Science.gov

Sample records for alarm pheromone components

  1. Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Vander Meer, Robert K; Preston, Catherine A; Choi, Man-Yeon

    2010-02-01

    Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first examples of animal pheromones identified, primarily because of the large amount of chemical produced and the distinctive responses of ants to the pheromone. However, the alarm pheromone of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, eluded identification for over four decades. We identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of S. invicta. Worker fire ants detect the pyrazine alarm pheromone at 30 pg/ml, which is comparable to alarm pheromone sensitivities reported for other ant species. The source of this alarm pheromone are the mandibular glands, which, in fire ants, are not well developed and contain only about 300 pg of the compound, much less than the microgram quantities of alarm pheromones reported for several other ant species. Female and male sexuals and workers produce the pyrazine, which suggests that it may be involved in fire ant mating flight initiation, as well as the typical worker alarm response. This is the first report of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine from a Solenopsis species and the first example of this alkaloid functioning as an alarm pheromone.

  2. Effects of natural and synthetic alarm pheromone and individual pheromone components on foraging behavior of the giant Asian honey bee, Apis dorsata.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Zhengwei; Tan, Ken; Qu, Yufeng; Nieh, James C

    2014-10-01

    Social pollinators such as honey bees face attacks from predators not only at the nest, but also during foraging. Pollinating honey bees can therefore release alarm pheromones that deter conspecifics from visiting dangerous inflorescences. However, the effect of alarm pheromone and its chemical components upon bee avoidance of dangerous food sources remains unclear. We tested the responses of giant honey bee foragers, Apis dorsata, presented with alarm pheromone at a floral array. Foragers investigated the inflorescence with natural alarm pheromone, but 3.3-fold more foragers preferred to land on the 'safe' inflorescence without alarm pheromone. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, we identified eight chemical components in the alarm pheromone, of which three components (1-octanol, decanal and gamma-octanoic lactone) have not previously been reported in this species. We bioassayed six major compounds and found that a synthetic mixture of these compounds elicited behaviors statistically indistinguishable from responses to natural alarm pheromone. By testing each compound separately, we show that gamma-octanoic lactone, isopentyl acetate and (E)-2-decen-1-yl acetate are active compounds that elicit significant alarm responses. Gamma-octanoic lactone elicited the strongest response to a single compound and has not been previously reported in honey bee alarm pheromone. Isopentyl acetate is widely found in the alarm pheromones of sympatric Asian honey bee species, and thus alarmed A. dorsata foragers may produce information useful for conspecifics and heterospecifics, thereby broadening the effects of alarm information on plant pollination.

  3. Addition of Alarm Pheromone Components Improves the Effectiveness of Desiccant Dusts Against Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    BENOIT, JOSHUA B.; PHILLIPS, SETH A.; CROXALL, TRAVIS J.; CHRISTENSEN, BRADY S.; YODER, JAY A.; DENLINGER, DAVID L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss. PMID:19496429

  4. Addition of alarm pheromone components improves the effectiveness of desiccant dusts against Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Phillips, Seth A; Croxall, Travis J; Christensen, Brady S; Yoder, Jay A; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss.

  5. Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first chemical ecology examples, primarily due to the large amount of pheromone produced a...

  6. Alkylpyrazines: Alarm pheromone components of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The previous identification of 2,5-dimethyl-3-(3-methylbutyl) pyrazine as the mandibular alarm pheromone of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger), has been found to be incorrect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of ant extracts suggested the correct structure to be the reg...

  7. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, to an alarm pheromone component and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Guan, Di; Lu, Yong-Yue; Liao, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Lei; Chen, Li

    2014-12-10

    A characteristic behavior in ants is to move rapidly to emission sources of alarm pheromones. The addition of ant alarm pheromones to bait is expected to enhance its attractiveness. To search for candidate compounds for bait enhancement in fire ant control, 13 related alkylpyrazine analogues in addition to synthetic alarm pheromone component were evaluated for electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral activities in Solenopsis invicta. Most compounds elicited dose-dependent EAG and behavioral responses. There exists a correlation between the EAG and behavioral responses. Among the 14 tested alkylpyrazines, three compounds, 2-ethyl-3,6(5)-dimethyl pyrazine (1), 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine (7), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (12), elicited significant alarm responses at a dose range of 0.1-1000 ng. Further bait discovery bioassay with the three most active alkylpyrazines demonstrated that food bait accompanied by sample-treated filter paper disk attracted significantly more fire ant workers in the first 15 min period. EAG and behavioral bioassays with pure pheromone isomers accumulated by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine was significantly more active than 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine.

  8. Pretreatment with CP-154526 blocks the modifying effects of alarm pheromone on components of sexual behavior in male, but not in female, rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2011-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released from male donor Wistar rats evoked several physiological and behavioral responses in recipient rats. However, the pheromone effects on social behavior were not analyzed. In the present study, we examined whether the alarm pheromone affects sexual behavior in male or female rats. When a pair of male and female subjects was exposed to the alarm pheromone during sexual behavior, the ejaculation latency was elongated, the number of mounts was increased, and the hit rate (number of intromissions/number of mounts and intromissions) was decreased in the male subject. In contrast, female sexual behavior was not affected by the alarm pheromone. When we exposed only the male or female subject of the pair to the pheromone just before sexual behavior, the results were similar: the pheromone effects were evident in male, but not in female, subjects. In addition, when we pretreated with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonist (CP-154526) before exposing the male subject to the alarm pheromone, the pheromone effects were attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the alarm pheromone modifies male, but not female, components of sexual behavior and that CRF participates in the effects.

  9. Ontogeny of Alarm pheromone production in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alarm pheromones are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality in social insects. Recently, we identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We continued...

  10. Male rats respond to their own alarm pheromone.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Pheromones are defined as substances released from an individual (donor) that influence a second individual (recipient) of the same species. However, it is unclear whether mammalian pheromones can affect the donor itself. To address this question, the effect of self-exposure to an alarm pheromone was examined. Exposure to the alarm pheromone resulted in an enhanced anxiety response, which was not different between recipients that perceived their own pheromone and those that perceived another individual's pheromone. The present results suggest that the alarm pheromone influences the emotional system of the recipient as well as induces similar anxiogenic effects on the donor rat that released the alarm pheromone. This is the first evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of mammalian pheromone self-exposure.

  11. Alarm Pheromone Composition and Behavioral Activity in Fungus-Growing Ants.

    PubMed

    Norman, Victoria C; Butterfield, Thomas; Drijfhout, Falko; Tasman, Kiah; Hughes, William O H

    2017-03-01

    Chemical communication is a dominant method of communication throughout the animal kingdom and can be especially important in group-living animals in which communicating threats, either from predation or other dangers, can have large impacts on group survival. Social insects, in particular, have evolved a number of pheromonal compounds specifically to signal alarm. There is predicted to be little selection for interspecific variation in alarm cues because individuals may benefit from recognizing interspecific as well as conspecific cues and, consequently, alarm cues are not normally thought to be used for species or nestmate recognition. Here, we examine the composition of the alarm pheromones of seven species of fungus-growing ants (Attini), including both basal and derived species and examine the behavioral responses to alarm pheromone of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants, the sister genus to the highly studied Atta leaf-cutting ants. We find surprisingly high interspecific variation in alarm pheromone composition across the attine phylogeny. Interestingly, the active component of the alarm pheromone was different between the two leaf-cutting ant genera. Furthermore, in contrast to previous studies on Atta, we found no differences among morphological castes in their responses to alarm pheromone in Acromyrmex but we did find differences in responses among putative age classes. The results suggest that the evolution of alarm communication and signaling within social insect clades can be unexpectedly complex and that further work is warranted to understand whether the evolution of different alarm pheromone compounds is adaptive.

  12. Social Odors: Alarm Pheromones and Social Buffering.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, I describe 2 types of olfactory communication in rats, which appear to arouse anxiety and relief, respectively. In alarm pheromonal communication, rats release 4-methylpentanal and hexanal from their perianal region when they are stressed. These molecules activate the anxiety circuit, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, when 4-methylpentanal and hexanal are simultaneously detected by the vomeronasal system and the main olfactory system, respectively. Consequently, recipient rats show a variety of anxiety responses, depending on the threatening stimuli. In appeasing olfactory communication, non-stressed rats release an appeasing olfactory signal, which is detected by the main olfactory system of other rats. When detected, this olfactory signal suppresses activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala and, as a result, ameliorates stress responses elicited by an auditory conditioned stimulus during social buffering phenomenon. Because social buffering appears to be based on affinity and attachment to accompanying animals, the appeasing olfactory signal may arouse relief in rats. A definition of social buffering is also proposed as we still have no set definition for the term social buffering yet.

  13. The main component of an alarm pheromone of kissing bugs plays multiple roles in the cognitive modulation of the escape response.

    PubMed

    Minoli, Sebastian; Palottini, Florencia; Manrique, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Innate responses in animals can be modulated by experience. Disturbed adults of the triatomine bug Triatoma infestans release an alarm pheromone (AP) that elicits an escape response in conspecific larvae. The main component of this AP, the isobutyric acid (IsoAc), alone has already shown to generate an escape response in this species. However, not much is known about the modulation of this behavior by non-associative and associative cognitive processes. We present here evidences of the cognitive capacities of T. infestans larvae in an escape context under different conditioning paradigms, including IsoAc in different roles. We show that: (1) the duration of a pre-exposure to IsoAc plays a main role in determining the type of non-associative learning expressed: short time pre-exposures elicit a sensitization while a longer pre-exposure time triggers a switch from repellence to attractiveness; (2) a simple pre-exposure event is enough to modulate the escape response of larvae to the AP and to its main component: IsoAc; (3) IsoAc and the AP are perceived as different chemical entities; (4) an association between IsoAc and an aversive stimulus can be created under a classical conditioning paradigm; (5) an association between IsoAc and a self-action can be generated under an operant conditioning. These results evince that IsoAc can attain multiple and different cognitive roles in the modulation of the escape response of triatomines and show how cognitive processes can modulate a key behavior for surviving, as it is the escaping response in presence of a potential danger in insects.

  14. The main component of an alarm pheromone of kissing bugs plays multiple roles in the cognitive modulation of the escape response

    PubMed Central

    Minoli, Sebastian; Palottini, Florencia; Manrique, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Innate responses in animals can be modulated by experience. Disturbed adults of the triatomine bug Triatoma infestans release an alarm pheromone (AP) that elicits an escape response in conspecific larvae. The main component of this AP, the isobutyric acid (IsoAc), alone has already shown to generate an escape response in this species. However, not much is known about the modulation of this behavior by non-associative and associative cognitive processes. We present here evidences of the cognitive capacities of T. infestans larvae in an escape context under different conditioning paradigms, including IsoAc in different roles. We show that: (1) the duration of a pre-exposure to IsoAc plays a main role in determining the type of non-associative learning expressed: short time pre-exposures elicit a sensitization while a longer pre-exposure time triggers a switch from repellence to attractiveness; (2) a simple pre-exposure event is enough to modulate the escape response of larvae to the AP and to its main component: IsoAc; (3) IsoAc and the AP are perceived as different chemical entities; (4) an association between IsoAc and an aversive stimulus can be created under a classical conditioning paradigm; (5) an association between IsoAc and a self-action can be generated under an operant conditioning. These results evince that IsoAc can attain multiple and different cognitive roles in the modulation of the escape response of triatomines and show how cognitive processes can modulate a key behavior for surviving, as it is the escaping response in presence of a potential danger in insects. PMID:23847483

  15. Alarm pheromones-chemical signaling in response to danger.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, François J; Haubruge, Eric; Mescher, Mark C

    2010-01-01

    Many animals respond to the threat of predation by producing alarm signals that warn other individuals of the presence of danger or otherwise reduce the success of predators. While alarm signals may be visual or auditory as well as chemical, alarm pheromones are common, especially among insects and aquatic organisms. Plants too emit chemical signals in response to attack by insect herbivores that recruit the herbivores' natural enemies and can induce preparations for defense in neighboring plants (or other parts of the same plant). In this chapter, we discuss our current understanding of chemical alarm signaling in a variety of animal groups (including social and presocial insects, marine invertebrates, fish, and mammals) and in plants. We also briefly discuss the exploitation of alarm pheromones as foraging cues for natural enemies. We conclude with a brief discussion of the potential exploitation of alarm signaling to achieve the applied goal of managing pest species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bees eavesdrop upon informative and persistent signal compounds in alarm pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengwei; Wen, Ping; Qu, Yufeng; Dong, Shihao; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Pollinators such as bees provide a critical ecosystem service that can be impaired by information about predation. We provide the first evidence for olfactory eavesdropping and avoidance of heterospecific alarm signals, alarm pheromones, at food sources in bees. We predicted that foragers could eavesdrop upon heterospecific alarm pheromones, and would detect and avoid conspicuous individual pheromone compounds, defined by abundance and their ability to persist. We show that Apis cerana foragers avoid the distinctive alarm pheromones of A. dorsata and A. mellifera, species that share the same floral resources and predators. We next examined responses to individual alarm pheromone compounds. Apis cerana foragers avoided isopentyl acetate (IPA), which is found in all three species and is the most abundant and volatile of the tested compounds. Interestingly, A. cerana also avoided an odor component, gamma-octanoic lactone (GOL), which is >150-fold less volatile than IPA. Chemical analyses confirmed that GOL is only present in A. dorsata, not in A. cerana. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings revealed that A. cerana antennae are 10-fold more sensitive to GOL than to other tested compounds. Thus, the eavesdropping strategy is shaped by signal conspicuousness (abundance and commonality) and signal persistence (volatility). PMID:27157595

  17. Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents

    PubMed Central

    Brechbühl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

    2013-01-01

    Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger. PMID:23487748

  18. Poison and alarm: the Asian hornet Vespa velutina uses sting venom volatiles as an alarm pheromone.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ya-Nan; Wen, Ping; Dong, Shi-Hao; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C

    2017-02-15

    In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans. This species is native to Asia and has now invaded Europe. Despite growing interest in V. velutina, it was unknown whether it possessed an alarm pheromone. We show that these hornets use sting venom as an alarm pheromone. Sting venom volatiles were strongly attractive to hornet workers and triggered attacks. Two major venom fractions, consisting of monoketones and diketones, also elicited attack. We used gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to isolate 13 known and 3 unknown aliphatic ketones and alcohols in venom that elicited conspicuous hornet antennal activity. Two of the unknown compounds may be an undecen-2-one and an undecene-2,10-dinone. Three major compounds (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one and undecan-2-one) triggered attacks, but only nonan-2-one did so at biologically relevant levels (10 hornet equivalents). Nonan-2-one thus deserves particular attention. However, the key alarm releasers for V. velutina remain to be identified. Such identification will help to illuminate the evolution and function of alarm compounds in hornets. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. An Alarm Pheromone Modulates Appetitive Olfactory Learning in the Honeybee (Apis Mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Urlacher, Elodie; Francés, Bernard; Giurfa, Martin; Devaud, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular, and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones) affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP) which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24 h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance. PMID:20838475

  20. Phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis, response to alkylpyrazine analogs of a fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, alarm pheromone.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Vander Meer, Robert K; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2011-07-01

    The phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier, is a parasitoid of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. This fly has been reported to use fire ant chemicals, specifically venom alkaloids and possibly alarm pheromone to locate its host. A recent study identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethyl pyrazine as a component of the alarm pheromone of S. invicta. To determine the possible involvement of this fire ant alarm pheromone component in mediating fire ant-phorid fly interactions, we tested electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral responses of P. tricuspis females to the commercially available mixture of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethyl pyrazine and its 3,5-dimethyl isomer, as well as six structurally related alkylpyrazine analogs at varying doses. Pseudacteon tricuspis females showed significant EAG response to 2-ethyl-3,6(or 5)-dimethyl pyrazine (herein referred to as pheromone-isomer) at all doses, 0.001-10 μg. Among the tested alkylpyrazine analogs, 2,3-diethyl-5-methyl pyrazine showed significant EAG activity at 0.1 and 1 μg. 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine also showed significant EAG activity at 0.1 μg. Results of four-choice olfactometer bioassays demonstrated significant attraction of P. tricuspis females to the pheromone-isomer (2-ethyl-3,6(or 5)-dimethyl pyrazine) at all tested doses (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 μg). The analogs, 2,3-diethyl-5-methyl pyrazine and 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine were significantly better than the control at the higher doses (0.1, 1 and 10 μg). The pheromone-isomer was significantly better than both analogs at two doses, 0.1 and 1 μg. These results confirm that the reported fire ant alarm pheromone component plays a role in mediating attraction of phorid flies to host workers. Venom alkaloids were previously shown to attract P. tricuspis; therefore, we propose that fire ant alarm pheromones may act in tandem or synergistically with venom alkaloids to attract phorid fly parasitoids to fire ant workers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Alarm Pheromones of the Ant Atta Texana

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser; R. C. Brownlee; R. Silverstein

    1968-01-01

    Methyl-3-heptanone (0.59 μg/head) and 2-heptanone (0.14 μg/head) are the main volatile components of the mandibular glands of major workers. In the laboratory, worker ants detected and were attracted by 4-methyl-3-heptanone at a concentration of 5.7 x 10-13 g/cm3 (2.7 x 107 molecules...

  2. Identification and Isolation of Human Alarm Pheromones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-30

    with a materials preventing evaporation of volatile components that were of a particular for identification of the target compounds. The...stress. 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 n o rm a liz e d i n te n s it ie s 15.46 19.17 16.52 16.64 15.17 15.62 Gas Chromatography retention time in...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0341 TITLE: Identification and Isolation of Human

  3. Potential Nematode Alarm Pheromone Induces Acute Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Loeza-Cabrera, Mario; Liu, Zheng; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Nguyen, Julie K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Yuna; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A; Zhong, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. Alarm pheromone does not modulate 22-kHz calls in male rats.

    PubMed

    Muyama, Hiromi; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Inagaki, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-03-15

    Rats are known to emit a series of ultrasonic vocalizations, termed 22-kHz calls, when exposed to distressing stimuli. Pharmacological studies have indicated that anxiety mediates 22-kHz calls in distressed rats. We previously found that exposure to the rat alarm pheromone increases anxiety in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the alarm pheromone would increase 22-kHz calls in pheromone-exposed rats. Accordingly, we tested whether exposure to the alarm pheromone induced 22-kHz calls, as well as whether the alarm pheromone increased 22-kHz calls in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS). Rats were first fear-conditioned to an auditory and contextual CS. On the following day, the rats were either exposed to the alarm pheromone or a control odor that was released from the neck region of odor-donor rats. Then, the rats were re-exposed to the aversive CS. The alarm pheromone neither induced 22-kHz calls nor increased 22-kHz calls in response to the aversive CS. In contrast, the control odor unexpectedly reduced the total number and duration of 22-kHz calls elicited by the aversive CS, as well as the duration of freezing. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone does not affect 22-kHz calls in rats. However, we may have found evidence for an appeasing olfactory signal, released from the neck region of odor-donor rats.

  5. The alarm pheromone in male rats as a unique anxiety model: psychopharmacological evidence using anxiolytics.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2010-02-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released from male donor Wistar rats evoked anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses in recipient rats. Thus, we believe that this pheromone may increase anxiety levels in rats. In the current study, we evaluated the predictive validity of this alarm pheromone-induced anxiogenic effect in detail by investigating whether six types of human anxiolytics, each of which has a different mechanism of action, were efficacious in reducing anxiety, using changes in the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) as an index. The alarm pheromone-enhanced ASR was not affected by vehicle pretreatment but was dose-dependently attenuated by pretreatment with midazolam, phenelzine, propranolol, clonidine, and CP-154,526-although not buspirone. These results may reflect some aspects of the predictive validity of the alarm pheromone-induced anxiety in rats as an animal model of human anxiety.

  6. Alarm pheromone is detected by the vomeronasal organ in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Kubota, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    It is widely known that a stressed animal releases specific pheromones, possibly for alarming nearby conspecifics. We previously investigated an alarm pheromone in male rats and found that this alarm pheromone evokes several responses, including increases in the defensive and risk assessment behaviors in a modified open-field test, and enhancement of the acoustic startle reflex. However, the role of the vomeronasal organ in these pheromone effects remains unclear. To clarify this point, vomeronasal organ-excising or sham surgeries were performed in male rats for use in 2 experimental models, after which they were exposed to alarm pheromone. We found that the vomeronasal organ-excising surgery blocked the effects of this alarm pheromone in both the modified open-field test and acoustic startle reflex test. In addition, the results of habituation/dishabituation test and soybean agglutinin binding to the accessory olfactory bulb suggested that the vomeronasal organ-excising surgery completely ablated the vomeronasal organ while preserving the functioning of the main olfactory system. From the above results, we showed that the vomeronasal organ plays an important role in alarm pheromone effects in the modified open-field test and acoustic startle reflex test.

  7. Identification of the Alarm Pheromone of Hygia lativentris and Changes in Composition during Development.

    PubMed

    Noge, Koji; Kakuda, Tomomi; Abe, Makoto; Tamogami, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    Heteropteran insects produce a series of volatile compounds from their scent glands that protect them from predators and parasites. These compounds also play roles in chemical communication that elicit aggregation, dispersal, and mating behaviors. Hygia lativentris (Coreidae) adults frequently aggregate on host plants. When disturbed, they quickly disperse with the release of a sour smell, suggesting that these bugs possess an alarm pheromone in their secretions. This adult secretion-induced dispersal has been examined with a laboratory assay. Hexanal, the predominant component of the adult secretion was identified as a component of the alarm pheromone by evaluation of the adult bug's response time and escape distance from the chemical source. Physicochemical analyses with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that secretory components differed between nymphs and adults, and also during adult aging. Nymphs produced two unsaturated compounds, (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, together with hexanal and 1-hexanol, which were found in all developmental stages. In adults, hexyl acetate was the major component of secretions within 3 days of emerging, while the amount of this ester decreased and those of hexanal, hexanoic acid, and hexanal trimer increased with aging. The decomposition of hexyl acetate into hexanal via 1-hexanol was attributed to the presence of esterases and alcohol dehydrogenases specifically found in adult secretory glands. In contrast, the formation of a hexanal trimer may be due to a non-enzymatic reaction under acidic conditions.

  8. Alarm pheromone induces stress analgesia via an opioid system in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Núñez, J; Almeida, L; Balderrama, N; Giurfa, M

    1997-12-31

    Changes of the stinging response threshold of Apis mellifera scutellata were measured on foragers fixed on a holder and stimulated with an electric shock as a noxious stimulus. The threshold of responsiveness to the noxious stimulus increased when bees were previously stimulated with isopentyl acetate, which is a main component of the alarm pheromone of the sting chamber. This effect is antagonised by previous injection of naloxone-hydrochloride (Endo Laboratories Inc.). Results suggest that in the honeybee an endogenous opioid system activated by isopentyl acetate is responsible for modulation of perception for nociceptive stimuli. The resulting stress-induced analgesia in the defender bee would reduce its probability of withdrawal thus increasing its efficiency against enemies.

  9. Phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis, response to alkylpyrazine analogs of a fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, alarm pheromone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier, is a parasitoid of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. This fly has been reported to use fire ant chemicals, specifically venom alkaloids and possibly alarm pheromone to locate its host. A recent study identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethyl...

  10. A cost of alarm pheromone production in cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, John A.

    2005-02-01

    The sesquiterpene, (E)-β-farnesene, is used by many aphid species as an alarm pheromone to warn related individuals of predation. Disturbed cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, released (E)-β-farnesene into the air as detected by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC MS). Solvent extracts of cotton aphids of various life stages and weights also were analyzed by GC MS for sums of ions 69 and 93, which discriminated (E)-β-farnesene from coeluting compounds. Aphids of all life stages and sizes reared on cotton plants in both an environmental chamber and glasshouse contained (E)-β-farnesene in amounts ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 ng per individual. The quantities of (E)-β-farnesene in aphids increased in relation to increasing body weight, and variation in individual weights explained about 82% of the variation in alarm pheromone. However, the concentrations (ng/mg fresh weight) declined exponentially with increasing body weight. These findings indicate that aphid nymphs try to compensate for their smaller size by producing relatively more pheromone per weight than adults but still cannot approach an evolutionary optimal load, as assumed in adults with the greatest total amounts. This suggests that young aphids need to balance costs of growth and maturation with costs of producing the alarm pheromone.

  11. A cost of alarm pheromone production in cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii.

    PubMed

    Byers, John A

    2005-02-01

    The sesquiterpene, (E)-beta-farnesene, is used by many aphid species as an alarm pheromone to warn related individuals of predation. Disturbed cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, released (E)-beta-farnesene into the air as detected by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Solvent extracts of cotton aphids of various life stages and weights also were analyzed by GC-MS for sums of ions 69 and 93, which discriminated (E)-beta-farnesene from coeluting compounds. Aphids of all life stages and sizes reared on cotton plants in both an environmental chamber and glasshouse contained (E)-beta-farnesene in amounts ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 ng per individual. The quantities of (E)-beta-farnesene in aphids increased in relation to increasing body weight, and variation in individual weights explained about 82% of the variation in alarm pheromone. However, the concentrations (ng/mg fresh weight) declined exponentially with increasing body weight. These findings indicate that aphid nymphs try to compensate for their smaller size by producing relatively more pheromone per weight than adults but still cannot approach an evolutionary optimal load, as assumed in adults with the greatest total amounts. This suggests that young aphids need to balance costs of growth and maturation with costs of producing the alarm pheromone.

  12. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions). This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division (BNSTam), anterior lateral division (BNSTal) and posterior division (BNSTp) of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi). Fos expression was decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nPGi. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) via the opioidergic pathway. PMID:25755631

  13. Wolbachia-Free Heteropterans Do Not Produce Defensive Chemicals or Alarm Pheromones.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Judith X; Venable, Gabriela X; Saeidi, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    The true bugs, or heteropterans, are known for their widespread production of anti-predator chemicals and alarm pheromones in scent glands, a derived trait that constitutes one of the defining characters of the suborder Heteroptera and a potential novel trait that contributed to their diversification. We investigated whether symbiotic bacteria could be involved in the formation of these chemicals using Thasus neocalifornicus, a coreid bug that produces semiochemicals frequently found in other bugs. Using DNA phylogenetic methodology and experiments using antibiotics coupled with molecular techniques, we identified Wolbachia as the microorganism infecting the scent glands of this bug. Decreasing the level of Wobachia infection using antibiotics was correlated with a diminution of heteropteran production of defensive compounds and alarm pheromones, suggesting that this symbiotic bacterium might be implicated in the formation of chemicals.

  14. Sink or swim: a test of tadpole behavioral responses to predator cues and potential alarm pheromones from skin secretions.

    PubMed

    Maag, Nino; Gehrer, Lukas; Woodhams, Douglas C

    2012-11-01

    Chemical signaling is a vital mode of communication for most organisms, including larval amphibians. However, few studies have determined the identity or source of chemical compounds signaling amphibian defensive behaviors, in particular, whether alarm pheromones can be actively secreted from tadpoles signaling danger to conspecifics. Here we exposed tadpoles of the common toad Bufo bufo and common frog Rana temporaria to known cues signaling predation risk and to potential alarm pheromones. In both species, an immediate reduction in swimming activity extending over an hour was caused by chemical cues from the predator Aeshna cyanea (dragonfly larvae) that had been feeding on conspecific tadpoles. However, B. bufo tadpoles did not detectably alter their behavior upon exposure to potential alarm pheromones, neither to their own skin secretions, nor to the abundant predator-defense peptide bradykinin. Thus, chemicals signaling active predation had a stronger effect than general alarm secretions of other common toad tadpoles. This species may invest in a defensive strategy alternative to communication by alarm pheromones, given that Bufonidae are toxic to some predators and not known to produce defensive skin peptides. Comparative behavioral physiology of amphibian alarm responses may elucidate functional trade-offs in pheromone production and the evolution of chemical communication.

  15. Fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract parasitic phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita R; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2013-11-01

    Pseudacteon tricuspis, Pseudacteon obtusus and Pseudacteon curvatus are three species of parasitic phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae), which have been introduced as classical biological control agents of imported, Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the southern USA. Previous studies demonstrated the behavioral response of P. tricuspis to the venom alkaloids and alarm pheromone of the fire ant, S. invicta. In the present study, we compared the responses of P. tricuspis, P. obtusus and P. curvatus to Solenopsis invicta alarm pheromone, venom alkaloids, or a mixture of both chemicals in four-choice olfactometer bioassays. The main hypothesis tested was that the fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract Pseudacteon phorid flies. Both sexes of all three Pseudacteon species were attracted to low doses of the fire ant alarm pheromone or venom alkaloids (i.e. 1 ant worker equivalent) alone. However, the flies were significantly more attracted to a mixture of both chemicals (i.e., 1:1 mixture of alarm pheromone+alkaloids) than to either chemical. The results suggest an additive rather than a synergistic effect of combining both chemicals. Comparing the fly species, P. tricuspis showed relatively greater attraction to cis alkaloids, whereas the alkaloid mixture (cis+trans) was preferred by P. obtusus and P. curvatus. In general, no key sexual differences were recorded, although females of P. tricuspis and P. obtusus showed slightly higher response than conspecific males to lower doses of the alarm pheromone. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed, and a host location model is proposed for parasitic phorid flies involving the use of fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids as long range and short range attractants, respectively.

  16. Smells like aphids: orchid flowers mimic aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination

    PubMed Central

    Stökl, Johannes; Brodmann, Jennifer; Dafni, Amots; Ayasse, Manfred; Hansson, Bill S.

    2011-01-01

    Most insects are dependent on chemical communication for activities such as mate finding or host location. Several plants, and especially orchids, mimic insect semiochemicals to attract insects for unrewarded pollination. Here, we present a new case of pheromone mimicry found in the terrestrial orchid Epipactis veratrifolia. Flowers are visited and pollinated by several species of aphidophagous hoverflies, the females of which also often lay eggs in the flowers. The oviposition behaviour of these hoverflies is mainly guided by aphid-derived kairomones. We show that the flowers produce α- and β-pinene, β-myrcene and β-phellandrene, and that these compounds attract and induce oviposition behaviour in female hoverflies. This floral odour profile is remarkably similar to the alarm pheromone released by several aphid species, such as Megoura viciae. We therefore suggest that E. veratrifolia mimics aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination; this is the first time, to our knowledge, that such a case of mimicry has been demonstrated. PMID:20943694

  17. Symmetry breaking on density in escaping ants: experiment and alarm pheromone model.

    PubMed

    Li, Geng; Huan, Di; Roehner, Bertrand; Xu, Yijuan; Zeng, Ling; Di, Zengru; Han, Zhangang

    2014-01-01

    The symmetry breaking observed in nature is fascinating. This symmetry breaking is observed in both human crowds and ant colonies. In such cases, when escaping from a closed space with two symmetrically located exits, one exit is used more often than the other. Group size and density have been reported as having no significant impact on symmetry breaking, and the alignment rule has been used to model symmetry breaking. Density usually plays important roles in collective behavior. However, density is not well-studied in symmetry breaking, which forms the major basis of this paper. The experiment described in this paper on an ant colony displays an increase then decrease of symmetry breaking versus ant density. This result suggests that a Vicsek-like model with an alignment rule may not be the correct model for escaping ants. Based on biological facts that ants use pheromones to communicate, rather than seeing how other individuals move, we propose a simple yet effective alarm pheromone model. The model results agree well with the experimental outcomes. As a measure, this paper redefines symmetry breaking as the collective asymmetry by deducing the random fluctuations. This research indicates that ants deposit and respond to the alarm pheromone, and the accumulation of this biased information sharing leads to symmetry breaking, which suggests true fundamental rules of collective escape behavior in ants.

  18. Smells like aphids: orchid flowers mimic aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination.

    PubMed

    Stökl, Johannes; Brodmann, Jennifer; Dafni, Amots; Ayasse, Manfred; Hansson, Bill S

    2011-04-22

    Most insects are dependent on chemical communication for activities such as mate finding or host location. Several plants, and especially orchids, mimic insect semiochemicals to attract insects for unrewarded pollination. Here, we present a new case of pheromone mimicry found in the terrestrial orchid Epipactis veratrifolia. Flowers are visited and pollinated by several species of aphidophagous hoverflies, the females of which also often lay eggs in the flowers. The oviposition behaviour of these hoverflies is mainly guided by aphid-derived kairomones. We show that the flowers produce α- and β-pinene, β-myrcene and β-phellandrene, and that these compounds attract and induce oviposition behaviour in female hoverflies. This floral odour profile is remarkably similar to the alarm pheromone released by several aphid species, such as Megoura viciae. We therefore suggest that E. veratrifolia mimics aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination; this is the first time, to our knowledge, that such a case of mimicry has been demonstrated.

  19. Modulation of aphid alarm pheromone emission of pea aphid prey by predators.

    PubMed

    Joachim, Christoph; Hatano, Eduardo; David, Anja; Kunert, Maritta; Linse, Cornelia; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies on animal alarm signaling have shown that alarm calls generally are not uniform, but may vary depending on the type and intensity of threat. While alarm call variability has been studied intensively in birds and mammals, little is known about such variation in insects. We investigated variability in alarm signaling in aphids, group-living insect herbivores. Under attack, aphids release droplets containing a volatile alarm pheromone, (E)-β-farnesene (EBF), that induces specific escape behavior in conspecifics. We used a handheld gas chromatograph (zNose™), which allows real-time volatile analysis, to measure EBF emission by pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, under attack from different predators, lacewing or ladybird larvae. We demonstrate that aphid alarm signaling is affected by the predator species attacking. Ladybirds generally elicited smaller EBF emission peaks and consumed aphids more quickly, resulting in lower total EBF emission compared to lacewing attacks. In 52 % of the replicates with lacewings and 23 % with ladybirds, no EBF was detectable in the headspace, although aphids secreted cornicle droplets after attack. We, therefore, examined EBF amounts contained in these droplets and the aphid body. While all aphid bodies always contained EBF, many secreted droplets did not. Our experiments show that alarm signaling in insects can be variable, and both the attacker as well as the attacked may affect alarm signal variation. While underlying mechanisms of such variation in aphid-predator interactions need to be investigated in more detail, we argue that at least part of this variation may be adaptive for the predator and the aphid.

  20. Honey Bees Modulate Their Olfactory Learning in the Presence of Hornet Predators and Alarm Component

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengwei; Qu, Yufeng; Dong, Shihao; Wen, Ping; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Ken; Menzel, Randolf

    2016-01-01

    In Southeast Asia the native honey bee species Apis cerana is often attacked by hornets (Vespa velutina), mainly in the period from April to November. During the co-evolution of these two species honey bees have developed several strategies to defend themselves such as learning the odors of hornets and releasing alarm components to inform other mates. However, so far little is known about whether and how honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence of the hornet predator and alarm components of honey bee itself. In the present study, we test for associative olfactory learning of A. cerana in the presence of predator odors, the alarm pheromone component isopentyl acetate (IPA), or a floral odor (hexanal) as a control. The results show that bees can detect live hornet odors, that there is almost no association between the innately aversive hornet odor and the appetitive stimulus sucrose, and that IPA is less well associated with an appetitive stimulus when compared with a floral odor. In order to imitate natural conditions, e.g. when bees are foraging on flowers and a predator shows up, or alarm pheromone is released by a captured mate, we tested combinations of the hornet odor and floral odor, or IPA and floral odor. Both of these combinations led to reduced learning scores. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the prey-predator system between A. cerana and V. velutina. PMID:26919132

  1. Honey Bees Modulate Their Olfactory Learning in the Presence of Hornet Predators and Alarm Component.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengwei; Qu, Yufeng; Dong, Shihao; Wen, Ping; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Ken; Menzel, Randolf

    2016-01-01

    In Southeast Asia the native honey bee species Apis cerana is often attacked by hornets (Vespa velutina), mainly in the period from April to November. During the co-evolution of these two species honey bees have developed several strategies to defend themselves such as learning the odors of hornets and releasing alarm components to inform other mates. However, so far little is known about whether and how honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence of the hornet predator and alarm components of honey bee itself. In the present study, we test for associative olfactory learning of A. cerana in the presence of predator odors, the alarm pheromone component isopentyl acetate (IPA), or a floral odor (hexanal) as a control. The results show that bees can detect live hornet odors, that there is almost no association between the innately aversive hornet odor and the appetitive stimulus sucrose, and that IPA is less well associated with an appetitive stimulus when compared with a floral odor. In order to imitate natural conditions, e.g. when bees are foraging on flowers and a predator shows up, or alarm pheromone is released by a captured mate, we tested combinations of the hornet odor and floral odor, or IPA and floral odor. Both of these combinations led to reduced learning scores. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the prey-predator system between A. cerana and V. velutina.

  2. Orchid mimics honey bee alarm pheromone in order to attract hornets for pollination.

    PubMed

    Brodmann, Jennifer; Twele, Robert; Francke, Wittko; Yi-bo, Luo; Xi-qiang, Song; Ayasse, Manfred

    2009-08-25

    Approximately one-third of the world's estimated 30,000 orchid species are deceptive and do not reward their pollinators with nectar or pollen. Most of these deceptive orchids imitate the scent of rewarding flowers or potential mates. In this study, we investigated the floral scent involved in pollinator attraction to the rewardless orchid Dendrobium sinense, a species endemic to the Chinese island Hainan that is pollinated by the hornet Vespa bicolor. Via chemical analyses and electrophysiological methods, we demonstrate that the flowers of D. sinense produce (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol and that the pollinator can smell this compound. This is a major compound in the alarm pheromones of both Asian (Apis cerana) and European (Apis mellifera) honey bees and is also exploited by the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum) to locate its prey. This is the first time that (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol has been identified as a floral volatile. In behavioral experiments, we demonstrate that the floral scent of D. sinense and synthetic (Z)-11-eicosen-1-ol are both attractive to hornets. Because hornets frequently capture honey bees to feed to their larvae, we suggest that the flowers of D. sinense mimic the alarm pheromone of honey bees in order to attract prey-hunting hornets for pollination.

  3. Sex pheromone components of Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W; Hahn, Roger; Khaskin, Grigori; Ramaseshiah, Gujjandadu; Singh, Balbir; Hehar, Gagandeep K; Gries, Gerhard

    2007-09-01

    The Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), has been recognized as a distinct species since 1865 but closely resembles a diminutive form of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. We tested the hypothesis that the sex pheromones of L. obfuscata and L. dispar are similar. In laboratory mate acceptance studies, very few male L. dispar made copulatory attempts when paired with female L. obfuscata, suggesting that female L. obfuscata emit one or more pheromone components antagonistic to male L. dispar. In coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of pheromone gland extract of female L. obfuscata, (Z)-2-methyloctadec-7-ene (2Me-7Z-18Hy) and (7R,8S)-cis-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane [(+)-disparlure] were most abundant and elicited the strongest responses from male L. obfuscata antennae. In field experiments near Solan (Himachal Pradesh, India), 2Me-7Z-18Hy and (+)-disparlure in combination attracted more male L. obfuscata than did either component alone. This two-component sex pheromone contrasts with the single-component sex pheromone [(+)-disparlure] of L. dispar. The contrasting composition of the lymantriid communities inhabited by L. obfuscata and L. dispar may explain why 2Me-7Z-18Hy is a pheromone component in L. obfuscata and a pheromone antagonist in L. dispar and why (-)-disparlure reduces pheromonal attraction of male L. dispar but not male L. obfuscata.

  4. Temporary inactivation of the anterior part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis blocks alarm pheromone-induced defensive behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Breitfeld, Tino; Bruning, Johann E. A.; Inagaki, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Yukari; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Fendt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Rats emit an alarm pheromone in threatening situations. Exposure of rats to this alarm pheromone induces defensive behaviors, such as head out behavior, and increases c-Fos expression in brain areas involved in the mediation of defensive behaviors. One of these brain areas is the anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (aBNST). The goal of the present study was to investigate if pharmacological inactivation of the aBNST by local microinjections of the GABAA receptor-agonist muscimol modulates alarm pheromone-induced defensive behaviors. We first established the behavioral paradigm of alarm pheromone-induced defensive behaviors in Sprague-Dawley rats in our laboratory. In a second experiment, we inactivated the aBNST, then exposed rats to one of four different odors (neck odor, female urine, alarm pheromone, fox urine) and tested the effects of the aBNST inactivation on the behavior in response to these odors. Our data show that temporary inactivation of the aBNST blocked head out behavior in response to the alarm pheromone. This indicates that the aBNST plays an important role in the mediation of the alarm pheromone-induced defensive behavior in rats. PMID:26441496

  5. Differential field responses of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger), to alarm pheromone enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Jang, Eric B; Siderhurst, Matthew S

    2014-12-01

    The little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is an invasive ant with negative impacts on both biodiversity and agriculture throughout the tropics and subtropics. Field experiments were conducted in order to elucidate the relative attractiveness of the enantiomers of the alarm pheromones, 2,5-dimethyl-3-(2-methylbutyl)pyrazine and 3-methyl-2-(2-methylbutyl)pyrazine. The enantiomers tested were synthesized from commercially available (S)-2-methylbutan-1-ol or kinetically resolved (R)-2-methylbutan-1-ol, prepared using Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PCL). Bioassays conducted in a macadamia orchard on the island of Hawaii demonstrated that W. auropunctata were preferentially attracted to the (S)-enantiomers of both alkyl pyrazines over the racemic mixtures in all experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of differential attraction of ants to the enantiomers of chiral pyrazine pheromones despite many examples of these compounds in the literature. In addition, using a chiral column it was determined that (S)-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2-methylbutyl)pyrazine and (S)-3-methyl-2-(2-methylbutyl)pyrazine are the only enantiomers produced by W. auropunctata.

  6. Cerambycid Beetle Species with Similar Pheromones are Segregated by Phenology and Minor Pheromone Components.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Robert F; Reagel, Peter F; Wong, Joseph C H; Meier, Linnea R; Silva, Weliton Dias; Mongold-Diers, Judith; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2015-05-01

    Recent research has shown that volatile sex and aggregation-sex pheromones of many species of cerambycid beetles are highly conserved, with sympatric and synchronic species that are closely related (i.e., congeners), and even more distantly related (different subfamilies), using the same or similar pheromones. Here, we investigated mechanisms by which cross attraction is averted among seven cerambycid species that are native to eastern North America and active as adults in spring: Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), Cyrtophorus verrucosus (Olivier), Euderces pini (Olivier), Neoclytus caprea (Say), and the congeners Phymatodes aereus (Newman), P. amoenus (Say), and P. varius (F.). Males of these species produce (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as their dominant or sole pheromone component. Our field bioassays support the hypothesis that cross attraction between species is averted or at least minimized by differences among species in seasonal phenology and circadian flight periods of adults, and/or by minor pheromone components that act as synergists for conspecifics and antagonists for heterospecifics.

  7. Contact sex pheromone components of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Satoshi; Shimomura, Kenji; Honda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Izuru; Ohsawa, Kanju

    2007-05-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, is a major pest of stored pulses. Females of this species produce a contact sex pheromone that elicits copulation behavior in males. Pheromone was extracted from filter-paper shelters taken from cages that housed females. Crude ether extract stimulated copulation in male C. maculatus. Initial fractionation showed behavioral activity in acidic and neutral fractions. Furthermore, bioassay-guided fractionation and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of active fractions revealed that the active components of the acidic fraction were 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid and nonanedioic acid. These components along with the hydrocarbon fraction, a mixture of C(27)-C(35) straight chain and methyl branched hydrocarbons, had a synergistic effect on the behavior of males. Glass dummies treated with an authentic pheromone blend induced copulation behavior in males. The potential roles of the contact sex pheromone of C. maculatus are discussed.

  8. SCADA alarms processing for wind turbine component failure detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, E.; Reder, M.; Melero, J. J.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbine failure and downtime can often compromise the profitability of a wind farm due to their high impact on the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Early detection of failures can facilitate the changeover from corrective maintenance towards a predictive approach. This paper presents a cost-effective methodology to combine various alarm analysis techniques, using data from the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, in order to detect component failures. The approach categorises the alarms according to a reviewed taxonomy, turning overwhelming data into valuable information to assess component status. Then, different alarms analysis techniques are applied for two purposes: the evaluation of the SCADA alarm system capability to detect failures, and the investigation of the relation between components faults being followed by failure occurrences in others. Various case studies are presented and discussed. The study highlights the relationship between faulty behaviour in different components and between failures and adverse environmental conditions.

  9. Evidence for a Nest Defense Pheromone in Bald-Faced Hornets, Dolichovespula Maculata, and Identification of Components.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Sebastian Ibarra; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Derstine, Nathan; McCann, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    In eusocial insects like Bald-faced hornets, Dolichovespula maculata, nest defense is essential because nests contain a large number of protein-rich larvae and pupae, and thus are attractive to nest predators. Our objectives were to investigate whether D. maculata exhibit pheromone-mediated nest defense, and to identify and field test any pheromone components. We tested for pheromone-mediated nest defense behavior of D. maculata by placing a paired box-apparatus near the entrance of D. maculata nests, and treating both boxes with a solvent control, or one of the two boxes with a solvent control and the other with either venom sac extract, the putative source of nest defense pheromone, or synthetic pheromone. The sound impulses caused by nest mates attempting to sting or strike the boxes were recorded for 3 min. Compared to the double-control treatment, the number of strikes increased 27-fold when one of the two boxes was treated with venom sac extract, providing evidence for an alarm response. The box treated with venom sac extract also induced a significantly greater proportion of strikes than the corresponding control box, providing evidence for a target-oriented response. Analyzing venom sac extract by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of seven candidate pheromone components: (a) dimethylaminoethanol, (b) dimethylamino ethyl acetate, (c) 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, (d) N-3-methylbutylacetamide, (e) 2-heptadecanone, (f) (Z)-8-heptadecen-2-one, and (g) (Z)-10-nonadecen-2-one. Testing in paired-box bioassays blends of the nitrogen-containing volatile components a-d, the less volatile ketones e-g, or both (a-g), indicated that a-d primarily have an alarm function. The ketones e-g, in contrast, induced target-oriented responses, possibly marking the box, or potential nest predators, for guided and concerted attacks, or enhancing the alarm-inducing effect of the volatile pheromone components

  10. New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems.

  11. Aphid Wing Induction and Ecological Costs of Alarm Pheromone Emission under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Eduardo; Kunert, Grit; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2010-01-01

    The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, (Homoptera: Aphididae) releases the volatile sesquiterpene (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) when attacked by a predator, triggering escape responses in the aphid colony. Recently, it was shown that this alarm pheromone also mediates the production of the winged dispersal morph under laboratory conditions. The present work tested the wing-inducing effect of EBF under field conditions. Aphid colonies were exposed to two treatments (control and EBF) and tested in two different environmental conditions (field and laboratory). As in previous experiments aphids produced higher proportion of winged morphs among their offspring when exposed to EBF in the laboratory but even under field conditions the proportion of winged offspring was higher after EBF application (6.84±0.98%) compared to the hexane control (1.54±0.25%). In the field, the proportion of adult aphids found on the plant at the end of the experiment was lower in the EBF treatment (58.1±5.5%) than in the control (66.9±4.6%), in contrast to the climate chamber test where the numbers of adult aphids found on the plant at the end of the experiment were, in both treatments, similar to the numbers put on the plant initially. Our results show that the role of EBF in aphid wing induction is also apparent under field conditions and they may indicate a potential cost of EBF emission. They also emphasize the importance of investigating the ecological role of induced defences under field conditions. PMID:20585639

  12. A potent dauer pheromone component in Caenorhabditis elegans that acts synergistically with other components.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Rebecca A; Ragains, Justin R; Kim, Edward; Clardy, Jon

    2008-09-23

    In the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the dauer pheromone is the primary cue for entry into the developmentally arrested, dauer larval stage. The dauer is specialized for survival under harsh environmental conditions and is considered "nonaging" because larvae that exit dauer have a normal life span. C. elegans constitutively secretes the dauer pheromone into its environment, enabling it to sense its population density. Several components of the dauer pheromone have been identified as derivatives of the dideoxy sugar ascarylose, but additional unidentified components of the dauer pheromone contribute to its activity. Here, we show that an ascaroside with a 3-hydroxypropionate side chain is a highly potent component of the dauer pheromone that acts synergistically with previously identified components. Furthermore, we show that the active dauer pheromone components that are produced by C. elegans vary depending on cultivation conditions. Identifying the active components of the dauer pheromone, the conditions under which they are produced, and their mechanisms of action will greatly extend our understanding of how chemosensory cues from the environment can influence such fundamental processes as development, metabolism, and aging in nematodes and in higher organisms.

  13. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  14. Impact of aphid alarm pheromone release on virus transmission efficiency: When pest control strategy could induce higher virus dispersion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fang-Jing; Bosquée, Emilie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Ju-Lian; Yong, Liu; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Aphids cause serious damages to crops not only by tacking sap but also by transmitting numerous viruses. To develop biological control, the aphid alarm pheromone, namely E-β-farnesene (EβF), has been demonstrated to be efficient to repel aphids and as attract beneficials, making it a potential tool to control aphid pests. Considering aphids also as virus vectors, changes of their behavior could also interfere with the virus acquisition and transmission process. Here, a combination of two aphid species and two potato virus models were selected to test the influence of EβF release on aphid and virus dispersion under laboratory conditions. EβF release was found to significantly decrease the population of Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae around the infochemical releaser but simultaneously also increasing the dispersal of Potato Virus Y (PVY). At the opposite, no significant difference for Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) transmission efficiency was observed with similar aphid alarm pheromone releases for none of the aphid species. These results provide some support to carefully consider infochemical releasers not only for push-pull strategy and pest control but also to include viral disease in a the plant protection to aphids as they are also efficient virus vectors. Impact of aphid kinds and transmission mechanisms will be discussed according to the large variation found between persistent and non persistent potato viruses and interactions with aphids and related infochemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Constitutive emission of the aphid alarm pheromone, (E)-β-farnesene, from plants does not serve as a direct defense against aphids

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The sesquiterpene, (E)-β-farnesene (EBF), is the principal component of the alarm pheromone of many aphid species. Released when aphids are attacked by enemies, EBF leads aphids to undertake predator avoidance behaviors and to produce more winged offspring that can leave the plant. Many plants also release EBF as a volatile, and so it has been proposed that this compound could act to defend plants against aphid infestation by 1) deterring aphids from settling, 2) reducing aphid performance due to frequent interruption of feeding and 3) inducing the production of more winged offspring. Here we tested the costs and benefits of EBF as a defense against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines engineered to continuously emit EBF. Results No metabolic costs of EBF synthesis could be detected in these plants as they showed no differences in growth or seed production from wild-type controls under two fertilizer regimes. Likewise, no evidence was found for the ability of EBF to directly defend the plant against aphids. EBF emission did not significantly repel winged or wingless morphs from settling on plants. Nor did EBF reduce aphid performance, measured as reproduction, or lead to an increase in the proportion of winged offspring. Conclusions The lack of any defensive effect of EBF in this study might be due to the fact that natural enemy attack on individual aphids leads to a pulsed emission, but the transgenic lines tested continuously produce EBF to which aphids may become habituated. Thus our results provide no support for the hypothesis that plant emission of the aphid alarm pheromone EBF is a direct defense against aphids. However, there is scattered evidence elsewhere in the literature suggesting that EBF emission might serve as an indirect defense by attracting aphid predators. PMID:21092302

  16. Constitutive emission of the aphid alarm pheromone, (E)-β-farnesene, from plants does not serve as a direct defense against aphids.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Grit; Reinhold, Carolina; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2010-11-23

    The sesquiterpene, (E)-β-farnesene (EBF), is the principal component of the alarm pheromone of many aphid species. Released when aphids are attacked by enemies, EBF leads aphids to undertake predator avoidance behaviors and to produce more winged offspring that can leave the plant. Many plants also release EBF as a volatile, and so it has been proposed that this compound could act to defend plants against aphid infestation by 1) deterring aphids from settling, 2) reducing aphid performance due to frequent interruption of feeding and 3) inducing the production of more winged offspring. Here we tested the costs and benefits of EBF as a defense against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines engineered to continuously emit EBF. No metabolic costs of EBF synthesis could be detected in these plants as they showed no differences in growth or seed production from wild-type controls under two fertilizer regimes. Likewise, no evidence was found for the ability of EBF to directly defend the plant against aphids. EBF emission did not significantly repel winged or wingless morphs from settling on plants. Nor did EBF reduce aphid performance, measured as reproduction, or lead to an increase in the proportion of winged offspring. The lack of any defensive effect of EBF in this study might be due to the fact that natural enemy attack on individual aphids leads to a pulsed emission, but the transgenic lines tested continuously produce EBF to which aphids may become habituated. Thus our results provide no support for the hypothesis that plant emission of the aphid alarm pheromone EBF is a direct defense against aphids. However, there is scattered evidence elsewhere in the literature suggesting that EBF emission might serve as an indirect defense by attracting aphid predators.

  17. Alarm Pheromones and Chemical Communication in Nymphs of the Tropical Bed Bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, H. Christoph; Åbjörnsson, Kajsa; Harraca, Vincent; Knudsen, Jette T.; Wallin, Erika A.; Hedenström, Erik; Ryne, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae) and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the bio-tests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties. PMID:21479180

  18. Alarm pheromones and chemical communication in nymphs of the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Liedtke, H Christoph; Åbjörnsson, Kajsa; Harraca, Vincent; Knudsen, Jette T; Wallin, Erika A; Hedenström, Erik; Ryne, Camilla

    2011-03-30

    The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae) and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the bio-tests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties.

  19. C-type allatostatins mimic stress-related effects of alarm pheromone on honey bee learning and memory recall

    PubMed Central

    Devaud, Jean-Marc; Mercer, Alison R.

    2017-01-01

    As honey bee populations worldwide are declining there is an urgent need for a deeper understanding of stress reactivity in these important insects. Our data indicate that stress responses in bees (Apis mellifera L.) may be mediated by neuropeptides identified, on the basis of sequence similarities, as allatostatins (ASTA, ASTC and ASTCC). Effects of allatostatin injection are compared with stress-related changes in learning performance induced by the honeybee alarm pheromone, isopentylacetate (IPA). We find that bees can exhibit two markedly different responses to IPA, with opposing effects on learning behaviour and memory generalisation, and that strikingly similar responses can be elicited by allatostatins, in particular ASTCC. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that allatostatins mediate stress reactivity in honey bees and suggest responses to stress in these insects are state dependent. PMID:28323874

  20. C-type allatostatins mimic stress-related effects of alarm pheromone on honey bee learning and memory recall.

    PubMed

    Urlacher, Elodie; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Mercer, Alison R

    2017-01-01

    As honey bee populations worldwide are declining there is an urgent need for a deeper understanding of stress reactivity in these important insects. Our data indicate that stress responses in bees (Apis mellifera L.) may be mediated by neuropeptides identified, on the basis of sequence similarities, as allatostatins (ASTA, ASTC and ASTCC). Effects of allatostatin injection are compared with stress-related changes in learning performance induced by the honeybee alarm pheromone, isopentylacetate (IPA). We find that bees can exhibit two markedly different responses to IPA, with opposing effects on learning behaviour and memory generalisation, and that strikingly similar responses can be elicited by allatostatins, in particular ASTCC. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that allatostatins mediate stress reactivity in honey bees and suggest responses to stress in these insects are state dependent.

  1. Larval sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to sex pheromone components.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, M; Gehrke, P; Badeke, E; Sachse, S; Breer, H; Krieger, J

    2016-10-01

    Female-released sex pheromones orchestrate the mating behaviour of moths. Recent studies have shown that sex pheromones not only attract adult males but also caterpillars. Single sensillum recordings revealed that larval antennal sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to specific sex pheromone components. In search for the molecular basis of pheromone detection in larvae, we found that olfactory sensilla on the larval antennae are equipped with the same molecular elements that mediate sex pheromone detection in adult male moths, including the Heliothis virescens receptors 6 (HR6) and HR13, as well as sensory neurone membrane protein 1 (SNMP1). Thirty-eight olfactory sensory neurones were identified in three large sensilla basiconica; six of these are considered as candidate pheromone responsive cells based on the expression of SNMP1. The pheromone receptor HR6 was found to be expressed in two cells and the receptor HR13 in three cells. These putative pheromone responsive neurones were accompanied by cells expressing pheromone-binding protein 1 (PBP1) and PBP2. The results indicate that the responsiveness of larval sensilla to female-emitted sex pheromones is based on the same molecular machinery as in the antennae of adult males. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Sex attractant pheromone of the red-shouldered stink bug Thyanta pallidovirens: a pheromone blend with multiple redundant components.

    PubMed

    McBrien, H L; Millar, J G; Rice, R E; McElfresh, J S; Cullen, E; Zalom, F G

    2002-09-01

    The male-produced sex pheromone of the red-shouldered stink bug, Thyanta pallidovirens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) consists of a blend of methyl (E2,Z4,Z6)-decatrienoate (E2,Z4,Z6-10:COOMe), and the sesquiterpenes (+)-alpha-curcumene, (-)-zingiberene, and (-)-beta-sesquiphellandrene. In laboratory bioassays, sexually mature males attracted sexually mature females but not males, and females did not attract either sex. Extracts of volatiles collected from sexually mature males contained compounds not present in extracts from females or sexually immature males, and male-produced extract was attractive to females. Biological activity was lost when the extract was fractionated, indicating that the pheromone consisted of at least two components having different chemical properties. Individually, pheromone components were not attractive to females, but E2,Z4,Z6-10:COOMe in combination with at least one of the three male-produced sesquiterpenes was attractive. The presence of more than one sesquiterpene in the blend did not increase attraction, indicating redundancy in the pheromone signal. Male extract was as attractive as a blend reconstructed from synthesized compounds, indicating all biologically active components had been identified. In bioassays conducted at dusk in a 1- x 1- x 1-m screen field cage, females were attracted to synthetic pheromone lures. In field trials, adult female T pallidovirens were attracted to pheromone-baited traps in relatively low numbers. The profile of volatiles released by sexually mature males of a congeneric species, Thyanta accerra custator McAtee, was remarkably similar to that of male T. pallidovirens, with the exception that the former species produced (E)-2-decenal, a compound that was not found in T. pallidovirens extracts.

  3. Geometric isomers of sex pheromone components do not affect attractancy of Conopomorpha cramerella in cocoa plantations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella, has previously been identified as a blend of (E,Z,Z)- and (E,E,Z)-4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetates and the corresponding alcohols. These pheromone components have been synthesized with modification of the existing method and relative at...

  4. Role of plant volatiles and hetero-specific pheromone components in the wind tunnel response of male Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to modified sex pheromone blends.

    PubMed

    Ammagarahalli, B; Chianella, L; Gomes, P; Gemeno, C

    2017-10-01

    Female Grapholita molesta (Busck) release a pheromone blend composed of two stereoisomeric acetates (Z8-12:Ac and E8-12:Ac), which in a 100:6 ratio stimulate maximum conspecific male approach. Z8-12:OH is described as a third pheromone component that increases responses to the acetate blend. Departures from the optimal pheromone blend ratio, or too high or low pheromone doses of the optimal blend ratio, result in lower male response. In a previous study, we show that plant volatiles synergize male response to a suboptimal-low pheromone concentration. In the present study, we show that the plant blend does not synergize male response to a suboptimal-high pheromone dose. The plant blend, however, synergized male response to pheromone blends containing unnatural Z:E-acetate isomer ratios. We revisited the role of alcohols in the pheromone response of G. molesta by replacing Z8-12:OH with conspecific and heterospecific pheromone alcohols or with plant odors. Codlemone, the alcohol sex pheromone of Cydia pomonella L., E8, E10-12:OH, did supplant the role of Z8-12:OH, and so did the plant volatile blend. Dodecenol (12:OH), which has been described as a fourth pheromone component of G. molesta, also increased responses, but not as much as Z8-12:OH, codlemone or the plant blend. Our results reveal new functions for plant volatiles on moth sex pheromone response under laboratory conditions, and shed new light on the role of alcohol ingredients in the pheromone blend of G. molesta.

  5. A trail pheromone component of the ant Mayriella overbecki Viehmeyer (Formicidae: Myrmicinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, E.; Hölldobler, B.; Bestmann, H.-J.

    The myrmicine ant Mayriella overbecki lays recruitment trails during foraging and nest emigrations. The trail pheromone originates from the poison gland. From ten identified components of the poison gland secretions only methyl 6-methylsalicylate 1 elicited trail following behavior.

  6. Binding interaction between a queen pheromone component HOB and pheromone binding protein ASP1 of Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chen; Fu, Yuxia; Jiang, Hongtao; Zhuang, Shulin; Li, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    The honeybee's social behavior is closely related to the critical response to pheromone, while pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) play an important role in binding and transferring those pheromones. Here we report one known PBP, antennal special protein 1(ASP1), which has high affinity with a queen mandibular pheromone component, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB). In this study, multiple fluorescent spectra, UV absorption spectra, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and molecular docking analysis were combined to clarify the binding process. Basically, fluorescence intensity of ASP1 could be considerably quenched by HOB with an appropriate interaction distance (3.1 nm), indicating that a complex, which is more stable in lower temperature, was formed. The fact ΔH < 0, ΔS < 0, by thermodynamic analysis, indicated the van der Waals and hydrogen bond as main driving force. Moreover, synchronous fluorescence spectra and CD spectra analysis showed the change of partial hydrophilicity of ASP1 and the increase of α-helix after HOB addition. In conclusion, ASP1 can strongly and spontaneously interact with HOB. But the binding ability decreases with the rise of temperature, which may be necessary for sufficient social stability of hives. This study provides elucidation of the detailed binding mechanism and potential physicochemical basis of thermal stability to the social behavior of honeybee.

  7. Identification of Critical Secondary Components of the Sex Pheromone of the Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We identified a four-component sex pheromone blend that is as attractive to male navel orangeworm (NOW), Amyelois transitella, as hexane extracts from female pheromone glands. This blend contains Z11,Z13-16:Ald, Z11,Z13-16:OH, Z11,E13-16:OH and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z-23:H)-tricosapentaene (C23 pentaene)....

  8. Single-Component Pheromone Consisting of Bombykal in a Diurnal Hawk Moth, Neogurelca himachala sangaica.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takuya; Kitahara, Hiroshi; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Recent work has suggested that hawk moths share pheromone components but are sexually separated by qualitative and quantitative differences in their pheromone blends. During field assays on the sex pheromones of other species, a diurnal hawk moth, Neogurelca himachala sangaica (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), was frequently captured, but the composition of the sex pheromone of this species was not known. Analysis of hexane extracts of the pheromone glands of calling female by gas chromatography (GC) using an electroantennographic detector (EAD) revealed two components that elicited EAD responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified by their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns as (10E,12Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal (E10,Z12-16:Ald) and a trace of its (10E,12E)-isomer (E10,E12-16:Ald) in 98:2 ratio. In field experiments, E10,Z12-16:Ald alone attracted male moths, and addition of E10,E12-16:Ald significantly reduced the attractiveness, even at the naturally-occurring ratio. Analysis of the data using a generalized linear mixed model showed that E10,Z12-16:Ald positively contributed to attractiveness, whereas E10,E12-16:Ald did so negatively, and it was concluded that the sex pheromone of N. himachala sangaica consists solely of E10,Z12-16:Ald, bombykal. The negative effect of E10,E12-16:Ald on attractiveness could promote the species-specificity of this single-component pheromone system.

  9. Female Sex Pheromone of the Cone Moth, Dioryctria mendacella: Investigation of Synergism between Type I and Type II Pheromone Components.

    PubMed

    Hall, David R; Farman, Dudley; Domínguez, Juan C; Pajares, Juan A

    2017-05-01

    Polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (Type II pheromone components) have been reported to be synergists for unsaturated acetates, alcohols or aldehydes (Type I components) in the sex pheromones of several species of Lepidoptera. However, there is some debate over whether the active components are the hydrocarbons themselves or more volatile degradation products. Extracts of pheromone glands of adult females of the cone moth, Dioryctria mendacella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), contain (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate (ZE9,11-14:Ac) and at least ten times as much (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-pentacosapentaene (ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H). The former elicits a strong electroantennogram response from males while no response could be recorded to the latter. In field trapping tests, both compounds were individually unattractive to male D. mendacella moths, but blends of the two compounds containing at least a 10:1 ratio of ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H : ZE9,11-14:Ac were highly attractive. The relatively involatile hydrocarbon was shown to be released from the dispensers used and no significant degradation could be detected. Furthermore, blends of ZE9,11-14:Ac and analogs of ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H with fewer carbons and/or double bonds that might be expected to produce similar degradation products to ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H were unattractive. This indicated a specific response to the hydrocarbon itself, further substantiated by the observation that related hydrocarbons did not interfere with the activity of ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H. Thus a three-step conversion of fish oil was used to produce a blend of unsaturated hydrocarbons containing ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H as the major component, albeit only 30% of the total, and a blend of this material with ZE9,11-14:Ac was as attractive to male D. mendacella moths as blends with an equivalent amount of the purified material. This mixture of unsaturated hydrocarbons is much cheaper to produce than the pure pentaene, and may be useful in lures for other species

  10. Novel sex pheromone components from the fall cankerworm moth,Alsophila pometaria.

    PubMed

    Wong, J W; Palaniswamy, P; Underbill, E W; Steck, W F; Chisholm, M D

    1984-03-01

    A sex pheromone extract from fall cankerworm moths,Alsophila pometaria, attracted conspecific males in field tests. Four EAG-active components were isolated from the extract and identified by GC-MS, highfield PMR spectroscopy, and microchemical techniques asn-nonadecane (I), (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene (II), (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene (III), and (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetrane (IV). Studies of the behavioral responses of male moths in a flight tunnel to the isolated components showed II, III, and IV were the major components of the sex pheromone. No sex pheromone behavioral responses were observed for I.

  11. Tarsi of male heliothine moths contain aldehydes and butyrate esters as potential pheromone components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Noctuidae is one of the most specious moth families and contains the genera Helicoverpa and Heliothis. Their major sex pheromone component is (Z)-11-hexadecenal except for Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa gelotopoeon both of which utilize (Z)-9-hexadecenal. The minor components of heliothine ...

  12. Sex pheromone components of fall cankerworm moth,Alsophila pometaria : Synthesis and field trapping.

    PubMed

    Wong, J W; Palaniswamy, P; Underhill, E W; Steck, W F; Chisholm, M D

    1984-11-01

    (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-Nonadecatetraene and (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene, sex pheromone components ofAlsophila pometaria, were synthesized by stereoselective Wittig reactions and found to be spectroscopically and chromatographically identical to isolated natural material. Flight-tunnel bioassays and field-trapping experiments confirmed that the two tetraenes together with (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene are sex pheromone components. While traps baited with either tetraene individually captured conspecific males in field-trapping experiments, addition of the triene, which captured no males by itself, to either tetraene resulted in synergistic responses.

  13. New components of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen retinue pheromone.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Christopher I; Slessor, Keith N; Higo, Heather A; Winston, Mark L

    2003-04-15

    The honey bee queen produces pheromones that function in both releaser and primer roles such as attracting a retinue of workers around her, attracting drones on mating flights, preventing workers from reproducing at the individual (worker egg-laying) and colony (swarming) level, and regulating several other aspects of colony functioning. The queen mandibular pheromone (QMP), consisting of five synergistic components, is the only pheromone chemically identified in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen, but this pheromone does not fully duplicate the pheromonal activity of a full queen extract. To identify the remaining unknown compounds for retinue attraction, honey bee colonies were selectively bred to have low response to synthetic QMP and high response to a queen extract in a laboratory retinue bioassay. Workers from these colonies were then used in the bioassay to guide the isolation and identification of the remaining active components. Four new compounds were identified from several glandular sources that account for the majority of the difference in retinue attraction between synthetic QMP and queen extract: methyl (Z)-octadec-9-enoate (methyl oleate), (E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-prop-2-en-1-ol (coniferyl alcohol), hexadecan-1-ol, and (Z9,Z12,Z15)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic acid (linolenic acid). These compounds were inactive alone or in combination, and they only elicited attraction in the presence of QMP. There was still unidentified activity remaining in the queen extract. The queen therefore produces a synergistic, multiglandular pheromone blend of at least nine compounds for retinue attraction, the most complex pheromone blend known for inducing a single behavior in any organism.

  14. Aphid pheromones.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Pickett, John A; Hardie, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are the main insect pests of agricultural crops in temperate regions causing major economic losses. Although broad-spectrum insecticides are available for control, alternative and more targeted methods are needed due to insecticide resistance and increasing environmental pressures. An alternative control method for aphids is to exploit their pheromones, which have been extensively studied in recent years. For example, aphids release alarm pheromones in response to natural enemy attack and these could be used to deter aphids from the crops. Sex pheromones have also been identified which could be used to interfere males locating conspecific females (oviparae), as well as for manipulating natural enemies. Several hypotheses relating to how species integrity is maintained via the aphid sex pheromone have been proposed. The composition and behavioral activity of these pheromones, and how their use could be implemented in integrated pest management systems to control aphids, is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intra-annual variation in responses by flying southern pine beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to pheromone component endo-brevicomin

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan; Cavell Brownie; JoAnne P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endobrevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component...

  16. Identification of a Male-Produced Pheromone Component of the Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora chinensis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laura; Xu, Tian; Wickham, Jacob; Chen, Yi; Hao, Dejun; Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Teale, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The Asian wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is an important pest of hardwood trees in its native range, and has serious potential to invade other areas of the world through worldwide commerce in woody plants and wood products. This species already has been intercepted in North America, and is the subject of ongoing eradication efforts in several countries in Europe. Attractants such as pheromones would be immediately useful as baits in traps for its detection. Because long-range pheromones are frequently conserved among closely related species of cerambycids, we evaluated two components of the volatile pheromone produced by males of the congener A. glabripennis (Motschulsky), 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal, as potential pheromones of A. chinensis. Both compounds subsequently were detected in headspace volatiles from male A. chinensis, but not in volatiles from females. Only 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanol elicited responses from beetle antennae in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses, and this compound attracted adult A. chinensis of both sexes in field bioassays. These data suggest that 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol is an important component of the male-produced attractant pheromone of A. chinensis, which should find immediate use in quarantine monitoring for this pest.

  17. Identification of a Male-Produced Pheromone Component of the Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Laura; Xu, Tian; Wickham, Jacob; Chen, Yi; Hao, Dejun; Hanks, Lawrence M.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Teale, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is an important pest of hardwood trees in its native range, and has serious potential to invade other areas of the world through worldwide commerce in woody plants and wood products. This species already has been intercepted in North America, and is the subject of ongoing eradication efforts in several countries in Europe. Attractants such as pheromones would be immediately useful as baits in traps for its detection. Because long-range pheromones are frequently conserved among closely related species of cerambycids, we evaluated two components of the volatile pheromone produced by males of the congener A. glabripennis (Motschulsky), 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal, as potential pheromones of A. chinensis. Both compounds subsequently were detected in headspace volatiles from male A. chinensis, but not in volatiles from females. Only 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanol elicited responses from beetle antennae in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses, and this compound attracted adult A. chinensis of both sexes in field bioassays. These data suggest that 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol is an important component of the male-produced attractant pheromone of A. chinensis, which should find immediate use in quarantine monitoring for this pest. PMID:26241651

  18. Factors influencing capture of invasive sea lamprey in traps baited with a synthesized sex pheromone component

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10−12 M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20–40 %) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (<1000). Wide streams with low adult abundance may be representative of low-attraction systems for adult sea lamprey and, in the absence of other attractants (larval odor, sex pheromone), sea lamprey may have been more responsive to a partial sex pheromone blend emitted from traps. Furthermore, we found that the largest and most consistent responses to 3kPZS were during nights early in the trapping season, when water temperatures were increasing. This may have occurred because, during periods of increasing water temperatures, sea lamprey become more active and males at large may not have begun to release sex pheromone. In general, our results are consistent with those for pheromones of invertebrates, which are most effective when pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low.

  19. Factors Influencing Capture of Invasive Sea Lamprey in Traps Baited With a Synthesized Sex Pheromone Component.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-10-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10(-12) M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20-40%) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (<1000). Wide streams with low adult abundance may be representative of low-attraction systems for adult sea lamprey and, in the absence of other attractants (larval odor, sex pheromone), sea lamprey may have been more responsive to a partial sex pheromone blend emitted from traps. Furthermore, we found that the largest and most consistent responses to 3kPZS were during nights early in the trapping season, when water temperatures were increasing. This may have occurred because, during periods of increasing water temperatures, sea lamprey become more active and males at large may not have begun to release sex pheromone. In general, our results are consistent with those for pheromones of invertebrates, which are most effective when pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low.

  20. Male pheromone protein components activate female vomeronasal neurons in the salamander Plethodon shermani

    PubMed Central

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R; Houck, Lynne D; Wood, Jessica M; Feldhoff, Pamela W; Feldhoff, Richard C

    2006-01-01

    Background The mental gland pheromone of male Plethodon salamanders contains two main protein components: a 22 kDa protein named Plethodon Receptivity Factor (PRF) and a 7 kDa protein named Plethodon Modulating Factor (PMF), respectively. Each protein component individually has opposing effects on female courtship behavior, with PRF shortening and PMF lengthening courtship. In this study, we test the hypothesis that PRF or PMF individually activate vomeronasal neurons. The agmatine-uptake technique was used to visualize chemosensory neurons that were activated by each protein component individually. Results Vomeronasal neurons exposed to agmatine in saline did not demonstrate significant labeling. However, a population of vomeronasal neurons was labeled following exposure to either PRF or PMF. When expressed as a percent of control level labeled cells, PRF labeled more neurons than did PMF. These percentages for PRF and PMF, added together, parallel the percentage of labeled vomeronasal neurons when females are exposed to the whole pheromone. Conclusion This study suggests that two specific populations of female vomeronasal neurons are responsible for responding to each of the two components of the male pheromone mixture. These two neural populations, therefore, could express different receptors which, in turn, transmit different information to the brain, thus accounting for the different female behavior elicited by each pheromone component. PMID:16553953

  1. Mammalian pheromones.

    PubMed

    Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian pheromones control a myriad of innate social behaviors and acutely regulate hormone levels. Responses to pheromones are highly robust, reproducible, and stereotyped and likely involve developmentally predetermined neural circuits. Here, I review several facets of pheromone transduction in mammals, including (a) chemosensory receptors and signaling components of the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ involved in pheromone detection; (b) pheromone-activated neural circuits subject to sex-specific and state-dependent modulation; and (c) the striking chemical diversity of mammalian pheromones, which range from small, volatile molecules and sulfated steroids to large families of proteins. Finally, I review (d) molecular mechanisms underlying various behavioral and endocrine responses, including modulation of puberty and estrous; control of reproduction, aggression, suckling, and parental behaviors; individual recognition; and distinguishing of own species from predators, competitors, and prey. Deconstruction of pheromone transduction mechanisms provides a critical foundation for understanding how odor response pathways generate instinctive behaviors.

  2. Mammalian Pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian pheromones control a myriad of innate social behaviors and acutely regulate hormone levels. Responses to pheromones are highly robust, reproducible, and stereotyped and likely involve developmentally predetermined neural circuits. Here, I review several facets of pheromone transduction in mammals, including (a) chemosensory receptors and signaling components of the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ involved in pheromone detection; (b) pheromone-activated neural circuits subject to sex-specific and state-dependent modulation; and (c) the striking chemical diversity of mammalian pheromones, which range from small, volatile molecules and sulfated steroids to large families of proteins. Finally, I review (d ) molecular mechanisms underlying various behavioral and endocrine responses, including modulation of puberty and estrous; control of reproduction, aggression, suckling, and parental behaviors; individual recognition; and distinguishing of own species from predators, competitors, and prey. Deconstruction of pheromone transduction mechanisms provides a critical foundation for understanding how odor response pathways generate instinctive behaviors. PMID:23988175

  3. Specificity of the Receptor for the Major Sex Pheromone Component in Heliothis virescens

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Gissella M.; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Estes, Patricia A.; Leal, Walter S.; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the Drosophila melanogaster OR67dGAL4;UAS system was used to functionally characterize the receptor for the major component of the sex pheromone in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), HvOR13. Electrophysiological and behavioral assays showed that transgenic flies expressing HvOR13 responded to (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald). However, tests were not performed to determine whether these flies would also respond to secondary components of the H. virescens sex pheromone. Thus, in this study the response spectrum of HvOR13 expressed in this system was examined by performing single cell recordings from odor receptor neuron in trichoid T1 sensilla on antennae of two Or67dGAL4 [1]; UAS-HvOR13 lines stimulated with Z11-16:Ald and six H. virescens secondary pheromone components. Fly courtship assays were also performed to examine the behavioral response of the Or67dGAL4[1]; UAS-HvOR13 flies to Z11-16:Ald and the secondary component Z9-14:Ald. Our combined electrophysiological and behavioral studies indicated high specificity and sensitivity of HvOR13 to Z11-16:Ald. Interestingly, a mutation leading to truncation in the HvOR13 C-terminal region affected but did not abolish pheromone receptor response to Z11-16:Ald. The findings are assessed in relationship to other HvOR13 heterologous expression studies, and the role of the C-terminal domain in receptor function is discussed. A third line expressing HvOR15 was also tested but did not respond to any of the seven pheromone components. PMID:24773407

  4. SNMP is a signaling component required for pheromone sensitivity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Ha, Tal Soo; Smith, Dean P

    2008-08-05

    The only known volatile pheromone in Drosophila, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA), mediates a variety of behaviors including aggregation, mate recognition, and sexual behavior. cVA is detected by a small set of olfactory neurons located in T1 trichoid sensilla on the antennae of males and females. Two components known to be required for cVA reception are the odorant receptor Or67d and the extracellular pheromone-binding protein LUSH. Using a genetic screen for cVA-insensitive mutants, we have identified a third component required for cVA reception: sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMP). SNMP is a homolog of CD36, a scavenger receptor important for lipoprotein binding and uptake of cholesterol and lipids in vertebrates. In humans, loss of CD36 is linked to a wide range of disorders including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis, but how CD36 functions in lipid transport and signal transduction is poorly understood. We show that SNMP is required in pheromone-sensitive neurons for cVA sensitivity but is not required for sensitivity to general odorants. Using antiserum to SNMP infused directly into the sensillum lymph, we show that SNMP function is required on the dendrites of cVA-sensitive neurons; this finding is consistent with a direct role in cVA signal transduction. Therefore, pheromone perception in Drosophila should serve as an excellent model to elucidate the role of CD36 members in transmembrane signaling.

  5. Isolation and biological activity of the multi-component sea lamprey migratory pheromone.

    PubMed

    Fine, Jared M; Sorensen, Peter W

    2008-10-01

    Migratory adult sea lampreys locate spawning streams by using a pheromone released by stream-resident conspecific larvae. It was recently reported that this pheromone is comprised of a mixture of three sulfated steroids: petromyzonamine disulfate (PADS), petromyzosterol disulfate (PSDS), and petromyzonol sulfate (PS). This manuscript reports in-depth details of pheromone isolation and provides new information on the olfactory potency of PADS and PSDS and the behavioral activity of synthesized PADS. Isolation was accomplished using bioassay-guided fractionation which included liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, electro-olfactogram recording (EOG), and behavioral assays. Both highly purified and synthesized PADS stimulated the olfactory system of adult lamprey and were attractive at concentrations of 10(-13) M. PSDS also had olfactory activity at 10(-13) M. Cross-adaptation studies with EOG recording demonstrated that PADS, PSDS, and PS are detected by independent olfactory receptor sites. Finally, the mixture of all three components was as attractive as larval water to adult sea lampreys in laboratory mazes. It is believed that these steroids are the principal components of the pheromone.

  6. Olfactory perception and behavioral effects of sex pheromone gland components in Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Guo, Hao; Hou, Chao; Wu, Han; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Two sympatric species Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta use (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal as sex pheromone components in reverse ratio. They also share several other pheromone gland components (PGCs). We present a comparative study on the olfactory coding mechanism and behavioral effects of these additional PGCs in pheromone communication of the two species using single sensillum recording, in situ hybridization, calcium imaging, and wind tunnel. We classify antennal sensilla types A, B and C into A, B1, B2, C1, C2 and C3 based on the response profiles, and identify the glomeruli responsible for antagonist detection in both species. The abundance of these sensilla types when compared with the number of OSNs expressing each of six pheromone receptors suggests that HarmOR13 and HassOR13 are expressed in OSNs housed within A type sensilla, HarmOR14b within B and C type sensilla, while HassOR6 and HassOR16 within some of C type sensilla. We find that for H. armigera, (Z)-11-hexadecenol and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate act as behavioral antagonists. For H. assulta, instead, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate acts as an agonist, while (Z)-9-hexadecenol, (Z)-11-hexadecenol and (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate are antagonists. The results provide an overall picture of intra- and interspecific olfactory and behavioral responses to all PGCs in two sister species. PMID:26975244

  7. Identification of sex pheromone components of the pea midge, Contarinia pisi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter; Arn, Heinrich; Bengtsson, Marie; Löfqvist, Jan; Biddle, Anthony J.; Smitt, Olof; Högberg, Hans-Erik; Plass, Ernst; Franke, Stephan; Francke, Wittko

    Three components in extract of pheromone glands of female pea midges, Contarinia pisi, were found to be active on male pea midge antennae by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection. The EAD active components were identified as 2-acetoxytridecane, (2S,11S)-diacetoxytridecane, and (2S,12S)-diacetoxytridecane. A blend of these compounds proved to be highly attractive to males in windtunnel experiments.

  8. A receptor and binding protein interplay in the detection of a distinct pheromone component in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Forstner, Maike; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

    2009-12-03

    Male moths respond to conspecific female-released pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and specificity, due to highly specialized chemosensory neurons in their antennae. In Antheraea silkmoths, three types of sensory neurons have been described, each responsive to one of three pheromone components. Since also three different pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) have been identified, the antenna of Antheraea seems to provide a unique model system for detailed analyzes of the interplay between the various elements underlying pheromone reception. Efforts to identify pheromone receptors of Antheraea polyphemus have led to the identification of a candidate pheromone receptor (ApolOR1). This receptor was found predominantly expressed in male antennae, specifically in neurons located beneath pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea. The ApolOR1-expressing cells were found to be surrounded by supporting cells co-expressing all three ApolPBPs. The response spectrum of ApolOR1 was assessed by means of calcium imaging using HEK293-cells stably expressing the receptor. It was found that at nanomolar concentrations ApolOR1-cells responded to all three pheromones when the compounds were solubilized by DMSO and also when DMSO was substituted by one of the three PBPs. However, at picomolar concentrations, cells responded only in the presence of the subtype ApolPBP2 and the pheromone (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. These results are indicative of a specific interplay of a distinct pheromone component with an appropriate binding protein and its related receptor subtype, which may be considered as basis for the remarkable sensitivity and specificity of the pheromone detection system.

  9. Biosynthesis of Unusual Moth Pheromone Components Involves Two Different Pathways in the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Zhao, Cheng-Hua; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Cardé, Ring T.

    2010-01-01

    The sex pheromone of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), consists of two different types of components, one type including (11Z,13Z)-11,13-hexadecadienal (11Z,13Z-16:Ald) with a terminal functional group containing oxygen, similar to the majority of moth pheromones reported, and another type including the unusual long-chain pentaenes, (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-3,6,9,12,15-tricosapentaene (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z-23:H) and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)- 3,6,9,12,15-pentacosapentaene (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z-25:H). After decapitation of females, the titer of 11Z,13Z-16:Ald in the pheromone gland decreased significantly, whereas the titer of the pentaenes remained unchanged. Injection of a pheromone biosynthesis activating peptide (PBAN) into the abdomens of decapitated females restored the titer of 11Z,13Z-16:Ald and even increased it above that in intact females, whereas the titer of the pentaenes in the pheromone gland was not affected by PBAN injection. In addition to common fatty acids, two likely precursors of 11Z,13Z-16:Ald, i.e., (Z)-11-hexadecenoic and (11Z,13Z)-11,13-hexadecadienoic acid, as well as traces of (Z)-6-hexadecenoic acid, were found in gland extracts. In addition, pheromone gland lipids contained (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-5,8,11,14,17-icosapentaenoic acid, which also was found in extracts of the rest of the abdomen. Deuterium-labeled fatty acids, (16,16,16-D3)-hexadecanoic acid and (Z)-[13,13,14,14,15,15,16,16,16-D9]-11-hexadecenoic acid, were incorporated into 11Z,13Z-16:Ald after topical application to the sex pheromone gland coupled with abdominal injection of PBAN. Deuterium label was incorporated into the C23 and C25 pentaenes after injection of (9Z,12Z,15Z)- [17,17,18,18,18-D5]-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid into 1–2 d old female pupae. These labeling results, in conjunction with the composition of fatty acid intermediates found in pheromone gland extracts, support different pathways leading to the two pheromone components. 11Z,13Z-16

  10. Field evaluation of larval odor and mixtures of synthetic pheromone components for attracting migrating sea lampreys in rivers.

    PubMed

    Meckley, Trevor D; Wagner, C Michael; Luehring, Mark A

    2012-08-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is a harmful invader of the Laurentian Great Lakes. The odor emitted by larval lampreys resident to streams attracts migrating adults to high quality spawning habitats. Three components of the larval pheromone have been identified and tested in laboratory settings: petromyzonol sulfate, petromyzosterol disulfate, and petromyzonamine disulfate. Here, we report the first field test of six mixtures of synthetic versions of these pheromone components, and we compare lamprey responses to these with those elicited by the complete larval odor in a natural stream. Exposure to larval odor both increased upstream movement and attracted migrants into the portion of a channel containing the odor. No tested combination of synthetic pheromone components proved similarly attractive. These findings suggest the existence of unknown additional components of the pheromone that await discovery and are likely necessary if the pheromone is to be useful in management of this pest. Further, we hypothesize that the complete pheromone mixture is necessary to attract migrants into spawning habitat at the conclusion of the migration, whereas a partial pheromone may be effective at the transition from lake to stream when natural factors both dilute and alter the ratio of components from that actually emitted by sea lamprey larvae.

  11. Sex pheromone components ofEuxoa drewseni Chemical identification, electrophysiological evaluation, and field attractancy tests.

    PubMed

    Struble, D L

    1983-03-01

    Eleven compounds structurally similar to known lepidopterous pheromone components were identified in the extract from 18 calling female moths ofEuxoa drewseni (Staudinger). The identifications were done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization and electroantennographic detectors simultaneously. Detector antennae were from five species of moths. In the field, male moths were specifically attracted to a three-component blend of dodecyl, (Z)-5-dodecenyl, and (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetates in a ratio of 2∶6∶1. This blend at 1000 μg/rubber septum dispenser is recommended as a trap bait for monitoring purposes. Low concentrations of (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate or (Z)-7-tetradecenol inhibited the attraction of moths to the three-component blend. (Z)-7-Pentadecenyl acetate functioned as a parapheromone in place of (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetate in the pheromone blend, and they appear to react via the same antennal receptor.

  12. Antennal olfactory responsiveness of the Texas leaf cutting ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to trail pheromone and its two alarm substances

    Treesearch

    N.A. Andryszak; Thomas L. Payne; J.C. Dickens; John C. Moser; R.W. Fisher

    1990-01-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from major workers, queens, and males of the Texas leaf cutting, Atta texana (Buckley) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in response to serial dilutions of two alarm substances, 2-heptanone and 4-methyl-3-heptanone, and its trial phermone, 4-methylpyrrole-2-carbonxylate. The lower EAG threshold for major workers...

  13. Multiple functions of a multi-component mating pheromone in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, N.S.; Yun, S.-S.; Buchinger, T.J.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the C24 sulphate in the mating pheromone component, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulphate (3kPZS), to specifically induce upstream movement in ovulated female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus was investigated. 7α,12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-oic acid (3kACA), a structurally similar bile acid released by spermiated males, but lacking the C24 sulphate ester, was tested in bioassays at concentrations between 10−11 and 10−14 molar (M). 3kACA did not induce upstream movement in females or additional reproductive behaviours. In contrast, spermiated male washings induced upstream movement, prolonged retention on a nest and induced an array of nesting behaviours. Differential extraction and elution by solid-phase extraction resins showed that components other than 3kPZS + 3kACA are necessary to retain females on nests and induce nest cleaning behaviours. All pheromone components, including components in addition to 3kPZS + 3kACA that retain females and induce nest cleaning behaviours were released from the anterior region of the males, as had been reported for 3kPZS. It is concluded that the sea lamprey male mating pheromone has multiple functions and is composed of multiple components.

  14. The nature of alarm communication in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae): the integration of chemical and vibroacoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Cristaldo, Paulo F; Jandák, Vojtĕch; Kutalová, Kateřina; Rodrigues, Vinícius B; Brothánek, Marek; Jiříček, Ondřej; DeSouza, Og; Šobotník, Jan

    2015-11-04

    Alarm signalling is of paramount importance to communication in all social insects. In termites, vibroacoustic and chemical alarm signalling are bound to operate synergistically but have never been studied simultaneously in a single species. Here, we inspected the functional significance of both communication channels in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae), confirming the hypothesis that these are not exclusive, but rather complementary processes. In natural situations, the alarm predominantly attracts soldiers, which actively search for the source of a disturbance. Laboratory testing revealed that the frontal gland of soldiers produces a rich mixture of terpenoid compounds including an alarm pheromone. Extensive testing led to identification of the alarm pheromone being composed of abundant monoterpene hydrocarbons (1S)-α-pinene and myrcene, along with a minor component, (E)-β-ocimene. The vibratory alarm signalling consists of vibratory movements evidenced as bursts; a series of beats produced predominantly by soldiers. Exposing termite groups to various mixtures containing the alarm pheromone (crushed soldier heads, frontal gland extracts, mixture of all monoterpenes, and the alarm pheromone mixture made of standards) resulted in significantly higher activity in the tested groups and also increased intensity of the vibratory alarm communication, with the responses clearly dose-dependent. Lower doses of the pheromone provoked higher numbers of vibratory signals compared to higher doses. Higher doses induced long-term running of all termites without stops necessary to perform vibratory behaviour. Surprisingly, even crushed worker heads led to low (but significant) increases in the alarm responses, suggesting that other unknown compound in the worker's head is perceived and answered by termites. Our results demonstrate the existence of different alarm levels in termites, with lower levels being communicated through vibratory signals, and

  15. The nature of alarm communication in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae): the integration of chemical and vibroacoustic signals

    PubMed Central

    Cristaldo, Paulo F.; Jandák, Vojtĕch; Kutalová, Kateřina; Rodrigues, Vinícius B.; Brothánek, Marek; Jiříček, Ondřej; DeSouza, Og; Šobotník, Jan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alarm signalling is of paramount importance to communication in all social insects. In termites, vibroacoustic and chemical alarm signalling are bound to operate synergistically but have never been studied simultaneously in a single species. Here, we inspected the functional significance of both communication channels in Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae), confirming the hypothesis that these are not exclusive, but rather complementary processes. In natural situations, the alarm predominantly attracts soldiers, which actively search for the source of a disturbance. Laboratory testing revealed that the frontal gland of soldiers produces a rich mixture of terpenoid compounds including an alarm pheromone. Extensive testing led to identification of the alarm pheromone being composed of abundant monoterpene hydrocarbons (1S)-α-pinene and myrcene, along with a minor component, (E)-β-ocimene. The vibratory alarm signalling consists of vibratory movements evidenced as bursts; a series of beats produced predominantly by soldiers. Exposing termite groups to various mixtures containing the alarm pheromone (crushed soldier heads, frontal gland extracts, mixture of all monoterpenes, and the alarm pheromone mixture made of standards) resulted in significantly higher activity in the tested groups and also increased intensity of the vibratory alarm communication, with the responses clearly dose-dependent. Lower doses of the pheromone provoked higher numbers of vibratory signals compared to higher doses. Higher doses induced long-term running of all termites without stops necessary to perform vibratory behaviour. Surprisingly, even crushed worker heads led to low (but significant) increases in the alarm responses, suggesting that other unknown compound in the worker's head is perceived and answered by termites. Our results demonstrate the existence of different alarm levels in termites, with lower levels being communicated through vibratory

  16. Competition-Based Model of Pheromone Component Ratio Detection in the Moth

    PubMed Central

    Zavada, Andrei; Buckley, Christopher L.; Martinez, Dominique; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Nowotny, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    For some moth species, especially those closely interrelated and sympatric, recognizing a specific pheromone component concentration ratio is essential for males to successfully locate conspecific females. We propose and determine the properties of a minimalist competition-based feed-forward neuronal model capable of detecting a certain ratio of pheromone components independently of overall concentration. This model represents an elementary recognition unit for the ratio of binary mixtures which we propose is entirely contained in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of the male moth. A set of such units, along with projection neurons (PNs), can provide the input to higher brain centres. We found that (1) accuracy is mainly achieved by maintaining a certain ratio of connection strengths between olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) and local neurons (LN), much less by properties of the interconnections between the competing LNs proper. An exception to this rule is that it is beneficial if connections between generalist LNs (i.e. excited by either pheromone component) and specialist LNs (i.e. excited by one component only) have the same strength as the reciprocal specialist to generalist connections. (2) successful ratio recognition is achieved using latency-to-first-spike in the LN populations which, in contrast to expectations with a population rate code, leads to a broadening of responses for higher overall concentrations consistent with experimental observations. (3) when longer durations of the competition between LNs were observed it did not lead to higher recognition accuracy. PMID:21373177

  17. Nectar Attracts Foraging Honey Bees with Components of Their Queen Pheromones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fanglin; Gao, Jie; Di, Nayan; Adler, Lynn S

    2015-11-01

    Floral nectar often contains chemicals that are deterrent to pollinators, presenting potential challenges to outcrossing plant species. Plants may be able to co-opt pollinator chemical signals to mitigate the negative effects of nectar deterrent compounds on pollination services. We found that buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) produce nectar with abundant phenolics, including three components of the Apis honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). In addition, these nectars contain a non-pheromonal phenolic, chlorogenic acid (CA), which was toxic to honeybees, and T. diversifolia nectar also contained isochlorogenic acid (IA). Fresh nectar or solutions containing nectar phenolics reduced Apis individual feeding compared to sucrose solutions. However, freely foraging bees preferred solutions with QMP components to control solutions, and QMP components over-rode or reversed avoidance of CA and IA. Furthermore, prior exposure to the presence or just the odor of QMP components removed the deterrent effects of CA and IA. By mimicking the honey bee pheromone blend, nectar may maintain pollinator attraction in spite of deterrent nectar compounds.

  18. Contact sex pheromone components of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus analis (F.).

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Kenji; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Yajima, Arata; Mimura, Takanori; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ohsawa, Kanju

    2010-09-01

    Callosobruchus analis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), found throughout tropical Asia and Africa, is a pest of stored legumes. Previous work has shown that females of this species produce a contact sex pheromone that elicits copulatory behavior in males. Comparisons of copulatory activity between any two of four congeneric species suggest that the contact sex pheromones are species specific. In laboratory bioassays, male C. analis exhibited copulatory behavior to a female dummy to which a crude extract of virgin females was applied. The extract had been collected by a filter paper method and was purified by acid-base partition and chromatographic techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of active fractions revealed that the active compounds were 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid (1) and callosobruchusic acid, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2-octene-1,8-dioic acid (2), previously identified as contact sex pheromones of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and C. chinensis (L.), respectively. The stereoisomeric and chemical compositions were determined by the 2D-HPLC-Ohrui-Akasaka method as (2S,6R)-1:(S)-2=1.8:1, which meant that both compounds in C. analis were stereochemically pure, unlike the case of C. maculatus and C. chinensis. An examination of the influence of synthetic pheromone compounds on male copulatory activity revealed that (2S,6R)-1 is the main component, and that (S)-2 has an additive effect. In the examination of the stereochemistry-activity relationship, no copulatory behavior was elicited by (2R,6S)-1, and, furthermore, the enantiomer significantly masked the pheromonal activity of (2S,6R)-1. Glass rod dummy assays also suggested the presence of synergists. These results could elucidate the specificity of mate recognition in C. analis.

  19. Tarsi of Male Heliothine Moths Contain Aldehydes and Butyrate Esters as Potential Pheromone Components.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Park, Kye-Chung; Meer, Robert Vander; Cardé, Ring T; Jurenka, Russell

    2016-05-01

    The Noctuidae are one of the most speciose moth families and include the genera Helicoverpa and Heliothis. Females use (Z)-11-hexadecenal as the major component of their sex pheromones except for Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa gelotopoeon, both of which utilize (Z)-9-hexadecenal. The minor compounds found in heliothine sex pheromone glands vary with species, but hexadecanal has been found in the pheromone gland of almost all heliothine females so far investigated. In this study, we found a large amount (0.5-1.5 μg) of hexadecanal and octadecanal on the legs of males of four heliothine species, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa armigera, H. assulta, and Heliothis virescens. The hexadecanal was found on and released from the tarsi, and was in much lower levels or not detected on the remaining parts of the leg (tibia, femur, trochanter, and coxa). Lower amounts (0.05-0.5 μg) of hexadecanal were found on female tarsi. This is the first known sex pheromone compound to be identified from the legs of nocturnal moths. Large amounts of butyrate esters (about 16 μg) also were found on tarsi of males with lower amounts on female tarsi. Males deposited the butyrate esters while walking on a glass surface. Decapitation did not reduce the levels of hexadecanal on the tarsi of H. zea males, indicating that hexadecanal production is not under the same neuroendocrine regulation system as the production of female sex pheromone. Based on electroantennogram studies, female antennae had a relatively high response to hexadecanal compared to male antennae. We consider the possible role of aldehydes and butyrate esters as courtship signals in heliothine moths.

  20. Bed-exit alarms. A component (but only a component) of fall prevention.

    PubMed

    2004-05-01

    Patient falls are a common cause of morbidity, nonfatal injuries, and trauma-related hospitalizations in the United States. Sometimes, they're even fatal. Falls typically occur either while the patient is getting into or out of bed or shortly after the patient has exited the bed. One means of helping to reduce the number of patient falls is the bed-exit alarm. Such alarms can be either built-in devices incorporated into the beds themselves or stand-alone units consisting of a portable control unit and a pressure- or position-sensitive sensor. They can serve as an "early warning system" alerting nursing staff when patients attempt to leave their beds unassisted. However, bed-exit alarms do not themselves prevent falls--a fact that is not always clearly understood. To be effective, they need to be implemented with care and with a clear understanding of their limitations. In this article, we describe the types of stand-alone bed-exit alarms currently available on the market and provide guidance to facilities on how to implement them effectively. We also review the elements of an effective fall-prevention program and recount one hospital's success in reducing patient falls. We are in the process of conducting a comparative evaluation of a number of bed-exit alarms, which will be published in an upcoming issue of Health Devices.

  1. Male meliponine bees (Scaptotrigona aff. depilis) produce alarm pheromones to which workers respond with fight and males with flight.

    PubMed

    Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P

    2016-10-01

    In highly social hymenopteran societies, males mainly serve reproductive purposes. Semiochemicals enable the different hymenopteran sexes and castes to communicate with each other and to coordinate important functions within colonies. I hereby show that sexual dimorphism in meliponine bees incorporates the alarm and defence communication system. I chemically analysed the mandibular glands of Scaptotrigona aff. depilis using GCMS methods and conducted behavioural experiments in both males and female workers using cephalic and mandibular gland extracts. In addition, behaviour studies with male cephalic extracts were also conducted in Scaptotrigona bipunctata and Partamona cupira. Males and female worker bees showed differences in the content of the mandibular glands, which are responsible for alarm communication in meliponines. Males never attacked but usually fled when confronted with the mandibular gland extract content of other conspecific males or females. Interestingly, however, meliponine males were still able to raise alarm and to induce substantial amounts of aggression at nest entrances, which is different from the much better known and studied honey bees. Potential reasons are briefly discussed.

  2. Degradation of pheromone and plant volatile components by a same odorant-degrading enzyme in the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Durand, Nicolas; Carot-Sans, Gerard; Bozzolan, Françoise; Rosell, Gloria; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Chertemps, Thomas; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Odorant-Degrading Enzymes (ODEs) are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly removing odorant molecules from the vicinity of the olfactory receptors. Only three ODEs have been both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized: two were specialized in the degradation of pheromone compounds and the last one was shown to degrade a plant odorant. Previous work has shown that the antennae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a worldwide pest of agricultural crops, express numerous candidate ODEs. We focused on an esterase overexpressed in males antennae, namely SlCXE7. We studied its expression patterns and tested its catalytic properties towards three odorants, i.e. the two female sex pheromone components and a green leaf volatile emitted by host plants. SlCXE7 expression was concomitant during development with male responsiveness to odorants and during adult scotophase with the period of male most active sexual behaviour. Furthermore, SlCXE7 transcription could be induced by male exposure to the main pheromone component, suggesting a role of Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme. Interestingly, recombinant SlCXE7 was able to efficiently hydrolyze the pheromone compounds but also the plant volatile, with a higher affinity for the pheromone than for the plant compound. In male antennae, SlCXE7 expression was associated with both long and short sensilla, tuned to sex pheromones or plant odours, respectively. Our results thus suggested that a same ODE could have a dual function depending of it sensillar localisation. Within the pheromone-sensitive sensilla, SlCXE7 may play a role in pheromone signal termination and in reduction of odorant background noise, whereas it could be involved in plant odorant inactivation within the short sensilla. © 2011 Durand et al.

  3. Degradation of Pheromone and Plant Volatile Components by a Same Odorant-Degrading Enzyme in the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Nicolas; Carot-Sans, Gerard; Bozzolan, Françoise; Rosell, Gloria; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Chertemps, Thomas; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Background Odorant-Degrading Enzymes (ODEs) are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly removing odorant molecules from the vicinity of the olfactory receptors. Only three ODEs have been both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized: two were specialized in the degradation of pheromone compounds and the last one was shown to degrade a plant odorant. Methodology Previous work has shown that the antennae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a worldwide pest of agricultural crops, express numerous candidate ODEs. We focused on an esterase overexpressed in males antennae, namely SlCXE7. We studied its expression patterns and tested its catalytic properties towards three odorants, i.e. the two female sex pheromone components and a green leaf volatile emitted by host plants. Conclusion SlCXE7 expression was concomitant during development with male responsiveness to odorants and during adult scotophase with the period of male most active sexual behaviour. Furthermore, SlCXE7 transcription could be induced by male exposure to the main pheromone component, suggesting a role of Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme. Interestingly, recombinant SlCXE7 was able to efficiently hydrolyze the pheromone compounds but also the plant volatile, with a higher affinity for the pheromone than for the plant compound. In male antennae, SlCXE7 expression was associated with both long and short sensilla, tuned to sex pheromones or plant odours, respectively. Our results thus suggested that a same ODE could have a dual function depending of it sensillar localisation. Within the pheromone-sensitive sensilla, SlCXE7 may play a role in pheromone signal termination and in reduction of odorant background noise, whereas it could be involved in plant odorant inactivation within the short sensilla. PMID:22216190

  4. Identification and Behavioral Evaluation of Sex Pheromone Components of the Chinese Pine Caterpillar Moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang-Bo; Liu, Kui-Wei; Wang, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Su-Fang; Zhang, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Background The Chinese pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai and Liu (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is the most important defoliator of coniferous trees in northern China. Outbreaks occur over enormous areas and often lead to the death of forests during 2–3 successive years of defoliation. The sex pheromone of D. tabulaeformis was investigated to define its chemistry and behavioral activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Sex pheromone was collected from calling female D. tabulaeformis by headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) and by solvent extraction of pheromone glands. Extracts were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), using antennae from male moths. Five components from the extracts elicited antennal responses. These compounds were identified by a combination of retention indices, electron impact mass spectral matches, and derivatization as (Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate (Z5-12:OAc), (Z)-5-dodecenyl alcohol (Z5-12:OH), (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,E7-12:OAc), (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl propionate (Z5,E7-12:OPr), and (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (Z5,E7-12:OH). Behavioral assays showed that male D. tabulaeformis strongly discriminated against incomplete and aberrant blend ratios. The correct ratio of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,E7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr was essential for optimal upwind flight and source contact. The two monoenes, Z5-12:OAc and Z5-12:OH, alone or binary mixtures, had no effect on behavioral responses when added to the optimal three-component blend. Conclusions/Significance The fact that deviations from the optimal ratio of 100∶100∶4.5 of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,EZ7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr resulted in marked decreases in male responses suggests that biosynthesis of the pheromone components is precisely controlled. The optimal blend of the sex pheromone components of D. tabulaeformis worked out in this study should find immediate use in monitoring this

  5. Trail communication regulated by two trail pheromone components in the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki).

    PubMed

    Wen, Ping; Ji, Bao-Zhong; Sillam-Dussès, David

    2014-01-01

    The eusocial termites are well accomplished in chemical communication, but how they achieve the communication using trace amount of no more than two pheromone components is mostly unknown. In this study, the foraging process and trail pheromones of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) were systematically studied and monitored in real-time using a combination of techniques, including video analysis, solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography coupled with either mass spectrometry or an electroantennographic detector, and bioassays. The trail pheromone components in foraging workers were (3Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol and (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol secreted by their sternal glands. Interestingly, ratio of the two components changed according to the behaviors that the termites were displaying. This situation only occurs in termites whereas ratios of pheromone components are fixed and species-specific for other insect cuticular glands. Moreover, in bioassays, the active thresholds of the two components ranged from 1 fg/cm to 10 pg/cm according to the behavioral contexts or the pheromonal exposure of tested workers. The two components did not act in synergy. (3Z)-Dodec-3-en-1-ol induced orientation behavior of termites that explore their environment, whereas (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol had both an orientation effect and a recruitment effect when food was discovered. The trail pheromone of O. formosanus was regulated both quantitatively by the increasing number of workers involved in the early phases of foraging process, and qualitatively by the change in ratio of the two pheromone components on sternal glandular cuticle in the food-collecting workers. In bioassays, the responses of workers to the pheromone were also affected by the variation in pheromone concentration and component ratio in the microenvironment. Thus, this termite could exchange more information with nestmates using the traces of the two trail pheromone components that can be easily

  6. Trail Communication Regulated by Two Trail Pheromone Components in the Fungus-Growing Termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki)

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ping; Ji, Bao-Zhong; Sillam-Dussès, David

    2014-01-01

    The eusocial termites are well accomplished in chemical communication, but how they achieve the communication using trace amount of no more than two pheromone components is mostly unknown. In this study, the foraging process and trail pheromones of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) were systematically studied and monitored in real-time using a combination of techniques, including video analysis, solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography coupled with either mass spectrometry or an electroantennographic detector, and bioassays. The trail pheromone components in foraging workers were (3Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol and (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol secreted by their sternal glands. Interestingly, ratio of the two components changed according to the behaviors that the termites were displaying. This situation only occurs in termites whereas ratios of pheromone components are fixed and species-specific for other insect cuticular glands. Moreover, in bioassays, the active thresholds of the two components ranged from 1 fg/cm to 10 pg/cm according to the behavioral contexts or the pheromonal exposure of tested workers. The two components did not act in synergy. (3Z)-Dodec-3-en-1-ol induced orientation behavior of termites that explore their environment, whereas (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol had both an orientation effect and a recruitment effect when food was discovered. The trail pheromone of O. formosanus was regulated both quantitatively by the increasing number of workers involved in the early phases of foraging process, and qualitatively by the change in ratio of the two pheromone components on sternal glandular cuticle in the food-collecting workers. In bioassays, the responses of workers to the pheromone were also affected by the variation in pheromone concentration and component ratio in the microenvironment. Thus, this termite could exchange more information with nestmates using the traces of the two trail pheromone components that can be easily

  7. Effect of Male House Mouse Pheromone Components on Behavioral Responses of Mice in Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Musso, Antonia E; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Takács, Stephen; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-03-01

    Urine of male house mice, Mus musculus, is known to have primer pheromone effects on the reproductive physiology of female mice. Urine-mediated releaser pheromone effects that trigger certain behavioral responses are much less understood, and no field studies have investigated whether urine deposits by male or female mice, or synthetic mouse pheromone, increase trap captures of mice. In field experiments, we baited traps with bedding soiled with urine and feces of caged female or male mice, and recorded captures of mice in these and in control traps containing clean bedding. Traps baited with female bedding preferentially captured adult males, whereas traps baited with male bedding preferentially captured juvenile and adult females, indicating the presence of male- and female-specific sex pheromones in soiled bedding. Analyses of headspace volatiles emanating from soiled bedding by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that 3,4-dehydro-exo-brevicomin (DEB) was seven times more prevalent in male bedding and that 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (DHT) was male-specific. In a follow-up field experiment, traps baited with DEB and DHT captured 4 times more female mice than corresponding control traps, thus indicating that DEB and DHT are sex attractant pheromone components of house mouse males. Our study provides impetus to identify the sex attractant pheromone of female mice, and to develop synthetic mouse pheromone as a lure to enhance the efficacy of trapping programs for mouse control.

  8. Saproxylic community, guild and species responses to varying pheromone components of a pine bark beetle.

    PubMed

    Etxebeste, Iñaki; Lencina, José L; Pajares, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Some bark beetle species (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) produce aggregation pheromones that allow coordinated attack on their conifer hosts. As a new saproxylic habitat is founded, an assemblage of associated beetles kairomonally respond to bark beetle infochemicals. Ips sexdentatus is one of the major damaging insects of Pinus spp. in Southern Europe. Its response to varying ipsenol (Ie) percentages in relation to ipsdienol (Id) was studied in northwestern Spain, along with the entire saproxylic beetle assemblage captured at multiple-funnel traps. Response profile modeling was undertaken for I. sexdentatus sexes and sex-ratios, associated species and for selected trophic groups using a reference Gaussian model. In addition, the effects on the saproxylic assemblages were analyzed. I. sexdentatus response curve peaked at 22.7% Ie content, while remaining taxa that could be modeled, peaked above ca. 40% Ie. Predator guilds showed a linear relationship with Ie proportion, while competitors showed a delayed response peak. Consequently, species assemblages differed markedly between varying pheromone component mixtures. Given that the evaluated pheromonal proportions mimicked that of logs being colonized by I. sexdentatus, results suggested that the registered differential responses at different levels might provide I. sexdentatus with a temporal window that maximizes conspecific attraction while reducing interference with competitor and predatory guilds. Described responses might help improve the monitoring of the population status of target bark beetles and their associates, but also point toward the by-catch of many natural enemies, as well as rare saproxylic beetle species, interfering with the aims of sustainable forest management.

  9. Identification of sex pheromone components of blueberry spanworm Itame argillacearia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    De Silva, E C A; Silk, P J; Mayo, P; Hillier, N K; Magee, D; Cutler, G C

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry spanworm, Itame argillacearia (Packard), is an important defoliator of lowbush (syn. 'wild') blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton, in north-eastern North America. The goal of the present study was to identify the female I. argillacearia sex pheromone, which could be used in traps for monitoring or mass-trapping this pest. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and electroantennogram (EAG) recordings of sex pheromone gland extracts, in combination with chemical synthesis, a Y-tube olfactometer study and field experiments confirmed (2R,3S)-2-ethyl-3-((Z,Z)-tridecadi-2,5-enyl) oxirane (hereafter (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene) and (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-heptadecatriene as female-produced sex pheromone components. (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-Epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene elicited a response from male I. argillacearia antennae during EAG recording, and in the Y-tube olfactometer tests males did not discriminate between a live female and (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene. Field-trapping experiments showed that a blend of (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene and (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-heptadecatriene was more attractive to male moths than (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene alone.

  10. Novel components of the sex pheromones produced by emerald moths: identification, synthesis, and field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Rei; Do, Nguyen Duc; Kinjo, Masakatsu; Terashima, Yoshie; Ando, Tetsu

    2011-01-01

    The subfamily Geometrinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) includes many species called emerald moths. Based on our recent finding of novel polyenyl compounds, including a double bond at the 12-position from two geometrine species, Hemithea tritonaria and Thalassodes immissaria intaminata, (6Z,9Z,12Z)-6,9,12-trienes and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z)-3,6,9,12-tetraenes with a C(17)-C(20) straight chain were synthesized and analyzed by GC-MS. The 6,9,12-trienes, which were prepared by a double Wittig reaction between two alkanals and an ylide derived from (Z)-1,6-diiodo-3-hexene, characteristically produced fragment ions at m/z 79, 150, and M-98. The 3,6,9,12-tetraenes, which were prepared by a coupling between (Z)-3-alkenal and an ylide derived from (3Z,6Z)-1-iodo-3,6-nonadiene, showed fragment ions at m/z 79, 148, and M-96. These diagnostic ions were useful to distinguish these compounds from other known polyenyl pheromones, such as 4,6,9- and 6,9,11-trienes and 1,3,6,9-tetraenes. With reference to the GC-MS data, pheromone extracts of other species in Geometrinae inhabiting the Iriomote Islands were analyzed, and the 6,9,12-trienes were identified in the pheromone gland extracts of Pamphlebia rubrolimbraria rubrolimbraria and Maxates versicauda microptera. Furthermore, a field evaluation of the synthetic polyenes in a mixed forest of Tokyo revealed the following new male attractants for emerald moths: Idiochlora ussuriaria by a C(17) 6,9,12-triene and Jodis lactearia by a C(20) 3,6,9,12-tetraene, indicating the characteristic chemical structures of Geometrinae pheromones. On the other hand, through reexamination of the pheromone extract of H. tritonaria, (3E,6E)-α-farnesene was identified as an electrophysiologically active component in addition to the C(17) 6,9,12-triene. The binary mixture attracted more males than the single component lure baited with the triene in the Iriomote Islands.

  11. Attractiveness of a Four-component Pheromone Blend to Male Navel Orangeworm Moths

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Hiroo; Kuenen, L. P. S.; Klingler, Kimberly A.; Millar, Jocelyn G.

    2010-01-01

    The attractiveness to male navel orangeworm moth, Amyelois transitella, of various combinations of a four-component pheromone blend was measured in wind-tunnel bioassays. Upwind flight along the pheromone plume and landing on the odor source required the simultaneous presence of two components, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-tricosapentaene, and the addition of either (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol or (11Z,13E)-hexadecadien-1-ol. A mixture of all four components produced the highest levels of rapid source location and source contact. In wind-tunnel assays, males did not seem to distinguish among a wide range of ratios of any of the three components added to (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal. Dosages of 10 and 100 ng of the 4-component blend produced higher levels of source location than dosages of 1 and 1,000 ng. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9799-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20473710

  12. Sensillar expression and responses of olfactory receptors reveal different peripheral coding in two Helicoverpa species using the same pheromone components

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hetan; Guo, Mengbo; Wang, Bing; Liu, Yang; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2016-01-01

    Male moths efficiently recognize conspecific sex pheromones thanks to their highly accurate and specific olfactory system. The Heliothis/Helicoverpa species are regarded as good models for studying the perception of sex pheromones. In this study, we performed a series of experiments to investigate the peripheral mechanisms of pheromone coding in two-closely related species, Helicoverpa armigera and H. assulta. The morphology and distribution patterns of sensilla trichoidea are similar between the two species when observed at the scanning electron microscope, but their performances are different. In H. armigera, three functional types of sensilla trichoidea (A, B and C) were found to respond to different pheromone components, while in H. assulta only two types of such sensilla (A and C) could be detected. The response profiles of all types of sensilla trichoidea in the two species well matched the specificities of the pheromone receptors (PRs) expressed in the same sensilla, as measured in voltage-clamp experiments. The expressions of PRs in neighboring olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) within the same trichoid sensillum were further confirmed by in situ hybridization. Our results show how the same pheromone components can code for different messages at the periphery of two Helicoverpa species. PMID:26744070

  13. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  14. A Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Sex Pheromone Mixture Increases Trap Catch Relative to a Single Synthesized Component in Specific Environments.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Tix, John A; Hlina, Benjamin L; Wagner, C Michael; Siefkes, Michael J; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-03-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10% increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  15. What is a pheromone? Mammalian pheromones reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Stowers, Lisa; Marton, Tobias F

    2005-06-02

    Pheromone communication is a two-component system: signaling pheromones and receiving sensory neurons. Currently, pheromones remain enigmatic bioactive compounds, as only a few have been identified, but classical bioassays have suggested that they are nonvolatile, activate vomeronasal sensory neurons, and regulate innate social behaviors and neuroendocrine release. Recent discoveries of potential pheromones reveal that they may be more structurally and functionally diverse than previously defined.

  16. Beyond sodefrin: evidence for a multi-component pheromone system in the model newt Cynops pyrrhogaster (Salamandridae).

    PubMed

    Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Maex, Margo; Treer, Dag; Janssenswillen, Sunita; Janssens, Rik; Vandebergh, Wim; Proost, Paul; Bossuyt, Franky

    2016-03-03

    Sodefrin, a decapeptide isolated from the male dorsal gland of the Japanese fire belly newt Cynops pyrrhogaster, was the first peptide pheromone identified from a vertebrate. The fire belly salamander and sodefrin have become a model for sex pheromone investigation in aquatically courting salamanders ever since. Subsequent studies in other salamanders identified SPF protein courtship pheromones of around 20 kDa belonging to the same gene-family. Although transcripts of these proteins could be PCR-amplified in Cynops, it is currently unknown whether they effectively use full-length SPF pheromones next to sodefrin. Here we combined transcriptomics, proteomics and phylogenetics to investigate SPF pheromone use in Cynops pyrrhogaster. Our data show that not sodefrin transcripts, but multiple SPF transcripts make up the majority of the expression profile in the dorsal gland of this newt. Proteome analyses of water in which a male has been courting confirm that this protein blend is effectively secreted and tail-fanned to the female. By combining phylogenetics and expression data, we show that independent evolutionary lineages of these SPF's were already expressed in ancestral Cynops species before the origin of sodefrin. Extant Cynops species continue to use this multi-component pheromone system, consisting of various proteins in addition to a lineage-specific peptide.

  17. Beyond sodefrin: evidence for a multi-component pheromone system in the model newt Cynops pyrrhogaster (Salamandridae)

    PubMed Central

    Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Maex, Margo; Treer, Dag; Janssenswillen, Sunita; Janssens, Rik; Vandebergh, Wim; Proost, Paul; Bossuyt, Franky

    2016-01-01

    Sodefrin, a decapeptide isolated from the male dorsal gland of the Japanese fire belly newt Cynops pyrrhogaster, was the first peptide pheromone identified from a vertebrate. The fire belly salamander and sodefrin have become a model for sex pheromone investigation in aquatically courting salamanders ever since. Subsequent studies in other salamanders identified SPF protein courtship pheromones of around 20 kDa belonging to the same gene-family. Although transcripts of these proteins could be PCR-amplified in Cynops, it is currently unknown whether they effectively use full-length SPF pheromones next to sodefrin. Here we combined transcriptomics, proteomics and phylogenetics to investigate SPF pheromone use in Cynops pyrrhogaster. Our data show that not sodefrin transcripts, but multiple SPF transcripts make up the majority of the expression profile in the dorsal gland of this newt. Proteome analyses of water in which a male has been courting confirm that this protein blend is effectively secreted and tail-fanned to the female. By combining phylogenetics and expression data, we show that independent evolutionary lineages of these SPF’s were already expressed in ancestral Cynops species before the origin of sodefrin. Extant Cynops species continue to use this multi-component pheromone system, consisting of various proteins in addition to a lineage-specific peptide. PMID:26935790

  18. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  19. Minor components in the sex pheromone of legume podborer: Maruca vitrata development of an attractive blend.

    PubMed

    Downham, M C A; Hall, D R; Chamberlain, D J; Cork, A; Farman, D I; Tamò, M; Dahounto, D; Datinon, B; Adetonah, S

    2003-04-01

    The legume podborer, Maruca vitrata (syn. M. testulalis) (F.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pantropical pest of legume crops. Sex pheromone was collected by gland extraction or trapping of volatiles from virgin female moths originating in India, West Africa, or Taiwan. Analysis by GC-EAG and GC-MS confirmed previously published findings that (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal is the most abundant EAG-active component with 2-5% of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienol also present. At least one other EAG response was detected at retention times typical of monounsaturated hexadecenals or tetradecenyl acetates, but neither could be detected by GC-MS. Laboratory wind-tunnel bioassays and a field bioassay of blends of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal with (E,E )-10,12-hexadecadienol and a range of monounsaturated hexadecenal and tetradecenyl acetate isomers indicated greatest attraction of males was to those including (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienol and (E)-10-hexadecenal as minor components. In subsequent trapping experiments in cowpea fields in Benin, traps baited with a three-component blend of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal and these two minor components in a 100:5:5 ratio caught significantly more males than traps baited with the major component alone, either two-component blend, or virgin female moths. Further blend optimization experiments did not produce a more attractive blend. No significant differences in catches were found between traps baited with polyethylene vials or rubber septa, or between lures containing 0.01 and 0.1 mg of synthetic pheromone. Significant numbers of female M. vitrata moths, up to 50% of total catches, were trapped with synthetic blends but not with virgin females. At present there is no clear explanation for this almost unprecedented finding, but the phenomenon may improve the predictive power of traps for population monitoring.

  20. A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

  1. 2,3-Dihydrohomofarnesal: female sex attractant pheromone component of Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Pic).

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Kenji; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Yajima, Arata; Matsumoto, Noriko; Kagohara, Yuuma; Kamada, Koichi; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ohsawa, Kanju

    2010-08-01

    Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Pic) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is a pest of stored legumes through the Afro-tropical region. In laboratory bioassays, males of C. rhodesianus were attracted to volatiles collected from virgin females. Collections were purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the biologically active component isolated using gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses suggested that the active compound was 2,3-dihydrohomofarnesal, i.e., 7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-6,10-dodecadienal. The structure was confirmed by non-stereoselective and enantioselective total synthesis. Using chiral gas chromatography, the absolute configuration of the natural compound was confirmed as (3S,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-6,10-dodecadienal. Y-tube olfactomter assays showed that only the (S)-enantiomer attracted males of C. rhodesianus. The (R)-enantiomer and racemate did not attract males, suggesting that the (R)-enantiomer inhibits the activity of the natural compound. In combination with previous reports about sex attractant pheromones of congeners, we suggest that a saltational shift of the pheromone structure arose within the genus Callosobruchus.

  2. Use of an alarm pheromone against ants for gaining access to aphid/scale prey by the red velvet mite Balaustium sp. (Erythraeidae) in a honeydew-rich environment.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Condon, Michael R; Hart, Chloé E; Collier, Matthew H; Patrick, Kevin R; Benoit, Joshua B

    2010-02-01

    This study shows that honeydew prompts arrestment and reduced activity, but not attraction, by the mite Balaustium sp. nr. putmani. When presented with short-range, two-choice bioassays, mites ceased their characteristic rapid crawling activity when they encountered honeydew-treated surfaces, resulting in them clustering around the honeydew. Approximately 80% of mites were retained by honeydew, with responses being independent of both mite life-history stage and source of honeydew (coccid scale insect or aphid). No obvious crawling movements or redirection of running path were made to the honeydew by the mites, implying the lack of any kind of attractant. Response of mites to single-sugar presentations of the main honeydew components--glucose, sucrose, fructose and trehalose--(0.001-0.1 mmol l(-1)) were inconsistent and failed to reproduce the arrestment/clustering associated with raw honeydew, suggesting that none of these sugars is an active arrestant ingredient. Formation of feeding clusters on honeydew does not contribute to enhancing water conservation by suppressing net transpiration (water loss) rates of individual mites as group size increases, indicating that the clustering is an artifact of arrestment. We hypothesize that release of neryl formate by the mites reduces negative interactions with the local ant species commonly associated with honeydew. We hypothesize that honeydew serves as: (1) a cue that facilitates discovery of scale/aphid prey; (2) a retainer on plants where these prey are present, signaling abundance and quality; and (3) an alternative and supplemental food source like that noted for other plant-inhabiting predatory mites. Neryl formate serves as an alarm pheromone and foul-tasting allomonal defense secretion that prevents predation of mites by ants that co-exist with aphid/scale insects in these honeydew-rich habitats.

  3. Identification of sex pheromone components of darksided cutworm,Euxoa messoria, and modification of sex attractant blend for adult males.

    PubMed

    Struble, D L; Byers, J R

    1987-05-01

    Eleven "pheromone-like" compounds were identified in excised abdomen tip extracts of calling adult females of darksided cutworm,Euxoa messoria (Harris). The essential pheromone components were (Z)-7- and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetates in a ratio of 1∶40, which agreed with an attractant blend developed empirically by field testing the attractancies of synthetic blends. The pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenol, improved the attraction of darksided cutworm males whereas the components (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate inhibited their attraction. The other "pheromone-like" compounds identified in the female extracts had no obvious effect on the attraction of darksided cutworm males. Three compounds that functioned as parapheromones when substituted for (Z)-7-hexadecenyl acetate in the two-component blend were (Z)-7-pentadecenyl, (Z)-7-tetradecenyl, and (Z)-7-tridecenyl acetates. (Z)-11-hexadecenal was not detected in the female extracts, but it had a synergistic effect on the attraction of darksided cutworm moths and inhibited the attraction of male moths of a nontarget species,Helotropha reniformis (Grote). As a trap bait for monitoring purposes, we recommend a four-component blend of (Z)-7-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecenol, and (Z)-11-hexadecenal at 12.5, 500, 1, and 10 μg/red rubber septum dispenser containing 5 μg of antioxidant 2,6-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol. This blend is effective under field conditions for at least six weeks.

  4. Specific olfactory neurons and glomeruli are associated to differences in behavioral responses to pheromone components between two Helicoverpa species

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Han; Xu, Meng; Hou, Chao; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Dong, Jun-Feng; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Sex pheromone communication of moths helps to understand the mechanisms underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta use (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16:Ald) as pheromone components in reversed ratios, 97:3 and 5:95, respectively. H. armigera also produces trace amount of (Z)-9-tetradecenal (Z9-14:Ald) in the sex pheromone gland, but H. assulta does not. Wind tunnel studies revealed that the addition of small amounts (0.3%) of Z9-14:Ald to the main pheromone blend of H. armigera increased the males' attraction, but at higher doses (1%, 10%) the same compound acted as an inhibitor. In H. assulta, Z9-14:Ald reduced male attraction when presented as 1% to the pheromone blend, but was ineffective at lower concentrations (0.3%). Three types (A–C) of sensilla trichodea in antennae were identified by single sensillum recording, responding to Z11-16:Ald, Z9-14:Ald, and both Z9-16:Ald and Z9-14:Ald, respectively. Calcium imaging in the antennal lobes (ALs) revealed that the input information of the three chemicals was transmitted to three units of the macroglomerular complex (MGC) in ALs in both species: a large glomerulus for the major pheromone components, a small one for the minor pheromone components, and a third one for the behavioral antagonists. The type A and C neurons tuned to Z11-16:Ald and Z9-16:Ald had a reversed target in the MGC between the two species. In H. armigera, low doses (1, 10 μg) of Z9-14:Ald dominantly activated the glomerulus which processes the minor pheromone component, while a higher dose (100 μg) also evoked an equal activity in the antagonistic glomerulus. In H. assulta, instead, Z9-14:Ald always strongly activated the antagonistic glomerulus. These results suggest that Z9-14:Ald plays different roles in the sexual communication of two Helicoverpa species through activation of functionally different olfactory pathways. PMID:26300751

  5. Sex pheromone component ratios and mating isolation among three Lygus plant bug species of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, John A.; Fefer, Daniela; Levi-Zada, Anat

    2013-12-01

    The plant bugs Lygus hesperus, Lygus lineolaris, and Lygus elisus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are major pests of many agricultural crops in North America. Previous studies suggested that females release a sex pheromone attractive to males. Other studies showed that males and females contain microgram amounts of ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, hexyl butyrate, and ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that are emitted as a defense against predators. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that female L. lineolaris and L. elisus have a 4:10 ratio of hexyl butyrate to ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that is reversed from the 10:1 ratio in female L. hesperus (males of the three species have ~10:1 ratio). These reversed ratios among females of the species suggest a behavioral role. Because both sexes have nearly equal amounts of the major volatiles, females should release more to attract males. This expectation was supported because L. hesperus females released more hexyl butyrate (mean of 86 ng/h) during the night (1800-0700 hours) than did males (<1 ng/h). We used slow-rotating pairs of traps to test the attraction of species to blends of the volatiles with a subtractive method to detect synergism. Each species' major butyrate ester was released at 3 μg/h, the minor butyrate according to its ratio, and ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal at 2 μg/h. The resulting catches of only Lygus males suggest that ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal is an essential sex pheromone component for all three species, ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate is essential for L. elisus and L. lineolaris, and hexyl butyrate is essential for L. hesperus. However, all three components are recognized by each species since ratios of the butyrate esters are critical for conspecific attraction and heterospecific avoidance by males and thus play a role in reproductive isolation among the three species. Because L. hesperus males and females are known to emit these major volatiles for repelling ant predators, our study links defensive allomones in Lygus bugs with an

  6. Behavioral responses of lesser mealworm beetles, alphitobius diaperinus, (coleoptera: tenebrionidae) to pheromone components using a wind tunnel dual choice walkign bioassay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The lesser mealworm beetle (LMW), Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is a serious pest in poultry production facilities world-wide and is difficult to control by conventional means. Pheromone-based tools might become useful in the management of this species. Male LMW emit a five-component pheromone co...

  7. Revisiting the Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone of the Lesser Mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): Identification of a Six-Component Pheromone from a Brazilian Population.

    PubMed

    Hassemer, Marla J; Sant'Ana, Josué; Borges, Miguel; Withall, David; Pickett, John A; de Oliveira, Márcio W M; Laumann, Raul A; Birkett, Michael A; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria C

    2016-09-14

    The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a cosmopolitan insect pest affecting poultry production. Due to its cryptic behavior, insecticide control is usually not efficient. Thus, sustainable and effective methods would have an enormous and positive impact in poultry production. The aim of this study was to confirm the identity of the male-produced aggregation pheromone for a Brazilian population of A. diaperinus and to evaluate its biological activity in behavioral assays. Six male-specific compounds were identified: (R)-limonene (1), (E)-ocimene (2), 2-nonanone (3), (S)-linalool (4), (R)-daucene (5), all described before in an American population, and a sixth component, (E,E)-α-farnesene (6), which is apparently exclusive to a Brazilian population. Y-Tube bioassays confirmed the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone and showed that all components need to be present in a similar ratio and concentration as emitted by male A. diaperinus to produce a positive chemotactic response.

  8. Attraction modulated by spacing of pheromone components and anti-attractants in a bark beetle and a moth.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin N; Binyameen, Muhammad; Sadek, Medhat M; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2011-08-01

    Orientation for insects in olfactory landscapes with high semiochemical diversity may be a challenging task. The partitioning of odor plumes into filaments that are interspersed with pockets of 'clean air' may help filament discrimination and upwind flight to attractive sources in the face of inhibitory signals. We studied the effect of distance between odor sources on trap catches of the beetle, Ips typographus, and the moth, Spodoptera littoralis. Insects were tested both to spatially separated pheromone components [cis-verbenol and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol for Ips; (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate for Spodoptera], and to separated pheromone and anti-attractant sources [non-host volatile (NHV) blend for Ips; (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate for Spodoptera]. Trap catch data were complemented with simulations of plume structure and plume overlap from two separated sources using a photo ionization detector and soap bubble generators. Trap catches of the beetle and the moth were both affected when odor sources in the respective traps were increasingly separated. However, this effect on trap catch occurred at smaller (roughly by an order of magnitude) odor source separation distances for the moth than for the beetle. This may reflect differences between the respective olfactory systems and central processing. For both species, the changes in trap catches in response to separation of pheromone components occurred at similar spacing distances as for separation of pheromone and anti-attractant sources. Overlap between two simulated plumes depended on distance between the two sources. In addition, the number of detected filaments and their concentration decreased with downwind distance. This implies that the response to separated odor sources in the two species might take place under different olfactory conditions. Deploying multiple sources of anti-attractant around a pheromone trap indicated long-distance (meter scale) effects of NHV on

  9. ACaenorhabditis elegans dauer-inducing pheromone and an antagonistic component of the food supply.

    PubMed

    Golden, J W; Riddle, D L

    1984-08-01

    The free-living soil nematodeCaenorhabditis elegans forms a nonfeeding dispersal stage at the second molt called the dauer larva when exposed to environmental cues indicating crowding and limited food. An improved bioassay, tenfold more sensitive than that used previously, has been used in the characterization of the two chemical cues which act competitively in controlling this developmental process. The pheromone concentration provides a measure of the population density; it enhances dauer larva formation, and inhibits recovery (exit) from the dauer stage. The pheromone is a family of related molecules which are nonvolatile, very stable, and possess physical and Chromatographie properties similar to those of hydroxylated fatty acids and bile acids. A food signal, with effects on development opposite those of the pheromone, is produced by bacteria, and is also present in yeast extract. In contrast to the pheromone, the food signal is a labile substance which is neutral and hydrophilic.

  10. Synthesis of sex pheromone components of the forest tent caterpillar,Malacosoma disstria (Hübner) and of the western tent caterpillar,Malacosoma californicum (Packard).

    PubMed

    Chisholm, M D; Steck, W F; Bailey, B K; Underbill, E W

    1981-01-01

    All four geometrical isomers of 5,7-dodecadien-1-ol have been stereoselectively synthesized by using Wittig condensation reactions. (5 Z,7E)-5,7-Dodecadien-1-ol and its corresponding aldehyde are components of the sex pheromone of the forest tent caterpillar. (5 E,7 Z)-5,7-Dodecadienal is a component of the pheromone of the western tent caterpillar. These compounds have been successfully tested in the field.

  11. Pheromone communication and the mushroom body of the ant, Camponotus obscuripes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Mizunami, Makoto

    2005-11-01

    Communication by means of pheromones plays predominant roles in colony integration by social insects. However, almost nothing is known about pheromone processing in the brains of social insects. In this study, we successfully applied intracellular recording and staining techniques to anatomically and physiologically characterize brain neurons of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. We identified 42 protocerebral neurons that responded to undecane and/or formic acid, components of alarm pheromones that evoke attraction or evasive behavior, respectively. Notably, 30 (71%) of these neurons were efferent (output) or feedback neurons of the mushroom body, and many of these exhibited different responses to formic acid and undecane. Eight of the remaining 12 neurons had arborizations in the lateral and/or medial protocerebrum, which receive terminations of efferent neurons of the mushroom body and from which premotor descending neurons originate. The remaining four neurons were bilateral neurons that connect lateral accessory lobes or dorsal protocerebrums of both hemispheres. We suggest that the mushroom body of the ant participates in the processing of alarm pheromones. Seventeen (40%) of 42 neurons exhibited responses to nonpheromonal odors, indicating that the pheromonal and nonpheromonal signals are not fully segregated when they are processed in the protocerebrum. This may be related to modulatory functions of alarm pheromones, i.e., they change alertness of the ant and change responses to a variety of sensory stimuli.

  12. (Z)-9-nonacosene-major component of the contact sex pheromone of the beetle Megacyllene caryae.

    PubMed

    Ginzel, Matthew D; Moreira, Jardel A; Ray, Ann M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2006-02-01

    Male Megacyllene caryae (Gahan) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) respond to females only after touching them with their antennae, indicating that mate recognition is mediated by a contact sex pheromone. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of whole-body solvent extracts of male and female M. caryae revealed substantial differences in hydrocarbon profiles, with nearly half of the compounds in the extracts from females being absent from those of males. Biological activities of fractions of crude extracts of females, and reconstructed blends of the most abundant straight-chain (nC(27), nC(28), nC(29)), methyl-branched (2Me-C(26), 9Me-C(29), 11, 13, 15Me-C(29)), and unsaturated (Z9:C(29), Z13:C(29), Z14:C(29), Z13:C(31), Z14:C(31), Z15:C(31)) compounds in extracts of females were tested in arena bioassays, assessing four steps in the mating behavior sequence of males (orientation, arrestment, body alignment, mounting and attempting to couple the genitalia). Males showed limited response to dead females treated with fractions of the crude extract or blends of synthetic straight-chain and methyl-branched alkanes, but responded strongly to the blend of synthetic monoenes. Further trials determined that the complete sequence of mating behaviors, up to and including coupling the genitalia, was elicited by Z9:C(29) alone. Z9:C(29) is a homolog of the contact pheromone (Z9:C(25)) of the congener M. robiniae (Förster). Previous work with M. robiniae suggested that wipe sampling of cuticular hydrocarbons of females by solid phase microextraction yielded a more representative profile of components actually encountered by a male's antennae, and so provided a more readily interpretable profile of potential semiochemicals present in the wax layer than does solvent extraction. We tested this hypothesis by comparing hydrocarbon profiles of female M. caryae by the two sampling methods. Z9:C(29) was the only compound among the dominant hydrocarbons that was present in higher

  13. Receptor neuron responses to potential sex pheromone components in the caddisfly Rhyacophila nubila (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae).

    PubMed

    Hansson, B S.; Larsson, M C.

    1998-02-01

    Olfactory single sensillum responses of male and female caddisflies Rhyacophila nubila (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) were examined with the tungsten penetration technique to investigate the presence of receptor neurons tuned to potential sex pheromone components. The compounds tested in the experiment were heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one, (R)-heptan-2-ol, and (R)-nonan-2-ol, which have all been found to be present in female abdominal glands, plus the two antipodes (S)-heptan-2-ol and (S)-nonan-2-ol. Four types of receptor neurons were found in equal proportions in males and females. One type responded primarily to heptan-2-one. A second type responded primarily to (R)-heptan-2-ol and a third type primarily to its enantiomer (S)-heptan-2-ol. The fourth type of receptor neuron responded to nonan-2-one, (R)-nonan-2-one, and (S)-nonan-2-ol, with a bias to nonan-2-one. The receptor neurons responding to the tested compounds made up a great majority of the contacted neurons in both males and females.

  14. Female sex pheromone of the Yunnan pine caterpillar moth Dendrolimus houi: first (E,Z)-isomers in pheromone components of Dendrolimus spp.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang Bo; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Cheng Hua; Wang, Hong Bin

    2007-07-01

    The Yunnan pine caterpillar Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière is a serious defoliator of coniferous forests in southwestern China. Gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG) analyses of extracts of female sex pheromone glands of D. houi moths revealed the presence of three compounds eliciting antennal responses. These were identified as (5E,7Z)-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (E5,Z7-12:OH), (5E,7Z)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (E5,Z7-12:OAc), and (5E,7Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (E5,Z7-12:Ald) by comparison of their GC retention indices, mass spectra, and EAG activities with those of synthetic standards. Average amounts of E5,Z7-12:OH, E5,Z7-12:OAc, and E5,Z7-12:Ald per calling virgin D. houi female were 14.7 +/- 12.9 ng (+/- SD), 5.8 +/- 5.4 ng, and 0.8+1.4 ng, respectively, in a ratio of 100:39.7:5.6. These three components were also collected from the headspace of calling virgin female moths by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). In addition, trace quantities of (Z)-5-dodecen-1-ol (Z5-12:OH), (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (Z5,E7-12:OH), (5E,7E)-5, 7-dodecadien-1-ol (E5,E7-12:OH), (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,E7-12:OAc), (5Z,7Z)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,Z7-12:OAc), and (5E,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (E5,E7-12:OAc) were tentatively identified in female pheromone gland extracts by selected ion monitoring GC-MS. Field trapping experiments showed that E5,Z7-12:OH, E5,Z7-12:OAc, and E5,Z7-12:Ald were essential for attraction of male D. houi moths. Traps baited with a 20:1:1 blend (alcohol/acetate/aldehyde) loaded on gray rubber septa were as effective as traps baited with virgin female moths. The optimum ratio of acetate to aldehyde was 1:1, and this ratio was more critical than the ratio of either compound to the alcohol. This represents the first example of (E,Z)-isomers in pheromone blends of Dendrolimus species.

  15. Female sex pheromone components ofHeliothis peltigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) : Chemical identification from gland extracts and male response.

    PubMed

    Dunkelblum, E; Kehat, M

    1989-08-01

    Ten compounds were found in the sex pheromone glands ofHeliothis peltigera (Schiff) and identified as tetradecenal, (Z)-9-tetradecenal, (Z)-9-tetradecenol, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, hexadecanal, (Z)-7-hiexadecenal, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecenol, and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate. Behavioral tests in a wind tunnel and subsequent trapping studies conducted in the field indicated that (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-tetradecenal are the main pheromone components ofH. peltigera. Addition of (Z)-11-hexadecenol to the binary blend did not enhance the capture of males ofH. peltigera, but it decreased the number of males of the sympatricH. armigera. Rubber septa impregnated with a mixture of 2 mg (Z)-11-hexadecenal + 1 mg (Z)-9-tetradecenal + 0.6 mg (Z)-11-hexadecenol are recommended for monitoringH. peltigera.

  16. Chemical and behavioral analyses of volatile sex pheromone components released by callingHeliothis virescens (F.) females (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Teal, P E; Tumlinson, J H; Heath, R R

    1986-01-01

    Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analyses were conducted on pheromone gland extracts, volatiles collected from excised pheromone glands, and volatiles collected from calling females. In addition to tetradecanal, (Z)-9-tetradecenal, hexadecanal, (Z)-7-hexadecenal, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, and (Z)-11-hexadecenal, four other compounds, tetradecanol, (Z)-9-tetradecenol, hexadecanol, and (Z)-11-hexadecenol, were also identified from gland extracts. Only the six aldehyde components were found in gland and female volatile collections. The mean percentage of components identified from volatiles collected from calling females was 13.0% tetradecanal, 18.1% (Z)-9-tetradecenal, 7.3% hexadecanal, 0.6% (Z)-7-hexadecenal, 1.0% (Z)-9-hexadecenal, and 60.0% (Z)-11-hexadecenal. Bioassays using rubber septa formulated to release the female volatile blend indicated that all six aldehyde components play major roles in close-range male reproductive behavior. Deletion of (Z)-9-hexadecenal from the six-component blend reduced the number of copulation attempts while (Z)-7-hexadecenal exerted subtle effects on all close range behaviors. Tetradecanal affected the number of times males reorient from close range. Deletion of hexadecanal from the six-component blend resulted in a significant reduction in the number of times males landed. Comparison of the six-component synthetic blend (released at somewhat less than 1 female equivalent per hour) with calling females indicated that the six-component blend was indistinguishable from the females in inducing all of the behaviors monitored.

  17. A synergistic aggregation pheromone component in the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus Germar 1824 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Cerda, H; Mori, K; Nakayama, T; Jaffe, K

    1998-01-01

    Cosmopolites sordidus is an important pest on banana plantations worldwide. The chemistry of the aggregation pheromone of this insect has been recently resolved and here we present the first evidence from field trails that sordidin, a compound from the male released aggregation pheromone, attracts significant number of weevils only if host plant odors are also present. Sordidin attracts few insects when it is presented without the host plant tissue. However, the attractiveness of host plant tissue increases more than tenfold when it is presented simultaneously with sordidin in field traps. We confirm experimentally that sordidin may be used as part of a system for mass trapping and monitoring this insect.

  18. Pellet Formulations of Sex Pheromone Components for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A previous study showed that sprayable sex pheromone formulations for mating disruption to control the oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, had limited persistence and contaminated shoes worn in the treated areas. Contamination of shoes created a nuisance by attracting male beetles when ...

  19. Odour-evoked responses to queen pheromone components and to plant odours using optical imaging in the antennal lobe of the honey bee drone Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2006-09-01

    The primordial functional role of honey bee males (drones) is to mate with virgin queens, a behaviour relying heavily on the olfactory detection of queen pheromone. In the present work I studied olfactory processing in the drone antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory centre of the insect brain. In drones, the AL consists of about 103 ordinary glomeruli and four enlarged glomeruli, the macroglomeruli (MG). Two macroglomeruli (MG1 and MG2) and approximately 20 ordinary glomeruli occupy the anterior surface of the antennal lobe and are thus accessible to optical recordings. Calcium imaging was used to measure odour-evoked responses to queen pheromonal components and plant odours. MG2 responded specifically to the main component of the queen mandibular pheromone, 9-ODA. The secondary components HOB and HVA each triggered activity in one, but not the same, ordinary glomerulus. MG1 did not respond to any of the tested stimuli. Plant odours induced signals only in ordinary glomeruli in a combinatorial manner, as in workers. This study thus shows that the major queen pheromonal component is processed in the most voluminous macroglomerulus of the drone antennal lobe, and that plant odours, as well as some queen pheromonal components, are processed in ordinary glomeruli.

  20. A Female-Emitted Pheromone Component Is Associated with Reduced Male Courtship in the Parasitoid Wasp Spalangia endius

    PubMed Central

    Mowles, Sophie L.; King, Bethia H.; Linforth, Robert S. T.; Hardy, Ian C. W.

    2013-01-01

    During courtship interactions, the courted individual may not always be prepared to mate. For example, mating or courtship may be detrimental to its fitness and resistance is expected under these circumstances. As such, various resistance strategies have evolved, from physically fending off courting individuals to producing behavioural signals of unreceptivity. In the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius, females rarely re-mate and mated females are avoided by males in favour of virgin females. Further, mated females appear to advertise their mating status by the release of a pheromone component (methyl 6-methylsalicylate), but direct evidence of the nature of this release is lacking. Here we used real-time chemical analysis to track the emission of the pheromone component during courtship interactions between virgin males and either virgin or mated females. We found that females actively release methyl 6-methylsalicylate when courted and that significantly greater concentrations are released by previously mated females. Further, high concentrations of this component are associated with both the prevention and termination of courtship. PMID:24278468

  1. Extracting the Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus: Unique Neural Representation of Farnesol, a Component of the Recruitment Pheromone of Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Strube-Bloss, Martin F; Brown, Austin; Spaethe, Johannes; Schmitt, Thomas; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    To trigger innate behavior, sensory neural networks are pre-tuned to extract biologically relevant stimuli. Many male-female or insect-plant interactions depend on this phenomenon. Especially communication among individuals within social groups depends on innate behaviors. One example is the efficient recruitment of nest mates by successful bumblebee foragers. Returning foragers release a recruitment pheromone in the nest while they perform a 'dance' behavior to activate unemployed nest mates. A major component of this pheromone is the sesquiterpenoid farnesol. How farnesol is processed and perceived by the olfactory system, has not yet been identified. It is much likely that processing farnesol involves an innate mechanism for the extraction of relevant information to trigger a fast and reliable behavioral response. To test this hypothesis, we used population response analyses of 100 antennal lobe (AL) neurons recorded in alive bumblebee workers under repeated stimulation with four behaviorally different, but chemically related odorants (geraniol, citronellol, citronellal and farnesol). The analysis identified a unique neural representation of the recruitment pheromone component compared to the other odorants that are predominantly emitted by flowers. The farnesol induced population activity in the AL allowed a reliable separation of farnesol from all other chemically related odor stimuli we tested. We conclude that the farnesol induced population activity may reflect a predetermined representation within the AL-neural network allowing efficient and fast extraction of a behaviorally relevant stimulus. Furthermore, the results show that population response analyses of multiple single AL-units may provide a powerful tool to identify distinct representations of behaviorally relevant odors.

  2. Extracting the Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus: Unique Neural Representation of Farnesol, a Component of the Recruitment Pheromone of Bombus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Strube-Bloss, Martin F.; Brown, Austin; Spaethe, Johannes; Schmitt, Thomas; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    To trigger innate behavior, sensory neural networks are pre-tuned to extract biologically relevant stimuli. Many male-female or insect-plant interactions depend on this phenomenon. Especially communication among individuals within social groups depends on innate behaviors. One example is the efficient recruitment of nest mates by successful bumblebee foragers. Returning foragers release a recruitment pheromone in the nest while they perform a ‘dance’ behavior to activate unemployed nest mates. A major component of this pheromone is the sesquiterpenoid farnesol. How farnesol is processed and perceived by the olfactory system, has not yet been identified. It is much likely that processing farnesol involves an innate mechanism for the extraction of relevant information to trigger a fast and reliable behavioral response. To test this hypothesis, we used population response analyses of 100 antennal lobe (AL) neurons recorded in alive bumblebee workers under repeated stimulation with four behaviorally different, but chemically related odorants (geraniol, citronellol, citronellal and farnesol). The analysis identified a unique neural representation of the recruitment pheromone component compared to the other odorants that are predominantly emitted by flowers. The farnesol induced population activity in the AL allowed a reliable separation of farnesol from all other chemically related odor stimuli we tested. We conclude that the farnesol induced population activity may reflect a predetermined representation within the AL-neural network allowing efficient and fast extraction of a behaviorally relevant stimulus. Furthermore, the results show that population response analyses of multiple single AL-units may provide a powerful tool to identify distinct representations of behaviorally relevant odors. PMID:26340263

  3. An indole-containing dauer pheromone component with unusual dauer inhibitory activity at higher concentrations.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Rebecca A; Ragains, Justin R; Clardy, Jon

    2009-07-16

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the dauer pheromone, which consists of a number of derivatives of the 3,6-dideoxysugar ascarylose, is the primary cue for entry into the stress-resistant, "nonaging" dauer larval stage. Here, using activity-guided fractionation and NMR-based structure elucidation, a structurally novel, indole-3-carboxyl-modified ascaroside is identified that promotes dauer formation at low nanomolar concentrations but inhibits dauer formation at higher concentrations.

  4. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  5. Quorum sensing by peptide pheromones and two-component signal-transduction systems in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kleerebezem, M; Quadri, L E; Kuipers, O P; de Vos, W M

    1997-06-01

    Cell-density-dependent gene expression appears to be widely spread in bacteria. This quorum-sensing phenomenon has been well established in Gram-negative bacteria, where N-acyl homoserine lactones are the diffusible communication molecules that modulate cell-density-dependent phenotypes. Similarly, a variety of processes are known to be regulated in a cell-density- or growth-phase-dependent manner in Gram-positive bacteria. Examples of such quorum-sensing modes in Gram-positive bacteria are the development of genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, the virulence response in Staphylococcus aureus, and the production of antimicrobial peptides by several species of Gram-positive bacteria including lactic acid bacteria. Cell-density-dependent regulatory modes in these systems appear to follow a common theme, in which the signal molecule is a post-translationally processed peptide that is secreted by a dedicated ATP-binding-cassette exporter. This secreted peptide pheromone functions as the input signal for a specific sensor component of a two-component signal-transduction system. Moreover, genetic linkage of the common elements involved results in autoregulation of peptide-pheromone production.

  6. Pheromone Signalling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Adam G.

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are chemicals used to communicate with members of the same species. First described in insects, pheromones are often used to attract mates but in social insects, such as ants and bees, pheromone use is much more sophisticated. For example, ants use pheromones to make foraging trails and the chemical and physical properties of the…

  7. Pheromone Signalling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Adam G.

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are chemicals used to communicate with members of the same species. First described in insects, pheromones are often used to attract mates but in social insects, such as ants and bees, pheromone use is much more sophisticated. For example, ants use pheromones to make foraging trails and the chemical and physical properties of the…

  8. Reproductive Isolation of Ips nitidus and I. shangrila in Mountain Forests of Western China: Responses to Chiral and Achiral Candidate Pheromone Components.

    PubMed

    Schlyter, Fredrik; Jakuš, Rastislav; Han, Fu-Zhong; Ma, Jian-Hai; Kalinová, Blanka; Mezei, Pavel; Sun, Jiang-Hua; Ujhelyiová, Liana; Zhang, Qing-He

    2015-07-01

    Eastern Palearctic conifers are subject to frequent bark beetle outbreaks. However, neither the species responsible nor the semiochemicals guiding these attacks are well understood. Two high-mountain Ips species on Qinghai spruce, Picea crassifolia, I. shangrila and I. nitidus, are typical in this regard. Six synthetic candidate pheromone components that we earlier identified from hindguts of unmated males of these two Ips species were tested for field activity in Qinghai province, P. R. China. For I. nitidus, racemic ipsdienol ((±)-Id) could replace the naturally-produced blend of enantiomers containing 74% (-)-(S)-Id (74:26 S:R), in attractive ternary or binary blends. In contrast, sympatric I. shangrila were attracted mainly to blends including Id of opposite chirality, 97%-(+)-(R)-Id. Of the verbenols, (-)-trans-verbenol was inactive for I. nitidus or inhibitory for I. shangrila, but (-)-cis-verbenol (cV) was a key component of the pheromone in both species. Two fully factorial experiments demonstrated that (±)-Id, cV, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB) are components of the aggregation pheromone of I. nitidus, whereas only (+)-Id and cV are essential components of the aggregation pheromone of I. shangrila. While MB is not necessary for attraction of I. shangrila, it is an active antagonist and likely functions in species isolation. A review of the pheromone production and responses in Palearctic Ips and Pseudoips showed that cV is more common than methylbutenols, and both elicit qualitatively variable responses. Ipsdienol is the most common component with variable chirality, and is a necessary, but often not sufficient, factor for determining pheromone specificity.

  9. Variation in relative quantities of airborne sex pheromone components from individual femaleEphestia cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Barrer, P M; Lacey, M J; Shani, A

    1987-03-01

    The airborne sex pheromone components (Z,E)-9,12-tetradeca-dien-1-yl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-y1 acetate from single calling females ofEphestia cautella (Walker) were trapped within glass capillary tubes and were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Broad and similar distributions of relative quantities were found for a laboratory strain and three Australian field strains, and means differed strongly from those reported previously for this species. The overall mean proportion of the two components found for Australian females was 88∶12. The composition in individuals ranged from 63∶27 to 97∶3. The proportions for individuals appeared to vary slightly in a random fashion from day to day, and proportions for first-generation progeny were influenced by the maternal blend.

  10. Pheromones in social wasps.

    PubMed

    Claudia, Bruschini; Rita, Cervo; Stefano, Turillazzi

    2010-01-01

    Social wasps need an efficient communication system to coordinate their members in the numerous activities of the colony. In this regard, the chemical channel is the most utilized by social wasps to transfer information in intraspecific (pheromones) and interspecific (allomones) communication. In this chapter, we reviewed the main chemical substances which mediate recognition between colony members and coordinate nest defense, alarm and recruitment. Due to their central role in the colonial life, the majority of pheromones have been identified and their functions have been deeply investigated in many species. On the contrary, sex pheromones which are the most studied in insects, have been quite neglected in social wasps. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A four-component pheromone blend for optimum attraction of redbacked cutworm males,Euxoa ochrogaster (Guenée).

    PubMed

    Struble, D L

    1981-05-01

    Four acetates,Z-5-decenyl acetate,Z-5-,Z-7-, andZ-9-dodecenyl acetates, in microgram ratios of 1∶200∶2∶1 or 1∶200∶6∶2 were excellent, specific sex pheromone blends for capturing male redbacked cutworm moths in cone traps. Blends in ratios of 1∶200∶2∶1 and 2∶200∶2∶1 at 1000 μg/ rubber septum dispenser remained highly effective for 6 weeks under field conditions. The essential minor components,Z-5-decenyl,Z-7-, andZ-9-dodecenyl acetates, became inhibitory at concentrations of about 10% in the blends, and this may be an important general phenomenon in lepidopteran pheromones. Blends involving a parapheromone,Z-5-undecenyl acetate, withZ-5-,Z-7-, andZ-9-dodecenyl acetate, in microgram ratios of 8∶200∶2∶1 or 20∶200∶6∶2 were also excellent specific attractants for this species. TheZ-8-dodecenyl acetate had no obvious effect on the attraction of the redbacked cutworm males.

  12. Complexes between STE5 and components of the pheromone-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase module.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, S; Polverino, A; Barr, M; Wigler, M

    1994-01-01

    We present genetic evidence for complex formation of STE5 and the STE11, STE7, and FUS3 protein kinases, the pheromone-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase module of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interaction between STE5 and STE11 is not dependent on STE7, and interaction between STE5 and STE7 does not require STE11. The N-terminal regulatory domain of STE11 is both necessary and sufficient for interaction with STE5. Interaction between STE7 and STE11 is bridged by STE5, suggesting the formation of a multiprotein complex. We also demonstrate biochemical interaction between STE5 and STE11 by using a combination of bacterially expressed fusion proteins and extracts prepared from yeast. Our results suggest that STE5 is a scaffolding protein that facilitates interactions between components of the pheromone-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase module. We further propose that such scaffolding proteins serve to inhibit cross-talk between functionally unrelated mitogen-activated protein kinase modules within the same cell. Images PMID:8052657

  13. A plant factory for moth pheromone production

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  14. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-02-25

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste.

  15. Identification of components of the female sex pheromone of the Simao pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Cheng-Hua; Booij, Kees C J H

    2011-04-01

    The pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), is a pest of economic importance on pine in southwest China. Three active compounds were detected during analyses of solvent extracts and effluvia sampled by solid phase microextraction (SPME) from virgin female D. kikuchii using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with electroantennographic (EAG) recording with antennae from a male moth. The compounds were identified as (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,E7-12:OAc), (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (Z5,E7-12:OH), and (5Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate (Z5-12:OAc) by comparison of their GC retention indices, mass spectra, and EAG activities with those of synthetic standards. Microchemical reactions of gland extracts provided further information confirming the identifications of the three components. Solvent extractions and SPME samples of pheromone effluvia from virgin calling females provided 100:18:0.6 and 100:7:1 ratios of Z5,E7-12:OAc:Z5,E7-12:OH:Z5-12:OAc, respectively. Field behavioral assays showed that Z5,E7-12:OAc and Z5,E7-12:OH were essential for attraction of male D. kikuchii moths. However, the most attractive blend contained these three components in a 100:20:25 ratio in a gray rubber septa. Our results demonstrated that the blend of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,E7-12:OH, and Z5-12:OAc comprise the sex pheromone of D. kikuchii. The optimized three-component lure blend is recommended for monitoring D. kikuchii infestations.

  16. Variable responses by southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to the pheromone component endo-Brevicomin: influence of enantiomeric composition, release rate, and proximity to infestations

    Treesearch

    Brian Sullivan; Mark Dulusky; Kenji Mori; Cavell Brownie

    2011-01-01

    The male-produced bicyclic acetal endo-brevicomin is a component of the pheromone blend that mediates colonization of host pines by the bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. Efforts to identify its behavioral function have been complicated by contrasting reports that it either enhances or reduces attraction of flying beetles. Our studies failed to support the...

  17. Attraction of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, to pheromone components of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in an allopatric zone

    Treesearch

    Deepa S. Pureswaran; Richard W. Hofstetter; Brian T. Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Subtle differences in pheromone components of sympatric species should be attractive only to the producing species and unattractive or repellent to the nonproducing species, and thereby maintain reproductive isolation and reduce competition between species. Bark beetles Dendroctonus brevicomis and D. frontalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are known to...

  18. Rust-red grain beetle,Cryptolestes ferrugineus, and flat grain beetle,Cryptolestes pusillus: Antennal and behavioral responses to synthetic components of their aggregation pheromones.

    PubMed

    Chambers, J; Morgan, C P; White, P R; Mori, K; Finnegan, D E; Pinniger, D B

    1990-12-01

    Antennal and behavioral responses of the rust-red grain beetle,Cryptolestes ferrugineus, and the flat grain beetle,C. pusillus, to synthetic samples of the macrocyclic lactones reported to comprise their aggregation pheromones were investigated. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings were obtained successfully from both species for the first time. Females of both species showed larger EAGs than males. The EAGs ofC. ferrugineus showed a high degree of specificity for conspecific aggregation pheromone components;C. pusillus showed much less specificity. Behavioral tests were conducted using two-choice pitfall bioassays. Separation of the results into the two effects of activity stimulation and direction finding showed that both effects contributed to the overall response, although sometimes to different extents. The strain ofC. pusillus studied responded equally well to both components of its pheromone, whereas it had been reported previously that only one was active, the other acting as a Synergist and eliciting no response when tested alone. With both species, behavioral response was elicited with a single lactone, suggesting that it might not be necessary to use both components for field use. Particularly surprising was thatC. pusillus showed a greater response to the pheromone components ofC. ferrugineus than to its own. Aeration of the two species and thermal desorption of the collected volatiles confirmed production of the expected lactones, and aeration of authentic lactones showed that the response was not due to the C.ferrugineus pheromone components being markedly more volatile. This response, which seems to be an actual preference, is the first to be discovered among the cucujid beetles and encourages optimism that a practical lure for various species may not need to be as complex as originally feared.

  19. Alarms Philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    White, Karen S; Kasemir, Kay

    2009-01-01

    An effective alarm system consists of a mechanism to monitor control points and generate alarm notifications, tools for operators to view, hear, acknowledge and handle alarms and a good configuration. Despite the availability of numerous fully featured tools, accelerator alarm systems continue to be disappointing to operations, frequently to the point of alarms being permanently silenced or totally ignored. This is often due to configurations that produce an excessive number of alarms or fail to communicate the required operator response. Most accelerator controls systems do a good job of monitoring specified points and generating notifications when parameters exceed predefined limits. In some cases, improved tools can help, but more often, poor configuration is the root cause of ineffective alarm systems. A SNS, we have invested considerable effort in generating appropriate configurations using a rigorous set of rules based on best practices in the industrial process controls community. This paper will discuss our alarm configuration philosophy and operator response to our new system.

  20. (Z)-7-tricosene and monounsaturated ketones as sex pheromone components of the Australian guava moth Coscinoptycha improbana: identification, field trapping, and phenology.

    PubMed

    Gibb, A R; Suckling, D M; Morris, B D; Dawson, T E; Bunn, B; Comeskey, D; Dymock, J J

    2006-01-01

    Pheromone gland extracts of the Australian guava moth Coscinoptycha improbana (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), contained four compounds that elicited responses from male moth antennae in gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analyses. These were identified by GC-mass spectrometry as (Z)-7-tricosene (Z7-23Hy), (Z)-7-octadecen-11-one (Z7-11-one-18Hy), (Z)-7-nonadecen-11-one (Z7-11-one-19Hy), and (Z)-7-tricosen-11-one (Z7-11-one-23Hy) at a ratio of 65:23.5:1.5:10, respectively. Z7-23Hy, Z7-11-one-18Hy, and Z7-11-one-23Hy have not previously been reported as lepidopteran sex pheromone components. Z7-11-one-18Hy was active as a single component, and was synergized by Z7-11-one-23Hy but not Z7-11-one-19Hy, although the latter compound was weakly attractive as a single component. Addition of Z7-23Hy further increased attraction. The amount of the major pheromone component, Z7-11-one-18Hy in female pheromone gland extracts was estimated to be 16.4 ng/female (N = 8). Phenological data gathered over a 12-mo period in 2002 and 2003 using the binary blend indicated that moths are active throughout the year. The pheromone has already been employed to monitor the spread of C. improbana in New Zealand and detect its presence in Queensland, Australia.

  1. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    PubMed

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gqalpha-linked PLCbeta and PLCgamma are essential components of the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) signal transduction cascade

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sex pheromone production for most moths is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN). In Bombyx mori, PBAN binding triggers the opening of store-operated Ca2+ channels, suggesting the involvement of a receptor-activated phospholipase C (PLC). In this study, we found that P...

  3. Components of reproductive isolation between North American pheromone strains of the European corn borer.

    PubMed

    Dopman, Erik B; Robbins, Paul S; Seaman, Abby

    2010-04-01

    Of 12 potential reproductive isolating barriers between closely related Z- and E-pheromone strains of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis), seven significantly reduced gene flow but none were complete, suggesting that speciation in this lineage is a gradual process in which multiple barriers of intermediate strength accumulate. Estimation of the cumulative effect of all barriers resulted in nearly complete isolation (>99%), but geographic variation in seasonal isolation allowed as much as approximately 10% gene flow. With the strongest barriers arising from mate-selection behavior or ecologically relevant traits, sexual and natural selection are the most likely evolutionary processes driving population divergence. A recent multilocus genealogical study corroborates the roles of selection and gene flow (Dopman et al. 2005), because introgression is supported at all loci besides Tpi, a sex-linked gene. Tpi reveals strains as exclusive groups, possesses signatures of selection, and is tightly linked to a QTL that contributes to seasonal isolation. With more than 98% of total cumulative isolation consisting of prezygotic barriers, Z and E strains of ECB join a growing list of taxa in which species boundaries are primarily maintained by the prevention of hybridization, possibly because premating barriers evolve during early stages of population divergence.

  4. COMPONENTS OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION BETWEEN NORTH AMERICAN PHEROMONE STRAINS OF THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER

    PubMed Central

    Dopman, Erik B.; Robbins, Paul S.; Seaman, Abby

    2009-01-01

    Of 12 potential reproductive isolating barriers between closely related Z and E pheromone strains of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis), seven significantly reduced gene flow but none were complete, suggesting that speciation in this lineage is a gradual process in which multiple barriers of intermediate strength accumulate. Estimation of the cumulative effect of all barriers was nearly complete isolation (> 99%), but geographic variation in seasonal isolation allowed as much as ~10% gene flow. With the strongest barriers arising from mate-selection behavior or ecologically relevant traits, sexual and natural selection are the most likely evolutionary processes driving population divergence. A recent multilocus genealogical study corroborates the roles of selection and gene flow (Dopman et al. 2005), because introgression is supported at all loci besides Tpi, a sex-linked gene. Tpi reveals strains as exclusive groups, possesses signatures of selection, and is tightly linked to a QTL that contributes to seasonal isolation. With more than 98% of total cumulative isolation consisting of prezygotic barriers, Z and E strains of ECB join a growing list of taxa in which species boundaries are primarily maintained by the prevention of hybridization, possibly because premating barriers evolve during early stages of population divergence. PMID:19895559

  5. The aggregation pheromone of Diorhabda elongata, a biological control agent of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.): identification of two behaviorally active components.

    PubMed

    Cossé, Allard A; Bartelt, Robert J; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Bean, Daniel W; Petroski, Richard J

    2005-03-01

    The leaf beetle Diorhabda elongata Brullé (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) has been introduced as a biological control agent for saltcedars, Tamarix spp., an exotic, invasive weedy tree in the western United State. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of volatiles collected from feeding male or female beetles, or saltcedar foliage alone, showed two components produced almost exclusively by males. These compounds elicited responses from antennae of male and female beetles in GC-electroantennographic detection (EAD) analyses. The compounds were identified as (2E,4Z)-2,4-heptadienal (1) and (2E,4Z)-2,4-heptadien-1-ol (2) by GC-mass spectrometry (MS), and confirmed with authentic standards. The two compounds were also detected at trace levels from feeding females and foliage controls, but the amounts from feeding males were 8-40 times higher, typically 55-125 ng per day per male. The amounts of 1 and 2 in collections from females did not differ significantly from amounts collected from control foliage. In field trials, 2 as a single component was as attractive as a 1:1 blend of 1 and 2. Compound 1 as a single component was more attractive than controls, but much less attractive than 2 or the blend. Males and females were attracted in about equal numbers, indicating that this is an aggregation pheromone.

  6. Alarm Safety and Alarm Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kendall R; Hagadorn, James I; Sink, David W

    2017-09-01

    Clinical alarm systems have received significant attention in recent years following warnings from hospital accrediting and health care technology organizations regarding patient harm caused by unsafe practices. Alarm desensitization or fatigue from frequent, false, or unnecessary alarms, has led to serious events and even patient deaths. Other concerns include settings inappropriate to patient population or condition, inadequate staff training, and improper use or disabling. Research on human factors in alarm response and of functionality of medical devices will help clinicians develop appropriate policies, practices, and device settings for clinical alarms in neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. De novo biosynthesis of the aggregation pheromone components ipsenol and ipsdienol by the pine bark beetles Ips paraconfusus Lanier and Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed Central

    Seybold, S J; Quilici, D R; Tillman, J A; Vanderwel, D; Wood, D L; Blomquist, G J

    1995-01-01

    The California five-spined ips, Ips paraconfusus Lanier, produces the myrcene-derived acyclic monoterpene alcohols ipsenol (2-methyl-6-methylene-7-octen-4-ol) and ipsdienol (2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadien-4-ol) as components of its aggregation pheromone. The pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Say), produces only ipsdienol. Previous studies have shown that myrcene, a monoterpene in the pines colonized by these beetles, is a direct precursor to these pheromone components. In vivo radiolabeling studies reported here showed that male I. paraconfusus incorporated [1-14C]acetate into ipsenol, ipsdienol, and amitinol (trans-2-methyl-6-methylene-3,7-octadien-2-ol), while male I. pini incorporated [1-14C]acetate into ipsdienol and amitinol. Females of these species produced neither labeled nor unlabeled pheromone components. The purified radiolabeled monoterpene alcohols from-males were identified by comparison of their HPLC and GC retention times with those of unlabeled standards. HPLC-purified fractions containing the individual radiolabeled components were analyzed by GC-MS and were shown to include only the pure alcohols. To further confirm that ipsdienol and ipsenol were radiolabeled, diastereomeric ester derivatives of the isolated alcohols were synthesized and analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS. After derivatization of the radiolabeled alcohols, the HPLC analysis demonstrated expected shifts in retention times with conservation of naturally occurring stereochemistry. The results provide direct evidence for de novo biosynthesis of ipsenol, ipsdienol, and amitinol by bark beetles. PMID:11607576

  8. Characterization of TRPC2, an essential genetic component of VNS chemoreception, provides insights into the evolution of pheromonal olfaction in secondary-adapted marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Jin, Wei; Wang, Jia-xin; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Meng-meng; Zhu, Zhou-hai; Lee, Hang; Lee, Muyeong; Zhang, Ya-ping

    2010-07-01

    Pheromones are chemical cues released and sensed by individuals of the same species, which are of major importance in regulating reproductive and social behaviors of mammals. Generally, they are detected by the vomeronasal system (VNS). Here, we first investigated and compared an essential genetic component of vomeronasal chemoreception, that is, TRPC2 gene, of four marine mammals varying the degree of aquatic specialization and related terrestrial species in order to provide insights into the evolution of pheromonal olfaction in the mammalian transition from land to water. Our results based on sequence characterizations and evolutionary analyses, for the first time, show the evidence for the ancestral impairment of vomeronasal pheromone signal transduction pathway in fully aquatic cetaceans, supporting a reduced or absent dependence on olfaction as a result of the complete adaptation to the marine habitat, whereas the amphibious California sea lion was found to have a putatively functional TRPC2 gene, which is still under strong selective pressures, reflecting the reliance of terrestrial environment on chemical recognition among the semiadapted marine mammals. Interestingly, our study found that, unlike that of the California sea lion, TRPC2 genes of the harbor seal and the river otter, both of which are also semiaquatic, are pseudogenes. Our data suggest that other unknown selective pressures or sensory modalities might have promoted the independent absence of a functional VNS in these two species. In this respect, the evolution of pheromonal olfaction in marine mammals appears to be more complex and confusing than has been previously thought. Our study makes a useful contribution to the current understanding of the evolution of pheromone perception of mammals in response to selective pressures from an aquatic environment.

  9. A concise, protection-free and divergent approach for the enantioselective syntheses of two pheromonal epoxide components of the fall webworm moth and other species.

    PubMed

    Du, Yu; Zheng, Jian-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Jiang, Li-Jiao; Ruan, Yuan-Ping; Huang, Pei-Qiang

    2010-07-02

    On the basis of Zhou's modified Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, sequential coupling reactions, and a divergent strategy, the protection-free syntheses of two main pheromonal components 1 and 5, found in the fall webworm moth, Hyphantria cunea, and other species have been accomplished in 10 steps (for two compounds). The overall yields are 31% for 1, 28% for 5, and 25% for both 1 and 5, respectively. The ee values of the final products 1 and 5 are at least 99%.

  10. A Lysine at the C-Terminus of an Odorant-Binding Protein is Involved in Binding Aldehyde Pheromone Components in Two Helicoverpa Species

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ya-Lan; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are soluble proteins, whose role in olfaction of insects is being recognized as more and more important. We have cloned, expressed and purified an OBP (HarmOBP7) from the antennae of the moth Helicoverpa armigera. Western blot experiments indicate specific expression of this protein in the antennae of adults. HarmOBP7 binds both pheromone components Z-11-hexadecenal and Z-9-hexadecenal with good affinity. We have also performed a series of binding experiments with linear aldehydes, alcohols and esters, as well as with other compounds and found a requirement of medium size for best affinity. The affinity of OBP7, as well as that of a mutant lacking the last 6 residues does not substantially decrease in acidic conditions, but increases at basic pH values with no significant differences between wild-type and mutant. Binding to both pheromone components, instead, is negatively affected by the lack of the C-terminus. A second mutant, where one of the three lysine residues in the C-terminus (Lys123) was replaced by methionine showed reduced affinity to both pheromone components, as well as to their analogues, thus indicating that Lys123 is involved in binding these compounds, likely forming hydrogen bonds with the functional groups of the ligands. PMID:23372826

  11. Identification of novel C(20) and C (22) trienoic acids from arctiid and geometrid female moths that produce polyenyl Type II Sex pheromone components.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Kanae; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yamakawa, Rei; Muramatsu, Minoru; Naka, Hideshi; Kondo, Yusuke; Ando, Tetsu

    2008-11-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-electroantennographic detection (EAD) analyses of the sex pheromone extract from a wasp moth, Syntomoides imaon (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae: Syntominae), showed that virgin females produced (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-henicosatriene and (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-henicosatetraene with a trace amount of their C(20) analogs. Identification of the chemical structures was facilitated by comparison with authentic standards and the double-bond positions were confirmed by dimethyl disulfide derivatization of monoenes produced by a diimide reduction. In a field test in the Yonaguni-jima Islands, males of the diurnal species were captured in traps baited with a 1:2 mixture of the above-described synthetic C(21) polyenes. Lipids were extracted from the abdominal integument and its associated oenocytes and peripheral fat bodies. Following derivatization, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were fractionated by HPLC equipped with an ODS column, and methyl (Z,Z,Z)-11,14,17-icosatrienoate and (Z,Z,Z)-13,16,19-docosatrienoate were identified by GC-MS. These novel C(20) and C(22) acid moieties are longer-chain analogs of linolenic acid, (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid. They are presumed to be biosynthetic precursors of the S. imaon pheromone because the C(21) trienyl component might be formed by decarboxylation of the C(22) acid. On the other hand, the C(20) acid, but not the C(22) acid, was found in FAMEs of Ascotis selenaria cretacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), which secretes C(19) pheromone components, (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene and the monoepoxy derivative, indicating that different systems of the chain elongation might play an important role in developing species-specific communication systems mediated with polyunsaturated hydrocarbons and/or epoxy derivatives, components of Type II lepidopteran sex pheromones.

  12. Sex pheromone of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus in Israel: occurrence of a second component in a mass-reared population.

    PubMed

    Zada, A; Dunkelblum, E; Assael, F; Harel, M; Cojocaru, M; Mendel, Z

    2003-04-01

    Two pheromonal components were detected in airborne collections from the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) mass-reared on potato sprouts. The compounds were identified as (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II) by GC and GC-MS by comparison with synthetic standards. Chiral GC analysis on a cyclodextrin column established their chirality. Compound I was identified recently as the sex pheromone of P. ficus in California. The attraction of vine mealybug males to both components I and II was demonstrated in a Petri dish bioassay and in a flight assay in the rearing chamber. Indoors, both compounds displayed a similar level of attractiveness to the mass-reared males. However, trials in a vineyard indicated that feral males were attracted only to compound I. Reanalysis of the airborne pheromone indicated that laboratory first generation daughters of females that were collected in the vineyard produce only (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I). The relative amount of (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II) increased gradually in each subsequent generation of P. ficus reared on potatoes. These findings indicate that feral P. ficus mealybugs produce and respond only to (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I), whereas mealybugs that were reared in the laboratory on potato sprouts produce and respond to both (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II).

  13. Differentiation in putative male sex pheromone components across and within populations of the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana as a potential driver of reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Bacquet, Paul M B; de Jong, Maaike A; Brattström, Oskar; Wang, Hong-Lei; Molleman, Freerk; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Lognay, George; Löfstedt, Christer; Brakefield, Paul M; Vanderpoorten, Alain; Nieberding, Caroline M

    2016-09-01

    Sexual traits are often the most divergent characters among closely related species, suggesting an important role of sexual traits in speciation. However, to prove this, we need to show that sexual trait differences accumulate before or during the speciation process, rather than being a consequence of it. Here, we contrast patterns of divergence among putative male sex pheromone (pMSP) composition and the genetic structure inferred from variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 and nuclear CAD loci in the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Butler, 1879) to determine whether the evolution of "pheromonal dialects" occurs before or after the differentiation process. We observed differences in abundance of some shared pMSP components as well as differences in the composition of the pMSP among B. anynana populations. In addition, B. anynana individuals from Kenya displayed differences in the pMSP composition within a single population that appeared not associated with genetic differences. These differences in pMSP composition both between and within B. anynana populations were as large as those found between different Bicyclus species. Our results suggest that "pheromonal dialects" evolved within and among populations of B. anynana and may therefore act as precursors of an ongoing speciation process.

  14. Identification of components of male-produced pheromone of coffee white stemborer, Xylotrechus quadripes.

    PubMed

    Hall, D R; Cork, A; Phythian, S J; Chittamuru, S; Jayarama, B K; Venkatesha, M G; Sreedharan, K; Vinod Kumar, P K; Seetharama, H G; Naidu, R

    2006-01-01

    The coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is the foremost pest of arabica coffee in India, Sri Lanka, China, Vietnam, and Thailand. Previous work showed that female beetles were attracted to traps baited with male beetles. Analyses of volatiles from male X. quadripes of Indian origin by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennographic (EAG) recording from a female beetle antenna showed three male-specific components comprising more than 90% of the volatiles, two of which elicited EAG responses. The major EAG-active component was produced at up to 2 microg hr(-1) insect(-1) and was identified as (S)-2-hydroxy-3-decanone (I) by comparison of GC data, and mass (MS), infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra with those of synthetic standards. The second component was identified as 3-hydroxy-2-decanone (II) produced in part by isomerization of I under the conditions of the GC analysis, although the NMR spectrum suggested it is naturally produced at up to 7% of I. The minor component that elicited an EAG response, present at 7% of the amount of I, was identified as (S,S)-2,3-dihydroxyoctane (III) from GC and MS data. 2-Hydroxy-3-octanone (0.2-0.5% of I), 2,3-decanedione (2% of I), 2-phenylethanol (3% of I), and octanoic acid (4% of I) were also identified in volatiles from male beetles. A general, stereospecific synthetic route to the enantiomers of 2-hydroxy-3-alkanones from the enantiomers of ethyl lactate was developed. The enantiomers of III were synthesized from (E)-2-octene by Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation. (S)-(I) was attractive to male X. quadripes in laboratory bioassays, but addition of (S,RS)-(III) at 10% of I reduced attractiveness. In field trials carried out in India with sticky, cross-vane traps, (S)- and (RS)-(I) attracted male X. quadripes and addition of (S,S)-(III) at 10% of I reduced attractiveness. Significant numbers of female Demonax balyi Pascoe (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

  15. Synchronous firing of antennal-lobe projection neurons encodes the behaviorally effective ratio of sex-pheromone components in male Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joshua P.; Lei, Hong; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli that are essential to an animal's survival and reproduction are often complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in characteristic proportions. Here, we investigated how these proportions are encoded in the primary olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), of male Manduca sexta moths. Two key components of the female's sex pheromone, present in an approximately 2:1 ratio, are processed in each of two neighboring glomeruli in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of males of this species. In wind-tunnel flight experiments, males exhibited behavioral selectivity for ratios approximating the ratio released by conspecific females. The ratio between components was poorly represented, however, in the firing-rate output of uniglomerular MGC projection neurons (PNs). PN firing rate was mostly insensitive to the ratio between components, and individual PNs did not exhibit a preference for a particular ratio. Recording simultaneously from pairs of PNs in the same glomerulus, we found that the natural ratio between components elicited the most synchronous spikes, and altering the proportion of either component decreased the proportion of synchronous spikes. The degree of synchronous firing between PNs in the same glomerulus thus selectively encodes the natural ratio that most effectively evokes the natural behavioral response to pheromone. PMID:24002682

  16. Evidence that (+)-endo-Brevicomin is a male-produced component of the Southern Pine Beetle aggregation pheromone

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan; William P. Shepherd; Deepa S. Pureswarana; Takuya Tashiro; Kenji Mori

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicated that the aggregation pheromone of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is produced only by females, the sex that initiates attacks. We provide evidence indicating that secondarily arriving males augment mass aggregation by releasing the attractive synergist (+)-endo-brevicomin. Healthy pines artificially...

  17. Methyl 6-methylsalicylate: A female-produced pheromone component of the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sex pheromone-related behavior and chemistry were studied in the wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a pupal parasitoid of house flies Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Males responded behaviorally to female extracts by arrestment, whereas females did not arrest to male e...

  18. Pheromone responsiveness is regulated by components of the Gpr1p-mediated glucose sensing pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Willhite, D Grant; Brigati, Jennifer R; Selcer, Katie E; Denny, Joshua E; Duck, Zachary A; Wright, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    Many fungi have evolved mechanisms to assess environmental nutrient availability prior to the energy-intensive process of mating. In this study, we examined one such system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, involving a glucose-sensing pathway mediated by Gpr1p and the pheromone-induced mating pathway. Initially we observed that the mating pathway in MATa cells is sensitive to environmental glucose depletion. This phenomenon can be partially reversed with a high glucose spike, but not with the addition of low levels of glucose. Deletion of the low-affinity glucose receptor, Gpr1p, eliminated this glucose-induced recovery of pheromone responsiveness. We then determined the impact of GPR1 deletion on the mating pathway and observed that, in all end points studied, the mating pathway response to pheromone is reduced in the absence of Gpr1p. Similarly, elimination of the Gα for Gpr1p, Gpa2p, resulted in reduction in pheromone sensitivity in all assays studied. The negative effect of removing Gpr1p on mating pathway activation could be recovered by overexpressing the mating receptor, Ste2p. Furthermore, Ste2p levels are reduced in the absence of glucose and GPR1. These data suggest that activity of the GPCR-mediated mating pathway in S. cerevisiae is modulated by extracellular glucose concentrations through the only other GPCR in MATa cells, Gpr1p.

  19. Synthesis and field tests of possible minor components of the sex pheromone of Prionus californicus.

    PubMed

    Maki, Elin C; Rodstein, Joshua; Millar, Jocelyn G; Barbour, Karen S; Hanks, Lawrence M; Barbour, James D

    2011-07-01

    Earlier work has shown that adult male Prionus californicus Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are attracted to the female-produced compound (3R,5S)-3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid, and to a synthetic mixture of the four stereoisomers of 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid. Here, we report the results of field trials that tested whether or not three structurally related compounds (methyl 3,5-dimethyldodecanoate, 3,5-dimethyltridecanoic acid, and 3,5-dimethylpentadecanoic acid), present in extracts of virgin females, are attractive, and whether or not they influence attraction to 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid. In a trial with single components, only traps baited with the acid or its methyl ester captured more beetles than did control traps; catches to the acid were five times higher than to the methyl ester. Another trial, excluding 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid, confirmed the activity of the methyl ester. Finally, addition of the three compounds to 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid, in the ratio found in extracts from female beetles, gave a catch similar to that of traps baited with 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid alone. Consequently, the function of these minor compounds remains undetermined.

  20. Unraveling the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) signal transduction cascade that regulates sex pheromone production in moths

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies over the past three decades have demonstrated that female moths usually produce sex pheromones as multi-component blends in which the ratios of the individual components are precisely controlled, making it possible to generate species-specific pheromone blends. Most moth pheromone component...

  1. Alarm fatigue.

    PubMed

    Sendelbach, Sue

    2012-09-01

    The number of false high alarms in the hospital setting remains a serious problem. False alarms have desensitized care providers and, at times, have led to dire consequences for patients. Efforts by both industry and clinicians are beginning to address this situation in collaborative approaches. Research is needed to establish an evidence base around issues such as which patients need to be monitored, and what the threshold settings and delay settings should be on devices. Initial and ongoing education needs to be considered for any new medical device, and be included in the hospital's annual budget. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physico-chemical properties of the female sex pheromone of Heterodera schachtii (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    PubMed

    Aumann, J; Dietsche, E; Rutencrantz, S; Ladehoff, H

    1998-11-01

    Several physico-chemical properties of the female sex pheromone of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii were elucidated. At least one component of the pheromone can be extracted from aqueous solutions with diethyl ether. However, the pheromone has a higher solubility in water, as most of the pheromone activity remained in the water fraction. Ion exchange chromatography revealed that the pheromone or at least one of its components is positively charged, whereas another pheromone component may be negatively charged. Fractional distillation of pheromone extracts showed that it is, indeed, composed of at least two components. These components may interact additively rather than synergistically.

  3. Identification, synthesis, and behavioral activity of 5,11-dimethylpentacosane, a novel sex pheromone component of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.).

    PubMed

    Svensson, Glenn P; Gündüz, Eylem Akman; Sjöberg, Natalia; Hedenström, Erik; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Wang, Hong-Lei; Löfstedt, Christer; Anderbrant, Olle

    2014-04-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a serious and widespread pest of the honeybee, Apis mellifera L. In contrast to most moths, for which long-range mate finding is mediated by female-produced sex pheromones, G. mellonella males attract conspecific females over long distances by emitting large amounts of a characteristic scent in combination with bursts of ultrasonic calls. The male scent for this species was previously identified as a blend of nonanal and undecanal. When these compounds were bioassayed, characteristic short-range sexual behavior, including wing fanning, was triggered in conspecific females, but the aldehyde blend failed to elicit attraction over longer distances. We identified, via analysis and synthesis, a third male-specific compound, 5,11-dimethylpentacosane. We show that it acts as a behavioral synergist to the aldehydes. In wind tunnel experiments, very few female moths responded to the aldehyde blend or to 5,11-dimethylpentacosane tested separately, but consistently showed orientation and source contact when a combination of all three compounds was applied. The level of attraction to the three-component mixture was still lower than that to male extract, indicating that the composition of compounds in the synthetic blend is suboptimal, or that additional pheromone components of G. mellonella are yet to be identified. The identification of 5,11-dimethylpentacosane is an important step for the development of an efficient long-range attractant that will be integrated with other environmentally safe strategies to reduce damage to beehives caused by wax moths.

  4. Sex pheromone of fall armyworm,Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) : Identification of components critical to attraction in the field.

    PubMed

    Tumlinson, J H; Mitchell, E R; Teal, P E; Heath, R R; Mengelkoch, L J

    1986-09-01

    Analyses of extracts of pheromone glands and of volatiles from calling female fall armyworm moths,Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), revealed the presence of the following compounds: dodecan-1-ol acetate, (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol acetate, 11-dodecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecenal, (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate. The volatiles emitted by calling females differed from the gland extract in that the two aldehydes were absent. Field tests were conducted with sticky traps baited with rubber septa formulated to release blends with the same component ratios as those emitted by calling females. These tests demonstrated that both (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate are required for optimum activity and that this blend is a significantly better lure than either virgin females or 25 mg of (Z)-9-dodecen-1-ol acetate in a polyethylene vial, the previously used standard. Addition of the other three acetates found in the volatiles did not significantly increase the effectiveness of the two-component blend as a bait for Pherocon 1C or International Pheromones moth traps.

  5. Identification and characterization of pheromone receptors and interplay between receptors and pheromone binding proteins in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic of pheromone receptors. In the Xenopus-based functional study and in situ hybridization, PxylOR4 is defined as another pheromone receptor in addition to the previously characterized PxylOR1. In the study of interaction between PRs and PBPs, PxylPBPs could increase the sensitivity of the complex expressing oocyte cells to the ligand pheromone component while decreasing the sensitivity to pheromone analogs. We deduce that activating pheromone receptors in olfactory receptor neurons requires some role of PBPs to pheromone/PBP complex. If the chemical signal is not the pheromone component, but instead, a pheromone analog with a similar structure, the complex would have a decreased ability to activate downstream pheromone receptors.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Pheromone Receptors and Interplay between Receptors and Pheromone Binding Proteins in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B.; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic of pheromone receptors. In the Xenopus-based functional study and in situ hybridization, PxylOR4 is defined as another pheromone receptor in addition to the previously characterized PxylOR1. In the study of interaction between PRs and PBPs, PxylPBPs could increase the sensitivity of the complex expressing oocyte cells to the ligand pheromone component while decreasing the sensitivity to pheromone analogs. We deduce that activating pheromone receptors in olfactory receptor neurons requires some role of PBPs to pheromone/PBP complex. If the chemical signal is not the pheromone component, but instead, a pheromone analog with a similar structure, the complex would have a decreased ability to activate downstream pheromone receptors. PMID:23626773

  7. Candidate pheromone receptors provide the basis for the response of distinct antennal neurons to pheromonal compounds.

    PubMed

    Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Gohl, Thomas; Bouché, Elisabeth; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    Males of the moth species Heliothis virescens are able to detect the female-released pheromone with remarkable sensitivity and specificity, distinguishing between highly related pheromonal compounds. In the past, electrophysiological studies succeeded in assigning sensory hairs to identified compounds revealing three functional types of long sensilla trichodea housing neurons specifically responding to distinct semiochemicals. The specific responsiveness implies that the sensory neurons express different receptor types tuned to pheromone components. In this study we demonstrate that heterologously expressed candidate pheromone receptors from Heliothis responded to several pheromonal compounds, including the major sex-pheromone component Z-11-hexadecenal indicating a limited specificity of each receptor type. Nonetheless, based on functional analysis and in situ hybridization studies the analysed receptor types could tentatively be assigned to types of long sensilla trichodea, containing the pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) HvirPBP1 and HvirPBP2 in the sensillum lymph. Substituting organic solvent with PBPs to solubilize the hydrophobic pheromone compounds in functional assays revealed an increase in sensitivity and especially specificity. It was found that in the presence of HvirPBP2, cells expressing the receptor type HR13 specifically responded to the main component of the sex pheromone blend only. The data provide further evidence that a combination of a distinct receptor type and binding protein underlie the specific response observed in the detection of a pheromone component in vivo.

  8. A model for peak and width of signaling windows: Ips duplicatus and Chilo partellus pheromone component proportions--does response have a wider window than production?

    PubMed

    Schlyter, F; Svensson, M; Zhang, Q H; Knízek, M; Krokene, P; Ivarsson, P; Birgersson, G

    2001-07-01

    Pheromone communication systems have a reliable signal with a restricted window of amounts and ratios released and perceived. We propose a model based on a Gaussian response profile that allows a quantification of the response peak (location of optimum) and a measure of the peak width (response window). Interpreting the Gaussian curve, fitted by nonlinear regression (NLR), as a standard normal distribution, the peak location equals the mean (it) and the window width equals 2 x the standard deviation (2sigma). The NLR procedure can provide an objective measure for both peak location and width for a wide range of data sets. Four empirical data sets as well as 10 literature data sets were analyzed. The double-spined spruce engraver, Ips duplicatus, was field tested in four populations to find the optimum proportion for attraction to the two male aggregation pheromone components, ipsdienol (Id) and (E)-myrcenol(EM), ranging from 0 to 100% of Id. Tests in Norway and the Czech Republic confirmed the preference of western populations for a blend between 50 and 90% Id. A population in Inner Mongolia showed a preference for traps with the 10 and 50% Id baits. The NLR fitted values for response peak and width (mu; 2sigma) were: Norway 0.64, 0.73; Czech Republic 0.53, 0.73; NE China 0.77, 0.29; and Inner Mongolia 0.33, 0.50. The signal produced by Norwegian field-collected males had a narrower window width (2sigma = 0.12). Males of the maize stem borer, Chilo partellus, were tested in a flight tunnel for their response to variation in the two major female sex pheromone gland components, (Z)- l1-hexadecenal and the corresponding alcohol (OH). Variation of the alcohol in seven levels from 2 to 29% OH showed the highest male response for 17% OH. For all behavioral steps, the peak of male response was near mu = 0.14, while the window width fell from 2sigma = 0.5 to 0.2 for eight sequential behavioral steps from take-off to copulation. Female production had a similar peak location

  9. Sex pheromone components and control of the citrus pock caterpillar, Prays endocarpa, found in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vang, Le Van; Do, Nguyen Duc; An, Le Ky; Son, Pham Kim; Ando, Tetsu

    2011-01-01

    The citrus pock caterpillar, Prays endocarpa (Yponomeutidae; Praydinae), is a pest of pomelo (Citrus grandis L.) in Vietnam. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of pheromone gland extracts from female moths identified three monoenyl compounds, (Z)-7-tetradecenal (Z7-14:Ald), (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetate (tentatively identified, Z7-14:OAc), and (Z)-7-tetradecen-1-ol (Z7-14:OH), in a ratio of about 10:3:10. In the field, traps baited with synthetic Z7-14:Ald (0.5 mg) caught male P. endocarpa. The other two compounds, either alone or when added to Z7-14:Ald, did not elicit increases in trap catch (relative to the appropriate treatment). Synthetic Z7-14:Ald was used to monitor and control this species in pomelo orchards in Vinh Long Province. Monitoring revealed that adults were present throughout the year with discernible peaks in December, March, and April. A mass-trapping trial, using 20 traps in a 0.1 ha pomelo orchard, effectively suppressed fruit damage to levels similar to that achieved by an insecticide (Karate 2.5EC). Mating disruption trials, using polyethylene-tube dispensers, each filled with 80 mg of Z7-14:Ald at a rate of 200 or 400 dispensers/ha, also controlled damage by this pest to levels below that achieved by an insecticide treatment. This work demonstrates the potential for pheromone-based control of this pest in Vietnam.

  10. Criticality accident alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% {sup 235}U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs.

  11. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    PubMed

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.

  12. Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.

    PubMed Central

    Cardé, R T

    1976-01-01

    Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

  13. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  14. Sex Pheromone of Anastrepha striata.

    PubMed

    Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C

    2015-05-01

    The guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata, is a pest of several cultivated species of Myrtaceae in the American tropics and subtropics. During calling, A. striata males release numerous volatiles. This study was conducted to identify which of the male volatiles function as the A. striata sex pheromone and to investigate the effects of age and time of day on the emission of pheromone components. Analysis of the volatiles from males collected by solid phase microextraction using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) showed that three volatile compounds elicited repeatable responses from the antennae of females. The EAD-active compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry as ethyl hexanoate, linalool, and ethyl octanoate. In two-choice tests using Multilure traps placed in field cages, traps baited with live males, ethyl hexanoate, or the three-component blend captured more females than unbaited traps. However, there was no difference in catches when traps baited with live males were compared against traps baited with ethyl hexanoate. Although traps baited with the three-component blend caught more females than traps baited with live males, the difference was not significant. Analyses of pheromonal components released by A. striata males 8 to 26 days old showed that there was an effect of age on pheromone production and also a significant effect of time of day on pheromone emission. Release of the volatile compounds occurred from 14.00 to 18.00 hr, although traces of linalool were detected from 08.00 hr. Peak emission of pheromone compounds occurred at 14.00 hr.

  15. Identification of a Pheromone Component and a Critical Synergist for the Invasive Beetle Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Zou, Yunfan; Rutledge, Claire E; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi; Maier, Chris T; Hanks, Lawrence M; Richards, Austin B; Lacey, Emerson S; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2016-02-01

    The invasive Asian cerambycid beetle Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky), informally known as the Japanese cedar longhorned beetle, was first detected in North America in North Carolina in 1997. The beetle has since been detected in neighboring states and is expected to further expand its range. However, delineating the current distribution of C. rufipenne has been hindered by the lack of efficient sampling methods. Here, we present the results of research on the chemistry of volatile pheromones of C. rufipenne. Analyses of headspace odors revealed that males produce (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, with lesser amounts of (S)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, and (R)- and (S)-2-hydroxyhexan-3-one. In field bioassays conducted over several years in Connecticut, where populations of the beetle were well established, no reconstructed blend of these compounds was significantly attractive to beetles of either sex. However, during field trials in Japan that targeted another species, we discovered that adult male and female C. rufipenne were attracted to a blend of racemic 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and a novel natural product, 1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-1,2-propanedione. Attraction to (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and the pyrrole subsequently was confirmed in field trials in Connecticut. Although it is unclear why the pyrrole acts as a synergist for a species that apparently does not produce it, the serendipitous discovery that adult C. rufipenne are attracted by the blend of ketone and pyrrole provides a badly needed method for monitoring its ongoing range expansion within North America, and for detecting new introductions in other parts of the world. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Improved alarm tracking for better accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Nemesure, S.; Marr, G.; Shrey, T.; Kling, N.; Hammons, L.; Ingrassia, P.; D'Ottavio, T.

    2011-03-28

    An alarm system is a vital component of any accelerator, as it provides a warning that some element of the system is not functioning properly. The severity and age of the alarm may sometimes signify whether urgent or deferred attention is required. For example, older alarms may be given a lower priority if an assumption is made that someone else is already investigating it, whereas those of higher severity or alarms that are more current may indicate the need for an immediate response. The alarm history also provides valuable information regarding the functionality of the overall system, thus careful tracking of these data is likely to improve response time, remove uncertainty about the current status and assist in the ability to promptly respond to the same warning/trigger in the future. Since one goal of every alarm display is to be free of alarms, a clear and concise presentation of an alarm along with useful historic annotations can help the end user address the warning more quickly, thus expediting the elimination of such alarm conditions. By defining a discrete set of very specific alarm management states and by utilizing database resources to maintain a complete and easily accessible alarm history, we anticipate facilitated work flow due to more efficient operator response and management of alarms.

  17. Pheromones in the life of insects.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Ingolf; Schmolz, Erik; Schricker, Burkhard

    2008-09-01

    Life in insect societies asks for a permanent flow of information, often carried by rather simple organic molecules. Some originate from plants as odours of blossoms or exudates from trees. Especially important are the intra- and interspecific combinations of compounds produced by the insects themselves. These are called pheromones or ecto-hormones and serve a variety of tasks. The paper deals mainly with honeybee pheromones, but takes also into consideration those of wasps and hornets. Effects of pheromones are monitored ethologically by direct observation and filming as well as in a more quantitative manner with using direct and indirect calorimetry. In all experimental set-ups alarm pheromones were used as controls. They show an up to fourfold increase of activity after a few seconds, determined for small groups of insects as well as for a whole hornet nest placed in a 25-l calorimeter. A variety of cosmetics like soaps, shampoos, lotions and perfumes are included in the investigations because of repeated reports about unwarranted insect attacks which are said to be provoked by such products. None of the applied substances provoked a significant reaction of the bees (p > 0.05). A short appendix discusses the still questionable existence of pheromones in man, which were confirmed under laboratory conditions, but not yet for daily life.

  18. Bed bug aggregation pheromone finally identified.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Britton, Robert; Holmes, Michael; Zhai, Huimin; Draper, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-01-19

    Bed bugs have become a global epidemic and current detection tools are poorly suited for routine surveillance. Despite intense research on bed bug aggregation behavior and the aggregation pheromone, which could be used as a chemical lure, the complete composition of this pheromone has thus far proven elusive. Here, we report that the bed bug aggregation pheromone comprises five volatile components (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, 2-hexanone), which attract bed bugs to safe shelters, and one less-volatile component (histamine), which causes their arrestment upon contact. In infested premises, a blend of all six components is highly effective at luring bed bugs into traps. The trapping of juvenile and adult bed bugs, with or without recent blood meals, provides strong evidence that this unique pheromone bait could become an effective and inexpensive tool for bed bug detection and potentially their control.

  19. [Biosynthesis and endocrine regulation of sex pheromones in moth].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Lin, Xin-da; Du, Yong-jun

    2015-10-01

    The crucial importance of sex pheromones in driving mating behaviors in moths has been well demonstrated in the process of sexual communication between individuals that produce and recognize species specific pheromones. Sex-pheromone molecules from different moth species are chemically characteristic, showing different terminal functional groups, various carbon chain lengths, different position and configuration of double bond system. This review summarized information on the biosynthetic pathways and enzymes involved in producing pheromone molecules in different moths. Then we listed the components and their ratios in the sex pheromones of 15 moth species belonging to different subfamilies in Noctuidae. We also discussed the various viewpoints regarding how sex pheromones with specific ratios are produced. In the discussion we attempted to classify the pheromone molecules based on their producers, characteristics of their functional groups and carbon chain lengths. In particular, composition and ratio variations of pheromones in closely related species or within a species were compared, and the possible molecular mechanisms for these variations and their evolutionary significance were discussed. Finally, we reviewed the endocrine regulation and signal transduction pathways, in which the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is involved. Comparing the biosynthetic pathways of sex pheromones among different species, this article aimed to reveal the common principles in pheromone biosynthesis among moth species and the characteristic features associated with the evolutionary course of individual species. Subsequently, some future research directions were proposed.

  20. Systematic review of physiologic monitor alarm characteristics and pragmatic interventions to reduce alarm frequency

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Christine Weirich; Goel, Veena V.; Ely, Elizabeth; Stave, Christopher D.; Stemler, Shannon; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alarm fatigue from frequent nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms is frequently named as a threat to patient safety. Purpose To critically examine the available literature relevant to alarm fatigue. Data Sources Articles published in English, Spanish, or French between January 1980 and April 2015 indexed in PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Study Selection Articles focused on hospital physiologic monitor alarms addressing any of the following: 1) the proportion of alarms that are actionable, 2) the relationship between alarm exposure and nurse response time, and 3) the effectiveness of interventions in reducing alarm frequency. Data Extraction We extracted data on setting, collection methods, proportion of alarms determined to be actionable, nurse response time, and associations between interventions and alarm rates. Data Synthesis Our search produced 24 observational studies focused on alarm characteristics and response time and 8 studies evaluating interventions. Actionable alarm proportion ranged from <1% to 36% across a range of hospital settings. Two studies showed relationships between high alarm exposure and longer nurse response time. Most intervention studies included multiple components implemented simultaneously. While studies varied widely, and many had high risk of bias, promising but still unproven interventions include widening alarm parameters, instituting alarm delays, and using disposable electrocardiographic wires or frequently changed electrocardiographic electrodes. Conclusions Physiologic monitor alarms are commonly nonactionable, and evidence supporting the concept of alarm fatigue is emerging. Several interventions have the potential to reduce alarms safely, but more rigorously designed studies with attention to possible unintended consequences are needed. PMID:26663904

  1. Systematic Review of Physiologic Monitor Alarm Characteristics and Pragmatic Interventions to Reduce Alarm Frequency.

    PubMed

    Paine, Christine Weirich; Goel, Veena V; Ely, Elizabeth; Stave, Christopher D; Stemler, Shannon; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P

    2016-02-01

    Alarm fatigue from frequent nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms is frequently named as a threat to patient safety. To critically examine the available literature relevant to alarm fatigue. Articles published in English, Spanish, or French between January 1980 and April 2015 indexed in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Articles focused on hospital physiologic monitor alarms addressing any of the following: (1) the proportion of alarms that are actionable, (2) the relationship between alarm exposure and nurse response time, and (3) the effectiveness of interventions in reducing alarm frequency. We extracted data on setting, collection methods, proportion of alarms determined to be actionable, nurse response time, and associations between interventions and alarm rates. Our search produced 24 observational studies focused on alarm characteristics and response time and 8 studies evaluating interventions. Actionable alarm proportion ranged from <1% to 36% across a range of hospital settings. Two studies showed relationships between high alarm exposure and longer nurse response time. Most intervention studies included multiple components implemented simultaneously. Although studies varied widely, and many had high risk of bias, promising but still unproven interventions include widening alarm parameters, instituting alarm delays, and using disposable electrocardiographic wires or frequently changed electrocardiographic electrodes. Physiologic monitor alarms are commonly nonactionable, and evidence supporting the concept of alarm fatigue is emerging. Several interventions have the potential to reduce alarms safely, but more rigorously designed studies with attention to possible unintended consequences are needed. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  2. Pheromone antagonism in the European corn borer moth Ostrinia nubilalis.

    PubMed

    Gemeno, César; Sans, Albert; López, Carmen; Albajes, Ramon; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2006-05-01

    Mixing the sex pheromones of the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides, and the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, results in significantly lower captures of O. nubilalis when compared to traps loaded with its pheromone alone. Rubber septa loaded with a constant concentration of the pheromone of O. nubilalis and different percentages of the S. nonagrioides pheromone (from 1 to 100%) causes dose-dependent antagonism in the field. Electroantennograms of O. nubilalis males showed high antennal responses to its own pheromone components, followed by smaller responses to the major, [(Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac)], and two minor components [dodecyl acetate (12:Ac) and (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald)] of the S. nonagrioides pheromone. There was almost no response to the S. nonagrioides minor component (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH). Field tests that used traps baited with the O. nubilalis pheromone plus individual components of S. nonagrioides showed that Z11-16:Ald causes the antagonism. Adding 1% Z11-16:Ald to the pheromone of O. nubilalis reduced oriented flight and pheromone source contact in the wind tunnel by 26% and 83%, respectively, and trap captures in the field by 90%. The other three pheromone components of S. nonagrioides inhibited pheromone source contact but not oriented flight of O. nubilalis males and did not inhibit capture in the field. Cross-adaptation electroantennogram suggests that Z11-16:Ald stimulates a different odor receptor neuron than the pheromone components of O. nubilalis. We conclude that Z11-16:Ald is a potent antagonist of the behavioral response of O. nubilalis.

  3. The smell of moulting: N-acetylglucosamino-1,5-lactone is a premoult biomarker and candidate component of the courtship pheromone in the urine of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Michiya; Schmidt, Manfred; Germann, Markus W; Kubanek, Julia; Derby, Charles D

    2014-04-15

    component of the sex pheromone and that it acts in conjunction with other yet unidentified components.

  4. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  5. Using pheromones in the management of bark beetle outbreaks

    Treesearch

    Alf Bakke

    1991-01-01

    Identification of aggregation pheromones and field experiments using synthetic components have given scientists a better understanding of the behavior of many bark beetles. They have also yielded more effective weapons with which to control outbreaks of aggressive pest species. Synthetic pheromone components are commercially available for control of many species (...

  6. Pheromones cause disease: pheromone/odourant transduction.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, B

    2001-09-01

    This paper compares two models of the sense of smell and demonstrates that the new model has advantages over the accepted model with implications for medical research. The accepted transduction model had an odourant or pheromone contacting an aqueous sensory lymph then movement through it to a receptor membrane beneath. If the odourant or pheromone were non-soluble, the odourant/pheromone supposedly would be bound to a soluble protein in the lymph to be carried across. Thus, an odourant/carrier protein complex physically moved through the receptor lymph/mucus to interact with a membrane bound receptor. After the membranous receptor interaction, the molecule would be deactivated and any odourant/pheromone-binding protein recycled. This new electrical chemosensory model being proposed here has the pheromone or other odourant generating an electrical event in the extra-cellular mucus. Before the pheromone arrives, proteins of the 'carrier class' dissolved in the receptor mucus slowly and continuously sequester ions. A sensed pheromonal chemical species sorbs to the mucus and immediately binds to the now ion-holding dissolved protein. The binding of the pheromone to the protein causes a measurable conformational change in the pheromone/odourant-binding protein, desequestering ions. Releasing the bound ions changes the potential differences across a nearby super-sensitive dendritic membrane resulting in dendrite excitation. Pheromones will be implicated in the aetiology of the infectious, psychiatric and autoimmune diseases. This is the third article in a series of twelve to systematically explore this contention (see references 1-9). Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. Remote Monitor Alarm System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

  8. Medical device alarms.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Matthias; Görges, Matthias; Fried, Roland; Such, Olaf; Wrede, Christian; Imhoff, Michael

    2011-04-01

    The high number of false positive alarms has long been known to be a serious problem in critical care medicine - yet it remains unresolved. At the same time, threats to patient safety due to missing or suppressed alarms are being reported. The purpose of this paper is to present results from a workshop titled "Too many alarms? Too few alarms?" organized by the Section Patient Monitoring and the Workgroup Alarms of the German Association of Biomedical Engineering of the Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies. The current situation regarding alarms and their problems in intensive care, such as lack of clinical relevance, alarm fatigue, workload increases due to clinically irrelevant alarms, usability problems in alarm systems, problems with manuals and training, and missing alarms due to operator error are outlined, followed by a discussion of solutions and strategies to improve the current situation. Finally, the need for more research and development, focusing on signal quality considerations, networking of medical devices at the bedside, diagnostic alarms and predictive warnings, usability of alarm systems, education of healthcare providers, creation of annotated clinical databases for testing, standardization efforts, and patient monitoring in the regular ward, are called for.

  9. Synthesis of the four stereoisomers of 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid, a component of the copulation release pheromone of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Tomonori; Yajima, Arata; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Kaihoku, Takayuki; Ohtaki, Miki; Nukada, Tomoo; Ohrui, Hiroshi; Yabuta, Goro

    2005-12-01

    A diastereomeric mixture and the four stereoisomers of 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid (2), a copulation release pheromone of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, were synthesized. The stereoisomeric purities of the four synthetic isomers of 2 were determined by the HPLC analyses of their bis-2-(2,3-anthracenedicarboximide)-1-cyclohexyl esters.

  10. The use of the sex pheromone as an evolutionary solution to food source selection in caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Poivet, Erwan; Rharrabe, Kacem; Monsempes, Christelle; Glaser, Nicolas; Rochat, Didier; Renou, Michel; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Sex pheromones are released by adults of a species to elicit a sexual interaction with the other sex of the same species. Here we report an unexpected effect of a moth sex pheromone on the caterpillars of the same species. We demonstrate that larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis are attracted by the moth sex pheromone and that this phenomenon is independent of sex determination. In addition, we show that the olfactory sensilla carried by the caterpillar antennae are sensitive to the pheromone and that the caterpillar sensilla express pheromone-binding proteins that are used by adult antennae to bind pheromone components. Finally, we demonstrate that the larvae are preferentially attracted to a food source when it contains the sex pheromone main component. A possible interpretation of these results is that the sex pheromone is used to promote food search in caterpillars, opening potential new routes for insect pest management.

  11. Optimal delineation of ambulatory holter ECG events via false-alarm bounded segmentation of a wavelet-based principal components analyzed decision statistic.

    PubMed

    Homaeinezhad, M R; Ghaffari, A; Toosi, H Najjaran; Tahmasebi, M; Daevaeiha, M M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and describe a new ambulatory holter electrocardiogram (ECG) events detection-delineation algorithm with the major focus on the bounded false-alarm probability (FAP) segmentation of an information-optimized decision statistic. After implementation of appropriate preprocessing methods to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of the original ECG data, a uniform length sliding window is applied to the obtained signal and in each slid, six feature vectors namely as summation of the nonlinearly amplified Hilbert transform, summation of absolute first order differentiation, summation of absolute second order differentiation, curve length, area and variance of the excerpted segment are calculated to construct a newly proposed principal components analyzed geometric index (PCAGI) by application of a linear orthonormal projection. In the next step, the α-level Neyman-Pearson classifier (which is a FAP controlled tester) is implemented to detect and delineate QRS complexes. The presented method was applied to MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database, QT Database, and T-Wave Alternans Database and as a result, the average values of sensitivity and positive predictivity Se = 99.96% and P+ = 99.96% are obtained for the detection of QRS complexes, with the average maximum delineation error of 5.7, 3.8 and 6.1 m for P-wave, QRS complex and T-wave, respectively. Also, the proposed method was applied to DAY general hospital high resolution holter data (more than 1,500,000 beats including Bundle Branch Blocks-BBB, Premature Ventricular Complex-PVC and Premature Atrial Complex-PAC) and average values of Se = 99.98% and P+ = 99.97% are obtained for QRS detection. In summary, marginal performance improvement of ECG events detection-delineation process in a widespread values of signal to noise ratio (SNR), reliable robustness against strong noise, artifacts and probable severe arrhythmia(s) of high resolution holter data and the processing speed 155

  12. Performance of the species-typical alarm response in young workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is induced by interactions with mature workers.

    PubMed

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire

    2014-01-01

    Young workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Meinert 1861 perceived nestmate alarm pheromone but did not display normal alarm behavior (orientation toward the source of emission, increased running speed). They changed their initial behavior when in the presence of older nestmates exhibiting normal alarm behavior. Four days later, the young ants exhibited an imperfect version of normal alarm behavior. This change of behavior did not occur in young ants, which were not exposed to older ants reacting to alarm pheromone. Queen ants perceived the alarm pheromone and, after a few seconds, moved toward its source. Thus, the ants' ability to sense the alarm pheromone and to identify it as an alarm signal is native, while the adult alarm reaction is acquired over time (= age based polyethism) by young ants. It is possible that the change in behavior observed in young ants could be initiated and/or enhanced (via experience-induced developmental plasticity, learning, and/or other mechanisms) by older ants exhibiting alarm behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  13. Performance of the Species-Typical Alarm Response in Young Workers of the Ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Is Induced by Interactions with Mature Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire

    2014-01-01

    Young workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Meinert 1861 perceived nestmate alarm pheromone but did not display normal alarm behavior (orientation toward the source of emission, increased running speed). They changed their initial behavior when in the presence of older nestmates exhibiting normal alarm behavior. Four days later, the young ants exhibited an imperfect version of normal alarm behavior. This change of behavior did not occur in young ants, which were not exposed to older ants reacting to alarm pheromone. Queen ants perceived the alarm pheromone and, after a few seconds, moved toward its source. Thus, the ants’ ability to sense the alarm pheromone and to identify it as an alarm signal is native, while the adult alarm reaction is acquired over time (= age based polyethism) by young ants. It is possible that the change in behavior observed in young ants could be initiated and/or enhanced (via experience-induced developmental plasticity, learning, and/or other mechanisms) by older ants exhibiting alarm behavior. PMID:25525102

  14. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and (Z)-4...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and (Z)-4...

  19. From pheromones to behavior.

    PubMed

    Tirindelli, Roberto; Dibattista, Michele; Pifferi, Simone; Menini, Anna

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in the comprehension of the profound effects of pheromones on reproductive physiology and behavior. Pheromones have been classified as molecules released by individuals and responsible for the elicitation of specific behavioral expressions in members of the same species. These signaling molecules, often chemically unrelated, are contained in body fluids like urine, sweat, specialized exocrine glands, and mucous secretions of genitals. The standard view of pheromone sensing was based on the assumption that most mammals have two separated olfactory systems with different functional roles: the main olfactory system for recognizing conventional odorant molecules and the vomeronasal system specifically dedicated to the detection of pheromones. However, recent studies have reexamined this traditional interpretation showing that both the main olfactory and the vomeronasal systems are actively involved in pheromonal communication. The current knowledge on the behavioral, physiological, and molecular aspects of pheromone detection in mammals is discussed in this review.

  20. Pheromone detection by a pheromone emitter: a small sex pheromone-specific processing system in the female American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Masazumi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    Many animals depend on pheromone communication for successful mating. Sex pheromone in insects is usually released by females to attract males. In American cockroaches, the largest glomerulus (B-glomerulus) in the male antennal lobe (first-order olfactory center) processes the major component of sex pheromone. Using intracellular recordings combined with fine neuroanatomical techniques, we provide evidence that the female homolog of the male B-glomerulus also acts as a sex pheromone-specific detector. Whereas ordinary glomeruli that process normal environmental odors are innervated by single projection neurons (PNs), the B-glomerulus in both sexes is innervated by multiple PNs, one of which possesses a thicker axon, termed here B-PN. Both soma size and axon diameter were smaller on B-PNs from females compared with B-PNs from males. The female B-PNs also produce fewer terminal arborizations in the protocerebrum than male B-PNs. Termination fields in the lateral protocerebrum of the female B-PN are mostly segregated from those formed by other uniglomerular PNs innervating ordinary glomeruli. Female B-PN activity was greatest in response to sex pheromone but lower than that in the male B-PN. This specific detection system suggests that sex pheromone affects the behavior and/or endocrine system of female cockroaches.

  1. The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.

    PubMed

    Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

    1995-01-03

    Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture.

  2. The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

    1995-01-01

    Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture. PMID:7816823

  3. Structured alarm systems for the operating room.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, P J; Schreiber, J

    1989-07-01

    The administration of anesthesia may be viewed as a closed-loop control system consisting of three major components: the anesthesia system, the patient, and the system operator. A monitoring and alarm system during anesthesia should not be limited to only one of the three major components but must include monitoring of the patient, the performance of the anesthesia system, and the action of the system operator. For an alarm system to be successful when an adverse condition occurs, an alarm must be generated and identified, the problem identified and corrected, and the patient stabilized before injury results. The authors describe the characteristics of a structured alarm system that maximizes the time available to correct a potential problem before injury begins, that clearly identifies the cause of the problem, and that prioritizes alarms according to the urgency of the required response. Alarms should be easy to temporarily silence, have built-in alarm default settings to prevent the inadvertant use of settings meant for a previous patient, and have a graphic display that enables the operator to detect problems or trends before an alarm sounds.

  4. Understanding Clinical Alarm Safety.

    PubMed

    Lukasewicz, Carol L; Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Patient safety organizations and health care accreditation agencies recognize the significance of clinical alarm hazards. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, a nonprofit organization focused on development and use of safe and effective medical equipment, identifies alarm management as a major issue for health care organizations. ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization that researches approaches for improving patient safety and quality of care, identifies alarm hazards as the most significant of the "Top Ten Health Technology Hazards" for 2014. A new Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal focusing on clinical alarm safety contains new requirements for accredited hospitals to be fully implemented by 2016. Through a fictional unfolding case study, this article reviews selected contributing factors to clinical alarm hazards present in inpatient, high-acuity settings. Understanding these factors improves contributions by nurses to clinical alarm safety practice.

  5. Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptors (PBANRs) in moths: New developments regarding alternative splice variants and the potential for targeted disruption of PBANR in pest control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For most moths, the ability of conspecific males to locate receptive females is governed by the detection of a blend of semiochemicals known as sex pheromones. Sex pheromone components are de novo synthesized in the female pheromone gland in response to pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptid...

  6. Bed exit alarms.

    PubMed

    2004-09-01

    Bed-exit alarms alert caregivers that a patient who should not get out of bed unassisted is doing so. These alarms can help reduce the likelihood of falls and can promote speedy assistance to patients who have already fallen. But as we described in our May 2004 Guidance Article on bed-exit alarms, they don't themselves prevent falls. They are only effective if used as part of an overall fall-prevention program and with a clear understanding of their limitations. This Evaluation examines the effectiveness of 16 bed-exit alarms from seven suppliers. Our ratings focus primarily on each product's reliability in detecting bed-exit events and alerting caregivers, its ability to minimize nuisance alarms (alarms that sound even though the patient isn't leaving the bed or that sound while a caregiver is helping the patient to leave the bed), and its resistance to deliberate or inadvertent tampering. Twelve of the products use pressure-sensor-activated alarms (mainly sensor pads placed on or under the mattress); three use a cord that can attach to the patient's garment, alarming if the cord is pulled loose from the control unit; and one is a position-sensitive alarm attached to a leg cuff. All the products reliably detect attempted or successful bed exits. But they vary greatly in how effectively they alert staff, minimize nuisance alarms, and resist tampering. Ease of use and battery performance also vary for many units. Of the pressure-sensor units, three are rated Preferred. Those units meet most of our criteria and have no significant disadvantages. Five of the other pressure-sensor products are Acceptable, and the remaining four are Not Recommended. All three cord-activated alarms are rated Acceptable, as is the patient-worn alarm.

  7. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  8. Identification of pheromone components and their binding affinity to the odorant binding protein CcapOBP83a-2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, P.; He, X.L.; Woodcock, C.; Pickett, J.A.; Field, L.M.; Birkett, M.A.; Kalinova, B.; Gomulski, L.M.; Scolari, F.; Gasperi, G.; Malacrida, A.R.; Zhou, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of agriculture worldwide, displaying a very wide larval host range with more than 250 different species of fruit and vegetables. Olfaction plays a key role in the invasive potential of this species. Unfortunately, the pheromone communication system of the medfly is complex and still not well established. In this study, we report the isolation of chemicals emitted by sexually mature individuals during the “calling” period and the electrophysiological responses that these compounds elicit on the antennae of male and female flies. Fifteen compounds with electrophysiological activity were isolated and identified in male emissions by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennography (GC–EAG). Within the group of 15 identified compounds, 11 elicited a response in antennae of both sexes, whilst 4 elicited a response only in female antennae. The binding affinity of these compounds, plus 4 additional compounds known to be behaviourally active from other studies, was measured using C. capitata OBP, CcapOBP83a-2. This OBP has a high homology to Drosophila melanogaster OBPs OS-E and OS-F, which are associated with trichoid sensilla and co-expressed with the well-studied Drosophila pheromone binding protein LUSH. The results provide evidence of involvement of CcapOBP83a-2 in the medfly's odorant perception and its wider specificity for (E,E)-α-farnesene, one of the five major compounds in medfly male pheromone emission. This represents the first step in the clarification of the C. capitata and pheromone reception pathway, and a starting point for further studies aimed towards the creation of new powerful attractants or repellents applicable in the actual control strategies. PMID:24607850

  9. Identification of pheromone components and their binding affinity to the odorant binding protein CcapOBP83a-2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, P; He, X L; Woodcock, C; Pickett, J A; Field, L M; Birkett, M A; Kalinova, B; Gomulski, L M; Scolari, F; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R; Zhou, J J

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of agriculture worldwide, displaying a very wide larval host range with more than 250 different species of fruit and vegetables. Olfaction plays a key role in the invasive potential of this species. Unfortunately, the pheromone communication system of the medfly is complex and still not well established. In this study, we report the isolation of chemicals emitted by sexually mature individuals during the "calling" period and the electrophysiological responses that these compounds elicit on the antennae of male and female flies. Fifteen compounds with electrophysiological activity were isolated and identified in male emissions by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennography (GC-EAG). Within the group of 15 identified compounds, 11 elicited a response in antennae of both sexes, whilst 4 elicited a response only in female antennae. The binding affinity of these compounds, plus 4 additional compounds known to be behaviourally active from other studies, was measured using C. capitata OBP, CcapOBP83a-2. This OBP has a high homology to Drosophila melanogaster OBPs OS-E and OS-F, which are associated with trichoid sensilla and co-expressed with the well-studied Drosophila pheromone binding protein LUSH. The results provide evidence of involvement of CcapOBP83a-2 in the medfly's odorant perception and its wider specificity for (E,E)-α-farnesene, one of the five major compounds in medfly male pheromone emission. This represents the first step in the clarification of the C. capitata and pheromone reception pathway, and a starting point for further studies aimed towards the creation of new powerful attractants or repellents applicable in the actual control strategies.

  10. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

  11. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 0.1 History of Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of one learning module on the history of alarms is one of eight such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study…

  12. Mating pheromones of heterobasidiomycetous yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Y.; Sakurai, A.

    1981-03-01

    Two mating pheromones, which induce mating tube formation, were isolated from Rhodosporidium toruloides (rhodotorucine A) and Tremella mesenterica (tremerogen A-10). These mating pheromones are lipophilic oligopeptides having S-alkylated cysteine at the C-terminus but different amino acid sequences. Synthetic analogues of these pheromones revealed the structure-activity relationships. Metabolism of rhodotorucine A was also studied by using labeled pheromones.

  13. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Personal Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-17

    Software that runs on smartphones and desktop web browsers and notifies border officials of radiation alarms. It displays images and data associated with an alarm and provides a variety of reports. DOE had a need for discrete notification. PAS replaces the lights and sounds of a Radiation Portal Monitor.

  15. Stereochemical studies on pheromonal communications

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Pheromonal communications are heavily dependent on the stereochemistry of pheromones. Their enantioselective syntheses could establish the absolute configuration of the naturally occurring pheromones, and clarified the unique relationships between absolute configuration and bioactivity. For example, neither the (R)- nor (S)-enantiomer of sulcatol, the aggregation pheromone of an ambrosia beetle, is behaviorally active, while their mixture is bioactive. Recent results as summarized in the present review further illustrate the unique and diverse relationships between stereochemistry and bioactivity of pheromones. PMID:25504227

  16. Plant terpenes affect intensity and temporal parameters of pheromone detection in a moth.

    PubMed

    Party, Virginie; Hanot, Christophe; Said, Imene; Rochat, Didier; Renou, Michel

    2009-11-01

    In moths, the components of the female pheromone blend are detected in the male antennae by pheromone olfactory receptor neurons (Ph-ORNs) expressing narrowly tuned olfactory receptors. Responses to sex pheromones have generally been thought to be independent from the odorant background. However, interactions between pheromone components and plant volatiles have been reported at behavioral and detection levels. To document the mechanisms of such interactions, we analyzed Ph-ORN responses of Spodoptera littoralis to the main pheromone component, Z9E11-14:Ac, in the presence of 4 monoterpenes. To mimic natural contexts in which plant odors and pheromone emanate from different sources, the 2 stimuli were presented with different temporal patterns and from independent sources. Linalool reversibly reduced the firing response to Z9E11-14:Ac and produced an off effect. Geraniol and geranyl and linalyl acetates reduced the responses to Z9E11-14:Ac with a longer time course. Pulses of linalool over prolonged pheromone stimulation resulted in a discontinuous firing activity. Pulses of pheromone were better separated over a background of linalool, compared with odorless air. The data confirm that plant compounds may modulate the intensity and the temporal coding by Ph-ORNs of pheromone information. This modulation might positively affect mate location at high pheromone density especially nearby a pheromone source.

  17. Medical audible alarms: a review

    PubMed Central

    Edworthy, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

  18. Molecular and neural mechanisms of sex pheromone reception and processing in the silkmoth Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    Male moths locate their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. One striking feature of sex pheromone recognition in males is the high degree of specificity and sensitivity at all levels, from the primary sensory processes to behavior. The silkmoth Bombyx mori is an excellent model insect in which to decipher the underlying mechanisms of sex pheromone recognition due to its simple sex pheromone communication system, where a single pheromone component, bombykol, elicits the full sexual behavior of male moths. Various technical advancements that cover all levels of analysis from molecular to behavioral also allow the systematic analysis of pheromone recognition mechanisms. Sex pheromone signals are detected by pheromone receptors expressed in olfactory receptor neurons in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea on male antennae. The signals are transmitted to the first olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), and then are processed further in the higher centers (mushroom body and lateral protocerebrum) to elicit orientation behavior toward females. In recent years, significant progress has been made elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the detection of sex pheromones. In addition, extensive studies of the AL and higher centers have provided insights into the neural basis of pheromone processing in the silkmoth brain. This review describes these latest advances, and discusses what these advances have revealed about the mechanisms underlying the specific and sensitive recognition of sex pheromones in the silkmoth. PMID:24744736

  19. VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Morris, J.M.

    1958-11-01

    A vlsual alarm system, particularly a system incorporating a gas-fllled diode glow bulb, for indicating a minor alarm and also a major alarm is presented. In operation, the disclosed system responds to a signal indlcative of a caution condition by applying a d-c voltage across the glow bulb to induce a glow at one electrode. If a signal indicative of a critlcal condition is received, the system applies an a-c voltage across tbe glow bulb to produce a glow discharge at each electrode.

  20. Alarm mistrust in automobiles: how collision alarm reliability affects driving.

    PubMed

    Bliss, James P; Acton, Sarah A

    2003-11-01

    As roadways become more congested, there is greater potential for automobile accidents and incidents. To improve roadway safety, automobile manufacturers are now designing and incorporating collision avoidance warning systems; yet, there has been little investigation of how the reliability of alarm signals might impact driver performance. We measured driving and alarm reaction performances following alarms of various reliability levels. In Experiment One, 70 participants operated a driving simulator while being presented console emitted collision alarms that were 50%, 75%, or 100% reliable. In Experiment Two, the same participants were presented spatially generated collision alarms of the same reliability levels. The results were similar in both experiments: alarm and automobile swerving reactions were significantly better when alarms were more reliable; however, drivers still failed to avoid collisions following reliable alarms. These results emphasize that alarm designers should maximize alarm reliability while minimizing alarm invasiveness.

  1. Uncoupling primer and releaser responses to pheromone in honey bees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozinger, Christina M.; Fischer, Patrick; Hampton, Jacob E.

    2007-05-01

    Pheromones produce dramatic behavioral and physiological responses in a wide variety of species. Releaser pheromones elicit rapid responses within seconds or minutes, while primer pheromones produce long-term changes which may take days to manifest. Honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) elicits multiple distinct behavioral and physiological responses in worker bees, as both a releaser and primer, and thus produces responses on vastly different time scales. In this study, we demonstrate that releaser and primer responses to QMP can be uncoupled. First, treatment with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene leaves a releaser response (attraction to QMP) intact, but modulates QMP’s primer effects on sucrose responsiveness. Secondly, two components of QMP (9-ODA and 9-HDA) do not elicit a releaser response (attraction) but are as effective as QMP at modulating a primer response, downregulation of foraging-related brain gene expression. These results suggest that different responses to a single pheromone may be produced via distinct pathways.

  2. Identification of Esters as Novel Aggregation Pheromone Components Produced by the Male Powder-Post Beetle, Lyctus africanus Lesne (Coleoptera: Lyctinae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lyctus africanus is a cosmopolitan powder-post beetle that is considered one of the major pests threatening timber and timber products. Because infestations of this beetle are inconspicuous, damage is difficult to detect and identification is often delayed. We identified the chemical compounds involved in the aggregation behavior of L. africanus using preparations of crude hexanic extracts from male and female beetles (ME and FE, respectively). Both male and female beetles showed significant preferences for ME, which was found to contain three esters. FE was ignored by both the sexes. Further bioassay confirmed the role of esters in the aggregation behavior of L. africanus. Three esters were identified as 2-propyl dodecanoate, 3-pentyl dodecanoate, and 3-pentyl tetradecanoate. Further behavioral bioassays revealed 3-pentyl dodecanoate to play the main role in the aggregation behavior of female L. africanus beetles. However, significantly more beetles aggregated on a paper disk treated with a blend of the three esters than on a paper disk treated with a single ester. This is the first report on pheromone identification in L. africanus; in addition, the study for the first time presents 3-pentyl dodecanoate as an insect pheromone. PMID:26544984

  3. Identification of Esters as Novel Aggregation Pheromone Components Produced by the Male Powder-Post Beetle, Lyctus africanus Lesne (Coleoptera: Lyctinae).

    PubMed

    Kartika, Titik; Shimizu, Nobuhiro; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Lyctus africanus is a cosmopolitan powder-post beetle that is considered one of the major pests threatening timber and timber products. Because infestations of this beetle are inconspicuous, damage is difficult to detect and identification is often delayed. We identified the chemical compounds involved in the aggregation behavior of L. africanus using preparations of crude hexanic extracts from male and female beetles (ME and FE, respectively). Both male and female beetles showed significant preferences for ME, which was found to contain three esters. FE was ignored by both the sexes. Further bioassay confirmed the role of esters in the aggregation behavior of L. africanus. Three esters were identified as 2-propyl dodecanoate, 3-pentyl dodecanoate, and 3-pentyl tetradecanoate. Further behavioral bioassays revealed 3-pentyl dodecanoate to play the main role in the aggregation behavior of female L. africanus beetles. However, significantly more beetles aggregated on a paper disk treated with a blend of the three esters than on a paper disk treated with a single ester. This is the first report on pheromone identification in L. africanus; in addition, the study for the first time presents 3-pentyl dodecanoate as an insect pheromone.

  4. Pheromone binding proteins enhance the sensitivity of olfactory receptors to sex pheromones in Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hetan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Pelosi, Paolo; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-08-27

    Sexual communication in moths offers a simplified scenario to model and investigate insect sensory perception. Both PBPs (pheromone-binding proteins) and PRs (pheromone receptors) are involved in the detection of sex pheromones, but the interplay between them still remains largely unknown. In this study, we have measured the binding affinities of the four recombinant PBPs of Chilo suppressalis (CsupPBPs) to pheromone components and analogs and characterized the six PRs using the Xenopus oocytes expression system. Interestingly, when the responses of PRs were recorded in the presence of PBPs, we measured in several combinations a dramatic increase in signals as well as in sensitivity of such combined systems. Furthermore, the discrimination ability of appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs was improved compared with the performance of PBPs or PRs alone. Besides further supporting a role of PBPs in the pheromone detection and discrimination, our data shows for the first time that appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs improved the discrimination ability of PBPs or PRs alone. The variety of responses measured with different pairing of PBPs and PRs indicates the complexity of the olfaction system, which, even for the relatively simple task of detecting sex pheromones, utilises a highly sophisticated combinatorial approach.

  5. Pheromone binding proteins enhance the sensitivity of olfactory receptors to sex pheromones in Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hetan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Pelosi, Paolo; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Sexual communication in moths offers a simplified scenario to model and investigate insect sensory perception. Both PBPs (pheromone-binding proteins) and PRs (pheromone receptors) are involved in the detection of sex pheromones, but the interplay between them still remains largely unknown. In this study, we have measured the binding affinities of the four recombinant PBPs of Chilo suppressalis (CsupPBPs) to pheromone components and analogs and characterized the six PRs using the Xenopus oocytes expression system. Interestingly, when the responses of PRs were recorded in the presence of PBPs, we measured in several combinations a dramatic increase in signals as well as in sensitivity of such combined systems. Furthermore, the discrimination ability of appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs was improved compared with the performance of PBPs or PRs alone. Besides further supporting a role of PBPs in the pheromone detection and discrimination, our data shows for the first time that appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs improved the discrimination ability of PBPs or PRs alone. The variety of responses measured with different pairing of PBPs and PRs indicates the complexity of the olfaction system, which, even for the relatively simple task of detecting sex pheromones, utilises a highly sophisticated combinatorial approach. PMID:26310773

  6. Smart smoke alarm

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  7. Fire alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Koehling, E.

    1995-01-01

    This test procedure is the documentation for the testing of the 4 fire alarm bells which rewired during the remodeling of the Emergency Operations Center in the Richland, Washington, Federal Office Building.

  8. Sounding the Alarm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordasco, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the use of alarms and other early-detection devices to effectively protect students in life-threatening fire situations. Ohio State University's multidiscipline approach to life safety is illustrated. (GR)

  9. Alarm Notification System

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-12

    AN/EMS, the Alarm Notification Energy Management System, is used to monitor digital sensors in PETC buildings and to notify the safety/security operator by both a video and an audio system when a possibly hazardous condition arises.

  10. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Cook, Laura C; Federle, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Laura C.; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

  12. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  13. Pheromones: a new ergogenic aid in sport?

    PubMed

    Papaloucas, Marios; Kyriazi, Kyriaki; Kouloulias, Vassilis

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods to confirm the use of forbidden substances. These tests are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein, or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics, or metabolomics). The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) officially monitors anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. However, several other substances are under review by WADA. Pheromones accomplish the structure and function of life from its first step, while they have an impact on the body's performance. Both testosterone and pheromones have an ergogenic effect that could potentially affect an athlete's performance. The authors share their questions concerning the potential impact of pheromones in sports.

  14. Pheromone reception in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bigiani, A; Mucignat-Caretta, C; Montani, G; Tirindelli, R

    2005-01-01

    Pheromonal communication is the most convenient way to transfer information regarding gender and social status in animals of the same species with the holistic goal of sustaining reproduction. This type of information exchange is based on pheromones, molecules often chemically unrelated, that are contained in body fluids like urine, sweat, specialized exocrine glands, and mucous secretions of genitals. So profound is the relevance of pheromones over the evolutionary process that a specific peripheral organ devoted to their recognition, namely the vomeronasal organ of Jacobson, and a related central pathway arose in most vertebrate species. Although the vomeronasal system is well developed in reptiles and amphibians, most mammals strongly rely on pheromonal communication. Humans use pheromones too; evidence on the existence of a specialized organ for their detection, however, is very elusive indeed. In the present review, we will focus our attention on the behavioral, physiological, and molecular aspects of pheromone detection in mammals. We will discuss the responses to pheromonal stimulation in different animal species, emphasizing the complicacy of this type of communication. In the light of the most recent results, we will also discuss the complex organization of the transduction molecules that underlie pheromone detection and signal transmission from vomeronasal neurons to the higher centers of the brain. Communication is a primary feature of living organisms, allowing the coordination of different behavioral paradigms among individuals. Communication has evolved through a variety of different strategies, and each species refined its own preferred communication medium. From a phylogenetic point of view, the most widespread and ancient way of communication is through chemical signals named pheromones: it occurs in all taxa, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The release of specific pheromones into the environment is a sensitive and definite way to send messages to

  15. Pheromone Transduction in Moths

    PubMed Central

    Stengl, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30 Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLCβ-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth's physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors. PMID:21228914

  16. Genetic dissection of pheromone processing reveals main olfactory system-mediated social behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuya; Asaba, Akari; Inoue, Naokazu; Kanomata, Nobuhiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko

    2015-01-20

    Most mammals have two major olfactory subsystems: the main olfactory system (MOS) and vomeronasal system (VNS). It is now widely accepted that the range of pheromones that control social behaviors are processed by both the VNS and the MOS. However, the functional contributions of each subsystem in social behavior remain unclear. To genetically dissociate the MOS and VNS functions, we established two conditional knockout mouse lines that led to either loss-of-function in the entire MOS or in the dorsal MOS. Mice with whole-MOS loss-of-function displayed severe defects in active sniffing and poor survival through the neonatal period. In contrast, when loss-of-function was confined to the dorsal MOB, sniffing behavior, pheromone recognition, and VNS activity were maintained. However, defects in a wide spectrum of social behaviors were observed: attraction to female urine and the accompanying ultrasonic vocalizations, chemoinvestigatory preference, aggression, maternal behaviors, and risk-assessment behaviors in response to an alarm pheromone. Functional dissociation of pheromone detection and pheromonal induction of behaviors showed the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON)-regulated social behaviors downstream from the MOS. Lesion analysis and neural activation mapping showed pheromonal activation in multiple amygdaloid and hypothalamic nuclei, important regions for the expression of social behavior, was dependent on MOS and AON functions. Identification of the MOS-AON-mediated pheromone pathway may provide insights into pheromone signaling in animals that do not possess a functional VNS, including humans.

  17. Genetic dissection of pheromone processing reveals main olfactory system-mediated social behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuya; Asaba, Akari; Inoue, Naokazu; Kanomata, Nobuhiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Most mammals have two major olfactory subsystems: the main olfactory system (MOS) and vomeronasal system (VNS). It is now widely accepted that the range of pheromones that control social behaviors are processed by both the VNS and the MOS. However, the functional contributions of each subsystem in social behavior remain unclear. To genetically dissociate the MOS and VNS functions, we established two conditional knockout mouse lines that led to either loss-of-function in the entire MOS or in the dorsal MOS. Mice with whole-MOS loss-of-function displayed severe defects in active sniffing and poor survival through the neonatal period. In contrast, when loss-of-function was confined to the dorsal MOB, sniffing behavior, pheromone recognition, and VNS activity were maintained. However, defects in a wide spectrum of social behaviors were observed: attraction to female urine and the accompanying ultrasonic vocalizations, chemoinvestigatory preference, aggression, maternal behaviors, and risk-assessment behaviors in response to an alarm pheromone. Functional dissociation of pheromone detection and pheromonal induction of behaviors showed the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON)-regulated social behaviors downstream from the MOS. Lesion analysis and neural activation mapping showed pheromonal activation in multiple amygdaloid and hypothalamic nuclei, important regions for the expression of social behavior, was dependent on MOS and AON functions. Identification of the MOS-AON–mediated pheromone pathway may provide insights into pheromone signaling in animals that do not possess a functional VNS, including humans. PMID:25564662

  18. Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.

    PubMed

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings.

  19. The problem of alarm fatigue.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Up to 99 percent of alarms sounding on hospital units are false alarms signaling no real danger to patients. These false alarms can lead to alarm fatigue and alarm burden, and may divert health care providers' attention away from significant alarms heralding actual or impending harm. As the health care environment continues to become more dependent upon technological monitoring devices used for patient care, nurses must become aware of the possibility and consequences of alarm fatigue and ways to prevent it from negatively affecting their practice, as well as the possible consequences for patient care.

  20. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test.

  1. The Synthesis of Lepidoptera Pheromones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, Elena D.; Kurts, A. L.; Bundel', Yurii G.

    1986-07-01

    The review surveys the data in numerous publications of the synthesis of the pheromones of scale-winged insects (Lepidoptera). Attention is concentrated on problems of the sterospecific synthesis of pheromones. The bibliography includes 217 references.

  2. Discovery of a disused desaturase gene from the pheromone gland of the moth Ascotis selenaria, which secretes an epoxyalkenyl sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masataka G; Katsuma, Susumu; Ito, Katsuhiko; Rong, Yu; Matsumoto, Shogo; Ando, Tetsu; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2013-11-29

    Female Ascotis selenaria (Geometridae) moths use 3,4-epoxy-(Z,Z)-6,9-nonadecadiene, which is synthesized from linolenic acid, as the main component of their sex pheromone. While the use of dietary linolenic or linoleic fatty acid derivatives as sex pheromone components has been observed in moth species belonging to a few families including Geometridae, the majority of moths use derivatives of a common saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, as their sex pheromone components. We attempted to gain insight into the differentiation of pheromone biosynthetic pathways in geometrids by analyzing the desaturase genes expressed in the pheromone gland of A. selenaria. We demonstrated that a Δ11-desaturase-like gene (Asdesat1) was specifically expressed in the pheromone gland of A. selenaria in spite of the absence of a desaturation step in the pheromone biosynthetic pathway in this species. Further analysis revealed that the presumed transmembrane domains were degenerated in Asdesat1. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Asdesat1 anciently diverged from the lineage of Δ11-desaturases, which are currently widely used in the biosynthesis of sex pheromones by moths. These results suggest that an ancestral Δ11-desaturase became dysfunctional in A. selenaria after a shift in pheromone biosynthetic pathways.

  3. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ok Min; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Methods Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. One bed out of 56 ICU beds was randomly assigned to each observation time unit. Results Overall 2,184 clinical alarms were counted for 48 hours of observation, and 45.5 clinical alarms occurred per hour per subject. Of these, 1,394 alarms (63.8%) were categorized as false alarms. The alarm fatigue score was 24.3 ± 4.0 out of 35. The highest scoring item was "always get bothered due to clinical alarms". The highest scoring item in obstacles was "frequent false alarms, which lead to reduced attention or response to alarms". Conclusions Nurses reported that they felt some fatigue due to clinical alarms, and false alarms were also obstacles to proper management. An appropriate hospital policy should be developed to reduce false alarms and nurses' alarm fatigue. PMID:26893950

  4. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ok Min; Kim, Hwasoon; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. One bed out of 56 ICU beds was randomly assigned to each observation time unit. Overall 2,184 clinical alarms were counted for 48 hours of observation, and 45.5 clinical alarms occurred per hour per subject. Of these, 1,394 alarms (63.8%) were categorized as false alarms. The alarm fatigue score was 24.3 ± 4.0 out of 35. The highest scoring item was "always get bothered due to clinical alarms". The highest scoring item in obstacles was "frequent false alarms, which lead to reduced attention or response to alarms". Nurses reported that they felt some fatigue due to clinical alarms, and false alarms were also obstacles to proper management. An appropriate hospital policy should be developed to reduce false alarms and nurses' alarm fatigue.

  5. Pheromone independent unisexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rachana; Zhao, Youbao; Lin, Jianfeng; Fan, Yumeng; Xu, Xinping; Upadhyay, Srijana; Lin, Xiaorong

    2017-05-01

    The fungus Cryptococcus neoformans can undergo a-α bisexual and unisexual reproduction. Completion of both sexual reproduction modes requires similar cellular differentiation processes and meiosis. Although bisexual reproduction generates equal number of a and α progeny and is far more efficient than unisexual reproduction under mating-inducing laboratory conditions, the α mating type dominates in nature. Population genetic studies suggest that unisexual reproduction by α isolates might have contributed to this sharply skewed distribution of the mating types. However, the predominance of the α mating type and the seemingly inefficient unisexual reproduction observed under laboratory conditions present a conundrum. Here, we discovered a previously unrecognized condition that promotes unisexual reproduction while suppressing bisexual reproduction. Pheromone is the principal stimulus for bisexual development in Cryptococcus. Interestingly, pheromone and other components of the pheromone pathway, including the key transcription factor Mat2, are not necessary but rather inhibitory for Cryptococcus to complete its unisexual cycle under this condition. The inactivation of the pheromone pathway promotes unisexual reproduction despite the essential role of this pathway in non-self-recognition during bisexual reproduction. Nonetheless, the requirement for the known filamentation regulator Znf2 and the expression of hyphal or basidium specific proteins remain the same for pheromone-dependent or independent sexual reproduction. Transcriptome analyses and an insertional mutagenesis screen in mat2Δ identified calcineurin being essential for this process. We further found that Znf2 and calcineurin work cooperatively in controlling unisexual development in this fungus. These findings indicate that Mat2 acts as a repressor of pheromone-independent unisexual development while serving as an activator for a-α bisexual development. The bi-functionality of Mat2 might have allowed

  6. Pheromone independent unisexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Gyawali, Rachana; Zhao, Youbao; Fan, Yumeng; Xu, Xinping; Lin, Xiaorong

    2017-01-01

    The fungus Cryptococcus neoformans can undergo a-α bisexual and unisexual reproduction. Completion of both sexual reproduction modes requires similar cellular differentiation processes and meiosis. Although bisexual reproduction generates equal number of a and α progeny and is far more efficient than unisexual reproduction under mating-inducing laboratory conditions, the α mating type dominates in nature. Population genetic studies suggest that unisexual reproduction by α isolates might have contributed to this sharply skewed distribution of the mating types. However, the predominance of the α mating type and the seemingly inefficient unisexual reproduction observed under laboratory conditions present a conundrum. Here, we discovered a previously unrecognized condition that promotes unisexual reproduction while suppressing bisexual reproduction. Pheromone is the principal stimulus for bisexual development in Cryptococcus. Interestingly, pheromone and other components of the pheromone pathway, including the key transcription factor Mat2, are not necessary but rather inhibitory for Cryptococcus to complete its unisexual cycle under this condition. The inactivation of the pheromone pathway promotes unisexual reproduction despite the essential role of this pathway in non-self-recognition during bisexual reproduction. Nonetheless, the requirement for the known filamentation regulator Znf2 and the expression of hyphal or basidium specific proteins remain the same for pheromone-dependent or independent sexual reproduction. Transcriptome analyses and an insertional mutagenesis screen in mat2Δ identified calcineurin being essential for this process. We further found that Znf2 and calcineurin work cooperatively in controlling unisexual development in this fungus. These findings indicate that Mat2 acts as a repressor of pheromone-independent unisexual development while serving as an activator for a-α bisexual development. The bi-functionality of Mat2 might have allowed

  7. Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

  8. Volatile Hydrocarbon Pheromones from Beetles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter reviews literature about hydrocarbons from beetles that serve as long-range pheromones. The most thoroughly studied beetles that use volatile hydrocarbon pheromones belong to the family Nitidulidae in the genera Carpophilus and Colopterus. Published pheromone research deals with behav...

  9. Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

  10. Mianserin affects alarm reaction to conspecific chemical alarm cues in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2017-02-01

    In this study, I show that mianserin, a chemical with serotonin and adrenoceptor antagonist activities, increases fish vulnerability to a potential predator threat, when prey fish must deal with this threat based on conspecific chemical alarm cues. For that, I evaluated whether mianserin, diluted in the water, influences the behavioral responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to conspecific skin extract (chemical alarm cues). I found that, while mianserin did not abolished antipredator responses, this drug mitigates some components of this defensive reaction. Thus, a potential decrease in serotonin and adrenergic activities reduces the ability of dealing with predators when perceiving conspecific chemical alarm cues.

  11. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Markman

    2001-08-06

    difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

  12. Food collection and response to pheromones in an ant species exposed to electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; Rachidi, Zoheir; Bellens, François; De Doncker, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    We used the ant species Myrmica sabuleti as a model to study the impact of electromagnetic waves on social insects' response to their pheromones and their food collection. We quantified M. sabuleti workers' response to their trail, area marking and alarm pheromone under normal conditions. Then, we quantified the same responses while under the influence of electromagnetic waves. Under such an influence, ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated. Electromagnetic radiation obviously affects social insects' behavior and physiology.

  13. Pheromone production, male abundance, body size, and the evolution of elaborate antennae in moths

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, Matthew RE; Johnson, Tamara L; Elgar, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    The males of some species of moths possess elaborate feathery antennae. It is widely assumed that these striking morphological features have evolved through selection for males with greater sensitivity to the female sex pheromone, which is typically released in minute quantities. Accordingly, females of species in which males have elaborate (i.e., pectinate, bipectinate, or quadripectinate) antennae should produce the smallest quantities of pheromone. Alternatively, antennal morphology may be associated with the chemical properties of the pheromone components, with elaborate antennae being associated with pheromones that diffuse more quickly (i.e., have lower molecular weights). Finally, antennal morphology may reflect population structure, with low population abundance selecting for higher sensitivity and hence more elaborate antennae. We conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis to test these explanations using pheromone chemical data and trapping data for 152 moth species. Elaborate antennae are associated with larger body size (longer forewing length), which suggests a biological cost that smaller moth species cannot bear. Body size is also positively correlated with pheromone titre and negatively correlated with population abundance (estimated by male abundance). Removing the effects of body size revealed no association between the shape of antennae and either pheromone titre, male abundance, or mean molecular weight of the pheromone components. However, among species with elaborate antennae, longer antennae were typically associated with lower male abundances and pheromone compounds with lower molecular weight, suggesting that male distribution and a more rapidly diffusing female sex pheromone may influence the size but not the general shape of male antennae. PMID:22408739

  14. Facts, fallacies, fears, and frustrations with human pheromones.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Charles J; Preti, George

    2004-11-01

    Among primates in general, pheromones are of variable importance to social communication. Data on humans have generated the greatest controversy regarding the existence of pheromonal communication. In this review, the likelihood of pheromonal communication in humans is assessed with a discussion of chemical compounds produced by the axilla that may function as pheromones; the likelihood that the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a putative pheromone receptor organ in many other mammals, is functional in humans; and the possible ways pheromones operate in humans. In the human axilla, the interactions between the cutaneous microflora and axillary secretions render this region analogous to scent glands found in other primates. Both the chemistry of axillary secretions and their effects on conspecifics in humans appear to be analogous to other mammalian pheromone systems. Whichever chemical compounds serve a pheromonal function in humans, another unknown is the receptor. Although the VNO has been implicated in the reception of pheromones in many vertebrates, it is not the only pathway through which such information has access to the central nervous system; there is ample evidence to support the view that the olfactory epithelium can respond to pheromones. Furthermore, if a chemical activates receptors within the VNO, this does not necessarily mean that the compound is a pheromone. An important caveat for humans is that critical components typically found within the functioning VNO of other, nonprimate, mammals are lacking, suggesting that the human VNO does not function in the way that has been described for other mammals. In a broader perspective, pheromones can be classified as primers, signalers, modulators, and releasers. There is good evidence to support the presence of the former three in humans. Examples include affects on the menstrual cycle (primer effects); olfactory recognition of newborn by its mother (signaler); individuals may exude different odors based on mood

  15. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  16. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  17. The synthesis of the bacteriocin sakacin A is a temperature-sensitive process regulated by a pheromone peptide through a three-component regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Diep, D B; Axelsson, L; Grefsli, C; Nes, I F

    2000-09-01

    Sakacin A is a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sakei Lb706. The gene cluster (sap) encompasses a regulatory unit composed of three consecutive genes, orf4 and sapKR. sapKR encode a histidine protein kinase and a response regulator, while orf4 encodes the putative precursor of a 23-amino-acid cationic peptide (termed Sap-Ph). The authors show that Sap-Ph serves as a pheromone regulating bacteriocin production. Lb706 produced bacteriocin when the growth temperature was kept at 25 or 30 degrees C, but production was reduced or absent at higher temperatures (33.5-35 degrees C). Production was restored by lowering the growth temperature to 30 degrees C, but at temperatures of 33-34 degrees C also by adding exogenous Sap-Ph to the growth medium. A knock-out mutation in orf4 abolished sakacin A production. Exogenously added Sap-Ph complemented this mutation, unambiguously showing the essential role of this peptide for bacteriocin production. Another sakacin A producer, Lactobacillus curvatus LTH1174, had a similar response to temperature and exogenously added Sap-Ph.

  18. Identification of sex pheromone components of the female driedfruit moth,Vitula edmandsae serratilineella, and a blend for attraction of male moths.

    PubMed

    Struble, D L; Richards, K W

    1983-06-01

    Sixteen pheromone-like compounds were identified in abdomen tip washes and excised abdomen tip extracts of calling females of driedfruit moth,Vitula edmandsae serratilineella Ragonot. Identifications were by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography with flame ionization and electroantennographic detectors. Male moths were attracted to a blend of (Z)-9,(E)-12-tetradecadienol and (Z)-9,(E)-12-tetradecadienal in a ratio of 100∶1 at 500 μg/rubber septum dispenser, which is recommended for monitoring purposes. Low concentrations of (Z)-9-tetradecenol (0.5%) and (Z)-9-tetradecenal (0.1%) may be beneficial for the attraction of males, but 1-2% of (E)-9,(E)-12- or (Z)-9,(Z)-12-tetradecadienol, or (Z)-9,(E)-12-tetradecadienyl acetate inhibited their attraction. Gravid female moths were attracted to traps that captured large numbers of males. Females may be attracted to male hairpencil or forewing gland secretions emitted near the traps or that accumulate in the traps.

  19. Expression patterns and binding properties of three pheromone binding proteins in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllotella.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) play a key role in transporting hydrophobic sex pheromone components emitted by con-specific female across aqueous sensillar lymph to the surface of olfactory receptor neurons. A number of PBPs have been cloned, however, details of their function are still largely unknown. Here three pheromone binding protein genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllotella were cloned. The three PxylPBP genes are not only expressed in chemosensory tissues but also expressed in female reproductive organs and male legs. To better understand the functions of PxylPBPs in the initial steps of pheromone recognition, three PxylPBPs were expressed in Escherichia coli and the ligand-binding specificities of purified recombinant PBPs were investigated. Fluorescence binding assays indicate that three PxylPBPs not only robustly bound all four sex pheromone components but also significantly bound pheromone analogs with at least one double bond, while weakly bound tested plant volatiles. Although pheromone analogs bound PBPs, they could not elicit the moth's electrophysiological response. These experiments provide evidence that PxylPBPs have limited selectivity of pheromone components and analogs and some downstream components such as odor receptors might be involved in selectivity and specificity of pheromone perception in P. xyllotella.

  20. Pheromone Autodetection: Evidence and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Holdcraft, Robert; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory communication research with insects utilizing sex pheromones has focused on the effects of pheromones on signal receivers. Early pheromone detection studies using the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori L., and Saturniids led to the assumption that emitters, especially females, are unable to detect their own pheromone. Pheromone anosmia, i.e., the inability of females to detect their conspecific sex pheromone, was often assumed, and initially little attention was paid to female behaviors that may result from autodetection, i.e., the ability of females to detect their sex pheromone. Detection of conspecific pheromone plumes from nearby females may provide information to improve chances of mating success and progeny survival. Since the first documented example in 1972, numerous occurrences of autodetection have been observed and verified in field and laboratory studies. We summarize here a significant portion of research relating to autodetection. Electrophysiological and behavioral investigations, as well as expression patterns of proteins involved in pheromone autodetection are included. We discuss problems inherent in defining a boundary between sex and aggregation pheromones considering the occurrence of autodetection, and summarize hypothesized selection pressures favoring autodetection. Importance of including autodetection studies in future work is emphasized by complications arising from a lack of knowledge combined with expanding the use of pheromones in agriculture. PMID:27120623

  1. Soldier formation regulated by a primer pheromone from the soldier frontal gland in a higher termite, Nasutitermes lujae

    PubMed Central

    Lefeuve, Patrick; Bordereau, Christian

    1984-01-01

    In the nasute higher termite Nasutitermes lujae, the differentiation of new soldiers is suppressed or delayed by the soldiers themselves. Experimental data strongly suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a primer pheromone secreted by the frontal gland of soldiers. The pheromone must be contacted directly. Thus, the frontal gland of termite soldiers assumes a new role in addition to alarm and defense, although this extension cannot be generalized to all termite species. The soldier inhibitory pheromone is evidently only one of multiple factors contributing soldier regulation in termite societies. PMID:16578779

  2. Soldier formation regulated by a primer pheromone from the soldier frontal gland in a higher termite, Nasutitermes lujae.

    PubMed

    Lefeuve, P; Bordereau, C

    1984-12-01

    In the nasute higher termite Nasutitermes lujae, the differentiation of new soldiers is suppressed or delayed by the soldiers themselves. Experimental data strongly suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a primer pheromone secreted by the frontal gland of soldiers. The pheromone must be contacted directly. Thus, the frontal gland of termite soldiers assumes a new role in addition to alarm and defense, although this extension cannot be generalized to all termite species. The soldier inhibitory pheromone is evidently only one of multiple factors contributing soldier regulation in termite societies.

  3. Field trials of aggregation pheromones for the stink bugs Chlorochroa uhleri and Chlorochroa sayi (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Millar, Jocelyn G; McBrien, Heather M; McElfresh, J Steven

    2010-10-01

    In field trials, adult Chlorochroa uhleri (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of both sexes were caught in significant numbers in cylindrical screen traps baited with gray rubber septum lures loaded with the main component of the male-produced pheromone, methyl (E)-6-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate. Addition of the two possible minor components of the pheromone, methyl (E)-5-2,6,10-trimethyl-5,9-undecadienoate and methyl (2E,6E)-farnesoate, did not affect attraction. Combining the pheromone with different concentrations of volatiles mimicking the odors of a known host plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), had no significant effect on attraction of adult bugs, whereas combining the pheromone with the pheromones of two sympatric stink bug species, Chlorochroa sayi (Stål) and Euschistus conspersus Uhler, decreased trap captures, suggesting interference between the pheromones. Small numbers of Chlorochroa ligata (Say) adults also were attracted, but numbers caught were too low to allow statistical comparisons between lure blends. In field trials with C. sayi, all three of the male-specific pheromone compounds [methyl geranate, methyl citronellate, and methyl (E) -6-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate] were required for optimal attraction. As with C. uhleri, adults of both sexes were attracted to pheromone lures in approximately equal numbers. Because of the decreased volatility (=release rate) of methyl (E)-6-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate in comparison with the other two, lower molecular weight pheromone components, lures needed to be loaded with a disproportionately high amount of methyl (E)-6-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate to obtain the best trap catch. There was no indication that the pheromone components of C. uhleri or E. conspersus interfered with the attractiveness of the C. sayi pheromone in lures containing a blend of all three pheromones.

  4. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-05

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone.

  5. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone. PMID:26729427

  6. Biosynthesis of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, the pheromone components of female mallard ducks, by cell-free preparations from the uropygial gland.

    PubMed

    Kolattukudy, P E; Rogers, L

    1987-01-01

    Diesters of 3-hydroxy C8, C10, and C12 acids, the female mallard duck pheromones, were found as the major products of the uropygial glands only during the breeding season. The 3-hydroxy acids were identified by mass spectrometry of the trimethylsilyl ethers of the methyl esters and of the diols derived from LiAlH4 reduction of the hydroxy acids. A cell-free extract from the gland catalyzed conversion of dodecanoic acid to 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid which was identified by radio thin-layer and radio gas chromatographic analysis of the enzymic products as methyl-3-acetoxydodecanoate and as diacetate of the diol generated by LiAlH4 reduction of the enzymic product. The enzymic introduction of the hydroxyl group at C-3 was catalyzed mainly by a 50,000g pellet prepared from a 1000g supernatant obtained from the cell-free extract. This reaction required ATP, CoA, and O2, and the CoA ester of the acid was more efficiently converted than the free acid to the 3-hydroxy acid. KCN at 1 mM and 50% CO did not inhibit the reaction. 3H from 3H2O was incorporated into 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid during the enzymic synthesis of this acid from dodecanoic acid. Mass spectrometry of the 3-hydroxy acid generated by the particulate fraction in the presence of H2 18O showed that 18O was incorporated as expected from hydration of a delta 2 double bond. From the above results it is tentatively concluded that peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase converts the acyl-CoA to the 2-enoyl-CoA which is hydrated to generate the 3-hydroxy acid.

  7. Control of ELT false alarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

  8. IMPEDANCE ALARM SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Cowen, R.G.

    1959-09-29

    A description is given of electric protective systems and burglar alarm systems of the capacitance type in which the approach of an intruder at a place to be protected varies the capacitance in an electric circuit and the change is thereafter communicated to a remote point to actuate an alarm. According to the invention, an astable transitor multi-vibrator has the amplitude at its output voltage controlled by a change in the sensing capacitance. The sensing capacitance is effectively connected between collector and base of one stage of the multivibrator circuit through the detector-to-monitor line. The output of the detector is a small d-c voltage across the detector-to-monitor line. This d- c voltage is amplified and monitored at the other end of the line, where an appropriate alarm is actuated if a sudden change in the voltage occurs. The present system has a high degree of sensitivity and is very difficult to defeat by known techniques.

  9. Two chemoreceptors mediate developmental effects of dauer pheromone in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyuhyung; Sato, Koji; Shibuya, Mayumi; Zeiger, Danna M; Butcher, Rebecca A; Ragains, Justin R; Clardy, Jon; Touhara, Kazushige; Sengupta, Piali

    2009-11-13

    Intraspecific chemical communication is mediated by signals called pheromones. Caenorhabditis elegans secretes a mixture of small molecules (collectively termed dauer pheromone) that regulates entry into the alternate dauer larval stage and also modulates adult behavior via as yet unknown receptors. Here, we identify two heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate dauer formation in response to a subset of dauer pheromone components. The SRBC-64 and SRBC-66 GPCRs are members of the large Caenorhabditis-specific SRBC subfamily and are expressed in the ASK chemosensory neurons, which are required for pheromone-induced dauer formation. Expression of both, but not each receptor alone, confers pheromone-mediated effects on heterologous cells. Identification of dauer pheromone receptors will allow a better understanding of the signaling cascades that transduce the context-dependent effects of ecologically important chemical signals.

  10. Chemoreception to aggregation pheromones in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Xiong, Caixing; Liu, Nannan

    2017-03-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is an obligate blood-feeding insect that is resurgent worldwide, posing a threat to human beings through its biting nuisance and disease transmission. Bed bug aggregation pheromone is considered a very promising attractant for use in the monitoring and management of bed bugs, but as yet little is known regarding the sensory physiology of bed bugs related to this pheromone. This study examined how the individual components of aggregation pheromone are perceived by the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in different types of olfactory sensilla in bed bugs and the molecular basis for the ORNs' responses to the aggregation pheromone. We found that the ORNs in the D olfactory sensilla played a predominant role in detecting all the components of aggregation pheromone except for histamine, which was only recognized by the C sensilla. Bed bugs' E sensilla, which include four functionally distinct groups, showed only a very weak but variant sensitivity (both excitatory and inhibitory) to the components of aggregation pheromone. Functional tests of 15 odorant receptors (ORs) in response to the components of aggregation pheromone revealed that most of these components were encoded by multiple ORs with various tuning properties. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of how bed bug aggregation pheromone is perceived and recognized in the peripheral olfactory system and will contribute useful information to support the development of synthetic attractants for bed bug monitoring and control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved process control alarm operation.

    PubMed

    Bristol, E H

    2001-01-01

    Alarms are the main connection from the automation to the operator, when addressing process operation outside of its normal function. They are often as much a source of operator overload and consternation as help. Better engineering of the relative role of the operator and automation would materially help overcome the difficulties. Expert systems have been proposed as a solution. But Expert systems are really another form of automation. There remains that aspect of the alarms, which must address our inability to cover and understand a possibly larger domain of the operation not appropriate to traditional controls or present-day automation. Appropriate tools for this domain must support operator discretion and initiative. The paper suggests a set of such general, computer science based, tools requiring only the most basic configuration. They are viewed as implemented on top of those properly detailed alarm displays and interlocks, which reflect the more formal plant operating policies. They include: (a) Various forms of alarm logging and trending; (b) Short, automatically generated, word summaries of alarm activity, which allow low level data to propagate to the highest levels, including: one word and priority summaries; (c) Causal alarm pattern analyses that help the operator to predict or diagnose alarm behavior; (d) Automatic adaptation of alarms and alarm limits to varying process situations; (e) Uniform use of alarm policies to simplify alarm configuration.

  12. Identification of genes expressed in the sex pheromone gland of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon with putative roles in sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    we proposed possible A. ipsilon biosynthesis pathways for major and minor sex pheromone components. Conclusions Our study identified genes potentially involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport in A. ipsilon. The identified genes are likely to play essential roles in sex pheromone production, transport and degradation and could serve as targets to interfere with pheromone release. The identification of highly expressed CSPs and OBPs in the pheromone gland suggests that they may play a role in the binding, transport and release of sex pheromones during sex pheromone production in A. ipsilon and other Lepidoptera insects. PMID:24053512

  13. Multiple pheromone system controlling mating in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Averhoff, W W; Richardson, R H

    1976-02-01

    The signals essential to Drosophila melanogaster courtship include pheromones emitted by the female which stimulate the male to court and pheromones emitted by the courting male which stimulate the female to accept. Genetic variation among these phermones is a common (if not universal) requirement for stimulation of either sex. The signal from the courting male to the female involves both a volatile and a nonvolatile component. The volatile component is associated with loci on the second and/or third chromosomes, while the monvolatile component is associated with the X and/or fourth chromosomes. This widespread distribution in the genome of loci controlling various components in the communication network inevitably results in linkage associations with other loci. The genetic array of gametes was limited. When combined with the negative assortitative mating pattern produced by the stimulation by dissimilar pheromones, linkage disequilibrium creates a strong counterforce to inbreeding during population bottlenecks.

  14. Multiple pheromone system controlling mating in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Averhoff, W W; Richardson, R H

    1976-01-01

    The signals essential to Drosophila melanogaster courtship include pheromones emitted by the female which stimulate the male to court and pheromones emitted by the courting male which stimulate the female to accept. Genetic variation among these phermones is a common (if not universal) requirement for stimulation of either sex. The signal from the courting male to the female involves both a volatile and a nonvolatile component. The volatile component is associated with loci on the second and/or third chromosomes, while the monvolatile component is associated with the X and/or fourth chromosomes. This widespread distribution in the genome of loci controlling various components in the communication network inevitably results in linkage associations with other loci. The genetic array of gametes was limited. When combined with the negative assortitative mating pattern produced by the stimulation by dissimilar pheromones, linkage disequilibrium creates a strong counterforce to inbreeding during population bottlenecks. PMID:813229

  15. Evaluation of the major female Eurytoma amygdali sex pheromone components, (Z,Z)-6,9-tricosadiene and (Z,Z)-6,9-pentacosadiene for male attraction in field tests.

    PubMed

    Mazomenos, Basilis E; Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas; Milonas, Panagiotis

    2004-06-01

    We evaluated the attraction of male almond seed wasp Eurytoma amygdali to the synthetic alkadienes (Z,Z)-6,9-tricosadiene and (Z,Z)-6,9-pentacosadiene and their blend in almond orchards using baited rubber septa attached to cardboard rectangular adhesive traps. The two alkadienes were recently isolated from virgin female whole body extracts and SPME collected volatiles. The alkenes (Z)-9-tricosene, (Z)-9-pentacosene, and (Z)-9-heptacosene, present in female extracts, were also added to the blend of the alkadienes and tested. The alkadienes tested individually attracted males when the traps were baited with doses ranging from 10 to 30 mg/trap. The maximum number of males was attracted to traps baited with 10 mg of a (Z,Z)-6,9-C(23:2):(Z,Z)-6,9-C(25:2) blend at a ratio of 7:3. Results with the three alkenes added to the blend were inconclusive because of low populations. The present study on E. amygdali is the first one reporting attraction of males to synthetic sex pheromone components in field trials for a Eurytomidae species. The synthetic alkadienes blend offers the potential to develop an effective system for monitoring populations of the almond seed wasp in almond orchards.

  16. Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration Reduces Alarm Signaling in Aphids.

    PubMed

    Boullis, Antoine; Fassotte, Bérénice; Sarles, Landry; Lognay, Georges; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Bartram, Stefan; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2017-02-01

    Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations might impact pheromonal communication in insects. Here, we hypothesize that changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide affect the whole dynamics of alarm signaling in aphids, including: (1) the production of the active compound (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf), (2) emission behavior when under attack, (3) perception by the olfactory apparatus, and (4) the escape response. We reared two strains of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations over several generations. We found that an increase in CO2 concentration reduced the production (i.e., individual content) and emission (released under predation events) of Eβf. While no difference in Eβf neuronal perception was observed, we found that an increase in CO2 strongly reduced the escape behavior expressed by an aphid colony following exposure to natural doses of alarm pheromone. In conclusion, our results confirm that changes to greenhouse gases impact chemical communication in the pea aphid, and could potentially have a cascade effect on interactions with higher trophic levels.

  17. The evolution of pheromonal communication.

    PubMed

    Swaney, William T; Keverne, Eric B

    2009-06-25

    Small-brained rodents have been the principle focus for pheromonal research and have provided comprehensive insights into the chemosensory mechanisms that underpin pheromonal communication and the hugely important roles that pheromones play in behavioural regulation. However, pheromonal communication does not start or end with the mouse and the rat, and work in amphibians reveals much about the likely evolutionary origins of the chemosensory systems that mediate pheromonal effects. The dual olfactory organs (the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ), their receptors and their separate projection pathways appear to have ancient evolutionary origins, appearing in the aquatic ancestors of all tetrapods during the Devonian period and so pre-dating the transition to land. While the vomeronasal organ has long been considered an exclusively pheromonal organ, accumulating evidence indicates that it is not the sole channel for the transduction of pheromonal information and that both olfactory systems have been co-opted for the detection of different pheromone signals over the course of evolution. This has also led to great diversity in the vomeronasal and olfactory receptor families, with enormous levels of gene diversity and inactivation of genes in different species. Finally, the evolution of trichromacy as well as huge increases in social complexity have minimised the role of pheromones in the lives of primates, leading to the total inactivation of the vomeronasal system in catarrhine primates while the brain increased in size and behaviour became emancipated from hormonal regulation.

  18. SEX PHEROMONE OF THE PLANT BUG, PHYTOCORTIS conspurcatus Knight (HETEROPTERA: MIRIDAE)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Female Phytocoris sp. produce a sex pheromone from metathoracic scent glands. The pheromone consists of hexyl acetate (HA; present in both sexes), with the female-specific compounds, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate (E2HA), octyl acetate (OA) and (E)-2-octenyl acetate (E2OA). HA and E2OA are key components of ...

  19. Pheromone-based mating disruption to control the historical top three insect pests of Wisconsin cranberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2012, the first 3-species pheromone mating disruption program was tested in Wisconsin cranberries. Preliminary data suggest that there was substantial disruption of blackheaded fireworm and Sparganothis fruitworm mating. The pheromone of cranberry fruitworm only contained a single component, and ...

  20. Range of Attraction of Pheromone Lures and Dispersal Behavior of Cerambycid Beetles

    Treesearch

    E. Dunn; J. Hough-Goldstein; L. M. Hanks; J. G. Millar; V. D' Amico

    2016-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) can locate suitable hosts and mates by sensing pheromones and plant volatiles. Many cerambycid pheromone components have been identified and are now produced synthetically for trap lures. The range over which these lures attract cerambycids within a forest, and the tendency for cerambycids to move out of a forest in...

  1. Hypo- and Hyperglycemic Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Howsmon, Daniel; Bequette, B. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery that insulin regulates blood glucose by Banting and Best in 1922, the symptoms and risks associated with hypoglycemia became widely recognized. This article reviews devices to warn individuals of impending hypo- and hyperglycemia; biosignals used by these devices include electroencephalography, electrocardiography, skin galvanic resistance, diabetes alert dogs, and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). While systems based on other technology are increasing in performance and decreasing in size, CGM technology remains the best method for both reactive and predictive alarming of hypo- or hyperglycemia. PMID:25931581

  2. Assessment of Clinical Alarms Influencing Nurses' Perceptions of Alarm Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Emalie M; Costanzo, Cindy L

    Excessive clinical alarms have inundated health care for years. Multiple governing bodies, organizations, and facilities have deemed alarm management a priority. Alarm management is a multifaceted problem that affects all health care organizations and clinical staff, especially those in critical care units. Ultimately, the lack of knowledge regarding nurses' perceptions to alarm management and alarm fatigue creates patient safety chiasms. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to understand nurses' perceptions of alarm fatigue (utilizing the Healthcare Technology Foundation's Clinical Alarms Committee Survey) while implementing interventions that improve patient safety. The design of this qualitative study is an electronically distributed survey to 31 nurses who work in critical care. The Healthcare Technology Foundation clinical alarms survey has 36 questions with various answering strategies distributed (with permission) via e-mail access by BlueQ through Creighton University. Twenty-six respondents (n = 26) completed the survey, with 42% being intensive care unit nurses and 58% being progressive care unit nurses. The majority of nurses (n = 23, 88%) agreed that nuisance alarms occur frequently and disrupt patient care (n = 25, 96%). A lack of standardized method was noted to alarm management and parameter changes. Multiple patterns emerged that initiated the need for further examination and improvement. Following the survey, themes emerged, and changes were implemented including the following: an alarm management policy was created, tools were provided to staff for easy usage, staff were educated using hands-on practice at an annual training summit, and sustainability was created through continuation of alarm management assessment and improvement.

  3. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1987-04-13

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

  4. Putative pathway of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation by expression patterns of genes identified from female pheromone gland and adult antenna of Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhu, Jia-Yao; Li, Sheng-Yun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-05-01

    The general pathway of biosynthesis and degradation for Type-I sex pheromones in moths is well established, but some genes involved in this pathway remain to be characterized. The purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens, employs a pheromone blend containing components with three different terminal functional groups (Z11-16:OAc, Z11-16:OH, and Z11-16:Ald) of Type-I sex pheromones. Thus, it provides a good model to study the diversity of genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways. By analyzing previously obtained transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands and antennae, we identified 73 novel genes that are possibly related to pheromone biosynthesis (46 genes) or degradation (27 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that one desaturase (SinfDes4), one fatty acid reductase (SinfFAR2), and one fatty acid xtransport protein (SinfFATP1) genes were predominantly expressed in pheromone glands, and clustered with genes involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Ten genes including five carboxylesterases (SinfCXE10, 13, 14, 18, and 20), three aldehyde oxidases (SinfAOX1, 2 and 3), and two alcohol dehydrogenases (SinfAD1 and 3) were expressed specifically or predominantly in antennae, and could be candidate genes involved in pheromone degradation. SinfAD1 and 3 are the first reported alcohol dehydrogenase genes with antennae-biased expression. Based on these results we propose a pathway involving these potential enzyme-encoding gene candidates in sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation in S. inferens. This study provides robust background information for further elucidation of the genetic basis of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation, and ultimately provides potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. inferens for control purposes.

  5. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P.

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  6. Defensive secretion of Therea petiveriana: chemical identification and evidence of an alarm function.

    PubMed

    Farine, Jean-Pierre; Semon, Etienne; Everaerts, Claude; Abed, Dehbia; Grandcolas, Philippe; Brossut, Remy

    2002-08-01

    The volatile constituents of the supposed defensive secretions of the glandular pouches of the adults of both sexes of the cockroach Therea petiveriana have been shown to contain N-3-methylbutylacetamide (MBA) and N-3-methylbutylpropanamide (MBP), which represented 60% of the volatile fraction. The other 40% included acidic, aromatic, and aldehydic compounds. Behavioral experiments demonstrated that the secretion acts as an alarm pheromone for adults.

  7. The Yeast ATF1 Acetyltransferase Efficiently Acetylates Insect Pheromone Alcohols: Implications for the Biological Production of Moth Pheromones.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Lager, Ida; Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-04-01

    Many moth pheromones are composed of mixtures of acetates of long-chain (≥10 carbon) fatty alcohols. Moth pheromone precursors such as fatty acids and fatty alcohols can be produced in yeast by the heterologous expression of genes involved in insect pheromone production. Acetyltransferases that subsequently catalyze the formation of acetates by transfer of the acetate unit from acetyl-CoA to a fatty alcohol have been postulated in pheromone biosynthesis. However, so far no fatty alcohol acetyltransferases responsible for the production of straight chain alkyl acetate pheromone components in insects have been identified. In search for a non-insect acetyltransferase alternative, we expressed a plant-derived diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) (EC 2.3.1.20) cloned from the seed of the burning bush (Euonymus alatus) in a yeast system. EaDAcT transformed various fatty alcohol insect pheromone precursors into acetates but we also found high background acetylation activities. Only one enzyme in yeast was shown to be responsible for the majority of that background activity, the acetyltransferase ATF1 (EC 2.3.1.84). We further investigated the usefulness of ATF1 for the conversion of moth pheromone alcohols into acetates in comparison with Ea DAcT. Overexpression of ATF1 revealed that it was capable of acetylating these fatty alcohols with chain lengths from 10 to 18 carbons with up to 27- and 10-fold higher in vivo and in vitro efficiency, respectively, compared to Ea DAcT. The ATF1 enzyme thus has the potential to serve as the missing enzyme in the reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathway of insect acetate pheromones from precursor fatty acids in yeast.

  8. Is androstadienone a putative human pheromone?

    PubMed

    Marazziti, D; Torri, P; Baroni, S; Catena Dell'Osso, M; Consoli, G; Boncinelli, V

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of different evidences, androstadienone, a steroid compound produced in the armpit, has been proposed as a human pheromone, although its physiological levels appear too low to induce a response under experimental conditions. For this reason, the majority of researchers in this area puts into question the "legitimacy" of androstadienone, and prefers to consider the axillary extracts in its entirety, like a sort of "medicinal tea", the components of which still remain to be identified, but that taken together may induce a response, or function as a carrier of other active substances. Another option is that androstadienone acts with varying degrees of potency and, at lower concentrations, according to the context and to specific behavioral situations. The aim of this paper is to review all relevant data regarding androstadienone, in order to ascertain whether it may be considered a physiological pheromone and, as such, a possible target of future modulators of some human behaviors.

  9. Genetic evidence for the coexistence of pheromone perception and full trichromatic vision in howler monkeys.

    PubMed

    Webb, David M; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2004-04-01

    Vertebrate pheromones are water-soluble chemicals perceived mainly by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) for intraspecific communications. Humans, apes, and Old World (OW) monkeys lack functional genes responsible for the pheromone signal transduction and are generally insensitive to vomeronasal pheromones. It has been hypothesized that the evolutionary deterioration of pheromone sensitivity occurred because pheromone communication became redundant after the emergence of full trichromatic color vision via the duplication of the X-chromosome-linked red/green opsin gene in the common ancestor of hominoids and OW monkeys. Interestingly, full trichromacy also evolved in the New World (NW) howler monkeys via an independent duplication of the same gene. Here we sequenced from three species of howler monkeys an essential component of the VNO pheromone transduction pathway, the gene encoding the ion channel TRP2. In contrast to those of hominoids and OW monkeys, the howler TRP2 sequences have none of the characteristics of pseudogenes. This and other observations indicate that howler monkeys have maintained both their systems of pheromone communication and full trichromatic vision, suggesting that the presence of full trichromacy alone does not lead to the loss of pheromone communication. We suggest that the ecological differences between OW and NW primates, particularly in habitat selection, may have also affected the evolution of pheromone perception.

  10. Basidiomycete Mating Type Genes and Pheromone Signaling▿

    PubMed Central

    Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Kothe, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The genome sequences of the basidiomycete Agaricomycetes species Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Schizophyllum commune, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Postia placenta, as well as of Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis, are now publicly available. Out of these fungi, C. cinerea, S. commune, and U. maydis, together with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been investigated for years genetically and molecularly for signaling in sexual reproduction. The comparison of the structure and organization of mating type genes in fungal genomes reveals an amazing conservation of genes regulating the sexual reproduction throughout the fungal kingdom. In agaricomycetes, two mating type loci, A, coding for homeodomain type transcription factors, and B, encoding a pheromone/receptor system, regulate the four typical mating interactions of tetrapolar species. Evidence for both A and B mating type genes can also be identified in basidiomycetes with bipolar systems, where only two mating interactions are seen. In some of these fungi, the B locus has lost its self/nonself discrimination ability and thus its specificity while retaining the other regulatory functions in development. In silico analyses now also permit the identification of putative components of the pheromone-dependent signaling pathways. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to development of dikaryotic mycelia, fruiting body formation, and meiotic spore production. In pheromone-dependent signaling, the role of heterotrimeric G proteins, components of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways can now be defined. Additionally, the pheromone-dependent signaling through monomeric, small GTPases potentially involved in creating the polarized cytoskeleton for reciprocal nuclear exchange and migration during mating is predicted. PMID:20190072

  11. Using a proteometabolomic approach to investigate the role of Dufour's gland in pheromone biosynthesis in the social wasp Polybia paulista.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Franciele Grego; Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido Dos; Saidemberg, Daniel Menezes; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2017-01-16

    Dufour's gland is associated with the venom apparatuses of social wasps and bees. This location and its evolutionary adaptations indicate that it could be involved in the production of alarm pheromones in the social wasp Polybia paulista. To investigate this hypothesis, the volatile composition of this gland was analyzed and compared to that in the venom. Eighteen compounds were identified as secreted by Dufour's gland, and 16 of these compounds were also identified in the venom, suggesting that the compounds produced by the gland are secreted and mixed with venom in the venom reservoir of this wasp. These compounds were subjected to a field bioassay to investigate their potential action as alarm pheromones. Alcohols and aldehydes elicited the alert behavior in workers, luring them outside the nest, whereas acids attracted the workers in the direction of the source; fatty acid methyl esters elicited aggression. These results suggest that Dufour's gland produces alarm pheromones. To corroborate this hypothesis the proteomic complement of this gland was assigned using a shot-gun strategy; 59 proteins were identified, and the results indicate specialization of Dufour's gland for the metabolism of fatty acids (elongation, esterification unsaturation, reduction, and decarboxylation) in the biosynthesis of alarm pheromones.

  12. The Role of Pheromonal Responses in Rodent Behavior: Future Directions for the Development of Laboratory Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Bind, Rebecca H; Minney, Sarah M; Rosenfeld, SaraJane; Hallock, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones—chemical signals that can elicit responses in a conspecific—are important in intraspecies communication. Information conveyed by pheromones includes the location of an animal, the presence of food or a threat, sexual attraction, courtship, and dam–pup interactions. These chemical messages remain intact and volatile even when animals, such as rodents, are housed in laboratories rather than their natural environment. Laboratory protocols, such as the cage cleaning and sanitation processes, as well as general housing conditions can alter a rodent's normal production of pheromones in both amount and type and thus may affect behavior. In addition, some procedures induce the release of alarm pheromones that subsequently alter the behavior of other rodents. To prevent pheromonal interference and stress-induced pheromonal release in their research subjects, experimenters should assess current laboratory protocols regarding cage cleaning processes, housing designs, and behavioral assays. Here we discuss how the most commonly used laboratory procedures can alter pheromonal signaling and cause confounding effects. PMID:23562094

  13. Pheromones in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jacqueline S R; Yew, Joanne Y

    2013-01-01

    The identification of pheromones (chemical communication cues) is critical to our understanding of complex social behavior in insects and other animals. In this chapter, we describe analytical methods for the purification of lipid pheromones by thin layer chromatography and the quantification and determination of their elemental composition by mass spectrometry.

  14. Identification of protein pheromones that promote aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chamero, Pablo; Marton, Tobias F; Logan, Darren W; Flanagan, Kelly; Cruz, Jason R; Saghatelian, Alan; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Stowers, Lisa

    2007-12-06

    Mice use pheromones, compounds emitted and detected by members of the same species, as cues to regulate social behaviours such as pup suckling, aggression and mating. Neurons that detect pheromones are thought to reside in at least two separate organs within the nasal cavity: the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). Each pheromone ligand is thought to activate a dedicated subset of these sensory neurons. However, the nature of the pheromone cues and the identity of the responding neurons that regulate specific social behaviours are largely unknown. Here we show, by direct activation of sensory neurons and analysis of behaviour, that at least two chemically distinct ligands are sufficient to promote male-male aggression and stimulate VNO neurons. We have purified and analysed one of these classes of ligand and found its specific aggression-promoting activity to be dependent on the presence of the protein component of the major urinary protein (MUP) complex, which is known to comprise specialized lipocalin proteins bound to small organic molecules. Using calcium imaging of dissociated vomeronasal neurons (VNs), we have determined that the MUP protein activates a sensory neuron subfamily characterized by the expression of the G-protein Galpha(o) subunit (also known as Gnao) and Vmn2r putative pheromone receptors (V2Rs). Genomic analysis indicates species-specific co-expansions of MUPs and V2Rs, as would be expected among pheromone-signalling components. Finally, we show that the aggressive behaviour induced by the MUPs occurs exclusively through VNO neuronal circuits. Our results substantiate the idea of MUP proteins as pheromone ligands that mediate male-male aggression through the accessory olfactory neural pathway.

  15. 2,3-Dimethyl-5-(2-methylpropyl)pyrazine, a trail pheromone component of Eutetramorium mocquerysi Emery (1899) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tentschert, J.; Bestmann, H.-J.; Hölldobler, B.; Heinze, J.

    The ant Eutetramorium mocquerysi (Myrmicinae) is endemic to the island of Madagascar. During foraging and nest emigration the ants lay recruitment trails with secretions from the poison gland. We identified three pyrazine compounds in the poison gland secretion: 2,3-dimethyl-5-(2-methylpropyl)pyrazine 1, 2,3-dimethyl-5-(3-methylbutyl)pyrazine 3, 2,3-dimethyl-5-(2-methylbutyl)pyrazine 4. Only the first component elicited trail-following behavior in the ants. We were unable to investigate whether the other pyrazine components have a synergistic function.

  16. The "Let's Get Alarmed!" initiative: a smoke alarm giveaway programme.

    PubMed

    DiGuiseppi, C; Slater, S; Roberts, I; Adams, L; Sculpher, M; Wade, A; McCarthy, M

    1999-09-01

    To reduce fires and fire related injuries by increasing the prevalence of functioning smoke alarms in high risk households. The programme was delivered in an inner London area with above average material deprivation and below average smoke alarm ownership. The target population included low income and rental households and households with elderly persons or young children. Forty wards, averaging 4000 households each, were randomised to intervention or control status. Free smoke alarms and fire safety information were distributed in intervention wards by community groups and workers as part of routine activities and by paid workers who visited target neighbourhoods. Recipients provided data on household age distribution and housing tenure. Programme costs were documented from a societal perspective. Data are being collected on smoke alarm ownership and function, and on fires and related injuries and their costs. Community and paid workers distributed 20,050 smoke alarms, potentially sufficient to increase smoke alarm ownership by 50% in intervention wards. Compared with the total study population, recipients included greater proportions of low income and rental households and households including children under 5 years or adults aged 65 and older. Total programme costs were 145,087 Pounds. It is possible to implement a large scale smoke alarm giveaway programme targeted to high risk households in a densely populated, multicultural, materially deprived community. The programme's effects on the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms and the incidence of fires and fire related injuries, and its cost effectiveness, are being evaluated as a randomized controlled trial.

  17. Simple synthesis of 5,9-dimethylated long-chain alkanes, the sex pheromones of leaf miner moths.

    PubMed

    Liang, T; Kuwahara, S; Hasegawa, M; Kodama, O

    2000-11-01

    Each stereoisomeric mixture of 5,9-dimethylpentadecane and 5,9-dimethylhexadecane, the major and the minor sex pheromone components of Perileucoptera coffeella, respectively, was synthesized in about 25% overall yield through 6 steps from beta-citronellol. 5,9-Dimethylheptadecane, the major sex pheromone component of Leucoptera malifoliella, was also synthesized analogously as a stereoisomeric mixture in a 22% overall yield.

  18. Similar worldwide patterns in the sex pheromone signal and response in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4%, 5.4%, 10.4%, 30.4%, and 100.1% ...

  19. Spatial displacement of release point can enhance activity of an attractant pheromone synergist of a bark beetle.

    Treesearch

    Brian Sullivan; Kenji Mori

    2009-01-01

    Flight responses of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to widely-spaced (>130 m) traps baited with pine volatiles (in turpentine) and the female-produced pheromone component frontalin were enhanced when a bait containing the male pheromone component (+)-endo-brevicomin was attached...

  20. Factors Influencing Male Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Capture Rates in Sex Pheromone-Baited Traps on Canola in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Miluch, C E; Dosdall, L M; Evenden, M L

    2014-12-01

    Optimization of male moth trapping rates in sex pheromone-baited traps plays a key role in managing Plutella xylostella (L.). We investigated various ways to increase the attractiveness of pheromone-baited traps to P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems in AB, Canada. Factors tested included pheromone blend and dose, addition of a green leaf volatile to the pheromone at different times during the season, lure type, trap color, and height. The industry standard dose of 100 μg of pheromone (four-component blend) per lure (ConTech Enterprises Inc., Delta, British Columbia [BC], Canada) captured the most moths in the two lure types tested. Traps baited with pheromone released from gray rubber septa captured more males than those baited with red rubber septa. Traps baited with lures in which Z11-16: Ac is the main component attracted significantly more moths than those in which Z11-16: Ald is the main component. The addition of the green leaf volatile, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, to pheromone at a range of doses, did not increase moth capture at any point during the canola growing season. Unpainted white traps captured significantly more male moths than pheromone-baited traps that were painted yellow. Trap height had no significant effect on moth capture. Recommendations for monitoring P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems of western Canada include using a pheromone blend with Z11-16: Ac as the main component released from gray rubber septa at a dose of 100 μg.

  1. Sex pheromones of Callosobruchus subinnotatus and C. maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): congeneric responses and role of air movement.

    PubMed

    Mbata, G N; Shu, S; Ramaswamy, S B

    2000-04-01

    Females of Callosobruchus spp. are known to produce sex pheromones that attract males. These sex pheromones cannot be adopted for use in pest management without first investigating the responses of the males in the windless conditions of storage environments. Consequently, behavioural bioassays of Callosobruchus subinnotatus Pic males were conducted in an olfactometer in the absence of air-flow. Under these conditions males were found to be able to follow odour trails to the source. However, the latency period was longer in diffusional bioassays than for insects in a Y-tube olfactometer that provided directional wind cues. The highest percentage of males reached the pheromone source when components of the pheromones, (E)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (E32A) and (Z)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (Z32A), were formulated in a 50:50 or 25:75 ratio. Males of C. maculatus (Fabricius) responded to sex pheromone of C. subinnotatus, but males of C. subinnotatus did not respond to that of C. maculatus. The two sex pheromone components of C. subinnotatus are also constituents of C. maculatus sex pheromone. These two components may be potentially useful in monitoring the populations of both species in stored beans. It is postulated that (Z)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid (Z33A), the major component of the sex pheromone of C. maculatus, must have acted as an antagonist inhibiting response of C. subinnotatus to the sex pheromone of C. maculatus.

  2. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  3. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  4. Alarm Fatigue: Causes and Effects.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Marc; Hüske-Kraus, Dirk; Klausen, Andreas; Koch, Christian; Schlauch, Wolfgang; Röhrig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The term "Alarm fatigue" is commonly used to describe the effect which a high number of alarms can have on caregivers: Frequent alarms, many of which are avoidable, can lead to inadequate responses, severely impacting patient safety. In the first step of a long-term effort to address this problem, both the direct and indirect impact of alarms, as well as possible causes of unnecessary alarms were focused. Models of these causes and impacts were developed using a scoping review which included guided interviews with experts from medical informatics, clinicians and medical device manufacturers. These models can provide the methodical grounds for the definition of targeted interventions and the assessment of their effects.

  5. Substation alarm multiplexing system (SAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    ElBadaly, H.; Gaughan, J.; Ward, G.; Amengual, S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes an on going R&D project to develop, design, install, and assess the field performance of an advanced substation alarm system. SAMS provides a highly fault-tolerant system for the reporting of equipment alarms. SAMS separates and identifies each of the multiple alarm contacts, transmits an alarm condition over existing substation two-wire system, and displays the alarm source, and its associated technical information, on a touch-screen monitor inside the substation control room, and a remote central location and on a hand held terminal which may be carried anywhere within the substation. SAMS is currently installed at the Sherman Creek substation in the Bronx for the purpose of a three month field evaluation.

  6. Pheromonal regulation and sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SST2 gene: a model for desensitization to pheromone.

    PubMed Central

    Dietzel, C; Kurjan, J

    1987-01-01

    Strains of both haploid mating types containing sst2 mutations are altered in response to pheromone; MATa sst2 cells are supersensitive to alpha-factor, and MAT alpha sst2 cells are supersensitive to a-factor. This phenotype suggests that SST2 encodes a component of the pheromone response pathway that is common to both mating types. We have cloned the SST2 gene by isolation of multicopy plasmids that complement the sst2-1 mutation. One such plasmid contained a 4.5-kilobase HindIII fragment that was able to complement the sst2-1 mutation in high or low copy number, integrated at the SST2 locus, and resulted in an sst2 phenotype when disrupted, indicating that this fragment contained the SST2 gene. We identified the functional region of the complementing DNA fragment by transposon mutagenesis. Sequencing of this fragment identified an open reading frame encoding 698 amino acids at a position that correlated well with the functional region. Expression of an Sst2-beta-galactosidase fusion was haploid specific and induced by exposure to pheromone. We discuss a model in which induction of the SST2 product results in inhibition of a component of the pheromone response pathway, resulting in desensitization to pheromone. PMID:2830483

  7. Differential combinatorial coding of pheromones in two olfactory subsystems of the honey bee brain.

    PubMed

    Carcaud, Julie; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-03-11

    Neural coding of pheromones has been intensively studied in insects with a particular focus on sex pheromones. These studies favored the view that pheromone compounds are processed within specific antennal lobe glomeruli following a specialized labeled-line system. However, pheromones play crucial roles in an insect's life beyond sexual attraction, and some species use many different pheromones making such a labeled-line organization unrealistic. A combinatorial coding scheme, in which each component activates a set of broadly tuned units, appears more adapted in this case. However, this idea has not been tested thoroughly. We focused here on the honey bee Apis mellifera, a social insect that relies on a wide range of pheromones to ensure colony cohesion. Interestingly, the honey bee olfactory system harbors two central parallel pathways, whose functions remain largely unknown. Using optophysiological recordings of projection neurons, we compared the responses of these two pathways to 27 known honey bee pheromonal compounds emitted by the brood, the workers, and the queen. We show that while queen mandibular pheromone is processed by l-ALT (lateral antennal lobe tract) neurons and brood pheromone is mainly processed by m-ALT (median antennal lobe tract) neurons, worker pheromones induce redundant activity in both pathways. Moreover, all tested pheromonal compounds induce combinatorial activity from several AL glomeruli. These findings support the combinatorial coding scheme and suggest that higher-order brain centers reading out these combinatorial activity patterns may eventually classify olfactory signals according to their biological meaning. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354157-11$15.00/0.

  8. Natural Variation in Dauer Pheromone Production and Sensing Supports Intraspecific Competition in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Neelanjan; Meyer, Jan M.; Yim, Joshua J.; Mayer, Melanie G.; Markov, Gabriel V.; Ogawa, Akira; Schroeder, Frank C.; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dauer formation, a major nematode survival strategy, represents a model for small-molecule regulation of metazoan development [1–10]. Free-living nematodes excrete dauer-inducing pheromones that have been assumed to target conspecifics of the same genotype [9, 11]. However, recent studies in Pristionchus pacificus revealed that the dauer pheromone of some strains affects conspecifics of other genotypes more strongly than individuals of the same genotype [12]. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for this intriguing cross-preference, we compared six P. pacificus wild isolates to determine the chemical composition of their dauer-inducing metabolomes and responses to individual pheromone components. We found that these isolates produce dauer pheromone blends of different composition and respond differently to individual pheromone components. Strikingly, there is no correlation between production of and dauer response to a specific compound in individual strains. Specifically, pheromone components that are abundantly produced by one genotype induce dauer formation in other genotypes, but not necessarily in the abundant producer. Furthermore, some genotypes respond to pheromone components they do not produce themselves. These results support a model of intraspecific competition in nematode dauer formation. Indeed, we observed intraspecific competition among sympatric strains in a novel experimental assay, suggesting a new role of small molecules in nematode ecology. PMID:24980503

  9. Natural variation in dauer pheromone production and sensing supports intraspecific competition in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Bose, Neelanjan; Meyer, Jan M; Yim, Joshua J; Mayer, Melanie G; Markov, Gabriel V; Ogawa, Akira; Schroeder, Frank C; Sommer, Ralf J

    2014-07-07

    Dauer formation, a major nematode survival strategy, represents a model for small-molecule regulation of metazoan development [1-10]. Free-living nematodes excrete dauer-inducing pheromones that have been assumed to target conspecifics of the same genotype [9, 11]. However, recent studies in Pristionchus pacificus revealed that the dauer pheromone of some strains affects conspecifics of other genotypes more strongly than individuals of the same genotype [12]. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for this intriguing cross-preference, we compared six P. pacificus wild isolates to determine the chemical composition of their dauer-inducing metabolomes and responses to individual pheromone components. We found that these isolates produce dauer pheromone blends of different composition and respond differently to individual pheromone components. Strikingly, there is no correlation between production of and dauer response to a specific compound in individual strains. Specifically, pheromone components that are abundantly produced by one genotype induce dauer formation in other genotypes, but not necessarily in the abundant producer. Furthermore, some genotypes respond to pheromone components they do not produce themselves. These results support a model of intraspecific competition in nematode dauer formation. Indeed, we observed intraspecific competition among sympatric strains in a novel experimental assay, suggesting a new role of small molecules in nematode ecology.

  10. Functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-N; Zhang, J; Yan, S-W; Chang, H-T; Liu, Y; Wang, G-R; Dong, S-L

    2014-10-01

    The sex pheromone communication system in moths is highly species-specific and extremely sensitive, and pheromone receptors (PRs) are thought to be the most important factors in males. In the present study, three full-length cDNAs encoding PRs were characterized from Sesamia inferens antennae. These three PRs were all male-specific in expression, but their relative expression levels were very different; SinfOR29 was 17- to 23-fold higher than the other two PRs. Phylogenetic and motif pattern analyses showed that these three PRs were allocated to different PR subfamilies with different motif patterns. Functional analysis using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that SinfOR29 specifically and sensitively responded to the major pheromone component, Z11-16:OAc [concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50 ) = 3.431 × 10(-7) M], while SinfOR21 responded robustly to a minor pheromone component Z11-16:OH (EC50  = 1.087 × 10(-6) M). SinfOR27, however, displayed no response to any of the three pheromone components, but, interestingly, it was sensitive to a non-sex pheromone component Z9,E12-14:OAc (EC50  = 1.522 × 10(-6) M). Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of specificity and sensitivity of the sex pheromone communication system in moths.

  11. The first crop plant genetically engineered to release an insect pheromone for defence

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Toby J.A.; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I.; Smart, Lesley E.; Martin, Janet L.; Caulfield, John C.; Doherty, Angela; Sparks, Caroline A.; Woodcock, Christine M.; Birkett, Michael A.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Jones, Huw D.; Pickett, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Insect pheromones offer potential for managing pests of crop plants. Volatility and instability are problems for deployment in agriculture but could be solved by expressing genes for the biosynthesis of pheromones in the crop plants. This has now been achieved by genetically engineering a hexaploid variety of wheat to release (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf), the alarm pheromone for many pest aphids, using a synthetic gene based on a sequence from peppermint with a plastid targeting amino acid sequence, with or without a gene for biosynthesis of the precursor farnesyl diphosphate. Pure Eβf was produced in stably transformed wheat lines with no other detectable phenotype but requiring targeting of the gene produced to the plastid. In laboratory behavioural assays, three species of cereal aphids were repelled and foraging was increased for a parasitic natural enemy. Although these studies show considerable potential for aphid control, field trials employing the single and double constructs showed no reduction in aphids or increase in parasitism. Insect numbers were low and climatic conditions erratic suggesting the need for further trials or a closer imitation, in the plant, of alarm pheromone release. PMID:26108150

  12. The first crop plant genetically engineered to release an insect pheromone for defence.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Toby J A; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I; Smart, Lesley E; Martin, Janet L; Caulfield, John C; Doherty, Angela; Sparks, Caroline A; Woodcock, Christine M; Birkett, Michael A; Napier, Johnathan A; Jones, Huw D; Pickett, John A

    2015-06-25

    Insect pheromones offer potential for managing pests of crop plants. Volatility and instability are problems for deployment in agriculture but could be solved by expressing genes for the biosynthesis of pheromones in the crop plants. This has now been achieved by genetically engineering a hexaploid variety of wheat to release (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf), the alarm pheromone for many pest aphids, using a synthetic gene based on a sequence from peppermint with a plastid targeting amino acid sequence, with or without a gene for biosynthesis of the precursor farnesyl diphosphate. Pure Eβf was produced in stably transformed wheat lines with no other detectable phenotype but requiring targeting of the gene produced to the plastid. In laboratory behavioural assays, three species of cereal aphids were repelled and foraging was increased for a parasitic natural enemy. Although these studies show considerable potential for aphid control, field trials employing the single and double constructs showed no reduction in aphids or increase in parasitism. Insect numbers were low and climatic conditions erratic suggesting the need for further trials or a closer imitation, in the plant, of alarm pheromone release.

  13. Understanding behavioral responses of fish to pheromones in natural freshwater environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2010-01-01

    There is an abundance of experimental studies and reviews that describe odorant-mediated behaviors of fish in laboratory microcosms, but research in natural field conditions has received considerably less attention. Fish pheromone studies in laboratory settings can be highly productive and allow for controlled experimental designs; however, laboratory tanks and flumes often cannot replicate all the physical, physiological and social contexts associated with natural environments. Field experiments can be a critical step in affirming and enhancing understanding of laboratory discoveries and often implicate the ecological significance of pheromones employed by fishes. When findings from laboratory experiments have been further tested in field environments, often different and sometimes contradictory conclusions are found. Examples include studies of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) mating pheromones and fish alarm substances. Here, we review field research conducted on fish pheromones and alarm substances, highlighting the following topics: (1) contradictory results obtained in laboratory and field experiments, (2) how environmental context and physiological status influences behavior, (3) challenges and constraints of aquatic field research and (4) innovative techniques and experimental designs that advance understanding of fish chemical ecology through field research.

  14. Understanding behavioral responses of fish to pheromones in natural freshwater environments.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Li, Weiming

    2010-10-01

    There is an abundance of experimental studies and reviews that describe odorant-mediated behaviors of fish in laboratory microcosms, but research in natural field conditions has received considerably less attention. Fish pheromone studies in laboratory settings can be highly productive and allow for controlled experimental designs; however, laboratory tanks and flumes often cannot replicate all the physical, physiological and social contexts associated with natural environments. Field experiments can be a critical step in affirming and enhancing understanding of laboratory discoveries and often implicate the ecological significance of pheromones employed by fishes. When findings from laboratory experiments have been further tested in field environments, often different and sometimes contradictory conclusions are found. Examples include studies of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) mating pheromones and fish alarm substances. Here, we review field research conducted on fish pheromones and alarm substances, highlighting the following topics: (1) contradictory results obtained in laboratory and field experiments, (2) how environmental context and physiological status influences behavior, (3) challenges and constraints of aquatic field research and (4) innovative techniques and experimental designs that advance understanding of fish chemical ecology through field research.

  15. Alarm fatigue: a patient safety concern.

    PubMed

    Sendelbach, Sue; Funk, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that 72% to 99% of clinical alarms are false. The high number of false alarms has led to alarm fatigue. Alarm fatigue is sensory overload when clinicians are exposed to an excessive number of alarms, which can result in desensitization to alarms and missed alarms. Patient deaths have been attributed to alarm fatigue. Patient safety and regulatory agencies have focused on the issue of alarm fatigue, and it is a 2014 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal. Quality improvement projects have demonstrated that strategies such as daily electrocardiogram electrode changes, proper skin preparation, education, and customization of alarm parameters have been able to decrease the number of false alarms. These and other strategies need to be tested in rigorous clinical trials to determine whether they reduce alarm burden without compromising patient safety.

  16. Monitor alarm fatigue: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Cvach, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Alarm fatigue is a national problem and the number one medical device technology hazard in 2012. The problem of alarm desensitization is multifaceted and related to a high false alarm rate, poor positive predictive value, lack of alarm standardization, and the number of alarming medical devices in hospitals today. This integrative review synthesizes research and non-research findings published between 1/1/2000 and 10/1/2011 using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice model. Seventy-two articles were included. Research evidence was organized into five main themes: excessive alarms and effects on staff; nurse's response to alarms; alarm sounds and audibility; technology to reduce false alarms; and alarm notification systems. Non-research evidence was divided into two main themes: strategies to reduce alarm desensitization, and alarm priority and notification systems. Evidence-based practice recommendations and gaps in research are summarized.

  17. Identification and functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2013-08-01

    In moths, males can detect a distinct blend of several pheromone components by specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae. Four candidate pheromone receptors (PR) with seven transmembrane domains were identified by homology cloning from the antennae of Spodoptera exigua (Sexi). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that all four odorant receptors (OR) belong to pheromone receptor subtypes. Expression patterns revealed that PRs were male-specific in the antenna except for SexiOR11, which was female antenna-biased. Functional analyses of these PRs were conducted using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. SexiOR13 and SexiOR16 were all broadly activated by multiple pheromone components. SexiOR13 responded robustly to the critical pheromone component, Z9, E12-14:OAc and the minor pheromone component, Z9-14:OAc at a concentration of 10(-4) M. Dose-response studies indicate that SexiOR13 was approximately 4 times more sensitive to Z9,E12-14:OAc (EC50 = 3.158 × 10(-6) M) compared to Z9-14:OAc (EC50 = 1.203 × 10(-5) M). While, SexiOR16 responded robustly to the secondary pheromone component Z9-14:OH with high sensitivity (EC50 = 9.690 × 10(-7) M). However, similar tests of the five pheromones with SexiOR6 and SexiOR11 failed to elicit any response. These results provide basic knowledge to further advance research on the molecular mechanisms of pheromone reception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pheromones modulate reward responsiveness and non-associative learning in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Baracchi, David; Devaud, Jean-Marc; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Giurfa, Martin

    2017-08-29

    Pheromones are chemical messengers that trigger stereotyped behaviors and/or physiological processes in individuals of the same species. Recent reports suggest that pheromones can modulate behaviors not directly related to the pheromonal message itself and contribute, in this way, to behavioral plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by studying the effect of pheromones on sucrose responsiveness and habituation in honey bees. We exposed workers to three pheromone components: geraniol, which in nature is used in an appetitive context, and isopentyl acetate (IPA) and 2-heptanone (2H), which signal aversive situations. Pheromones associated with an aversive context induced a significant decrease of sucrose responsiveness as 40% and 60% of bees exposed to IPA and 2H, respectively, did not respond to any sucrose concentration. In bees that responded to sucrose, geraniol enhanced sucrose responsiveness while 2H, but not IPA, had the opposite effect. Geraniol and IPA had no effect on habituation while 2H induced faster habituation than controls. Overall, our results demonstrate that pheromones modulate reward responsiveness and to a lower degree habituation. Through their effect on sucrose responsiveness they could also affect appetitive associative learning. Thus, besides conveying stereotyped messages, pheromones may contribute to individual and colony-level plasticity by modulating motivational state and learning performances.

  19. The mothematics of female pheromone signaling: strategies for aging virgins.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Symonds, Matthew R E; Kokko, Hanna

    2015-03-01

    Although females rarely experience strong mate limitation, delays or lifelong problems of mate acquisition are detrimental to female fitness. In systems where males search for females via pheromone plumes, it is often difficult to assess whether female signaling is costly. Direct costs include the energetics of pheromone production and attention from unwanted eavesdroppers, such as parasites, parasitoids, and predators. Suboptimal outcomes are also possible from too many or too few mating events or near-simultaneous arrival of males who make unwanted mating attempts (even if successfully thwarted). We show that, in theory, even small costs can lead to a scenario where young females signal less intensely (lower pheromone concentration and/or shorter time spent signaling) and increase signaling effort only as they age and gather evidence (while still virgin) on whether sperm limitation threatens their reproductive success. Our synthesis of the empirical data available on Lepidoptera supports this prediction for one frequently reported component of signaling-time spent calling (often reported as the time of onset of calling at night)-but not for another, pheromone titer. This difference is explicable under the plausible but currently untested assumption that signaling earlier than other females each night is a more reliable way of increasing the probability of acquiring at least one mate than producing a more concentrated pheromone plume.

  20. Male Courtship Pheromones Induce Cloacal Gaping in Female Newts (Salamandridae).

    PubMed

    Janssenswillen, Sunita; Bossuyt, Franky

    2016-01-01

    Pheromones are an important component of sexual communication in courting salamanders, but the number of species in which their use has been demonstrated with behavioral evidence remains limited. Here we developed a behavioral assay for demonstrating courtship pheromone use in the aquatically courting Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl. By performing an in-depth study of the courtship behavior, we show that females invariably open their cloaca (cloacal gaping) before engaging in pinwheel behavior, the circling movement that is the prelude to spermatophore uptake. In contrast, cloacal gaping was not observed in failed courtships, where females escaped or displayed thanatosis. Since gaping mainly occurred during male amplexus and cloacal imposition, which is the obvious period of pheromone transfer, we next investigated whether male courtship water (i.e., water holding courtship pheromones) alone was able to induce this reaction in females. These tests showed that courtship water induced cloacal gaping significantly more than water, even in the absence of a male. Cloacal gaping thus provides a simple and robust test for demonstrating courtship pheromone use in the Iberian ribbed newt. Since opening the cloaca is an essential prerequisite for spermatophore pick-up in all internally fertilizing salamanders, we hypothesize that variations on this assay will also be useful in several other species.

  1. Male Courtship Pheromones Induce Cloacal Gaping in Female Newts (Salamandridae)

    PubMed Central

    Janssenswillen, Sunita; Bossuyt, Franky

    2016-01-01

    Pheromones are an important component of sexual communication in courting salamanders, but the number of species in which their use has been demonstrated with behavioral evidence remains limited. Here we developed a behavioral assay for demonstrating courtship pheromone use in the aquatically courting Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl. By performing an in-depth study of the courtship behavior, we show that females invariably open their cloaca (cloacal gaping) before engaging in pinwheel behavior, the circling movement that is the prelude to spermatophore uptake. In contrast, cloacal gaping was not observed in failed courtships, where females escaped or displayed thanatosis. Since gaping mainly occurred during male amplexus and cloacal imposition, which is the obvious period of pheromone transfer, we next investigated whether male courtship water (i.e., water holding courtship pheromones) alone was able to induce this reaction in females. These tests showed that courtship water induced cloacal gaping significantly more than water, even in the absence of a male. Cloacal gaping thus provides a simple and robust test for demonstrating courtship pheromone use in the Iberian ribbed newt. Since opening the cloaca is an essential prerequisite for spermatophore pick-up in all internally fertilizing salamanders, we hypothesize that variations on this assay will also be useful in several other species. PMID:26771882

  2. A practical method for obtaining useful quantities of pheromones from sea lamprey and other fishes for identification and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fine, J.M.; Sisler, S.P.; Vrieze, L.A.; Swink, W.D.; Sorensen, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    Pheromonally-mediated trapping is currently being developed for use in sea lamprey control in the Laurentian Great Lakes. To identify and test lamprey pheromones a practical procedure was needed to isolate relatively large quantities of pheromone from lamprey holding water. The present study developed such a technique. It employs Amberlite XAD7HP, an adsorbent resin which we found can extract over 80% of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone from larval holding water at low cost and with relative ease. This technique allowed its to collect tens of milligrams of all three components of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone, eventually permitting both identification and successful field testing. This technique might also be used to collect pheromones released by other species of fish.

  3. The "Let's Get Alarmed!" initiative: a smoke alarm giveaway programme

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Slater, S.; Roberts, I.; Adams, L.; Sculpher, M.; Wade, A.; McCarthy, M.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—To reduce fires and fire related injuries by increasing the prevalence of functioning smoke alarms in high risk households. Setting—The programme was delivered in an inner London area with above average material deprivation and below average smoke alarm ownership. The target population included low income and rental households and households with elderly persons or young children. Methods—Forty wards, averaging 4000 households each, were randomised to intervention or control status. Free smoke alarms and fire safety information were distributed in intervention wards by community groups and workers as part of routine activities and by paid workers who visited target neighbourhoods. Recipients provided data on household age distribution and housing tenure. Programme costs were documented from a societal perspective. Data are being collected on smoke alarm ownership and function, and on fires and related injuries and their costs. Results—Community and paid workers distributed 20 050 smoke alarms, potentially sufficient to increase smoke alarm ownership by 50% in intervention wards. Compared with the total study population, recipients included greater proportions of low income and rental households and households including children under 5 years or adults aged 65 and older. Total programme costs were £145 087. Conclusions—It is possible to implement a large scale smoke alarm giveaway programme targeted to high risk households in a densely populated, multicultural, materially deprived community. The programme's effects on the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms and the incidence of fires and fire related injuries, and its cost effectiveness, are being evaluated as a randomised controlled trial. PMID:10518263

  4. Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

    2006-05-01

    A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

  5. Sex Pheromone Investigation of Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attraction of virgin females to odor of calling males was demonstrated. This sex pheromone mediated attraction occurred during the latter half of a 13-h photophase but not during the first half of the day. Two major components of emissions of calling males, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) and 2,5-dihyd...

  6. The joy of sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Benton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Sex pheromones provide an important means of communication to unite individuals for successful reproduction. Although sex pheromones are highly diverse across animals, these signals fulfil common fundamental roles in enabling identification of a mating partner of the opposite sex, the appropriate species and of optimal fecundity. In this review, we synthesize both classic and recent investigations on sex pheromones in a range of species, spanning nematode worms, insects and mammals. These studies reveal comparable strategies in how these chemical signals are produced, detected and processed in the brain to regulate sexual behaviours. Elucidation of sex pheromone communication mechanisms both defines outstanding models to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of chemosensory behaviours, and reveals how similar evolutionary selection pressures yield convergent solutions in distinct animal nervous systems. EMBO reports advance online publication 13 September 2013; doi:10.1038/embor.2013.140 PMID:24030282

  7. The joy of sex pheromones.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Benton, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Sex pheromones provide an important means of communication to unite individuals for successful reproduction. Although sex pheromones are highly diverse across animals, these signals fulfil common fundamental roles in enabling identification of a mating partner of the opposite sex, the appropriate species and of optimal fecundity. In this review, we synthesize both classic and recent investigations on sex pheromones in a range of species, spanning nematode worms, insects and mammals. These studies reveal comparable strategies in how these chemical signals are produced, detected and processed in the brain to regulate sexual behaviours. Elucidation of sex pheromone communication mechanisms both defines outstanding models to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of chemosensory behaviours, and reveals how similar evolutionary selection pressures yield convergent solutions in distinct animal nervous systems.

  8. Identification and characterization of a fatty acyl reductase from a Spodoptera littoralis female gland involved in pheromone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Carot-Sans, G; Muñoz, L; Piulachs, M D; Guerrero, A; Rosell, G

    2015-02-01

    Fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs), the enzymes that catalyse reduction of a fatty acyl-CoA to the corresponding alcohol in insect pheromone biosynthesis, are postulated to play an important role in determining the proportion of each component in the pheromone blend. For the first time, we have isolated and characterized from the Egyptian cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a FAR cDNA (Slit-FAR1), which appeared to be expressed only in the pheromone gland and was undetectable in other female tissues, such as fat body, ovaries, wings, legs or thorax. The encoded protein has been successfully expressed in a recombinant system, and the recombinant enzyme is able to produce the intermediate fatty acid alcohols of the pheromone biosynthesis of S. littoralis from the corresponding acyl-CoA precursors. The kinetic variables Km and Vmax, which have been calculated for each acyl-CoA pheromone precursor, suggest that in S. littoralis pheromone biosynthesis other biosynthetic enzymes (e.g. desaturases, acetyl transferase) should also contribute to the final ratio of components of the pheromone blend. In a phylogenetic analysis, Slit-FAR1 appeared grouped in a cluster of other FARs involved in the pheromone biosynthesis of other insects, with little or non-specificity for the natural pheromone precursors.

  9. A new pheromone race of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Harris, Marvin K; Fu, A A Agustin; Nunez, Humberto; Aranda-Herrera, Enrique; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2008-06-01

    The sex pheromone of the monophagous Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported as (9E,11Z)-hexadecadienal (9E,11Z-16:Ald) (Biorg. Med. Chem. 4: 331-339, 1996), and it has since been an effective integrated pest management (IPM) tool for monitoring this pest in the United States, but not in Mexico. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm that the species in Mexico was indeed A. nuxvorella and to investigate the pheromone chemistry of the Mexican populations of this species. Initial field trials testing compounds structurally related to the known pheromone component, and blends thereof, indicated that a 100 microg:100 microg blend of (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (9E,11Z-16:Ac):9E,11Z-16:Ald in rubber septa was effective in attracting male moths in Mexico. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses confirmed the presence of these compounds in extracts of pheromone glands of females, and antennae of male moths also responded to the alcohol analog (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (9E,11Z-16:OH). Subsequent field trials of various blends of these three compounds in Mexico showed that 1) both the acetate and aldehyde components were required for optimal attraction of male moths of the Mexican populations, and 2) addition of the alcohol suppressed attraction of males in a dose-dependent manner. Tests with the 1:1 9E,11Z-16:Ac:9E,11Z-16:Ald blend at various sites in the United States showed that this blend attracted some moths, but that moths attracted to 9E,11Z-16:Ald alone were predominant in the population. Furthermore, in preliminary studies the latter seemed not to respond to the blend. These findings indicate that there are two pheromone types of the pecan nut casebearer, and they have major implications for the direct use of these pheromones in pecan IPM.

  10. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  11. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  12. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430].

  13. Oviposition pheromones in haematophagous insects.

    PubMed

    Seenivasagan, T; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2010-01-01

    Pheromones influencing oviposition behavior in females of haematophagous insects have been the interest of recent past by many group of scientists working on oviposition pheromones. Finding and choosing a good site for oviposition is a challenging task for females of haematophagous insects, especially in those insects which does not have the parental care. Their decisions have far-reaching and profound consequences for the life history of the offspring. In such blood feeding insects, the choice of oviposition site is affected by pheromones, which may function either as deterrents or stimulants in short range, while they may also act as repellents or attractants in long range perception. During the location of a suitable oviposition site for egg laying or a potential host for blood feeding, haematophagous insects mainly use olfactory and visual cues. These pheromones are produced by the ovipositing female or by conspecific larvae co-occurring with gravid females. Adult females detect oviposition pheromones by odor receptors on the antennae, as well as by contact chemoreceptors on tarsi, mouthparts and antennae. Different cues exploited by gravid females from a diversified arena include egg, larva, habitat, microbes, infusions and plant produced volatiles influence the oviposition behavior. Traps baited with pheromones, infusions, and insecticides shall be promising tools for monitoring and control of target insect using integrated vector management strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Olfaction, pheromones and life.

    PubMed

    Hoskison, E E

    2013-12-01

    From an evolutionary standpoint, olfaction is one of the oldest senses, and one that affects all aspects of life. This review discusses the influence of olfaction and pheromones on life. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), The Cochrane Library (1993-2013) and Ovid (1966-2012). Olfaction plays an important role in life, from infancy through to adulthood and declining health in old age. Culture, memories and emotions, which add to life's complexity and overall enjoyment, are also influenced by olfaction. Olfaction has a chronological influence on life, affecting all aspects from the cradle to the grave; it plays a role in the quality of life as a key ingredient of human evolution, survival and enjoyment.

  15. Alarming increase in refugees.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  16. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1988-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  17. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  18. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1988-04-22

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

  19. Attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms.

    PubMed

    Funk, Marjorie; Clark, J Tobey; Bauld, Thomas J; Ott, Jennifer C; Coss, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The number of devices with alarms has multiplied in recent years, causing alarm fatigue in bedside clinicians. Alarm fatigue is now recognized as a critical safety issue. To determine if attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms have changed since 2005. The Healthcare Technology Foundation's Clinical Alarms Committee developed an online survey for hospital personnel that addressed attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms. They administered it in 2005-2006 and in 2011 and compared the results. Respondents were asked about their level of agreement with 19 statements about alarms. Many of the statements revealed no significant differences between the 2 survey years, although some differences were apparent. Respondents to the 2011 survey were significantly more likely to agree with statements about alarm sounds differentiating the priority of alarm and the helpfulness of central alarm management. Respondents in 2011 were significantly less likely to feel that nuisance alarms occur frequently and disrupt patient care. Respondents also ranked the importance of 9 different alarm issues. In both years, they ranked frequent false alarms as the most important. In response to a new question in the 2011 survey, 18% of respondents reported patients' experiencing adverse events related to alarms at their institutions. Since 2005-2006 when the first survey was conducted, not much has changed. False alarms continue to contribute to a noisy hospital environment, and sentinel events related to alarm fatigue persist. Alarm hazards are a significant patient safety issue.

  20. Sex Pheromones and Reproductive Isolation in Five Mirid Species

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang Yeol; Kim, Se-Jin; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Taek-Jun; Ahn, Seung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Mate location in many mirid bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) is mediated by female-released sex pheromones. To elucidate the potential role of the pheromones in prezygotic reproductive isolation between sympatric species, we investigated differences in the pheromone systems of five mirid species, Apolygus lucorum, Apolygus spinolae, Orthops campestris, Stenotus rubrovittatus and Taylorilygus apicalis. GC/MS analyses of metathoracic scent gland extracts of virgin females showed that all five species produced mixtures of hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, but in quite different ratios. (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate was the major component of A. spinolae, while hexyl butyrate was the most abundant component in the pheromone blends of the other four species. In addition to the three compounds, a fourth component, (E)-2-octenyl butyrate, was present in the gland extracts of A. lucorum and T. apicalis females. Field tests suggest that the ternary blends of hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal as found in the extracts of the females of each species do not inhibit attraction of conspecific males but ensure species-specificity of attraction between A. lucorum, O. campestris and T. apicalis. Furthermore, (E)-2-octenyl butyrate was essential for attraction of A. lucorum and T. apicalis males, but strongly inhibited attraction of male A. spinolae, O. campestris and S. rubrovittatus. The combined results from this study and previous studies suggest that the minor component and pheromone dose in addition to the relative ratio of the major components play an important role in reproductive isolation between mirid species. PMID:25973902

  1. Investigating dormant season application of pheromone in citrus to control overwintering and spring populations of Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, reproduces on leaf flush during winter. Deployment of pheromone during winter could suppress moth populations in spring and summer more than a spring application alone. We tested the primary pheromone component of Phyllocnistis (P. citrella), (Z,Z,E)-7...

  2. Sex pheromone of the cranberry blossom worm, Epiglaea apiata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijun; Polavarapu, Sridhar

    2003-09-01

    The cranberry blossom worm, Epiglaea apiata (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of cranberries in New Jersey. The female sex pheromone of this moth was identified as a blend of (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate (Z9-16:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), and tetradecyl acetate (14:Ac) by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ratio of the components in extracts of the female pheromone gland was determined to be 65:2:33 of the Z9-16:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, and 14:Ac, respectively. The double bond positions of the pheromone components were confirmed by dimethyl disulfide derivatization. In addition to the above three components, a mixture of C4-C10 aliphatic acids was present in both gland extracts and effluvia collections, and the acids elicited significant EAD responses from male moth antennae. However, addition of the C4-C10 aliphatic acids to the pheromone blend did not significantly increase trap captures. Three-hundred- and 1000-microg doses of a synthetic blend containing Z9-16:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, and 14:Ac (65:2:33), on a rubber septum were more attractive to males than lower doses.

  3. Use of pagers with an alarm escalation system to reduce cardiac monitor alarm signals.

    PubMed

    Cvach, Maria M; Frank, Robert J; Doyle, Pete; Stevens, Zeina Khouri

    2014-01-01

    Alarm fatigue desensitizes nurses to alarm signals and presents potential for patient harm. This project describes an innovative method of communicating cardiac monitor alarms to pagers using an alarm escalation algorithm. This innovation was tested on 2 surgical progressive care units over a 6-month period. There was a significant decrease in mean frequency and duration of high-priority monitor alarms and improvement in nurses' perception of alarm response time, using this method of alarm communication.

  4. Identification of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Sex pheromones of nocturnal hawk moths have been identified previously, but not those of diurnal hawk moths. Here, we report laboratory analyses and field testing of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis (Bremer 1861) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Sex pheromone glands were removed and extracted in hexane during peak calling activity of virgin female moths. Analysis of gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC) with electroantennographic detection revealed three components that elicited responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified, based on their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns, as (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (10E, 12Z)- and (10E,12E)-10,12-hexadecadienals with a ratio of 45:20:35. In a field experiment, traps baited with the three-component synthetic blend, but none of the single- or two-component blends, caught male moths. All three pheromone components have been identified previously in pheromones of other Lepidoptera, including Sphingid moths, and thus the ternary blend is probably responsible for the species specificity of the pheromone of this moth.

  5. Identification of trail pheromone of larva of eastern tent caterpillarMalacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Crump, D; Silverstein, R M; Williams, H J; Fitzgerald, T D

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that larvae of the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum F.) mark trails, leading from their tent to feeding sites on host trees, with a pheromone secreted from the posterior tip of the abdominal sternum. 5β-Cholestane-3,24-dione (1) has been identified as an active component of the trail. The larvae have a threshold sensitivity to the pheromone of 10(-11) g/mm of trail. Several related compounds elicit the trail-following response. Two other species of tent caterpillars also responded positively to the pheromone in preliminary laboratory tests.

  6. Increased pheromone signaling by small male sea lamprey has distinct effects on female mate search and courtship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Bussy, Ugo; Buchinger, Ethan G.; Fissette, Skye D.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Male body size affects access to mates in many animals. Attributes of sexual signals often correlate with body size due to physiological constraints on signal production. Larger males generally produce larger signals, but costs of being large or compensation by small males can result in smaller males producing signals of equal or greater magnitude. Female choice following multiple male traits with different relationships to size might further complicate the effect of male body size on access to mates. We report the relationship between male body size and pheromone signaling, and the effects on female mate search and courtship in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). We predicted that pheromone production in the liver and the liver mass to body mass ratio would remain constant across sizes, resulting in similar mass-adjusted pheromone release rates across sizes but a positive relationship between absolute pheromone release and body mass. Our results confirmed positive relationships between body mass and liver mass, and liver mass and the magnitude of the pheromone signal. Surprisingly, decreasing body mass was correlated with higher pheromone concentrations in the liver, liver mass to body mass ratios, and mass-adjusted pheromone release rates. In a natural stream, females more often entered nests treated with small versus large male odors. However, close-proximity courtship behaviors were similar in nests treated with small or large male odors. We conclude that small males exhibit increased release of the main pheromone component, but female discrimination of male pheromones follows several axes of variation with different relationships to size.

  7. Alarm fatigue: impacts on patient safety.

    PubMed

    Ruskin, Keith J; Hueske-Kraus, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Electronic medical devices are an integral part of patient care. As new devices are introduced, the number of alarms to which a healthcare professional may be exposed may be as high as 1000 alarms per shift. The US Food and Drug Administration has reported over 500 alarm-related patient deaths in five years. The Joint Commission, recognizing the clinical significance of alarm fatigue, has made clinical alarm management a National Patient Safety Goal. Potential solutions to alarm fatigue include technical, organizational, and educational interventions. Selecting only the right monitors (i.e., avoiding overmonitoring), judicious selection of alarm limits, and multimodal alarms can all reduce the number of nuisance alarms to which a healthcare worker is exposed. Alarm fatigue can jeopardize safety, but some clinical solutions such as setting appropriate thresholds and avoiding overmonitoring are available.

  8. Plant odorants interfere with detection of sex pheromone signals by male Heliothis virescens

    PubMed Central

    Pregitzer, Pablo; Schubert, Marco; Breer, Heinz; Hansson, Bill S.; Sachse, Silke; Krieger, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    In many insects, mate finding relies on female-released sex pheromones, which have to be deciphered by the male olfactory system within an odorous background of plant volatiles present in the environment of a calling female. With respect to pheromone-mediated mate localization, plant odorants may be neutral, favorable, or disturbing. Here we examined the impact of plant odorants on detection and coding of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. By in vivo imaging the activity in the male antennal lobe (AL), we monitored the interference at the level of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) to illuminate mixture interactions. The results show that stimulating the male antenna with Z11-16:Ald and distinct plant-related odorants simultaneously suppressed pheromone-evoked activity in the region of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), where Z11-16:Ald-specific OSNs terminate. Based on our previous findings that antennal detection of Z11-16:Ald involves an interplay of the pheromone binding protein (PBP) HvirPBP2 and the pheromone receptor (PR) HR13, we asked if the plant odorants may interfere with any of the elements involved in pheromone detection. Using a competitive fluorescence binding assay, we found that the plant odorants neither bind to HvirPBP2 nor affect the binding of Z11-16:Ald to the protein. However, imaging experiments analyzing a cell line that expressed the receptor HR13 revealed that plant odorants significantly inhibited the Z11-16:Ald-evoked calcium responses. Together the results indicate that plant odorants can interfere with the signaling process of the major sex pheromone component at the receptor level. Consequently, it can be assumed that plant odorants in the environment may reduce the firing activity of pheromone-specific OSNs in H. virescens and thus affect mate localization. PMID:23060749

  9. Interference of plant volatiles on pheromone receptor neurons of male Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Ammagarahalli, Byrappa; Gemeno, César

    2015-10-01

    In moths, sex pheromone components are detected by pheromone-specific olfactory receptor neurons (ph-ORNs) housed in sensilla trichodea in the male antennae. In Grapholita molesta, ph-ORNs are highly sensitive and specific to the individual sex pheromone components, and thus help in the detection and discrimination of the unique conspecific pheromone blend. Plant odors interspersed with a sub-optimal pheromone dose are reported to increase male moth attraction. To determine if the behavioral synergism of pheromone and plant odors starts at the ph-ORN level, single sensillum recordings were performed on Z8-12:Ac and E8-12:Ac ph-ORNs (Z-ORNs and E-ORNs, respectively) stimulated with pheromone-plant volatile mixtures. First, biologically meaningful plant-volatile doses were determined by recording the response of plant-specific ORNs housed in sensilla auricillica and trichodea to several plant odorants. This exploration provided a first glance at plant ORNs in this species. Then, using these plant volatile doses, we found that the spontaneous activity of ph-ORNs was not affected by the stimulation with plant volatiles, but that a binary mixture of sex pheromone and plant odorants resulted in a small (about 15%), dose-independent, but statistically significant, reduction in the spike frequency of Z-ORNs with respect to stimulation with Z8-12:Ac alone. The response of E-ORNs to a combination of E8-12:Ac and plant volatiles was not different from E8-12:Ac alone. We argue that the small inhibition of Z-ORNs caused by physiologically realistic plant volatile doses is probably not fully responsible for the observed behavioral synergism of pheromone and plant odors.

  10. Identification and functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Yan, Shuwei; Liu, Yang; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths can finely discriminate the sex pheromone emitted by conspecific females from similar compounds. Pheromone receptors, expressed on the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons housed in the long trichoid sensilla of antennae, are thought to be associated with the pheromone reception. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized 4 pheromone receptors from the antennae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A tissue distribution analysis showed that the expression of the 4 SlituPRs was restricted to antennae. In addition, SlituOR6 and SlituOR13 were specifically expressed in male antennae whereas SlituOR11 and SlituOR16 were male-biased. Functional investigation by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed that SlituOR6 was specifically tuned to the second major pheromone component, Z9,E12-14:OAc, SlituOR13 was equally tuned to Z9,E12-14:OAc and Z9-14:OAc, with a small response to the major pheromone component Z9,E11-14:OAc, SlituOR16 significantly responded to the behavioral antagonist Z9-14:OH, whereas SlituOR11 did not show response to any of the pheromone compounds tested in this study. Our results provide molecular data to better understand the mechanisms of sex pheromone detection in the moth S. litura and bring clues to investigate the evolution of the sexual communication channel in closely related species through comparison with previously reported pheromone receptors in other Spodoptera species.

  11. Beyond species recognition: somatic state affects long-distance sex pheromone communication

    PubMed Central

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Jentschke, Petra C.; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Long-range sex pheromones have been subjected to substantial research with a particular focus on their biosynthesis, peripheral perception, central processing and the resulting orientation behaviour of perceivers. Fundamental to the research on sex attractants was the assumption that they primarily coordinate species recognition. However, especially when they are produced by the less limiting sex (usually males), the evolution of heightened condition dependence might be expected and long-range sex pheromones might, therefore, also inform about a signaller's quality. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive study of the role of a male's long-range pheromone in mate choice that combines chemical analyses, video observations and field experiments with a multifactorial manipulation of males' condition. We show that the emission of the long-distance sex pheromone of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides is highly condition-dependent and reliably reflects nutritional state, age, body size and parasite load—key components of an individual's somatic state. Both, the quantity and ratio of the pheromone components were affected but the time invested in pheromone emission was largely unaffected by a male's condition. Moreover, the variation in pheromone emission caused by the variation in condition had a strong effect on the attractiveness of males in the field, with males in better nutritional condition, of older age, larger body size and bearing less parasites being more attractive. That a single pheromone is influenced by so many aspects of the somatic state and causes such variation in a male's attractiveness under field conditions was hitherto unknown and highlights the need to integrate indicator models of sexual selection into pheromone research. PMID:26180067

  12. Beyond species recognition: somatic state affects long-distance sex pheromone communication.

    PubMed

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Jentschke, Petra C; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-08-07

    Long-range sex pheromones have been subjected to substantial research with a particular focus on their biosynthesis, peripheral perception, central processing and the resulting orientation behaviour of perceivers. Fundamental to the research on sex attractants was the assumption that they primarily coordinate species recognition. However, especially when they are produced by the less limiting sex (usually males), the evolution of heightened condition dependence might be expected and long-range sex pheromones might, therefore, also inform about a signaller's quality. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive study of the role of a male's long-range pheromone in mate choice that combines chemical analyses, video observations and field experiments with a multifactorial manipulation of males' condition. We show that the emission of the long-distance sex pheromone of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides is highly condition-dependent and reliably reflects nutritional state, age, body size and parasite load--key components of an individual's somatic state. Both, the quantity and ratio of the pheromone components were affected but the time invested in pheromone emission was largely unaffected by a male's condition. Moreover, the variation in pheromone emission caused by the variation in condition had a strong effect on the attractiveness of males in the field, with males in better nutritional condition, of older age, larger body size and bearing less parasites being more attractive. That a single pheromone is influenced by so many aspects of the somatic state and causes such variation in a male's attractiveness under field conditions was hitherto unknown and highlights the need to integrate indicator models of sexual selection into pheromone research.

  13. Spider pheromones - a structural perspective.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Spiders use pheromones for sexual communication, as do other animals such as insects. Nevertheless, knowledge about their chemical structure, function, and biosynthesis is only now being unraveled. Many studies have shown the existence of spider pheromones, but the responsible compounds have been elucidated in only a few cases. This review focuses on a structural approach because we need to know the involved chemistry if we are to understand fully the function of a pheromonal communication system. Pheromones from members of the spider families Pholcidae, Araneidae, Linyphiidae, Agenelidae, and Ctenidae are currently being identified and will be discussed in this review. Some of these compounds belong to compound classes not known from other arthropod pheromones, such as citric acid derivatives or acylated amino acids, whereas others originate from more common fatty acid metabolism. Their putative biosynthesis, their function, and the identification methods used will be discussed. Furthermore, other semiochemicals and the chemistry of apolar surface lipids that potentially might be used by spiders for communication are described briefly.

  14. Pheromones of milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) attract wayward plant bugs: Phytocoris mirid sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

    2003-08-01

    The synthetic aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), also attracted males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae). Field testing partial blends against the six-component blend comprising the Oncopeltus pheromone showed that cross-attraction of P. difficilis males was due to synergism between (E)-2-octenyl acetate and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate. Hexyl acetate was abundant in the metathoracic scent gland (MSG) secretion of P. difficilis males, but because female P. difficilis could not initially be found in the field, further combinatorial tests were guided by prior research on the pheromones of two Phytocoris species in the western United States. The combination of hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates was as attractive to P. difficilis males as the milkweed bug pheromone, yet no milkweed bugs were drawn to this blend. Gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection (EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of female P. difficilis MSGs determined that their secretion contained predominantly hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (all strongly EAD-active)-the latter two compounds found only in trace amounts from males-plus five minor female-specific compounds, three of which were EAD-active. (E,E)-2,4-Hexadienyl acetate was not detected from P. difficilis females or males. The blend of the three major components, hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (2:1.5:1 by volume), was as attractive as the blend of all six EAD-active compounds identified from females, indicating that this ternary blend constitutes the sex pheromone of P. difficilis. Hexyl acetate with (E)-2-octenyl acetate also attracted males of another species, P. breviusculus Reuter, but addition of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and/or (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate inhibited attraction of P. breviusculus males. Attraction of P. difficilis males occurred mainly during the first half of scotophase. The

  15. Small-molecule pheromones that control dauer development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Rebecca A; Fujita, Masaki; Schroeder, Frank C; Clardy, Jon

    2007-07-01

    In response to high population density or low food supply, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans enters an alternative larval stage, known as the dauer, that can withstand adverse conditions for prolonged periods. C. elegans senses its population density through a small-molecule signal, traditionally called the dauer pheromone, that it secretes into its surroundings. Here we show that the dauer pheromone consists of several structurally related ascarosides-derivatives of the dideoxysugar ascarylose-and that two of these ascarosides (1 and 2) are roughly two orders of magnitude more potent at inducing dauer formation than a previously reported dauer pheromone component (3) and constitute a physiologically relevant signal. The identification of dauer pheromone components 1 and 2 will facilitate the identification of target receptors and downstream signaling proteins.

  16. Communication Alarm Processor Expert System.

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; Hemmelman, K.M.; Rasmussen, R.D.; Borys, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype expert system is being developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bonneville Power Administration to process alarms from Bonneville's microwave communication system. The microwave system transmits data from power facilities in four Pacific Northwestern states to a central operations control facility. The communications alarm processor (CAP) will receive real-time data, diagnose operational problems, archive alarm information, and support analysis aimed at improving equipment maintenance. The expert system will operate in an advisory capacity. The ultimate goal is to develop systems that will enhance the operation and maintenance for the entire power system. This paper describes Bonneville's operations, the domain and architecture of the expert system, the methods used for knowledge representation and acquisition, the hardware and software of the prototype, and implementation challenges of real-time expert systems. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Field and Laboratory Responses of Male Leaf Roller Moths, Choristoneura rosaceana and Pandemis pyrusana, to Pheromone Concentrations in an Attracticide Paste Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Curkovic, Tomislav; Brunner, Jay F.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Male leafroller moths, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Pandemis pyrusana (Kearfott), were evaluated for responses to a paste formulation loaded with a range of concentrations of the two species' pheromone blends and evaluated in a laboratory wind tunnel and in the field. Response criteria were flight, flight towards the pheromone source, and contact with the pheromone source for the wind tunnel assays, and capture of moths in traps for the field tests. In the wind tunnel and field, responses of males of both species to the paste generally increased as the pheromone concentration in the paste was increased. There was little response by either species to paste with less than 0.16% pheromone. The relationship between pheromone concentration and response for P. pyrusana was linear and for C. rosaceana was sinusoidal over the range of pheromone concentrations tested. These patterns were seen both in the wind tunnel and in the field. Initial release rates from the paste of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, the main component of the pheromone blends of both species was 3.6–3.8 ng/h. Inhibitory thresholds for responses were not reached for either species, using pheromone concentrations as high as 16%, in either the wind tunnel or the field. For both species, response of males to rubber septa with one mg pheromone loads was similar to the response to the paste with pheromone at concentrations greater than 3–4%. For C. rosaceana, rates of contact with the paste in the wind tunnel were statistically similar to rates of contact in response to conspecific females, with paste pheromone concentrations above 1.6%. Response rates for males of P. pyrusana were significantly lower to the paste than to conspecific females at all paste pheromone concentrations tested. Overall, the optimum pheromone concentration in the paste for moth attraction to contact was 3.2 % for C. rosaceana and 8% for P. pyrusana. PMID:19619030

  18. Field and laboratory responses of male leaf roller moths, Choristoneura rosaceana and Pandemis pyrusana, to pheromone concentrations in an attracticide paste formulation.

    PubMed

    Curkovic, Tomislav; Brunner, Jay F; Landolt, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Male leafroller moths, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Pandemis pyrusana (Kearfott), were evaluated for responses to a paste formulation loaded with a range of concentrations of the two species' pheromone blends and evaluated in a laboratory wind tunnel and in the field. Response criteria were flight, flight towards the pheromone source, and contact with the pheromone source for the wind tunnel assays, and capture of moths in traps for the field tests. In the wind tunnel and field, responses of males of both species to the paste generally increased as the pheromone concentration in the paste was increased. There was little response by either species to paste with less than 0.16% pheromone. The relationship between pheromone concentration and response for P. pyrusana was linear and for C. rosaceana was sinusoidal over the range of pheromone concentrations tested. These patterns were seen both in the wind tunnel and in the field. Initial release rates from the paste of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, the main component of the pheromone blends of both species was 3.6-3.8 ng/h. Inhibitory thresholds for responses were not reached for either species, using pheromone concentrations as high as 16%, in either the wind tunnel or the field. For both species, response of males to rubber septa with one mg pheromone loads was similar to the response to the paste with pheromone at concentrations greater than 3-4%. For C. rosaceana, rates of contact with the paste in the wind tunnel were statistically similar to rates of contact in response to conspecific females, with paste pheromone concentrations above 1.6%. Response rates for males of P. pyrusana were significantly lower to the paste than to conspecific females at all paste pheromone concentrations tested. Overall, the optimum pheromone concentration in the paste for moth attraction to contact was 3.2 % for C. rosaceana and 8% for P. pyrusana.

  19. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Higbee, Bradley S.; Burks, Charles S.; Larsen, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management. PMID:26462827

  20. The sensory neurone membrane protein SNMP1 contributes to the sensitivity of a pheromone detection system.

    PubMed

    Pregitzer, P; Greschista, M; Breer, H; Krieger, J

    2014-12-01

    Male moths detect female-released sex pheromones with extraordinary sensitivity. The remarkable sensory ability is based on a cooperative interplay of pheromone binding proteins in the lymph of hair-like sensilla trichodea and pheromone receptors in the dendrites of sensory neurones. Here we examined whether in Heliothis virescens the so-called 'sensory neurone membrane protein 1' (SNMP1) may contribute to responsiveness to the pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald). By means of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization we demonstrated that SNMP1 is in fact present in cells expressing the Z11-16:Ald receptor HR13 and the dendrites of sensory neurones. To assess a possible function of SNMP1 we monitored the responsiveness of cell lines that expressed HR13 alone or the combination SNMP1/HR13 to stimulation with Z11-16:Ald by calcium imaging. It was found that SNMP1/HR13 cells were 1000-fold more sensitive to pheromone stimulation compared with HR13 cells. In contrast, cells that expressed HR13 and the non-neuronal SNMP2-type showed no change in pheromone sensitivity. Overall, our reconstitution experiments demonstrate that the presence of SNMP1 significantly increases the HR13-based responsiveness of cells to Z11-16:Ald, suggesting that SNMP1 also contributes to the response of the antennal neurones and thus to the remarkable sensitivity of the pheromone detection system.

  1. Co-option and evolution of non-olfactory proteinaceous pheromones in a terrestrial lungless salamander.

    PubMed

    Doty, Kari A; Wilburn, Damien B; Bowen, Kathleen E; Feldhoff, Pamela W; Feldhoff, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Gene co-option is a major force in the evolution of novel biological functions. In plethodontid salamanders, males deliver proteinaceous courtship pheromones to the female olfactory system or transdermally to the bloodstream. Molecular studies identified three families of highly duplicated, rapidly evolving pheromones (PRF, PMF, and SPF). Analyses for Plethodon salamanders revealed pheromone mixtures of primarily PRF and PMF. The current study demonstrates that in Desmognathus ocoee--a plesiomorphic species with transdermal delivery--SPF is the major pheromone component representing >30% of total protein. Chromatographic profiles of D. ocoee pheromones were consistent from May through October. LC/MS-MS analysis suggested uniform SPF isoform expression between individual male D. ocoee. A gene ancestry for SPF with the Three-Finger Protein superfamily was supported by intron-exon boundaries, but not by the disulfide bonding pattern. Further analysis of the pheromone mixture revealed paralogs to peptide hormones that contained mutations in receptor binding regions, such that these novel molecules may alter female physiology by acting as hormone agonists/antagonists. Cumulatively, gene co-option, duplication, and neofunctionalization have permitted recruitment of additional gene families for pheromone activity. Such independent co-option events may be playing a key role in salamander speciation by altering male traits that influence reproductive success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human pheromones and sexual attraction.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Karl; Fink, Bernhard; Neave, Nick

    2005-02-01

    Olfactory communication is very common amongst animals, and since the discovery of an accessory olfactory system in humans, possible human olfactory communication has gained considerable scientific interest. The importance of the human sense of smell has by far been underestimated in the past. Humans and other primates have been regarded as primarily 'optical animals' with highly developed powers of vision but a relatively undeveloped sense of smell. In recent years this assumption has undergone major revision. Several studies indicate that humans indeed seem to use olfactory communication and are even able to produce and perceive certain pheromones; recent studies have found that pheromones may play an important role in the behavioural and reproduction biology of humans. In this article we review the present evidence of the effect of human pheromones and discuss the role of olfactory cues in human sexual behaviour.

  3. A nurses' alarm fatigue questionnaire: development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Torabizadeh, Camellia; Yousefinya, Amirhossein; Zand, Farid; Rakhshan, Mahnaz; Fararooei, Mohammad

    2016-11-15

    Alarm fatigue can adversely affect nurses' efficiency and concentration on their tasks, which is a threat to patients' safety. The purpose of the present study was to develop and test the psychometric accuracy of an alarm fatigue questionnaire for nurses. This study was conducted in two stages: in stage one, in order to establish the different aspects of the concept of alarm fatigue, the researchers reviewed the available literature-articles and books-on alarm fatigue, and then consulted several experts in a meeting to define alarm fatigue and develop statements for the questionnaire. In stage two, after the final draft had been approved, the validity of the instrument was measured using the two methods of face validity (the quantitative and qualitative approaches) and content validity (the qualitative and quantitative approaches). Test-retest, Cronbach's alpha, and Principal Component Analysis were used for item reduction and reliability analysis. Based on the results of stage one, the researchers extracted 30 statements based on a 5-point Likert scale. In stage two, after the face and content validity of the questionnaire had been established, 19 statements were left in the instrument. Based on factor loadings of the items and "alpha if item deleted" and after the second round of consultation with the expert panel, six items were removed from the scale. The test of the reliability of nurses' alarm fatigue questionnaire based on the internal homogeneity and retest methods yielded the following results: test-retest correlation coefficient = 0.99; Guttman split-half correlation coefficient = 0.79; Cronbach's alpha = 0.91. Regarding the importance of recognizing alarm fatigue in nurses, there is need for an instrument to measure the phenomenon. The results of the study show that the developed questionnaire is valid and reliable enough for measuring alarm fatigue in nurses.

  4. The role of nutrient regulation and the Gpa2 protein in the mating pheromone response of C. albicans.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Richard J; Johnson, Alexander D

    2006-10-01

    Although traditionally classified as asexual, the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can undergo highly efficient mating. A key component of this mating is the response to pheromone, which is mediated by a conserved kinase cascade that transduces the signal from the pheromone receptor to a transcriptional response in the nucleus. In this paper we show (i) that the detailed response of C. albicans to the alpha pheromone differs among clinical isolates, (ii) that the response depends critically on nutritional conditions, (iii) that the entire response is mediated by the Ste2 receptor, and (iv) that, in terms of genes induced, the response to alpha pheromone in C. albicans shows only marginal overlap with the response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We further investigated the nutritional control of pheromone induction and identify the GPA2 gene as a critical component. We found that Deltagpa2/Deltagpa2 mutants are hypersensitive to pheromone and, unlike wild-type strains, show efficient cell cycle arrest (including the formation of characteristic halos on solid medium) in response to mating pheromone. These results indicate that C. albicans, like several other fungal species but unlike S. cerevisiae, integrates signals from a nutrient-sensing pathway with those of the pheromone response MAP kinase pathway to generate the final transcriptional response.

  5. The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Chen, Xihui; Danilova, Katia

    2009-01-01

    Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

  6. Onsite Portable Alarm System - Its Merit and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saita, J.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Recently an existence of the earthquake early warning system (EEWS) becomes popular. In general, the EEWS will be installed in a fixed observation site and it may consist of several separated components such as a sensing portion, A/D converter, an information processing potion and so on. The processed information for warning may be transmitted to network via fixed communication line, and therefore this kind of alarm system is called as Network Alarm System. On the other hand, after the severe earthquake damage, it is very important to save the disaster victims immediately. These rescue staffs are also under the risk of aftershocks and need a local alarm not depending on the network, so this kind of alarm can be called as Onsite Alarm. But the common early warning system is too complex to set onsite temporary, and even if possible to install, the alarm is too late to receive at the epicentral area. However, the new generation earthquake early warning system FREQL can issue the P wave alarm by minimum 0.2 seconds after P wave detection. And FREQL is characterized as the unique all-in-one seismometer with power unit. At the time of the 2004 Niigata-Ken-Chuetsu earthquake, a land slide attacked a car just passing. A hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department pulled the survivor, one baby, from the land slide area. During their activity the rescue team was exposed to the risk of secondary hazards caused by the aftershocks. It was clear that it is necessary to use a portable warning system to issue the onsite P wave alarm. Because FREQL was originally developed as portable equipment, Tokyo Fire Department asked us to modify it to the portable equipment with the loud sound and the light signal. In this moment, this portable FREQL has equipped in nation wide. When the hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department was sent to Pakistan as a task force for rescue work of the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, the portable FREQL was used as important onsite portable warning system and P

  7. Genetic mapping of male pheromone response in the European corn borer identifies candidate genes regulating neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Teun; Heckel, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The sexual pheromone communication system of moths is a model system for studies of the evolution of reproductive isolation. Females emit a blend of volatile components that males detect at a distance. Species differences in female pheromone composition and male response directly reinforce reproductive isolation in nature, because even slight variations in the species-specific pheromone blend are usually rejected by the male. The mechanisms by which a new pheromone signal–response system could evolve are enigmatic, because any deviation from the optimally attractive blend should be selected against. Here we investigate the genetic mechanisms enabling a switch in male response. We used a quantitative trait locus-mapping approach to identify the genetic basis of male response in the two pheromone races of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Male response to a 99:1 vs. a 3:97 ratio of the E and Z isomers of the female pheromone is governed by a single, sex-linked locus. We found that the chromosomal region most tightly linked to this locus contains genes involved in neurogenesis but, in accordance with an earlier study, does not contain the odorant receptors expressed in the male antenna that detect the pheromone. This finding implies that differences in the development of neuronal pathways conveying information from the antenna, not differences in pheromone detection by the odorant receptors, are primarily responsible for the behavioral response differences among the males in this system. Comparison with other moth species reveals a previously unexplored mechanism by which male pheromone response can change in evolution. PMID:27698145

  8. The Influence of Host Plant Volatiles on the Attraction of Longhorn Beetles to Pheromones.

    PubMed

    Collignon, R Maxwell; Swift, Ian P; Zou, Yunfan; McElfresh, J Steven; Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2016-03-01

    Host plant volatiles have been shown to strongly synergize the attraction of some longhorn beetle species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to their pheromones. This synergism is well documented among species that infest conifers, but less so for angiosperm-infesting species. To explore the extent of this phenomenon in the Cerambycidae, we first tested the responses of a cerambycid community to a generic pheromone blend in the presence or absence of chipped material from host plants as a source of host volatiles. In the second phase, blends of oak and conifer volatiles were reconstructed, and tested at low, medium, and high release rates with the pheromone blend. For conifer-infesting species in the subfamilies Spondylidinae and Lamiinae, conifer volatiles released at the high rate synergized attraction of some species to the pheromone blend. When comparing high-release rate conifer blend with high-release rate α-pinene as a single component, species responses varied, with Asemum nitidum LeConte being most attracted to pheromones plus α-pinene, whereas Neospondylis upiformis (Mannerheim) were most attracted to pheromones plus conifer blend and ethanol. For oak-infesting species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, with the exception of Phymatodes grandis Casey, which were most attracted to pheromones plus ethanol, neither synthetic oak blend nor ethanol increased attraction to pheromones. The results indicate that the responses to combinations of pheromones with host plant volatiles varied from synergistic to antagonistic, depending on beetle species. Release rates of host plant volatiles also were important, with some high release rates being antagonistic for oak-infesting species, but acting synergistically for conifer-infesting species.

  9. Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

    2011-06-01

    A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality.

  10. Sex Attractant Pheromone of the Luna Moth, Actias luna (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Haynes, Kenneth F; Dossey, Aaron T; McElfresh, J Steven; Allison, Jeremy D

    2016-09-01

    Giant silk moths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) typically are not well represented as larvae or adults in community level inventories of Lepidoptera, and as a result, little is known about their population dynamics. Furthermore, in recent years, many species of silk moths appear to have experienced population declines. Volatile sex pheromones are powerful sampling tools that can be used in operational conservation and monitoring programs for insects. Here, we describe the identification of the sex attractant pheromone of a giant silk moth, the luna moth Actias luna. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses of extracts from pheromone glands of female luna moths supported the identification of (6E,11Z)-6,11-octadecadienal (E6,Z11-18:Ald), (6E)-6-octadecenal (E6-18:Ald), and (11Z)-11-octadecenal (Z11-18:Ald) as the compounds in extracts that elicited responses from antennae of male moths. These identifications were confirmed by synthesis, followed by testing of blends of the synthetic compounds in field trials in Ontario, Canada, and Kentucky, USA. Male moths were attracted to synthetic E6,Z11-18:Ald as a single component. Attraction appeared to be enhanced by addition of E6-18:Ald but not Z11-18:Ald, suggesting that the luna moth pheromone consists of a blend of E6,Z11-18:Ald and E6-18:Ald.

  11. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B.; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1 h exposure. After 2 h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRHI and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24 h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  12. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S; Li, Weiming

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1h exposure. After 2h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRH-I and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  13. Spodoptera exigua: mating disruption, measurement of airborne concentration of pheromone, and use of specialist receptor cell responses for comparison to female pheromone emission.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, E R; Mayer, M S

    2001-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate Shin-Etsu Yoto-con-S 'rope' pheromone dispensers applied at different site densities in cotton to determine efficacy in disrupting sexual communication and mating of beet armyworm moths, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner); obtain atmospheric measurements of the disruptant pheromone components in and away from treated areas; and relate this information to estimates of the concentration of pheromone in the near vicinity of a calling virgin female moth. The number of pheromone-dispensing sites/ha ranged from 25 with 20 ropes/site up to a total of 247 sites with 2 ropes each. A total of 112 g pheromone of a 70:30 blend of (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadien-l- ol acetate (ZETA) and (Z)-tetradecen-1-ol (Z9-14:OH) was applied/ha. As few as 25 sites/ha effectively disrupted sexual communication by 91%, as measured by reductions of moth captures in traps baited with pheromone lures, and mating by beet armyworm females by 94% for at least 10 weeks post-treatment. The results compared favorably to an earlier large-scale field experiment in which beet armyworm larval populations were reduced 95% using 500 pheromone-dispensing sites/ha (two ropes/site) and 160 g total pheromone/ha. The airborne concentration of ZETA and Z9-14:OH measured within the pheromone-treated plots that disrupted mating was 1.5 x 10(-13) M and 1.2 x 10(-13) M, respectively. The airborne concentration of ZETA and Z9-14:OH in the vicinity of a female was estimated (by excision and electrophysiological methods) to range between 2.1 x 10(-11) M and 2.4 x 10(-12) M, respectively, in a 1.6 km/h (1 mph) wind speed. Thus, the average ZETA concentration in the treated plots was about 140 times less than that expected from a single female; the average Z9-14:OH in the treated plots was about 20 times less. The data support an argument that disruption of mating by beet armyworm resulted from an imbalance in sensory input because mating was almost completely disrupted in all of the plots

  14. Functional characterization of a pheromone-binding protein from rice leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis in detecting pheromones and host plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Zhao, Z-F; Zeng, F-F; Zhang, A; Lu, Z-X; Wang, M-Q

    2016-12-01

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be involved in the recognition of semiochemicals. In the present study, western blot analysis, fluorescence-binding characteristics and immunolocalization of CmedPBP4 from the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, were investigated. Western blot analysis revealed that CmedPBP4 showed obvious antenna-specific expression patterns in female and male antenna, and made a clearly different sex-biased expression. Immunocytochemical labeling revealed that CmedPBP4 showed specific expression in the trichoid sensilla. Competitive fluorescence binding assays indicated that CmedPBP4 could selectively recognize three sex pheromone components (Z13-18:Ac, Z11-16:Al and Z13-18:OH) and eleven rice plant volatiles, including cyclohexanol, nerolidol, cedrol, dodecanal, ionone, (-)-α-cedrene, (Z)-farnesene, β-myrcene, R-(+)-limonene, (-)-limonene, and (+)-3-carene. Meanwhile the CmedPBP4 detection of sex pheromones and host odorants was pH-dependent. Our results, for the first time, provide further evidence that trichoid sensilla might be play an important role in detecting sex pheromones and host plant volatiles in the C. medinalis moth. Our systematic studies provided further detailed evidence for the function of trichoid sensilla in insect semiochemical perception.

  15. Identification of the Sex Pheromone of a Protected Species, the Spanish Moon Moth Graellsia isabellae

    PubMed Central

    McElfresh, J. Steven; Romero, Carmen; Vila, Marta; Marí-Mena, Neus; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Sex attractant pheromones are highly sensitive and selective tools for detecting and monitoring populations of insects, yet there has been only one reported case of pheromones being used to monitor protected species. Here, we report the identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone of a protected European moth species, Graellsia isabellae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), as the single component, (4E,6E,11Z)-hexadecatrienal. In preliminary field trials, lures loaded with this compound attracted male moths from populations of this species at a number of widely separated field sites in France, Switzerland, and Spain, clearly demonstrating the utility of pheromones in sampling potentially endangered insect species. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9831-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20658260

  16. Development and optimization of methods for using sex pheromone for monitoring the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards.

    PubMed

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Daane, Kent M; McElfresh, J Steven; Moreira, Jardel A; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha; Guillén, Marta; Bentley, Walt J

    2002-08-01

    The sex pheromone of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret has been identified as a single component, lavandulyl senecioate. Racemic lavandulyl senecioate was as attractive to male mealybugs as the insect-produced (S)-enantiomer, indicating that the unnatural enantiomer is not inhibitory. Lavandulol, which also was found in extracts from virgin females, antagonized attraction of males at higher doses. Rubber septum lures loaded with 10- to 1,000-microg doses of the pheromone were equally attractive, and lures loaded with 100 microg of racemic pheromone remained attractive for at least 12 wk under field conditions. Delta traps were more effective than double-sided sticky cards and minimized captures of nontarget insects. Pheromone-baited traps had an effective range of at least 50 m. Comparison of visual sampling methods and sampling of males with pheromone-baited traps revealed that trap catches were significantly correlated with the results from visual sampling methods, and with economic damage.

  17. Yeast pheromone pathway modeling using Petri nets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our environment is composed of biological components of varying magnitude. The relationships between the different biological elements can be represented as a biological network. The process of mating in S. cerevisiae is initiated by secretion of pheromone by one of the cells. Our interest lies in one particular question: how does a cell dynamically adapt the pathway to continue mating under severe environmental changes or under mutation (which might result in the loss of functionality of some proteins known to participate in the pheromone pathway). Our work attempts to answer this question. To achieve this, we first propose a model to simulate the pheromone pathway using Petri nets. Petri nets are directed graphs that can be used for describing and modeling systems characterized as concurrent, asynchronous, distributed, parallel, non-deterministic, and/or stochastic. We then analyze our Petri net-based model of the pathway to investigate the following: 1) Given the model of the pheromone response pathway, under what conditions does the cell respond positively, i.e., mate? 2) What kinds of perturbations in the cell would result in changing a negative response to a positive one? Method In our model, we classify proteins into two categories: core component proteins (set ψ) and additional proteins (set λ). We randomly generate our model's parameters in repeated simulations. To simulate the pathway, we carry out three different experiments. In the experiments, we simply change the concentration of the additional proteins (λ) available to the cell. The concentration of proteins in ψ is varied consistently from 300 to 400. In Experiment 1, the range of values for λ is set to be 100 to 150. In Experiment 2, it is set to be 151 to 200. In Experiment 3, the set λ is further split into σ and ς, with the idea that proteins in σ are more important than those in ς. The range of values for σ is set to be between 151 to 200 while that of ς is 100 to 150

  18. Vomeronasal organ and human pheromones.

    PubMed

    Trotier, D

    2011-09-01

    For many organisms, pheromonal communication is of particular importance in managing various aspects of reproduction. In tetrapods, the vomeronasal (Jacobson's) organ specializes in detecting pheromones in biological substrates of congeners. This information triggers behavioral changes associated, in the case of certain pheromones, with neuroendocrine correlates. In human embryos, the organ develops and the nerve fibers constitute a substrate for the migration of GnRH-secreting cells from the olfactory placode toward the hypothalamus. After this essential step for subsequent secretion of sex hormones by the anterior hypophysis, the organ regresses and the neural connections disappear. The vomeronasal cavities can still be observed by endoscopy in some adults, but they lack sensory neurons and nerve fibers. The genes which code for vomeronasal receptor proteins and the specific ionic channels involved in the transduction process are mutated and nonfunctional in humans. In addition, no accessory olfactory bulbs, which receive information from the vomeronasal receptor cells, are found. The vomeronasal sensory function is thus nonoperational in humans. Nevertheless, several steroids are considered to be putative human pheromones; some activate the anterior hypothalamus, but the effects observed are not comparable to those in other mammals. The signaling process (by neuronal detection and transmission to the brain or by systemic effect) remains to be clearly elucidated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Estimation of the patient monitor alarm rate for a quantitative analysis of new alarm settings.

    PubMed

    de Waele, Stijn; Nielsen, Larry; Frassica, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In many critical care units, default patient monitor alarm settings are not fine-tuned to the vital signs of the patient population. As a consequence there are many alarms. A large fraction of the alarms are not clinically actionable, thus contributing to alarm fatigue. Recent attention to this phenomenon has resulted in attempts in many institutions to decrease the overall alarm load of clinicians by altering the trigger thresholds for monitored parameters. Typically, new alarm settings are defined based on clinical knowledge and patient population norms and tried empirically on new patients without quantitative knowledge about the potential impact of these new settings. We introduce alarm regeneration as a method to estimate the alarm rate of new alarm settings using recorded patient monitor data. This method enables evaluation of several alarm setting scenarios prior to using these settings in the clinical setting. An expression for the alarm rate variance is derived for the calculation of statistical confidence intervals on the results.

  20. Application of a putative alarm cue hastens the arrival of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) at a trapping location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hume, John B.; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Luhring, Thomas M; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus is an invasive pest in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, threatening the persistence of important commercial and recreational fisheries. There is substantial interest in developing effective trapping practices via the application of behavior-modifying semiochemicals (odors). Here we report on the effectiveness of utilizing repellent and attractant odors in a push–pull configuration, commonly employed to tackle invertebrate pests, to improve trapping efficacy at permanent barriers to sea lamprey migration. When a half-stream channel was activated by a naturally derived repellent odor (a putative alarm cue), we found that sea lamprey located a trap entrance significantly faster than when no odor was present as a result of their redistribution within the stream. The presence of a partial sex pheromone, acting as an attractant within the trap, was not found to further decrease the time to when sea lamprey located a trap entrance relative to when the alarm cue alone was applied. Neither the application of alarm cue singly nor alarm cue and partial sex pheromone in combination was found to improve the numbers of sea lamprey captured in the trap versus when no odor was present — likely because nominal capture rate during control trials was unusually high during the study period. Behavioural guidance using these odors has the potential to both improve control of invasive non-native sea lamprey in the Great Lakes as well as improving the efficiency of fish passage devices used in the restoration of threatened lamprey species elsewhere.

  1. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices...

  2. Behavioural implications of alarm mistrust as a function of task workload.

    PubMed

    Bliss, J P; Dunn, M C

    2000-09-01

    The research was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing primary task and alarm workload on alarm mistrust as reflected by alarm and primary task performances. A total of 126 undergraduate students performed a complex psychomotor task battery three times, with the number of concurrent tasks increasing each time. During their performance, the students were required to react to an alarm system (including visual and auditory components) of questionable reliability. Depending on the group to which participants were assigned, the alarm presentation rate constituted a low-, medium- or high-workload condition. Alarm response data (times, frequencies, accuracies) and primary task data (tracking error) were analyzed to assess performance differences as a function of primary and secondary task workload levels. Results generally supported the hypotheses: increasing primary task and alarm task workload degraded alarm response performance. Also, response frequencies supported earlier research suggesting that participants 'probability match' their response rates to alarm system reliability. The results are discussed with regard to the cry-wolf effect, attention theory and alarm system design.

  3. Evaporation rate of emulsion and oil-base emulsion pheromones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of pheromone evaporation rate is critical to distribute pheromone containers effectively in the forest, orchard and field. There are several factors influencing the pheromone evaporation rate that include wind speed, container size and porosity, release area, temperature, humidity, pherom...

  4. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  5. Alkenyl sex pheromone analogs in the hemolymph of an arctiid Eilema japonica and several non-arctiid moths.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Nakano, Ryo; Nirazawa, Takuya; Rong, Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2015-11-01

    The majority of moth species utilize compounds derived from de novo synthesized fatty acids as their sex pheromones (type I). In contrast, species belonging to two recently diverged moth families, Arctiidae and Geometridae, utilize alkenes and their epoxides, which are derived from dietary essential fatty acids (EFAs), as their sex pheromones (type II). In the latter species, EFAs are considered to be converted into alkenes, often after chain elongation, in specialized cells called oenocytes. These alkenes are transported through the hemolymph to the pheromone gland, from which they are secreted with or without further modifications. We confirmed that the appearance of EFA-derived alkenes in the hemolymph was closely associated with the completion of pheromone gland formation in an arctiid moth Eilema japonica. Analyses of the hemolymph of several moth species utilizing type-I sex pheromones demonstrated the occurrence of (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-tricosatriene (T23), a typical type-II component, in the hemolymph of a noctuid Mamestra brassicae and two crambids Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis. Our results demonstrated that moths utilizing type-I pheromones have the ability to synthesize type-II sex pheromones, and suggested that recently diverged groups of moths may have secondarily exploited EFA-derived alkenes as sex pheromones.

  6. Antennal lobe organization and pheromone usage in bombycid moths

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Daimon, Takaaki; Iwatsuki, Chika; Shimada, Toru; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the neuroanatomy of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which is involved in sex pheromone processing, in five species in the subfamily Bombycinae, including Ernolatia moorei, Trilocha varians, Rondotia menciana, Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori. The glomerulus located at the dorsal-most part of the olfactory centre shows the largest volume in moth species examined to date. Such normal glomerular organization has been observed in E. moorei and T. varians, which use a two-component mixture and includes the compound bombykal as a mating signal. By contrast, the other three species, which use another component as a single attractant, exhibited a modified arrangement of the MGC. This correlation between pheromone usage and neural organization may be useful for understanding the process of speciation. PMID:24759369

  7. Proteomic analyses of courtship pheromones in the redback salamander, Plethodon cinereus.

    PubMed

    Wilburn, Damien B; Bowen, Kathleen E; Feldhoff, Pamela W; Feldhoff, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    The evolutionary success of plethodontid salamanders for ~100 MY is due partly to the use of courtship pheromones that regulate female receptivity. In ~90 % of plethodontid species, males deliver pheromones by "scratching" a female's dorsum, where pheromones diffuse transdermally into the bloodstream. However, in a single clade, representing ~10 % of Plethodon spp., males apply pheromones to the female's nares for olfactory delivery. Molecular studies have identified three major pheromone families: Plethodontid Receptivity Factor (PRF), Plethodontid Modulating Factor (PMF), and Sodefrin Precursor-like Factor (SPF). SPF and PMF genes are relatively ancient and found in all plethodontid species; however, PRF is found exclusively in the genus Plethodon - which includes species with transdermal, olfactory, and intermediate delivery behaviors. While previous proteomic analyses suggested PRF and PMF are dominant in slapping species and SPF is dominant in non-Plethodon scratching species, it was unclear how protein expression of different pheromone components may vary across delivery modes within Plethodon. Therefore, the aim of this study was to proteomically characterize the pheromones of a key scratching species in this evolutionary transition, Plethodon cinereus. Using mass spectrometry-based techniques, our data support the functional replacement of SPF by PRF in Plethodon spp. and an increase in PMF gene duplication events in both lineage-dependent and delivery-dependent manners. Novel glycosylation was observed on P. cinereus PRFs, which may modulate the metabolism and/or mechanism of action for PRF in scratching species. Cumulatively, these molecular data suggest that the replacement of pheromone components (e.g., SPF by PRF) preceded the evolutionary transition of the functional complex from transdermal to olfactory delivery.

  8. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  9. Allelic Exchange of Pheromones and Their Receptors Reprograms Sexual Identity in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Staudt, Mark W.; Kruzel, Emilia K.; Hull, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    Cell type specification is a fundamental process that all cells must carry out to ensure appropriate behaviors in response to environmental stimuli. In fungi, cell identity is critical for defining “sexes” known as mating types and is controlled by components of mating type (MAT) loci. MAT–encoded genes function to define sexes via two distinct paradigms: 1) by controlling transcription of components common to both sexes, or 2) by expressing specially encoded factors (pheromones and their receptors) that differ between mating types. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has two mating types (a and α) that are specified by an extremely unusual MAT locus. The complex architecture of this locus makes it impossible to predict which paradigm governs mating type. To identify the mechanism by which the C. neoformans sexes are determined, we created strains in which the pheromone and pheromone receptor from one mating type (a) replaced the pheromone and pheromone receptor of the other (α). We discovered that these “αa” cells effectively adopt a new mating type (that of a cells); they sense and respond to α factor, they elicit a mating response from α cells, and they fuse with α cells. In addition, αa cells lose the α cell type-specific response to pheromone and do not form germ tubes, instead remaining spherical like a cells. Finally, we discovered that exogenous expression of the diploid/dikaryon-specific transcription factor Sxi2a could then promote complete sexual development in crosses between α and αa strains. These data reveal that cell identity in C. neoformans is controlled fully by three kinds of MAT–encoded proteins: pheromones, pheromone receptors, and homeodomain proteins. Our findings establish the mechanisms for maintenance of distinct cell types and subsequent developmental behaviors in this unusual human fungal pathogen. PMID:20195516

  10. Allelic exchange of pheromones and their receptors reprograms sexual identity in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Brynne C; Giles, Steven S; Staudt, Mark W; Kruzel, Emilia K; Hull, Christina M

    2010-02-26

    Cell type specification is a fundamental process that all cells must carry out to ensure appropriate behaviors in response to environmental stimuli. In fungi, cell identity is critical for defining "sexes" known as mating types and is controlled by components of mating type (MAT) loci. MAT-encoded genes function to define sexes via two distinct paradigms: 1) by controlling transcription of components common to both sexes, or 2) by expressing specially encoded factors (pheromones and their receptors) that differ between mating types. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has two mating types (a and alpha) that are specified by an extremely unusual MAT locus. The complex architecture of this locus makes it impossible to predict which paradigm governs mating type. To identify the mechanism by which the C. neoformans sexes are determined, we created strains in which the pheromone and pheromone receptor from one mating type (a) replaced the pheromone and pheromone receptor of the other (alpha). We discovered that these "alpha(a)" cells effectively adopt a new mating type (that of a cells); they sense and respond to alpha factor, they elicit a mating response from alpha cells, and they fuse with alpha cells. In addition, alpha(a) cells lose the alpha cell type-specific response to pheromone and do not form germ tubes, instead remaining spherical like a cells. Finally, we discovered that exogenous expression of the diploid/dikaryon-specific transcription factor Sxi2a could then promote complete sexual development in crosses between alpha and alpha(a) strains. These data reveal that cell identity in C. neoformans is controlled fully by three kinds of MAT-encoded proteins: pheromones, pheromone receptors, and homeodomain proteins. Our findings establish the mechanisms for maintenance of distinct cell types and subsequent developmental behaviors in this unusual human fungal pathogen.

  11. Priority coding for control room alarms

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

  12. Pathogen Alarm Behavior in a Termite: A New Form of Communication in Social Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengaus, R. B.; Jordan, C.; Lefebvre, M. L.; Traniello, J. F. A.

    Dampwood termites, Zootermopsis angusticollis, show an alarm response after detecting the presence of spores of the pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Termites in direct contact with a high concentration of spores (107 spores/ml) show a striking vibratory display which appears to convey information about the presence of pathogens to nearby unexposed nestmates through substrate vibration. Nestmates not directly in contact with spores that perceive the vibrational signal increase significantly their distance from the spore-exposed vibrating termites, apparently to escape from the source of infection. The fleeing response is not induced by the presence of the spores alone or by pheromones, and requires the perception of the vibrations propagated through the substrate. This "pathogen alarm behavior" appears to be a previously unrecognized communication mechanism that allows termites to reduce disease risks within the nest.

  13. (6E,8Z)-6,8-Pentadecadienal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the Cerambycid Beetles Chlorida festiva and Chlorida costata.

    PubMed

    Silva, Weliton D; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Bento, José Maurício S

    2016-10-01

    We report the identification, synthesis, and first field bioassays of a pheromone component with a novel structure produced by adult males of Chlorida festiva (L.) and Chlorida costata Audinet-Serville, longhorn beetle species in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound that was identified as (6E,8Z)-6,8-pentadecadienal. Traps baited with this compound captured adults of both species and sexes, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many species in this subfamily. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified from species in the tribe Bothriospilini.

  14. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the smoke...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the smoke...

  16. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an audible alarm. A visual indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by low water. (d) For a... Requirements § 63.15-7 Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system...

  17. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an audible alarm. A visual indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by low water. (d) For a... Requirements § 63.15-7 Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system...

  18. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an audible alarm. A visual indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by low water. (d) For a... Requirements § 63.15-7 Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system...

  19. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an audible alarm. A visual indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by low water. (d) For a... Requirements § 63.15-7 Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system...

  20. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  2. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  3. 46 CFR 129.530 - General alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm. 129.530 Section 129.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.530 General alarm. Each vessel must be fitted with a general alarm that...

  4. 46 CFR 129.530 - General alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm. 129.530 Section 129.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.530 General alarm. Each vessel must be fitted with a general alarm that...

  5. 46 CFR 129.530 - General alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm. 129.530 Section 129.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.530 General alarm. Each vessel must be fitted with a general alarm that...

  6. Are melodic medical equipment alarms easily learned?

    PubMed

    Wee, Alexandra N; Sanderson, Penelope M

    2008-02-01

    We tested melodic auditory alarms recommended in the IEC 60601-1-8 standard for medical electrical equipment for ease of learning and discrimination, and for effectiveness during a timeshared task. Twenty-two critical care nurses learned the IEC 60601-1-8 melodic alarms over two training sessions more than a week apart, with or without mnemonics suggested in the standard. Subsequently, the nurses identified alarms arriving at quasi random intervals while performing a timeshared arithmetic task. Only one nurse (4.5%) identified the alarms with 100% accuracy after two training sessions. Mnemonics did not improve overall alarm identification accuracy (mnemonic = 56%, nonmnemonic = 55%) but led to a narrower range of confusions between alarms. Nurses responded faster (P < 0.0001) and more accurately (P = 0.032) to medium priority than high priority alarms, despite rating high priority alarms as sounding more urgent (P < 0.0001). Nurses with at least 1 yr of formal musical training identified the alarms much more accurately (musical training = 73%, no musical training = 38%, P < 0.0001), perceived a greater distinction between high and medium priority alarms (P = 0.002), and found identifying the alarms easier overall (P = 0.023). During the timeshared task, nurses' responses were slower (P = 0.002) and became less accurate (P = 0.02). The slow rate of learning and persistent confusions suggest that the IEC 60601-1-8 melodic alarms should be redesigned before they are adopted for clinical practice.

  7. Make an Alarm! Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    After reading the story "Dear Mr. Henshaw" by Beverly Cleary, students build an alarm system for something in the classroom as the main character, Leigh, does to protect his lunchbox from thieves. Students learn about alarms and use their creativity to create an alarm system to protect their lockers, desk, or classroom door. This activity uses a…

  8. 46 CFR 129.530 - General alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm. 129.530 Section 129.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.530 General alarm. Each vessel must be fitted with a general alarm...

  9. 46 CFR 129.530 - General alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm. 129.530 Section 129.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.530 General alarm. Each vessel must be fitted with a general alarm...

  10. Sex pheromone of the dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijun; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher; Walgenbach, James F

    2005-10-01

    The sex pheromone of female dogwood borers (DWB) Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was determined to be an 88:6:6 ternary blend of (Z,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (Z,Z-3,13-ODDA), (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate (E,Z-2,13-ODDA), and (Z,E)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (Z,E-3,13-ODDA) by gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major sex pheromone component, Z,Z-3,13-ODDA, was attractive as a single component. A blend of Z,Z-3,13-ODDA with 1-3% of E,Z-2,13-ODDA (binary blend) was more attractive than the single component. A third component, Z,E-3,13-ODDA, was sometimes observed in GC-EAD analyses, and enhanced attraction to the binary blend in some field bioassays. Lures containing 1 mg of binary and ternary blends attracted 18 and 28 times more male DWB moths, respectively, than caged virgin females in field trials. Attraction was strongly antagonized by addition of as little as 0.5% of E,Z-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (E,Z-3,13-ODDA). In a period of 12 wk in 2004, more than 60,000 males were captured in sticky traps baited with synthetic pheromone blends in six apple orchards in Virginia, West Virginia, and North Carolina. Lure longevity trials showed that approximately 76% of the pheromone remained in rubber septum lures after 12 wk in the field.

  11. Behavioral activity of optical isomers of 5,9-dimethylheptadecane, the sex pheromone ofLeucoptera scitella L. (Lepidoptera: Lyonetidae).

    PubMed

    Tóth, M; Helmchen, G; Leikauf, U; Sziráki, G; Szöcs, G

    1989-05-01

    Among the pure stereoisomers of 5,9-dimethylheptadecane, a previously identified sex pheromone component ofLeucoptera scitella L., only theS,S isomer yielded trap captures in the field. The addition of the other stereoisomers had no effect on cathes. The addition of low percentages of racemic 5,9-dimethylhexadecane, a previously identified minor component in the sex pheromone, did not influence trap catches or alter behavior of males approaching an attractant source in the field.

  12. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C)) to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ) exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0) into (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone biosynthesis of a non

  13. 2,3-Hexanediols as Sex Attractants and a Female-produced Sex Pheromone for Cerambycid Beetles in the Prionine Genus Tragosoma

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, James D.; McElfresh, J. Steven; Moreira, Jardel A.; Swift, Ian; Wright, Ian M.; Žunič, Alenka; Mitchell, Robert F.; Graham, Elizabeth E.; Alten, Ronald L.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Hanks, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work suggests that closely related cerambycid species often share pheromone components, or even produce pheromone blends of identical composition. However, little is known of the pheromones of species in the subfamily Prioninae. During field bioassays in California, males of three species in the prionine genus Tragosoma were attracted to 2,3-hexanediols, common components of male-produced aggregation pheromones of beetles in the subfamily Cerambycinae. We report here that the female-produced sex pheromone of Tragosoma depsarium “sp. nov. Laplante” is (2R,3R)-2,3-hex-anediol, and provide evidence from field bioassays and electro-antennography that the female-produced pheromone of both Tragosoma pilosicorne Casey and T depsarium “harrisi” LeConte may be (2S,3R)-2,3-hexanediol. Sexual dimorphism in the sculpting of the prothorax suggests that the pheromone glands are located in the prothorax of females. This is the second sex attractant pheromone structure identified from the subfamily Prioninae, and our results provide further evidence of pheromonal parsimony within the Cerambycidae, in this case extending across both subfamily and gender lines. PMID:22923142

  14. Monitor alarm fatigue: standardizing use of physiological monitors and decreasing nuisance alarms.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kelly Creighton; Cvach, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Reliance on physiological monitors to continuously "watch" patients and to alert the nurse when a serious rhythm problem occurs is standard practice on monitored units. Alarms are intended to alert clinicians to deviations from a predetermined "normal" status. However, alarm fatigue may occur when the sheer number of monitor alarms overwhelms clinicians, possibly leading to alarms being disabled, silenced, or ignored. Excessive numbers of monitor alarms and fear that nurses have become desensitized to these alarms was the impetus for a unit-based quality improvement project. Small tests of change to improve alarm management were conducted on a medical progressive care unit. The types and frequency of monitor alarms in the unit were assessed. Nurses were trained to individualize patients' alarm parameter limits and levels. Monitor software was modified to promote audibility of critical alarms. Critical monitor alarms were reduced 43% from baseline data. The reduction of alarms could be attributed to adjustment of monitor alarm defaults, careful assessment and customization of monitor alarm parameter limits and levels, and implementation of an interdisciplinary monitor policy. Although alarms are important and sometimes life-saving, they can compromise patients' safety if ignored. This unit-based quality improvement initiative was beneficial as a starting point for revamping alarm management throughout the institution.

  15. Alarm system for a nuclear control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  16. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  17. Synthesis and metabolism of pheromones and pheromone analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.S.

    1987-01-01

    (9, 10-/sup 3/H/sub 2/)Z9-14:Ac was synthesized at high specific activity (/sup 3/H, 58 Ci/mmole) by partial tritiation of the corresponding alkyne and was converted to the labeled Z9-14:OH and Z9-14:Al to study tissue specificity of acetate esterase (E), alcohol oxidase (OX), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in male and female Heliothis virescens. Soluble and membrane-associated enzyme activities were determined by radio-TLC assays. Compounds of the tritium-labeled Z11-16 series were synthesized and their in vitro fates examined as well. In order to achieve an alternative approach in which (1) pheromone receptor proteins would be stoichiometrically and irreversibly modified, or (2) pheromone-catabolizing enzymes are inactivated by tight-binding or irreversible inhibitors, we have designed analogues of pheromones of lepidopterous insect pests and assayed their biological activity in vitro and in vivo. Various fluorinated molecules such as acyl fluorides, fluoroolefins, 2-fluoro aldehydes, 2,2-difluoro aldehydes and trifluoromethyl ketones were synthesized. The synthesis of some other functional groups such as cyclopropanones, cyclopropanols, cyclopropyl carbinols, cyclopropyl aldehydes and Michael acceptors will also be discussed.

  18. Attraction of spathius agrili yang (Hymenoptera: eulophidae) to male-produced "aggregation-sex pheromone:" differences between the sexes and mating status

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Male and female Spathius agrili Yang were tested for attraction to the synthetic male pheromone. Lures consisting of a 3-component pheromone blend were placed in the center of a white filter paper target used to activate upwind flight in the wind tunnel. When virgin males and females were tested for...

  19. Identification of functionally important residues in the silkmoth pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide receptor, an insect ortholog of the vertebrate Neuromedin U Receptor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biosynthesis of sex pheromone components in many lepidopteran insects is regulated by interactions between pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the PBAN receptor (PBANR), a class-A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). To identify functionally important amino acid residues in t...

  20. Mixtures of Two Bile Alcohol Sulfates Function as a Proximity Pheromone in Sea Lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Brant, Cory O.; Huertas, Mar; Li, Ke; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Unique mixtures of pheromone components are commonly identified in insects, and have been shown to increase attractiveness towards conspecifics when reconstructed at the natural ratio released by the signaler. In previous field studies of pheromones that attract female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L.), putative components of the male-released mating pheromone included the newly described bile alcohol 3,12-diketo-4,6-petromyzonene-24-sulfate (DkPES) and the well characterized 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS). Here, we show chemical evidence that unequivocally confirms the elucidated structure of DkPES, electrophysiological evidence that each component is independently detected by the olfactory epithelium, and behavioral evidence that mature female sea lamprey prefer artificial nests activated with a mixture that reconstructs the male-released component ratio of 30:1 (3kPZS:DkPES, molar:molar). In addition, we characterize search behavior (sinuosity of swim paths) of females approaching ratio treatment sources. These results suggest unique pheromone ratios may underlie reproductive isolating mechanisms in vertebrates, as well as provide utility in pheromone-integrated control of invasive sea lamprey in the Great Lakes. PMID:26885832

  1. Populations of the gall midge Dasineura oxycoccana on cranberry and blueberry produce and respond to different sex pheromones.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Peach, Daniel A H; Iwanski, Jessika; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    We identified and field-tested the sex pheromones of Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) midges collected from cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton, and from highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., commonly named cranberry tipworm (CTW) and blueberry gall midge (BGM), respectively. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of pheromone gland extract from the ovipositor of calling CTW females revealed one component (<10 pg per ovipositor/pheromone gland) that elicited antennal responses from CTW males. Stepwise identification was based on its mass spectrum in a concentrated sample with 300 pheromone gland equivalents, retention indices (RI) on three GC columns (DB-5, DB-23, and DB 210), RI inter-column differentials, and RIs and double bond positions of other midge pheromones. These analyses indicated that (8Z)-2,14-diacetoxy-8-heptadecene (2,14-8Z-17) was the candidate pheromone of the CTW. GC-EAD analysis of pheromone gland extract from calling BGM females revealed two components that elicited antennal responses from BGM males. Retention times on the three GC columns were consistent with 2,14-8Z-17 and 2,14-17, indicating that these were candidate pheromone components of the BGM. The four stereoisomers of 2,14-8Z-17 were stereoselectively synthesized and field-tested in cranberry. Delta-type traps baited with SS-2,14-8Z-17 captured significantly more CTW males than did traps baited with any other single stereoisomer or with all four stereoisomers combined. In blueberry, delta-type traps baited with RR-2,14-8Z-17 captured significantly more BGM males than did traps baited with any other single stereoisomer or with all four stereoisomers combined. Subsequent field experiments demonstrated that RR-2,14-17 is the major pheromone component of BGM, and that RR-2,14-8Z-17 is a pheromone component that does not enhance attractiveness of RR-2,14-17. The BGM pheromone RR-2,14-17 has no antagonistic effect on

  2. Male-produced aggregation pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Neoclytus acuminatus acuminatus.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Emerson S; Ginzel, Matthew D; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2004-08-01

    This is the first fully verified report of an aggregation pheromone produced by a cerambycid beetle species. Field bioassays with adult Neoclytus acuminatus acuminatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) revealed that males produce a pheromone that attracts both sexes. Extracts of odors from males contained a single major male-specific compound, (2S,3S)-hexanediol. Field trials determined that both sexes were attracted by the racemic blend of (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)-hexanediols and that activity was similar to enantiomerically enriched (2S,3S)-hexanediol (e.e. 80.2%). However, the blend of all four 2,3-hexanediol stereoisomers attracted few beetles, indicating inhibition by one or both of the (2R*,3S*)-stereoisomers. Females of the cerambycid Curius dentatus Newman were attracted to traps baited with the four component blend, suggesting that a male-produced sex pheromone for this species may contain (2R,3S)-hexanediol and/or (2S,3R)-hexanediol. The pheromone of N. a. acuminatus, and presumed pheromone of C. dentatus, bear structural similarities to those produced by males of six other species in the Cerambycinae (straight chains of 6, 8, or 10 carbons with hydroxyl or carbonyl groups at C2 and C3). It is likely that males of other species in this large subfamily produce pheromones that are variations on this structural motif.

  3. Evolutionary deterioration of the vomeronasal pheromone transduction pathway in catarrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianzhi; Webb, David M

    2003-07-08

    Pheromones are water-soluble chemicals released and sensed by individuals of the same species to elicit social and reproductive behaviors or physiological changes; they are perceived primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in terrestrial vertebrates. Humans and some related primates possess only vestigial VNOs and have no or significantly reduced ability to detect pheromones, a phenomenon not well understood at the molecular level. Here we show that genes encoding the TRP2 ion channel and V1R pheromone receptors, two components of the vomeronasal pheromone signal transduction pathway, have been impaired and removed from functional constraints since shortly before the separation of hominoids and Old World monkeys approximately 23 million years ago, and that the random inactivation of pheromone receptor genes is an ongoing process even in present-day humans. The phylogenetic distribution of vomeronasal pheromone insensitivity is concordant with those of conspicuous female sexual swelling and male trichromatic color vision, suggesting that a vision-based signaling-sensory mechanism may have in part replaced the VNO-mediated chemical-based system in the social/reproductive activities of hominoids and Old World monkeys (catarrhines).

  4. A novel screen for genes associated with pheromone-induced sterility

    PubMed Central

    Camiletti, Alison L.; Percival-Smith, Anthony; Croft, Justin R.; Thompson, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    For honey bee and other social insect colonies the ‘queen substance’ regulates colony reproduction rendering workers functionally sterile. The evolution of worker reproductive altruism is explained by inclusive fitness theory, but little is known of the genes involved or how they regulate the phenotypic expression of altruism. We previously showed that application of honeybee queen pheromone to virgin fruit flies suppresses fecundity. Here we exploit this finding to identify genes associated with the perception of an ovary-inhibiting social pheromone. Mutational and RNAi approaches in Drosophila reveal that the olfactory co-factor Orco together with receptors Or49b, Or56a and Or98a are potentially involved in the perception of queen pheromone and the suppression of fecundity. One of these, Or98a, is known to mediate female fly mating behaviour, and its predicted ligand is structurally similar to a methyl component of the queen pheromone. Our novel approach to finding genes associated with pheromone-induced sterility implies conserved reproductive regulation between social and pre-social orders, and further helps to identify candidate orthologues from the pheromone-responsive pathway that may regulate honeybee worker sterility. PMID:27786267

  5. The brain organization of the lichen moth Eilema japonica, which secretes an alkenyl sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2012-10-03

    The neuroanatomy of the brain is important for the functional analysis of sex pheromone recognition in moths. Most moths use either of two types of compounds, aliphatic or alkenyl compounds, as sex pheromones. As previous studies on the neuroanatomy of moths have mostly been carried out using moths that use aliphatic compounds, information on the brain of moths that use alkenyl compounds is scarce. Here, we describe the brain anatomy of the male lichen-feeding moth Eilema japonica (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), which uses a mixture of alkenyl compounds as a sex pheromone. We reconstructed the major neuropils in the midbrain of E. japonica and compared them with those of the silkmoth, which uses an aliphatic derivative as a sex pheromone. The brain organization of the two species was basically similar, except for the size of the macroglomerular complex, where pheromone information is processed. The macroglomerular complex in E. japonica consisted of four large glomeruli, which were positioned along dorsoventral and anterior-posterior axes. The glomerulus at the site of entry of the antennal nerve was shown to have the largest volume. The number of glomeruli was equal to the number of pheromone components that are crucial for orientation behavior in E. japonica.

  6. Aggressive reproductive competition among hopelessly queenless honeybee workers triggered by pheromone signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.

    2008-06-01

    In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants’ reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufour’s glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.

  7. Synthetic Co-Attractants of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Date Palm Root Borer Oryctes agamemnon.

    PubMed

    Hasni, Narjes; Pinier, Centina; Imed, Cheraief; Ouhichi, Monêem; Couzi, Philippe; Chermiti, Brahim; Frérot, Brigitte; Saïd, Imen; Rochat, Didier

    2017-06-30

    Laboratory and field investigations to identify and evaluate plant co-attractants of the aggregation pheromone of the date palm pest Oryctes agamemnon are reported. Volatiles emitted by freshly cut palm core and palm core with feeding males, were collected, analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and evaluated in olfactometers alone or combined with synthetic pheromone. A collection of palm odor without male effluvia was attractive alone and enhanced attraction to synthetic pheromone in an olfactometer similar to that to a collection of palm odor emitted with feeding males and containing natural pheromone. Behavioral responses to collections of palm volatiles were correlated to the amount of volatiles material in them. Enhancement of the attractiveness of the pheromone was not correlated to chemicals specific to beetle feeding. The chemicals common to the active collections extracts were benzoate esters, mostly ethyl benzoate, anisole derivatives and sesquiterpenes. Blends of the most abundant components of the extracts were evaluated for enhancement of the attractiveness of pheromone (1 μg) in olfactometers at 1 or 10 μg doses. The mixtures were further evaluated by field trapping in Tunisia at 3-10 mg/day using reference (6 mg/day) or experimental pheromone formulations. A mixture of ethyl benzoate, 4-methylanisole and farnesol (1:1:1 w/w at 6.5 mg/day) enhanced captures in pheromone baited traps in 2014 and 2015 and this mixture was as active as the natural palm bait. The practical prospect of the result for the management for O. agamemnon, and other palm beetles is discussed.

  8. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Uchino, Keiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2011-06-01

    In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald), in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species-specific behavioral sequence.

  9. A novel mechanism regulating a sexual signal: the testosterone-based inhibition of female sex pheromone expression in garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2014-08-01

    Vertebrates communicate their sex to conspecifics through the use of sexually dimorphic signals, such as ornaments, behaviors and scents. Furthermore, the physiological connection between hormones and secondary sexual signal expression is key to understanding their dimorphism, seasonality and evolution. The red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is the only reptile for which a described pheromone currently exists, and because garter snakes rely completely on the sexual attractiveness pheromone for species identification and mate choice, they constitute a unique model species for exploring the relationship between pheromones and the endocrine system. We recently demonstrated that estrogen can activate female pheromone production in male garter snakes. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) acting to prevent female pheromone production in males. We found that castrated males (GX) are courted by wild males in the field and produce appreciable amounts of female sex pheromone. Furthermore, pheromone production is inhibited in castrates given testosterone implants (GX+T), suggesting that pheromone production is actively inhibited by the presence of testosterone. Lastly, testosterone supplementation alone (T) increased the production of several saturated methyl ketones in the pheromone but not the unsaturated ketones; this may indicate that saturated ketones are testosterone-activated components of the garter snake's skin lipid milieu. Collectively, our research has shown that pheromone expression in snakes results from two processes: activation by the feminizing steroid estradiol and inhibition by testosterone. We suggest that basal birds and garter snakes share common pathways of activation that modulate crucial intraspecific signals that originate from skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Smoke alarm use: prevalence and household predictors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, I

    1996-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of smoke alarm use among families with children and to identify household factors that predict the absence of a smoke alarm. Cross sectional analysis of data collected in the September and November 1995 Omnibus Survey, conducted by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the UK. A random sample of British households. Interviews were completed with 4,043 householders. The response rate was 78%. 29% of British households do not have a smoke alarm and smoke alarms were absent in 20% of households with children under 15 years. A smoke alarm was absent in 41% of privately rented homes compared with 17% of owner occupied homes. Living in private rental accommodation was the strongest household predictor of the absence of a smoke alarm (odds ratio = 3.25, 95% confidence interval 1.94 to 5.42). Householders who had heard of National Fire Safety Week or the TV smoke alarm advertising campaign were significantly more likely to have a smoke alarm. The apparent effect of these campaigns was greatest in families with children. Smoke alarm use has continued to increase but a substantial proportion of British homes still do not have smoke alarms. Homes at greatest risk of residential fire are the least likely to have an alarm. Health professionals may be able to increase smoke alarm use among families with children, by counselling families about the benefits of smoke alarms. They may also be effective in this regard by lobbying local councils, houseing associations, or private landlords to install alarms in all properties and by advocating for national legislation.

  11. Smoke alarm use: prevalence and household predictors.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, I.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of smoke alarm use among families with children and to identify household factors that predict the absence of a smoke alarm. DESIGN: Cross sectional analysis of data collected in the September and November 1995 Omnibus Survey, conducted by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the UK. SUBJECTS: A random sample of British households. Interviews were completed with 4,043 householders. The response rate was 78%. RESULTS: 29% of British households do not have a smoke alarm and smoke alarms were absent in 20% of households with children under 15 years. A smoke alarm was absent in 41% of privately rented homes compared with 17% of owner occupied homes. Living in private rental accommodation was the strongest household predictor of the absence of a smoke alarm (odds ratio = 3.25, 95% confidence interval 1.94 to 5.42). Householders who had heard of National Fire Safety Week or the TV smoke alarm advertising campaign were significantly more likely to have a smoke alarm. The apparent effect of these campaigns was greatest in families with children. CONCLUSIONS: Smoke alarm use has continued to increase but a substantial proportion of British homes still do not have smoke alarms. Homes at greatest risk of residential fire are the least likely to have an alarm. Health professionals may be able to increase smoke alarm use among families with children, by counselling families about the benefits of smoke alarms. They may also be effective in this regard by lobbying local councils, houseing associations, or private landlords to install alarms in all properties and by advocating for national legislation. PMID:9346105

  12. Prediction of release ratios of multicomponent pheromones from rubber septa.

    PubMed

    Heath, R R; Teal, P E; Tumlinson, J H; Mengelkoch, L J

    1986-12-01

    A method has been developed to predict the release ratio of the components of blends of alcohols, acetates, and/or aldehydes from rubber septa. The calculations of predicted release ratios are based on the relative vapor pressures of the components. The relative vapor pressures of the compounds were calculated from their retention indices on a liquid crystal capillary gas chromatographie column. The correlation between the theoretically predicted and experimentally determined ratios was very good. Thus, formulations can be prepared that will release a desired ratio of the components of a multicomponent pheromone blend.

  13. Synergism between Enantiomers Creates Species-Specific Pheromone Blends and Minimizes Cross-Attraction for Two Species of Cerambycid Beetles.

    PubMed

    Meier, Linnea R; Zou, Yunfan; Millar, Jocelyn G; Mongold-Diers, Judith A; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-11-01

    Research over the last decade has revealed extensive parsimony among pheromones within the large insect family Cerambycidae, with males of many species producing the same, or very similar aggregation pheromones. Among some species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, interspecific attraction is minimized by temporal segregation, and/or by minor pheromone components that synergize attraction of conspecifics or inhibit attraction of heterospecifics. Less is known about pheromone-based mechanisms of reproductive isolation among species in the largest subfamily, the Lamiinae. Here, we present evidence that the pheromone systems of two sympatric lamiine species consist of synergistic blends of enantiomers of (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-ol (fuscumol) and the structurally related (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate (fuscumol acetate), as a mechanism by which species-specific blends of pheromone components can minimize interspecific attraction. Male Astylidius parvus (LeConte) were found to produce (R)- and (S)-fuscumol + (R)-fuscumol acetate + geranylacetone, whereas males of Lepturges angulatus (LeConte) produced (R)- and (S)-fuscumol acetate + geranylacetone. Field experiments confirmed that adult beetles were attracted only by their species-specific blend of the enantiomers of fuscumol and fuscumol acetate, respectively, and not to the individual enantiomers. Because other lamiine species are known to produce single enantiomers or blends of enantiomers of fuscumol and/or fuscumol acetate, synergism between enantiomers, or inhibition by enantiomers, may be a widespread mechanism for forming species-specific pheromone blends in this subfamily.

  14. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    deployed for sand fly control through combination with existing insecticide spraying regimes. Development of a standalone pheromone trap remains a possibility, but such devices may require an additional attractive host odour component to be fully effective. PMID:20222954

  15. Blending synthetic pheromones of cerambycid beetles to develop trap lures that simultaneously attract multiple species.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joseph C H; Mitchell, Robert F; Striman, Becca L; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated attraction of cerambycid beetle species to blends of known cerambycid pheromones to determine whether such blends could be used as effective trap lures for detecting and monitoring multiple species simultaneously. Pheromone-baited traps captured 1,358 cerambycid beetles of which 1,101 (81.1%) belonged to three species in the subfamily Cerambycinae: Neoclytus acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Beetles of these species were significantly attracted to synthetic blends that contained their pheromone components (isomers of 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, 2,3-hexanediol, or both), despite the presence of pheromone components of different species, including other isomers of 2,3-hexanediol, (E/Z)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate, and citral. In some cases, attraction was partially inhibited by the pheromone components of heterospecific species, whereas for N. acuminatus, attraction was completely inhibited when blends contained (2R*,3S*)-hexanediol, the racemic mixture of diastereomers of its pheromone, (2S,3S)-hexanediol. Among the remaining beetles captured were three species in the subfamily Lamiinae: Astyleiopus variegatus (Haldeman), Graphisurus fasciatus (Degeer), and Lepturges angulatus (LeConte). All three lamiine species were previously known to be attracted to (E/Z)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate and were captured in significant numbers by blends containing that compound. Our results suggest that different types of cerambycid pheromones can be combined to create effective multispecies lures for use in surveillance programs that target exotic cerambycid species.

  16. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Logan M

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  17. Pheromones and pheromone receptors are required for proper sexual development in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Severine; Weber, Jan M; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-03-01

    The homothallic, filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora is self-fertile and produces sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) without a mating partner. Even so, S. macrospora transcriptionally expresses two pheromone-precursor genes (ppg1 and ppg2) and two pheromone-receptor genes (pre1 and pre2). The proteins encoded by these genes are similar to alpha-factor-like and a-factor-like pheromones and to G-protein-coupled pheromone receptors of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been suggested that in S. macrospora, PPG1/PRE2 and PPG2/PRE1 form two cognate pheromone-receptor pairs. To investigate their function, we deleted (delta) pheromone-precursor genes (delta ppg1, delta ppg2) and receptor genes (delta pre1, delta pre2) and generated single- as well as double-knockout strains. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body, and ascospore development was seen in the single pheromone-mutant and receptor-mutant strains, respectively. However, double-knockout strains lacking any compatible pheromone-receptor pair (delta pre2/delta ppg2, delta pre1/delta ppg1) and the double-pheromone mutant (delta ppg1/delta ppg2) displayed a drastically reduced number of perithecia and sexual spores, whereas deletion of both receptor genes (delta pre1/delta pre2) completely eliminated fruiting-body and ascospore formation. The results suggest that pheromones and pheromone receptors are required for optimal sexual reproduction of the homothallic S. macrospora.

  18. Modeling Yeast Cell Polarization Induced by Pheromone Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tau-Mu; Chen, Shanqin; Chou, Ching-Shan; Nie, Qing

    2007-07-01

    Yeast cells respond to spatial gradients of mating pheromones by polarizing and projecting up the gradient toward the source. It is thought that they employ a spatial sensing mechanism in which the cell compares the concentration of pheromone at different points on the cell surface and determines the maximum point, where the projection forms. Here we constructed the first spatial mathematical model of the yeast pheromone response that describes the dynamics of the heterotrimeric and Cdc42p G-protein cycles, which are linked in a cascade. Two key performance objectives of this system are (1) amplification—converting a shallow external gradient of ligand to a steep internal gradient of protein components and (2) tracking—following changes in gradient direction. We used simulations to investigate amplification mechanisms that allow tracking. We identified specific strategies for regulating the spatial dynamics of the protein components (i.e. their changing location in the cell) that would enable the cell to achieve both objectives.

  19. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Spatial distribution of pheromone in vineyards treated for mating disruption of the grape vine mothLobesia botrana measured with electroantennograms.

    PubMed

    Karg, G; Sauer, A E

    1995-09-01

    The spatial distribution of the pheromone of the grape vine moth.Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was measured in vineyards treated for mating disruption by using an electroantennogram technique (EAG). Five hundred dispensers per hectare, each containing 0.1 g of the main component of the sex pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate (E7,Z9-12: Ac) were evenly distributed in the experimental vineyards. The EAG amplitudes measured in the experimental plots were transformed into relative pheromone concentrations by means of a calibration curve. Mean relative pheromone concentrations in the center of a treated plot reached 2.31 × 10(-4) relative units. No significant differences in the mean relative pheromone concentrations were found between replicate plots (P > 0.01). The mean relative pheromone concentrations measured within one plot along a transect at 5-m intervals also showed no significant differences between the sites. These results indicate that inside the borders of treated areas the pheromone was evenly distributed. No sites with significantly lower pheromone concentrations, frequently assumed to be the cause for higher trap catches in some areas, were found. However, the mean relative pheromone concentration rapidly declined more than 100-fold outside the border of the treated plot. At 10 m from the treated area, the EAGs showed no significant difference compared to the EAGs recorded in an untreated area. A rapid drop in the mean relative pheromone concentration was also found on a vertical transect through the canopy of the vineyard. Measurements in an untreated control block gave a mean antennal response approximately 1000-fold lower than in a nearby pheromone treated plot. The significance of the variation in the pheromone distribution for the success of the mating-disruption method is discussed.

  1. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  2. Alarm upgrade meets new standards.

    PubMed

    2004-11-01

    When Bedford Hospital NHS Trust decided to replace its ageing and increasingly unreliable fire detection and alarm system, it was looking to achieve more than just compliance with the latest regulations. It wanted a flexible, state-of-the-art system that would not only meet its current requirements but would also be easy to adapt and inexpensive to maintain. The pound 1 million Gent Vigilon fire system now operating across the site has given it just that. The 15-month long project to install the system was completed without a single ward or operating theatre having to be shut down.

  3. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communications or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.

  4. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  5. Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The type of solvent and volume of the solvent used to load pheromone/volatile components onto rubber septa had significant effects on release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ...

  6. TRPC channels in pheromone sensing.

    PubMed

    Kiselyov, Kirill; van Rossum, Damian B; Patterson, Randen L

    2010-01-01

    Pheromone recognition relies on an amplification cascade that is triggered by pheromone binding to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The first step in translation of GPCR activation by pheromones in the vomeronasal organ and main olfactory epithelium (MOE) into a cellular response is the activation of a transient receptor potential (TRP) family member, TRPC2 [Zufall, F., Ukhanov, K., Lucas, P., Liman, E. R., and Leinders-Zufall, T. (2005). Neurobiology of TRPC2: From gene to behavior. Pflugers Arch.451, 61-71; Yildirim, E., and Birnbaumer, L. (2007). TRPC2: Molecular biology and functional importance. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. 53-75]. The members of the canonical (TRPC) family of TRP channels mediate membrane permeability, specifically, Ca(2+) influx into the cytoplasm in response to activation of GPCR and tyrosine kinase receptors by hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors [Nilius, B. (2007). TRP channels in disease. Biochim. Biophys. Acta1772, 805-812; Venkatachalam, K., and Montell, C. (2007). TRP channels. Annu. Rev. Biochem.76, 387-417]. Mechanisms of their activation have been the focus of intense interest during the last decade. The data obtained from studies of TRPC2 have resulted in a better understanding of ion channel physiology and led to novel paradigms in modern cell biology [Lucas, P., Ukhanov, K., Leinders-Zufall, T., and Zufall, F. (2003). A diacylglycerol-gated cation channel in vomeronasal neuron dendrites is impaired in TRPC2 mutant mice: Mechanism of pheromone transduction. Neuron40, 551-561; Stowers, L., Holy, T. E., Meister, M., Dulac, C., and Koentges, G. (2002). Loss of sex discrimination and male-male aggression in mice deficient for TRP2. Science295, 1493-1500; Leypold, B. G., Yu, C. R., Leinders-Zufall, T., Kim, M. M., Zufall, F., and Axel, R. (2002). Altered sexual and social behaviors in trp2 mutant mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA99, 6376-6381]. Although TRPC2 activation by pheromones presents one of the most straightforward

  7. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  8. Field Comparison of Spruce Budworm Pheromone Lures

    Treesearch

    David G. Grimble; David G. Grimble

    1987-01-01

    Four types of spruce budworm pheromone lures were tested to compare field longevity and efficiency. Biolures with three different pheromone release rates and Silk-PVC lures all caught male budworm moths throughout the moth flight period in proportion to the different release rates. Fumigant strips in traps to kill trapped moths were necessary.

  9. North American Species of Cerambycid Beetles in the Genus Neoclytus Share a Common Hydroxyhexanone-Hexanediol Pheromone Structural Motif.

    PubMed

    Ray, Ann M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Mitchell, Robert F; Barbour, James D; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2015-08-01

    Many species of cerambycid beetles in the subfamily Cerambycinae are known to use male-produced pheromones composed of one or a few components such as 3-hydroxyalkan-2-ones and the related 2,3-alkanediols. Here, we show that this pheromone structure is characteristic of the cerambycine genus Neoclytus Thomson, based on laboratory and field studies of 10 species and subspecies. Males of seven taxa produced pheromones composed of (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a single component, and the synthetic pheromone attracted adults of both sexes in field bioassays, including the eastern North American taxa Neoclytus caprea (Say), Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (F.), and Neoclytus scutellaris (Olivier), and the western taxa Neoclytus conjunctus (LeConte), Neoclytus irroratus (LeConte), and Neoclytus modestus modestus Fall. Males of the eastern Neoclytus acuminatus acuminatus (F.) and the western Neoclytus tenuiscriptus Fall produced (2S,3S)-2,3-hexanediol as their dominant or sole pheromone component. Preliminary data also revealed that males of the western Neoclytus balteatus LeConte produced a blend of (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and (2S,3S)-2,3-hexanediol but also (2S,3S)-2,3-octanediol as a minor component. The fact that the hydroxyketone-hexanediol structural motif is consistent among these North American species provides further evidence of the high degree of conservation of pheromone structures among species in the subfamily Cerambycinae.

  10. Pheromone-dependent species recognition mechanisms betweenNeodiprion pinetum andDiprion similis on white pine.

    PubMed

    Olaifa, J I; Matsumura, F; Kikukawa, T; Coppel, H C

    1988-04-01

    The sex pheromones ofNeodiprion pinetum (Norton) andDiprion similis (Hartig) consist of two isomers, 2S,3S,7S and 2S,3R,7R, in either the acetate orpropionate forms of 3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol, respectively. The 2S,3S,7S acetate isomer is utilized byN. pinetum as the major pheromone component and the 2S,3R,7R acetate as a Synergist. ConverselyD. similis utilizes 2S,3R,7R as propionate the major pheromone component and 2S,3S,7S propionate as a Synergist. This was confirmed in the field in both Michigan and Wisconsin. Capillary gas-liquid chromatographie analyses revealed that these two isomers are present in the natural pheromones of both species at the ratios close to those predicted by artificial blending of the two optical isomers.

  11. Structure of Peptide Sex Pheromone Receptor PrgX and PrgX/Pheromone Complexes and Regulation of Conjugation in Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Shi,K.; Brown, C.; Gu, Z.; Kozlowicz, B.; Dunny, G.; Ohlendorf, D.; Earhart, C.

    2005-01-01

    Many bacterial activities, including expression of virulence factors, horizontal genetic transfer, and production of antibiotics, are controlled by intercellular signaling using small molecules. To date, understanding of the molecular mechanisms of peptide-mediated cell-cell signaling has been limited by a dearth of published information about the molecular structures of the signaling components. Here, we present the molecular structure of PrgX, a DNA- and peptide-binding protein that regulates expression of the conjugative transfer genes of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10 in response to an intercellular peptide pheromone signal. Comparison of the structures of PrgX and the PrgX/pheromone complex suggests that pheromone binding destabilizes PrgX tetramers, opening a 70-bp pCF10 DNA loop required for conjugation repression.

  12. Establishing abiotic and biotic factors necessary for reliable male pheromone production and attraction to pheromones by female plum curculios Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a key pest of stone and pome fruit. Though grandisoic acid was identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone for this species, other components likely exist, as have been identified various curculionids. To determ...

  13. Sensing odorants and pheromones with chemosensory receptors.

    PubMed

    Touhara, Kazushige; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2009-01-01

    Olfaction is a critical sensory modality that allows living things to acquire chemical information from the external world. The olfactory system processes two major classes of stimuli: (a) general odorants, small molecules derived from food or the environment that signal the presence of food, fire, or predators, and (b) pheromones, molecules released from individuals of the same species that convey social or sexual cues. Chemosensory receptors are broadly classified, by the ligands that activate them, into odorant or pheromone receptors. Peripheral sensory neurons expressing either odorant or pheromone receptors send signals to separate odor- and pheromone-processing centers in the brain to elicit distinct behavioral and neuroendocrinological outputs. General odorants activate receptors in a combinatorial fashion, whereas pheromones activate narrowly tuned receptors that activate sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the brain. We review recent progress on chemosensory receptor structure, function, and circuitry in vertebrates and invertebrates from the point of view of the molecular biology and physiology of these sensory systems.

  14. Aggregation pheromone of Australian SAP beetle,Carpophilus davidsoni (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    PubMed

    Bartelt, R J; James, D G

    1994-12-01

    A male-produced aggregation pheromone was identified for the Australian sap beetle,Carpophilus davidsoni Dobson (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), by bioassay-guided fractionation of volatiles collected from feeding beetles. The most abundant components were: (2E,4E,6E)-5-ethyl-3-methyl-2,4,6-nonatriene, (3E,5E,7E)-6-ethyl-4-methyl-3,5,7-decatriene, (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene, and (2E,4E,6E,8E)-7-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene. The relative abundance of these components in collections from individual males feeding on artificial diet was 100:7:9:31, respectively. Pheromone production began within several days after males were placed onto diet medium and continued for at least 20 weeks. Peak production was >3 µg total pheromone per male per day. Males in groups of 50-60 emitted less pheromone (the peak level was 0.09 µg per beetle per day), and the emissions from groups contained relatively little tetraene (proportions of the components listed above were 100:7:2:7, respectively). Three additional trienes and one additional tetraene were identified in minor amounts; the entire eight-component male-specific blend is qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar to that of the North American sibling species,C. freemani Dobson. A synthetic blend of the four major components on rubber septa, prepared to emit in the same proportions as from individual males, was highly attractive in the field when synergized with fermenting whole-wheat bread dough. Cross-attraction was observed in the field involving the pheromones ofC. davidsoni, C. hemipterus (L.), andC. mutilatus Erichson. Potential uses of the pheromones in pest management are discussed.

  15. Development of a combined sex pheromone-based monitoring system for Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasoicampidae) and Choristoneura conflictana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Brad C; Roland, Jens; Evenden, Maya L

    2009-04-01

    Sympatric insect species that do not share sex pheromone components but have a common host and overlapping adult flight periods are potential targets for the development of a combined sex pheromone-based monitoring tool. A system using a single synthetic pheromone blend in a single lure to bait a single trap to monitor two pests simultaneously represents a novel approach. In this study, a combined pheromone-based monitoring system was developed for two lepidopterous defoliators of trembling aspen Populus tremuloides Michenaux in western Canada, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasoicampidae) and Choristoneura conflictana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Efficacy and longevity of a lure containing both species' pheromones were tested. Immature stages of each species were sampled to evaluate the ability of pheromone traps baited with the combined lure to predict population density. The combined lure was as attractive to M. disstria and C. conflictana males as were traps baited with each species' pheromone alone. Lure age had no effect on attraction of male C. conflictana to the combined lure but had a negative effect on attraction of M. disstria. The number of male moths captured in traps baited with the combined lure was related to immature counts for both species. Pupal counts of M. disstria and larval counts of C. conflictana provided the best relationships with male captures. The combined lure does not attract M. disstria males in direct proportion to population density, because trap catch was comparatively low at high-density M. disstria sites.

  16. Alarm system management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response.

    PubMed

    Rayo, Michael F; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-04-01

    Although there are powerful incentives for creating alarm management programmes to reduce 'alarm fatigue', they do not provide guidance on how to reduce the likelihood that clinicians will disregard critical alarms. The literature cites numerous phenomena that contribute to alarm fatigue, although many of these, including total rate of alarms, are not supported in the literature as factors that directly impact alarm response. The contributor that is most frequently associated with alarm response is informativeness, which is defined as the proportion of total alarms that successfully conveys a specific event, and the extent to which it is a hazard. Informativeness is low across all healthcare applications, consistently ranging from 1% to 20%. Because of its likelihood and strong evidential support, informativeness should be evaluated before other contributors are considered. Methods for measuring informativeness and alarm response are discussed. Design directions for potential interventions, as well as design alternatives to traditional alarms, are also discussed. With the increased attention and investment in alarm system management that alarm interventions are currently receiving, initiatives that focus on informativeness and the other evidence-based measures identified will allow us to more effectively, efficiently and reliably redirect clinician attention, ultimately improving alarm response. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  18. D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Markely, D.; /Fermilab

    1992-08-03

    The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 bistable inputs, but is expandable to 64 bistable inputs with the purchase of more electronic cards at an approximate cost of $260 per card (8 bistable inputs). The auto dialer also has the capability for analog inputs, analog outputs, and bistable outputs none of which D0 uses or intends to use. The auto dialer can be called on its operating phone line to describe current alarms with the proper password. The Auto Dialer can dial lab extensions, lab pagers, and any number outside the lab. It cannot dial a long distance pager. The auto dialer monitors alarms and alarm conditions via the T1565 PLC, upon an alarm condition it initiates a phone calling sequence of preprogrammed lists with assigned priorities. When someone is reached, the auto dialer describes the individual alarm it is calling for, by a preprogrammed set of words for that individual alarm, spoken by a female voice. The called person then has a chance to acknowledge the alarm over the telephone, if the alarm is not acknowledged the auto dialer will disconnect and call the next person on the list. The auto dialer will continue to cycle through the list until it is acknowledged, reset, or the alarm condition no longer exists.

  19. Anesthesia alarms in context: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Seagull, F J; Sanderson, P M

    2001-01-01

    This paper surveys current work on the design of alarms for anesthesia environments and notes some of the problems arising from the need to interpret alarms in context. Anesthetists' responses to audible alarms in the operating room were observed across four types of surgical procedure (laparoscopic, arthroscopic, cardiac, and intracranial) and across three phases of a procedure (induction, maintenance, and emergence). Alarms were classified as (a) requiring a corrective response, (b) being the intended result of a decision, (c) being ignored as a nuisance alarm, or (d) functioning as a reminder. Results revealed strong effects of the type of procedure and phase of procedure on the number and rate of audible alarms. Some alarms were relatively confined to specific phases; others were seen across phases, and responses differed according to phase. These results were interpreted in light of their significance for the development of effective alarm systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of alarm systems that are more informative and more sensitive to operative context than are current systems.

  20. Synthesis and field evaluation of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae).

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hoddle, Christina D; Zou, Yunfan; McElfresh, J Steven

    2009-08-01

    Field trials of the sex pheromone of an important and potentially invasive pest of avocados, Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae), Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), were carried out in commercial avocado orchards in Guatemala. The results indicated that the pheromone consists of a single component, (9Z)-9,13-tetradecadien-1-ynal; blends of this compound with a range of ratios of the corresponding alcohol and acetate, or with (6Z,9Z)-tricosadiene, which was present in pheromone gland extracts, were equally or less attractive to male moths than the single component. A range of doses from 10 microg to 1 mg were equally attractive, and lures remained attractive for periods of several weeks. Male moth flight activity peaked between 0230 and 0430 hours. Overall, trap catches were relatively low, similar to what was reported for the congeneric Stenoma cecropia Meyrick, suggesting that this species may use other signals in addition to pheromones during mate location. Nevertheless, the pheromone will be useful for detection of S. catenifer, particularly in areas where there is a risk of the moth invading and establishing due to increased commerce in fresh avocados, and for certifying export orchards as being free of S. catenifer.

  1. Biological responsiveness to pheromones provides fundamental and unique insight into olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, P W

    1996-04-01

    When exposed to the odor of conspecifics, most organisms exhibit an adaptive behavioral response, particularly if the individuals are sexually mature. Evidence increasingly suggests that behavioral responsiveness to these odors, which are termed 'pheromones', reflects neuroethological mechanisms associated with olfactory function. Reproductive pheromones, which are the best understood, are commonly used by both invertebrates and vertebrates. In both instances they are generally comprised of mixtures of compounds and behavioral responsiveness to them is largely instinctual, sexually-dimorphic, and attributable to a specialized component(s) of the olfactory system. While pheromonal responsiveness in some systems (e.g. moths) appears highly stereotypic and symptomatic of a relatively simple 'labeled line', behavioral responsiveness of other animals (e.g. rodents) can be modified by experience, suggesting a more complex underlying central mechanism. In any case, our understanding of these fascinating systems is progressing only because of an active dialogue between behavioral and neurological investigations. This review briefly examines how behavioral studies have provided fundamental insight into the neuroethology of olfactory function by drawing comparisons between some of the better understood sex pheromone systems which have been described in heliothine moths, the goldfish, and the pig. Many similarities between invertebrate and vertebrate pheromone systems are noted.

  2. Pheromone regulated production of inositol-(1, 4, 5)-trisphosphate in the mammalian vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Wekesa, K S; Anholt, R R

    1997-08-01

    Social behaviors of most mammals are profoundly affected by chemical signals, pheromones, exchanged between conspecifics. Pheromones interact with dendritic microvilli of bipolar neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). To investigate vomeronasal signal transduction pathways, microvillar membranes from porcine VNO were prepared. Incubation of such membranes from prepubertal females with boar seminal fluid or urine results in an increase in production of inositol-(1, 4, 5)-trisphosphate (IP3). The dose response for IP3 production is biphasic with a GTP-dependent component at low stimulus concentrations and a nonspecific increase in IP3 at higher stimulus concentrations. The GTP-dependent stimulation is mimicked by GTPgammaS and blocked by GDPbetaS. Furthermore, the GTP-dependent component of the stimulation of IP3 production is sex specific and tissue dependent. Studies with monospecific antibodies reveal a G alpha(q/11)-related protein in vomeronasal neurons, concentrated at their microvilli. Our observations indicate that pheromones in boar secretions act on vomeronasal neurons in the female VNO via a receptor mediated, G protein-dependent increase in IP3. These observations set the stage for further investigations on the regulation of stimulus-excitation coupling in vomeronasal neurons. The pheromone-induced IP3 response also provides an assay for future purification of mammalian reproductive pheromones.

  3. Differential Field Responses of the Little Fire Ants, Wasmannia auropunctata(Roger), to Alarm Pheromone Enantiomers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The little fire ant,Wasmannia auropunctata(Roger)(Hymenoptera: Formicidae),is an invasive ant with negative impacts on both biodiversity and agriculture throughout the tropics and subtropics. Since the discovery of W.auropunctata in Puna in 1999,it has established across the eastern side of Hawaii I...

  4. Alarm Fatigue: Use of an Evidence-Based Alarm Management Strategy.

    PubMed

    Turmell, Jacob W; Coke, Lola; Catinella, Rachel; Hosford, Tracy; Majeski, Amy

    The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of an evidence-based alarm management strategy on patient safety. An alarm management program reduced alarms up to 30%. Evaluation of patients on continuous cardiac monitoring showed a 3.5% decrease in census. This alarm management strategy has the potential to save $136 500 and 841 hours of registered nurses' time per year. No patient harm occurred during the 2-year project.

  5. Editorial: False Alarm Reduction in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 Physio-Net/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1,250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this Challenge, the design of the Challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  6. Agonists and antagonists of antennal responses of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) to the pheromone (+)-disparlure and other odorants.

    PubMed

    Plettner, Erika; Gries, Regine

    2010-03-24

    Insects use the sense of smell to guide many behaviors that are important for their survival. The gypsy moth uses a pheromone to bring females and males together over long distances. Male moth antennae are equipped with innervated sensory hairs that selectively respond to pheromone components and other odors. Host plant odors, in particular, are detected by moths and sometimes cause an enhancement of the antennal and behavioral responses of the moths to their pheromone. Inspired by naturally occurring agonists and antagonists of insect pheromone responses, we have screened, by electroantennogram (EAG) recordings, a collection of compound sets and of individual compounds. We have detected interference of some compounds with the EAG responses of male gypsy moth antennae to the pheromone. We describe three activities: (1) short-term inhibition or enhancement of mixed compound + pheromone plumes, (2) long-term inhibition of pure pheromone plumes following a mixed compound + pheromone plume, and (3) inhibition of the recovery phase of mixed compound + pheromone plumes. Long-term inhibition was robust, decayed within 30 s, and correlated with the inhibition of recovery; for both activities clear structure-activity patterns were detected. The commercial repellent N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET) was included for comparison. The most active and reproducible short-term inhibitor was a mixture of 1-allyl-2,4-dimethoxybenzene and 2-allyl-1,3-dimethoxybenzene. The most active long-term inhibitors were a set of 1-alkoxy-4-propoxybenzenes, DEET, and 1-ethoxy-4-propoxybenzene. DEET was more specific in the olfactory responses it inhibited than 1-ethoxy-4-propoxybenzene, and DEET did not inhibit recovery, whereas 1-ethoxy-4-propoxybenzene did. Target sites for the three activities are discussed.

  7. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    PubMed Central

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly-moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is

  8. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    PubMed

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths"), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-p