/sub III/-edge densitometer for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This prototype instrument was designed for nondestructive on-line measurement of uranium and/or plutonium solutions. The sensitivity was optimized for measuring the uranium and plutonium concentrations in mixed solutions typical of those produced by solvent extraction in the U-Pu fuel cycle. Foil assays were performed on a daily basis to monitor the measurement precision and the stability of the calibration. Traceable reference solutions prepared at NBL were used to calibrate and evaluate the system. For solutions containing approximately 50 grams of uranium and/or plutonium per liter, the relative standard deviation for the L-edge measurements was approximately 0.3%. This experimental evaluation demonstrated that the solution matrix did not influence the results. The instrument performance in a laboratory environment was excellent.

  9. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system.

  10. Management of disused plutonium sealed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, Julia Rose; Pearson, Michael W; Abeyta, Cristy

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources since 1999, including more than 2,400 Plutonium (Pu)-238 sealed sources and 653 Pu-239-bearing sources that represent more than 10% of the total sources recovered by GTRI/OSRP to date. These sources have been recovered from hundreds of sites within the United States (US) and around the world. OSRP grew out of early efforts at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program, a loan-lease program that serviced 31 countries, as well as domestic users. In the conduct of these recovery operations, GTRI/OSRP has been required to solve problems related to knowledge-of-inventory, packaging and transportation of fissile and heat-source materials, transfer of ownership, storage of special nuclear material (SNM) both at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and commercially, and disposal. Unique issues associated with repatriation from foreign countries, including end user agreements required by some European countries and denials of shipment, will also be discussed.

  11. System for imaging plutonium through heavy shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Cannon, T.M.; Fenimore, E.E.; Moss, C.E.; Nixon, K.V.

    1984-04-01

    A single pinhole can be used to image strong self-luminescent gamma-ray sources such as plutonium on gamma scintillation (Anger) cameras. However, if the source is weak or heavily shielded, a poor signal to noise ratio can prevent acquisition of the image. An imaging system designed and built at Los Alamos National Laboratory uses a coded aperture to image heavily shielded sources. The paper summarizes the mathematical techniques, based on the Fast Delta Hadamard transform, used to decode raw images. Practical design considerations such as the phase of the uniformly redundant aperture and the encoded image sampling are discussed. The imaging system consists of a custom designed m-sequence coded aperture, a Picker International Corporation gamma scintillation camera, a LeCroy 3500 data acquisition system, and custom imaging software. The paper considers two sources - 1.5 mCi /sup 57/Co unshielded at a distance of 27 m and 220 g of bulk plutonium (11.8% /sup 240/Pu) with 0.3 cm lead, 2.5 cm steel, and 10 cm of dense plastic material at a distance of 77.5 cm. Results show that the location and geometry of a source hidden in a large sealed package can be determined without having to open the package. 6 references, 4 figures.

  12. Plutonium disproportionation: the ambiguity phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Silver, G L

    2003-05-01

    Plutonium oxidation-state studies may yield ambiguous results if the parameters are not carefully chosen. The effect can be related to environmental plutonium as illustrated by an example. PMID:12735968

  13. INTERCOMPARISON OF PLUTONIUM-239 MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1977 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency distributed calibrated solutions of plutonium-239 to laboratories interested in participating in an intercomparison study of plutonium analysis. Participants were asked to perform a quantitative radioactivity analysis of the soluti...

  14. METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

  15. METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

  16. Renovation of the hot press in the Plutonium Experimental Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J.W.; Nelson, G.H.

    1990-03-05

    The Plutonium Experimental Facility (PEF) will be used to develop a new fuel pellet fabrication process and to evaluate equipment upgrades. The facility was used from 1978 until 1982 to optimize the parameters for fuel pellet production using a process which was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PEF was shutdown and essentially abandoned until mid-1987 when the facility renovations were initiated by the Actinide Technology Section (ATS) of SRL. A major portion of the renovation work was related to the restart of the hot press system. This report describes the renovations and modifications which were required to restart the PEF hot press. The primary purpose of documenting this work is to help provide a basis for Separations to determine the best method of renovating the hot press in the Plutonium Fuel Fabrication (PuFF) facility. This report also includes several SRL recommendations concerning the renovation and modification of the PuFF hot press. 4 refs.

  17. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  18. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOEpatents

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  19. Experience making mixed oxide fuel with plutonium from dismantled weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, H.T.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    Mixed depleted UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} (MOX) pellets prototypic of fuel proposed for use in commercial power reactors were made with plutonium recovered from dismantled weapons. We characterized plutonium dioxide powders that were produced at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LANL and LLNL) using various methods to recover the plutonium from weapons parts and to convert It to oxide. The gallium content of the PUO{sub 2} prepared at LANL was the same as in the weapon alloy while the content of that prepared at LLNL was less. The MOX was prepared with a five weight percent plutonium content. We tested various MOX powders milling methods to improve homogeneity and found vibratory milling superior to ball milling. The sintering behavior of pellets made with the PuO{sub 2} from the two laboratories was similar. We evaluated the effects of gallium and of erbium and gadolinium, that are added to the MOX fuel as deplorable neutron absorbers, on the pellet fabrication process and an the sintered pellets. The gallium content of the sintered pellets was <10 ppm, suggesting that the gallium will not be an issue in the reactor, but that it will be an Issue in the operation of the fuel fabrication processing equipment unless it is removed from the PuO{sub 2} before it is blended with the UO{sub 2}.

  20. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaher, B.M.; Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.; Benjamin, T.M.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-10-01

    For more than three decades, Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. By measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate that the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1,000-fold along a 3,000-ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory-derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicate off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  1. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaher, B.M.; Benjamin, T.M.; Rokop, D.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-09-22

    For more than three decades Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. Be measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1000 fold along a 3000 ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicates off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  2. Plutonium in Concentrated Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Sue B.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2002-08-01

    Complex, high ionic strength media are used throughout the plutonium cycle, from its processing and purification in nitric acid, to waste storage and processing in alkaline solutions of concentrated electrolytes, to geologic disposal in brines. Plutonium oxidation/reduction, stability, radiolysis, solution and solid phase chemistry have been studied in such systems. In some cases, predictive models for describing Pu chemistry under such non-ideal conditions have been developed, which are usually based on empirical databases describing specific ion interactions. In Chapter 11, Non-Ideal Systems, studies on the behavior of Pu in various complex media and available model descriptions are reviewed.

  3. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  4. Plutonium: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element.

  5. RFQ development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Crandall, K.R.; Stokes, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac are reviewed and a summary of past and present Los Alamos work is presented. Some beam-dynamics effects, important for RFQ design, are discussed. A design example is shown for xenon and a brief discussion of low-frequency RFQ structures is given.

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  7. Plutonium age dating reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Monika; Richter, Stephan; Aregbe, Yetunde; Wellum, Roger; Mayer, Klaus; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Although the age determination of plutonium is and has been a pillar of nuclear forensic investigations for many years, additional research in the field of plutonium age dating is still needed and leads to new insights as the present work shows: Plutonium is commonly dated with the help of the 241Pu/241Am chronometer using gamma spectrometry; in fewer cases the 240Pu/236U chronometer has been used. The age dating results of the 239Pu/235U chronometer and the 238Pu/234U chronometer are scarcely applied in addition to the 240Pu/236U chronometer, although their results can be obtained simultaneously from the same mass spectrometric experiments as the age dating result of latter. The reliability of the result can be tested when the results of different chronometers are compared. The 242Pu/238U chronometer is normally not evaluated at all due to its sensitivity to contamination with natural uranium. This apparent 'weakness' that renders the age dating results of the 242Pu/238U chronometer almost useless for nuclear forensic investigations, however turns out to be an advantage looked at from another perspective: the 242Pu/238U chronometer can be utilized as an indicator for uranium contamination of plutonium samples and even help to identify the nature of this contamination. To illustrate this the age dating results of all four Pu/U clocks mentioned above are discussed for one plutonium sample (NBS 946) that shows no signs of uranium contamination and for three additional plutonium samples. In case the 242Pu/238U chronometer results in an older 'age' than the other Pu/U chronometers, contamination with either a small amount of enriched or with natural or depleted uranium is for example possible. If the age dating result of the 239Pu/235U chronometer is also influenced the nature of the contamination can be identified; enriched uranium is in this latter case a likely cause for the missmatch of the age dating results of the Pu/U chronometers.

  8. 4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Plutonium metal exchange program : current status and statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Eglin, J. L.; Michalak, S. E.; Picard, R. R.; Temer, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plutonium (Pu) Metal Sample Exchange program was conducted to insure the quality and intercomparability of measurements such as Pu assay, Pu isotopics, and impurity analyses. The Rocky Flats program was discontinued in 1989 after more than 30 years. In 2001, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) reestablished the Pu Metal Exchange program. In addition to the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston, six Department of Energy (DOE) facilities Argonne East, Argonne West, Livermore, Los Alamos, New Brunswick Laboratory, and Savannah River are currently participating in the program. Plutonium metal samples are prepared and distributed to the sites for destructive measurements to determine elemental concentration, isotopic abundance, and both metallic and nonmetallic impurity levels. The program provides independent verification of analytical measurement capabilies for each participating facility and allows problems in analytical methods to be identified. The current status of the program will be discussed with emphasis on the unique statistical analysis and modeling of the data developed for the program. The discussion includes the definition of the consensus values for each analyte (in the presence and absence of anomalous values and/or censored values), and interesting features of the data and the results.

  10. Surprising Coordination for Plutonium in the First Plutonium (III) Borate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-02-22

    The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu2[B12O18(OH)4Br2(H2O)3]·0.5H2O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

  11. Oxidation of plutonium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Korzhavyi, Pavel A; Vitos, Levente; Andersson, David A; Johansson, Börje

    2004-04-01

    The physics and chemistry of the actinide elements form the scientific basis for rational handling of nuclear materials. In recent experiments, most unexpectedly, plutonium dioxide has been found to react with water to form higher oxides up to PuO(2.27), whereas PuO(2) had always been thought to be the highest stable oxide of plutonium. We perform a theoretical analysis of this complicated situation on the basis of total energies calculated within density functional theory combined with well-established thermodynamic data. The reactions of PuO(2) with either O(2) or H(2)O to form PuO(2+delta) are calculated to be endothermic: that is, in order to occur they require a supply of energy. However, our calculations show that PuO(2+delta) can be formed, as an intermediate product, by reactions with the products of radiolysis of water, such as H(2)O(2). PMID:15034561

  12. MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

    1962-02-27

    A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

  13. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-01

    Pu-U-Fe and Pu-U-Co alloys suitable for use as fuel elements tn fast breeder reactors are described. The advantages of these alloys are ease of fabrication without microcracks, good corrosion restatance, and good resistance to radiation damage. These advantages are secured by limitation of the zeta phase of plutonium in favor of a tetragonal crystal structure of the U/sub 6/Mn type.

  14. Plutonium recovery from organic materials

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1973-12-11

    A method is described for removing plutonium or the like from organic material wherein the organic material is leached with a solution containing a strong reducing agent such as titanium (III) (Ti/sup +3None)/, chromium (II) (Cr/ sup +2/), vanadium (II) (V/sup +2/) ions, or ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), the leaching yielding a plutonium-containing solution that is further processed to recover plutonium. The leach solution may also contain citrate or tartrate ion. (Official Gazette)

  15. PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anicetti, R.J.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

  16. Gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingo, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Investigation of plutonium dioxide as an isotopic fuel for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators yielded the isotopic composition of production-grade plutonium dioxide fuel, sources of gamma radiation produced by plutonium isotopes, and the gamma flux at the surface.

  17. Shuffler calibration and measurement of mixtures of uranium and plutonium TRU-waste in a plant environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The active-passive shuffler installed and certified a few years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory`s plutonium facility has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU)-waste. Little or no data presently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where there may be sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation which causes distortions in the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be indicated, along with those adopted here.

  18. RFQ development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.D.; Cornelius, W.D.; Purser, F.O.; Jameson, R.A.; Wangler, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    We report recent progress on the two radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) structures being developed at Los Alamos. First, we report on the second 425-MHz RFQ for H/sup -/ acceleration, which is being built in a research effort to understand and further develop the RFQ. Second, we discuss progress on the 80-MHz cw RFQ for deuterons, which is being built for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility.

  19. Fundamental and applied studies of helium ingrowth and aging in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, M.F.; Zocco, T.; Albers, R.; Becker, J.D.; Walter, K.; Cort, B.; Paisley, D.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop new capabilities to assess the nucleation and growth of helium-associated defects in aged plutonium metal. This effort involved both fundamental and applied models to assist in predicting the transport and kinetics of helium in the metal lattice as well as ab initio calculations of the disposition of gallium in the fcc plutonium lattice and its resulting effects on phase stability. Experimentally this project aimed to establish experimental capabilities crucial to the prediction of helium effects in metals, such as transmission electron microscopy, thermal helium effusion, and the development of a laser-driven mini-flyer for understanding the role of helium and associated defects on shock response of plutonium surrogates.

  20. An MCNP model of glove boxes in a plutonium processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, D.E.; Kornreich, D.E.

    1998-12-31

    Nuclear material processing usually occurs simultaneously in several glove boxes whose primary purpose is to contain radioactive materials and prevent inhalation or ingestion of radioactive materials by workers. A room in the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been slated for installation of a glove box for storing plutonium metal in various shapes during processing. This storage glove box will be located in a room containing other glove boxes used daily by workers processing plutonium parts. An MCNP model of the room and glove boxes has been constructed to estimate the neutron flux at various locations in the room for two different locations of the storage glove box and to determine the effect of placing polyethylene shielding around the storage glove box. A neutron dose survey of the room with sources dispersed as during normal production operations was used as a benchmark to compare the neutron dose equivalent rates calculated by the MCNP model.

  1. METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL AND ALLOYS OF PLUTONIUM FROM PLUTONIUM TRICHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

    1962-11-13

    A process is given for both reducing plutonium trichloride to plutonium metal using cerium as the reductant and simultaneously alloying such plutonium metal with an excess of cerium or cerium and cobalt sufficient to yield the desired nuclear reactor fuel composition. The process is conducted at a temperature from about 550 to 775 deg C, at atmospheric pressure, without the use of booster reactants, and a substantial decontamination is effected in the product alloy of any rare earths which may be associated with the source of the plutonium. (AEC)

  2. An update of epidemiologic studies of plutonium workers.

    PubMed

    Voelz, G L; Wilkinson, G S; Acquavella, J F; Tietjen, G L; Brackbill, R N; Reyes, M; Wiggs, L D

    1983-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies are being conducted as part of a national survey of plutonium workers at four Department of Energy facilities (Los Alamos, NM; Rocky Flats, CO; Mound Laboratory, OH; and Savannah River, SC). A preliminary analysis of mortality was done for all white males who have worked at the Rocky Flats Plant during the period 1952-79. The 452 observed deaths were significantly fewer than the 831 expected for all causes. The 107 deaths due to all malignant neoplasms were also significantly fewer than the 167 expected from these diseases. Expected deaths were derived from age and calendar-specific death rates for U.S. white males. Deaths reported for benign and unspecified neoplasms numbered eight versus an expected two, a significant elevation. These tumors, all intracranial, are the subject of a case-control study to be reported later. Subdividing the cohort on the basis of plutonium exposures and external radiation exposures results in similar overall findings. The benign and unspecified neoplasms, however, were not significantly high in the plutonium-exposed group. PMID:6862925

  3. Los Alamos National Laboratory case studies on decommissioning of research reactors and a small nuclear facility

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.D.

    1998-12-01

    Approximately 200 contaminated surplus structures require decommissioning at Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the last 10 years, 50 of these structures have undergone decommissioning. These facilities vary from experimental research reactors to process/research facilities contaminated with plutonium-enriched uranium, tritium, and high explosives. Three case studies are presented: (1) a filter building contaminated with transuranic radionuclides; (2) a historical water boiler that operated with a uranyl-nitrate solution; and (3) the ultra-high-temperature reactor experiment, which used enriched uranium as fuel.

  4. PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

    1958-09-01

    A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

  5. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Nuttall, R.L.

    1959-12-15

    A process is described for extracting plutonium from powdered neutron- irradiated urarium metal by contacting the latter, while maintaining it in the solid form, with molten magnesium which takes up the plutonium and separating the molten magnesium from the solid uranium.

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  7. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  8. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-07-28

    A plutonium-uranium alloy suitable for use as the fuel element in a fast breeder reactor is described. The alloy contains from 15 to 60 at.% titanium with the remainder uranium and plutonium in a specific ratio, thereby limiting the undesirable zeta phase and rendering the alloy relatively resistant to corrosion and giving it the essential characteristic of good mechanical workability.

  9. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.

    1958-06-01

    A method is described for reducing plutonium compounds in aqueous solution from a higher to a lower valence state. This reduction of valence is achieved by treating the aqueous solution of higher valence plutonium compounds with hydrogen in contact with an activated platinum catalyst.

  10. Characterization of the Los Alamos IPG YLR-6000 fiber laser using multiple optical paths and laser focusing optics

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, John O; Bernal, John E

    2009-01-01

    Fiber laser technology has been identified as the replacement power source for the existing Los Alamos TA-55 production laser welding system. An IPG YLR-6000 fiber laser was purchased, installed at SM-66 R3, and accepted in February 2008. No characterization of the laser and no welding was performed in the Feb 2008 to May 2009 interval. T. Lienert and J. Bernal (Ref. 1, July 2009) determined the existing 200 mm Rofin collimator and focus heads used with the Rofin diode pumped lasers were inadequate for use with the IPG laser due to clipping of the IPG laser beam. Further efforts in testing of the IPG laser with Optoskand fiber delivery optics and a Rofin 120 mm collimator proved problematic due to optical fiber damage. As a result, IPG design optical fibers were purchased as replacements for subsequent testing. Within the same interval, an IPG fiber-to-fiber (F2F) connector, custom built for LANL, (J. Milewski, S. Gravener, Ref.2) was demonstrated and accepted at IPG Oxford, MA in August 2009. An IPG service person was contracted to come to LANL to assist in the installation, training, troubleshooting and characterization of the multiple beam paths and help perform laser head optics characterization. The statement of work is provided below: In summary the laser system, optical fibers, F2F connector, Precitec head, and a modified Rofin type (w/120mm Optoskand collimator) IWindowIBoot system focus head (Figure 1) were shown to perform well at powers up to 6 kW CW. Power measurements, laser spot size measurements, and other characterization data and lessons learned are contained within this report. In addition, a number of issues were identified that will require future resolution.

  11. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.

    1994-12-07

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  12. Los Alamos Science: Number 16

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    It was an unusually stimulating day and a half at Los Alamos when two Nobel Laureates in physiology, a leading paleontologist, and a leading bio-astrophysicist came together to discuss ''Unsolved Problems in the Science of Life,'' the topic of the second in a series of special meetings sponsored by the Fellows of the Laboratory. Just like the first one on ''Creativity in Science,'' this colloquium took us into a broader arena of ideas and viewpoints than is our usual daily fare. To contemplate the evolution and mysteries of intelligent life from the speakers' diverse points of view at one time, in one place was indeed a rare experience.

  13. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-09-30

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO[sub 2]) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO[sub 2] typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO[sub 2] produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO[sub 2] in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO[sub 2] With uranium oxide (UO[sub 2]) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO[sub 2] with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO[sub 2] materials may warrant further study.

  14. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-09-30

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO{sub 2} typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO{sub 2} produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO{sub 2} in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO{sub 2} With uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO{sub 2} with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO{sub 2} materials may warrant further study.

  15. Overview of Modeling and Simulations of Plutonium Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A J; Wolfer, W G

    2007-04-24

    . The alpha particle traverses the lattice, slowly loosing energy through electronic excitations, acquiring two electrons to become a helium atom, then finally coming to rest approximately 10 microns away with the generation of a few-hundred Frenkel pairs. The uranium recoil immediately displaces a couple-thousand Pu atoms from their original lattice sites. This process, which occurs at a rate of approximately 41 parts-per-million per year, is the source of potential property changes in aging plutonium. Plutonium aging encompasses many areas of research: radiation damage and radiation effects, diffusion of point defects, impurities and alloying elements, solid state phase transformations, dislocation dynamics and mechanical properties, equations of state under extreme pressures, as well as surface oxidation and corrosion. Theory, modeling, and computer simulations are involved to various degrees in many of these areas. The joint research program carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory encompassed experimental measurements of numerous properties of newly fabricated reference alloys, archival material that have accumulated the effects of several decades of radioactive decay, and accelerated aging alloys in which the isotropic composition was adjusted to increase the rate of self-irradiation damage. In particular, the physical and chemical processes of nuclear materials degradation were to be studied individually and in great depth. Closely coupled to the experimental efforts are theory, modeling, and simulations. These efforts, validated by the experiments, aim to develop predictive models to evaluate the effects of age on the properties of plutonium. The need to obtain a scientific understanding of plutonium aging has revitalized fundamental research on actinides and plutonium in particular. For example, the experimental discovery of superconductivity in Pu-based compounds, the observation of helium bubbles in naturally

  16. Calorimetry measurements in less than 20 minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R. B.; Cremers, T.

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a new series of 10 watt Bulk Plutonium Assay Calorimeters (BPAC10). The calorimeter measures bulk samples of plutonium bearing material in containers up to 5 in. in diameter and 7 in. high. The average measurement time is 19.7 minutes compared to 2-9 hours for the same sample measured in a water bath calorimeter. Measurement precision in the range of 1-10 watts is 1 to 0.1 percent and it is 0.010 watt for sample power less than 1 watt. The BPAC10 series calorimeters are in use in two plutonium facilities at the EG&G Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory TA55 Plutonium Facility. The paper presents a description of the calorimeter, discusses operating experience at Los Alamos, and presents a comparison of data on typical samples measured with both types of calorimeters.

  17. Probing phonons in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing

    2010-11-16

    Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}{prime} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the

  18. Characterization of plutonium-bearing wastes by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, R.G.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Van Deventer, E.; Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO{sub 2}PuO{sub 2{minus}x}, and Pu{sub 4}O{sub 7} phases, of about 1{mu}m or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 {mu}m to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix.

  19. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  20. Low temperature oxidation of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Art J.; Roussel, Paul

    2013-05-15

    The initial oxidation of gallium stabilized {delta}-plutonium metal at 193 K has been followed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On exposure to Langmuir quantities of oxygen, plutonium rapidly forms a trivalent oxide followed by a tetravalent plutonium oxide. The growth modes of both oxides have been determined. Warming the sample in vacuum, the tetravalent oxide reduces to the trivalent oxide. The kinetics of this reduction reaction have followed and the activation energy has been determined to be 38.8 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  1. PLUTONIUM-HYDROGEN REACTION PRODUCT, METHOD OF PREPARING SAME AND PLUTONIUM POWDER THEREFROM

    DOEpatents

    Fried, S.; Baumbach, H.L.

    1959-12-01

    A process is described for forming plutonlum hydride powder by reacting hydrogen with massive plutonium metal at room temperature and the product obtained. The plutonium hydride powder can be converted to plutonium powder by heating to above 200 deg C.

  2. SNM holdup assessment of Los Alamos exhaust ducts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.S.

    1994-02-01

    Fissile material holdup in glovebox and fume hood exhaust ducting has been quantified for all Los Alamos duct systems. Gamma-based, nondestructive measurements were used to quantify holdup. The measurements were performed during three measurement campaigns. The first campaign, Phase I, provided foot-by-foot, semiquantitative measurement data on all ducting. These data were used to identify ducting that required more accurate (quantitative) measurement. Of the 280 duct systems receiving Phase I measurements, 262 indicated less than 50 g of fissile holdup and 19 indicated fissile holdup of 50 or more grams. Seven duct systems were measured in a second campaign, called Series 1, Phase II. Holdup estimates on these ducts ranged from 421 g of {sup 235}U in a duct servicing a shut-down uranium-machining facility to 39 g of {sup 239}Pu in a duct servicing an active plutonium-processing facility. Measurements performed in the second campaign proved excessively laborious, so a third campaign was initiated that used more efficient instrumentation at some sacrifice in measurement quality. Holdup estimates for the 12 duct systems measured during this third campaign ranged from 70 g of {sup 235}U in a duct servicing analytical laboratories to 1 g of {sup 235}U and 1 g of {sup 239}Pu in a duct carrying exhaust air to a remote filter building. These quantitative holdup estimates support the conclusion made at the completion of the Phase I measurements that only ducts servicing shut-down uranium operations contain about 400 g of fissile holdup. No ventilation ducts at Los Alamos contain sufficient fissile material holdup to present a criticality safety concern.

  3. TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Waber, J.T.

    1960-02-23

    Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

  4. Plutonium Immobilization Can Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-12-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) as part of Department of Energy's two-track approach for the disposition of weapons-usable plutonium. The PIP will utilize the ceramic can-in-canister technology in a process that mixes plutonium with ceramic formers and neutron absorbers, presses the mixture into a ceramic puck-like form, sinters the pucks in a furnace, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into large canisters. The canisters will subsequently be filled with high level waste glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility for eventual disposal in a geologic repository. This paper will discuss the PIP can inspection components, control system, and test results.

  5. Critical assembly: A technical history of Los Alamos during the Oppenheimer years, 1943--1945

    SciTech Connect

    Hoddeson, L.; Henriksen, P.W.; Meade, R.A.; Westfall, C.

    1993-11-01

    This volume treats the technical research that led to the first atomic bombs. The authors explore how the ``critical assembly`` of scientists, engineers, and military Personnel at Los Alamos collaborated during World War II, blending their traditions to create a new approach to large-scale research. The research was characterized by strong mission orientation, multidisciplinary teamwork, expansion of the scientists` traditional methodology with engineering techniques, and a trail-and-error methodology responding to wartime deadlines. The book opens with an introduction laying out major themes. After a synopsis of the prehistory of the bomb project, from the discovery of nuclear fission to the start of the Manhattan Engineer District, and an overview of the early materials program, the book examines the establishment of the Los Alamos Laboratory, the implosion and gun assembly programs, nuclear physics research, chemistry and metallurgy, explosives, uranium and plutonium development, confirmation of spontaneous fission in pile-produced plutonium, the thermonuclear bomb, critical assemblies, the Trinity test, and delivery of the combat weapons.

  6. IODATE METHOD FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.; Duffield, R.B.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for removing radioactive fission products from aqueous solutions containing such fission products together with plutonium. This is accomplished by incorporating into such solutions a metal iodate precipitate to remove fission products which form insoluble iodates. Suitable metal iodates are those of thorium and cerium. The plutonium must be in the hexavalent state and the pH of the solution must be manintained at less than 2.

  7. METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Beede, R.L.; Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

    1959-11-17

    C rystalline plutonium tetrafluoride is precipitated from aqueous up to 1.6 N mineral acid solutions of a plutorium (IV) salt with fluosilicic acid anions, preferably at room temperature. Hydrogen fluoride naay be added after precipitation to convert any plutonium fluosilicate to the tetrafluoride and any silica to fluosilicic acid. This process results in a purer product, especially as to iron and aluminum, than does the precipitation by the addition of hydrogen fluoride.

  8. Los Alamos PC estimating system

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R.A.; Lemon, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Los Alamos Cost Estimating System (QUEST) is being converted to run on IBM personal computers. This very extensive estimating system is capable of supporting cost estimators from many different and varied fields. QUEST does not dictate any fixed method for estimating. QUEST supports many styles and levels of detail estimating. QUEST can be used with or without data bases. This system allows the estimator to provide reports based on levels of detail defined by combining work breakdown structures. QUEST provides a set of tools for doing any type of estimate without forcing the estimator to use any given method. The level of detail in the estimate can be mixed based on the amount of information known about different parts of the project. The system can support many different data bases simultaneously. Estimators can modify any cost in any data base.

  9. Documents and related materials associated with the contents and the origin of the Los Alamos technical series and the national nuclear energy series

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, E.F.

    1996-04-01

    The rationale for preparing this document arose from the fact that the author (who worked in D-Building during WWII) was asked to contribute a short article on {open_quotes}Plutonium Metallurgy at Los Alamos During the War{close_quotes} for inclusion in the 50th anniversary book, {open_quotes}Behind Tall Fences,{close_quotes} published in 1993 by the J.R. Oppenheimer Memorial Committee. I agreed, believing that all of the source material needed was readily available in the Los Alamos Technical Series, a detailed account of all of the R&D carried out at Los Alamos from 1943 to 1945. The obvious place to start was the LANL Report Library. As will be seen by the perusing the following memoranda and reports (which were assembled one at a time by following up successive leads), it finally turned out that, of all six chapters of Vol. 10, {open_quotes}Metallurgy,{close_quotes} of which Cyril S. Smith was the general editor, the only one {open_quotes}not yet issued{close_quotes} was Chapter I on {open_quotes}Plutonium Metallurgy,{close_quotes} which had been assigned to Eric R. Jette, the wartime Group Leader of the Plutonium Metallurgy Group. Jette left Los Alamos at the end of August 1956 to join the Union Carbide Research Institute in Tarrytown, New York, where he was director until June 1962 when he retired to his valley home in Pojoaque. In February 1963, he was awarded the US Atomic Energy Commission citation for meritorious contributions to the Nuclear Energy Program; shortly thereafter he died. Before accepting the fact that Chapter I did not exist, the present author undertook to find out as much as possible about the Los Alamos Technical Series, including the circumstances relating to its preparation. The related memos, etc., once retrieved, seemed worth preserving in a single report-hence this document.

  10. Evaluation of cancer incidence among employees at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Acquavella, J.F.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Wiggs, L.D.; Tietjen, G.L.; Key, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the National Plutonium Workers Study, cancer incidence for 1969 to 1978 among employees of the Los Alamos National Laboratory was investigated. Incident cancers were identified by a computer match of the Los Alamos employed roster against New Mexico Tumor Registry files. The resulting numbers of total and site-specific cancers were compared to the numbers expected based on incidence rates for the State of New Mexico, specific for age, sex, ethnicity, and calendar period. For Anglo males, significantly fewer cancers than expected (SIR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.79) were found. This resulted from marked deficits of smoking-related cancers, particularly lung (2 observed, 19.4 expected) and oral (1 observed, 6.5 expected) cancer. Similarly, no smoking-related cancers were detected among Anglo females, though they had a slight nonsignificant excess of breast cancer (14 observed, 9.1 expected) and a suggestive excess of cancer of the uterine corpus (2 observed, 0.25 expected). The pattern of cancerincidence among Anglo employees is typical of high social class populations and not likely related to the Los Alamos working environment.

  11. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  12. Plutonium solution analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  13. Lessons learned from decommissioning projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes lessons learned over the last 20 years from 12 decommissioning projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These lessons relate both to overall program management and to management of specific projects during the planning and operations phases. The issues include waste management; the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); contracting; public involvement; client/customer interface; and funding. Key elements of our approach are to be proactive; follow the observation method; perform field activities concurrently; develop strategies to keep reportable incidents from delaying work; seek and use programs, methods, etc., in existence to shorten learning curves; network to help develop solutions; and avoid overstudying and overcharacterizing. This approach results in preliminary plans that require very little revision before implementation, reasonable costs and schedules, early acquisition of permits and NEPA documents, preliminary characterization reports, and contracting documents. Our track record is good -- the last four projects (uranium and plutonium-processing facility and three research reactors) have been on budget and on schedule.

  14. Sunset at the ALaMO

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new color all-sky camera has opened its eyes at the ALaMO, or Automated Lunar and Meteor Observatory, at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. Watch its inaugural video below, s...

  15. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1994. Data were collected to assess external penetrating radiation, airborne emissions, liquid effluents, radioactivity of environmental materials and food stuffs, and environmental compliance.

  16. New Rad Lab for Los Alamos

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    The topping out ceremony for a key construction stage in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's newest facility, the Radiological Laboratory Utility & Office Building. This is part of the National Nu...  

  17. Publications of Los Alamos research 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Varjabedian, K.; Dussart, S.A.; McClary, W.J.; Rich, J.A.

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography lists unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1988. The entries, which are subdivided by broad subject categories, are cross-referenced with an author index and a numeric index.

  18. New Rad Lab for Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-06

    The topping out ceremony for a key construction stage in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's newest facility, the Radiological Laboratory Utility & Office Building. This is part of the National Nu...  

  19. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.; Wernly, K.

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  20. Edward Teller Returns to LOS Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2010-01-01

    I was asked to share some reflections of Edward Teller's return to Los Alamos during my directorship. I met Teller late in his life. My comments focus on that time and they will be mostly in the form of stories of my interactions and those of my colleagues with Teller. Although the focus of this symposium is on Teller's contributions to science, at Los Alamos it was never possible to separate Teller's science from policy and controversy ...

  1. Internship at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Ryan Q.

    2012-07-11

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is located in Los Alamos, New Mexico. It provides support for our country's nuclear weapon stockpile as well as many other scientific research projects. I am an Undergraduate Student Intern in the Systems Design and Analysis group within the Nuclear Nonproliferation division of the Global Security directorate at LANL. I have been tasked with data analysis and modeling of particles in a fluidized bed system for the capture of carbon dioxide from power plant flue gas.

  2. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  3. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Jouan, A.

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  4. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    DOEpatents

    Hagan, Paul G.; Miner, Frend J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution.

  5. Environmental assessment for the proposed CMR Building upgrades at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final document

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-04

    In order to maintain its ability to continue to conduct uninterrupted radioactive and metallurgical research in a safe, secure, and environmentally sound manner, the US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to upgrade the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building. The building was built in the early 1950s to provide a research and experimental facility for analytical chemistry, plutonium and uranium chemistry, and metallurgy. Today, research and development activities are performed involving nuclear materials. A variety of radioactive and chemical hazards are present. The CMR Building is nearing the end of its original design life and does not meet many of today`s design codes and standards. The Proposed Action for this Environmental Assessment (EA) includes structural modifications to some portions of the CMR Building which do not meet current seismic criteria for a Hazard Category 2 Facility. Also included are upgrades and improvements in building ventilation, communications, monitoring, and fire protection systems. This EA analyzes the environmental effects of construction of the proposed upgrades. The Proposed Action will have no adverse effects upon agricultural and cultural resources, wetlands and floodplains, endangered and threatened species, recreational resources, or water resources. The Proposed Action would have negligible effects on human health and transportation, and would not pose a disproportionate adverse health or environmental impact on minority or low-income populations within an 80 kilometer (50 mile) radius of the CMR Building.

  6. Los Alamos Laser Eye Investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Odom, C. R.

    2005-01-01

    A student working in a laser laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory sustained a serious retinal injury to her left eye when she attempted to view suspended particles in a partially evacuated target chamber. The principle investigator was using the white light from the flash lamp of a Class 4 Nd:YAG laser to illuminate the particles. Since the Q-switch was thought to be disabled at the time of the accident, the principal investigator assumed it would be safe to view the particles without wearing laser eye protection. The Laboratory Director appointed a team to investigate the accident and to report back to him the events and conditions leading up to the accident, equipment malfunctions, safety management causal factors, supervisory and management action/inaction, adequacy of institutional processes and procedures, emergency and notification response, effectiveness of corrective actions and lessons learned from previous similar events, and recommendations for human and institutional safety improvements. The team interviewed personnel, reviewed documents, and characterized systems and conditions in the laser laboratory during an intense six week investigation. The team determined that the direct and primary failures leading to this accident were, respectively, the principle investigator's unsafe work practices and the institution's inadequate monitoring of worker performance. This paper describes the details of the investigation, the human and institutional failures, and the recommendations for improving the laser safety program.

  7. PROCESS OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-09-01

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions. It comprises forming a uranous hydroxide precipitate in such a plutonium bearing solution, at a pH of at least 5. The plutonium values are precipitated with and carried by the uranium hydroxide. The carrier precipitate is then redissolved in acid solution and the pH is adjusted to about 2.5, causing precipitation of the uranous hydroxide but leaving the still soluble plutonium values in solution.

  8. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    SciTech Connect

    Leventhal, Paul

    2001-02-07

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  9. Direct oxide reduction (DOR) solvent salt recycle in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Davis, C.C.; McCormick, E.D.

    1987-02-01

    One method used at Los Alamos for producing plutonium metal is to reduce the oxide with calcium metal in molten CaCl/sub 2/ at 850/sup 0/C. The solvent CaCl/sub 2/ from this reduction step is currently discarded as low-level radioactive waste because it is saturated with the reaction by-product, CaO. We have developed and demonstrated a molten salt technique for rechlorinating the CaO, thereby regenerating the CaCl/sub 2/ and incorporating solvent recycle into the batch PuO/sub 2/ reduction process. We discuss results from the process development experiments and present our plans for incorporating the technique into an advanced design for semicontinuous plutonium metal production.

  10. Data Mining Techniques to Estimate Plutonium, Initial Enrichment, Burnup, and Cooling Time in Spent Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Trellue, Holly Renee; Fugate, Michael Lynn; Tobin, Stephen Joesph

    2015-03-19

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control (NPAC), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a multi-laboratory, university, international partner collaboration to (1) detect replaced or missing pins from spent fuel assemblies (SFA) to confirm item integrity and deter diversion, (2) determine plutonium mass and related plutonium and uranium fissile mass parameters in SFAs, and (3) verify initial enrichment (IE), burnup (BU), and cooling time (CT) of facility declaration for SFAs. A wide variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques were researched to achieve these goals [Veal, 2010 and Humphrey, 2012]. In addition, the project includes two related activities with facility-specific benefits: (1) determination of heat content and (2) determination of reactivity (multiplication). In this research, a subset of 11 integrated NDA techniques was researched using data mining solutions at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for their ability to achieve the above goals.

  11. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  13. Plutonium immobilization -- Can loading. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-03-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP adds the excess plutonium to ceramic pucks, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into DWPF canisters. This paper discusses the PIP process steps, the can loading conceptual design, can loading equipment design, and can loading work completed.

  14. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  15. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  18. Stabilization of Rocky Flats combustible residues contaminated with plutonium metal and organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, S.M.; Cisneros, M.R.; Jacobson, L.L.; Schroeder, N.C.; Ames, R.L.

    1998-09-30

    This report describes tests on a proposed flowsheet designed to stabilize combustible residues that were generated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during the machining of plutonium metal. Combustible residues are essentially laboratory trash contaminated with halogenated organic solvents and plutonium metal. The proposed flowsheet, designed by RFETS, follows a glovebox procedure that includes (1) the sorting and shredding of materials, (2) a low temperature thermal desorption of solvents from the combustible materials, (3) an oxidation of plutonium metal with steam, and (4) packaging of the stabilized residues. The role of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in this study was to determine parameters for the low temperature thermal desorption and steam oxidation steps. Thermal desorption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was examined using a heated air stream on a Rocky Flats combustible residue surrogate contaminated with CCl{sub 4}. Three types of plutonium metal were oxidized with steam in a LANL glovebox to determine the effectiveness of this procedure for residue stabilization. The results from these LANL experiments are used to recommend parameters for the proposed RFETS stabilization flowsheet.

  19. DOE nuclear material packaging manual: storage container requirements for plutonium oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, D Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In response, DOE has recently issued DOE M 441.1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual' with encouragement from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. A unique feature compared to transportation containers is the allowance of filters to vent flammable gases during storage. Defining commonly used concepts such as maximum allowable working pressure and He leak rate criteria become problematic when considering vented containers. Los Alamos has developed a set of container requirements that are in compliance with 441.1 based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide. The pre and post drop-test He leak rates depend upon container size as well as the material contents. For containers that are routinely handled, ease of handling and weight are a major consideration. Relatively thin-walled containers with flat bottoms are desired yet they cannot be He leak tested at a differential pressure of one atmosphere due to the potential for plastic deformation of the flat bottom during testing. The He leak rates and He leak testing configuration for containers designed for plutonium bearing materials will be presented. The approach to meeting the other manual requirements such as corrosion and thermal degradation resistance will be addressed. The information presented can be used by other sites to evaluate if their conditions are bounded by LANL requirements when considering procurement of 441.1 compliant containers.

  20. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  1. Plutonium and Uranium Atom Ratios and Activity Levels in Cochiti Lake Bottom Sediments Provided by Pueblo de Cochiti

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaher, B.M.; Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.; Benjamin, T.M.

    1999-05-01

    Historical operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory have contaminated stream sediments with plutonium and other radionuclides. A small portion of these contaminated sediments has been carried by floods into the Rio Grande drainage system, eventually to be trapped by Cochiti Lake located on Pueblo de Cochiti lands approximately 8 km downstream of the Laboratory. In this study, lake bottom sediment samples provided by the Pueblo de Cochiti were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to determine plutonium and uranium activity levels and isotopic atom ratios. This specialized analytical method allows us to take isotopic fingerprints of radionuclides found in the sediment and to determine how much plutonium and uranium came from the Laboratory and how much was deposited by worldwide fallout or is natural. Two distinct types of samples were processed: segments of a continuous vertical core of the entire accumulated sediment sequence and other samples from across the lake bottom at the water/sediment interface. Based on measurement of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio, Laboratory-derived plutonium is present in eight of nine samples at the core site. On a depth-weighted basis, approximately one-half of the {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu came from early operations at the Laboratory; the remaining plutonium came from fallout dispersed by above-ground nuclear tests. In contrast to the core site, the samples from the other locations showed little or no evidence of Laboratory-derived plutonium, with more than 90 percent of the plutonium attributable to fallout. The overall amount of plutonium in all the samples is of the same magnitude as other reservoirs in the region. The net increase in plutonium over upstream reservoirs unaffected by Laboratory activities is a maximum of 0.014 pCi/g or 3.5 times. All of the samples reflect natural uranium compositions. Laboratory-derived uranium is not identifiable, presumably because the sediment contains abundant

  2. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  3. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium is claimed. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  4. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    1984-07-10

    A method is described for chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  5. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, David G.; Blum, Thomas W.

    1984-01-01

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  6. Plutonium Speciation, Solubilization and Migration in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Neu, M.; Runde, W.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes research completed in the first half of a three-year project. As outlined in the authors' proposal they are focusing on (1) characterizing the plutonium at an actinide contaminated site, RFETS, including determining the origin, dispersion, and speciation of the plutonium, (2) studying environmentally important plutonium complexes, primarily hydroxides and carbonates, and (3) examining the interactions of plutonium species with manganese minerals. In the first year the authors focused on site based studies. This year they continue to characterize samples from the RFETS, study the formation and structural and spectroscopic features of environmentally relevant Pu species, and begin modeling the environmental behavior of plutonium.

  7. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM IMPURITIES

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, A.C.

    1957-11-12

    A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous solutions containing uranium. It has been found that if the plutonium is reduced to its 3+ valence state, and the uranium present is left in its higher valence state, then the differences in solubility between certain salts (e.g., oxalates) of the trivalent plutonium and the hexavalent uranium can be used to separate the metals. This selective reduction of plutonium is accomplished by adding iodide ion to the solution, since iodide possesses an oxidation potential sufficient to reduce plutonium but not sufficient to reduce uranium.

  8. Plutonium inventory characterization technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    This is a technical report on the data, gathered to date, under WHC- SD-CP-TP-086, Rev. 1, on the integrity of the food pack cans currently being used to store plutonium or plutonium compounds at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Workplan PFP-96-VO-009, `Inspection of Special Nuclear Material Using X-ray`, was used to gather data on material and containment conditions using real time radiography. Some of those images are included herein. A matrix found in the `Plutonium Inventory Characterization Implementation Plan` was used to categorize different plutonium items based upon the type of material being stored and the life expectancy of the containers.

  9. PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS AND PROCESS FOR THEIR PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Wolter, F.J.; Diehl, H.C. Jr.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to certain new compounds of plutonium, and to the utilization of these compounds to effect purification or separation of the plutonium. The compounds are organic chelate compounds consisting of tetravalent plutonium together with a di(salicylal) alkylenediimine. These chelates are soluble in various organic solvents, but not in water. Use is made of this property in extracting the plutonium by contacting an aqueous solution thereof with an organic solution of the diimine. The plutonium is chelated, extracted and effectively separated from any impurities accompaying it in the aqueous phase.

  10. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  11. The First Weighing of Plutonium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1967-09-10

    Recollections and reminiscences at the 25th Anniversary of the First Weighing of Plutonium, Chicago, IL, September 10, 1967, tell an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  12. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  13. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  14. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  15. Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)

  16. New Generation of Los Alamos Opacity Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, James; Kilcrease, D. P.; Magee, N. H.; Sherrill, M. E.; Abdallah, J.; Hakel, P.; Fontes, C. J.; Guzik, J. A.; Mussack, K. A.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new generation of Los Alamos OPLIB opacity tables that have been computed using the ATOMIC code. Our tables have been calculated for all 30 elements from hydrogen through zinc and are publicly available through our website. In this poster we discuss the details of the calculations that underpin the new opacity tables. We also show several recent applications of the use of our opacity tables to solar modeling and other astrophysical applications. In particular, we demonstrate that use of the new opacities improves the agreement between solar models and helioseismology, but does not fully resolve the long-standing `solar abundance' problem. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC5206NA25396.

  17. Status of Monte Carlo at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.L.; Cashwell, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    At Los Alamos the early work of Fermi, von Neumann, and Ulam has been developed and supplemented by many followers, notably Cashwell and Everett, and the main product today is the continuous-energy, general-purpose, generalized-geometry, time-dependent, coupled neutron-photon transport code called MCNP. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo research and development effort is concentrated in Group X-6. MCNP treats an arbitrary three-dimensional configuration of arbitrary materials in geometric cells bounded by first- and second-degree surfaces and some fourth-degree surfaces (elliptical tori). Monte Carlo has evolved into perhaps the main method for radiation transport calculations at Los Alamos. MCNP is used in every technical division at the Laboratory by over 130 users about 600 times a month accounting for nearly 200 hours of CDC-7600 time.

  18. Publications of Los Alamos Research, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, C.J.; McClary, W.J.; Rich, J.A.; Rodriguez, L.L.

    1984-10-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1983. Papers published in 1982 are included regardless of when they were actually written. Publications received too late for inclusion in earlier compilations have also been listed. Declassification of previously classified reports is considered to constitute publication. All classified issuances are omitted - even those papers, themselves unclassified, which were published only as part of a classified document. If a paper was published more than once, all places of publication are included. The bibliography includes Los Alamos National Laboratory reports, papers released as non-Laboratory reports, journal articles, books, chapters of books, conference papers either published separately or as part of conference proceedings issued as books or reports, papers publishd in congressional hearings, theses, and US patents. Publications by Los Alamos authors that are not records of Laboratory-sponsored work are included when the Library becomes aware of them.

  19. Publications of Los Alamos research 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, C.A.; Willis, J.K.

    1981-09-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1980. Papers published in 1980 are included regardless of when they were actually written. Publications received too late for inclusion in earlier compilations have also been listed. Declassification of previously classified reports is considered to constitute publication. All classified issuances are omitted-even those papers, themselves unclassified, which were published only as part of a classified document. If a paper was pubished more than once, all places of publication are included. The bibliography includes Los Alamos National Laboratory reports, papers released as non-laboratory reports, journal articles, books, chapters of books, conference papers published either separately or as part of conference proceedings issued as books or reports, papers published in congressional hearings, theses, and US patents. Publications by Los Alamos authors that are not records of Laboratory-sponsored work are included when the Library becomes aware of them.

  20. A Journey From Sandia To Los Alamos - 12465

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, K.K.; Humphrey, B.J.; Krause, T.J.; Gluth, J.W.; Kiefer, M.L.; Haynes, S.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) relies on laboratory experiments and computer-based models to verify the reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) tests various materials in extreme environments designed to mimic those of nuclear explosions using the Z machine. The Z machine is a key tool in the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) stockpile stewardship mission and is used to study the dynamic properties of nuclear weapon materials. In 2006, SNL/NM and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) defining experiments to be conducted in the Z machine involving plutonium (Pu) provided by LANL. Five Pu experiments have been completed with as many as 20 more planned through 2016. The experimental containment vessel used for the experiment and containing the Pu residues, becomes transuranic (TRU) waste after the experiment and termination of safeguards and is considered a LANL waste stream. Each containment vessel is placed in a 55-gallon Type A drum or standard waste box (SWB) for shipment back to LANL for final certification and eventual disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The experimental containment vessels are greater than 99% metallic materials (ferrous and non-ferrous metals). In addition to the Pu targets, detonators with high explosives (HE) are used in the experiments to isolate the containment vessel from the Z machine as energy is delivered to the Pu samples. The characterization requirements, transportation issues, required documentation, and the approvals needed before shipments were challenging and required close coordination between SNL/NM, Sandia Site Office, LANL, Los Alamos Site Office, Washington TRU Solutions, Inc., the Central Characterization Project, and the Carlsbad Field Office. Between 2006 and 2010, representatives from SNL/NM and LANL worked to develop an approved path forward to meet the requirements of all stakeholders

  1. SEDs at Los Alamos: A Personal Memoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2001-03-01

    I have written this personal memoir approximately 55 years after the events I describe. It is based almost exclusively on memory, since apart from the diary I kept while on Tinian, I have few documents concerning it. It covers my service in the U.S. Army's Special Engineering Detachment (SED) in Oak Ridge and Los Alamos in 1944-45, on Tinian island, the launching pad for the bombing raids on Japan, in the summer and fall of 1945, and my return to Los Alamos until my discharge in January 1946.

  2. Upper Los Alamos canyon fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Jeffrey H

    2007-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is planning to make environmental assessments in portions of Upper Los Alamos Canyon. Upper Los Alamos Canyon is one of the areas included in the 2005 Consent Order agreed to by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and the New Mexico Environment Department. As such, it must be evaluated for potential contamination. The area is located within and south of the Los Alamos townsite in Technical Areas 00, 01, 03, 32, 41, 43, and 61 of Los Alamos National Laboratory and includes a total of 115 solid waste management units and areas of concern. This area was home to some of the earliest operations at Los Alamos, dating from the 1940s. Of the 115 solid-waste management units and areas of concern, 54 have been addressed previously. The remaining 61 are the focus of this project. These include septic tanks and outfalls, sanitary and industrial waste lines, storm drains, soil contamination areas, landfill and surface disposal areas, transformer sites, and incinerators. The Consent Order requires the Laboratory to evaluate historical work sites for the potential presence of residual contamination. It also requires the Laboratory to identify and implement corrective actions should contamination be found. The Laboratory began performing these types of activities in the 1990s. The Upper Los Alamos Canyon project entails: (1) collecting soil and rock samples using the most efficient and least-invasive methods practicable; (2) defining the nature and extent of any residual contamination associated with each solid waste management unit or area of concern; and (3) gathering additional data if needed to evaluate potential remedial alternatives. A variety of methods, including studies of engineering drawings, nonintrusive geophysical surveys, and trenching, may be used to identify the final sampling locations. The field team then determines which collection method to use at each location, based on such site

  3. The radiological hazard of plutonium isotopes and specific plutonium mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Heindel, G.; Clow, J.; Inkret, W.; Miller, G.

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy defines the hazard categories of its nuclear facilities based upon the potential for accidents to have significant effects on specific populations and the environment. In this report, the authors consider the time dependence of hazard category 2 (significant on-site effects) for facilities with inventories of plutonium isotopes and specific weapons-grade and heat-source mixtures of plutonium isotopes. The authors also define relative hazard as the reciprocal of the hazard category 2 threshold value and determine its time dependence. The time dependence of both hazard category 2 thresholds and relative hazards are determined and plotted for 10,000 years to provide useful information for planning long-term storage or disposal facilities.

  4. Robert Serber's 1943 Los Alamos Primer Analysis of Fission Bomb Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cameron

    2013-04-01

    In an analysis of the expected efficiency of a fission bomb presented in his 1943 Los Alamos Primer, Robert Serber remarked that ``it is just possible for the reaction to occur to an interesting extent before it is stopped by the spreading of the active material.'' Due to the exponential nature of the time-dependence of a chain reaction, the efficiency of the explosion can be very sensitive to parameters such as the number of neutrons liberated per fission, the fission cross-section, and the number of critical masses of material used. In this paper I examine efficiency predictions for both uranium and plutonium bombs. Had some parameter values proven only modestly different from their true values, history may well have been very different.

  5. Morbidity and mortality in Los Alamos County, New Mexico. I. Methodological issues and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Voelz, G.L.

    1981-06-01

    Cancer among Los Alamos County, New Mexico, male residents, all of whom have worked in or have lived within a few kilometers of a major plutonium plant and other nuclear facilities, has been reviewed with respect to mortality between 1950 and 1969 and incidence between 1969 and 1974. Several potentially causal occupational exposures have existed. Higher than expected incidence, currently, of cancers of the colon and rectum appears to be explained better by socioeconomic than occupational factors. Healthy worker and healthy military effects, white ethnicity, and migration are discussed as intervening variables relevant to interpreting mortality data in counties dominated by a single major facility. The utility of county data bases in the study of single local area mortality rates is reviewed.

  6. Replacement of lead-loaded glovebox glove with attenuation medium that are not RCRA-hazardous metals

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; George, Gerald L; Dodge, Robert L; Chunglo, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Radiation shielding is commonly used to protect the glovebox worker from unintentional direct and secondary radiation exposure, while working with plutonium-238 and plutonium-239. In these environments, low-energy photons, i.e., those less than 250 keY, are encountered. Shielding glove box gloves are traditionally composed of lead-based materials, but these are now considered hazardous waste. This has prompted the development of new, nonhazardous- shielding gJovebox gloves. No studies, however, have investigated the effectiveness of these new glovebox gloves. We examined both leaded and nonhazardous- shielding glovebox gloves and compared their attenuation effectiveness over the energy range of interest at TA-55. All measurements are referenced to lead sheets, allowing direct comparisons to the common industry standard of 0.1 mm lead equivalent material. The attenuation properties of both types of glovebox gloves vary with energy, making it difficult for manufacturers to claim lead equivalency across the entire energy range used at TA-55. The positions of materials' photon energy absorption edges, which are particularly important to improved attenuation performance, depending upon the choice of radiation energy range, are discussed. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations.

  7. Further Evaluation of the Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) Technique for Assaying Plutonium in Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2011-09-01

    This is an end-of-year report (Fiscal Year (FY) 2011) for the second year of effort on a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The second-year goals for this project included: (1) assessing the neutron source strength needed for the NRTA technique, (2) estimating count times, (3) assessing the effect of temperature on the transmitted signal, (4) estimating plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly, (5) providing a preliminary assessment of the neutron detectors, and (6) documenting this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes work performed over a nine month period from January-September 2011 and is to be considered a follow-on or add-on report to our previous published summary report from December 2010 (INL/EXT-10-20620).

  8. Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Purdy, Geraldine M.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ramsey, Kevin; Silver, Gary L.; Espinoza, Jacob; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel by HNO3/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing 238PuO2 fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. A sufficient quantity of purified 238PuO2 fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments on neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel.

  9. Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. 234U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of 238Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the 238PuO2 fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure 238PuO2 was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO3/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved 238Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the 238PuO2 recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in 238Pu values.

  10. Transportation of pyrochemical salts from Rocky Flats to Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, S.B.

    1997-02-01

    Radioactive legacy wastes or residues are currently being stored on numerous Sites around the former Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex. Since most of the operating facilities were shut down and have not operated since before the declared end to the Cold War in 1993, the historical method for treating these residues no longer exists. The risk associated with continued storage of these residues will dramatically increase with time. Thus, the DOE was directed by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board in its Recommendation 94-1 to address and stabilize these residues and established an eight year time frame for doing so. There are only two options available to respond to this requirement: (1) restart existing facilities to treat and package the residues for disposal or (2) transport the residues to another operating facility within the Complex where they can be treated and packaged for disposal. This paper focuses on one such residue type, pyrochemical salts, produced at one Complex site, the Rocky Flats Plant located northwest of Denver, Colorado. One option for treating the salts is their shipment to Los Alamos, New Mexico, for handling at the Plutonium Facility. The safe transportation of these salts can be accomplished at present with several shipping containers including a DOT 6M, a DOE 9968, Type A or Type B quantity 55-gallon drum overpacks, or even the TRUPACT II. The tradeoffs between each container is examined with the conclusion that none of the available shipping containers is fully satisfactory. Thus, the advantageous aspects of each container must be utilized in an integrated and efficient way to effectively manage the risk involved. 1 fig.

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

  12. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Can loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-01-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, inspecting the cans, loading the cans into magazines, loading magazines into Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and transporting the canisters to the DWPF. The DWPF fills the canister with a mixture of high level radioactive waste and glass for permanent storage. Due to the radiation, remote equipment must perform PIP operations in a contained environment.

  13. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  14. Provenance of unknown plutonium material.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, G

    2008-10-01

    The determination of the provenance of 'unknown' plutonium material is demonstrated through a simulation study based on an isotopic fingerprinting approach. Plutonium of known provenance was considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to evaluate the potential of the approach and verify its predictive capabilities. Factor analysis was used to compare the Pu isotopic composition of the 'unknown' material with Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. The provenance of the 'unknown material' is assigned to the commercial fuel with which exhibits the highest degree of similarity with respect to the Pu composition. The approach appears promising since it accurately predicted the provenance of the one 'unknown' sample considered; nevertheless, the approach is still at the development stage. Important challenging issues related to the simulation uncertainties and its testing on real laboratory samples have to be explored prior to evaluating the potential of the approach. PMID:18639370

  15. Proceedings of the Los Alamos neutrino workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, F.; Stephenson, G.J. Jr.

    1982-08-01

    A workshop on neutrino physics was held at Los Alamos from June 8 to 12, 1981. The material presented has been provided in part by the organizers, in part by the chairmen of the working sessions. Closing date for contributions was October 1981.

  16. Induction inserts at the Los Alamos PSR

    SciTech Connect

    King-Yuen Ng

    2002-09-30

    Ferrite-loaded induction tuners installed in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring have been successful in compensating space-charge effects. However, the resistive part of the ferrite introduces unacceptable microwave instability and severe bunch lengthening. An effective cure was found by heating the ferrite cores up to {approx} 130 C. An understanding of the instability and cure is presented.

  17. Los Alamos waste drum shufflers users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Painter, J.

    1993-08-24

    This user manual describes the Los Alamos waste drum shufflers. The primary purpose of the instruments is to assay the mass of {sup 235}U (or other fissile materials) in drums of assorted waste. It can perform passive assays for isotopes that spontaneously emit neutrons or active assays using the shuffler technique as described on this manual.

  18. Migration of Sr-20, Cs-137, and Pu-239/240 in Canyon below Los Alamos outfall

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.M.; Mason, C.F.V.; Boak, J.M.; Longmire, P.A.

    1996-04-01

    Technical Area-21 (TA-21) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is on a mesa bordered by two canyons DP Canyon and Los Alamos (LA) Canyon. DP Canyon is a small semiarid watershed with a well defined channel system where the stream flow is ephemeral. TA-21 has had a complex history of waste disposal as research to determine the chemical and metallurgical properties of nuclear materials occurred here from 1945-1978. Due to these operations, the TA-21 mesa top and bordering canyons have been monitored and characterized by the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Results identify radionuclide values at outfall. 21-011 (k) which exceed Screening Action Levels, and points along DP Canyon which exceed regional background levels. The radiocontaminants considered in this study are strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium-239. This research examines sediment transport and speciation of radionuclide contaminant migration from a source term named SWMU 21-011 (k) down DP Canyon. Three dimensional surface plots of data from 1977-1994 are used to portray the transport and redistribution of radioactive contaminants in an alluvial stream channel. An overall decrease in contamination concentration since 1983 has been observed which could be due to more stringent laboratory controls and also to the removal of main plutonium processing laboratories to another site.

  19. Biokinetics of Plutonium in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Deepesh; Guilmette, Raymond A; Gesell, Thomas F; Harris, Jason T; Brey, Richard R

    2016-10-01

    A major source of data on metabolism, excretion and retention of plutonium comes from experimental animal studies. Although old world monkeys are one of the closest living relatives to humans, certain physiological differences do exist between these nonhuman primates and humans. The objective of this paper was to describe the metabolism of plutonium in nonhuman primates using the bioassay and retention data obtained from macaque monkeys injected with plutonium citrate. A biokinetic model for nonhuman primates was developed by adapting the basic model structure and adapting the transfer rates described for metabolism of plutonium in adult humans. Significant changes to the parameters were necessary to explain the shorter retention of plutonium in liver and skeleton of the nonhuman primates, differences in liver to bone partitioning ratio, and significantly higher excretion of plutonium in feces compared to that in humans. PMID:27575347

  20. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.

    1958-08-19

    An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

  1. Los Alamos Fires From Landsat 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 9, 2000, the Landsat 7 satellite acquired an image of the area around Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Landsat 7 satellite acquired this image from 427 miles in space through its sensor called the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Evident within the imagery is a view of the ongoing Cerro Grande fire near the town of Los Alamos and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Combining the high-resolution (30 meters per pixel in this scene) imaging capacity of ETM+ with its multi-spectral capabilities allows scientists to penetrate the smoke plume and see the structure of the fire on the surface. Notice the high-level of detail in the infrared image (bottom), in which burn scars are clearly distinguished from the hotter smoldering and flaming parts of the fire. Within this image pair several features are clearly visible, including the Cerro Grande fire and smoke plume, the town of Los Alamos, the Los Alamos National Laboratory and associated property, and Cerro Grande peak. Combining ETM+ channels 7, 4, and 2 (one visible and two infrared channels) results in a false color image where vegetation appears as bright to dark green (bottom image). Forested areas are generally dark green while herbaceous vegetation is light green. Rangeland or more open areas appear pink to light purple. Areas with extensive pavement or urban development appear light blue or white to purple. Less densely-developed residential areas appear light green and golf courses are very bright green. The areas recently burned appear black. Dark red to bright red patches, or linear features within the burned area, are the hottest and possibly actively burning areas of the fire. The fire is spreading downslope and the front of the fire is readily detectable about 2 kilometers to the west and south of Los Alamos. Combining ETM+ channels 3, 2, and 1 provides a true-color image of the greater Los Alamos region (top image). Vegetation is generally dark to medium green. Forested areas are very dark green

  2. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L; Mann, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  3. Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Paul T.; Caviness, Michael L.; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  4. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  5. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  6. PROCESS OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY ELECTRODEPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Whal, A.C.

    1958-04-15

    A process is described of separating plutonium values from an aqueous solution by electrodeposition. The process consists of subjecting an aqueous 0.1 to 1.0 N nitric acid solution containing plutonium ions to electrolysis between inert metallic electrodes. A current density of one milliampere io one ampere per square centimeter of cathode surface and a temperature between 10 and 60 d C are maintained. Plutonium is electrodeposited on the cathode surface and recovered.

  7. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Potratz, H.A.

    1958-12-16

    A process for the separation of plutonium from uranlum and other associated radioactlve fission products ls descrlbed conslstlng of contacting an acid solution containing plutonium in the tetravalent state and uranium in the hexavalent state with enough ammonium carbonate to form an alkaline solution, adding cupferron to selectlvely form plutonlum cupferrlde, then recoverlng the plutonium cupferride by extraction with a water lmmiscible organic solvent such as chloroform.

  8. WET METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TRIBROMIDE

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Hyde, E.K.

    1958-11-11

    S> The preparation of anhydrous plutonium tribromide from an aqueous acid solution of plutonium tetrabromide is described, consisting of adding a water-soluble volatile bromide to the tetrabromide to provide additional bromide ions sufficient to furnish an oxidation-reduction potential substantially more positive than --0.966 volt, evaporating the resultant plutonium tribromides to dryness in the presence of HBr, and dehydrating at an elevated temperature also in the presence of HBr.

  9. PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM AND RARE EARTHS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.

    1960-04-26

    A method of purifying plutonium is given. Tetravalent plutonium is precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate, the plutonium is oxidized to the tetravalent state, and then impurities are precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate.

  10. PLUTONIUM-CUPFERRON COMPLEX AND METHOD OF REMOVING PLUTONIUM FROM SOLUTION

    DOEpatents

    Potratz, H.A.

    1959-01-13

    A method is presented for separating plutonium from fission products present in solutions of neutronirradiated uranium. The process consists in treating such acidic solutions with cupferron so that the cupferron reacts with the plutonium present to form an insoluble complex. This plutonium cupferride precipitates and may then be separated from the solution.

  11. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM WITH FERROUS IONS

    DOEpatents

    Dreher, J.L.; Koshland, D.E.; Thompson, S.G.; Willard, J.E.

    1959-10-01

    A process is presented for separating hexavalent plutonium from fission product values. To a nitric acid solution containing the values, ferrous ions are added and the solution is heated and held at elevated temperature to convert the plutonium to the tetravalent state via the trivalent state and the plutonium is then selectively precipitated on a BiPO/sub 4/ or LaF/sub 3/ carrier. The tetravalent plutonium formed is optionally complexed with fluoride, oxalate, or phosphate anion prior to carrier precipitation.

  12. Work and disproportionation for aqueous plutonium.

    PubMed

    Silver, G L

    2003-10-01

    The relation of two plutonium work integrals has recently been illustrated. One of the integrals applies to the work of disproportionation of tetravalent plutonium in 1 M acid and the other to the work of oxidation of plutonium from the trivalent to a higher oxidation state. This paper generalizes the disproportionation work integral so that it can be applied to tetravalent plutonium at any acid concentration. An equation is provided that can be used to verify work estimations obtained by integration. It applies to oxidation and disproportionation processes and it is easy to use. PMID:14522227

  13. OXIDATIVE METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.

    1958-06-10

    A method is described of separating neptunium from plutonium in an aqueous solution containing neptunium and plutonium in valence states not greater than +4. This may be accomplished by contacting the solution with dichromate ions, thus oxidizing the neptunium to a valence state greater than +4 without oxidizing any substantial amount of plutonium, and then forming a carrier precipitate which carries the plutonium from solution, leaving the neptunium behind. A preferred embodiment of this invention covers the use of lanthanum fluoride as the carrier precipitate.

  14. NON-AQUEOUS DISSOLUTION OF MASSIVE PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

    1959-05-12

    A method is presented for obtaining non-aqueous solutions or plutonium from massive forms of the metal. In the present invention massive plutonium is added to a salt melt consisting of 10 to 40 weight per cent of sodium chloride and the balance zinc chloride. The plutonium reacts at about 800 deg C with the zinc chloride to form a salt bath of plutonium trichloride, sodium chloride, and metallic zinc. The zinc is separated from the salt melt by forcing the molten mixture through a Pyrex filter.

  15. ION EXCHANGE ADSORPTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.; Russell, E.R.; Taylor, M.D.

    1961-07-11

    Ion exchange processes for the separation of plutonium from fission products are described. In accordance with these processes an aqueous solution containing plutonium and fission products is contacted with a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring adsorption of plutonium and fission products on the resin. A portion of the fission product is then eluted with a solution containing 0.05 to 1% by weight of a carboxylic acid. Plutonium is next eluted with a solution containing 2 to 8 per cent by weight of the same carboxylic acid, and the remaining fission products on the resin are eluted with an aqueous solution containing over 10 per cent by weight of sodium bisulfate.

  16. A melanoma case-control study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Acquavella, J F; Wilkinson, G S; Tietjen, G L; Key, C R; Stebbings, J H; Voelz, G L

    1983-09-01

    We conducted a melanoma case-control study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to investigate whether related occupational exposures or personal characteristics of employees could be identified. This study was prompted by a recent report from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that melanoma was much more frequent than expected among employees and that persons suffering from melanoma more often worked as chemists. Our investigation did not uncover an association with plutonium body burden, cumulative external radiation exposure, or employment as a chemist or a physicist. The major finding was that cases were more educated than controls. Melanoma risk was 2.11 among college-educated employees and increased to 3.17 among those with graduate degrees (Mantel-extension linear trend probability = 0.038). This finding is consistent with the often reported increased melanoma incidence among persons of higher social class. It points to personal characteristics, particular to persons of higher educational attainment, as risk factors for melanoma at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. PMID:6885467

  17. Fabrication of zircon for disposition of weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.C.; Huang, J.Y.; Serrano, P.L.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In an effort to address the problems of long term storage and nuclear waste minimization, zircon has been proposed as a host medium for plutonium and other actinides recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons. The objective of this work is to investigate the feasibility of large scale fabrication of Pu-bearing zircon. Since PuO{sub 2} is thermodynamically less stable than ZrO{sub 2}, it is expected that the process parameters determined for synthesizing ZrSiO{sub 4} (zircon) would be applicable to those for PuSiO{sub 4} (Pu-zircon). Furthermore, since the foremost concern in plutonium processing is the potential for contamination release, this work emphasizes the development of process parameters, using zircon first, to anticipate potential material problems in the containment system for reaction mixtures during processing. Stoichiometric mixtures of ZrO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}, in hundred-gram batches, have been subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at temperatures near 1,500 C and pressures approximately 10,000 psi. The product materials have been analyzed by x-ray powder diffraction, and are found to consist of zircon after approximately two hours of reaction time. From this work, it is clear that the fabrication of large quantities of Pu-zircon is feasible. The most notable result of this work is evidence for the existence of container problems. This result, in turn, suggests potential solutions to these problems. Experiments with the quartz inner container, the glass sealant, a sacrificial metal barrier, and a metal outer container are being investigated to mitigate these potential hazards.

  18. Background Radioactivity in River and Reservoir Sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    S.G.McLin; D.W. Lyons

    2002-05-05

    As part of its continuing Environmental Surveillance Program, regional river and lake-bottom sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from three drainage basins at ten different river stations and five reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Radiochemical analyses for these sediments include tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, total uranium, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,-240, americium-241, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Detection-limit radioactivity originates as worldwide fallout from aboveground nuclear weapons testing and satellite reentry into Earth's atmosphere. Spatial and temporal variations in individual analyte levels originate from atmospheric point-source introductions and natural rate differences in airborne deposition and soil erosion. Background radioactivity values on sediments reflect this variability, and grouped river and reservoir sediment samples show a range of statistical distributions that appear to be analyte dependent. Traditionally, both river and reservoir analyte data were blended together to establish background levels. In this report, however, we group background sediment data according to two criteria. These include sediment source (either river or reservoir sediments) and station location relative to the Laboratory (either upstream or downstream). These grouped data are statistically evaluated through 1997, and background radioactivity values are established for individual analytes in upstream river and reservoir sediments. This information may be used to establish the existence and areal extent of trace-level environmental contamination resulting from historical Laboratory research activities since the early 1940s.

  19. Nondestructive Assay of TRU Waste Sludge at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.R.; Stanfield, S.B.; Veilleux, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of Transuranic (TRU) sludge waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) shares many of the same measurement complexities that have been encountered at other DOE sites. The sludge matrix is highly attenuating to both gamma rays and neutrons, the homogeneity of matrix and source material inside the drums cannot be verified for every drum, there are no representative standards for sludges, and independent tests intended to ascertain the accuracy of the measurements are not characteristic of the waste form. At LANL, a single instrument has been used to explore the appropriateness of both passive neutron and quantitative gamma ray methods for measuring sludge drums. The passive neutron approach uses the Reals coincidence count rate to establish plutonium mass and other parameters of interest for TRU waste. The quantitative gamma ray method assumes a homogeneous distribution of matrix and source material and assays the drum with a calibration based on the known density of the matrix. Both methods are supplemented by a simultaneous isotopic measurement using Multi-Group Analysis (MGA) to determine the plutonium isotopic composition. This report will discuss the two methods in detail. Included in the discussion will be descriptions of the setup parameters and calibration techniques for the instrument. Then an evaluation of the measurement results, including a summary of the checks and tests that are applied to sludges, will be presented. Finally, a brief discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the tests will be offered. (authors)

  20. Nuclear Material Recovery at Los Alamos National Laboratory Using TechXtract{reg_sign} Decontamination Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, S.; Dennison, D.; Fife, K.; Punjak, W.

    1999-09-12

    One mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to affect pollution prevention and waste minimization surrounding operations at their Plutonium Facility. Efforts are underway and technologies are being deployed to capture the actinide at the source thereby reducing the amount of nuclear material leaving the facility as transuranic waste. Traditional processing alternatives for decontamination, such as strong acid leaching and surface brushing have not achieved the desired recovery efficiencies for plastic or non-actinide metal matrices. Much of the nuclear material present is fixed in the matrix, and is not susceptible to recovery with surface cleaning techniques. In addition, the relatively large secondary waste volumes associated with the acid leaching have persuaded LANL to evaluate alternative recovery methods. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a prototype chemical decontamination and co-precipitation process installed at the Los Al amos Plutonium Facility that is based on the patented TechXtract{reg_sign} system developed by Active Environmental Technologies Inc. (AET). The technology was enhanced under a PRDA contract awarded by DOE in 1997.

  1. Plutonium oxalate precipitation for trace elemental determination in plutonium materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Ning; Gallimore, David; Lujan, Elmer; Garduno, Katherine; Walker, Laurie; Taylor, Fiona; Thompson, Pam; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    In this study, an analytical chemistry method has been developed that removes the plutonium (Pu) matrix from the dissolved Pu metal or oxide solution prior to the determination of trace impurities that are present in the metal or oxide. In this study, a Pu oxalate approach was employed to separate Pu from trace impurities. After Pu(III) was precipitated with oxalic acid and separated by centrifugation, trace elemental constituents in the supernatant were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with minimized spectral interferences from the sample matrix.

  2. Los Alamos National Laboratory summary plan to fabricate mixed oxide lead assemblies for the fissile material disposition program

    SciTech Connect

    Buksa, J.J.; Eaton, S.L.; Trellue, H.R.; Chidester, K.; Bowidowicz, M.; Morley, R.A.; Barr, M.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes an approach for using existing Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel-fabrication and plutonium processing capabilities to expedite and assure progress in the MOX/Reactor Plutonium Disposition Program. Lead Assembly MOX fabrication is required to provide prototypic fuel for testing in support of fuel qualification and licensing requirements. It is also required to provide a bridge for the full utilization of the European fabrication experience. In part, this bridge helps establish, for the first time since the early 1980s, a US experience base for meeting the safety, licensing, safeguards, security, and materials control and accountability requirements of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, a link is needed between the current research and development program and the production of disposition mission fuel. This link would also help provide a knowledge base for US regulators. Early MOX fabrication and irradiation testing in commercial nuclear reactors would provide a positive demonstration to Russia (and to potential vendors, designers, fabricators, and utilities) that the US has serious intent to proceed with plutonium disposition. This report summarizes an approach to fabricating lead assembly MOX fuel using the existing MOX fuel-fabrication infrastructure at the Laboratory.

  3. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, Lawrence J.; Christensen, Dana C.

    1984-01-01

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  4. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  5. URANOUS IODATE AS A CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.R.; Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1959-12-15

    A process is described for precipitating plutonium on a uranous iodate carrier from an aqueous acid solution conA plutonium solution more concentrated than the original solution can then be obtained by oxidizing the uranium to the hexavalent state and dissolving the precipitate, after separating the latter from the original solution, by means of warm nitric acid.

  6. Plutonium disproportionation: the relation of work integrals.

    PubMed

    Silver, G L

    2003-04-01

    Two plutonium work integrals have been demonstrated in recent years. One of them applies to the work of disproportionation and the other to the work of oxidation of plutonium from the trivalent to a higher oxidation state. This paper illustrates the connection of the integrals by an example and a diagram. PMID:12672623

  7. MOLTEN PLUTONIUM FUELED FAST BREEDER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kiehn, R.M.; King, L.D.P.; Peterson, R.E.; Swickard, E.O. Jr.

    1962-06-26

    A description is given of a nuclear fast reactor fueled with molten plutonium containing about 20 kg of plutonium in a tantalum container, cooled by circulating liquid sodium at about 600 to 650 deg C, having a large negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, and control rods and movable reflector for criticality control. (AEC)

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-04-28

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form.

  9. RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Goeckermann, R.H.

    1961-04-01

    A process is given for recovering plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid zirconium-containing solution of an acidity between 0.2 and 1 N by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l) and precipitating the plutonium with an excess of hydrogen peroxide at from 53 to 65 deg C.

  10. Amphibians and Reptiles of Los Alamos County

    SciTech Connect

    Teralene S. Foxx; Timothy K. Haarmann; David C. Keller

    1999-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that amphibians and reptiles are good indicators of environmental health. They live in terrestrial and aquatic environments and are often the first animals to be affected by environmental change. This publication provides baseline information about amphibians and reptiles that are present on the Pajarito Plateau. Ten years of data collection and observations by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the University of New Mexico, the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, and hobbyists are represented.

  11. Los Alamos Novel Rocket Design Flight Tested

    ScienceCinema

    Tappan, Bryce

    2015-01-05

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that also delivers a high degree of safety. Researchers will now work to scale-up the design, as well as explore miniaturization of the system, in order to exploit all potential applications that would require high-energy, high-velocity, and correspondingly high safety margins.

  12. Los Alamos Novel Rocket Design Flight Tested

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, Bryce

    2014-10-23

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that also delivers a high degree of safety. Researchers will now work to scale-up the design, as well as explore miniaturization of the system, in order to exploit all potential applications that would require high-energy, high-velocity, and correspondingly high safety margins.

  13. Los Alamos Team Demonstrates Bottle Scanner Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle; Schultz, Larry

    2014-05-06

    Los Alamos scientists are demonstrating a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR) technology that may provide a breakthrough for screening liquids at airport security. By adding low-power X-ray data to the NMR mix, scientists believe they have unlocked a new detection technology. Funded in part by the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the new technology is called MagRay.

  14. The Los Alamos accelerator code group

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, F.L.; Billen, J.H.; Ryne, R.D.; Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    The Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group (LAACG) is a national resource for members of the accelerator community who use and/or develop software for the design and analysis of particle accelerators, beam transport systems, light sources, storage rings, and components of these systems. Below the authors describe the LAACG`s activities in high performance computing, maintenance and enhancement of POISSON/SUPERFISH and related codes and the dissemination of information on the INTERNET.

  15. Los Alamos Team Demonstrates Bottle Scanner Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Espy, Michelle; Schultz, Larry

    2014-06-02

    Los Alamos scientists are demonstrating a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR) technology that may provide a breakthrough for screening liquids at airport security. By adding low-power X-ray data to the NMR mix, scientists believe they have unlocked a new detection technology. Funded in part by the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the new technology is called MagRay.

  16. Los Alamos National Laboratory Facility Review

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ronald Owen

    2015-06-05

    This series of slides depicts the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The Center's 800-MeV linac produces H+ and H- beams as well as beams of moderated (cold to 1 MeV) and unmoderated (0.1 to 600 MeV) neutrons. Experimental facilities and their capabilities and characteristics are outlined. Among these are LENZ, SPIDER, and DANCE.

  17. Los Alamos synchronous orbit data set

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.N.; Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Hones, E.W.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Energetic electron (30-15000 keV) and proton 145 keV to 150 MeV) measurements made by Los Alamos National Laboratory sensors at geostationary orbit (6.6 R/sub E/) are summarized. The instrumentation employed and the satellite positions are described. The spacecraft have been variously located, but in their present configuration the Los Alamos satellites designated 1976-059, 1977-007, and 1979-053 are located, respectively, at approx. 70/sup 0/W, approx. 70/sup 0/E, and approx. 135/sup 0/W longitude. Several examples of the high temporal and full three-dimensional spatial measurement capabilities of these instruments are illustrated by examples from the published literature. Discussion is also given for the Los Alamos Synoptic Data Set (SDS) which gives a broad overview of the Los Alamos geostationary orbit measurements. The SDS data are plotted in terms of daily average spectra, 3-hour local time averages, and in a variety of statistical formats. The data summarize conditions from mid-1976 through 1978 (S/C 1976-059) and from early 1977 through 1978 (S/C 1977-007). The SDS compilations presented correspond to measurements at 35/sup 0/W, 70/sup 0/W, and 135/sup 0/W geographic longitude and thus are indicative of conditions at 9/sup 0/, 11/sup 0/, and 4.8/sup 0/ geomagnetic latitude, respectively. The bulk of the SDS report presents data plots which are organized according to Carrington solar rotations and, as such, the data are readily comparable to solar rotation-dependent interplanetary conditions. Potential applications of the Synoptic Data Set (available to all interested users in June 1981) are discussed.

  18. Status of the Los Alamos Anger camera

    SciTech Connect

    Seeger, P.A.; Nutter, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Results of preliminary tests of the neutron Anger camera being developed at Los Alamos are presented. This detector uses a unique encoding scheme involving parellel processing of multiple receptive fields. Design goals have not yet been met, but the results are very encouraging and improvements in the test procedures are expected to show that the detector will be ready for use on a small-angle scattering instrument next year. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Critical partnerships: Los Alamos, universities, and industry

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.L.

    1997-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, situated 35 miles northwest of Santa Fe, NM, is one of the Department of Energy`s three Defense Programs laboratories. It encompasses 43 square miles, employees approximately 10,000 people, and has a budget of approximately $1.1B in FY97. Los Alamos has a strong post-cold war mission, that of reducing the nuclear danger. But even with that key role in maintaining the nation`s security, Los Alamos views partnerships with universities and industry as critical to its future well being. Why is that? As the federal budget for R&D comes under continued scrutiny and certain reduction, we believe that the triad of science and technology contributors to the national system of R&D must rely on and leverage each others capabilities. For us this means that we will rely on these partners to help us in 5 key ways: We expect that partnerships will help us maintain and enhance our core competencies. In doing so, we will be able to attract the best scientists and engineers. To keep on the cutting edge of research and development, we have found that partnerships maintain the excellence of staff through new and exciting challenges. Additionally, we find that from our university and corporate partners we often learn and incorporate {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} in organizational management and operations. Finally, we believe that a strong national system of R&D will ensure and enhance our ability to generate revenues.

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory Building Cost Index

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, H.D.; Lemon, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Building Cost Index indicates that actual escalation since 1970 is near 10% per year. Therefore, the Laboratory will continue using a 10% per year escalation rate for construction estimates through 1985 and a slightly lower rate of 8% per year from 1986 through 1990. The computerized program compares the different elements involved in the cost of a typical construction project, which for our purposes, is a complex of office buildings and experimental laboratores. The input data used in the program consist primarily of labor costs and material and equipment costs. The labor costs are the contractural rates of the crafts workers in the Los Alamos area. For the analysis, 12 field-labor draft categories are used; each is weighted corresponding to the labor craft distribution associated with the typical construction project. The materials costs are current Los Alamos prices. Additional information sources include material and equipment quotes obtained through conversations with vendors and from trade publications. The material and equipment items separate into 17 categories for the analysis and are weighted corresponding to the material and equipment distribution associated with the typical construction project. The building cost index is compared to other national building cost indexes.

  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory building cost index

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, H.D.; Lemon, G.D.

    1982-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Building Cost Index indicates that actual escalation since 1970 is near 10% per year. Therefore, the Laboratory will continue using a 10% per year escalation rate for construction estimates through 1985 and a slightly lower rate of 8% per year from 1986 through 1990. The computerized program compares the different elements involved in the cost of a typical construction project, which for our purposes, is a complex of office buildings and experimental laboratories. The input data used in the program consist primarily of labor costs and material and equipment costs. The labor costs are the contractual rates of the crafts workers in the Los Alamos area. For the analysis, 12 field-labor craft categories are used; each is weighted corresponding to the labor craft distribution associated with the typical construction project. The materials costs are current Los Alamos prices. Additional information sources include material and equipment quotes obtained through conversations with vendors and from trade publications. The material and equipment items separate into 17 categories for the analysis and are weighted corresponding to the material and equipment distribution associated with the typical construction project. The building cost index is compared to other national building cost indexes.

  2. Exploration geochemistry: The Los Alamos experience

    SciTech Connect

    Maassen, L.W.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory became actively involved in geochemical exploration in 1975 by conducting a reconnaissance-scale exploration program for uranium as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Initially, only uranium and thorium were analyzed. By 1979 Los Alamos was analyzing a multielement suite. The data were presented in histograms and as black and white concentration plots for uranium and thorium only. Data for the remaining elements were presented as hard copy data listings in an appendix to the report. In 1983 Los Alamos began using exploration geochemistry for the purpose of finding economic mineral deposits to help stimulate the economies of underdeveloped countries. Stream-sediment samples were collected on the Caribbean island of St. Lucia and a geochemical atlas of that island was produced. The data were statistically smoothed and presented as computer-generated color plots of each element of the multielement suite. Studies for the US Bureau of Land Management in 1984 consisted of development of techniques for the integration of several large data sets, which could then be used for computer-assisted mineral resource assessments. A supervised classification technique was developed which compares the attributes of grid cells containing mines or mineral occurrences with attributes of unclassified cells not known to contain mines or occurrences. Color maps indicate how closely unclassified cells match in attributes the cells with mines or occurrences. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Nondestructive assay methods for solids containing plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Macmurdo, K.W.; Gray, L.W.; Gibbs, A.

    1984-06-01

    Specific nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, e.g. calorimetry, coincidence neutron counting, singles neutron counting, and gamma ray spectrometry, were studied to provide the Savannah River Plant with an NDA method to measure the plutonium content of solid scrap (slag and crucible) generated in the JB-Line plutonium metal production process. Results indicate that calorimetry can be used to measure the plutonium content to within about 3% in 4 to 6 hours by using computerized equilibrium sample power predictive models. Calorimetry results confirm that a bias exists in the present indirect measurement method used to estimate the plutonium content of slag and crucible. Singles neutron counting of slag and crucible can measure plutonium to only +-30%, but coincidence neutron counting methods improve measurement precision to better than +-10% in less than ten minutes. Only four portions of a single slag and crucible sample were assayed, and further study is recommended.

  4. New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-27

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  5. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, D.M.

    1959-01-13

    An improvement is presented in the process for recovery and decontamination of plutonium. The carrier precipitate containing plutonium is dissolved and treated with an oxidizing agent to place the plutonium in a hexavalent oxidation state. A lanthanum fluoride precipitate is then formed in and removed from the solution to carry undesired fission products. The fluoride ions in the reniaining solution are complexed by addition of a borate sueh as boric acid, sodium metaborate or the like. The plutonium is then reduced and carried from the solution by the formation of a bismuth phosphate precipitate. This process effects a better separation from unwanted flssion products along with conccntration of the plutonium by using a smaller amount of carrier.

  6. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Stroud, Mary Ann; Smith, Paul Herrick; Wayne, David M.; Mason, Richard E.; Worl, Laura A.

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  7. Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA): A Nondestructive Assay Technique for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Plutonium Assay Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2010-12-01

    This is an end-of-year report for a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The first-year goals for this project were modest and included: 1) developing a zero-order MCNP model for the NRTA technique, simulating data results presented in the literature, 2) completing a preliminary set of studies investigating important design and performance characteristics for the NRTA measurement technique, and 3) documentation of this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes a nine month period of work.

  8. Plutonium Decontamination of Uranium using CO2 Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M

    2002-12-01

    A concern of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) and Defense Programs (DP), and of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is the disposition of thousands of legacy and recently generated plutonium (Pu)-contaminated, highly enriched uranium (HEU) parts. These parts take up needed vault space. This presents a serious problem for LLNL, as site limit could result in the stoppage of future weapons work. The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (NN-60) will also face a similar problem as thousands of HEU parts will be created with the disassembly of site-return pits for plutonium recovery when the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) becomes operational. To send HEU to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 Plant for disposition, the contamination for metal must be less than 20 disintegrations per minute (dpm) of swipable transuranic per 100 cm{sup 2} of surface area or the Pu bulk contamination for oxide must be less than 210 parts per billion (ppb). LANL has used the electrolytic process on Pu-contaminated HEU weapon parts with some success. However, this process requires that a different fixture be used for every configuration; each fixture cost approximately $10K. Moreover, electrolytic decontamination leaches the uranium metal substrate (no uranium or plutonium oxide) from the HEU part. The leaching rate at the uranium metal grain boundaries is higher than that of the grains and depends on the thickness of the uranium oxide layer. As the leaching liquid flows past the HEU part, it carries away plutonium oxide contamination and uranium oxide. The uneven uranium metal surface created by the leaching becomes a trap for plutonium oxide contamination. In addition, other DOE sites have used CO{sub 2} cleaning for Pu decontamination successfully. In the 1990's, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory investigated this technology and

  9. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D.; Hackney, B.; Leduc, Dan R.; McClard, J. W.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  10. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  11. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, W.C.; Phillips, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  12. Plutonium Uptake and Distribution in Mammalian Cells: Molecular vs Polymeric Plutonium

    PubMed Central

    ARYAL, BAIKUNTHA P.; GORMAN-LEWIS, DREW; PAUNESKU, TATJANA; WILSON, RICHARD E.; LAI, BARRY; VOGT, STEFAN; WOLOSCHAK, GAYLE E.; JENSEN, MARK P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the cellular responses to molecular and polymeric forms of plutonium using PC12 cells derived from rat adrenal glands. Materials and methods Serum starved PC12 cells were exposed to polymeric and molecular forms of plutonium for three hours. Cells were washed with 10 mM EGTA, 100 mM NaCl at pH 7.4 to remove surface sorbed plutonium. Localization of plutonium in individual cell was quantitatively analyzed by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. Results Molecular plutonium complexes introduced to cell growth media in the form of NTA, citrate, or transferrin complexes were taken up by PC12 cells, and mostly co-localized with iron within the cells. Polymeric plutonium prepared separately was not internalized by PC12 cells but it was always found on the cell surface as big agglomerates; however polymeric plutonium formed in situ was mostly found within the cells as agglomerates. Conclusions PC12 cells can differentiate molecular and polymeric forms of plutonium. Molecular plutonium is taken up by PC12 cells and mostly co-localized with iron but aged polymeric plutonium is not internalized by the cells. PMID:21770702

  13. ADSORPTION-BISMUTH PHOSPHATE METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Boyd, G.E.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products. Plutonium and uranium are adsorbed by a cation exchange resin, plutonium is eluted from the adsorbent, and then, after oxidation to the hexavalent state, the plutonium is contacted with a bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate.

  14. DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT METHODS AND CODES AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. MOREL

    1999-06-01

    The purposes of this paper are to: Present a brief history of deterministic transport methods development at Los Alamos National Laboratory from the 1950's to the present; Discuss the current status and capabilities of deterministic transport codes at Los Alamos; and Discuss future transport needs and possible future research directions. Our discussion of methods research necessarily includes only a small fraction of the total research actually done. The works that have been included represent a very subjective choice on the part of the author that was strongly influenced by his personal knowledge and experience. The remainder of this paper is organized in four sections: the first relates to deterministic methods research performed at Los Alamos, the second relates to production codes developed at Los Alamos, the third relates to the current status of transport codes at Los Alamos, and the fourth relates to future research directions at Los Alamos.

  15. Excess Plutonium: Weapons Legacy or National Asset?

    SciTech Connect

    Klipa, G.; Boeke, S.; Hottel, R.

    2002-02-27

    The Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative was established in January, 2000, to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of nuclear materials. As part of that initiative, the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), has established Nuclear Material Management Groups for the management of excess nuclear materials. As one of these groups, the Plutonium Material Management Group (PMMG) has been chartered to serve as DOE's complex wide resource and point of contact for technical coordination and program planning support in the safe and efficient disposition of the nations excess Plutonium 239. This paper will explain the mission, goals, and objectives of the PMMG. In addition, the paper will provide a broad overview of the status of the plutonium inventories throughout the DOE complex. The DOE currently manages approximately 99.5 MT of plutonium isotopes. Details of the various categories of plutonium, from material designated for national security needs through material that has been declared excess, will be explained. For the plutonium that has been declared excess, the various pathways to disposition (including reuse, recycling, sale, transfer, treatment, consumption, and disposal) will be discussed. At this time 52.5 MT of plutonium has been declared excess and the method of disposition for that material is the subject of study and evaluation within DOE. The role of the PMMG in those evaluations will be outlined.

  16. How much plutonium does North Korea have?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. intelligence discovered in the 1980s that North Korea was building a small nuclear reactor. The reactor was described as a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated model similar to those Britian and France used to produce electric power as well as plutonium for nuclear weapons. When Western nations expressed concern about the reactor Russia pressed North Korea to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which it did on December 12, 1985. However, North Korea stalled on signing the required safeguards agreement that allows the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to inspect nuclear facilities until January 1992. Inspections by the IAEA revealed discrepancies with the amounts of plutonium separated as declared by the North Koreans. The IAEA also received reports that two North Korean waste sites were hidden. By February 1993 the IAEA and the North Koreans has reached an impasse: North Koreas initial declarations of plutonium inventory could not be confirmed and North Korea refused to cooperate. At the least, North Korea admits to having separated 100 grams of plutonium. At the most, worst case estimate, they could have a total of 6 - 13 kilograms of separated plutonium. A first nuclear weapon can require up to 10 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium. Any settlement needs to include a way to insure that the IAEA can verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium that may have been separated in the past. 2 refs.

  17. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  18. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  19. Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy Amos

    2010-01-01

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design & performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance program

  20. Volatile fluoride process for separating plutonium from other materials

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F. H.; Newton, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or fission products by formation of the higher fluorides off uranium and/or plutonium is described. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first converted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treated with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sub 6/ leaving plutonium behind. Thc plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 5004DEC and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

  1. VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or tission products by formation of the higher fluorides of uranium and/or plutonium is discussed. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first convcrted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treatced with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sup 6/ leaving plutonium behind. The plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 500 deg C and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

  2. NON-CORROSIVE PLUTONIUM FUEL SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.; Waber, J.T.

    1962-10-23

    An improved plutonium reactor liquid fuel is described for utilization in a nuclear reactor having a tantalum fuel containment vessel. The fuel consists of plutonium and a diluent such as iron, cobalt, nickel, cerium, cerium-- iron, cerium--cobalt, cerium--nickel, and cerium--copper, and an additive of carbon and silicon. The carbon and silicon react with the tantalum container surface to form a coating that is self-healing and prevents the corrosive action of liquid plutonium on the said tantalum container. (AEC)

  3. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  4. Removal of plutonium from hepatic tissue

    DOEpatents

    Lindenbaum, Arthur; Rosenthal, Marcia W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is provided for removing plutonium from hepatic tissues by introducing into the body and blood stream a solution of the complexing agent DTPA and an adjunct thereto. The adjunct material induces aberrations in the hepatic tissue cells and removes intracellularly deposited plutonium which is normally unavailable for complexation with the DTPA. Once the intracellularly deposited plutonium has been removed from the cell by action of the adjunct material, it can be complexed with the DTPA present in the blood stream and subsequently removed from the body by normal excretory processes.

  5. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Nicholls, C.M.; Wells, I.; Spence, R.

    1959-10-13

    The separation of uranium and plutonium from neutronirradiated uranium is described. The neutron-irradiated uranium is dissolved in nitric acid to provide an aqueous solution 3N in nitric acid. The fission products of the solution are extruded by treating the solution with dibutyl carbitol substantially 1.8N in nitric acid. The organic solvent phase is separated and neutralized with ammonium hydroxide and the plutonium reduced with hydroxylamine base to the trivalent state. Treatment of the mixture with saturated ammonium nitrate extracts the reduced plutonium and leaves the uranium in the organic solvent.

  6. RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Reber, E.J.

    1959-09-01

    A process is described for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions by precipitation on bismuth phosphate. The plutonium is secured in its tetravalent state. bismuth salt is added to the solution, and ant excess of phosphoric acid anions is added to the solution in two approximately equal installments. The rate of addition of the first installment is about two to three times as high as the rate of addition of the second installment, whereby a precipitate of bismuth phosphate forms, the precipitate carrying the plutonium values. The precipitate is separated from the solution.

  7. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  8. Modeling aeolian transport of soil-bound plutonium: considering infrequent but normal environmental disturbances is critical in estimating future dose.

    PubMed

    Michelotti, Erika A; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Eisele, William F; Breshears, David D; Kirchner, Thomas B

    2013-06-01

    Dose assessments typically consider environmental systems as static through time, but environmental disturbances such as drought and fire are normal, albeit infrequent, events that can impact dose-influential attributes of many environmental systems. These phenomena occur over time frames of decades or longer, and are likely to be exacerbated under projected warmer, drier climate. As with other types of dose assessment, the impacts of environmental disturbances are often overlooked when evaluating dose from aeolian transport of radionuclides and other contaminants. Especially lacking are predictions that account for potential changing vegetation cover effects on radionuclide transport over the long time frames required by regulations. A recently developed dynamic wind-transport model that included vegetation succession and environmental disturbance provides more realistic long-term predictability. This study utilized the model to estimate emission rates for aeolian transport, and compare atmospheric dispersion and deposition rates of airborne plutonium-contaminated soil into neighboring areas with and without environmental disturbances. Specifically, the objective of this study was to utilize the model results as input for a widely used dose assessment model (CAP-88). Our case study focused on low levels of residual plutonium found in soils from past operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in Los Alamos, NM, located in the semiarid southwestern USA. Calculations were conducted for different disturbance scenarios based on conditions associated with current climate, and a potential future drier and warmer climate. Known soil and sediment concentrations of plutonium were used to model dispersal and deposition of windblown residual plutonium, as a function of distance and direction. Environmental disturbances that affected vegetation cover included ground fire, crown fire, and drought, with reoccurrence rates for current climate based on site historical

  9. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO{sub 2}) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl{sub 4}-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams.

  10. Los Alamos Before and After the Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 4, 2000, a prescribed fire was set at Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, to clear brush and dead and dying undergrowth to prevent a larger, subsequent wildfire. Unfortunately, due to high winds and extremely dry conditions in the surrounding area, the prescribed fire quickly raged out of control and, by May 10, the blaze had spread into the nearby town of Los Alamos. In all, more than 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes and more than 200 houses were destroyed as the flames consumed about 48,000 acres in and around the Los Alamos area. The pair of images above were acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor, flying aboard NASA's Landsat 7 satellite, shortly before the Los Alamos fire (top image, acquired April 14) and shortly after the fire was extinguished (lower image, June 17). The images reveal the extent of the damage caused by the fire. Combining ETM+ channels 7, 4, and 2 (one visible and two infrared channels) results in a false-color image where vegetation appears as bright to dark green. Forested areas are generally dark green while herbaceous vegetation is light green. Rangeland or more open areas appear pink to light purple. Areas with extensive pavement or urban development appear light blue or white to purple. Less densely-developed residential areas appear light green and golf courses are very bright green. In the lower image, the areas recently burned appear bright red. Landsat 7 data courtesy United States Geological Survey EROS DataCenter. Images by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  11. LAMPF II workshop, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, February 1-4, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the first LAMPF II Workshop held at Los Alamos February 1 to 4, 1982. Included are the talks that were available in written form. The conclusion of the participants was that there are many exciting areas of physics that will be addressed by such a machine.

  12. Biological assessment for the effluent reduction program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, S.P.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the biological assessment for the effluent recution program proposed to occur within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential effects on wetland plants and on threatened and endangered species are discussed, along with a detailed description of the individual outfalls resulting from the effluent reduction program.

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory computer benchmarking 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Evaluating the performance of computing machinery is a continual effort of the Computer Research and Applications Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This report summarizes the results of the group's benchmarking activities performed between October 1981 and September 1982, presenting compilation and execution times as well as megaflop rates for a set of benchmark codes. Tests were performed on the following computers: Cray Research, Inc. (CRI) Cray-1S; Control Data Corporation (CDC) 7600, 6600, Cyber 73, Cyber 825, Cyber 835, Cyber 855, and Cyber 205; Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX 11/780 and VAX 11/782; and Apollo Computer, Inc., Apollo.

  14. Ultraprecision machining of optics at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Rhorer, R.L.; Gauler, A.L.; Colston, E.W.; Ruhe, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraprecision machine tools are used at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for single-point diamond turning of optics and other precision parts. Measurements of a 50-mm-diam copper flat illustrate the quality of a part that can be machined on the Moore No. 3 lathe. Measurements of a 0.4-m-diam aluminum mirror with a 20-m radius of curvature are presented as an example of a part machined on the Moore No. 5 lathe. A varying frequency sine wave grating shows a type of special optical grating that can be produced using the Pneumo lathe.

  15. Ultraprecision machining of optics at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Rhorer, R.L.; Gauler, A.L.; Colston, E.W.; Ruhe, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ultraprecision machine tools are used at Los Alamos for single point diamond turning of optics and other precision parts. Measurements of a 50-mm-dia copper flat are used to illustrate the quality of a part which can be machined on the Moore No. 3 lathe. Measurements of a 0.4-m-dia aluminum mirror with a 20-m radius-of-curvature are presented as an example of a part machined on the Moore No. 5 lathe. A varying frequency sine wave grating is used to show a type of special optical grating which can be produced using the Pneumo lathe.

  16. Environmental Programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Patricia

    2012-07-11

    Summary of this project is: (1) Teamwork, partnering to meet goals - (a) Building on cleanup successes, (b) Solving legacy waste problems, (c) Protecting the area's environment; (2) Strong performance over the past three years - (a) Credibility from four successful Recovery Act Projects, (b) Met all Consent Order milestones, (c) Successful ramp-up of TRU program; (3) Partnership between the National Nuclear Security Administration's Los Alamos Site Office, DOE Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico Environment Department, and contractor staff enables unprecedented cleanup progress; (4) Continued focus on protecting water resources; and (5) All consent order commitments delivered on time or ahead of schedule.

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory strategic directions

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, S.

    1995-10-01

    It is my pleasure to welcome you to Los Alamos. I like the idea of bringing together all aspects of the research community-defense, basic science, and industrial. It is particularly important in today`s times of constrained budgets and in fields such as neutron research because I am convinced that the best science and the best applications will come from their interplay. If we do the science well, then we will do good applications. Keeping our eye focused on interesting applications will spawn new areas of science. This interplay is especially critical, and it is good to have these communities represented here today.

  18. Opportunities in Plutonium Metallurgical Research

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A J

    2006-12-19

    This is an exciting time to be involved in plutonium metallurgical research. Over the past few years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the fundamental materials science of this unusual metal, particularly in the areas of self-irradiation induced aging of Pu, the equilibrium phase diagram, the homogenization of {delta}-phase alloys, the crystallography and morphology of the {alpha}{prime}-phase resulting from the isothermal martensitic phase transformation, and the phonon dispersion curves, among many others. In addition, tremendous progress has been made, both experimentally and theoretically, in our understanding of the condensed matter physics and chemistry of the actinides, particularly in the area of electronic structure. Although these communities have made substantial progress, many challenges still remain. This brief overview will address a number of important challenges that we face in fully comprehending the metallurgy of Pu with a specific focus on aging and phase transformations.

  19. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM FLUORIDE FROM BISMUTH PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATE CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating plutonium from fission products present on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The dried carrier is first treated with hydrogen fluoride at between 500 and 600 deg C whereby some fission product fluorides volatilize away from plutonium tetrafluoride, and nonvolatile fission product fluorides are formed then with anhydrous fluorine at between 400 and 500 deg C. Bismuth and plutonium distill in the form of volatile fluorides away from the nonvolatile fission product fluorides. The bismuth and plutonium fluorides are condensed at below 290 deg C.

  20. What is plutonium stabilization, and what is safe storage of plutonium?

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1995-06-29

    The end of the cold war has resulted in the shutdown of nuclear weapons production and the start of dismantlement of significant numbers of nuclear weapons. This, in turn, is creating an inventory of plutonium requiring interim and long-term storage. A key question is, ``What is required for safe, multidecade, plutonium storage?`` The requirements for storage, in turn, define what is needed to stabilize the plutonium from its current condition into a form acceptable for interim and long-term storage. Storage requirements determine if research is required to (1) define required technical conditions for interim and long-term storage and (2) develop or improve current stabilization technologies. Storage requirements depend upon technical, policy, and economic factors. The technical issues are complicated by several factors. Plutonium in aerosol form is highly hazardous. Plutonium in water is hazardous. The plutonium inventory is in multiple chemical forms--some of which are chemically reactive. Also, some of the existing storage forms are clearly unsuitable for storage periods over a few years. Gas generation by plutonium compounds complicates storage: (1) all plutonium slowly decays creating gaseous helium and (2) the radiation from plutonium decay can initiate many chemical reactions-some of which generate significant quantities of gases. Gas generation can pressurize sealed storage packages. Last nuclear criticality must be avoided.

  1. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  2. Fission Product Data Measured at Los Alamos for Fission Spectrum and Thermal Neutrons on 239Pu, 235U, 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selby, H. D.; Mac Innes, M. R.; Barr, D. W.; Keksis, A. L.; Meade, R. A.; Burns, C. J.; Chadwick, M. B.; Wallstrom, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    We describe measurements of fission product data at Los Alamos that are important for determining the number of fissions that have occurred when neutrons are incident on plutonium and uranium isotopes. The fission-spectrum measurements were made using a fission chamber designed by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in the BIG TEN critical assembly, as part of the Inter-laboratory Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Reaction Rate (ILRR) collaboration. The thermal measurements were made at Los Alamos' Omega West Reactor. A related set of measurements were made of fission-product ratios (so-called R-values) in neutron environments provided by a number of Los Alamos critical assemblies that range from having average energies causing fission of 400-600 keV (BIG TEN and the outer regions of the Flattop-25 assembly) to higher energies (1.4-1.9 MeV) in the Jezebel, and in the central regions of the Flattop-25 and Flattop-Pu, critical assemblies. From these data we determine ratios of fission product yields in different fuel and neutron environments (Q-values) and fission product yields in fission spectrum neutron environments for 99Mo, 95Zr, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141,143Ce, and 147Nd. Modest incident-energy dependence exists for the 147Nd fission product yield; this is discussed in the context of models for fission that include thermal and dynamical effects. The fission product data agree with measurements by Maeck and other authors using mass-spectrometry methods, and with the ILRR collaboration results that used gamma spectroscopy for quantifying fission products. We note that the measurements also contradict earlier 1950s historical Los Alamos estimates by ˜5-7%, most likely owing to self-shielding corrections not made in the early thermal measurements. Our experimental results provide a confirmation of the England-Rider ENDF/B-VI evaluated fission-spectrum fission product yields that were carried over to the ENDF/B-VII.0 library, except for 99Mo

  3. Design-only conceptual design report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A A

    2000-05-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be located at the Savannah River Site pursuant to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, January 4, 2000. This document reflects a new facility using the ceramic immobilization technology and the can-in-canister approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium oxide from pit conversion and plutonium and plutonium oxide from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors; it must also be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses a new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will receive and store feed materials, convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize the plutonium oxide in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister. The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility is used for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infrastructure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. This design-only conceptual design report also provides the cost for a Plutonium Immobilization Plant which would process

  4. International shipment of plutonium by air

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, J.E.; McGrogan, J.P.

    1995-05-01

    In support of the United States (US) Government`s decision to place excess plutonium oxide at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, the Department of State notified the Congress that a plutonium storage vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site would be added to the eligible facilities list. As part of the preparations to transfer the plutonium oxide under IAEA safeguards, samples of the powder were taken from the inventory to be shipped to the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria, for laboratory analysis. The analysis of these samples was of high priority, and the IAEA requested that the material be shipped by aircraft, the most expeditious method.

  5. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  6. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Plutonium administered as an alpha radiation source to the respiratory tracts of Syrian hamsters has resulted in various incidences of neoplasia. Adenomas are the primary lung tumor observed, but adenocarcinomas are also prevalent.

  7. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Spence, R.; Lister, M.W.

    1958-12-16

    Uranium and plutonium can be separated from neutron-lrradiated uranium by a process consisting of dissolvlng the lrradiated material in nitric acid, saturating the solution with a nitrate salt such as ammonium nitrate, rendering the solution substantially neutral with a base such as ammonia, adding a reducing agent such as hydroxylamine to change plutonium to the trivalent state, treating the solution with a substantially water immiscible organic solvent such as dibutoxy diethylether to selectively extract the uranium, maklng the residual aqueous solutlon acid with nitric acid, adding an oxidizing agent such as ammonlum bromate to oxidize the plutonium to the hexavalent state, and selectlvely extracting the plutonium by means of an immlscible solvent, such as dibutoxy dlethyletber.

  8. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwoody, John T; Mason, Richard E; Freibert, Franz J; Willson, Stephen P; Veirs, Douglas K; Worl, Laura A; Archuleta, Alonso; Conger, Donald J

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  9. Plutonium-238 processing at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Burney, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Plutonium-238 is produced by irradiating NpO/sub 2/-Al cermet slugs or tubes with neutrons. The neptunium-237 is produced as a by-product when natural or enriched uranium is irradiated with neutrons. The neptunium is separated by solvent extraction and ion exchange and precipitated as neptunium oxalate. Neptunium oxalate is calcined to neptunium oxide and fabricated into targets for irradiation. The irradiation conditions are controlled to produce plutonium with 80 to 90 wt % /sup 238/Pu.

  10. PLUTONIUM CARRIER METATHESIS WITH ORGANIC REAGENT

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.

    1958-07-01

    A method is described for converting a plutonium containing bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate Into a compositton more readily soluble in acid. The method consists of dissolving the bismuth phosphate precipitate in an aqueous solution of alkali metal hydroxide, and adding one of a certaia group of organic compounds, e.g., polyhydric alcohols or a-hydrorycarboxylic acids. The mixture is then heated causiing formation of a bismuth hydroxide precipitate containing plutonium which may be readily dissolved in nitric acid for further processing.

  11. Plutonium: The first 50 years. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The report contains important newly declassified information regarding the US production, acquisition, and removals of plutonium. This new information, when combined with previously declassified data, has allowed the DOE to issue, for the first time, a truly comprehensive report on the total DOE plutonium inventory. At the December 7, 1993, Openness Press Conference, the DOE declassified the plutonium inventories at eight locations totaling 33.5 metric tons (MT). This report declassifies the remainder of the DOE plutonium inventory. Newly declassified in this report is the quantity of plutonium at the Pantex Site, near Amarillo, Texas, and in the US nuclear weapons stockpile of 66.1 MT, which, when added to the previously released inventory of 33.5 MT, yields a total plutonium inventory of 99.5 MT. This report will document the sources which built up the plutonium inventory as well as the transactions which have removed plutonium from that inventory. This report identifies four sources that add plutonium to the DOE/DoD inventory, and seven types of transactions which remove plutonium from the DOE/DoD inventory. This report also discusses the nuclear material control and accountability system which records all nuclear material transactions, compares records with inventory and calculates material balances, and analyzes differences to verify that nuclear materials are in quantities as reported. The DOE believes that this report will aid in discussions in plutonium storage, safety, and security with stakeholders as well as encourage other nations to declassify and release similar data. These data will also be available for formulating policies with respect to disposition of excess nuclear materials. The information in this report is based on the evaluation of available records. The information contained in this report may be updated or revised in the future should additional or more detailed data become available.

  12. Independent Review of Siesmic Performance Assessments for the Plutonium Facility PF-4

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Andrew; Goen, Lawrence Kenneth; Kennedy, Robert; McDonald, Brian; Morgan, Troy; Wyllie, Loring

    2015-11-25

    The Plutonium Facility, designated PF-4, is located in Technical Area 55 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The facility is a one-story rectangular structure above a complete basement; the building was constructed of cast-in-place reinforced concrete, with small interior frames of structural steel. The plan dimensions of the building are 265’×284’. The overall height of the building varies between 39’-0” at the north and south ends, and 40’-6” at the center ridge. The programmatic work performed in the building is vital to our national security and its functions and storage purposes are not replicated elsewhere in the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

  13. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  14. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) STABILIZATION & PACKAGING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2004-01-14

    Fluor Hanford is pleased to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Stabilization and Packaging Project (SPP) for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2004. The SPP thermally stabilized and/or packaged nearly 18 metric tons (MT) of plutonium and plutonium-bearing materials left in PFP facilities from 40 years of nuclear weapons production and experimentation. The stabilization of the plutonium-bearing materials substantially reduced the radiological risk to the environment and security concerns regarding the potential for terrorists to acquire the non-stabilized plutonium products for nefarious purposes. The work was done In older facilities which were never designed for the long-term storage of plutonium, and required working with materials that were extremely radioactive, hazardous, pyrophoric, and In some cases completely unique. I n some Instances, one-of-a-kind processes and equipment were designed, installed, and started up. The SPP was completed ahead of schedule, substantially beating all Interim progress milestone dates set by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) and in the Hanford Site's Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), and finished $1-million under budget.

  15. Cleaning up the Legacy of the Cold War: Plutonium Oxides and the Role of Synchrotron Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, David Lewis

    2015-01-21

    The deceptively simple binary formula of AnO2 belies an incredibly complex structural nature, and propensity to form mixed-valent, nonstoichiometric phases of composition AnO2±x. For plutonium, the very formation of PuO2+x has challenged a long-established dogma, and raised fundamental questions for long-term storage and environmental migration. This presentation covers two aspects of Los Alamos synchrotron radiation studies of plutonium oxides: (1) the structural chemistry of laboratory-prepared AnO2+x systems (An = U, Pu; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) determined through a combination of x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and x-ray scattering of laboratory prepared samples; and (2) the application of synchrotron radiation towards the decontamination and decommissioning of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Making the case for particle transport mechanisms as the basis of plutonium and americium mobility, rather than aqueous sorption-desorption processes, established a successful scientific basis for the dominance of physical transport processes by wind and water. The scientific basis was successful because it was in agreement with general theory on insolubility of PuO2 in oxidation state IV, results of ultrafiltration analyses of field water/sediment samples, XAFS analyses of soil, sediment, and concrete samples, and was also in general agreement with on-site monitoring data. This understanding allowed Site contractors to rapidly move to application of soil erosion and sediment transport models as the means of predicting plutonium and americium transport, which led to design and application of site-wide soil erosion control technology to help control downstream concentrations of plutonium and americium in streamflow.

  16. Audit of personal property management at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-07

    The Department of Energy`s (Department) Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) are responsible for ensuring that Los Alamos maintains an efficient and effective personal property management system that protects, identifies, and controls Government-owned personal property in accordance with applicable regulations. Albuquerque is responsible for reviewing and approving Los Alamos` personal property management system. Los Alamos is responsible for ensuring that personal property is properly protected, identified, and controlled. The audit disclosed that Los Alamos did not have an efficient and effective personal property management system to ensure that personal property was adequately protected, identified, and controlled. In addition, Albuquerque did not approve or disapprove Los Alamos` personal property management system consistent with Federal and Department regulations. Specifically, the audit showed that Los Alamos did not account for $11.6 million of personal property. In addition, $22.2 million of personal property was not properly recorded in the database, $61.7 million of personal property could not be inventoried, and loans to employees and other entities were not adequately justified. As a result, from a total personal property inventory of approximately $1 billion, it is estimated that $100 million of personal property may not be accounted for, and $207 million may not be correctly recorded in the database. Moreover, substantial amounts of personal property on loan to employees and other entities were at risk of unauthorized use. Albuquerque concurred with the finding and agreed to implement the corrective actions recommended in the report.

  17. The Climate at Los Alamos; Are we measurement changes?

    SciTech Connect

    Dewart, Jean Marie

    2015-04-16

    A new report shows new graphic displays of the weather trends in Los Alamos, New Mexico, and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The graphs show trends of average, minimum average, and maximum average temperature for summer and winter months going back decades. Records of summer and winter precipitation are also included in the report.

  18. Los Alamos personnel and area criticality dosimeter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilik, D.G.; Martin, R.W.

    1981-06-01

    Fissionable materials are handled and processed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Although the probability of a nuclear criticality accident is very remote, it must be considered. Los Alamos maintains a broad spectrum of dose assessment capabilities. This report describes the methods employed for personnel neutron, area neutron, and photon dose evaluations with passive dosimetry systems.

  19. Distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former Los Alamos liquid waste disposal site after 33 years

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Abeele, W.V.; Trujillo, G.; Herrera, W.J.; Wheeler, M.L.; Booth, J.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1984-07-01

    The distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos was investigated. The waste use history of the site was described, as well as several pertinent laboratory and field studies of water and radionuclide migration in Bandelier Tuff. The distribution of plutonium, /sup 241/Am, and water was determined in a set of about 800 tuff samples collected to sampling depths of 30 m beneath two absorption beds. These data were then related to site geohydrologic data. Water and radionuclide concentrations found after 33 years were compared with the results of similar studies previously performed at this site, and the implications of these comparisons are discussed relative to nuclear waste management. 19 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  20. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.; Adamson, A.W.; Schubert, J.; Russell, E.R.

    1958-10-01

    A chromatographic adsorption process is presented for the separation of plutonium from other fission products formed by the irradiation of uranium. The plutonium and the lighter element fission products are adsorbed on a sulfonated phenol-formaldehyde resin bed from a nitric acid solution containing the dissolved uranium. Successive washes of sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids remove the bulk of the fission products, then an eluate of dilute phosphoric and nitric acids removes the remaining plutonium and fission products. The plutonium is selectively removed by passing this solution through zirconium phosphate, from which the plutonium is dissolved with nitric acid. This process provides a convenient and efficient means for isolating plutonium.

  1. PROCESS OF FORMING PLUOTONIUM SALTS FROM PLUTONIUM EXALATES

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for converting plutonium oxalate to other plutonium compounds by a dry conversion method. According to the process, lower valence plutonium oxalate is heated in the presence of a vapor of a volatile non- oxygenated monobasic acid, such as HCl or HF. For example, in order to produce plutonium chloride, the pure plutonium oxalate is heated to about 700 deg C in a slow stream of hydrogen plus HCl. By the proper selection of an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, the plutonium halide product can be obtained in either the plus 3 or plus 4 valence state.

  2. Los Alamos National Laboratory DOE M441.1-1 implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Worl, Laura A; Veirs, D Kirk; Smith, Paul H; Yarbro, Tresa F; Stone, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Department of Energy (DOE) issued DOE M 441.1-1, Nuclear Materials Packaging Manual on March 7, 2008 in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2005-1. The Manual directs DOE facilities to follow detailed packaging requirements to protect workers from exposure to nuclear materials stored outside of approved engineered-contamination barriers. Los Alamos National Laboratory has identified the activities that will be performed to bring LANL into compliance with DOE M 441.1-1. These include design, qualification and procurement of new containers, repackaging based on a risk-ranking methodology, surveillance and maintenance of containers, and database requirements. The primary purpose is to replace the out-dated nuclear material storage containers with more robust containers that meet present day safety and quality standards. The repackaging campaign is supported by an integrated risk reduction methodology to prioritize the limited resources to the highest risk containers. This methodology is systematically revised and updated based on the collection of package integrity data. A set of seven nested packages with built-in filters have been designed. These range in size from 1 qt. to 10 gallon. Progress of the testing to meet Manual requirements will be given. Due to the number of packages at LANL, repackaging to achieve full compliance will take five to seven years.

  3. Portable MRI developed at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, Michelle

    2015-04-22

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are developing an ultra-low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system that could be low-power and lightweight enough for forward deployment on the battlefield and to field hospitals in the World's poorest regions. "MRI technology is a powerful medical diagnostic tool," said Michelle Espy, the Battlefield MRI (bMRI) project leader, "ideally suited for imaging soft-tissue injury, particularly to the brain." But hospital-based MRI devices are big and expensive, and require considerable infrastructure, such as large quantities of cryogens like liquid nitrogen and helium, and they typically use a large amount of energy. "Standard MRI machines just can't go everywhere," said Espy. "Soldiers wounded in battle usually have to be flown to a large hospital and people in emerging nations just don't have access to MRI at all. We've been in contact with doctors who routinely work in the Third World and report that MRI would be extremely valuable in treating pediatric encephalopathy, and other serious diseases in children." So the Los Alamos team started thinking about a way to make an MRI device that could be relatively easy to transport, set up, and use in an unconventional setting. Conventional MRI machines use very large magnetic fields that align the protons in water molecules to then create magnetic resonance signals, which are detected by the machine and turned into images. The large magnetic fields create exceptionally detailed images, but they are difficult and expensive to make. Espy and her team wanted to see if images of sufficient quality could be made with ultra-low-magnetic fields, similar in strength to the Earth's magnetic field. To achieve images at such low fields they use exquisitely sensitive detectors called Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices, or SQUIDs. SQUIDs are among the most sensitive magnetic field detectors available, so interference with the signal is the primary stumbling block. "SQUIDs are

  4. On-line monitoring of plutonium in mixed uranium-plutonium solutions. [Coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K. J.; Rebagay, T. V.; Huff, G. A.

    1980-03-01

    The measurement of the total and isotopic plutonium concentrations in mixed uranium-plutonium solutions blended with highly radioactive fission product nuclides and other radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137 and Co-60) has been investigated at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). An on-line total and isotopic plutonium monitoring system is being tested for its ability to assay the plutonium abundances in solutions as might be found in the process streams of a light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel processing plant. The monitoring system is fully automated and designed to be maintained remotely. It is capable of near real-time inventory of plutonium in process streams and provides the basis for on-line computerized accounting of special nuclear materials.

  5. The Los Alamos National Laboratory 94/100-1 materials stabilization and deinventory project

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, L. P.; Gallegos, N. M.; Urbina, L.

    2004-01-01

    Special nuclear material (SNM) in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) inventory that has been declared excess to programmatic needs is comprised of a large variety of chemical and physical forms. Many of these nuclear material items have been identified by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) as a potential high risk to LANL workers and have been targeted for stabilization in recommendations DNFSB 94-1 and 00-1, In addition, vault space at the LANL Plutonium Facility is at a premium due to various ongoing programmatic missions and a lack of available disposition pathways. For these reasons LANL requested, and was granted by Department of Energy (DOE), a variance to terminate safeguards on attractiveness level D SNM items meeting the variance criteria. Materials meeting these criteria have been brought from the vault to the operating floor and opened in a hood or the glovebox line. Each item is inspected by a subject matter expert to: (1) verify there is no programmatic need for the item, and (2) determine if the item should be discarded as waste or sent for recovery. Items selected for discard are inspected by waste management personnel to ensure they meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) criteria for acceptance. This includes verification of the acceptable knowledge as well as the absence of items prohibited for disposal at WIPP. The item(s) are sent to waste management for packaging and certification for final transfer to WIPP. This poster presents an overview of the LANL Plutonium Facility disposition effort and progress to date.

  6. Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation`s defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO{sub 2} feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO{sub 2} dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides.

  7. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1979. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances was conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1979 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground water, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs.

  8. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kohen, K.; Stoker, A.; Stone, G.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1992. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1992 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, laboratory employees, or the environment.

  9. Foreign National Involvement at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmy, Jerry

    2000-04-01

    Since the beginning of the spring of 1999 there has been an intense national media focus on alleged security breaches by a foreign born scientist employed at LANL. Alarmed by an apparent growing sense of xenophobia, the Fellows of the Los Alamos National Laboratory addressed this issue by preparing a white paper on Foreign National Involvement at LANL (www.fellows.lanl.gov). Its purpose was to recognize and acknowledge the vital role that foreign scientists have played and continue to play in making LANL a forefront scientific institution. This legacy will be discussed, as well as concerns that constraining regulations triggered by this episode and subsequent reactions to this by our scientific peer community could have long term consequences on the vitality of the Laboratory.

  10. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1989. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1989 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 58 refs., 31 figs., 39 tabs.

  11. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1995. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring result to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1995 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  12. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1987. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1987 cover: external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are insignificant and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 113 refs., 33 figs., 120 tabs.

  13. Information about Practicums at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Paul A.

    2012-07-24

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center is the premier facility for neutron science experiments ranging from cross section measurements, neutron scattering experiments, proton radiography, cold neutrons, actinide neutronic properties, and many other exciting topics. The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is home to several powerful magnets, including the one that created the first non-destructive 100 Tesla field in March 2012. They probe the electronic structure of superconductors, magnetic properties of materials (including magneto-quantum effects). Research is also conducted in correlated materials, thermoacoustics, and magnetic properties of actinides. The Trident Laser has a unique niche with very high power, short pulse experiments, with a peak power of 10{sup 20} W in short pulse mode. Discoveries range from production of monoenergetic MeV ion beam, nonlinear kinetic plasma waves, the transition between kinetic and fluid nonlinear behavior and other laser-plasma interaction processes.

  14. Environmental analysis of Lower Pueblo/Lower Los Alamos Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Buhl, T.E.; Stoker, A.K.; Becker, N.M.; Rodgers, J.C.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-12-01

    The radiological survey of the former radioactive waste treatment plant site (TA-45), Acid Canyon, Pueblo Canyon, and Los Alamos Canyon found residual contamination at the site itself and in the channel and banks of Acid, Pueblo, and lower Los Alamos Canyons all the way to the Rio Grande. The largest reservoir of residual radioactivity is in lower Pueblo Canyon, which is on DOE property. However, residual radioactivity does not exceed proposed cleanup criteria in either lower Pueblo or lower Los Alamos Canyons. The three alternatives proposed are (1) to take no action, (2) to construct a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon to prevent further transport of residual radioactivity onto San Ildefonso Indian Pueblo land, and (3) to clean the residual radioactivity from the canyon system. Alternative 2, to cleanup the canyon system, is rejected as a viable alternative. Thousands of truckloads of sediment would have to be removed and disposed of, and this effort is unwarranted by the low levels of contamination present. Residual radioactivity levels, under either present conditions or projected future conditions, will not result in significant radiation doses to persons exposed. Modeling efforts show that future transport activity will not result in any residual radioactivity concentrations higher than those already existing. Thus, although construction of a sediment trap in lower Pueblo Canyon is a viable alternative, this effort also is unwarranted, and the no-action alternative is the preferred alternative.

  15. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David; Gallagher, Pat; Hjeresen, Denny; Isaacson, John; Johson, Scot; Morgan, Terry; Paulson, David; Rogers, David

    2009-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) Environmental Programs Directorate, as required by US Department of Energy Order 450.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2007. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, air; Chapters 5 and 6, water and sediments; Chapter 7, soils; and Chapter 8, foodstuffs and biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory’s technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information.

  16. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) environmental organization, as required by US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.IA, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory's efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory's major environmental programs. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory's compliance status for 2005. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, Air; Chapters 5 and 6, Water and Sediments; Chapter 7, Soils; and Chapter 8, Foodstuffs and Biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9, new for this year, provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list ofacronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory's technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information.

  17. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David; Poff, Ben; Hjeresen, Denny; Isaacson, John; Johnson, Scot; Morgan, Terry; Paulson, David; Salzman, Sonja; Rogers, David

    2010-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) environmental organization, as required by US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2009. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (air in Chapter 4; water and sediments in Chapters 5 and 6; soils in Chapter 7; and foodstuffs and biota in Chapter 8) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. The new Chapter 10 describes the Laboratory’s environmental stewardship efforts and provides an overview of the health of the Rio Grande. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory’s technical

  18. Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1997-01-10

    Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. {sup 234}U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of {sup 238}Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO{sub 3}/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved {sup 238}Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in {sup

  19. Disposition of transuranic residues from plutonium isentropic compression experiment (Pu-ICE) constucted at Z machine

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Kapil K; French, David M; Humphrey, Betty J; Gluth, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Congress passed legislation to discontinue above- and below-ground testing of nuclear weapons. Because of this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must rely on laboratory experiments and computer-based calculations to verify the reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Z machine was developed to support the science-based approach for mimicking nuclear explosions and stockpile stewardship. Plutonium (Pu) isotopes with greater than ninety-eight percent enrichment were used in the experiments. In May 2006, SNL/NM received authority that the Z Machine Isentropic Compression Experiments could commence. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided the plutonium targets and loaded the target assemblies provided by SNL/NM. Three experiments were conducted from May through July 2006. The residues from each experiment, which weighed up to 913 pounds, were metallic and were packaged into a 55-gallon drum each. SNL/NM conducts the experiments and provides temporary storage for the drums until shipment to LANL for final waste certification for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. This paper presents a comprehensive approach for documenting generator knowledge for characterization of waste in cooperation with scientists at the two laboratories and addresses a variety of essential topics.

  20. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.; Eatherly, W.P.

    1995-03-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF{sub 2} molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized.

  1. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.; Eatherly, W.P.

    1995-02-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF{sub 2} molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized.

  2. An Evaluation of Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Multiplicity Measurements of Plutonium Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, John; Miller, Eric; Solomon, Clell J. Jr.; Dennis, Ben; Meldrum, Amy; Clarke, Shaun; Pozzi, Sara

    2012-06-21

    In January 2009, Sandia National Laboratories conducted neutron multiplicity measurements of a polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere. Over the past 3 years, those experiments have been collaboratively analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations conducted by University of Michigan (UM), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and North Carolina State University (NCSU). Monte Carlo simulations of the experiments consistently overpredict the mean and variance of the measured neutron multiplicity distribution. This paper presents a sensitivity study conducted to evaluate the potential sources of the observed errors. MCNPX-PoliMi simulations of plutonium neutron multiplicity measurements exhibited systematic over-prediction of the neutron multiplicity distribution. The over-prediction tended to increase with increasing multiplication. MCNPX-PoliMi had previously been validated against only very low multiplication benchmarks. We conducted sensitivity studies to try to identify the cause(s) of the simulation errors; we eliminated the potential causes we identified, except for Pu-239 {bar {nu}}. A very small change (-1.1%) in the Pu-239 {bar {nu}} dramatically improved the accuracy of the MCNPX-PoliMi simulation for all 6 measurements. This observation is consistent with the trend observed in the bias exhibited by the MCNPX-PoliMi simulations: a very small error in {bar {nu}} is 'magnified' by increasing multiplication. We applied a scalar adjustment to Pu-239 {bar {nu}} (independent of neutron energy); an adjustment that depends on energy is probably more appropriate.

  3. The design of a high-efficiency neutron counter for waste drums to provide optimized sensitivity for plutonium assay

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.H.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-11-01

    An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed to improve the accuracy and sensitivity for the nondestructive assay of plutonium in scrap and waste containers. The High-Efficiency Neutron Counter (HENC) was developed under a Cooperative Research Development Agreement between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Canberra Industries. The primary goal of the development was to produce a passive assay system for 200-L drums that has detectability limits and multiplicity counting features that are superior to previous systems. A detectability limit figure of merit (FOM) was defined that included the detector efficiency, the neutron die-away time, and the detector`s active volume and density that determine the cosmic-ray background. Monte Carlo neutron calculations were performed to determine the parameters to provide an optimum FOM. The system includes the {sup 252}Cf {open_quotes}add-a-source{close_quotes} feature to improve the accuracy as well as statistical filters to reduce the cosmic-ray spallation neutron background. The final decision gave an efficiency of 32% for plutonium with a detector {sup 3}He tube volume that is significantly smaller than for previous high-efficiency systems for 200-L drums. Because of the high efficiency of the HENC, we have incorporated neutron multiplicity counting for matrix corrections for those cases where the plutonium is localized in nonuniform hydrogenous materials. The paper describes the design and performance testing of the advanced system. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Preserving Plutonium-244 as a National Asset

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Bradley D; Alexander, Charles W; Benker, Dennis; Collins, Emory D; Romano, Catherine E; Wham, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium-244 (244 Pu) is an extremely rare and long-lived isotope of plutonium with a half-life of 80 million years. Measureable amounts of 244 Pu are found in neither reactor-grade nor weapons-grade plutonium. Production of this isotope requires a very high thermal flux to permit the two successive neutron captures that convert 242 Pu to 243 Pu to 244 Pu, particularly given the short (about 5 hour) half-life of 243 Pu. Such conditions simply do not exist in plutonium production processes. Therefore, 244 Pu is ideal for precise radiochemical analyses measuring plutonium material properties and isotopic concentrations in items containing plutonium. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is about ten times more sensitive when using 244 Pu rather than 242 Pu for determining plutonium isotopic content. The isotope can also be irradiated in small quantities to produce superheavy elements. The majority of the existing global inventory of 244 Pu is contained in the outer housing of Mark-18A targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The total inventory is about 20 grams of 244 Pu in about 400 grams of plutonium distributed among the 65 targets. Currently, there are no specific plans to preserve these targets. Although the cost of separating and preserving this material would be considerable, it is trivial in comparison to new production costs. For all practical purposes, the material is irreplaceable, because new production would cost billions of dollars and require a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles spanning up to 50 years. This paper will discuss a set of options for overcoming the significant challenges to preserve the 244 Pu as a National Asset: (1) the need to relocate the material from SRS in a timely manner, (2) the need to reduce the volume of material to the extent possible for storage, and (3) the need to establish an operational capability to enrich the 244 Pu in significant quantities. This paper suggests that if all the Mark-18A plutonium is

  5. Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

    1978-01-01

    Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

  6. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2009-10-01

    The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  7. 16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON BREAKOUT ROOM. (9/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. 17. VIEW OF THE FIRST PLUTONIUM BUTTON PRODUCED FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF THE FIRST PLUTONIUM BUTTON PRODUCED FROM THE BUILDING 371 AQUEOUS RECOVERY OPERATION. (9/30/83) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. The Optimum Plutonium Fuel Form in Light Water Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulenko, James S.; Savela, Michael; Gueorguiev, Gueorgui

    2003-07-01

    The University of Florida has underway a research program to validate the benefits of developing a Pu/ZrH/U matrix fuel for the irradiation of the U.S. weapons plutonium and European reprocessed plutonium from an economic, operational, and performance basis. Thermal reactors using plutonium as a fuel are inherently undermoderated because of the large absorption cross sections of plutonium and the presence of large absorption resonances for plutonium in the thermal and near-thermal energy ranges. The use of the proven TRIGA ZrHx-based fuel with plutonium has shown an extremely large (>20%) increase in reactivity over the conventional UO2/PuO2 fuel form currently being considered, with an additional major increase in the destruction of plutonium, rendering it an extremely attractive fuel form for plutonium disposition.

  10. Current trends for packaging transuranic waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LA-UR-07-4785)

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Kapil K.; Carson, Peter H.; Enriquez, Alejandro E.

    2007-07-01

    Transuranic (TRU) waste leaving the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is packaged using LANL's waste acceptance criteria for onsite storage. Before shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, each payload container is subject to rigorous characterization to ensure compliance with WIPP waste acceptance criteria and Department of Transportation regulations. Techniques used for waste characterization include nondestructive examination by WIPP-certified real-time radiography (RTR) and nondestructive assay (NDA) of containers, as well as headspace gas sampling to ensure hydrogen and other flammable gases remain at safe levels during transport. These techniques are performed under a rigorous quality assurance program to confirm that results are accurate and reproducible. If containers are deemed problematic, corrective action is taken before shipment to WIPP. Currently this activity is possible only at the Laboratory's Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. To minimize additional waste requiring remediation, WIPP waste acceptance criteria must be applied at the point of waste generation. Additional criteria stem from limitations of RTR or NDA instruments or lack of appropriate sampling and analysis. This paper presents the changes that have been implemented at the Plutonium Facility and gives readers a preview of what LANL expects to accomplish to expeditiously certify and dispose of newly generated TRU waste. (authors)

  11. COLUMBIC OXIDE ADSORPTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IONS

    DOEpatents

    Beaton, R.H.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for separating plutonium ions from a solution of neutron irradiated uranium in which columbic oxide is used as an adsorbert. According to the invention the plutonium ion is selectively adsorbed by Passing a solution containing the plutonium in a valence state not higher than 4 through a porous bed or column of granules of hydrated columbic oxide. The adsorbed plutonium is then desorbed by elution with 3 N nitric acid.

  12. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  13. Systematic evaluation of options to avoid generation of noncertifiable transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, J.M.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Triay, I.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.

    1998-03-01

    At present, >35% of the volume of newly generated transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory is not certifiable for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Noncertifiable waste would constitute 900--1,000 m{sup 3} of the 2,600 m{sup 3} of waste projected during the period of the Environmental Management (EM) Accelerated Cleanup: Focus on 2006 plan (DOE, 1997). Volume expansion of this waste to meet thermal limits would increase the shipped volume to {approximately}5,400 m{sup 3}. This paper presents the results of efforts to define which TRU waste streams are noncertifiable at Los Alamos, and to prioritize site-specific options to reduce the volume of certifiable waste over the period of the EM Accelerated Cleanup Plan. A team of Los Alamos TRU waste generators and waste managers reviewed historic generation rates and thermal loads and current practices to estimate the projected volume and thermal load of TRU waste streams for Fiscal Years 1999--2006. These data defined four major problem TRU waste streams. Estimates were also made of the volume expansion that would be required to meet the permissible wattages for all waste. The four waste streams defined were: (1) {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste from production of Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) with {sup 238}Pu activity which exceeds allowable shipping limits by 10--100X. (2) {sup 241}Am-contaminated cement waste from plutonium recovery processes (nitric and hydrochloric acid recovery) are estimated to exceed thermal limits by {approximately}3X. (3) {sup 239}Pu-contaminated combustible waste, mainly organic waste materials contaminated with {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am, is estimated to exceed thermal load requirements by a factor of {approximately}2X. (4) Oversized metal waste objects, (especially gloveboxes), cannot be shipped as is to WIPP because they will not fit in a standard waste box or drum.

  14. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for

  15. Plutonium transport in the environment.

    PubMed

    Kersting, Annie B

    2013-04-01

    The recent estimated global stockpile of separated plutonium (Pu) worldwide is about 500 t, with equal contributions from nuclear weapons and civilian nuclear energy. Independent of the United States' future nuclear energy policy, the current large and increasing stockpile of Pu needs to be safely isolated from the biosphere and stored for thousands of years. Recent laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the ability of colloids (1-1000 nm particles) to facilitate the migration of strongly sorbing contaminants such as Pu. In understanding the dominant processes that may facilitate the transport of Pu, the initial source chemistry and groundwater chemistry are important factors, as no one process can explain all the different field observations of Pu transport. Very little is known about the molecular-scale geochemical and biochemical mechanisms controlling Pu transport, leaving our conceptual model incomplete. Equally uncertain are the conditions that inhibit the cycling and mobility of Pu in the subsurface. Without a better mechanistic understanding for Pu at the molecular level, we cannot advance our ability to model its transport behavior and achieve confidence in predicting long-term transport. Without a conceptual model that can successfully predict long-term Pu behavior and ultimately isolation from the biosphere, the public will remain skeptical that nuclear energy is a viable and an attractive alternative to counter global warming effects of carbon-based energy alternatives. This review summarizes our current understanding of the relevant conditions and processes controlling the behavior of Pu in the environment, gaps in our scientific knowledge, and future research needs. PMID:23458827

  16. ESTIMATING IMPURITIES IN SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Moore, E.

    2013-07-17

    The United States holds at least 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the National Nuclear Security Administration and the DOE Office of Environmental Management. Many of the items that require disposition are only partially characterized, and SRNL uses a variety of techniques to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that are important for processing through the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility and alternative disposition paths. Recent advances in laboratory tools, including Prompt Gamma Analysis and Peroxide Fusion treatment, provide data on the existing inventories that will enable disposition without additional, costly sampling and destructive analysis.

  17. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Karraker, David G.

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  18. Interaction of divalent plutonium and curium

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Kazakevich, M.Z.; Rumer, I.A.

    1988-11-01

    It has been established that at plutonium concentrations ranging from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -4/ mole % the oxidation potentials of the Pu/sup 3 +//Pu/sup 2 +/ and Cm/sup 3 +//Cm/sup 2 +/ pairs increased by 0.15-0.2 V due to the dimerization of Pu/sup 2 +/ and the formation of mixed dimers of plutonium and curium. Promethium(2+) does not have a similar ability to form mixed dimers owing to the fact that Pm/sup 2 +/ does not have a free d electron. The oxidation potential of the Pm/sup 3 +//Pm/sup 2 +/ pair does not vary in the presence of massive quantities of plutonium

  19. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  20. The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944 - 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-01

    This report updates the report -Plutonium: The first 50 years- which was released by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996. The topic of both reports is plutonium, sometimes referred to as Pu-239, which is capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction and is used in nuclear weapons and for nuclear power production. This report updates 1994 data through 2009. The four most significant changes since 1994 include: (a) the completion of cleanup activities at the Rocky Flats Plant in 2005; (b) material consolidation and disposition activities, especially shipments from Hanford to the Savannah River Site; (c) the 2007 declaration of an additional 9.0 MT of weapons grade plutonium to be surplus to defense needs in the coming decades; and (d) the opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in 1999.

  1. Characterization of Delta Phase Plutonium Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2000-09-21

    The FB-Line facility has developed the capability to recast plutonium metal using an M-18 reduction furnace with a new casting chamber. Plutonium metal is recast by charging a standard FB-Line magnesia crucible and placing the charge in the casting chamber. The loaded casting chamber is raised into the M-18 reduction furnace and sealed against the furnace head using a copper gasket following the same procedure used for a bomb reduction run. The interior volume of the chamber is evacuated and backfilled with argon gas. The M-18 motor-generator set is used to heat the surface of the casting chamber to nominally 750 Degrees C. Within about 2 hr, the plutonium metal reaches its melting temperature of approximately 640 Degrees C.

  2. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  3. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  4. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  5. 15. VIEW OF THE SAFE GEOMETRY PLUTONIUM METAL STORAGE PALLETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE SAFE GEOMETRY PLUTONIUM METAL STORAGE PALLETS FROM THE INSIDE OF AN INPUT-OUTPUT STATION. INDIVIDUAL CONTAINERS OF PLUTONIUM ARE STORED IN THE WATER-FILLED, DOUBLE-WALLED STAINLESS STEEL TUBES THAT ARE WELDED ONTO THE PALLETS. (12/3/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PLUTONIUM LABORATORY IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PLUTONIUM LABORATORY IN BUILDING 559. THE LABORATORY WAS USED TO ANALYZE THE PURITY OF PLUTONIUM. PLUTONIUM SAMPLES WERE CONTAINED WITHIN GLOVE BOXES - Rocky Flats Plant, Chemical Analytical Laboratory, North-central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Removal of Uranium from Plutonium Solutions by Anion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2002-03-22

    The anion exchange capacity in the HB-Line Phase II Facility will be used to purify plutonium solutions potentially containing significant quantities of depleted uranium. Following purification, the plutonium will be precipitated as an oxalate and calcined to plutonium oxide (PuO2) for storage until final disposition.

  8. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  9. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  10. Alternating layers of plutonium and lead or indium as surrogate for plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, Sven Peter

    2009-01-01

    Elemental plutonium (Pu) assumes more crystal structures than other elements, plausibly due to bonding f electrons becoming non-bonding. Complex geometries hamper understanding of the transition in Pu, but calculations predict this transition in a system with simpler geometry: alternating layers either of plutonium and lead or of plutonium and indium. Here the transition occurs via a pairing-up of atoms within Pu layers. Calculations stepping through this pairing-up reveal valuable details of the transition, for example that the transition from bonding to non-bonding proceeds smoothly.

  11. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS CONTAINING CONTROLLED AMOUNTS OF PLUTONIUM ALLOTROPES OBTAINED BY APPLICATION OF HIGH PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, R.O.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1962-07-10

    A method of making stabilized plutonium alloys which are free of voids and cracks and have a controlled amount of plutonium allotropes is described. The steps include adding at least 4.5 at.% of hafnium, indium, or erbium to the melted plutonium metal, homogenizing the resulting alloy at a temperature of 450 deg C, cooling to room temperature, and subjecting the alloy to a pressure which produces a rapid increase in density with a negligible increase in pressure. The pressure required to cause this rapid change in density or transformation ranges from about 800 to 2400 atmospheres, and is dependent on the alloying element. (AEC)

  12. The Management of Silica in Los Alamos National Laboratory Tap Water - A Study of Silica Solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlberg, C.; Worland, V.P.; Kozubal, M.A.; Erickson, G.F.; Jacobson, H.M.; McCarthy, K.T.

    1999-07-01

    Well water at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has a silica (SiO{sub 2}) content of 60 to 100 mg/L, with 4 mg/L of magnesium, 13 mg/L calcium and lesser concentrations of other ions. On evaporation in cooling towers, when the silica concentration reaches 150 to 220 mg/L, silica deposits on heat transfer surfaces. When the high silica well water is used in the reprocessing of plutonium, silica remains in solution at the end of the process and creates a problem of removal from the effluent prior to discharge or evaporation. The work described in this Report is divided into two major parts. The first part describes the behavior of silica when the water is evaporated at various conditions of pH and in the presence of different classes of anions: inorganic and organic. In the second part of this work it was found that precipitation (floccing) of silica was a function of solution pH and mole ratio of metal to silica.

  13. Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart, Craig

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

  14. A Plutonium Ceramic Target for MASHA

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, P A; Shaughnessy, D A; Moody, K J; Kenneally, J M; Wild, J F; Stoyer, M A; Patin, J B; Lougheed, R W; Ebbinghaus, B B; Landingham, R L; Oganessian, Y T; Yeremin, A V; Dmitriev, S N

    2004-07-06

    We are currently developing a plutonium ceramic target for the MASHA mass separator. The MASHA separator will use a thick plutonium ceramic target capable of tolerating temperatures up to 2000 C. Promising candidates for the target include oxides and carbides, although more research into their thermodynamic properties will be required. Reaction products will diffuse out of the target into an ion source, where they will then be transported through the separator to a position-sensitive focal-plane detector array. Experiments on MASHA will allow us to make measurements that will cement our identification of element 114 and provide for future experiments where the chemical properties of the heaviest elements are studied.

  15. Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Cannell, G.R.

    2002-02-28

    A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers.

  16. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, Jr., Jerry; Avens, Larry R.; Trujillo, Eddie A.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  17. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1992-03-24

    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  18. Measurement of Plutonium Isotopic Composition - MGA

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Duc Ta

    2015-08-21

    In this module, we will use the Canberra InSpector-2000 Multichannel Analyzer with a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and the MGA isotopic anlysis software to assay a variety of plutonium samples. The module provides an understanding of the MGA method, its attributes and limitations. You will assess the system performance by measuring a range of materials similar to those you may assay in your work. During the final verification exercise, the results from MGA will be combined with the 240Pueff results from neutron coincidence or multiplicity counters so that measurements of the plutonium mass can be compared with the operator-declared (certified) values.

  19. Waste measurements at a plutonium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Solid plutonium contaminated wastes are often highly heterogeneous, span a wide range of chemical compositions and matrix types, and are packaged in a variety of container sizes. NDA analysis of this waste depends on operator knowledge of these parameters so that proper segregation, instrument selection, quality assurance, and uncertainty estimation can take place. This report describes current waste measurement practices and uncertainty estimates at a US plutonium scrap recovery facility and presents a program for determining reproducibility and bias in NDA measurements. Following this, an operator's perspective on desirable NDA upgrades is offered.

  20. Review of liquid metal heat pipe work at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.S.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of space-power related liquid metal heat pipe work at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. Heat pipe development at Los Alamos has been on-going since 1963. Heat pipes were initially developed for thermionic nuclear-electrical power production in space. Since then Los Alamos has developed liquid metal heat pipes for numerous applications related to high temperature systems in both the space and terrestrial environments. Some of these applications include thermionic electrical generators, thermoelectric energy conversion (both in-core and direct radiation), thermal energy storage, hypersonic vehicle leading edge cooling, and heat pipe vapor laser cells. Some of the work performed at Los Alamos has been documented in internal reports that are often little-known. A representative description and summary of progress in space-related liquid metal heat pipe technology is provided followed by a reference section citing sources where these works may be found. 53 refs.

  1. Explosive Flux Compression: 50 Years of Los Alamos Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.; Thomson, D.B.; Garn, W.B.

    1998-10-18

    Los Alamos flux compression activities are surveyed, mainly through references in view of space limitations. However, two plasma physics programs done with Sandia National Laboratory are discussed in more detail.

  2. Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos during 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) Environmental Directorate, as required by US Department of Energy Order 450.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2007. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, air; Chapters 5 and 6, water and sediments; Chapter 7, soils; and Chapter 8, foodstuffs and biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the laboratory’s technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information. In printed copies of this report or Executive Summary, we have

  3. Modeling of Diffusion of Plutonium in Other Metals and of Gaseous Species in Plutonium-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard R. Cooper; Gayanath W. Fernando; S. Beiden; A. Setty; E.H. Sevilla

    2004-07-02

    Establish standards for temperature conditions under which plutonium, uranium, or neptunium from nuclear wastes permeates steel, with which it is in contact, by diffusion processes. The primary focus is on plutonium because of the greater difficulties created by the peculiarities of face-centered-cubic-stabilized (delta) plutonium (the form used in the technology generating the waste).

  4. 10 CFR 140.107 - Appendix G-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... processing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing insurance... plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing insurance policies as proof of financial... death, or loss of or damage to property, or loss of use of property, arising out of or resulting...

  5. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of financial... death, or loss of or damage to property, or loss of use of property, arising out of or resulting...

  6. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of financial... death, or loss of or damage to property, or loss of use of property, arising out of or resulting...

  7. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of financial... death, or loss of or damage to property, or loss of use of property, arising out of or resulting...

  8. Los Alamos low-level waste performance assessment status

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, W.J.; Purtymun, W.D.; Dewart, J.M.; Rodgers, J.E.

    1986-06-01

    This report reviews the documented Los Alamos studies done to assess the containment of buried hazardous wastes. Five sections logically present the environmental studies, operational source terms, transport pathways, environmental dosimetry, and computer model development and use. This review gives a general picture of the Los Alamos solid waste disposal and liquid effluent sites and is intended for technical readers with waste management and environmental science backgrounds but without a detailed familiarization with Los Alamos. The review begins with a wide perspective on environmental studies at Los Alamos. Hydrology, geology, and meteorology are described for the site and region. The ongoing Laboratory-wide environmental surveillance and waste management environmental studies are presented. The next section describes the waste disposal sites and summarizes the current source terms for these sites. Hazardous chemical wastes and liquid effluents are also addressed by describing the sites and canyons that are impacted. The review then focuses on the transport pathways addressed mainly in reports by Healy and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. Once the source terms and potential transport pathways are described, the dose assessment methods are addressed. Three major studies, the waste alternatives, Hansen and Rogers, and the Pantex Environmental Impact Statement, contributed to the current Los Alamos dose assessment methodology. Finally, the current Los Alamos groundwater, surface water, and environmental assessment models for these mesa top and canyon sites are described.

  9. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Wook; Mielke, Charles H.; Zapf, Vivien; Baiardo, Joseph P.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Mun, Eun D.; Smith, Alice Iulia

    2014-10-20

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  10. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, C. H.; Kim, J. W.; Mun, E.-D.; Baiardo, J. P.; Smith, A. I.; Richmond, S.; Mitchell, J.; Schwartz, D.; Zapf, V. S.

    2015-03-01

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  11. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  12. Plutonium dispersal in fires: Summary of what is known

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-07-01

    In view of the great public apprehension about plutonium and nuclear weapons we should explore ways to prevent, limit, or mitigate possible plutonium dispersals. This review is primarily a tutorial on what is known about plutonium dispersal in fires. It concludes that in most types of fires involving plutonium the amount released will not be an immediate danger to life. Indeed, in many cases very few personnel will receive more than the lung burden allowed by current regulations for plutonium workers. However, the dangers may be significant in special situations, unusual terrains, certain meteorological conditions, and very high burn temperatures.

  13. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM LANTHANUM BY CHELATION-EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1958-12-01

    Plutonium can be separated from a mixture of plutonlum and lanthanum in which the lanthanum to plutonium molal ratio ls at least five by adding the ammonium salt of N-nitrosoarylhydroxylamine to an aqueous solution having a pH between about 3 and 0.2 and containing the plutonium in a valence state of at least +3, to form a plutonium chelate compound of N-nitrosoarylhydroxylamine. The plutonium chelate compound may be recovered from the solution by extracting with an immiscible organic solvent such as chloroform.

  14. Expanded recycling at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Betschart, J.F.; Malinauskas, L.; Burns, M.

    1996-07-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Office has increased recycling activities, reuse, and options to reduce the solid waste streams through streamlining efforts that applied best management practices. The program has prioritized efforts based on volume and economic considerations and has greatly increased Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) recycle volumes. The Pollution Prevention Program established and chairs a Solid Waste Management Solutions Group to specifically address and solve problems in nonradioactive, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), state-regulated, and sanitary and industrial waste streams (henceforth referred to as sanitary waste in this paper). By identifying materials with recycling potential, identifying best management practices and pathways to return materials for reuse, and introducing the concept and practice of {open_quotes}asset management,{open_quotes} the Group will divert much of the current waste stream from disposal. This Group is developing procedures, agreements, and contracts to stage, collect, sort, segregate, transport and process materials, and is also garnering support for the program through the involvement of upper management, facility managers, and generators.

  15. Saving Water at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Andy

    2015-03-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory decreased its water usage by 26 percent in 2014, with about one-third of the reduction attributable to using reclaimed water to cool a supercomputing center. The Laboratory's goal during 2014 was to use only re-purposed water to support the mission at the Strategic Computing Complex. Using reclaimed water from the Sanitary Effluent Reclamation Facility, or SERF, substantially decreased water usage and supported the overall mission. SERF collects industrial wastewater and treats it for reuse. The reclamation facility contributed more than 27 million gallons of re-purposed water to the Laboratory's computing center, a secured supercomputing facility that supports the Laboratory’s national security mission and is one of the institution’s larger water users. In addition to the strategic water reuse program at SERF, the Laboratory reduced water use in 2014 by focusing conservation efforts on areas that use the most water, upgrading to water-conserving fixtures, and repairing leaks identified in a biennial survey.

  16. Electrolytic glove-box decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.; Lugo, J.; Nelson, T.

    1997-12-01

    Programmatic requirements at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) require the decommissioning of obsolete glove boxes contaminated interiorly with high levels of transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes. At least 300 glove boxes will be decommissioned in the next 5 yr and more over the long term. Most of these glove boxes are located at the two facilities that handle plutonium, the plutonium facility at technical area 55 (TA-55) and the chemistry and metallurgy research (CMR) facility at technical area. In addition to these active LANL glove boxes, which are in need of decommissioning, there are also on the order of 200 {open_quotes}legacy{close_quotes} TRU categorized glove boxes in storage at technical area 54.

  17. Initial Report for the Aquifer Background Study: Summary of Uranium and Plutonium Data from INEEL Groundwater Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Roback; Don L. Koeppen

    2003-06-01

    As part of the “Aquifer Background Study,” Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under contract with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has undertaken a study to determine uranium and plutonium abundances and isotopic composition in groundwater samples collected at the INEEL. To date, four samples have been analyzed for uranium and plutonium and an additional nine samples have been analyzed for uranium. It is expected that several more samples will be analyzed for this study. This report summarizes the results from this initial set of samples. Of the 13 samples analyzed for uranium, four samples have 238U/235U ratios that differ from the natural value of 137.88. These four samples and two additional samples also contain 236U at 3-sigma level above detection limits. The presence of 236U and the non-natural 238U/235U ratios unequivocally indicate the presence of anthropic uranium in four of the samples. A small component of anthropic uranium is also present in two additional samples with positive 236U detection but natural 238U/235U isotope ratios. Two of the samples with anthropic uranium, as well as two samples with no detectable anthropic uranium were analyzed for plutonium. No plutonium was detected in these four samples at detection limits of approximately 5E7 239Pu atoms for three of the samples and approximately 1E8 239Pu atoms for the forth sample. These detection limits correspond to (239+240)Pu activity ratios (assuming a 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of 0.18) of 0.002 and 0.004 pCi/L respectively.

  18. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  19. Quantitative ion-exchange separation of plutonium from impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Pietri, C.E.; Freeman, B.P.; Weiss, J.R.

    1981-09-01

    The methods used at the New Brunswick Laboratory for the quantitative ion exchange separation of plutonium from impurities prior to plutonium assay are described. Other ion exchange separation procedures for impurity determination and for isotopic abundance measurements are given. The primary technique used consists of sorption of plutonium(IV) in 8N HNO/sub 3/ on Dowex-1 anion exchange resin and elution of the purified plutonium with 0.3N HCl-0.01N HF. Other methods consist of the anion exchange separation of plutonium(IV) in 12N HCl and the cation exchange separation of plutonium(III) in 0.2 N HNO/sub 3/. The application of these procedures to the subsequent assay of plutonium, isotopic analysis, and impurity determination is described.

  20. 233-S plutonium concentration facility hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-12-19

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  1. Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E; La Mont, Stephen P; Eisele, William F; Fresquez, Philip R; Mc Naughton, Michael; Whicker, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-14

    Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

  2. Plutonium Management in the Medium Term

    SciTech Connect

    Hesketh, Kevin; Schlosser, Gerhard; Porsch, Dieter F.; Wolf, Timm; Koeberl, Oliver; Lance, Benoit; Chawla, Rakesh; Gehin, Jess C.; Ellis, Ron; Uchikawa, Sadao; Sato, Osamu; Okubo, Tsutomu; Mineo, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Toru; Sagayama, Yutaka; Sartori, Enrico

    2004-12-15

    For many years various countries with access to commercial reprocessing services have been routinely recycling plutonium as UO{sub 2}/PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs). This LWR MOX recycle strategy is still widely regarded as an interim step leading to the eventual establishment of sustainable fast reactor fuel cycles. The OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) has recently completed a review of the technical options for plutonium management in what it refers to as the 'medium term'. For the purpose of the review, the WPPR considers the medium term to cover the period from now up to the point at which fast reactor fuel cycles are established on a commercial scale. The review identified a number of different designs of innovative plutonium fuel assemblies intended to be used in current LWR cores, in LWRs with significantly different moderation properties, as well as in high-temperature gas reactors. The full review report describes these various options and highlights their respective advantages and disadvantages. This paper briefly summarizes the main findings of the review.

  3. Method for calibration of plutonium NDA

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.; Campbell, A.R.; Rodenburg, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Calibration materials characterized by calorimetric assay can be a practical alternative to synthetic standards for the calibration of plutonium nondestructive assay. Calorimetric assay is an effective measurement system for the characterization because: it can give an absolute assay from first principles when the isotopic composition is known, it is insensitive to most matrix effects, and its traceability to international measurement systems has been demonstrated.

  4. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  5. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  6. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  7. PLUTONIUM SPECIATION, SOLUBILIZATION, AND MIGRATION IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DOE is currently conducting cleanup activities at its nuclear weapons development sites, many of which have accumulated plutonium (Pu) in soils for 50 years. There is scientific uncertainty about the levels of risk to human health posed by this accumulation and whether Pu is ...

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  9. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  10. Recovery of Plutonium by Carrier Precipitation

    DOEpatents

    Goeckermann, R. H.

    1961-04-01

    The recovery of plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid Zr-containing solution of 0.2 to 1N acidity is accomplished by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l), and precipitating the Pu with an excess of H/sub 2/0/sub 2/ at 53 to 65 deg C. (AEC)

  11. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  12. Crystalline plutonium hosts derived from high-level waste formulations.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Holleran, T. P.

    1998-04-24

    The Department of Energy has selected immobilization for disposal in a repository as one approach for disposing of excess plutonium (1). Materials for immobilizing weapons-grade plutonium for repository disposal must meet the ''spent fuel standard'' by providing a radiation field similar to spent fuel (2). Such a radiation field can be provided by incorporating fission products from high-level waste into the waste form. Experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating high-level waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) into plutonium dispositioning materials to meet the spent fuel standard. A variety of materials and preparation techniques were evaluated based on prior experience developing waste forms for immobilizing HLW. These included crystalline ceramic compositions prepared by conventional sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and glass formulations prepared by conventional melting. Because plutonium solubility in silicate melts is limited, glass formulations were intentionally devitrified to partition plutonium into crystalline host phases, thereby allowing increased overall plutonium loading. Samarium, added as a representative rare earth neutron absorber, also tended to partition into the plutonium host phases. Because the crystalline plutonium host phases are chemically more inert, the plutonium is more effectively isolated from the environment, and its attractiveness for proliferation is reduced. In the initial phase of evaluating each material and preparation method, cerium was used as a surrogate for plutonium. For promising materials, additional preparation experiments were performed using plutonium to verify the behavior of cerium as a surrogate. These experiments demonstrated that cerium performed well as a surrogate for plutonium. For the most part, cerium and plutonium partitioned onto the same crystalline phases, and no anomalous changes in oxidation state were observed. The only observed

  13. Plutonium, Mineralogy and Radiation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2006-05-01

    During the past fifty years, more than 1,800 metric tonnes of Pu and substantial quantities of other "minor" actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors. Some of these transuranic elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., 239Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np), or are of environmental concern because of their long half- lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., 239Pu, t1/2 = 24,100 years, and 237Np, t1/2 = 2.1 million years). There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these elements: 1.) to "burn" or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; 2.) to "sequester" the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, such as zircon or isometric pyrochlore, A2B2O7 (A = rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf; Fd3m; Z=8), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium. One of the principal concerns has been the accumulation of structural damage caused by alpha-decay events, particularly from the recoil nucleus. Systematic ion beam irradiation studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high fluences of alpha-decay event damage. Some compositions, Gd2Ti2O7, are amorphized at relatively low doses (0.2 displacements per atom, dpa, at room temperature), while other compositions, Gd2Zr2O7, do not amorphize (even at doses of > 40 dpa at 25K), but instead disorder to a defect fluorite structure. By changing the composition of the A-site (e.g., substitution of different rare earth elements), the temperature above which the pyrochlore composition can no longer be amorphized, Tc, varies by >600 K (e.g., Lu2Ti2O7: Tc = 480 K; Gd2Ti2O7: Tc = 1120 K). The variation in response to irradiation as a function of composition can be used to model the long

  14. Recent UCN source developments at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Seestrom, S.J.; Anaya, J.M.; Bowles, T.J.

    1998-12-01

    The most intense sources of ultra cold neutrons (UCN) have bee built at reactors where the high average thermal neutron flux can overcome the low UCN production rate to achieve usable densities of UCN. At spallation neutron sources the average flux available is much lower than at a reactor, though the peak flux can be comparable or higher. The authors have built a UCN source that attempts to take advantage of the high peak flux available at the short pulse spallation neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) to generate a useful number of UCN. In the source UCN are produced by Doppler-shifted Bragg scattering of neutrons to convert 400-m/s neutrons down into the UCN regime. This source was initially tested in 1996 and various improvements were made based on the results of the 1996 running. These improvements were implemented and tested in 1997. In sections 2 and 3 they discuss the improvements that have been made and the resulting source performance. Recently an even more interesting concept was put forward by Serebrov et al. This involves combining a solid Deuterium UCN source, previously studied by Serebrov et al., with a pulsed spallation source to achieve world record UCN densities. They have initiated a program of calculations and measurements aimed at verifying the solid Deuterium UCN source concept. The approach has been to develop an analytical capability, combine with Monte Carlo calculations of neutron production, and perform benchmark experiments to verify the validity of the calculations. Based on the calculations and measurements they plan to test a modified version of the Serebrov UCN factory. They estimate that they could produce over 1,000 UCN/cc in a 15 liter volume, using 1 {micro}amp of 800 MeV protons for two seconds every 500 seconds. They will discuss the result UCN production measurements in section 4.

  15. Beam funneling studies at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, J.E.; Guy, F.W.; Stokes, R.H.; Wangler, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Funneling two ion beams by interlacing their bunches can reduce the cost and complexity of systems producing intense beams. Applications of funneling could include accelerators for heavy ion inertial fusion, electronuclear breeding, and fusion materials irradiation. Funneling in an RFQ-like structure is an elegant solution at low energy where electric fields are needed to provide strong focusing. Discrete-element funnels, with separate focusing elements, bending magnets, rebunchers and if deflectors, are more flexible. At sufficiently high energies, magnetic-quadrupole lenses can provide strong focusing in a discrete-element funnel. Such a funnel has been designed as a preliminary example of a second funnel in the HIBALL-II accelerator system. In a simulation, two Bi/sup +1/ (mass = 209 amu) beams at 0.5 MeV/A, 20 MHz, 40-mA, separated by 55 cm and angled at +-6/degree/ were combined into a single 80-mA beam at 40 MHz. Emittance growth was calculated, by a modified version of the PIC (particle-in-cell) code PARMILA, to be about 1%. Funnel design experience at Los Alamos has evolved rules-of-thumb that reduce emittance growth. Some of these are to maintain focusing periodicity and strength in both transverse and longitudinal directions; use strong focusing so that the bunch will be small; minimize angles of bend and rf deflection; adjust longitudinal focusing to produce a short bunch at the rf deflector; and design rf deflectors for a uniform electrical field. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Noone, Bailey C

    2012-08-15

    Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to

  17. Toward a Deeper Understanding of Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A J; Wolfer, W G

    2007-06-21

    Plutonium is a very complex element lying near the middle of the actinide series. On the lower atomic number side of Pu is the element neptunium; its 5f electrons are highly delocalized or itinerant, participating in metallic-like bonding. The electrons in americium, the element to the right of Pu, are localized and do not participant significantly in the bonding. Plutonium is located directly on this rather abrupt transition. In the low-temperature {alpha} phase ground state, the five 5f electrons are mostly delocalized leading to a highly dense monoclinic crystal structure. Increases in temperature take the unalloyed plutonium through a series of five solid-state allotropic phase transformations before melting. One of the high temperature phases, the close-packed face centered cubic {delta} phase, is the least dense of all the phases, including the liquid. Alloying the Pu with Group IIIA elements such as aluminum or gallium retains the {delta} phase in a metastable state at ambient conditions. Ultimately, this metastable {delta} phase will decompose via a eutectoid transformation to {alpha} + Pu{sub 3}Ga. These low solute-containing {delta}-phase Pu alloys are also metastable with respect to low temperature excursions or increases in pressure and will transform to a monoclinic crystal structure at low temperatures via an isothermal martensitic phase transformation or at slightly elevated pressure. The delocalized to localized 5f electron bonding transition that occurs in the light actinides surrounding Pu gives rise to a plethora of unique and anomalous properties but also severely complicates the modeling and simulation. The development of theories and models that are sufficiently sensitive to capture the details of this transition and capable of elucidating the fundamental properties of plutonium and plutonium alloys is currently a grand challenge in actinide science. Recent advances in electronic structure theory, semi-empirical interatomic potentials, and raw

  18. Interim Storage of Plutonium in Existing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Woodsmall, T.D.

    1999-05-10

    'In this era of nuclear weapons disarmament and nonproliferation treaties, among many problems being faced by the Department of Energy is the safe disposal of plutonium. There is a large stockpile of plutonium at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Center and it remains politically and environmentally strategic to relocate the inventory closer to a processing facility. Savannah River Site has been chosen as the final storage location, and the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF) is currently under construction for this purpose. With the ability of APSF to receive Rocky Flats material an estimated ten years away, DOE has decided to use the existing reactor building in K-Area of SRS as temporary storage to accelerate the removal of plutonium from Rocky Flats. There are enormous cost savings to the government that serve as incentive to start this removal as soon as possible, and the KAMS project is scheduled to receive the first shipment of plutonium in January 2000. The reactor building in K-Area was chosen for its hardened structure and upgraded seismic qualification, both resulting from an effort to restart the reactor in 1991. The KAMS project has faced unique challenges from Authorization Basis and Safety Analysis perspectives. Although modifying a reactor building from a production facility to a storage shelter is not technically difficult, the nature of plutonium has caused design and safety analysis engineers to make certain that the design of systems, structures and components included will protect the public, SRS workers, and the environment. A basic overview of the KAMS project follows. Plutonium will be measured and loaded into DOT Type-B shipping packages at Rocky Flats. The packages are 35-gallon stainless steel drums with multiple internal containment boundaries. DOE transportation vehicles will be used to ship the drums to the KAMS facility at SRS. They will then be unloaded, stacked and stored in specific locations throughout the

  19. PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION VALENCE STATE DETERMINATION USING X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE PERMITS CONCRETE RECYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, P. F.; Conradson, S. D.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes the determination of the speciation of plutonium contamination present on concrete surfaces at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). At RFETS, the plutonium processing facilities have been contaminated during multiple events over their 50 year operating history. Contamination has resulted from plutonium fire smoke, plutonium fire fighting water, milling and lathe operation aerosols, furnace operations vapors and plutonium ''dust'' diffusion.

  20. Dexterity test data contribute to proper glovebox over-glove use

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M; Costigan, Stephen A; Apel, D M; Neal, G E; Castro, J M; Michelotti, R A

    2010-01-21

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). The glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. The Glovebox Glove Integrity Program, which controls glovebox gloves from procurement to disposal at TA-55, manages this vulnerability. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Proper selection of over-gloves is one of these measures. Line management owning glovebox processes have the responsibility to approve the appropriate personal protective equipment/glovebox glove/over-glove combination. As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) considerations to prevent unplanned glovebox glove openings must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk to the worker. In this study, the causes of unplanned glovebox glove openings, the benefits of over-glove features, the effect of over-gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the pollution prevention benefits, and the recommended over-gloves for a task are presented.

  1. 1993 Northern goshawk inventory on portions of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, D.T.; Kennedy, P.L.

    1994-06-01

    Northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) (hereafter referred to as goshawk) is a large forest dwelling hawk. Goshawks may be declining in population and reproduction in the southwestern United States. Reasons for the possible decline in goshawk populations include timber harvesting resulting in the loss of nesting habitat, toxic chemicals, and the effects of drought, fire, and disease. Thus, there is a need to determine their population status and assess impacts of management activities in potential goshawk habitat. Inventory for the goshawk was conducted on 2,254 ha of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to determine the presence of nesting goshawks on LANL lands. This information can be incorporated into LANL`s environmental management program. The inventory was conducted by Colorado State University personnel from May 12 to July 30, 1993. This report summarizes the results of this inventory.

  2. Fission Product Data Measured at Los Alamos for Fission Spectrum and Thermal Neutrons on {sup 239}Pu, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, H.D.; Mac Innes, M.R.; Barr, D.W.; Keksis, A.L.; Meade, R.A.; Burns, C.J.; Chadwick, M.B.; Wallstrom, T.C.

    2010-12-15

    We describe measurements of fission product data at Los Alamos that are important for determining the number of fissions that have occurred when neutrons are incident on plutonium and uranium isotopes. The fission-spectrum measurements were made using a fission chamber designed by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in the BIG TEN critical assembly, as part of the Inter-laboratory Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Reaction Rate (ILRR) collaboration. The thermal measurements were made at Los Alamos' Omega West Reactor. A related set of measurements were made of fission-product ratios (so-called R-values) in neutron environments provided by a number of Los Alamos critical assemblies that range from having average energies causing fission of 400-600 keV (BIG TEN and the outer regions of the Flattop-25 assembly) to higher energies (1.4-1.9 MeV) in the Jezebel, and in the central regions of the Flattop-25 and Flattop-Pu, critical assemblies. From these data we determine ratios of fission product yields in different fuel and neutron environments (Q-values) and fission product yields in fission spectrum neutron environments for {sup 99}Mo, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 141,143}Ce, and {sup 147}Nd. Modest incident-energy dependence exists for the {sup 147}Nd fission product yield; this is discussed in the context of models for fission that include thermal and dynamical effects. The fission product data agree with measurements by Maeck and other authors using mass-spectrometry methods, and with the ILRR collaboration results that used gamma spectroscopy for quantifying fission products. We note that the measurements also contradict earlier 1950s historical Los Alamos estimates by {approx}5-7%, most likely owing to self-shielding corrections not made in the early thermal measurements. Our experimental results provide a confirmation of the England-Rider ENDF/B-VI evaluated fission-spectrum fission product yields that were carried

  3. Anthropogenic plutonium-244 in the environment: Insights into plutonium's longest-lived isotope.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christopher R; Brant, Heather A; Nuessle, Patterson R; Hall, Gregory; Cadieux, James R

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the rich history of heavy element production in the unique high flux reactors that operated at the Savannah River Site, USA (SRS) decades ago, trace quantities of plutonium with highly unique isotopic characteristics still persist today in the SRS terrestrial environment. Development of an effective sampling, processing, and analysis strategy enables detailed monitoring of the SRS environment, revealing plutonium isotopic compositions, e.g., (244)Pu, that reflect the unique legacy of plutonium production at SRS. This work describes the first long-term investigation of anthropogenic (244)Pu occurrence in the environment. Environmental samples, consisting of collected foot borne debris, were taken at SRS over an eleven year period, from 2003 to 2014. Separation and purification of trace plutonium was carried out followed by three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS) measurements for plutonium isotopic content and isotopic ratios. Significant (244)Pu was measured in all of the years sampled with the highest amount observed in 2003. The (244)Pu content, in femtograms (fg = 10(-15) g) per gram, ranged from 0.31 fg/g to 44 fg/g in years 2006 and 2003 respectively. In all years, the (244)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were significantly higher than global fallout, ranging from 0.003 to 0.698 in years 2014 and 2003 respectively. PMID:26898531

  4. a Plutonium Ceramic Target for Masha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilk, P. A.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Kenneally, J. M.; Wild, J. F.; Stoyer, M. A.; Patin, J. B.; Lougheed, R. W.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Landingham, R. L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Yeremin, A. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2005-09-01

    We are currently developing a plutonium ceramic target for the MASHA mass separator. The MASHA separator will use a thick plutonium ceramic target capable of tolerating temperatures up to 2000 °C. Promising candidates for the target include oxides and carbides, although more research into their thermodynamic properties will be required. Reaction products will diffuse out of the target into an ion source, where they will then be transported through the separator to a position-sensitive focal-plane detector array. Experiments on MASHA will allow us to make measurements that will cement our identification of element 114 and provide for future experiments where the chemical properties of the heaviest elements are studied.

  5. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  6. Concentration and purification of plutonium or thorium

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, John A.; Plock, Carl E.

    1976-01-01

    In this invention a first solution obtained from such as a plutonium/thorium purification process or the like, containing plutonium (Pu) and/or thorium (Th) in such as a low nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) concentration may have the Pu and/or Th separated and concentrated by passing an electrical current from a first solution having disposed therein an anode to a second solution having disposed therein a cathode and separated from the first solution by a cation permeable membrane, the Pu or Th cation permeating the cation membrane and forming an anionic complex within the second solution, and electrical current passage affecting the complex formed to permeate an anion membrane separating the second solution from an adjoining third solution containing disposed therein an anode, thereby effecting separation and concentration of the Pu and/or Th in the third solution.

  7. Plutonium stabilization and handling (PuSH)

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, E.V.

    1997-01-23

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses construction of a Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) to oxidize and package for long term storage remaining plutonium-bearing special nuclear materials currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), and modification of vault equipment to allow storage of resulting packages of stabilized SNM for up to fifty years. The major sections of the project are: site preparation; SPS Procurement, Installation, and Testing; storage vault modification; and characterization equipment additions. The SPS will be procured as part of a Department of Energy nationwide common procurement. Specific design crit1460eria for the SPS have been extracted from that contract and are contained in an appendix to this document.

  8. [Plutonium-239 metabolism in chemical skin burns].

    PubMed

    Il'in, L A; Beliaev, I K

    1983-01-01

    Certain peculiarities of metabolism of plutonium-239 were revealed after skin applications there of in solutions of nitrogen acid, tributyl phosphate and hexychloro-butadiene. It was shown that the absorption of plutonium-239 in 0.1 NHO3 solution for 3 days made up 0.02% of the quantity applied. The increase in the acid concentration up to 0.5-10 N was accompanied by a 2.5-5-fold increase in the resorption. The application of the nuclide in organic solvents was characterized by a 4-5-fold increase in its accretion within the body. There was a 25-fold increase in the absorption of 239Pu after the combined effect of the acid and the organic solvents on the skin. PMID:6657939

  9. Spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Richmann, M.K.; Reed, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    Information on the spectroscopy of plutonium-organic complexes is needed to help establish the speciation of these complexes under environmentally relevant conditions. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and absorption spectrometry were used to characterize the Pu(IV)-citrate and Pu(IV)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) complexes at concentrations of 10{sup {minus}3}--10{sup {minus}7} M in aqueous solution. Good agreement was observed between the band shape of the LPAS and absorption spectra for the Pu(IV)-NTA complex. Agreement for the Pu(IV)-citrate complex was not quite as good. In both cases, a linear dependence of the LPAS signal on laser power and total concentration of the complexes was noted. This work is part of an ongoing research effort to study key subsurface interactions of plutonium-organic complexes.

  10. Publications of Los Alamos research, 1977-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, C.J.; Garcia, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of unclassified publications of work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1977-1981. Papers published in those years are included regardless of when they were actually written. Publications received too late for inclusion in earlier compilations have also been listed. Declassification of previously classified reports is considered to constitute publication. All classified issuances are omitted - even those papers, themselves unclassified, which were published only as part of a classified document. If a paper was published more than once, all places of publication are included. The bibliography includes Los Alamos National Laboratory reports, papers released as non-Laboratory reports, journal articles, books, chapters of books, conference papers either published separately or as part of conference proceedings issued as books or reports, papers published in congressional hearings, theses, and US patents. Publications by Los Alamos authors that are not records of Laboratory-sponsored work are included when the Library becomes aware of them.

  11. Water Supply at Los Alamos 1998-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Richard J. Koch; David B. Rogers

    2003-03-01

    For the period 1998 through 2001, the total water used at Los Alamos from all sources ranged from 1325 million gallons (Mg) in 1999 to 1515 Mg in 2000. Groundwater production ranged from 1323 Mg in 1999 to 1506 Mg in 2000 from the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi fields. Nonpotable surface water used from Los Alamos reservoir ranged from zero gallons in 2001 to 9.3 Mg in 2000. For years 1998 through 2001, over 99% of all water used at Los Alamos was groundwater. Water use by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) between 1998 and 2001 ranged from 379 Mg in 2000 to 461 Mg in 1998. The LANL water use in 2001 was 393 Mg or 27% of the total water use at Los Alamos. Water use by Los Alamos County ranged from 872 Mg in 1999 to 1137 Mg in 2000, and averaged 1006 Mg/yr. Four new replacement wells in the Guaje field (G-2A, G-3A, G-4A, and G-5A) were drilled in 1998 and began production in 1999; with existing well G-1A, the Guaje field currently has five producing wells. Five of the old Guaje wells (G-1, G-2, G-4, G-5, and G-6) were plugged and abandoned in 1999, and one well (G-3) was abandoned but remains as an observation well for the Guaje field. The long-term water level observations in production and observation (test) wells at Los Alamos are consistent with the formation of a cone of depression in response to water production. The water level decline is gradual and at most has been about 0.7 to 2 ft per year for production wells and from 0.4 to 0.9 ft/yr for observation (test) wells. The largest water level declines have been in the Guaje field where nonpumping water levels were about 91 ft lower in 2001 than in 1951. The initial water levels of the Guaje replacement wells were 32 to 57 ft lower than the initial water levels of adjacent original Guaje wells. When production wells are taken off-line for pump replacement or repair, water levels have returned to within about 25 ft of initial static levels within 6 to 12 months. Thus, the water-level trends suggest no adverse

  12. A progress report on UNICOS misuse detection at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.; Jackson, K.A.; Stallings, C.A.; Simmonds, D.D.; Siciliano, C.L.B.; Pedicini, G.A.

    1995-10-01

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic monitoring and analysis of on-line user activity. During the past year, Los Alamos enhanced its Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) to include analysis of user activity on Los Alamos` UNICOS Crays. In near real-time, NADIR compares user activity to historical profiles and tests activity against expert rules. The expert rules express Los Alamos` security policy and define improper or suspicious behavior. NADIR reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. This paper describes the implementation to date of the UNICOS component of NADIR, along with the operational experiences and future plans for the system.

  13. Plutonium disposition via immobilization in ceramic or glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, A.

    1997-03-05

    The management of surplus weapons plutonium is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Policy Directive 13, and various analyses by renown scientific, technical, and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths for the long term disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The central goal of this effort is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civilian reactors. One disposition option being considered for surplus plutonium is immobilization, in which the plutonium would be incorporated into a glass or ceramic material that would ultimately be entombed permanently in a geologic repository for high-level waste.

  14. Dose estimates of alternative plutonium pyrochemical processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D. E.; Jackson, J. W.; Boerigter, S. T.; Averill, W. A.; Fasel, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    We have coupled our dose calculation tool Pandemonium with a discrete-event, object-oriented, process-modeling system ProMosO to analyze a set of alternatives for plutonium purification operations. The results follow expected trends and indicate, from a dose perspective, that an experimental flowsheet may warrant further research to see if it can be scaled to industrial levels. Flowsheets that include fluoride processes resulted in the largest doses.

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Program cold pour tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hovis, G.L.; Stokes, M.W.; Smith, M.E.; Wong, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to carry out the disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. This program uses the can-in-canister (CIC) approach. CIC involves encapsulating plutonium in ceramic forms (or pucks), placing the pucks in sealed stainless steel cans, placing the cans in long cylindrical magazines, latching the magazines to racks inside Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and filling the DWPF canisters with high-level waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it attractive for reuse. At present, the DWPF pours glass into empty canisters. In the CIC approach, the addition of a stainless steel rack, magazines, cans, and ceramic pucks to the canisters introduces a new set of design and operational challenges: All of the hardware installed in the canisters must maintain structural integrity at elevated (molten-glass) temperatures. This suggests that a robust design is needed. However, the amount of material added to the DWPF canister must be minimized to prevent premature glass cooling and excessive voiding caused by a large internal thermal mass. High metal temperatures, minimizing thermal mass, and glass flow paths are examples of the types of technical considerations of the equipment design process. To determine the effectiveness of the design in terms of structural integrity and glass-flow characteristics, full-scale testing will be conducted. A cold (nonradioactive) pour test program is planned to assist in the development and verification of a baseline design for the immobilization canister to be used in the PIP process. The baseline design resulting from the cold pour test program and CIC equipment development program will provide input to Title 1 design for second-stage immobilization. The cold pour tests will be conducted in two

  16. Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) Environmental Data Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-08-24

    This document provides an overview of existing environmental and ecological information at areas identified as potential locations of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Surplus Plutonium Disposition (SPD) facilities. This information is required to document existing environmental and baseline conditions from which SPD construction and operation impacts can be defined. It will be used in developing the required preoperational monitoring plan to be used at specific SPD facilities construction sites.

  17. Storm Water Quality in Los Alamos Canyon following the Cerro Grande Fire

    SciTech Connect

    M. Johansen; B. Enz; B. Gallaher; K. Mullen; D. Kraig

    2001-04-01

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned about 7400 acres of forest on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and about 10,000 acres in watersheds above LANL on Santa Fe National Forest lands. The resulting burned landscapes raised concerns of increased storm water runoff and transport of contaminants by runoff in the canyons traversing LANL. On June 2 and 3, 2000, rain fell in the Los Alamos Canyon watershed generating storm water runoff in the canyon bottom. This event was important in that it was the first significant runoff on LANL following the fire and occurred in a canyon containing known legacy waste sites. Samples from this runoff were analyzed for radionuclide, metal, inorganic, and organic constituents. Results show radionuclide concentrations at or below previous (pre-fire) maximum levels at locations on LANL and downstream. However, greater concentrations of some fallout-associated radionuclides (cesium-137 and strontium-90) were seen arriving on LANL from upstream areas compared to pre-fire conditions. Tests indicate most of the radionuclides in the samples were bound to sediments, not dissolved in water. Most radionuclide concentrations in sediments were below LANL Screening Action Levels, with cesium-137 and strontium-90 as exceptions. Most radionuclide concentrations in samples taken at LANL's downstream boundary were greater than those taken upstream, indicating the presence of contributing sources on LANL. For comparison purposes, doses were calculated on a mrem per liter of unfiltered water basis for 11 radionuclides commonly associated with atmospheric fallout and with LANL operations. The maximum dose was 0.094 mrem per liter unfiltered water and was largely associated with plutonium-239/240. In contrast, all filtered samples had total doses less than 0.001 mrem per liter. Compared to past data, potential doses were not increased by the fire during this initial runoff event. Of the 25 metals tested for, seven were above pre-fire levels

  18. NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIAL CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Yerger, L.; Mcclard, J.; Traver, L.; Grim, T.

    2010-02-01

    The first nondestructive examination (NDE) of 3013-type containers as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) was performed in February, 2005. Since that date 280 NDE surveillances on 255 containers have been conducted. These containers were packaged with plutonium-bearing materials at multiple DOE sites. The NDE surveillances were conducted at Hanford, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Savannah River Site (SRS). These NDEs consisted of visual inspection, mass verification, radiological surveys, prompt gamma analysis, and radiography. The primary purpose of performing NDE surveillances is to determine if there has been a significant pressure buildup inside the inner 3013 container. This is done by measuring the lid deflection of the inner 3013 container using radiography images. These lid deflection measurements are converted to pressure measurements to determine if a container has a pressure of a 100 psig or greater. Making this determination is required by Surveillance and Monitoring Plan (S&MP). All 3013 containers are designed to withstand at least 699 psig as specified by DOE-STD-3013. To date, all containers evaluated have pressures under 50 psig. In addition, the radiography is useful in evaluating the contents of the 3013 container as well as determining the condition of the walls of the inner 3013 container and the convenience containers. The radiography has shown no signs of degradation of any container, but has revealed two packaging anomalies. Quantitative pressure measurements based on lid deflections, which give more information than the 'less than or greater than 100 psig' (pass/fail) data are also available for many containers. Statistical analyses of the pass/fail data combined with analysis of the quantitative data show that it is extremely unlikely that any container in the population of 3013 containers considered in this study (e.g., containers packaged according to the DOE-STD-3013 by

  19. Characterizing surplus US plutonium for disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, Jeffrey S.; Moore, Edwin N.

    2013-02-26

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems.

  20. Characterizing Surplus US Plutonium for Disposition - 13199

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, Jeffrey S.; Moore, Edwin N.

    2013-07-01

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems. (authors)

  1. Proposed Modification to the Plutonium Systemic Model.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Miller, Scott; Brey, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The currently accepted biokinetic model for plutonium distribution within the human body was recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in publication 67. This model was developed from human and animal studies and behavioral knowledge acquired from other known bone-seeking radionuclides. The biokinetic model provides a mathematical means of predicting the distribution, retention, and clearance of plutonium within the human body that may be used in deriving organ, tissue, and whole body dose. This work proposed a modification to the ICRP 67 systemic model for plutonium that incorporated the latest knowledge acquired from recent human injection studies with physiologically based improvements. In summary, the changes included a separation of the liver compartments, removed the intermediate soft tissue-to-bladder pathway, and added pathways from the blood compartment to both the cortical and trabecular bone volumes. The proposed model provided improved predictions for several bioassay indicators compared to the ICRP 67 model while also maintaining its basic structure. Additionally, the proposed model incorporated physiologically based improvements for the liver and skeleton and continued to ensure efficient coupling with intake biokinetic models. PMID:26313589

  2. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    STAN, MARIUS; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S.

    2007-02-07

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  3. A Plutonium-Contaminated Wound, 1985, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC /TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Eugene H. Carbaugh, CHP, Staff Scientist, Internal Dosimetry Manager, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2012-02-02

    A hand injury occurred at a U.S. facility in 1985 involving a pointed shaft (similar to a meat thermometer) that a worker was using to remove scrap solid plutonium from a plastic bottle. The worker punctured his right index finger on the palm side at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint. The wound was not through-and- through, although it was deep. The puncture wound resulted in deposition of ~48 kBq of alpha activity from the weapons-grade plutonium mixture with a nominal 12 to 1 Pu-alpha to {sup 241}Am-alpha ratio. This case clearly showed that DTPA was very effective for decorporation of plutonium and americium. The case is a model for management of wounds contaminated with transuranics: (1) a team approach for dealing with all of the issues surrounding the incident, including the psychological, (2) early surgical intervention for foreign-body removal, (3) wound irrigation with DTPA solution, and (4) early and prolonged DTPA administration based upon bioassay and in vivo dosimetry.

  4. Plutonium immobilization in glass and ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Materials Research Society Nineteenth Annual Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management was held in Boston on November 27 to December 1, 1995. Over 150 papers were presented at the Symposium dealing with all aspects of nuclear waste management and disposal. Fourteen oral sessions and on poster session included a Plenary session on surplus plutonium dispositioning and waste forms. The proceedings, to be published in April, 1996, will provide a highly respected, referred compilation of the state of scientific development in the field of nuclear waste management. This paper provides a brief overview of the selected Symposium papers that are applicable to plutonium immobilization and plutonium waste form performance. Waste forms that were described at the Symposium cover most of the candidate Pu immobilization options under consideration, including borosilicate glass with a melting temperature of 1150 {degrees}C, a higher temperature (1450 {degrees}C) lanthanide glass, single phase ceramics, multi-phase ceramics, and multi-phase crystal-glass composites (glass-ceramics or slags). These Symposium papers selected for this overview provide the current status of the technology in these areas and give references to the relevant literature.

  5. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, R.L.

    2000-01-04

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form and making it unattractive for reuse. Since there are significant radiation and security concerns, the program team is developing novel and unique technology to remotely perform plutonium immobilization tasks. The remote task covered in this paper employs a jointed arm robot to load seven 3.5 inch diameter, 135-pound cylinders (magazines) through the 4 inch diameter neck of a stainless steel canister. Working through the narrow canister neck, the robot secures the magazines into a specially designed rack pre-installed in the canister. To provide the deterrent effect, the canisters are filled with a mixture of high-level waste and glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

  6. TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

    2013-07-16

    Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  7. Plutonium speciation in water from Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of plutonium in Mono Lake water is enhanced by the presence of large concentrations of indigenous carbonate ions and moderate concentrations of fluoride ions. In spite of the complex chemical composition of this water, only a few ions govern the behavior of plutonium, as demonstrated by the fact that it was possible to duplicate plutonium speciation in a synthetic water containing only the principal components of Mono Lake water.

  8. 14. END VIEW OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. END VIEW OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT FROM THE REMOTE CONTROL STATION. THE STACKER-RETRIEVER, A REMOTELY-OPERATED, MECHANIZED TRANSPORT SYSTEM, RETRIEVES CONTAINERS OF PLUTONIUM FROM SAFE GEOMETRY PALLETS STORED ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE VAULT. THE STACKER-RETRIEVER RUNS ALONG THE AISLE BETWEEN THE PALLETS OF THE STORAGE CHAMBER. (3/2/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ION-EXCHANGE

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, J.

    1958-06-01

    A process is described for the separation of plutonium from an aqueous solution of a plutonium salt, which comprises adding to the solution an acid of the group consisting of sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and oxalic acid, and mixtures thereof to provide an acid concentration between 0.0001 and 1 M, contacting the resultant solution with a synthetic organic anion exchange resin, and separating the aqueous phase and the resin which contains the plutonium.

  10. METHOD FOR RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM SOLUTION USING A BISMUTH HYDROXIDE CARRIER PRECIPITATE

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1961-04-25

    Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from aqueous solutions are described. In accordance with the invention a bismuth hydroxide precipitate is formed in the plutonium-containing solution, thereby carrying plutonium values from the solution.

  11. Los Alamos Using Neutrons to Stop Nuclear Smugglers

    ScienceCinema

    Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn

    2014-06-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers have successfully demonstrated for the first time that laser-generated neutrons can be enlisted as a useful tool in the War on Terror. The international research team used the short-pulse laser at Los Alamos's TRIDENT facility to generate a neutron beam with novel characteristics that interrogated a closed container to confirm the presence and quantity of nuclear material inside. The successful experiment paves the way for creation of a table-top-sized or truck-mounted neutron generator that could be installed at strategic locations worldwide to thwart smugglers trafficking in nuclear materials.

  12. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  13. Fifty-one years of Los Alamos Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-09-04

    From 1963 to 2014, the Los Alamos National Laboratory was involved in at least 233 spacecraft. There are probably only one or two institutions in the world that have been involved in so many spacecraft. Los Alamos space exploration started with the Vela satellites for nuclear test detection, but soon expanded to ionospheric research (mostly barium releases), radioisotope thermoelectric generators, solar physics, solar wind, magnetospheres, astrophysics, national security, planetary physics, earth resources, radio propagation in the ionosphere, and cubesats. Here, we present a list of the spacecraft, their purpose, and their launch dates for use during RocketFest

  14. Los Alamos Using Neutrons to Stop Nuclear Smugglers

    SciTech Connect

    Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn

    2013-06-03

    Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers have successfully demonstrated for the first time that laser-generated neutrons can be enlisted as a useful tool in the War on Terror. The international research team used the short-pulse laser at Los Alamos's TRIDENT facility to generate a neutron beam with novel characteristics that interrogated a closed container to confirm the presence and quantity of nuclear material inside. The successful experiment paves the way for creation of a table-top-sized or truck-mounted neutron generator that could be installed at strategic locations worldwide to thwart smugglers trafficking in nuclear materials.

  15. Plutonium release from pressed plutonium oxide fuel pellets in aquatic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.H.; Steinkruger, F.J.; Matlack, G.M.; Heaton, R.C.; Coffelt, K.P.; Herrera, B.

    1983-12-01

    Plutonium oxide pellets (80% /sup 238/Pu, 40 g each) were exposed to fresh water and sea water at two temperatures for 3 y in enclosed glass chambers. The concentrations of plutonium observed in the waters increased linearly with time throughout the experiment. However, the observed release rates were inversely dependent on temperature and salinity, ranging from 160 ..mu..Ci/day for cold fresh water to 1.4 ..mu..Ci/day for warm sea water. The total releases, including the chamber residues, showed similar dependencies. A major portion (typically greater than 50%) of the released plutonium passed through a 0.1-..mu..m filter, with even larger fractions (greater than 80%) for the fresh water systems.

  16. Real-time monitoring of plutonium content in uranium-plutonium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shelly Xiaowei; Westphal, Brian Robert; Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2015-09-01

    A method and device for the real-time, in-situ monitoring of Plutonium content in U--Pu Alloys comprising providing a crucible. The crucible has an interior non-reactive to a metallic U--Pu alloy within said interior of said crucible. The U--Pu alloy comprises metallic uranium and plutonium. The U--Pu alloy is heated to a liquid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. The heated U--Pu alloy is then cooled to a solid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. As the U--Pu alloy is cooled, the temperature of the U--Pu alloy is monitored. A solidification temperature signature is determined from the monitored temperature of the U--Pu alloy during the step of cooling. The amount of Uranium and the amount of Plutonium in the U--Pu alloy is then determined from the determined solidification temperature signature.

  17. PLUTONIUM RECOVERY FROM NEUTRON-BOMBARDED URANIUM FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-04-10

    A process of recovering plutonium from neutronbombarded uranium fuel by dissolving the fuel in equimolar aluminum chloride-potassium chloride; heating the mass to above 700 deg C for decomposition of plutonium tetrachloride to the trichloride; extracting the plutonium trichloride into a molten salt containing from 40 to 60 mole % of lithium chloride, from 15 to 40 mole % of sodium chloride, and from 0 to 40 mole % of potassium chloride or calcium chloride; and separating the layer of equimolar chlorides containing the uranium from the layer formed of the plutonium-containing salt is described. (AEC)

  18. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, D.L.; Sauerbrun, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate dispositioning options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) assisted NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the dispositioning options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. Additionally, the INEL investigated the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing light water reactors and provided a preconceptual analysis for a reactor specifically designed for destruction of weapons-grade plutonium. This four-volume report was prepared for NAS to document the findings of these studies. Volume 2 evaluates 12 plutonium dispositioning options. Volume 3 considers a concept for a low-temperature, low-pressure, low-power-density, low-coolant-flow-rate light water reactor that quickly destroys plutonium without using uranium or thorium. This reactor concept does not produce electricity and has no other mission than the destruction of plutonium. Volume 4 addresses neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and fuel performance and compatibility issues for zirconium-plutonium oxide fuels and aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels. This volumes gives summaries of Volumes 2--4.

  19. 30. VIEW OF A GLOVEBOX LINE USED IN PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF A GLOVEBOX LINE USED IN PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. SAFETY AND HEALTH CONCERNS WERE OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE AT THE PLANT, BECAUSE OF THE RADIOACTIVE NATURE OF THE MATERIALS USED. PLUTONIUM GIVES OFF ALPHA AND BETA PARTICLES, GAMMA PROTONS, NEUTRONS, AND IS ALSO PYROPHORIC. AS A RESULT, PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS THAT INCLUDE CONTAINMENT, FILTERING, SHIELDING, AND CREATING AN INERT ATMOSPHERE. PLUTONIUM WAS HANDLED WITHIN GLOVEBOXES THAT WERE INTERCONNECTED AND RAN SEVERAL HUNDRED FEET IN LENGTH (5/5/70). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Technical considerations and policy requirements for plutonium management

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.C.; Dinehart, S.M.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    The goals for plutonium management have changed dramatically over the past few years. Today, the challenge is focused on isolating plutonium from the environment and preparing it for permanent disposition. In parallel, the requirements for managing plutonium are rapidly changing. For example, there is a significant increase in public awareness on how facilities operate, increased attention to environmental safety and health (ES and H) concerns, greater interest in minimizing waste, more emphasis on protecting material from theft, providing materials for international inspection, and a resurgence of interest in using plutonium as an energy source. Of highest concern, in the immediate future, is protecting plutonium from theft or diversion, while the national policy on disposition is debated. These expanded requirements are causing a broadening of responsibilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) to include at least seven organizations. An unavoidable consequence is the divergence in approach and short-term goals for managing similar materials within each organization. The technology base does exist, properly, safely, and cost effectively to extract plutonium from excess weapons, residues, waste, and contaminated equipment and facilities, and to properly stabilize it. Extracting the plutonium enables it to be easily inventoried, packaged, and managed to minimize the risk of theft and diversion. Discarding excess plutonium does not sufficiently reduce the risk of diversion, and as a result, long-term containment of plutonium from the environment may not be able to be proven to the satisfaction of the public.