Science.gov

Sample records for alarm rate support

  1. Building Ultra-Low False Alarm Rate Support Vector Classifier Ensembles Using Random Subspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B Y; Lemmond, T D; Hanley, W G

    2008-10-06

    This paper presents the Cost-Sensitive Random Subspace Support Vector Classifier (CS-RS-SVC), a new learning algorithm that combines random subspace sampling and bagging with Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Classifiers to more effectively address detection applications burdened by unequal misclassification requirements. When compared to its conventional, non-cost-sensitive counterpart on a two-class signal detection application, random subspace sampling is shown to very effectively leverage the additional flexibility offered by the Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Classifier, yielding a more than four-fold increase in the detection rate at a false alarm rate (FAR) of zero. Moreover, the CS-RS-SVC is shown to be fairly robust to constraints on the feature subspace dimensionality, enabling reductions in computation time of up to 82% with minimal performance degradation.

  2. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  3. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  4. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  5. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  6. SETI Pulse Detection Algorithm: Analysis of False-alarm Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, B. K.

    1983-01-01

    Some earlier work by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Science Working Group (SWG) on the derivation of spectrum analyzer thresholds for a pulse detection algorithm based on an analysis of false alarm rates is extended. The algorithm previously analyzed was intended to detect a finite sequence of i periodically spaced pulses that did not necessarily occupy the entire observation interval. This algorithm would recognize the presence of such a signal only if all i-received pulse powers exceeded a threshold T(i): these thresholds were selected to achieve a desired false alarm rate, independent of i. To simplify the analysis, it was assumed that the pulses were synchronous with the spectrum sample times. This analysis extends the earlier effort to include infinite and/or asynchronous pulse trains. Furthermore, to decrease the possibility of missing an extraterrestrial intelligence signal, the algorithm was modified to detect a pulse train even if some of the received pulse powers fall below the threshold. The analysis employs geometrical arguments that make it conceptually easy to incorporate boundary conditions imposed on the derivation of the false alarm rates. While the exact results can be somewhat complex, simple closed form approximations are derived that produce a negligible loss of accuracy.

  7. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm). 870.2300 Section 870.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular...

  8. Heart rate variability during "alarm stage" of burnout syndrome in emergency doctors.

    PubMed

    Kotov, A V; Revina, N E

    2012-09-01

    The parameters of heart rate variations were examined in emergency care doctors that demonstrated the initial signs of defensive psychological burnout syndrome related to their professional activity. These parameters were compared within each of two groups with different individual typological features. The differences in the heart rate variability parameters were revealed between the examinees that were at the compensation or alarm stages of the burnout syndrome.

  9. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the "threat" set of spectra

  10. A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.

    2009-04-01

    application as CiscoWorks, HP OpenView NNM and Operation, BMC Patrol, etc. Analysis of text of an alarm can detect some keywords that allow to classify the particular event. The inference rules were developed by means an analysis about news regard real emergency found by web reaserches. We have seen that often a kind of emergency is characterized by more keyword. Keywords are not uniquely associated with a specific emergency, but they can be shared by different types of emergencies (such as. keyword "landslide" can be associated both emergency "landslide" and emergency "Flood"). However, the identification of two or more keywords associated with a particular type of emergency identified in most cases the correct type of emergency. So, for example, if text contains words as "water", "flood", "overflowing", "landslide" o other words belonging to the set of defined keywords or words that have some root of keywords, the system "decides" that this alarm belongs to specific typology, in this case "flood typology". The system has the memory of this information, so if a new alarm is reported and belongs to one of the typology already identified, it proceeds with the comparison of coordinates. The comparison between the centers of the alarms allows to see if they describe an area inscribed in an ideal circle that has centered on the first alarm and radius defined by the typology above mentioned. If this happens the system CI6 creates an emergency that has centered on the centre of that area and typology equal to that of the alarms. It follows that an emergency is represented by at least two alarms. Thus, the system suggests to manager (CI6's user) the possibility that most alarms can concern same events and makes a classification of this event. It is important to stress that CI6 is a system of decision support, hence also this service is limited to providing advice to the user to facilitate his task, leaving him the decision to accept it or not. REFERENCES SEC (Simple Event Correlator

  11. Detection of exudates in fundus imagery using a constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Manish; Kapoor, Elina

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults in the United States. The presence of exudates in fundus imagery is the early sign of diabetic retinopathy so detection of these lesions is essential in preventing further ocular damage. In this paper we present a novel technique to automatically detect exudates in fundus imagery that is robust against spatial and temporal variations of background noise. The detection threshold is adjusted dynamically, based on the local noise statics around the pixel under test in order to maintain a pre-determined, constant false alarm rate (CFAR). The CFAR detector is often used to detect bright targets in radar imagery where the background clutter can vary considerably from scene to scene and with angle to the scene. Similarly, the CFAR detector addresses the challenge of detecting exudate lesions in RGB and multispectral fundus imagery where the background clutter often exhibits variations in brightness and texture. These variations present a challenge to common, global thresholding detection algorithms and other methods. Performance of the CFAR algorithm is tested against a publicly available, annotated, diabetic retinopathy database and preliminary testing suggests that performance of the CFAR detector proves to be superior to techniques such as Otsu thresholding.

  12. The d-Prime directive: Assessing costs and benefits in recognition by dissociating mixed-list false alarm rates.

    PubMed

    Forrin, Noah D; Groot, Brianna; MacLeod, Colin M

    2016-07-01

    It can be difficult to judge the effectiveness of encoding techniques in a within-subject design. Consider the production effect-the finding that words read aloud are better remembered than words read silently. In the absence of a baseline, a within-subject production effect in a mixed study list could reflect a benefit of reading aloud, a cost of reading silently, or both. To help interpret within-subject data, memory researchers have compared within-subject and between-subjects designs, with the between-subjects (i.e., pure list) conditions serving as baselines against which the within-subject (i.e., mixed-list) conditions are compared. In the present article, the authors highlight a shortcoming of using this comparison to assess costs and benefits in recognition. Unlike between-subjects experiments where separate false alarm rates are obtained for each condition, the typical within-subject experiment yields a collapsed false alarm rate, which, the authors argue, can potentially bias calculations of memory discrimination (d'). Across 3 experiments that used production as the encoding manipulation, they used a typical mixed-list versus pure-list design (Experiment 1) and then made modifications to this design (Experiments 2 and 3) that yielded separate mixed-list false alarm rates. The results of the latter 2 experiments demonstrated that words that are read aloud in a mixed list have an overall memorial benefit over words that are read aloud in a pure list-both in terms of increased hits and reduced false alarms. The authors frame these results in terms of the distinctiveness heuristic. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26820499

  13. The d-Prime directive: Assessing costs and benefits in recognition by dissociating mixed-list false alarm rates.

    PubMed

    Forrin, Noah D; Groot, Brianna; MacLeod, Colin M

    2016-07-01

    It can be difficult to judge the effectiveness of encoding techniques in a within-subject design. Consider the production effect-the finding that words read aloud are better remembered than words read silently. In the absence of a baseline, a within-subject production effect in a mixed study list could reflect a benefit of reading aloud, a cost of reading silently, or both. To help interpret within-subject data, memory researchers have compared within-subject and between-subjects designs, with the between-subjects (i.e., pure list) conditions serving as baselines against which the within-subject (i.e., mixed-list) conditions are compared. In the present article, the authors highlight a shortcoming of using this comparison to assess costs and benefits in recognition. Unlike between-subjects experiments where separate false alarm rates are obtained for each condition, the typical within-subject experiment yields a collapsed false alarm rate, which, the authors argue, can potentially bias calculations of memory discrimination (d'). Across 3 experiments that used production as the encoding manipulation, they used a typical mixed-list versus pure-list design (Experiment 1) and then made modifications to this design (Experiments 2 and 3) that yielded separate mixed-list false alarm rates. The results of the latter 2 experiments demonstrated that words that are read aloud in a mixed list have an overall memorial benefit over words that are read aloud in a pure list-both in terms of increased hits and reduced false alarms. The authors frame these results in terms of the distinctiveness heuristic. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Alarms Philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    White, Karen S; Kasemir, Kay

    2009-01-01

    An effective alarm system consists of a mechanism to monitor control points and generate alarm notifications, tools for operators to view, hear, acknowledge and handle alarms and a good configuration. Despite the availability of numerous fully featured tools, accelerator alarm systems continue to be disappointing to operations, frequently to the point of alarms being permanently silenced or totally ignored. This is often due to configurations that produce an excessive number of alarms or fail to communicate the required operator response. Most accelerator controls systems do a good job of monitoring specified points and generating notifications when parameters exceed predefined limits. In some cases, improved tools can help, but more often, poor configuration is the root cause of ineffective alarm systems. A SNS, we have invested considerable effort in generating appropriate configurations using a rigorous set of rules based on best practices in the industrial process controls community. This paper will discuss our alarm configuration philosophy and operator response to our new system.

  15. Bed exit alarms.

    PubMed

    2004-09-01

    Bed-exit alarms alert caregivers that a patient who should not get out of bed unassisted is doing so. These alarms can help reduce the likelihood of falls and can promote speedy assistance to patients who have already fallen. But as we described in our May 2004 Guidance Article on bed-exit alarms, they don't themselves prevent falls. They are only effective if used as part of an overall fall-prevention program and with a clear understanding of their limitations. This Evaluation examines the effectiveness of 16 bed-exit alarms from seven suppliers. Our ratings focus primarily on each product's reliability in detecting bed-exit events and alerting caregivers, its ability to minimize nuisance alarms (alarms that sound even though the patient isn't leaving the bed or that sound while a caregiver is helping the patient to leave the bed), and its resistance to deliberate or inadvertent tampering. Twelve of the products use pressure-sensor-activated alarms (mainly sensor pads placed on or under the mattress); three use a cord that can attach to the patient's garment, alarming if the cord is pulled loose from the control unit; and one is a position-sensitive alarm attached to a leg cuff. All the products reliably detect attempted or successful bed exits. But they vary greatly in how effectively they alert staff, minimize nuisance alarms, and resist tampering. Ease of use and battery performance also vary for many units. Of the pressure-sensor units, three are rated Preferred. Those units meet most of our criteria and have no significant disadvantages. Five of the other pressure-sensor products are Acceptable, and the remaining four are Not Recommended. All three cord-activated alarms are rated Acceptable, as is the patient-worn alarm.

  16. Alarming attrition rates among HIV-infected individuals in pre-antiretroviral therapy care in Myanmar, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Oo, Myo Minn; Gupta, Vivek; Aung, Thet Ko; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Oo, Htun Nyunt; Kumar, Ajay MV

    2016-01-01

    Background High retention rates have been documented among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Myanmar. However, there is no information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in care before initiation of ART (pre-ART care). We assessed attrition (loss-to-follow-up [LTFU] and death) rates among HIV-infected individuals in pre-ART care and their associated factors over a 4-year period. Design In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted routinely collected data of HIV-infected adults (>15 years old) entering pre-ART care (June 2011–June 2014) as part of an Integrated HIV Care (IHC) programme, Myanmar. Attrition rates per 100 person-years and cumulative incidence of attrition were calculated. Factors associated with attrition were examined by calculating hazard ratios (HRs). Results Of 18,037 HIV-infected adults enrolled in the IHC programme, 11,464 (63%) entered pre-ART care (60% men, mean age 37 years, median cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count 160 cells/µL). Of the 11,464 eligible participants, 3,712 (32%) underwent attrition of which 43% were due to deaths and 57% were due to LTFU. The attrition rate was 78 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 75–80). The cumulative incidence of attrition was 70% at the end of a 4-year follow-up, of which nearly 90% occurred in the first 6 months. Male sex (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4–1.6), WHO clinical Stage 3 and 4, CD4 count <200 cells/µL, abnormal BMI, and anaemia were statistically significant predictors of attrition. Conclusions Pre-ART care attrition among persons living with HIV in Myanmar was alarmingly high – with most attrition occurring within the first 6 months. Strategies aimed at improving early HIV diagnosis and initiation of ART are needed. Suggestions include comprehensive nutrition support and intensified monitoring to prevent pre-ART care attrition by tracking patients who do not return for pre-ART care appointments. It is high time that Myanmar moves towards a

  17. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory.

    PubMed

    Nikouei Mahani, Mohammad-Ali; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects' performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode. PMID:27314235

  18. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects’ performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode. PMID:27314235

  19. Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, K.M.

    1998-08-01

    The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

  20. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  1. Practical alarm filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, M.; Corsberg, D. )

    1994-02-01

    An expert system-based alarm filtering method is described which prioritizes and reduces the number of alarms facing an operator. This patented alarm filtering methodology was originally developed and implemented in a pressurized water reactor, and subsequently in a chemical processing facility. Both applications were in LISP and both were successful. In the chemical processing facility, for instance, alarm filtering reduced the quantity of alarm messages by 90%. 6 figs.

  2. Remote Monitor Alarm System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

  3. ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

  4. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  5. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P.

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  6. Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

  7. Understanding Clinical Alarm Safety.

    PubMed

    Lukasewicz, Carol L; Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Patient safety organizations and health care accreditation agencies recognize the significance of clinical alarm hazards. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, a nonprofit organization focused on development and use of safe and effective medical equipment, identifies alarm management as a major issue for health care organizations. ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization that researches approaches for improving patient safety and quality of care, identifies alarm hazards as the most significant of the "Top Ten Health Technology Hazards" for 2014. A new Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal focusing on clinical alarm safety contains new requirements for accredited hospitals to be fully implemented by 2016. Through a fictional unfolding case study, this article reviews selected contributing factors to clinical alarm hazards present in inpatient, high-acuity settings. Understanding these factors improves contributions by nurses to clinical alarm safety practice.

  8. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  9. False alarm reduction in critical care.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this challenge, the design of the challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  10. The acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sarah J; Aisbett, Brad; Tait, Jamie L; Turner, Anne I; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night. Sixteen healthy males aged 25 ± 4 years (mean ± SD) spent four consecutive days and nights in a sleep laboratory. This research used a within-participants design with repeated measures for time, alarm condition (alarm or control), and trial (day or night). When an alarm sounded, participants were required to mobilize immediately. Saliva samples for cortisol analysis were collected 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min after mobilization, and at corresponding times in control conditions. Heart rate was measured continuously throughout the study. Heart rate was higher in the day (F20,442 = 9.140, P < 0.001) and night (F23,459 = 8.356, P < 0.001) alarm conditions compared to the respective control conditions. There was no difference in saliva cortisol between day alarm and day control conditions. Cortisol was higher (F6,183 = 2.450, P < 0.001) following the night alarm and mobilization compared to the night control condition. The magnitude of difference in cortisol between night control and night alarm conditions was greater (F6,174 = 4.071, P < 0.001) than the magnitude of difference between the day control and day alarm conditions. The augmented heart rate response to the day and night alarms supports previous observations in field settings. Variations in the cortisol responses between conditions across the day and night may relate to differences in participants’ ability to interpret the alarm when sleeping versus when awake. PMID:27157688

  11. The acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sarah J; Aisbett, Brad; Tait, Jamie L; Turner, Anne I; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night. Sixteen healthy males aged 25 ± 4 years (mean ± SD) spent four consecutive days and nights in a sleep laboratory. This research used a within-participants design with repeated measures for time, alarm condition (alarm or control), and trial (day or night). When an alarm sounded, participants were required to mobilize immediately. Saliva samples for cortisol analysis were collected 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min after mobilization, and at corresponding times in control conditions. Heart rate was measured continuously throughout the study. Heart rate was higher in the day (F(20,442) = 9.140, P < 0.001) and night (F(23,459) = 8.356, P < 0.001) alarm conditions compared to the respective control conditions. There was no difference in saliva cortisol between day alarm and day control conditions. Cortisol was higher (F(6,183) = 2.450, P < 0.001) following the night alarm and mobilization compared to the night control condition. The magnitude of difference in cortisol between night control and night alarm conditions was greater (F(6,174) = 4.071, P < 0.001) than the magnitude of difference between the day control and day alarm conditions. The augmented heart rate response to the day and night alarms supports previous observations in field settings. Variations in the cortisol responses between conditions across the day and night may relate to differences in participants' ability to interpret the alarm when sleeping versus when awake.

  12. Smart smoke alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  13. Alarm Notification System

    1995-03-12

    AN/EMS, the Alarm Notification Energy Management System, is used to monitor digital sensors in PETC buildings and to notify the safety/security operator by both a video and an audio system when a possibly hazardous condition arises.

  14. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  15. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Markman

    2001-08-06

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of

  16. Smoke alarms in the home: what every physician should know.

    PubMed

    Sultan, M A; Feldman, W M

    1985-12-15

    Primary care physicians interested in health education and accident prevention should be knowledgeable about smoke alarms (smoke detectors with built-in alarms). Either ionization or photoelectric smoke alarms can help save lives if they are properly installed and maintained. The number, site and maintenance of smoke alarms in the home and the steps a person should take in the event of a fire are discussed. Considering the rates of death, disability and disfigurement associated with residential fires, early warning devices such as smoke alarms make sense. PMID:4063931

  17. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test. PMID:21747329

  18. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ok Min; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Methods Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. One bed out of 56 ICU beds was randomly assigned to each observation time unit. Results Overall 2,184 clinical alarms were counted for 48 hours of observation, and 45.5 clinical alarms occurred per hour per subject. Of these, 1,394 alarms (63.8%) were categorized as false alarms. The alarm fatigue score was 24.3 ± 4.0 out of 35. The highest scoring item was "always get bothered due to clinical alarms". The highest scoring item in obstacles was "frequent false alarms, which lead to reduced attention or response to alarms". Conclusions Nurses reported that they felt some fatigue due to clinical alarms, and false alarms were also obstacles to proper management. An appropriate hospital policy should be developed to reduce false alarms and nurses' alarm fatigue. PMID:26893950

  19. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  20. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

  1. Alarming increase in refugees.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  2. Control of ELT false alarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

  3. Do smoke alarms still function a year after installation? A follow-up of the get-alarmed campaign.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corleen J; Jones, Alma R; Davis, Mary Kidd; Caplan, Lee S

    2004-04-01

    The Get-Alarmed Campaign Follow-up Study was the second phase of an initiative to assure that homes of families at high risk of fire-related injury and death had functioning smoke alarms. Smoke alarms and/or batteries were installed in over 94 percent of 454 participating households in Schley and Henry Counties, Georgia, in 2000. Before the study began, 60.6 percent of these homes had smoke alarms, but only 36.6 percent had functioning smoke alarms. The follow-up study was designed to determine the experiences of participants with smoke alarms and whether participating households had functioning smoke alarms a year after baseline. Participants were phoned or visited and asked about their experiences with smoke alarms since the baseline study. During the interview, they were asked to test a smoke alarm, the results of which could frequently be heard. Respondents included 237 from Schley County and 113 from Henry County, for an overall 77.1 percent response rate. While 80.3 percent of respondents had a smoke alarm that was heard by the interviewer when it was tested, 6.6 percent reported that their smoke alarm had been disabled or had a dead battery. Over 75 percent of respondents had smoke alarm sound offs in the prior year, predominately due to cooking smoke, but only about 5 percent reported removing the battery or otherwise disabling it to prevent sound offs. However, the measures taken may render a household unprotected at a critical time. Efforts to increase protection with smoke alarms should be augmented with programs to insure adequate and timely testing and maintenance of existing smoke alarms. PMID:15065735

  4. IMPEDANCE ALARM SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Cowen, R.G.

    1959-09-29

    A description is given of electric protective systems and burglar alarm systems of the capacitance type in which the approach of an intruder at a place to be protected varies the capacitance in an electric circuit and the change is thereafter communicated to a remote point to actuate an alarm. According to the invention, an astable transitor multi-vibrator has the amplitude at its output voltage controlled by a change in the sensing capacitance. The sensing capacitance is effectively connected between collector and base of one stage of the multivibrator circuit through the detector-to-monitor line. The output of the detector is a small d-c voltage across the detector-to-monitor line. This d- c voltage is amplified and monitored at the other end of the line, where an appropriate alarm is actuated if a sudden change in the voltage occurs. The present system has a high degree of sensitivity and is very difficult to defeat by known techniques.

  5. Rate Support Grant and the Education Service: An Extended Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Alexander

    1977-01-01

    Education in Great Britain has been receiving a diminishing share of the financial cake since the inception of the Rate Support Grant system and, particularly, since the introduction of post-Bains Local Authority structures. (Author/IRT)

  6. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Logan M

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  7. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  8. Bed-exit alarm effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Capezuti, Elizabeth; Brush, Barbara L.; Lane, Stephen; Rabinowitz, Hannah U.; Secic, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the accuracy of two types of bed-exit alarms to detect bed-exiting body movements: pressure-sensitive and a pressure sensitive combined with infrared beam detectors (dual sensor system). We also evaluated the occurrence of nuisance alarms, or alarms that are activated when a participant does not attempt to get out of bed. Fourteen nursing home residents were directly observed for a total of 256 nights or 1,636.5 hours; an average of 18.3 ± 22.3 (± S.D.) nights/participant for an average of 6.4 ± 1.2 hours/night. After adjusting for body movements via repeated measures, Poisson regression modeling, the least squares adjusted means show a marginally significant difference between the type of alarm groups on the number of true positives (mean/S.E.M. = 0.086/1.617) for pressure-sensitive vs. dual sensor alarm (0.593/1.238; p = 0.0599) indicating that the dual sensor alarm may have a higher number of true positives. While the dual sensor bed-exit alarm was more accurate than the pressure sensitive alarm in identifying bed-exiting body movements and reducing the incidence of false alarms, false alarms were not eliminated altogether. Alarms are not a substitute for staff; adequate staff availability is still necessary when residents need or wish to exit bed. PMID:18508138

  9. Bed-exit alarm effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Capezuti, Elizabeth; Brush, Barbara L; Lane, Stephen; Rabinowitz, Hannah U; Secic, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the accuracy of two types of bed-exit alarms to detect bed-exiting body movements: pressure-sensitive and a pressure-sensitive combined with infrared (IR) beam detectors (dual sensor system). We also evaluated the occurrence of nuisance alarms, or alarms that are activated when a participant does not attempt to get out of bed. Fourteen nursing home residents were directly observed for a total of 256 nights or 1636.5h; an average of 18.3+/-22.3 (+/-S.D.) nights/participant for an average of 6.4+/-1.2 h/night. After adjusting for body movements via repeated measures, Poisson regression modeling, the least squares adjusted means (LSM) show a marginally significant difference between the type of alarm groups on the number of true positives (NTP) (mean/S.E.M.=0.086/1.617) for pressure-sensitive versus dual sensor alarm (0.593/1.238; p=0.0599) indicating that the dual sensor alarm may have a higher NTP. While the dual sensor bed-exit alarm was more accurate than the pressure-sensitive alarm in identifying bed-exiting body movements and reducing the incidence of false alarms, false alarms were not eliminated altogether. Alarms are not a substitute for staff; adequate staff availability is still necessary when residents need or wish to exit bed.

  10. Hypo- and Hyperglycemic Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Howsmon, Daniel; Bequette, B. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery that insulin regulates blood glucose by Banting and Best in 1922, the symptoms and risks associated with hypoglycemia became widely recognized. This article reviews devices to warn individuals of impending hypo- and hyperglycemia; biosignals used by these devices include electroencephalography, electrocardiography, skin galvanic resistance, diabetes alert dogs, and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). While systems based on other technology are increasing in performance and decreasing in size, CGM technology remains the best method for both reactive and predictive alarming of hypo- or hyperglycemia. PMID:25931581

  11. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  12. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1987-04-13

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

  13. Alarm timing, trust and driver expectation for forward collision warning systems.

    PubMed

    Abe, Genya; Richardson, John

    2006-09-01

    In order to improve road safety, automobile manufacturers are now developing Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS). However, there has been insufficient consideration of how drivers may respond to FCWS. This driving simulator study focused on alarm timing and its impact on driver response to alarm. The experimental investigation considered driver perception of alarm timings and its influence on trust at three driving speeds (40, 60 and 70 mile/h) and two time headways (1.7 and 2.2 s). The results showed that alarm effectiveness varied in response to driving conditions. Alarm promptness had a greater influence on ratings of trust than improvements in braking performance enabled by the alarm system. Moreover, alarms which were presented after braking actions had been initiated were viewed as late alarms. It is concluded that drivers typically expect alarms to be presented before they initiate braking actions and when this does not happen driver trust in the system is substantially decreased. PMID:16364231

  14. Alarm timing, trust and driver expectation for forward collision warning systems.

    PubMed

    Abe, Genya; Richardson, John

    2006-09-01

    In order to improve road safety, automobile manufacturers are now developing Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS). However, there has been insufficient consideration of how drivers may respond to FCWS. This driving simulator study focused on alarm timing and its impact on driver response to alarm. The experimental investigation considered driver perception of alarm timings and its influence on trust at three driving speeds (40, 60 and 70 mile/h) and two time headways (1.7 and 2.2 s). The results showed that alarm effectiveness varied in response to driving conditions. Alarm promptness had a greater influence on ratings of trust than improvements in braking performance enabled by the alarm system. Moreover, alarms which were presented after braking actions had been initiated were viewed as late alarms. It is concluded that drivers typically expect alarms to be presented before they initiate braking actions and when this does not happen driver trust in the system is substantially decreased.

  15. Aviation Support Equipment Technician E 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is designed as a self study text for use by Navy and Naval Reserve personnel preparing to meet the professional qualifications for advancement to Petty Officer Third Class and Petty Officer Second Class in the rating of Aviation Support Equipment (ASE) Technician E (Electrical). The first chapter provides information on the…

  16. Alarm management system

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, D.D.; Elm, W.C.; Lipner, M.H.; Butterworth, G.E.; Easter, J.R.

    1989-03-28

    An alarm management system is described, comprising: a light water pressurized nuclear power plant; sensors coupled to the plant indicating the state of the plant; a sensor signal processor, operatively connected to the sensors, for producing state signals indicating the state of the sensors monitoring the power plant from the sensor signals and for combining the state signals using rule based algorithms to produce abnormality indication signals; a message processor, operatively connected to the sensor signal processor for receiving the abnormality indication signals; a spatially dedicated parallel display for each function, operatively connected to the message processor, for displaying the portion of the messages simultaneously; and a serial display, operatively connected to the message processor, for displaying the message in the queues in priority order within category within function upon request, the message processor outputting messages from the queue to the parallel display as display space becomes available on the parallel display due to an abnormality being resolved.

  17. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  18. Characterization of infiltration rates from landfills: supporting groundwater modeling efforts.

    PubMed

    Moo-Young, Horace; Johnson, Barnes; Johnson, Ann; Carson, David; Lew, Christine; Liu, Salley; Hancocks, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to characterize infiltration rates from landfill liners to support groundwater modeling efforts. The focus of this investigation was on collecting studies that describe the performance of liners 'as installed' or 'as operated'. This document reviews the state of the science and practice on the infiltration rate through compacted clay liner (CCL) for 149 sites and geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) for 1 site. In addition, it reviews the leakage rate through geomembrane (GM) liners and composite liners for 259 sites. For compacted clay liners (CCL), there was limited information on infiltration rates (i.e., only 9 sites reported infiltration rates.), thus, it was difficult to develop a national distribution. The field hydraulic conductivities for natural clay liners range from 1 x 10(-9) cm s(-1) to 1 x 10(-4) cm s(-1), with an average of 6.5 x 10(-8) cm s(-1). There was limited information on geosynthetic clay liner. For composite lined and geomembrane systems, the leak detection system flow rates were utilized. The average monthly flow rate for composite liners ranged from 0-32 lphd for geomembrane and GCL systems to 0 to 1410 lphd for geomembrane and CCL systems. The increased infiltration for the geomembrane and CCL system may be attributed to consolidation water from the clay.

  19. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, D. L.; Tri, T. O.; Packham, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  20. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility.

    PubMed

    Henninger, D L; Tri, T O; Packham, N J

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  1. Predators on Campus: Examining the Alarming Rate of Sexual Assaults on U.S. College and University Campuses and Why Prevention Communication Messages Are Failing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    An abundance of surveys and news reports have clearly indicated that sexual assaults and other violent crimes are prevalent on U.S. college and university campuses. What isn't as well known is how little is being done by most institutions to try and reduce this fact. Poor awareness of the reality of crime rates, combined with widespread policies…

  2. Gas exchange rates of potato stands for bioregenerative life support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L.; Yorio, Neil C.; Sager, John C.; Knott, William M.

    Plants can provide a means for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) while generating oxygen (O2) and clean water for life support systems in space. To study this, 20 m2 stands of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants were grown in a large (113 m3 vol.), atmospherically closed chamber. Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 by the stands was detected about 10 DAP (days after planting), after which photosynthetic rates rose rapidly as stand ground cover and total light interception increased. Photosynthetic rates peaked ca. 50 DAP near 45 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 under 865 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF (average photosynthetic photon flux), and near 35 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 under 655 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF. Short term changes in PPF caused a linear response in stand photosynthetic rates up to 1100 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF, with a light compensation point of 185 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF. Comparisons of stand photosynthetic rates at different CO2 concentrations showed a classic C3 response, with saturation occurring near 1200 μmol mol-1 CO2 and compensation near 100 μmol mol-1 CO2. In one study, the photoperiod was changed from 12 h light/12 h dark to continuous light at 58 DAP. This caused a decrease in net photosynthetic rates within 48 h and eventual damage (scorching) of upper canopy leaves, suggesting the abrupt change stressed the plants and/or caused feedback effects on photosynthesis. Dark period (night) respiration rates increased during early growth as standing biomass increased and peaked near 9 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 ca. 50 DAP, after which rates declined gradually with age. Stand transpiration showed a rapid rise with canopy ground cover and peaked ca. 50 DAP near 8.9 L m-2 d-1 under 860 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF and near 6.3 L m-2 d-1 under 650 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF. Based on the best photosynthetic rates from these studies, approximately 25 m2 of potato plants under continuous cultivation would be required to support the CO2 removal and O2 requirements for one person.

  3. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  4. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in..., and oil losses and shortages; maintenance, including salaries and wages, supplies and...

  5. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in..., and oil losses and shortages; maintenance, including salaries and wages, supplies and...

  6. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in..., and oil losses and shortages; maintenance, including salaries and wages, supplies and...

  7. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in..., and oil losses and shortages; maintenance, including salaries and wages, supplies and...

  8. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in..., and oil losses and shortages; maintenance, including salaries and wages, supplies and...

  9. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  10. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1988-04-22

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

  11. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1988-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  12. Reducing false intracranial pressure alarms using morphological waveform features.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates, a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern recognition methods. Models are trained in a supervised fashion from a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarm episodes extracted from 108 neurosurgical patients. The comparative analysis provided between spectral regression, kernel spectral regression, and support vector machines indicates the significant improvement of the proposed framework in detecting false ICP alarms in comparison to a threshold-based technique that is conventionally used. Another contribution of this work is to exploit an adaptive discretization to reduce the dimensionality of the input features. The resulting features lead to a decrease of 30% of false ICP alarms without compromising sensitivity.

  13. Optimized support vector regression for drilling rate of penetration estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghi, Asadollah; Ansari, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Mahsa

    2015-12-01

    In the petroleum industry, drilling optimization involves the selection of operating conditions for achieving the desired depth with the minimum expenditure while requirements of personal safety, environment protection, adequate information of penetrated formations and productivity are fulfilled. Since drilling optimization is highly dependent on the rate of penetration (ROP), estimation of this parameter is of great importance during well planning. In this research, a novel approach called `optimized support vector regression' is employed for making a formulation between input variables and ROP. Algorithms used for optimizing the support vector regression are the genetic algorithm (GA) and the cuckoo search algorithm (CS). Optimization implementation improved the support vector regression performance by virtue of selecting proper values for its parameters. In order to evaluate the ability of optimization algorithms in enhancing SVR performance, their results were compared to the hybrid of pattern search and grid search (HPG) which is conventionally employed for optimizing SVR. The results demonstrated that the CS algorithm achieved further improvement on prediction accuracy of SVR compared to the GA and HPG as well. Moreover, the predictive model derived from back propagation neural network (BPNN), which is the traditional approach for estimating ROP, is selected for comparisons with CSSVR. The comparative results revealed the superiority of CSSVR. This study inferred that CSSVR is a viable option for precise estimation of ROP.

  14. Empirically-supported and non-empirically supported therapies for bulimia nervosa: retrospective patient ratings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirically supported therapies for bulimia nervosa include cognitive behaviour therapy and interpersonal therapy. Whilst these treatments have been shown to be effective in multiple randomised controlled trials, little research has investigated how they are perceived by patients who receive them. This study investigated whether empirically-supported psychological therapies (ESTs) are associated with superior self-rated treatment outcomes in clients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN). Results 98 adults who had received psychological therapy for BN in the United Kingdom completed a questionnaire which retrospectively assessed the specific contents of their psychological therapy and self-rated treatment outcomes. Around half the sample, fifty three participants reported receiving an EST. Fifty of these received Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) and three Interpersonal Therapy (IPT). Where therapy met expert criteria for Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa (CBT-BN, an EST) participants reported superior treatment outcomes than those who appeared to receive non-specialist cognitive-behavioural therapy. However, self-rated treatment outcomes were similar overall between those whose therapy met criteria for ESTs and those whose therapy did not. Conclusions The findings offer tentative support for the perceived helpfulness of CBT-BN as evaluated in controlled research trials. Cognitive-behavioural therapies for BN, as they are delivered in the UK, may not necessarily be perceived as more beneficial by clients with BN than psychological therapies which currently have less empirical support. PMID:24999419

  15. A distributed approach to alarm management in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Estudillo-Valderrama, Miguel A; Talaminos-Barroso, Alejandro; Roa, Laura M; Naranjo-Hernández, David; Reina-Tosina, Javier; Aresté-Fosalba, Nuria; Milán-Martín, José A

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the feasibility study of using a distributed approach for the management of alarms from chronic kidney disease patients. In a first place, the key issues regarding alarm definition, classification, and prioritization according to available normalization efforts are analyzed for the main scenarios addressed in hemodialysis. Then, the middleware proposed for alarm management is described, which follows the publish/subscribe pattern, and supports the Object Management Group data distribution service (DDS) standard. This standard facilitates the real-time monitoring of the exchanged information, as well as the scalability and interoperability of the solution developed regarding the different stakeholders and resources involved. Finally, the results section shows, through the proof of concept studied, the viability of DDS for the activation of emergency protocols in terms of alarm prioritization and personalization, as well as some remarks about security, privacy, and real-time communication performance.

  16. An experimental investigation of the effects of alarm processing and display on operator performance

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Brown, W.; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G.; Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance, operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition, operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. No deficient

  17. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  18. False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

    2013-05-01

    A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

  19. The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Chen, Xihui; Danilova, Katia

    2009-01-01

    Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

  20. Xcel Energy implements an alarm management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, J.; Abreu, G.

    2007-11-15

    Not so long ago, Xcel Energy's Pawnee Station, a 505 MW coal-fired generating station in Brush, Colorado, USA was commonly generating 300 to 400 alarms per 8-hour shift. The article describes how the alarm system was revised and improved by tackling alarm dead-bands, and rationalising alarms for routine events. Operators are trained to understand the functions of alarm management components, their use and response, and obtain feedback. Today the power station reports about one alarm per hour. 3 photos.

  1. Importance Ratings of Socially Supportive Behaviors by Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of students' social support has been investigated in the literature, but little research has examined the social validity or social importance of supportive behaviors for children and adolescents. In the present study, data were gathered from 1,688 students in Grades 3 through 12 via the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale…

  2. How Drivers Respond to Alarms Adapted to Their Braking Behaviour?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Genya; Itoh, Makoto

    Determining appropriate alarm timing for Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) may play an important role in enhancing system acceptance by drivers. It is not always true that a common alarm trigger logic is suitable for all drivers, because presented alarms may be differently viewed for each driver, i.e., paying attention or requiring appropriate actions. The current study focused on adaptive alarm timing which was adjusted in response to braking behaviour for collision avoidance for the individual. In Experiment I, the braking performance of individual driver was measured repeatedly to assess the variation of each performance. We utilised the following two indices: elapsed time from the deceleration of the lead car to release of the accelerator (accelerator release time) and elapsed time to application of the brakes (braking response time). Two alarm timings were then determined based on these two indices: (i) the median of the accelerator release time of the driver and (ii) the median of the braking response time of the driver. Experiment II compared the two alarm timings for each driver in order to investigate which timing is more appropriate for enhancing driver trust in the driver-adaptive FCWS and the system effectiveness. The results showed that the timing of the accelerator release time increased the trust ratings more than the timing of braking response. The timing of the braking response time induced a longer response time to application of the brakes. Moreover, the degree to which the response time was longer depended on alarm timing preference of the driver. The possible benefit and drawback of driver-adaptive alarm timing are discussed.

  3. Priority coding for control room alarms

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

  4. Improved alarm tracking for better accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Nemesure, S.; Marr, G.; Shrey, T.; Kling, N.; Hammons, L.; Ingrassia, P.; D'Ottavio, T.

    2011-03-28

    An alarm system is a vital component of any accelerator, as it provides a warning that some element of the system is not functioning properly. The severity and age of the alarm may sometimes signify whether urgent or deferred attention is required. For example, older alarms may be given a lower priority if an assumption is made that someone else is already investigating it, whereas those of higher severity or alarms that are more current may indicate the need for an immediate response. The alarm history also provides valuable information regarding the functionality of the overall system, thus careful tracking of these data is likely to improve response time, remove uncertainty about the current status and assist in the ability to promptly respond to the same warning/trigger in the future. Since one goal of every alarm display is to be free of alarms, a clear and concise presentation of an alarm along with useful historic annotations can help the end user address the warning more quickly, thus expediting the elimination of such alarm conditions. By defining a discrete set of very specific alarm management states and by utilizing database resources to maintain a complete and easily accessible alarm history, we anticipate facilitated work flow due to more efficient operator response and management of alarms.

  5. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis... type of device includes conditioned response enuresis alarms. (b) Classification. Class II...

  6. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm resolution capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of...

  7. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  8. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  9. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  10. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  12. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  17. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  18. Hemodynamic-impact-based prioritization of ventricular tachycardia alarms.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kalpit; Lexa, Michael; Matthews, Brett; Genc, Sahika

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach) is a very serious condition that occurs when the ventricles are driven at high rates. The abnormal excitation pathways make ventricular contraction less synchronous resulting in less effective filling and emptying of the left ventricles. However, almost half of the V-tach alarms declared through processing of patterns observed in electrocardiography are not clinically actionable. The focus of this study is to provide guidance on determining whether a technically-correct V-tach alarm is clinically-actionable by determining its "hemodynamic impact". A supervisory learning approach based on conditional inference trees to determine the hemodynamic impact of a V-tach alarm based on extracted features is described. According to preliminary results on a subset of Multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care II (MIMIC-II) database, true positive rate of more than 90% can be achieved. PMID:25570734

  19. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.

  20. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. PMID:18175508

  1. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2011-02-23

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively.

  2. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2011-02-23

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

  3. Automated support tool for variable rate irrigation prescriptions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) enables center pivot management to better meet non-uniform water and fertility needs. This is accomplished through correctly matching system water application with spatial and temporal variability within the field. A computer program was modified to accommodate GIS dat...

  4. Adolescents' Ratings of Perceived Social Support and Its Importance: Validation of the Student Social Support Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Christine K.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of Student Social Support Scale (SSSS), a four-factor scale (Parent, Teacher, Classmate, and Close Friend), revealed that (1) SSSS is highly reliable, (2) social support differed by developmental/age groups and by sex, and (3) relationships exist among social support, self-concept, and social behavior. Concludes that SSSS is a promising…

  5. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  6. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communications or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.

  8. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  9. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  10. Field response of tadpoles to conspecific and heterospecific alarm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, M.J.; Claeson, S.

    1998-01-01

    Many organisms use chemical cues from a variety of sources to mediate predator avoidance. Response to heterospecific alarm cues has been demonstrated for tadpoles within but not among taxa and alarm response behavior has seldom been examined under field conditions. This study examined the response of three sympatric amphibian larvae and predaceous larval Dytiscus sp. (diving beetle) to damage-release signals in natural ponds by using capture rates from treated funnel traps as an index of larval behavior. Hyla regilla (Pacific tree frog) tadpoles avoided traps treated with either crushed conspecifics or with Rana aurora (red-legged frog) tadpoles but the larger ranids and Arabystoma macrodactylum (long-toed salamander) did not respond to either treatment. H. regilla tadpoles were likely susceptible to any potential predators of ranid tadpoles in these ponds and this result is consistent with the hypothesis that a response to heterospecific alarm occurs in sympatric prey with shared predators.

  11. Controlling misses and false alarms in a machine learning framework for predicting uniformity of printed pages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work1 , we presented a block-based technique to analyze printed page uniformity both visually and metrically. The features learned from the models were then employed in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) framework to classify the pages into one of the two categories of acceptable and unacceptable quality. In this paper, we introduce a set of tools for machine learning in the assessment of printed page uniformity. This work is primarily targeted to the printing industry, specifically the ubiquitous laser, electrophotographic printer. We use features that are well-correlated with the rankings of expert observers to develop a novel machine learning framework that allows one to achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate, subject to a chosen "miss" rate. Surprisingly, most of the research that has been conducted on machine learning does not consider this framework. During the process of developing a new product, test engineers will print hundreds of test pages, which can be scanned and then analyzed by an autonomous algorithm. Among these pages, most may be of acceptable quality. The objective is to find the ones that are not. These will provide critically important information to systems designers, regarding issues that need to be addressed in improving the printer design. A "miss" is defined to be a page that is not of acceptable quality to an expert observer that the prediction algorithm declares to be a "pass". Misses are a serious problem, since they represent problems that will not be seen by the systems designers. On the other hand, "false alarms" correspond to pages that an expert observer would declare to be of acceptable quality, but which are flagged by the prediction algorithm as "fails". In a typical printer testing and development scenario, such pages would be examined by an expert, and found to be of acceptable quality after all. "False alarm" pages result in extra pages to be examined by expert observers, which increases labor cost. But "false

  12. Photolysis Rate Coefficient Calculations in Support of SOLVE II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, William H.

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of photolysis rate coefficients (or "j-values") is essential to determining the photochemical reaction rates that define ozone loss and other crucial processes in the atmosphere. j-Values can be calculated with radiative transfer models, derived from actinic flux observations, or inferred from trace gas measurements. The primary objective of the present effort was the accurate calculation of j-values in the Arctic twilight along NASA DC-8 flight tracks during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II), based in Kiruna, Sweden (68 degrees N, 20 degrees E) during January-February 2003. The JHU/APL radiative transfer model was utilized to produce a large suite of j-values for photolysis processes (over 70 reactions) relevant to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The calculations take into account the actual changes in ozone abundance and apparent albedo of clouds and the Earth surface along the aircraft flight tracks as observed by in situ and remote sensing platforms (e.g., EP-TOMS). A secondary objective was to analyze solar irradiance data from NCAR s Direct beam Irradiance Atmospheric Spectrometer (DIAS) on-board the NASA DC-8 and to start the development of a flexible, multi-species spectral fitting technique for the independent retrieval of O3,O2.02, and aerosol optical properties.

  13. Photolysis Rate Coefficient Calculations in Support of SOLVE Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Steven A.; Swartz, William H.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives for this SOLVE project were 3-fold. First, we sought to calculate a complete set of photolysis rate coefficients (j-values) for the campaign along the ER-2 and DC-8 flight tracks. En route to this goal, it would be necessary to develop a comprehensive set of input geophysical conditions (e.g., ozone profiles), derived from various climatological, aircraft, and remotely sensed datasets, in order to model the radiative transfer of the atmosphere accurately. These j-values would then need validation by comparison with flux-derived j-value measurements. The second objective was to analyze chemistry along back trajectories using the NASA/Goddard chemistry trajectory model initialized with measurements of trace atmospheric constituents. This modeling effort would provide insight into the completeness of current measurements and the chemistry of Arctic wintertime ozone loss. Finally, we sought to coordinate stellar occultation measurements of ozone (and thus ozone loss) during SOLVE using the Midcourse Space Experiment(MSX)/Ultraviolet and Visible Imagers and Spectrographic Imagers (UVISI) satellite instrument. Such measurements would determine ozone loss during the Arctic polar night and represent the first significant science application of space-based stellar occultation in the Earth's atmosphere.

  14. Photolysis Rate Coefficient Calculations in Support of SOLVE Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Steven A.; Swartz, William H.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives for this SOLVE project were 3-fold. First, we sought to calculate a complete set of photolysis rate coefficients (j-values) for the campaign along the ER-2 and DC-8 flight tracks. En route to this goal, it would be necessary to develop a comprehensive set of input geophysical conditions (e.g., ozone profiles), derived from various climatological, aircraft, and remotely sensed datasets, in order to model the radiative transfer of the atmosphere accurately. These j-values would then need validation by comparison with flux-derived j-value measurements. The second objective was to analyze chemistry along back trajectories using the NASA/Goddard chemistry trajectory model initialized with measurements of trace atmospheric constituents. This modeling effort would provide insight into the completeness of current measurements and the chemistry of Arctic wintertime ozone loss. Finally, we sought to coordinate stellar occultation measurements of ozone (and thus ozone loss) during SOLVE using the MSX/UVISI satellite instrument. Such measurements would determine ozone loss during the Arctic polar night and represent the first significant science application of space-based stellar occultation in the Earth's atmosphere.

  15. Neural mechanisms of alarm pheromone signaling.

    PubMed

    Enjin, Anders; Suh, Greg Seong-Bae

    2013-03-01

    Alarm pheromones are important semiochemicals used by many animal species to alert conspecifics or other related species of impending danger. In this review, we describe recent developments in our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the ability of fruit flies, zebrafish and mice to mediate the detection of alarm pheromones. Specifically, alarm pheromones are detected in these species through specialized olfactory subsystems that are unique to the chemosensitive receptors, second messenger-signaling and physiology. Thus, the alarm pheromones appears to be detected by signaling mechanisms that are distinct from those seen in the canonical olfactory system.

  16. D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Markely, D.; /Fermilab

    1992-08-03

    The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 bistable inputs, but is expandable to 64 bistable inputs with the purchase of more electronic cards at an approximate cost of $260 per card (8 bistable inputs). The auto dialer also has the capability for analog inputs, analog outputs, and bistable outputs none of which D0 uses or intends to use. The auto dialer can be called on its operating phone line to describe current alarms with the proper password. The Auto Dialer can dial lab extensions, lab pagers, and any number outside the lab. It cannot dial a long distance pager. The auto dialer monitors alarms and alarm conditions via the T1565 PLC, upon an alarm condition it initiates a phone calling sequence of preprogrammed lists with assigned priorities. When someone is reached, the auto dialer describes the individual alarm it is calling for, by a preprogrammed set of words for that individual alarm, spoken by a female voice. The called person then has a chance to acknowledge the alarm over the telephone, if the alarm is not acknowledged the auto dialer will disconnect and call the next person on the list. The auto dialer will continue to cycle through the list until it is acknowledged, reset, or the alarm condition no longer exists.

  17. 33 CFR 127.207 - Warning alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.207 Warning alarms. (a) The...

  18. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communicationsmore » or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.« less

  19. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  20. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  1. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  2. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  3. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  5. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  6. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  7. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  8. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  9. Alarm- And Power-Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stute, Rob; Galloway, F. Houston; Swindle, Bob; Bierman, Tracy Alan; Medelius, Pedro

    1994-01-01

    Electronic central monitoring system, called Remote Monitor Alarm System, RMAS, used to monitor malfunction alarms and power supplies of remotely located equipment modules of transmitting and receiving equipment in fiber-optic communication network at Kennedy Space Center. Includes central monitoring unit at location convenient for technicians, plus remote terminal unit at each remote site containing equipment to be monitored.

  10. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon... audible alarm in such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to... sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and...

  11. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon... audible alarm in such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to... sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and...

  12. Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

  13. T-Farm complex alarm upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

  14. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An...

  15. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An...

  16. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An...

  17. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An...

  18. The impact of recent changes in smoke alarm legislation on residential fire injuries and smoke alarm ownership in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Lara A; Poulos, Roslyn G; Sherker, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) state legislation changed from requiring smoke alarms in new houses only to all houses. We evaluated the impact of this legislative change on residential fire injury and smoke alarm ownership characteristics. Residential fire injuries for 2002 to 2010 were identified from hospitalization data for all hospitals in NSW. Data relating to smoke alarm ownership and demographic factors were obtained from the NSW Population Health Survey. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to analyze trends over time. Prior to the introduction of universal legislation, hospitalization rates were increasing slightly; however, following the introduction of legislation, hospitalization rates decreased by an estimated 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.7-55.8) annually. Smoke alarm ownership increased from 73.3% (95% CI, 72.5-74.2) prelegislation to 93.6% (95% CI, 93.1-94.2) 18 months postlegislation. Thirty percent of households reported testing their alarms regularly. Speaking a language other than English (relative risks [RRs], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.44-2.99), allowing smoking in the home (RR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.31-2.27), and being part of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic group (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.14-1.91) remain major risk factors for nonownership. Broadening the scope of state legislation has had a positive impact on residential fire-related hospitalizations and smoke alarm ownership. However, it is of concern that the legislation has been the least effective in increasing smoke alarm ownership among non-English-speaking households, in households where smoking is allowed, in low socioeconomic households, and that a high proportion of householders do not test their smoke alarms regularly. Targeted campaigns are needed to reach these high-risk groups and to ensure that smoke alarms are functional. PMID:22955160

  19. The PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015: Reducing False Arrhythmia Alarms in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Shahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 Physio-Net/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1,250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A collection of 750 data segments was made available for training and a set of 500 was held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program’s performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year’s Challenge. PMID:27331073

  20. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the...

  1. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the...

  2. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the...

  3. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the...

  4. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the actual... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping...

  5. Using behavioral science to improve fire escape behaviors in response to a smoke alarm.

    PubMed

    Thompson, N J; Waterman, M B; Sleet, D A

    2004-01-01

    Although the likelihood of fire-related death in homes with smoke alarms is about one-half that in homes without alarms, alarm effectiveness is limited by behavior. Only 16% of residents of homes with alarms have developed and practiced plans for escape when the alarm sounds. We reviewed literature to identify behavioral constructs that influence smoke alarm use. We then convened experts in the behavioral aspects of smoke alarms who reviewed the constructs and determined that the appropriate areas for behavioral focus were formulating, practicing, and implementing escape plans should an alarm sound. They subsequently identified important behaviors to be addressed by burn-prevention programs and incorporated the constructs into a behavioral model for use in such programs. Finally, we organized the available literature to support this model and make programmatic recommendations. Many gaps remain in behavioral research to improve fire escape planning and practice. Future research must select the target behavior, apply behavioral theories, and distinguish between initiation and maintenance of behaviors associated with planning, practicing, and implementing home fire escape plans. PMID:15091145

  6. Evaluating injury prevention programs: the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    PubMed

    Mallonee, S

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of injury prevention programs is critical for measuring program effects on reducing injury-related morbidity and mortality or on increasing the adoption of safety practices. During the planning and implementation of injury prevention programs, evaluation data also can be used to test program strategies and to measure the program's penetration among the target population. The availability of this early data enables program managers to refine a program, increasing the likelihood of successful outcomes. The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project illustrates how an evaluation was designed to inform program decisions by providing methodologically sound data on program processes and outcomes. This community intervention trial was instituted to reduce residential fire-related injuries and deaths in a geographic area of Oklahoma City that was disproportionately affected by this problem. The distribution of free smoke alarms in targeted neighborhoods was accompanied by written educational pamphlets and home-based follow-up to test whether the alarms were functioning correctly. Early evaluation during the planning and implementation phases of the program allowed for midcourse corrections that increased the program's impact on desired outcomes. During the six years following the project, the residential fire-related injury rate decreased 81% in the target population but only 7% in the rest of Oklahoma City. This dramatic decline in fire-related injuries in the target area is largely attributed to the free smoke alarm distribution as well as to educational efforts promoting awareness about residential fires and their prevention. PMID:10911692

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  11. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  12. An improved criticality alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Tyree, W.H.; Gilpin, H.E.; Balmer, D.K.; Vennitti, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado is the primary facility for the production of plutonium components used in the US arsenal of nuclear weapons. It is operated by EG&G under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE). There are ten production buildings on plant site with neutron based criticality alarm systems. These systems have been in operation for the past seventeen years. Changes in the interpretation of A.N.S.I. standards and DOE orders have precipitated an evaluation of detector sensitivity and placement criteria. As a result of this evaluation, improvements in detector design and calibration have improved detector sensitivity by a factor of six. Testing performed on the design defined a minimum sensitivity as required by A.N.S.I. 8.3 and provided information for saturation and survivability for a fission event of up to 1 {times} 10{sup 17} fissions in 80 microseconds. A rigorous testing and calibration program has been developed and is in place. Neutron sensitivity is certified at a nearby reactor which is traceable to N.I.S.T.. 4 refs.

  13. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  14. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each bilge alarm must activate its alarm whenever clean water is used for cleaning or zeroing purposes...) Access to the bilge alarm must require the breaking of a seal, except when— (1) Re-zeroing the...

  15. Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.C.

    1987-05-01

    Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment.

  16. Evaluation of alarm systems for medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Hyman, W A

    1982-01-01

    The provision of automatic alarm systems on medical equipment is generally designed to supplement the user's ability to monitor a variety of device and patient variables simultaneously. The potential value of such systems in improving the safety and efficacy of medical care is accompanied by the potential for false reliance on or other misuse of the alarm systems. Therefore the alarm provisions become an important aspect of clinical engineering assessment of equipment with respect to selection, user training, hazard analysis, and the provision of effective and appropriate preventive maintenance programs. PMID:10257190

  17. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conspicuously and centrally located and be marked as required by 46 CFR 97.37-9; and (3) Use stored gas power... approved audible alarm if: (1) The space is normally accessible to persons onboard while the vessel...

  18. From alarm systems to smart houses.

    PubMed

    Vlaskamp, F J

    1992-01-01

    The percentage of senior citizens in the Netherlands will rise in coming years. The expected percentage for the year 2010 of persons over age 65 in the total population is 15%. More persons over age 65 than ever before will continue to live in their own environment. Emergency response systems (ERS) can support independent living. The most common type of organization distributing ERS is a small, partly subsidized local alarm organization run by a social welfare office for the elderly. Government subsidy has been reduced in recent years which has motivated small organizations to join together into larger regional organizations in order to get a more solid financial base. On the other hand new semi-commercial and commercial organizations have come into being. These developments are part of the growing importance of home care, leading to more medical applications of ERS. User satisfaction with ERS is high. Portable triggers can enhance the effectiveness of the system. However, many users do not wear the portable trigger when feeling well. Future technical developments will result in multifunctionality of ERS-devices. In the long term the hardware of today will be integrated in a multimedia home terminal replacing the telephone. The portable trigger will remain the only specific hardware at home for ERS.

  19. New Teachers and Support: An Examination of Ratings of Significant Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ellice P.; Andrews, Shirley P.; Gilbert, Linda S.

    2009-01-01

    A survey of 442 beginning teachers, 57 mentors, and 33 administrators asked participants to rate the support provided to first-year teachers. Respondents identified persons who provided the most support, and responses were compared. Generally, new teachers indicated that administrators and other teachers had been more helpful than were mentors. In…

  20. Proximate Factors Underpinning Receiver Responses to Deceptive False Alarm Calls in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys: Is It Counterdeception?

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls

  1. The Impact of Institutional Student Support on Graduation Rates in US Ph.D. Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolli, Thomas; Agasisti, Tommaso; Johnes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Using National Research Council data, we investigate the determinants of graduation rates in US Ph.D. programmes. We emphasise the impact that support and facilities offered to doctoral students have on completion rates. Significant, strong and positive effects are found for the provision of on-site graduate conferences and dedicated workspace,…

  2. 45 CFR 307.35 - Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate for computerized support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... may include expenditures for a system which were disallowed by the Office because the system failed to... matching rate for computerized support enforcement systems. 307.35 Section 307.35 Public Welfare... ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.35 Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate for...

  3. Students' ratings of teacher support and academic and social-emotional well-being.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Jaclyn E; Demaray, Michelle K; Malecki, Christine K; Terry, Melissa N; Clary, Michael; Elzinga, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Data on students' perceptions of teacher social support, academic functioning, and social-emotional functioning were collected from a sample of 796 7th and 8th grade middle school students using the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS; Malecki, Demaray, & Elliott, 2000), Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) and school records, and the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children, Second Edition, Adolescent Version, (BASC-2 SRP-A; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). The purpose of the current study was to examine possible gender differences in perceptions of the frequency and importance of different types of teacher support and the related academic and social-emotional outcomes. Girls rated Emotional and Appraisal Support as more important than did boys. Teacher Emotional Support was significantly and positively related to grade point average (GPA) for boys and girls. For girls only, Emotional and Informational Support were significantly related to ITBS Reading scores, and Emotional, Informational, and Instrumental Support were significantly related to ITBS Math scores. Regarding social-emotional variables, Emotional Support was significantly and negatively related to School Problems, Internalizing Problems, Inattention/Hyperactivity, and overall Emotional Symptoms and positively related to Personal Adjustment for both boys and girls. Furthermore, Emotional Support from teachers was more strongly related to Inattention/Hyperactivity for girls than boys. These results emphasize the importance of providing teacher social support, especially emotional support, to students in early adolescence and recognizing gender differences in the function of specific types of teacher support.

  4. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system. Each sprinkler alarm system, including annunciator,...

  5. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  6. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  7. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  9. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  11. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  13. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  14. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  15. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section....050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to bilge alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in §...

  16. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  2. 46 CFR 162.050-20 - Separator and bilge alarm test fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flow rate at which the volume of the test fluid has been changed out at least once per minute; (5) Add... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Separator and bilge alarm test fluids. 162.050-20... § 162.050-20 Separator and bilge alarm test fluids. (a) Tests required in §§ 162.050-23 and...

  3. 46 CFR 162.050-20 - Separator and bilge alarm test fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flow rate at which the volume of the test fluid has been changed out at least once per minute; (5) Add... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Separator and bilge alarm test fluids. 162.050-20... § 162.050-20 Separator and bilge alarm test fluids. (a) Tests required in §§ 162.050-23 and...

  4. 46 CFR 162.050-20 - Separator and bilge alarm test fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flow rate at which the volume of the test fluid has been changed out at least once per minute; (5) Add... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Separator and bilge alarm test fluids. 162.050-20... § 162.050-20 Separator and bilge alarm test fluids. (a) Tests required in §§ 162.050-23 and...

  5. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

  6. Two sympatric species of passerine birds imitate the same raptor calls in alarm contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnayake, Chaminda P.; Goodale, Eben; Kotagama, Sarath W.

    2010-01-01

    While some avian mimics appear to select sounds randomly, other species preferentially imitate sounds such as predator calls that are associated with danger. Previous work has shown that the Greater Racket-tailed Drongo ( Dicrurus paradiseus) incorporates predator calls and heterospecific alarm calls into its own species-typical alarm vocalizations. Here, we show that another passerine species, the Sri Lanka Magpie ( Urocissa ornata), which inhabits the same Sri Lankan rainforest, imitates three of the same predator calls that drongos do. For two of these call types, there is evidence that magpies also use them in alarm contexts. Our results support the hypothesis that imitated predator calls can serve as signals of alarm to multiple species.

  7. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, D.W.

    1995-04-11

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

  8. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Don W.

    1995-01-01

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

  9. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism modulates the effects of social support on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Kanthak, Magdalena K; Chen, Frances S; Kumsta, Robert; Hill, LaBarron K; Thayer, Julian F; Heinrichs, Markus

    2016-05-01

    A large body of empirical research has demonstrated stress-buffering effects of social support. However, recent studies suggest that genetic variation of the oxytocin system (specifically, a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, of the oxytocin receptor gene) modulates the efficacy of social support. The timing and neurobiological basis of this genetic modulation were investigated using a standardized, laboratory-based psychological stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G). To index potential stress buffering effects of social support mediated by the oxytocin system, heart rate variability (HRV) was obtained before and during the TSST-G from 40 healthy participants. Results indicate that social support is associated with higher HRV only in G allele carriers. Specifically, social support increased heart rate variability during direct social interaction and only in individuals with at least one copy of the G allele of rs53576. These findings support the idea that the stress-attenuating effects of social support are modulated by genetic variation of the oxytocin system. PMID:26903384

  10. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism modulates the effects of social support on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Kanthak, Magdalena K; Chen, Frances S; Kumsta, Robert; Hill, LaBarron K; Thayer, Julian F; Heinrichs, Markus

    2016-05-01

    A large body of empirical research has demonstrated stress-buffering effects of social support. However, recent studies suggest that genetic variation of the oxytocin system (specifically, a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, of the oxytocin receptor gene) modulates the efficacy of social support. The timing and neurobiological basis of this genetic modulation were investigated using a standardized, laboratory-based psychological stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G). To index potential stress buffering effects of social support mediated by the oxytocin system, heart rate variability (HRV) was obtained before and during the TSST-G from 40 healthy participants. Results indicate that social support is associated with higher HRV only in G allele carriers. Specifically, social support increased heart rate variability during direct social interaction and only in individuals with at least one copy of the G allele of rs53576. These findings support the idea that the stress-attenuating effects of social support are modulated by genetic variation of the oxytocin system.

  11. False alarm reduction in BSN-based cardiac monitoring using signal quality and activity type information.

    PubMed

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  12. Residential carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning risks: correlates of observed CO alarm use in urban households.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Eileen M; Gielen, Andrea C; Shields, Wendy C; Stepnitz, Rebecca; Parker, Elizabeth; Ma, Xia; Bishai, David

    2013-10-01

    The authors conducted a household survey and observation to assess carbon monoxide (CO) knowledge and risks as well as prevalence of CO alarms in an urban community prior to the enactment of a mandatory ordinance requiring CO alarms in one U.S. city. From July to December 2009, household surveys and observations were completed in 603 residences. Participants were mostly African-American (61%), women (70%), 25-54 years in age (66%), and with a high school education or less (51%). Most homes visited contained CO-producing appliances, including gas stoves (86%), gas furnaces (82%), and gas water heaters (79%). Participants' overall mean percentage correct knowledge score was 57%. CO alarms were reported by 33% of participants and observed among 28% of households. Low rates of CO knowledge and CO alarm ownership, combined with high rates of CO-producing sources in homes, suggests the need for widespread campaigns to promote CO alarms. Recommendations are also made to integrate the lessons learned from the public health community's experience promoting smoke alarms. PMID:24288848

  13. Decision-making and response strategies in interaction with alarms: the impact of alarm reliability, availability of alarm validity information and workload.

    PubMed

    Manzey, Dietrich; Gérard, Nina; Wiczorek, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Responding to alarm systems which usually commit a number of false alarms and/or misses involves decision-making under uncertainty. Four laboratory experiments including a total of 256 participants were conducted to gain comprehensive insight into humans' dealing with this uncertainty. Specifically, it was investigated how responses to alarms/non-alarms are affected by the predictive validities of these events, and to what extent response strategies depend on whether or not the validity of alarms/non-alarms can be cross-checked against other data. Among others, the results suggest that, without cross-check possibility (experiment 1), low levels of predictive validity of alarms ( ≤ 0.5) led most participants to use one of two different strategies which both involved non-responding to a significant number of alarms (cry-wolf effect). Yet, providing access to alarm validity information reduced this effect dramatically (experiment 2). This latter result emerged independent of the effort needed for cross-checkings of alarms (experiment 3), but was affected by the workload imposed by concurrent tasks (experiment 4). Theoretical and practical consequences of these results for decision-making and response selection in interaction with alarm systems, as well as the design of effective alarm systems, are discussed.

  14. Postnatal Support Strategies for Improving Rates of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Case of Caesarean Baby.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, E; Chowdhury, R B; Begum, S; Shapla, N R; Shahida, S M

    2015-10-01

    Despite awarness of the many advantages of breast feeding exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate is still lower than recommended practice and the rate is less in case of caesarean baby. In an effort towards achieving better breast feeding practices, UNICEF and WHO launched the baby friendly hospital initiative in 1991 to ensure that all maternity facilities support mothers in making the best choice about feeding. The implementation of effective programs improves rates of short and long term exclusive breast feeding even in case of caesarean baby. The objective of present study was to investigate whether postnatal support improves the rate of exclusive breast feeding in case of caesarean baby compared with usual hospital care. This was a longitudinal study over one and half year period, from April 2009 to October 2011 done in Combined Military Hospital in Mymensingh. A total of 565 pregnant women were included this study. Primary outcome was early establishment of breast feeding after caesarean section. Secondary outcome was exclusive breast feeding at discharge from hospital, two weeks and six weeks after caesarean section delivery. Early establishment of breast feeding within one hour after caesarean section was higher in postnatal support group than usual care group (70.29% vs. 57.14%). Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in the postnatal support strategies group were significantly higher when compared with those who received usual hospital care at discharge (89.13% vs. 75.94%, p=0.004), at 2 weeks (85.51% vs. 53.38%, p<0.001) and at 6 weeks (74.64% vs. 38.35%, p<0.001). Postnatal lactation support, as single intervention based in hospital significantly improves rates of exclusive breast feeding.

  15. E-Rate to Support Wireless E-Mail, Internet Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with federal E-rate program's support of school leaders' Blackberry habit. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has cleared the way to allow money from the $2.25 billion program of subsidies for school technology to apply to e-mail service for mobile, wireless devices, such as the BlackBerry, which are increasingly…

  16. Aviation Support Equipment Technician M 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    One of a series of training manuals prepared for enlisted personnel in the Navy and Naval Reserve, this self-study unit relates directly to the occupational qualifications of the Aviation Support Equipment Technician M rating. Contents include a 15-chapter text followed by a subject index, qualifications for advancement, and the associated…

  17. Attitude of resident doctors towards intensive care units' alarm settings.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rakesh; Bhalotra, Anju R; Goel, Nitesh; Pruthi, Amit; Bhadoria, Poonam; Anand, Raktima

    2010-11-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) monitors have alarm options to intimate the staff of critical incidents but these alarms needs to be adjusted in every patient. With this objective in mind, this study was done among resident doctors, with the aim of assessing the existing attitude among resident doctors towards ICU alarm settings. This study was conducted among residents working at ICU of a multispeciality centre, with the help of a printed questionnaire. The study involved 80 residents. All residents were in full agreement on routine use of ECG, pulse oximeter, capnograph and NIBP monitoring. 86% residents realised the necessity of monitoring oxygen concentration, apnoea monitoring and expired minute ventilation monitoring. 87% PGs and 70% SRs routinely checked alarm limits for various parameters. 50% PGs and 46.6% SRs set these alarm limits. The initial response to an alarm among all the residents was to disable the alarm temporarily and try to look for a cause. 92% of PGs and 98% of SRs were aware of alarms priority and colour coding. 55% residents believed that the alarm occurred due to patient disturbance, 15% believed that alarm was due to technical problem with monitor/sensor and 30% thought it was truly related to patient's clinical status. 82% residents set the alarms by themselves, 10% believed that alarms should be adjusted by nurse, 4% believed the technical staff should take responsibility of setting alarm limits and 4% believed that alarm levels should be pre-adjusted by the manufacturer. We conclude that although alarms are an important, indispensable, and lifesaving feature, they can be a nuisance and can compromise quality and safety of care by frequent false positive alarms. We should be familiar of the alarm modes, check and reset the alarm settings at regular interval or after a change in clinical status of the patient. PMID:21224968

  18. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  19. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  20. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to persons on board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide... automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and... arranged as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into...

  1. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  2. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  3. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  4. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  5. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  6. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to persons on board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide... automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and... arranged as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into...

  7. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  8. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... automatically and audibly for at least 20 seconds before carbon dioxide is discharged into the space; (2) Be..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) A protected space must be fitted with...

  9. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  10. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  11. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  12. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  13. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  14. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula... similar future occurrences. (e) The licensee shall provide an ability to rapidly assess the validity...

  15. The Development and Validation of the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason Y.; Worrell, Frank C.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2015-01-01

    Patient memory for treatment information is poor, and worse memory for treatment information is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Memory support techniques have been harnessed to improve patient memory for treatment. However, a measure of memory support used by treatment providers during sessions has yet to be established. The present study reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS) – an observer-rated scale designed to measure memory support. Forty-two adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomized to either cognitive therapy plus memory support (CS+MS; n = 22) or cognitive therapy as-usual (CT-as-usual; n = 20). At post-treatment, patients freely recalled treatment points via the Patient Recall Task. Sessions (n = 171) were coded for memory support using the MSRS, 65% of which were also assessed for the quality of cognitive therapy via the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS). A unidimensional scale composed of 8 items was developed using exploratory factor analysis, though a larger sample is needed to further assess the factor structure of MSRS scores. High inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities of MSRS scores were observed across seven MSRS coders. MSRS scores were higher in the CT+MS condition compared to CT-as-usual, demonstrating group differentiation ability. MSRS scores were positively associated with Patient Recall Task scores but not associated with CTRS scores, demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, respectively. Results indicate that the MSRS yields reliable and valid scores for measuring treatment providers’ use of memory support while delivering cognitive therapy. PMID:26389597

  16. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  17. Description of ALARMA: the alarm algorithm developed for the Nuclear Car Wash

    SciTech Connect

    Luu, T; Biltoft, P; Church, J; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Pruet, J; Prussin, S; Slaughter, D

    2006-11-28

    The goal of any alarm algorithm should be that it provide the necessary tools to derive confidence limits on whether the existence of fissile materials is present in cargo containers. It should be able to extract these limits from (usually) noisy and/or weak data while maintaining a false alarm rate (FAR) that is economically suitable for port operations. It should also be able to perform its analysis within a reasonably short amount of time (i.e. {approx} seconds). To achieve this, it is essential that the algorithm be able to identify and subtract any interference signature that might otherwise be confused with a fissile signature. Lastly, the algorithm itself should be user-intuitive and user-friendly so that port operators with little or no experience with detection algorithms may use it with relative ease. In support of the Nuclear Car Wash project at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, we have developed an alarm algorithm that satisfies the above requirements. The description of the this alarm algorithm, dubbed ALARMA, is the purpose of this technical report. The experimental setup of the nuclear car wash has been well documented [1, 2, 3]. The presence of fissile materials is inferred by examining the {beta}-delayed gamma spectrum induced after a brief neutron irradiation of cargo, particularly in the high-energy region above approximately 2.5 MeV. In this region naturally occurring gamma rays are virtually non-existent. Thermal-neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}P, on the other hand, leaves a unique {beta}-delayed spectrum [4]. This spectrum comes from decays of fission products having half-lives as large as 30 seconds, many of which have high Q-values. Since high-energy photons penetrate matter more freely, it is natural to look for unique fissile signatures in this energy region after neutron irradiation. The goal of this interrogation procedure is a 95% success rate of detection of as little as 5 kilograms of fissile material while retaining

  18. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such roles in yeast batch cultures by quantifying O2 consumption, CO2 production, amino acids, mRNAs, proteins, posttranslational modifications, and stress sensitivity in the course of nine doublings at constant rate. During this course, the cells support a constant biomass-production rate with decreasing rates of respiration and ATP production but also decrease their stress resistance. As the respiration rate decreases, so do the levels of enzymes catalyzing rate-determining reactions of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle (providing NADH for respiration) and of mitochondrial folate-mediated NADPH production (required for oxidative defense). The findings demonstrate that exponential growth can represent not a single metabolic/physiological state but a continuum of changing states and that aerobic glycolysis can reduce the energy demands associated with respiratory metabolism and stress survival.

  19. Support Effects on Bronsted acid site densities and alcohol dehydration turnover rates on tungsten oxide domains

    SciTech Connect

    Macht, Josef; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; May-Lozano, Marcos; Soled, Stuart L.; Wang, Yong; Iglesia, Enrique

    2005-03-01

    Initial activity and acid site density of several WAl, WSi (MCM41) and one WSn sample were determined. Trans/cis 2-butene selectivity is dependent on the support. Presumably, these differences are due to subtle differences in base strengths. 2-Butanol dehydration rates (per W-atom) reached maximum values at intermediate WOx surface densities on WAl, as reported for 2-butanol dehydration reactions on WZr. Titration results indicate that Bronsted acid sites are required for 2-butanol dehydration on WAl, WSi and WSn. UV-visible studies suggest that WAl is much more difficult to reduce than WZr. The detection of reduced centers on WAl, the number of which correlates to Bronsted acid site density and catalyst activity, as well as the temperature dependence of Bronsted acid site density indicate the in-situ formation of these active sites. We infer that this mechanism is common among all supported WOx samples described in this study. Turnover rates are a function of Bronsted acid site density only. High acid site densities lead to high turnover rates. Higher active site densities may cause stronger conjugate bases, as a higher electron density has to be stabilized, and thus weaker acidity, enabling a faster rate of product desorption. The maximum achievable active site density is dependent on the support. WZr reaches a higher active site density than WAl.

  20. Reduction of false arrhythmia alarms using signal selection and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Eerikäinen, Linda M; Vanschoren, Joaquin; Rooijakkers, Michael J; Vullings, Rik; Aarts, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm that classifies whether a generated cardiac arrhythmia alarm is true or false. The large number of false alarms in intensive care is a severe issue. The noise peaks caused by alarms can be high and in a noisy environment nurses can experience stress and fatigue. In addition, patient safety is compromised because reaction time of the caregivers to true alarms is reduced. The data for the algorithm development consisted of records of electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure, and photoplethysmogram signals in which an alarm for either asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation or flutter, or ventricular tachycardia occurs. First, heart beats are extracted from every signal. Next, the algorithm selects the most reliable signal pair from the available signals by comparing how well the detected beats match between different signals based on [Formula: see text]-score and selecting the best match. From the selected signal pair, arrhythmia specific features, such as heart rate features and signal purity index are computed for the alarm classification. The classification is performed with five separate Random Forest models. In addition, information on the local noise level of the selected ECG lead is added to the classification. The algorithm was trained and evaluated with the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015 data set. In the test set the overall true positive rates were 93 and 95% and true negative rates 80 and 83%, respectively for events with no information and events with information after the alarm. The overall challenge scores were 77.39 and 81.58. PMID:27454128

  1. When rumination counts: Perceived social support and heart rate variability in daily life.

    PubMed

    Gerteis, Ann Kathrin S; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas R

    2016-07-01

    Rumination and social support could modulate cardiac activity. Although both variables are somehow interrelated, they are often studied independently, and their interplay is seldom considered. We aimed to analyze the interaction of rumination and perceived social support on vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) in daily life. The sample consisted of 117 healthy participants (57% female, mean age = 27.9, SD = 5.5 years). Ambulatory HRV (root mean squared successive differences), respiration, body position, and body movements were recorded continuously on three consecutive weekdays. Momentary social, situational, and cognitive-affective variables (affect, ruminative thoughts, perceived social support) were assessed using a computerized diary. There was a significant interaction between momentary rumination and perceived social support on ambulatory HRV: When participants were involved in social interactions with low social support, concurrent rumination was associated with attenuated HRV. However, when rumination was accompanied by a strong sense of support, HRV significantly increased. The quality of social interactions and rumination seem to interact in daily life to predict cardiac autonomic control. The results stress the necessity to consider the interplay of psychological and social factors in order to evaluate beneficial or adverse effects on cardiac health. PMID:27137911

  2. When rumination counts: Perceived social support and heart rate variability in daily life.

    PubMed

    Gerteis, Ann Kathrin S; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas R

    2016-07-01

    Rumination and social support could modulate cardiac activity. Although both variables are somehow interrelated, they are often studied independently, and their interplay is seldom considered. We aimed to analyze the interaction of rumination and perceived social support on vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) in daily life. The sample consisted of 117 healthy participants (57% female, mean age = 27.9, SD = 5.5 years). Ambulatory HRV (root mean squared successive differences), respiration, body position, and body movements were recorded continuously on three consecutive weekdays. Momentary social, situational, and cognitive-affective variables (affect, ruminative thoughts, perceived social support) were assessed using a computerized diary. There was a significant interaction between momentary rumination and perceived social support on ambulatory HRV: When participants were involved in social interactions with low social support, concurrent rumination was associated with attenuated HRV. However, when rumination was accompanied by a strong sense of support, HRV significantly increased. The quality of social interactions and rumination seem to interact in daily life to predict cardiac autonomic control. The results stress the necessity to consider the interplay of psychological and social factors in order to evaluate beneficial or adverse effects on cardiac health.

  3. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  4. 8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d... (13 millimeters) high as follows: Attention General Alarm—When Alarm Sounds Go to Your Station. (e)...

  6. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d) Each general alarm bell and flashing red light must be identified with red lettering at least 1/2...

  7. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d) Each general alarm bell and flashing red light must be identified with red lettering at least 1/2...

  8. Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

  9. Concatenation of 'alert' and 'identity' segments in dingoes' alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Déaux, Eloïse C; Allen, Andrew P; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Multicomponent signals can be formed by the uninterrupted concatenation of multiple call types. One such signal is found in dingoes, Canis familiaris dingo. This stereotyped, multicomponent 'bark-howl' vocalisation is formed by the concatenation of a noisy bark segment and a tonal howl segment. Both segments are structurally similar to bark and howl vocalisations produced independently in other contexts (e.g. intra- and inter-pack communication). Bark-howls are mainly uttered in response to human presence and were hypothesized to serve as alarm calls. We investigated the function of bark-howls and the respective roles of the bark and howl segments. We found that dingoes could discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar howl segments, after having only heard familiar howl vocalisations (i.e. different calls). We propose that howl segments could function as 'identity signals' and allow receivers to modulate their responses according to the caller's characteristics. The bark segment increased receivers' attention levels, providing support for earlier observational claims that barks have an 'alerting' function. Lastly, dingoes were more likely to display vigilance behaviours upon hearing bark-howl vocalisations, lending support to the alarm function hypothesis. Canid vocalisations, such as the dingo bark-howl, may provide a model system to investigate the selective pressures shaping complex communication systems. PMID:27460289

  10. Bridging the Gap: The Halifax New Teacher Support Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Alayne

    2013-01-01

    New teachers require specific and targeted support, as witnessed by alarming rates of attrition in their first years in the profession. Research shows they often struggle to bridge the gap between their university study and effective practice, especially with issues such as assessment, classroom management and diversity. New teachers should have…

  11. Modeling of the mass transfer rates of metal ions across supported liquid membranes. 1: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Elhassadi, A.A.; Do, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the modeling of the transport and separation of metal ions across supported liquid membranes. The mass transfer resistance at the liquid-membrane interfaces and the interfacial chemical reactions at both the extracting side and the stripping side are taken into account in the model equations. Simple analysis of the time scale of the system shows the influence of various important parameters and their interactions on the overall transport rate. Parametric studies are also dealt with in this paper.

  12. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  15. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  16. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  17. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  18. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  19. Alarm fatigue: a roadmap for mitigating the cacophony of beeps.

    PubMed

    Purbaugh, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon known as alarm fatigue is the direct result of excessive alarms in hospitals. This article highlights the effects of alarm fatigue and reviews current clinical recommendations and guidelines to raise nurse awareness and provide tools to combat the problem. PMID:24310707

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not...

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not...

  4. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  6. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping... Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a) An approved manual alarm system shall be installed in all areas, other than the main machinery spaces,...

  7. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  8. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually...; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or (iv) An observer...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually...; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or (iv) An observer...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually...; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or (iv) An observer...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually...; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or (iv) An observer...

  13. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  14. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  15. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  16. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  17. Using support vector machines for anomalous change detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P; Steinwart, Ingo; Llamocca, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We cast anomalous change detection as a binary classification problem, and use a support vector machine (SVM) to build a detector that does not depend on assumptions about the underlying data distribution. To speed up the computation, our SVM is implemented, in part, on a graphical processing unit. Results on real and simulated anomalous changes are used to compare performance to algorithms which effectively assume a Gaussian distribution. In this paper, we investigate the use of support vector machines (SVMs) with radial basis kernels for finding anomalous changes. Compared to typical applications of SVMs, we are operating in a regime of very low false alarm rate. This means that even for relatively large training sets, the data are quite meager in the regime of operational interest. This drives us to use larger training sets, which in turn places more of a computational burden on the SVM. We initially considered three different approaches to to address the need to work in the very low false alarm rate regime. The first is a standard SVM which is trained at one threshold (where more reliable estimates of false alarm rates are possible) and then re-thresholded for the low false alarm rate regime. The second uses the same thresholding approach, but employs a so-called least squares SVM; here a quadratic (instead of a hinge-based) loss function is employed, and for this model, there are good theoretical arguments in favor of adjusting the threshold in a straightforward manner. The third approach employs a weighted support vector machine, where the weights for the two types of errors (false alarm and missed detection) are automatically adjusted to achieve the desired false alarm rate. We have found in previous experiments (not shown here) that the first two types can in some cases work well, while in other cases they do not. This renders both approaches unreliable for automated change detection. By contrast, the third approach reliably produces good results, but at

  18. Alarm annunciation in a graphical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.G.

    1994-08-01

    Well-designed graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows{trademark} or UNIX{trademark} -- based X-Windows, provide a capability for enhanced display of security alarm information. Conversely, a poorly designed interface can quickly overwhelm an operator. This paper describes types of graphical information that can be displayed and offers guidance on how to best display that information. Limits are proposed for the complexity of the user interface, and guidelines are suggested for the display of maps and sensors.

  19. Differences in alarm calls of juvenile and adult European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus): Findings on permanently marked animals from a semi-natural enclosure.

    PubMed

    Schneiderov, Irena; Schnitzerov, Petra; Uhlikov, Jitka; Brandl, Pavel; Zouhar, Jan; Matejů, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) emits alarm calls that warn conspecifics of potential danger. Although it has been observed that inexperienced juveniles of this species emit alarm calls that sound similar to those of adults, studies focusing on juvenile alarm calls are lacking. We analyzed the acoustic structure of alarm calls emitted by six permanently marked European ground squirrels living in a semi-natural enclosure when they were juveniles and after 1 year as adults. We found that the acoustic structure of the juvenile alarm calls was significantly different from those of adults and that the alarm calls underwent nearly the same changes in all studied individuals. All juveniles emitted alarm calls consisting of one element with almost constant frequency, but their alarm calls included a second frequency-modulated element after their first hibernation as adults. Our data show that the duration of the first element is significantly shorter in adults than in juveniles. Additionally, the frequency of the first element is significantly higher in adults than in juveniles. Similar to previous findings in other Palearctic ground squirrel species, our data are inconsistent with the assumption that juvenile mammals emit vocalizations with higher fundamental frequencies than adults. However, our results do not support the previously suggested hypothesis that juvenile ground squirrels conceal information regarding their age in their alarm calls because we found significant differences in alarm calls of juveniles and adults.

  20. Science communication and the Swedish acrylamide "alarm".

    PubMed

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E

    2003-01-01

    On April 24, 2002 the Swedish National Food Administration along with a group of researchers at the University of Stockholm raised an alarm regarding potential health risks associated with eating fried and baked foods such as potatoes and bread. Scientists had found high levels of acrylamide (up to 500 times more acrylamide than that allowed in drinking water by the World Health Organisation), a substance widely believed to cause cancer, in cooked high starch foods. The outcomes of this "alarm" were immediate. In Sweden sales of chips fell by 30-50 percent over a 3-day period following the press conference, and share prices among several fried food manufacturers fell substantially, as stock analysts were fearful that consumption of fried foods would decrease significantly. Four days after the press conference, however, consumers began eating fried food as normal and a number of researchers and journalists in Sweden and elsewhere took the view that the alarm had been both exaggerated and ill placed. In this study, I evaluate the science communication process associated with the scare, based on a content analysis of a select group of Swedish broad sheets from just previous to the April 2002 press conference to the present time (December 2002). In addition, the study is based on interviews with the various Swedish regulators involved in the process itself (in particular at the Swedish National Food Administration) as well as with the scientists responsible for the study at Stockholm University and relevant journalists and politicians.

  1. Social support and the self-rated health of older people

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yue; Zhang, Chen-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Quan; Li, Zhanzhan; Jiang, Caixiao; Huang, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The lack of social support in elderly populations incurs real societal costs and can lead to their poor health. The aim of this study is to investigate the self-rated health (SRH) and social support among older people as well as its associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 312 urban community-dwelling elderly aged 65 to 90 years in Tainan Taiwan and Fuzhou Fujian Province from March 2012 to October 2012. A Spearson correlation test, independent t test, a Pearson χ2 test, a linear regression analysis, and a multiple-level model were performed to analyze the results. The participants identified children as the most important source of objective and subjective support, followed by spouse and relatives. Tainan's elderly received more daily life assistance and emotional support, showed stronger awareness of the need to seek help, and maintained a higher frequency of social interactions compared with the elderly in Fuzhou. The mean objective support, subjective support, and support utilization scores as well as the overall social support among Tainan's elderly were significantly high compared with the scores among Fuzhou's elderly. Further, Tainan's elderly rated better SRH than Fuzhou's elderly. Correlation analysis showed that social support was significantly correlated with city, age, living conditions, marital status, and SRH. Multiple linear regression analysis, with social support as a dependent variable, retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model: city (4.792, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.068–6.516, P = 0.000), age (−0.805, 95% CI: −1.394 to −0.135, P = 0.013), marital status (−1.260, 95% CI: −1.891 to −0.629, P = 0.000), living conditions (4.069, 95% CI: 3.022–5.116, P = 0.000), and SRH −1.941, 95% CI: −3.194 to −0.688, P = 0.003). The multiple-level model showed that city would impact older people's social support (χ2 = 5.103, P < 0.001). Marital status (−2.133, 95

  2. Improved detection and false alarm rejection for chemical vapors using passive hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, William J.; Miyashiro, Rex; Gittins, Christopher M.; Konno, Daisei; Chang, Shing; Farr, Matt; Perkins, Brad

    2013-05-01

    Two AIRIS sensors were tested at Dugway Proving Grounds against chemical agent vapor simulants. The primary objectives of the test were to: 1) assess performance of algorithm improvements designed to reduce false alarm rates with a special emphasis on solar effects, and 3) evaluate performance in target detection at 5 km. The tests included 66 total releases comprising alternating 120 kg glacial acetic acid (GAA) and 60 kg triethyl phosphate (TEP) events. The AIRIS sensors had common algorithms, detection thresholds, and sensor parameters. The sensors used the target set defined for the Joint Service Lightweight Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) with TEP substituted for GA and GAA substituted for VX. They were exercised at two sites located at either 3 km or 5 km from the release point. Data from the tests will be presented showing that: 1) excellent detection capability was obtained at both ranges with significantly shorter alarm times at 5 km, 2) inter-sensor comparison revealed very comparable performance, 3) false alarm rates < 1 incident per 10 hours running time over 143 hours of sensor operations were achieved, 4) algorithm improvements eliminated both solar and cloud false alarms. The algorithms enabling the improved false alarm rejection will be discussed. The sensor technology has recently been extended to address the problem of detection of liquid and solid chemical agents and toxic industrial chemical on surfaces. The phenomenology and applicability of passive infrared hyperspectral imaging to this problem will be discussed and demonstrated.

  3. Lateral Pressure Dependence of the Phospholipid Transmembrane Diffusion Rate in Planar-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Anglin, Timothy C.; Conboy, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The dependence of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) flip-flop kinetics on the lateral membrane pressure in a phospholipid bilayer was investigated by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. Planar-supported lipid bilayers were prepared on fused silica supports using the Langmuir-Blodgett/Langmuir-Schaeffer technique, which allows precise control over the lateral surface pressure and packing density of the membrane. The lipid bilayer deposition pressure was varied from 28 to 42 mN/m. The kinetics of lipid flip-flop in these membranes was measured by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy at 37°C. An order-of-magnitude difference in the rate constant for lipid translocation (10.9 × 10−4 s−1 to 1.03 × 10−4 s−1) was measured for membranes prepared at 28 mN/m and 42 mN/m, respectively. This change in rate results from only a 7.4% change in the packing density of the lipids in the bilayer. From the observed kinetics, the area of activation for native phospholipid flip-flop in a protein-free DPPC planar-supported lipid bilayer was determined to be 73 ± 12 Å2/molecule at 37°C. Significance of the observed activation area and potential future applications of the technique to the study of phospholipid flip-flop are discussed. PMID:18339755

  4. [Customers who have bought a comfort alarm also bought wireless cable and volleyball rackets : legal and medical aspects of so-called comfort alarms].

    PubMed

    Röhrig, R; Kaiser, J

    2014-06-01

    The word "secondary alarm" also sometimes known as "comfort alarm" means that a system indicates a critical situation (alarm condition) but this does not happen with the safety of an alarm system. A closer inspection of the small print reveals that the comfort alarm is in reality not an alarm but only additional information. This article summarizes in compact form what consequences this has for the user and what precautions should be taken when acquiring an alarm system.

  5. Examination of criticality accident alarm coverage on the operating floors of the X-333, X-330, and X-326 facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Woollard, J.; Skapik, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an evaluation of Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) coverage of the operating floors (first floors) of the X-333, X-330, and X-326 buildings. CAAS coverage of the process cell floors (second floors) has been evaluated in previous reports. Coverage of the roadways around the three processing buildings by the cell floor detectors in these buildings has also been verified in a previous report. In order to evaluate coverage, the facilities were modeled using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer Code (MCNP). MCNP was then used to simulate criticality accidents at various locations throughout the operating floors of the buildings and the associated neutron flux at the current detector locations was calculated. The neutron flux was then converted to an absorbed dose rate (in tissue) and compared with the Portsmouth criticality accident alarm set-point of 5mrad/hr. The parameters defining the simulated criticality accidents have been calculated as ``the minimum accident of concern`` as defined in ANSI Standard ANS 8.3-1986. These calculations are documented in Portsmouth report number POEF-SH-31. The results of this evaluation indicate that the X-333 Operating Floor CAAS may not alarm in response to a minimum accident of concern. This is primarily because of shielding provided by the numerous concrete columns used to support the second floor of this building and the large distances between the CAAS detectors. Conversely, the results indicate that the X-326 and the X-330 CAAS systems would alarm in response to a minimum accident of concern occurring on the operating floors of these buildings. It should be noted that the cell floors in these two buildings are supported with steel I-beams instead of the concrete columns used in the X-333 building.

  6. Fuzzy Based Decision Support System for Condition Assessment and Rating of Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Karusala, Ramanjaneyulu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a knowledge based decision support system has been developed to efficiently handle the issues such as distress diagnosis, assessment of damages and condition rating of existing bridges towards developing an exclusive and robust Bridge Management System (BMS) for sustainable bridges. The Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES) diagnoses the distresses and finds the cause of distress in the bridge by processing the data which are heuristic and combined with site inspection results, laboratory test results etc. The coupling of symbolic and numeric type of data has been successfully implemented in the expert system to strengthen its decision making process. Finally, the condition rating of the bridge is carried out using the assessment results obtained from the KBES and the information received from the bridge inspector. A systematic procedure has been developed using fuzzy mathematics for condition rating of bridges by combining the fuzzy weighted average and resolution identity technique. The proposed methodologies and the decision support system will facilitate in developing a robust and exclusive BMS for a network of bridges across the country and allow the bridge engineers and decision makers to carry out maintenance of bridges in a rational and systematic way.

  7. Fuzzy Based Decision Support System for Condition Assessment and Rating of Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Karusala, Ramanjaneyulu

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a knowledge based decision support system has been developed to efficiently handle the issues such as distress diagnosis, assessment of damages and condition rating of existing bridges towards developing an exclusive and robust Bridge Management System (BMS) for sustainable bridges. The Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES) diagnoses the distresses and finds the cause of distress in the bridge by processing the data which are heuristic and combined with site inspection results, laboratory test results etc. The coupling of symbolic and numeric type of data has been successfully implemented in the expert system to strengthen its decision making process. Finally, the condition rating of the bridge is carried out using the assessment results obtained from the KBES and the information received from the bridge inspector. A systematic procedure has been developed using fuzzy mathematics for condition rating of bridges by combining the fuzzy weighted average and resolution identity technique. The proposed methodologies and the decision support system will facilitate in developing a robust and exclusive BMS for a network of bridges across the country and allow the bridge engineers and decision makers to carry out maintenance of bridges in a rational and systematic way.

  8. Exposure to a putative alarm cue reduces downstream drift in larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wagner, C M; Kierczynski, K E; Hume, J B; Luhring, T M

    2016-09-01

    An experimental mesocosm study suggested larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus detect and respond to an alarm cue released by dead adult conspecifics. Larvae exhibited a reduced tendency to move downstream when exposed to the cue and were less likely to move under continuous v. pulsed exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to the alarm cue would probably result in retraction into the burrow, consistent with the blind, cryptic lifestyle of the larval P. marinus. PMID:27456088

  9. Evaluation of a cure process during alarm treatment for nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Koga, Aito; Minami, Satoru

    2006-10-01

    Using a treatment package featuring the urine alarm, this study evaluated a treatment process for nocturnal enuresis. Children who received the training were classified into treatment successes (N = 38) and nonsuccesses (N = 19) according to a criterion (3-week continence). Their daily results were analyzed with four categories: dry with sleep (DS), dry with spontaneous awakening (DA), wet with spontaneous or alarm-forced awakening (WA), and wet with sleep (WS). In a trend analysis, an increase of DA over the treatment process was prominent for successes compared to nonsuccesses. Entering WA to a discriminant analysis, 86% of children were correctly classified into the two groups. The findings that awakening categories well distinguished successes from nonsuccesses provide support for an active avoidance model explaining the efficacy of urine-alarm treatment for nocturnal enuresis.

  10. Specification of business rules for the development of hospital alarm system: application to the pharmaceutical validation.

    PubMed

    Boussadi, Abdelali; Bousquet, Cedric; Sabatier, Brigitte; Colombet, Isabelle; Degoulet, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    Although clinical alarm systems are part of the knowledge management setting within healthcare organisations, modelling of business processes related to decision support and knowledge representation of decision rules are seldom described. We propose a customization of the Unified Process that takes into account user requirements for clinical alarm systems by introducing the Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR). This methodology was applied to the design and implementation of a clinical alarm system for pharmaceutical validation at the European Hospital Georges Pompidou (HEGP). Rules were implemented using the IlogJRules Business Rule Management System. We produced 3 business rules patterns and 427 instances of rules. As SBVR is close to natural language, pharmacists were able to understand rules and participate to their design.

  11. False-alarm mitigation and feature-based discrimination for airborne mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Deepak; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Ganju, Ritesh; Swonger, C. W.

    2004-09-01

    The aim of an anomaly detector is to locate spatial target locations that show significantly different spectral/spatial characteristics as compared to the background. Typical anomaly detectors can achieve a high probability of detection, however at the cost of significantly high false alarm rates. For successful minefield detection there is a need for a further processing step to identify mine-like targets and/or reject non-mine targets in order to improve the mine detection to false alarm ratio. In this paper, we discuss a number of false alarm mitigation (FAM) modalities for MWIR imagery. In particular, we investigate measures based on circularity, gray scale shape profile and reflection symmetry. The performance of these modalities is evaluated for false alarm mitigation using real airborne MWIR data at different times of the day and for different spectral bands. We also motivate a feature based clustering and discrimination scheme based on these modalities to classify similar targets. While false alarm mitigation is primarily used to reject non-mine like targets, feature based clustering can be used to select similar-looking mine-like targets. Minefield detection can subsequently proceed on each localized cluster of similar looking targets.

  12. Chair alarm for patient fall prevention based on gesture recognition and interactivity.

    PubMed

    Knight, Heather; Lee, Jae-Kyu; Ma, Hongshen

    2008-01-01

    The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The GRiT chair alarm uses an array of capacitive proximity sensors and pressure sensors to create a map of the patient's sitting position, which is then processed using gesture recognition algorithms to determine when a patient is attempting to stand and to alarm the care providers. This system also uses a range of voice and light feedback to encourage the patient to remain seated and/or to make use of the system's integrated nurse-call function. This system can be seamlessly integrated into existing hospital WiFi networks to send notifications and approximate patient location through existing nurse call systems.

  13. Chemical Alarm Cues Are Conserved within the Coral Reef Fish Family Pomacentridae

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Matthew D.; Cowman, Peter F.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    Fishes are known to use chemical alarm cues from both conspecifics and heterospecifics to assess local predation risks and enhance predator detection. Yet it is unknown how recognition of heterospecific cues arises for coral reef fishes. Here, we test if naïve juvenile fish have an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues. We also examine if there is a relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response to these cues and the degree to which species are related to each other. Naïve juvenile anemone fish, Amphiprion percula, were tested to see if they displayed antipredator responses to chemical alarm cues from four closely related heterospecific species (family Pomacentridae), a distantly related sympatric species (Asterropteryx semipunctatus) and a saltwater (control). Juveniles displayed significant reductions in foraging rate when exposed to all four confamilial heterospecific species but they did not respond to the distantly related sympatric species or the saltwater control. There was also a strong relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response and the extent to which species were related, with responses weakening as species became more distantly related. These findings demonstrate that chemical alarm cues are conserved within the pomacentrid family, providing juveniles with an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues as predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness hypothesis. PMID:23094047

  14. Alarm handler for the advanced photon source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.; Cha, B.K.; Anderson, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, will have a control system employing graphics workstations at the operator interface level and VME-based microprocessors operating with a distributed database at the field level. The alarm handler is an application utilizing X-Windows running on one or more operator interface workstations which monitors alarms generated by the VME-based microprocessors. Alarms can be grouped in a hierarchical manner. The operator can monitor, acknowledge, and mask alarms either individually or aggregately. Alarm changes of state and all operator modifications are logged. When alarms occur, display windows are automatically generated conveying system and subsystem relationships and severity. Menus are used to modify the alarm action configuration files and to obtain help. Since alarm groups are defined via an alarm configuration file, the alarm handler is a general purpose application which can be customized to monitor a single subsystem or configured to monitor the entire accelerator complex. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Indoor and outdoor social alarms: understanding users' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sjölinder, Marie; Avatare Nöu, Anneli

    2014-03-07

    The elderly population is increasing and there is a need to provide care and safety at a high level with limited resources. New social alarm solutions may contribute to safety and independence for many elderly. However, it is important to understand the needs within the user group. This work studied social alarms in a broad sense and from several user perspectives. In the first study, social alarm use and its aspects were investigated. To understand where there may be problems and weaknesses, users, caregivers, managers of municipalities, and personnel at alarm centers were interviewed. The interviews helped identify a number of problems. For municipalities, the processes of procuring new alarms and managing their organization were found to be complex. The effect of this was that the same social alarm systems had been ordered over and over again without taking into account new user needs or new technical solutions. For alarm users, one large problem was that the alarms had very limited reach and were designed for indoor use only. This has resulted in users hesitating to leave their homes, which in turn has negative effects due to lack of physical activity and fewer social contacts. One important result from the first study was the need for a social alarm solution that worked outdoors. In a second study, needs regarding outdoor social alarms were investigated. The results from this study showed that wearable outdoor alarms must be easy to use, provide communication, and be well designed. Finally, these alarms must work both indoors and outdoors, and the user should not have to worry about where he/she is or who is acting on an alarm.

  16. Alarm system for a nuclear control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  17. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2001-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  18. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  19. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  20. Alarm Management System for the D/3 Distributed Control System

    1997-03-19

    As industrial processes continue to grow in size and complexity, the Distrubuted Control Systems that automate and monitor these processes expand in a like manner. This increase in control system complexity has resulted in ever increasing numbers of alarms presented to the operator. The challenge for today's control system designer is to find innovative ways to present alarm information to the operator such that despite the large number of alarms, the operator is able tomore » quickly assess the status of the plant and immediately respond to the most critical alarms in a timely manner. This software package, designed and developed for the Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator/Waste Removal Distributed Control System installed on the H-Area Tank Farm, provides an alarm system which utilizes the annunciator (SKID) panel as a means of statusing the plant and providing single keystroke access to the display on which an alarm resides.« less

  1. From Prediction to Prescription: Intelligent Decision Support for Variable Rate Fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Raymond Keith; Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Hess, John Richard

    2001-07-01

    We describe the use of machine learning methods in the analysis of spatial soil fertility, soil physical characteristics, and yield data, with a particular objective of determining local (field- to farm-scale) crop response patterns. For effective prescriptive use, the output of these tools is augmented with economic data and operational constraints, and recast as a rulebased decision support tool to maximize economic return in variable rate fertilization systems. We describe some of the practical issues addressed in development of one such system, including data preparation, adaptation of regression tree output for use in a rule-based expert system, and incorporation of real-world limits on system recommendations. Results from various field trials of this system are summarized.

  2. Antepartum fetal heart rate feature extraction and classification using empirical mode decomposition and support vector machine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiotocography (CTG) is the most widely used tool for fetal surveillance. The visual analysis of fetal heart rate (FHR) traces largely depends on the expertise and experience of the clinician involved. Several approaches have been proposed for the effective interpretation of FHR. In this paper, a new approach for FHR feature extraction based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is proposed, which was used along with support vector machine (SVM) for the classification of FHR recordings as 'normal' or 'at risk'. Methods The FHR were recorded from 15 subjects at a sampling rate of 4 Hz and a dataset consisting of 90 randomly selected records of 20 minutes duration was formed from these. All records were labelled as 'normal' or 'at risk' by two experienced obstetricians. A training set was formed by 60 records, the remaining 30 left as the testing set. The standard deviations of the EMD components are input as features to a support vector machine (SVM) to classify FHR samples. Results For the training set, a five-fold cross validation test resulted in an accuracy of 86% whereas the overall geometric mean of sensitivity and specificity was 94.8%. The Kappa value for the training set was .923. Application of the proposed method to the testing set (30 records) resulted in a geometric mean of 81.5%. The Kappa value for the testing set was .684. Conclusions Based on the overall performance of the system it can be stated that the proposed methodology is a promising new approach for the feature extraction and classification of FHR signals. PMID:21244712

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered...

  4. 5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing cable strand alarm located at Beach and Hyde Streets. A strand in the cable (see CA-12-7) forces the fork forward, alerting the powerhouse to the strand by means of an electrical warning device. This strand alarm operates in essentially the same manner as those first used in the 1880s. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. Diagnostic decision support of heart rate turbulence in sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    D'Addio, Giovanni; De Felice, Alberto; Balzano, Giovanni; Zotti, Rita; Iannotti, Pellegrino; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by repeated upper-airway obstruction during sleep. It is diagnosed by polysomnographic studies, scoring OSAS severity by an apneas/hypopneas index associated to worse prognosis, mainly for an increased cardiovascular morbidity. Cardiac autonomic impairments involved in the development of cardiovascular disease in OSAS can be assessed by heart rate turbulence (HRT) analysis and aim of the paper is to show the increased medical decision support by HRT evaluation in OSAS patients. HRT has been assessed in 274 polysomnographic recordings of mild-to-severe OSAS patients and an overall cardiorespiratory risk scoring (CRRIS) index has been proposed on the base of both OSAS severity and HRT assessment. Results showed that, while the only polysomnografic analysis would have equally ranked OSAS patients within their mild-to-severe classification, CRRIS index allows to identify a 19% of severe-OSAS patients at very high risk of sudden cardiac death, a 13% of moderate-OSAS patients with a risk level comparable to those of severe, and a 17% of mild-OSAS patients with evidence of an autonomic impairment. CRRIS index, detecting patients at greater probability of worsening could give to the physician a very useful medical decision support in the follow up of this particular chronic disease.

  6. Evaluation of nine different types of enuresis alarms.

    PubMed

    Goel, K M; Thomson, R B; Gibb, E M; McAinsh, T F

    1984-08-01

    One hundred enuretic children were treated in closely supervised trial conditions with nine commonly used enuresis alarm systems available commercially in the United Kingdom. Although there was little difference between the systems in terms of their effectiveness in stopping bed wetting, parents preferred the Eastleigh and Urilarm De-Luxe models which had distinct advantages in respect of false alarms, breakdowns, and durability of pads. Enuresis alarms that perform poorly in these respects may lead to loss of enthusiasm and non-compliance. The systems vary widely in price, but a private buyer may find a cheaper alarm just as effective. PMID:6476872

  7. Supported plasma sputtering apparatus for high deposition rate over large area

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Ronald W.; McClanahan, Jr., Edwin D.; Laegreid, Nils

    1977-01-01

    A supported plasma sputtering apparatus is described having shaped electrical fields in the electron discharge region between the cathode and anode and the sputter region between the target and substrate while such regions are free of any externally applied magnetic field to provide a high deposition rate which is substantially uniform over a wide area. Plasma shaping electrodes separate from the anode and target shape the electrical fields in the electron discharge region and the sputter region to provide a high density plasma. The anode surrounds the target to cause substantially uniform sputtering over a large target area. In one embodiment the anode is in the form of an annular ring surrounding a flat target surface, such anode being provided with a ribbed upper surface which shields portions of the anode from exposure to sputtered material to maintain the electron discharge for a long stable operation. Several other embodiments accomplish the same result by using different anodes which either shield the anode from sputtered material, remove the sputtered coating on the anode by heating, or simultaneously mix sputtered metal from the auxiliary target with sputtered insulator from the main target so the resultant coating is conductive. A radio frequency potential alone or together with a D.C. potential, may be applied to the target for a greater sputtering rate.

  8. On the observability of turbulent transport rates by Argo: supporting evidence from an inversion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, G.; Ferreira, D.; Liang, X.

    2015-06-01

    Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20 year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity) and independent variables (bio-geochemical tracers). Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper ocean ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rates. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  9. On the observability of turbulent transport rates by Argo: supporting evidence from an inversion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, G.; Ferreira, D.; Liang, X.

    2015-10-01

    Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad-scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20-year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, version 4) non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century-long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity) and independent variables (biogeochemical tracers). Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper-ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first-order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rate inversions. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  10. On The Observability Of Turbulent Transport Rates By Argo: Supporting Evidence From An Inversion Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, G.; Ferreira, D.; Liang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Although estimation of turbulent transport parameters using inverse methods is not new, there is little evaluation of the method in the literature. Here, it is shown that extended observation of the broad scale hydrography by Argo provides a path to improved estimates of regional turbulent transport rates. Results from a 20 year ocean state estimate produced with the ECCO v4 non-linear inverse modeling framework provide supporting evidence. Turbulent transport parameter maps are estimated under the constraints of fitting the extensive collection of Argo profiles collected through 2011. The adjusted parameters dramatically reduce misfits to in situ profiles as compared with earlier ECCO solutions. They also yield a clear reduction in the model drift away from observations over multi-century long simulations, both for assimilated variables (temperature and salinity) and independent variables (bio-geochemical tracers). Despite the minimal constraints imposed specifically on the estimated parameters, their geography is physically plausible and exhibits close connections with the upper ocean ocean stratification as observed by Argo. The estimated parameter adjustments furthermore have first order impacts on upper-ocean stratification and mixed layer depths over 20 years. These results identify the constraint of fitting Argo profiles as an effective observational basis for regional turbulent transport rates. Uncertainties and further improvements of the method are discussed.

  11. Design of anti-burglar alarm systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şchiopu, Paul; Costea, Aurelian

    2015-02-01

    Security, as an important element that defines the quality of a system, represents the capacity of a system to preserve his own functional characteristics under pressure of external disruptive agents capable to represent danger for the system, for the environment of the system, and for the life of people inside the defined risk zone. The main goal of security is system stability. With ever new ideas, technology, procedures, actions and specialized institutions, integrated security services offer protection, surveillance and optimum conditions for system to function and to be used properly. Therefore, security represents the main quality parameter of all systems and processes, without it efficiency was not possible. Keyword list: Security; Anti-Burglar Alarm

  12. The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

    1995-01-01

    Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture. PMID:7816823

  13. Teacher Retention Issues: How Some Principals Are Supporting and Keeping New Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.; Wynn, Susan R.

    2007-01-01

    Beginning teachers continue to exit the classroom in alarming numbers, despite numerous recruitment and retention strategies. High teacher turnover rates result in a deficit of quality teachers and instruction; a loss of continuity and commitment; and time, attention, and funds devoted to recruitment versus support. The purpose of this empirical…

  14. Pain Intensity Recognition Rates via Biopotential Feature Patterns with Support Vector Machines

    PubMed Central

    Gruss, Sascha; Treister, Roi; Werner, Philipp; Traue, Harald C.; Crawcour, Stephen; Andrade, Adriano; Walter, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinically used methods of pain diagnosis do not allow for objective and robust measurement, and physicians must rely on the patient’s report on the pain sensation. Verbal scales, visual analog scales (VAS) or numeric rating scales (NRS) count among the most common tools, which are restricted to patients with normal mental abilities. There also exist instruments for pain assessment in people with verbal and / or cognitive impairments and instruments for pain assessment in people who are sedated and automated ventilated. However, all these diagnostic methods either have limited reliability and validity or are very time-consuming. In contrast, biopotentials can be automatically analyzed with machine learning algorithms to provide a surrogate measure of pain intensity. Methods In this context, we created a database of biopotentials to advance an automated pain recognition system, determine its theoretical testing quality, and optimize its performance. Eighty-five participants were subjected to painful heat stimuli (baseline, pain threshold, two intermediate thresholds, and pain tolerance threshold) under controlled conditions and the signals of electromyography, skin conductance level, and electrocardiography were collected. A total of 159 features were extracted from the mathematical groupings of amplitude, frequency, stationarity, entropy, linearity, variability, and similarity. Results We achieved classification rates of 90.94% for baseline vs. pain tolerance threshold and 79.29% for baseline vs. pain threshold. The most selected pain features stemmed from the amplitude and similarity group and were derived from facial electromyography. Conclusion The machine learning measurement of pain in patients could provide valuable information for a clinical team and thus support the treatment assessment. PMID:26474183

  15. Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

  16. 1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22, showing layout of rooms. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Edwards Test Station, Fire Alarm Plan, Bldg. E-22,' drawing no. EFA/11-1, December 15, 1961. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) through (a)(5), (a)(7), (a)(8), (a)(10), (a)(11), and (a)(13). (2) The tests in this section must be... actuation of the alarm is taken. The alarm is then fed with water for 15 minutes. (3) Repeat steps in... steps in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section using iron oxide concentrations of 50 ppm and 100...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842 Cargo system: Controls and alarms. The master shall ensure that the cargo emergency shut-down system and...

  19. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indicating and alarm systems. 58.25-25 Section 58.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-25 Indicating and alarm systems. (a) Indication of the rudder angle must be provided both...

  20. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  1. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  2. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LEVEL ALARM.” Cargo Temperature Control Systems ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo...

  3. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LEVEL ALARM.” Cargo Temperature Control Systems ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo...

  4. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  5. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  6. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  7. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  8. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  9. D0 Cryo System ODH and Cryo Alarm System Response

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-05

    The D0 Cryo System is monitored by a computerized process control system and an ODH safety system. During steady state operations the cryo system will be unmanned and system experts will depend on communication systems for notification of system problems. The FIRUS system meets the minimum communication requirement and is supplemented with an autodialer which attempts to contact cryo operators by pager or phone. The RD/Safety Department requires the ODH monitor system to be connected to the labwide FIRUS system. which enables the Communications Center to receive alarms and notify the proper experts of the condition. The ODH system will have two alarm points. One for an ODH alarm and one for a system trouble alarm. The autodialer system has replaced a former cryo operations summation alarm point in the FIRUS system. This has freed space on the FIRUS system and has allowed the cryo experts more flexibility in setting up their own communication link. The FIRUS and the autodialer systems receive alarms and access lists of experts to call for notification of problems. Attempts to contact these experts will continue until the alarm or alarms is acknowledged.

  10. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers to this section or requires a cargo to have...

  11. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  12. Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallonee, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

  13. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  14. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  15. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  16. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  17. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  18. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  19. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  20. Longitudinal adoption rates of complex decision support tools in primary care.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Lauren; Mann, Devin; Rosen, Lisa; Kannry, Joseph; McGinn, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Translating research findings into practice promises to standardise care. Translation includes the integration of evidence-based guidelines at the point of care, discerning the best methods to disseminate research findings and models to sustain the implementation of best practices.By applying usability testing to clinical decision support(CDS) design, overall adoption rates of 60% can be realised.What has not been examined is how long adoption rates are sustained and the characteristics associated with long-term use. We conducted secondary analysis to decipher the factors impacting sustained use of CD Stools. This study was a secondary data analysis from a clinical trial conducted at an academic institution in New York City. Study data was identified patients electronic health records (EHR). The trial was to test the implementation of an integrated clinical prediction rule(iCPR) into the EHR. The primary outcome variable was iCPR tool acceptance of the tool. iCPR tool completion and iCPR smartest completion were additional outcome variables of interest. The secondary aim was to examine user characteristics associated with iCPR tool use in later time periods. Characteristics of interest included age, resident year, use of electronic health records (yes/no) and use of best practice alerts (BPA) (yes/no). Generalised linear mixed models (GLiMM) were used to compare iCPR use over time for each outcome of interest: namely, iCPR acceptance, iCPR completion and iCPR smartset completion.GLiMM was also used to examine resident characteristics associated with iCPR tool use in later time periods; specifically, intermediate and long-term (ie, 90+days). The tool was accepted, on average, 82.18% in the first 90 days (short-term period). The use decreases to 56.07% and 45.61% in intermediate and long-term time periods, respectively. There was a significant association between iCPR tool completion and time periods(p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in iCPR tool

  1. 46 CFR 76.35-10 - Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. 76.35-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-10 Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. (a) There shall be at least one manual alarm box in each zone. (b) Manual alarms shall be located in...

  2. College Student Ratings of Student Academic Support: Frequency, Importance, and Modes of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Blair; Mazer, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that student academic support plays a vital role at the college level as students often view communication with peers as their primary source of academic support (Thompson, 2008). This research advances the Student Academic Support Scale (SASS) as a method of assessing the frequency, importance, and mode of communicating academic…

  3. Current performance of planter technology to support variable-rate seeding in the Southern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in planting technology are expanding opportunities to vary seeding rates on–the-go. Variable-rate seeding can help maximize overall profits by matching optimal planting rates to field production variability. An important aspect of variable-rate seeding is ensuring peak performance of the pl...

  4. Addition of Alarm Pheromone Components Improves the Effectiveness of Desiccant Dusts Against Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    BENOIT, JOSHUA B.; PHILLIPS, SETH A.; CROXALL, TRAVIS J.; CHRISTENSEN, BRADY S.; YODER, JAY A.; DENLINGER, DAVID L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss. PMID:19496429

  5. Addition of alarm pheromone components improves the effectiveness of desiccant dusts against Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Phillips, Seth A; Croxall, Travis J; Christensen, Brady S; Yoder, Jay A; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss.

  6. Pattern discovery in critical alarms originating from neonates under intensive care.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Atallah, Louis; Feijs, Loe; Van Huffel, Sabine; Andriessen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Patient monitoring generates a large number of alarms, the vast majority of which are false. Excessive non-actionable medical alarms lead to alarm fatigue, a well-recognized patient safety issue. While multiple approaches to reduce alarm fatigue have been explored, patterns in alarming and inter-alarm relationships, as they manifest in the clinical workspace, are largely a black-box and hamper research efforts towards reducing alarms. The aim of this study is to detect opportunities to safely reduce alarm pressure, by developing techniques to identify, capture and visualize patterns in alarms. Nearly 500 000 critical medical alarms were acquired from a neonatal intensive care unit over a 20 month period. Heuristic techniques were developed to extract the inter-alarm relationships. These included identifying the presence of alarm clusters, patterns of transition from one alarm category to another, temporal associations amongst alarms and determination of prevalent sequences in which alarms manifest. Desaturation, bradycardia and apnea constituted 86% of all alarms and demonstrated distinctive periodic increases in the number of alarms that were synchronized with nursing care and enteral feeding. By inhibiting further alarms of a category for a short duration of time (30 s/60 s), non-actionable physiological alarms could be reduced by 20%. The patterns of transition from one alarm category to another and the time duration between such transitions revealed the presence of close temporal associations and multiparametric derangement. Examination of the prevalent alarm sequences reveals that while many sequences comprised of multiple alarms, nearly 65% of the sequences were isolated instances of alarms and are potentially irreducible. Patterns in alarming, as they manifest in the clinical workspace were identified and visualized. This information can be exploited to investigate strategies for reducing alarms.

  7. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

  8. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  9. Students' Ratings of Teacher Support and Academic and Social-Emotional Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Jaclyn E.; Demaray, Michelle K.; Malecki, Christine K.; Terry, Melissa N.; Clary, Michael; Elzinga, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Data on students' perceptions of teacher social support, academic functioning, and social-emotional functioning were collected from a sample of 796 7th and 8th grade middle school students using the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS; Malecki, Demaray, & Elliott, 2000), Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) and school records, and…

  10. Student Success Rate in Online Learning Support Classes Compared to Traditional Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Holly

    2013-01-01

    West Georgia Technical College (WGTC) did not offer online learning support courses and was losing students to other colleges that offered those courses online. Adding to this problem, online learning support class sections were not being added without sufficient proof that students could receive the same level of education in an online section as…

  11. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Rachel A.; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Media reports linking unusual animal behaviour with earthquakes can potentially create false alarms and unnecessary anxiety among people that live in earthquake risk zones. Recently large frog swarms in China and elsewhere have been reported as earthquake precursors in the media. By examining international media reports of frog swarms since 1850 in comparison to earthquake data, it was concluded that frog swarms are naturally occurring dispersal behaviour of juveniles and are not associated with earthquakes. However, the media in seismic risk areas may be more likely to report frog swarms, and more likely to disseminate reports on frog swarms after earthquakes have occurred, leading to an apparent link between frog swarms and earthquakes. Abstract In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by

  12. Technical aspects of the sigma factor alarm method in alpha CAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Some test must be applied to the low-level count data from alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) to determine if the count is statistically significant (i.e., different from background). The test should also automatically account for different levels of background (i.e., ambient radon progeny concentrations). The method should, in other words, be as sensitive as possible, automatically desensitize when required, but in such a manner as to not exceed a previously-chosen acceptable false-alarm rate.

  13. Plastid genomes reveal support for deep phylogenetic relationships and extensive rate variation among palms and other commelinid monocots.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Craig F; Baker, William J; Comer, Jason R; Conran, John G; Lahmeyer, Sean C; Leebens-Mack, James H; Li, Jeff; Lim, Gwynne S; Mayfield-Jones, Dustin R; Perez, Leticia; Medina, Jesus; Pires, J Chris; Santos, Cristian; Wm Stevenson, Dennis; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Davis, Jerrold I

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress based on multilocus, phylogenetic studies of the palms (order Arecales, family Arecaceae), uncertainty remains in resolution/support among major clades and for the placement of the palms among the commelinid monocots. Palms and related commelinids represent a classic case of substitution rate heterogeneity that has not been investigated in the genomic era. To address questions of relationships, support and rate variation among palms and commelinid relatives, 39 plastomes representing the palms and related family Dasypogonaceae were generated via genome skimming and integrated within a monocot-wide matrix for phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses. Support was strong for 'deep' relationships among the commelinid orders, among the five palm subfamilies, and among tribes of the subfamily Coryphoideae. Additionally, there was extreme heterogeneity in the plastid substitution rates across the commelinid orders indicated by model based analyses, with c. 22 rate shifts, and significant departure from a global clock. To date, this study represents the most comprehensively sampled matrix of plastomes assembled for monocot angiosperms, providing genome-scale support for phylogenetic relationships of monocot angiosperms, and lays the phylogenetic groundwork for comparative analyses of the drivers and correlates of such drastic differences in substitution rates across a diverse and significant clade. PMID:26350789

  14. Beyond Socks, Signs, and Alarms: A Reflective Accountability Model for Fall Prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Linda M; Guarracino, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Despite standard fall precautions, including nonskid socks, signs, alarms, and patient instructions, our 48-bed cardiac intermediate care unit (CICU) had a 41% increase in the rate of falls (from 2.2 to 3.1 per 1,000 patient days) and a 65% increase in the rate of falls with injury (from 0.75 to 1.24 per 1,000 patient days) between fiscal years (FY) 2012 and 2013. An evaluation of the falls data conducted by a cohort of four clinical nurses found that the majority of falls occurred when patients were unassisted by nurses, most often during toileting. Supported by the leadership team, the clinical nurses developed an accountability care program that required nurses to use reflective practice to evaluate each fall, including sending an e-mail to all staff members with both the nurse's and the patient's perspective on the fall, as well as the nurse's reflection on what could have been done to prevent the fall. Other program components were a postfall huddle and guidelines for assisting and remaining with fall risk patients for the duration of their toileting. Placing the accountability for falls with the nurse resulted in decreases in the unit's rates of falls and falls with injury of 55% (from 3.1 to 1.39 per 1,000 patient days) and 72% (from 1.24 to 0.35 per 1,000 patient days), respectively, between FY2013 and FY2014. Prompt call bell response (less than 60 seconds) also contributed to the goal of fall prevention. PMID:26710147

  15. Beyond Socks, Signs, and Alarms: A Reflective Accountability Model for Fall Prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Linda M; Guarracino, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Despite standard fall precautions, including nonskid socks, signs, alarms, and patient instructions, our 48-bed cardiac intermediate care unit (CICU) had a 41% increase in the rate of falls (from 2.2 to 3.1 per 1,000 patient days) and a 65% increase in the rate of falls with injury (from 0.75 to 1.24 per 1,000 patient days) between fiscal years (FY) 2012 and 2013. An evaluation of the falls data conducted by a cohort of four clinical nurses found that the majority of falls occurred when patients were unassisted by nurses, most often during toileting. Supported by the leadership team, the clinical nurses developed an accountability care program that required nurses to use reflective practice to evaluate each fall, including sending an e-mail to all staff members with both the nurse's and the patient's perspective on the fall, as well as the nurse's reflection on what could have been done to prevent the fall. Other program components were a postfall huddle and guidelines for assisting and remaining with fall risk patients for the duration of their toileting. Placing the accountability for falls with the nurse resulted in decreases in the unit's rates of falls and falls with injury of 55% (from 3.1 to 1.39 per 1,000 patient days) and 72% (from 1.24 to 0.35 per 1,000 patient days), respectively, between FY2013 and FY2014. Prompt call bell response (less than 60 seconds) also contributed to the goal of fall prevention.

  16. Reducing false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU using multimodal signals and robust QRS detection.

    PubMed

    Sadr, Nadi; Huvanandana, Jacqueline; Nguyen, Doan Trang; Kalra, Chandan; McEwan, Alistair; de Chazal, Philip

    2016-08-01

    This study developed algorithms to decrease the arrhythmia false alarms in the ICU by processing multimodal signals of photoplethysmography (PPG), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and two ECG signals. The goal was to detect the five critical arrhythmias comprising asystole (ASY), extreme bradycardia (EBR), extreme tachycardia (ETC), ventricular tachycardia (VTA), and ventricular flutter or fibrillation (VFB). The different characteristics of the arrhythmias suggested the application of individual signal processing for each alarm and the combination of the algorithms to enhance false alarm detection. Thus, different features and signal processing techniques were used for each arrhythmia type. The ECG signals were first processed to reduce the signal interference. Then, a Hilbert-transform based QRS detector algorithm was utilized to identify the QRS complexes, which were then processed to determine the instantaneous heart rate. The pulsatile signals (PPG and ABP) were processed to discover the pulse onset of beats which were then employed to measure the heart rate. The signal quality index (SQI) of the signals was implemented to verify the integrity of the heart rate information. The overall score obtained by our algorithms in the 2015 Computing in Cardiology Challenge was a score of 74.03% for retrospective and 69.92% for real-time analysis. PMID:27455121

  17. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  18. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concentration of iron oxide. Any change in the bilge alarm reading during the 5 minutes is recorded. (3) Repeat steps in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section using iron oxide concentrations of 50 ppm and 100...

  19. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... concentration of iron oxide. Any change in the bilge alarm reading during the 5 minutes is recorded. (3) Repeat steps in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section using iron oxide concentrations of 50 ppm and 100...

  20. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... concentration of iron oxide. Any change in the bilge alarm reading during the 5 minutes is recorded. (3) Repeat steps in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section using iron oxide concentrations of 50 ppm and 100...

  1. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... concentration of iron oxide. Any change in the bilge alarm reading during the 5 minutes is recorded. (3) Repeat steps in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section using iron oxide concentrations of 50 ppm and 100...

  2. SCADA alarms processing for wind turbine component failure detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, E.; Reder, M.; Melero, J. J.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbine failure and downtime can often compromise the profitability of a wind farm due to their high impact on the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Early detection of failures can facilitate the changeover from corrective maintenance towards a predictive approach. This paper presents a cost-effective methodology to combine various alarm analysis techniques, using data from the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, in order to detect component failures. The approach categorises the alarms according to a reviewed taxonomy, turning overwhelming data into valuable information to assess component status. Then, different alarms analysis techniques are applied for two purposes: the evaluation of the SCADA alarm system capability to detect failures, and the investigation of the relation between components faults being followed by failure occurrences in others. Various case studies are presented and discussed. The study highlights the relationship between faulty behaviour in different components and between failures and adverse environmental conditions.

  3. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable... the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable... the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable... the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable... the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  7. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr. ); McGinnis, B. )

    1990-08-31

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

  9. Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance of the northwest wing - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Onsite Portable Alarm System - Its Merit and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saita, J.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Recently an existence of the earthquake early warning system (EEWS) becomes popular. In general, the EEWS will be installed in a fixed observation site and it may consist of several separated components such as a sensing portion, A/D converter, an information processing potion and so on. The processed information for warning may be transmitted to network via fixed communication line, and therefore this kind of alarm system is called as Network Alarm System. On the other hand, after the severe earthquake damage, it is very important to save the disaster victims immediately. These rescue staffs are also under the risk of aftershocks and need a local alarm not depending on the network, so this kind of alarm can be called as Onsite Alarm. But the common early warning system is too complex to set onsite temporary, and even if possible to install, the alarm is too late to receive at the epicentral area. However, the new generation earthquake early warning system FREQL can issue the P wave alarm by minimum 0.2 seconds after P wave detection. And FREQL is characterized as the unique all-in-one seismometer with power unit. At the time of the 2004 Niigata-Ken-Chuetsu earthquake, a land slide attacked a car just passing. A hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department pulled the survivor, one baby, from the land slide area. During their activity the rescue team was exposed to the risk of secondary hazards caused by the aftershocks. It was clear that it is necessary to use a portable warning system to issue the onsite P wave alarm. Because FREQL was originally developed as portable equipment, Tokyo Fire Department asked us to modify it to the portable equipment with the loud sound and the light signal. In this moment, this portable FREQL has equipped in nation wide. When the hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department was sent to Pakistan as a task force for rescue work of the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, the portable FREQL was used as important onsite portable warning system and P

  11. Heterospecific alarm call recognition in a non-vocal reptile.

    PubMed

    Vitousek, Maren N; Adelman, James S; Gregory, Nathan C; Clair, James J H St

    2007-12-22

    The ability to recognize and respond to the alarm calls of heterospecifics has previously been described only in species with vocal communication. Here we provide evidence that a non-vocal reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), can eavesdrop on the alarm call of the Galápagos mockingbird (Nesomimus parvulus) and respond with anti-predator behaviour. Eavesdropping on complex heterospecific communications demonstrates a remarkable degree of auditory discrimination in a non-vocal species.

  12. Motivation before meaning: motivational information encoded in meerkat alarm calls develops earlier than referential information.

    PubMed

    Hollén, Linda I; Manser, Marta B

    2007-06-01

    In contrast to historical assumptions about the affective nature of animal vocalizations, it is now clear that many vertebrates are capable of producing specific alarm calls in response to different predators, calls that provide information that goes beyond the motivational state of a caller. However, although these calls function referentially, it does not mean that they are devoid of motivational content. Studies on meerkats (Suricata suricatta) directly support this conclusion. The acoustic structure of their alarm calls simultaneously encodes information that is both motivational (level of urgency) and referential (predator specific). In this study, we investigated whether alarm calls of young meerkats undergo developmental modification and whether the motivational or the referential aspect of calls changes more over time. We found that, based on their acoustic structure, calls of young showed a high correct assignment to low- and high-urgency contexts but, in contrast to adults, low assignment to specific predator types. However, the discrimination among predator types was better in high-urgency than in low-urgency contexts. Our results suggest that acoustic features related to level of urgency are expressed earlier than those related to predator-specific information and may support the idea that referential calls evolve from motivational signals.

  13. Motivation before meaning: motivational information encoded in meerkat alarm calls develops earlier than referential information.

    PubMed

    Hollén, Linda I; Manser, Marta B

    2007-06-01

    In contrast to historical assumptions about the affective nature of animal vocalizations, it is now clear that many vertebrates are capable of producing specific alarm calls in response to different predators, calls that provide information that goes beyond the motivational state of a caller. However, although these calls function referentially, it does not mean that they are devoid of motivational content. Studies on meerkats (Suricata suricatta) directly support this conclusion. The acoustic structure of their alarm calls simultaneously encodes information that is both motivational (level of urgency) and referential (predator specific). In this study, we investigated whether alarm calls of young meerkats undergo developmental modification and whether the motivational or the referential aspect of calls changes more over time. We found that, based on their acoustic structure, calls of young showed a high correct assignment to low- and high-urgency contexts but, in contrast to adults, low assignment to specific predator types. However, the discrimination among predator types was better in high-urgency than in low-urgency contexts. Our results suggest that acoustic features related to level of urgency are expressed earlier than those related to predator-specific information and may support the idea that referential calls evolve from motivational signals. PMID:17479462

  14. An alarm processing system for a nuclear power plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.O.; Chang, S.H. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on an alarm processing system (APS) developed that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help operators to make decisions. Alarms in nuclear power plants are classified into generalized and special alarms. Generalized alarms are further classified into global and local alarms. For each type of alarm, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The processing for the generalized alarms is based on model-based reasoning. The special alarms are processed by the cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to both the plant state and the consistencies among the alarms. This APS is built on a workstation using the Prolog language.

  15. Interevent times in a new alarm-based earthquake forecasting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, Abdelhak; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Zhuang, Jiancang; Satake, Kenji; Hamdache, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    This study introduces a new earthquake forecasting model that uses the moment ratio (MR) of the first to second order moments of earthquake interevent times as a precursory alarm index to forecast large earthquake events. This MR model is based on the idea that the MR is associated with anomalous long-term changes in background seismicity prior to large earthquake events. In a given region, the MR statistic is defined as the inverse of the index of dispersion or Fano factor, with MR values (or scores) providing a biased estimate of the relative regional frequency of background events, here termed the background fraction. To test the forecasting performance of this proposed MR model, a composite Japan-wide earthquake catalogue for the years between 679 and 2012 was compiled using the Japan Meteorological Agency catalogue for the period between 1923 and 2012, and the Utsu historical seismicity records between 679 and 1922. MR values were estimated by sampling interevent times from events with magnitude M ≥ 6 using an earthquake random sampling (ERS) algorithm developed during previous research. Three retrospective tests of M ≥ 7 target earthquakes were undertaken to evaluate the long-, intermediate- and short-term performance of MR forecasting, using mainly Molchan diagrams and optimal spatial maps obtained by minimizing forecasting error defined by miss and alarm rate addition. This testing indicates that the MR forecasting technique performs well at long-, intermediate- and short-term. The MR maps produced during long-term testing indicate significant alarm levels before 15 of the 18 shallow earthquakes within the testing region during the past two decades, with an alarm region covering about 20 per cent (alarm rate) of the testing region. The number of shallow events missed by forecasting was reduced by about 60 per cent after using the MR method instead of the relative intensity (RI) forecasting method. At short term, our model succeeded in forecasting the

  16. Cancer prevention and control: alarming challenges in China

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Wang, Hongyang

    2016-01-01

    China is geographically the third largest country in the world and the most populated low-to-middle-income country. Cancer incidence and mortality rates for some cancers in the USA and European countries have steadily decreased over the last decades, whereas the incidence and mortality of certain cancers in China have been increasing at an alarming speed. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in China have been accompanied by incredible changes in lifestyle and environment combined with an aging population. Mortality caused by lung, colorectal and breast cancers has been steadily increasing, whereas cancer mortality from gastric, esophageal and cervical tumors has tended to decrease. Similar to what has occurred in the United States, unhealthy lifestyles in China, including heavy smoking and poor diet combined with pollution, have contributed to increased cancer risk. China is facing many challenges in cancer treatment and prevention for the general population. The major areas that need to be addressed in the control of cancer in China include cancers associated with environmental pollution, tobacco use, occupational carcinogens, infection, excessive alcohol consumption, dietary deficiencies and obesity. In this perspective, we review the problems in each area and suggest ideas for future directions in cancer research and strategies and actions to reduce the incidence of cancer in China. PMID:27308066

  17. Overrating the X-Rating: The Third-Person Perception and Support for Censorship of Pornography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Albert C.

    1995-01-01

    Provides data from a study indicating that a majority of U.S. adults see others as more adversely affected by pornography than they themselves (consistent with third-person perception research). Finds that peoples' support for pornography restrictions parallels the discrepancy they perceive between effect on self and effect on others. (PA)

  18. Deep belief networks for false alarm rejection in forward-looking ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, John; Havens, Timothy C.; Pinar, Anthony; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    Explosive hazards are one of the most deadly threats in modern conflicts. The U.S. Army is interested in a reliable way to detect these hazards at range. A promising way of accomplishing this task is using a forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR) system. Recently, the Army has been testing a system that utilizes both L-band and X-band radar arrays on a vehicle mounted platform. Using data from this system, we sought to improve the performance of a constant false-alarm-rate (CFAR) prescreener through the use of a deep belief network (DBN). DBNs have also been shown to perform exceptionally well at generalized anomaly detection. They combine unsupervised pre-training with supervised fine-tuning to generate low-dimensional representations of high-dimensional input data. We seek to take advantage of these two properties by training a DBN on the features of the CFAR prescreener's false alarms (FAs) and then use that DBN to separate FAs from true positives. Our analysis shows that this method improves the detection statistics significantly. By training the DBN on a combination of image features, we were able to significantly increase the probability of detection while maintaining a nominal number of false alarms per square meter. Our research shows that DBNs are a good candidate for improving detection rates in FLGPR systems.

  19. Different visuomotor processes maturation rates in children support dual visuomotor learning systems.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Moya, Rosinna; Díaz, Rosalinda; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Different processes are involved during visuomotor learning, including an error-based procedural and a strategy based cognitive mechanism. Our objective was to analyze if the changes in the adaptation or the aftereffect components of visuomotor learning measured across development, reflected different maturation rates of the aforementioned mechanisms. Ninety-five healthy children aged 4-12years and a group of young adults participated in a wedge prism and a dove prism throwing task, which laterally displace or horizontally reverse the visual field respectively. The results show that despite the age-related differences in motor control, all children groups adapted in the error-based wedge prisms condition. However, when removing the prism, small children showed a slower aftereffects extinction rate. On the strategy-based visual reversing task only the older children group reached adult-like levels. These results are consistent with the idea of different mechanisms with asynchronous maturation rates participating during visuomotor learning. PMID:26802974

  20. Different visuomotor processes maturation rates in children support dual visuomotor learning systems.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Moya, Rosinna; Díaz, Rosalinda; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Different processes are involved during visuomotor learning, including an error-based procedural and a strategy based cognitive mechanism. Our objective was to analyze if the changes in the adaptation or the aftereffect components of visuomotor learning measured across development, reflected different maturation rates of the aforementioned mechanisms. Ninety-five healthy children aged 4-12years and a group of young adults participated in a wedge prism and a dove prism throwing task, which laterally displace or horizontally reverse the visual field respectively. The results show that despite the age-related differences in motor control, all children groups adapted in the error-based wedge prisms condition. However, when removing the prism, small children showed a slower aftereffects extinction rate. On the strategy-based visual reversing task only the older children group reached adult-like levels. These results are consistent with the idea of different mechanisms with asynchronous maturation rates participating during visuomotor learning.

  1. Kinetic rate constant prediction supports the conformational selection mechanism of protein binding.

    PubMed

    Moal, Iain H; Bates, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of protein-protein kinetic rate constants provides a fundamental test of our understanding of molecular recognition, and will play an important role in the modeling of complex biological systems. In this paper, a feature selection and regression algorithm is applied to mine a large set of molecular descriptors and construct simple models for association and dissociation rate constants using empirical data. Using separate test data for validation, the predicted rate constants can be combined to calculate binding affinity with accuracy matching that of state of the art empirical free energy functions. The models show that the rate of association is linearly related to the proportion of unbound proteins in the bound conformational ensemble relative to the unbound conformational ensemble, indicating that the binding partners must adopt a geometry near to that of the bound prior to binding. Mirroring the conformational selection and population shift mechanism of protein binding, the models provide a strong separate line of evidence for the preponderance of this mechanism in protein-protein binding, complementing structural and theoretical studies.

  2. A Decision Support System For Assisting With Stocking Rate Decisions During And Following Drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers and range managers in the West are at the mercy of climatic conditions that determine the amount of annual forge available on rangeland. Typically, stocking or de-stocking decisions need to be made before the final forage production level is known. Erroneous stocking rate decisions can have...

  3. 18 CFR 300.11 - Technical support for the rate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS FOR FEDERAL POWER MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS CONFIRMATION AND APPROVAL OF THE RATES OF FEDERAL POWER MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS Filing Requirements § 300.11... or costs. (i) Statement C must account for all capitalized investments to be repaid from...

  4. Alarm Pheromone Processing in the Ant Brain: An Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mizunami, Makoto; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons (PNs), to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive PNs are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system. PMID:20676235

  5. Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Mizunami, Makoto; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons (PNs), to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive PNs are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system. PMID:20676235

  6. Social Support, Self-Rated Health, and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Identity Disclosure to Cancer Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles S.; Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Heckler, Charles E.; Flannery, Marie; Margolies, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe factors related to diagnosis, identity disclosure, and social support among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients with cancer, and to explore associations between these factors and self-rated health. Design Cross-sectional self-report survey design using descriptive and exploratory multivariate statistical approaches. Setting Online, Internet-based. Sample 291 LGBT patients (89% Caucasian; 50% gay, 36% lesbian, 7% bisexual, 3% transgender) with mixed cancers. Methods Participants completed a researcher-designed online survey assessing experiences of cancer diagnosis among LGBT patients at a single time point. Main Research Variables Demographics, which provider(s) delivered the patients’ cancer diagnoses, to whom patients had disclosed their LGBT identity, how they disclosed, who was on their social support team at the time of diagnosis, and current self-rated health. Findings 79% of participants reported disclosing their identities to more than one cancer care provider. Participants most commonly introduced the topic of LGBT identity themselves, sometimes as a way to correct heterosexual assumptions (34%). Friends were the most common members of LGBT patients’ support teams (79%). Four disclosure and support factors were consistently associated with better self-rated health. Conclusions Disclosure of LGBT identity is a common experience in the context of cancer care, and disclosure and support factors are associated with better self-reported health among LGBT patients. Implications for Nursing Creating safe environments for LGBT patients to disclose could improve cancer care delivery to this underserved population. Nurses and other providers should acknowledge and include diverse support team members in LGBT patients’ care. PMID:25542320

  7. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers...-operated engineers' assistance-needed alarm that is: (a) Operated from: (1) The engine control room, if...

  8. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers...-operated engineers' assistance-needed alarm that is: (a) Operated from: (1) The engine control room, if...

  9. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers...-operated engineers' assistance-needed alarm that is: (a) Operated from: (1) The engine control room, if...

  10. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT...

  11. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT...

  12. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT...

  13. Neonatal life support during magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Groenendaal, F; Leusink, C; Nijenhuis, M; Janssen, M J H

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance techniques are required frequently for the assessment of the brain of ill neonates. In the present study, the effects of a 1.5 T MR scanner on devices for life support were assessed. A ventilator (Dräger Babylog 2000) was tested in the 1.5 T magnet, using a neonatal ventilation tester and 1.5-5 m tubes. In a special MR incubator, temperature and humidity were measured at 1-min intervals. Infusion was tested with the pump outside the magnet room: infusion rates and time to alarm were tested with 7-m tubes. The ventilator performed normally at a magnetic field line of 2 mT, although the alarms failed. The incubator created a temperature of 35.9 degrees C and humidity of 40.7%, which was acceptable for examinations of 45 min. The alarm limits of the infusion pump placed outside the magnet at 7 m were within company limits. The study indicates that magnetic resonance examinations can be performed safely in ill preterm neonates who require life-support devices.

  14. Providing emotional support to others, self-esteem, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of helping others on self-rated health in middle and late life. Data are from a nationwide sample of middle-aged and older adults (N=1154). The findings indicate that women and Blacks are more likely than men or Whites to help others. Moreover, the results suggest that people who attend church more often are especially likely to help others. The data further reveal that people who help others are more likely to have a greater sense of self-worth and people with more self-esteem, in turn, tend to rate their health in a more favorable way. The findings help clarify issues in the assessment of helping others in middle and late life. PMID:27061666

  15. FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  16. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-08-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets. PMID:26237691

  17. Fault Diagnosis with Multi-State Alarms in a Nuclear Power Control Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart A. Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-09-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effects of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized the use of three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. Sensitivity and criterion based on the Signal Detection Theory were used to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  18. Quantitative trait loci influencing honeybee alarm pheromone levels.

    PubMed

    Hunt, G J; Collins, A M; Rivera, R; Page, R E; Guzmán-Novoa, E

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping procedures were used to identify loci that influence the levels of alarm pheromones found in the stinging apparatus of worker honeybees. An F1 queen was produced from a cross between a queen of European origin and a drone descended from an African subspecies. Haploid drones from the hybrid queen were individually backcrossed to European queens to produce 172 colonies. Samples of stings were taken from backcross workers of these colonies. Alarm pheromone levels were determined by gas chromatography. RAPD markers were scored from the haploid drone fathers of these colonies. The multiple-QTL model (MQM) of MapQTL was used to identify QTLs that influence the levels of four alarm pheromone components. Seven independent, potential QTLs were identified with LOD scores greater than two, and one at LOD 1.88. We identified one QTL for n-decyl acetate, three for n-octanol, four for isopentyl acetate, and one for hexyl acetate. One region of linkage group XI shows a strong influence on body size and the levels of three alarm pheromone components. This locus explained 40% of the variance for the amount of n-decyl acetate (LOD 6.57). In general, the QTLs influencing alarm pheromone levels were independent of previously identified loci that influenced the stinging behavior of these colonies. The only exception was a potential locus influencing levels of n-octanol, which was inversely correlated with stinging behavior. PMID:10544503

  19. Wild birds learn to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; McLachlan, Jessica R; Igic, Branislav

    2015-08-01

    Many vertebrates gain critical information about danger by eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls [1], providing an excellent context in which to study information flow among species in animal communities [2-4]. A fundamental but unresolved question is how individuals recognize other species' alarm calls. Although individuals respond to heterospecific calls that are acoustically similar to their own, alarms vary greatly among species, and eavesdropping probably also requires learning [1]. Surprisingly, however, we lack studies demonstrating such learning. Here, we show experimentally that individual wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize previously unfamiliar alarm calls. We trained individuals by broadcasting unfamiliar sounds while simultaneously presenting gliding predatory birds. Fairy-wrens in the experiment originally ignored these sounds, but most fled in response to the sounds after two days' training. The learned response was not due to increased responsiveness in general or to sensitization following repeated exposure and was independent of sound structure. Learning can therefore help explain the taxonomic diversity of eavesdropping and the refining of behavior to suit the local community. In combination with previous work on unfamiliar predator recognition (e.g., [5]), our results imply rapid spread of anti-predator behavior within wild populations and suggest methods for training captive-bred animals before release into the wild [6]. A remaining challenge is to assess the importance and consequences of direct association of unfamiliar sounds with predators, compared with social learning-such as associating unfamiliar sounds with conspecific alarms.

  20. Quantitative trait loci influencing honeybee alarm pheromone levels.

    PubMed

    Hunt, G J; Collins, A M; Rivera, R; Page, R E; Guzmán-Novoa, E

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping procedures were used to identify loci that influence the levels of alarm pheromones found in the stinging apparatus of worker honeybees. An F1 queen was produced from a cross between a queen of European origin and a drone descended from an African subspecies. Haploid drones from the hybrid queen were individually backcrossed to European queens to produce 172 colonies. Samples of stings were taken from backcross workers of these colonies. Alarm pheromone levels were determined by gas chromatography. RAPD markers were scored from the haploid drone fathers of these colonies. The multiple-QTL model (MQM) of MapQTL was used to identify QTLs that influence the levels of four alarm pheromone components. Seven independent, potential QTLs were identified with LOD scores greater than two, and one at LOD 1.88. We identified one QTL for n-decyl acetate, three for n-octanol, four for isopentyl acetate, and one for hexyl acetate. One region of linkage group XI shows a strong influence on body size and the levels of three alarm pheromone components. This locus explained 40% of the variance for the amount of n-decyl acetate (LOD 6.57). In general, the QTLs influencing alarm pheromone levels were independent of previously identified loci that influenced the stinging behavior of these colonies. The only exception was a potential locus influencing levels of n-octanol, which was inversely correlated with stinging behavior.

  1. Nurses' Perceptions and Practices Toward Clinical Alarms in a Transplant Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: Exploring Key Issues Leading to Alarm Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Rapp, Kami Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive care units (ICUs) are complex work environments where false alarms occur more frequently than on non-critical care units. The Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal .06.01.01 targeted improving the safety of clinical alarm systems and required health care facilities to establish alarm systems safety as a hospital priority by July 2014. An important initial step toward this requirement is identifying ICU nurses’ perceptions and common clinical practices toward clinical alarms, where little information is available. Objective Our aim was to determine perceptions and practices of transplant/cardiac ICU (TCICU) nurses toward clinical alarms and benchmark the results against the 2011 Healthcare Technology Foundation’s (HTF) Clinical Alarms Committee Survey. Methods A quality improvement project was conducted on a 20-bed TCICU with 39 full- and part-time nurses. Nurses were surveyed about their perceptions and attitudes toward and practices on clinical alarms using an adapted HTF clinical alarms survey. Results were compared to the 2011 HTF data. Correlations among variables were examined. Results All TCICU nurses provided usable responses (N=39, 100%). Almost all nurses (95%-98%) believed that false alarms are frequent, disrupt care, and reduce trust in alarm systems, causing nurses to inappropriately disable them. Unlike the 2011 HTF clinical alarms survey results, a significantly higher percentage of our TCICU nurses believed that existing devices are complex, questioned the ability and adequacy of the new monitoring systems to solve alarm management issues, pointed to the lack of prompt response to alarms, and indicated the lack of clinical policy on alarm management (P<.01). Major themes in the narrative data focused on nurses’ frustration related to the excessive number of alarms and poor usability of the cardiac monitors. A lack of standardized approaches exists in changing patients’ electrodes and individualizing parameters

  2. Consideration in selecting crops for the human-rated life support system: a Linear Programming model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, E. F.; Kossowski, J.; Goto, E.; Langhans, R. W.; White, G.; Albright, L. D.; Wilcox, D.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A Linear Programming model has been constructed which aids in selecting appropriate crops for CELSS (Controlled Environment Life Support System) food production. A team of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) faculty, staff, graduate students and invited experts representing more than a dozen disciplines, provided a wide range of expertise in developing the model and the crop production program. The model incorporates nutritional content and controlled-environment based production yields of carefully chosen crops into a framework where a crop mix can be constructed to suit the astronauts' needs. The crew's nutritional requirements can be adequately satisfied with only a few crops (assuming vitamin mineral supplements are provided) but this will not be satisfactory from a culinary standpoint. This model is flexible enough that taste and variety driven food choices can be built into the model.

  3. Development of KSC program for investigating and generating field failure rates. Reliability handbook for ground support equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Kallmeyer, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Field failure rates and confidence factors are presented for 88 identifiable components of the ground support equipment at the John F. Kennedy Space Center. For most of these, supplementary information regarding failure mode and cause is tabulated. Complete reliability assessments are included for three systems, eight subsystems, and nine generic piece-part classifications. Procedures for updating or augmenting the reliability results are also included.

  4. Estimating Alarm Thresholds for Process Monitoring Data under Different Assumptions about the Data Generating Mechanism

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Howell, John; Skurikhin, Misha; Ticknor, Larry; Weaver, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Process monitoring (PM) for nuclear safeguards sometimes requires estimation of thresholds corresponding to small false alarm rates. Threshold estimation dates to the 1920s with the Shewhart control chart; however, because possible new roles for PM are being evaluated in nuclear safeguards, it is timely to consider modern model selection options in the context of threshold estimation. One of the possible new PM roles involves PM residuals, where a residual is defined as residual = data − prediction. This paper reviews alarm threshold estimation, introduces model selection options, and considers a range of assumptions regarding the data-generating mechanism for PM residuals.more » Two PM examples from nuclear safeguards are included to motivate the need for alarm threshold estimation. The first example involves mixtures of probability distributions that arise in solution monitoring, which is a common type of PM. The second example involves periodic partial cleanout of in-process inventory, leading to challenging structure in the time series of PM residuals.« less

  5. Comparing responses of four ungulate species to playbacks of baboon alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Dawn M; Bergman, Thore J; Cheney, Dorothy L; Nicholson, James R; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that a wide range of animals can recognize and respond appropriately to calls produced by other species. Social learning has been implicated as a possible mechanism by which heterospecific call recognition might develop. To examine whether familiarity and/or shared vulnerability with the calling species might influence the ability of sympatric species to distinguish heterospecific alarm calls, we tested whether four ungulate species (impala: Aepyceros melampus; tsessebe: Damaliscus lunatus; zebra: Equus burchelli; wildebeest: Connochaetes taurinus) could distinguish baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) alarm calls from other loud baboon calls produced during intra-specific aggressive interactions ('contest' calls). Overall, subjects' responses were stronger following playback of alarm calls than contest calls. Of the species tested, impala showed the strongest responses and the greatest difference in composite response scores, suggesting they were best able to differentiate call types. Compared with the other ungulate species, impala are the most frequent associates of baboons. Moreover, like baboons, they are susceptible to both lion and leopard attacks, whereas leopards rarely take the larger ungulates. Although it seems possible that high rates of association and/or shared vulnerability may influence impala's greater ability to distinguish among baboon call types, our results point to a stronger influence of familiarity. Ours is the first study to compare such abilities among several community members with variable natural histories, and we discuss future experiments that would more systematically examine development of these skills in young ungulates.

  6. Alarm pheromone habituation in Myzus persicae has fitness consequences and causes extensive gene expression changes.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Martin; Cheng, Wing Yin; Summers, Holly E; Raguso, Robert A; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-17

    In most aphid species, facultative parthenogenetic reproduction allows rapid growth and formation of large single-genotype colonies. Upon predator attack, individual aphids emit an alarm pheromone to warn the colony of this danger. (E)-beta-farnesene (EBF) is the predominant constituent of the alarm pheromone in Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) and many other aphid species. Continuous exposure to alarm pheromone in aphid colonies raised on transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants that produce EBF leads to habituation within three generations. Whereas naive aphids are repelled by EBF, habituated aphids show no avoidance response. Similarly, individual aphids from the habituated colony can revert back to being EBF-sensitive in three generations, indicating that this behavioral change is not caused by a genetic mutation. Instead, DNA microarray experiments comparing gene expression in naive and habituated aphids treated with EBF demonstrate an almost complete desensitization in the transcriptional response to EBF. Furthermore, EBF-habituated aphids show increased progeny production relative to EBF-responsive aphids, with or without EBF treatment. Although both naive and habituated aphids emit EBF upon damage, EBF-responsive aphids have a higher survival rate in the presence of a coccinellid predator (Hippodamia convergens), and thus outperform habituated aphids that do not show an avoidance response. These results provide evidence that aphid perception of conspecific alarm pheromone aids in predator avoidance and thereby bestows fitness benefits in survivorship and fecundity. Therefore, although habituated M. persicae produce more progeny, EBF-emitting transgenic plants may have practical applications in agriculture as a result of increased predation of habituated aphids. PMID:20679203

  7. pH-Rate Profiles Support a General Base Mechanism for Galactokinase (Lactococcus lactis)

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Laurie A.; Thoden, James B.; Peters, Greg S.; Holden, Hazel M.; Cleland, W.W.

    2013-01-01

    Galactokinase (GALK), a member the Leloir pathway for normal galactose metabolism, catalyzes the conversion of α-D-galactose to galactose-1-phosphate. For this investigation, we studied the kinetic mechanism and pH profiles of the enzyme from Lactococcus lactis. Our results show that the mechanism for its reaction is sequential in both directions. Mutant proteins D183A and D183N are inactive (<10,000 fold), supporting the role of Asp183 as a catalytic base that deprotonates the C-1 hydroxyl group of galactose. The pH–kcat profile of the forward reaction has a pKa of 6.9 ± 0.2 that likely is due to Asp183. The pH-kcat/KGal profile of the reverse reaction further substantiates this role as it is lacking a key pKa required for a direct proton transfer mechanism. The R36A and R36N mutant proteins show over 100-fold lower activity than that for the wild-type enzyme, thus suggesting that Arg36 lowers the pKa of the C-1 hydroxyl to facilitate deprotonation. PMID:23872454

  8. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  9. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  10. Failure to Replicate: Sound the Alarm.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2015-01-01

    Science has always relied on reproducibility to build confidence in experimental results. Now, the most comprehensive investigation ever done about the rate and predictors of reproducibility in social and cognitive sciences has found that regardless of the analytic method or criteria used, fewer than half of the original findings were successfully replicated. While a failure to reproduce does not necessarily mean the original report was incorrect, the results suggest that more rigorous methods are long overdue. PMID:27420921

  11. Evaluation of fire-safety programs that use 10-year smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark; Wilson, Jonathan; Akoto, Judith; Dixon, Sherry; Jacobs, David E; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2010-10-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE) program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered "10-year" smoke alarms in homes at high risk for fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still present and functional 8-10 years after installation and (2) understand factors related to smoke alarm presence and functionality. Data on a total of 384 homes and 601 smoke alarms in five states were collected and analyzed. Only one-third of alarms were still functional; 37% of installed alarms were missing; and 30% of alarms were present, but not functioning. Alarms were less likely to be functioning if they were installed in the kitchen and if homes had a different resident at follow-up. Of the 351 alarms that were present and had a battery at the time of the evaluation, only 21% contained lithium-powered batteries. Of these, 78% were still functioning. Programs that install lithium-powered alarms should use units that have sealed-in batteries and "hush" buttons. Additionally, education should be given on smoke alarm maintenance that includes a message that batteries in these alarms should not be replaced. Lithium-powered smoke alarms should last up to 10 years if maintained properly. PMID:20177753

  12. Self-rated mental health and race/ethnicity in the United States: support for the epidemiological paradox

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates racial/ethnic differences in self-rated mental health for adults in the United States, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as length of stay in the country. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (NHIS-CCS), binomial logistic regression models are fit to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and poor/fair self-reported mental health among US Adults. The size of the analytical sample was 22,844 persons. Overall prevalence of poor/fair self-rated mental health was 7.72%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (6.93%). Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence (10.38%). After controls for socioeconomic characteristics are incorporated in the models, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.55–0.90]). No difference was found for other minority groups when compared to the reference group in the final model. Contrary to global self-rated health, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. No difference was found for non-Hispanic blacks when they were compared to non-Hispanic whites. Self-rated mental health is therefore one case of a self-rating of health in which evidence supporting the epidemiological paradox is found among adults in the United States. PMID:27688982

  13. Self-rated mental health and race/ethnicity in the United States: support for the epidemiological paradox.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozada, Alexis R

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates racial/ethnic differences in self-rated mental health for adults in the United States, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as length of stay in the country. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (NHIS-CCS), binomial logistic regression models are fit to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and poor/fair self-reported mental health among US Adults. The size of the analytical sample was 22,844 persons. Overall prevalence of poor/fair self-rated mental health was 7.72%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (6.93%). Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence (10.38%). After controls for socioeconomic characteristics are incorporated in the models, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.55-0.90]). No difference was found for other minority groups when compared to the reference group in the final model. Contrary to global self-rated health, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. No difference was found for non-Hispanic blacks when they were compared to non-Hispanic whites. Self-rated mental health is therefore one case of a self-rating of health in which evidence supporting the epidemiological paradox is found among adults in the United States. PMID:27688982

  14. Self-rated mental health and race/ethnicity in the United States: support for the epidemiological paradox.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozada, Alexis R

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates racial/ethnic differences in self-rated mental health for adults in the United States, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as length of stay in the country. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (NHIS-CCS), binomial logistic regression models are fit to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and poor/fair self-reported mental health among US Adults. The size of the analytical sample was 22,844 persons. Overall prevalence of poor/fair self-rated mental health was 7.72%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (6.93%). Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence (10.38%). After controls for socioeconomic characteristics are incorporated in the models, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.55-0.90]). No difference was found for other minority groups when compared to the reference group in the final model. Contrary to global self-rated health, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. No difference was found for non-Hispanic blacks when they were compared to non-Hispanic whites. Self-rated mental health is therefore one case of a self-rating of health in which evidence supporting the epidemiological paradox is found among adults in the United States.

  15. Self-rated mental health and race/ethnicity in the United States: support for the epidemiological paradox

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates racial/ethnic differences in self-rated mental health for adults in the United States, while controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as length of stay in the country. Using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement (NHIS-CCS), binomial logistic regression models are fit to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and poor/fair self-reported mental health among US Adults. The size of the analytical sample was 22,844 persons. Overall prevalence of poor/fair self-rated mental health was 7.72%, with lower prevalence among Hispanics (6.93%). Non-Hispanic blacks had the highest prevalence (10.38%). After controls for socioeconomic characteristics are incorporated in the models, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.70; 95% CI [0.55–0.90]). No difference was found for other minority groups when compared to the reference group in the final model. Contrary to global self-rated health, Hispanics were found to have a lower probability of reporting poor/fair self-rated mental health in comparison to non-Hispanic whites. No difference was found for non-Hispanic blacks when they were compared to non-Hispanic whites. Self-rated mental health is therefore one case of a self-rating of health in which evidence supporting the epidemiological paradox is found among adults in the United States.

  16. Structure fires, smoke production, and smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Peck, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury causes severe morbidity and death. In the United States, the majority of fatalities from fire and burns occur because of inhalation of smoke. Medical treatment is only supportive; there is no known antidote to the damaging effects of smoke toxicants on pulmonary tissue. Without question, minimization of the morbidity and mortality that are caused by smoke inhalation is best accomplished by prevention of the injury. Effective prevention programs depend on a thorough and detailed understanding of the mechanism of damage caused by smoke, as well as of the available options for efficacious prevention. This summary presents details of smoke production from structure fires, the effects of smoke on physiology, and the devices currently in use to prevent damage and death from smoke. PMID:21785363

  17. Hyperspectral matched filter with false-alarm mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipietro, Robert S.; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Lockwood, Ronald B.; Cooley, Thomas; Jacobson, John

    2012-01-01

    One of the fundamental challenges for a hyperspectral imaging surveillance system is the detection of sub-pixel objects in background clutter. The background surrounding the object, which acts as interference, provides the major obstacle to successful detection. One algorithm that is widely used in hyperspectral detection and successfully suppresses the background in many situations is the matched filter detector. However, the matched filter also produces false alarms in many situations. We use three simple and well-established concepts--the target-background replacement model, the matched filter, and Mahalanobis distance--to develop the matched filter with false alarm mitigation (MF-FAM), a dual-threshold detector capable of eliminating many matched filter false alarms. We compare this algorithm to the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF), a popular approach to matched filter false alarm mitigation found in the ENVI® software environment. The two algorithms are shown to produce nearly identical results using real hyperspectral data, but the MF-FAM is shown to be operationally, computationally, and theoretically simpler than the MTMF.

  18. Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents.

    PubMed

    Brechbühl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

    2013-03-19

    Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger.

  19. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....14132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and... automatic reverse-activated strobe light may be used at night in lieu of an audible reverse alarm. (c)...

  20. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  1. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  2. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of producing a signal or tone distinct from any other audible signal on the vessel. (b) Electronic devices used... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  3. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of producing a signal or tone distinct from any other audible signal on the vessel. (b) Electronic devices used... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  4. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of producing a signal or tone distinct from any other audible signal on the vessel. (b) Electronic devices used... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  5. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of producing a signal or tone distinct from any other audible signal on the vessel. (b) Electronic devices used... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  6. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of producing a signal or tone distinct from any other audible signal on the vessel. (b) Electronic devices used... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  7. SeaQuest/E906 Shift Alarm System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitts, Noah

    2014-09-01

    SeaQuest, Fermilab E906, is a fixed target experiment that measures the Drell-Yan cross-section ratio of proton-proton to proton-deuterium collisions in order to extract the sea anti-quark structure of the proton. SeaQuest will extend the measurements made by E866/NuSea with greater precision at higher Bjorken-x. The continuously running experiment is always being monitored. Those on shift must keep track of all of the detector readouts in order to make sure the experiment is running correctly. As an experiment that is still in its early stages of running, an alarm system for people on shift is being created to provide warnings, such as a plot showing a detector's performance is sufficiently different to need attention. This plan involves python scripts that track live data. When the data shows a problem within the experiment, a corresponding alarm ID is sent to the MySQL database which then sets off an alarm. These alarms, which will alert the person on shift through both an audible and visual response, are important for ensuring that issues do not go unnoticed, and to help make sure the experiment is recording good data.

  8. Detection system ensures positive alarm activation in digital message loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokros, P.; Burstein, A.; Hewitt, E. D.

    1966-01-01

    Lost Word Detection System /LOWDS/ provides special identification for each error detection message transmitted from receiver to transmitter. The message is identified as an original message or an n-times retransmitted message so the receiver can detect where a retransmission request was not fulfilled and activate an alarm.

  9. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occurs. (d) Each bilge alarm must have a ppm display. Emulsions and/or the type of oil must not affect... purposes of checking instrument drift and repeatability of the instrument reading, as well as the ability to re-zero the instrument. The accuracy of the readings must at all times remain within the...

  10. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... occurs. (d) Each bilge alarm must have a ppm display. Emulsions and/or the type of oil must not affect... purposes of checking instrument drift and repeatability of the instrument reading, as well as the ability to re-zero the instrument. The accuracy of the readings must at all times remain within the...

  11. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  12. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  13. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  14. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  15. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  16. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  17. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  18. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... oil reservoir of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. (e) An audible and a visible alarm... of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. Note: See § 62.50-30(f) of this subchapter... the pilothouse upon— (1) Failure of the electric power to the control system of any steering gear;...

  19. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... oil reservoir of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. (e) An audible and a visible alarm... of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. Note: See § 62.50-30(f) of this subchapter... the pilothouse upon— (1) Failure of the electric power to the control system of any steering gear;...

  20. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157.440 Section 157.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... autopilot status and warns personnel of the requirement to disengage the autopilot if positive...

  1. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157.440 Section 157.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... autopilot status and warns personnel of the requirement to disengage the autopilot if positive...

  2. 46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarm bells. 167.40-5 Section 167.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain... possesses: (a) Positive contact; (b) Watertightness (when located in open spaces subject to weather);...

  3. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157.440 Section 157.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... autopilot status and warns personnel of the requirement to disengage the autopilot if positive...

  4. 47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress... attract the attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The... attention of the person on watch or to actuate automatic devices giving the alarm....

  5. 47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress... attract the attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The... attention of the person on watch or to actuate automatic devices giving the alarm....

  6. 47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress... attract the attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The... attention of the person on watch or to actuate automatic devices giving the alarm....

  7. 47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress... attract the attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The... attention of the person on watch or to actuate automatic devices giving the alarm....

  8. 47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress... attract the attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The... attention of the person on watch or to actuate automatic devices giving the alarm....

  9. 49 CFR 229.115 - Slip/slide alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sliding wheels on powered axles under power. When two or more locomotives are coupled in multiple or remote control, the wheel slip/slide alarm of each locomotive shall be shown in the cab of the... road service, or continue in road service following a daily inspection, unless the wheel...

  10. 49 CFR 229.115 - Slip/slide alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sliding wheels on powered axles under power. When two or more locomotives are coupled in multiple or remote control, the wheel slip/slide alarm of each locomotive shall be shown in the cab of the... road service, or continue in road service following a daily inspection, unless the wheel...

  11. 49 CFR 229.115 - Slip/slide alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sliding wheels on powered axles under power. When two or more locomotives are coupled in multiple or remote control, the wheel slip/slide alarm of each locomotive shall be shown in the cab of the... road service, or continue in road service following a daily inspection, unless the wheel...

  12. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  13. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller... and barge unit of combined 1600 gross registered tons or more shall be equipped with— (a)...

  14. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller... and barge unit of combined 1600 gross registered tons or more shall be equipped with— (a)...

  15. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller... and barge unit of combined 1600 gross registered tons or more shall be equipped with— (a)...

  16. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller... and barge unit of combined 1600 gross registered tons or more shall be equipped with— (a)...

  17. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller... and barge unit of combined 1600 gross registered tons or more shall be equipped with— (a)...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... general electrical circuit. More than one smoke alarm is permitted to be placed on the same electrical... basement and must install at the factory an electrical junction box for the installation of this smoke... powered from: (i) The electrical system of the home as the primary power source and a battery as...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... general electrical circuit. More than one smoke alarm is permitted to be placed on the same electrical... basement and must install at the factory an electrical junction box for the installation of this smoke... powered from: (i) The electrical system of the home as the primary power source and a battery as...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... general electrical circuit. More than one smoke alarm is permitted to be placed on the same electrical... basement and must install at the factory an electrical junction box for the installation of this smoke... powered from: (i) The electrical system of the home as the primary power source and a battery as...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mounted on an electrical outlet box and connected by a permanent wiring method to a general electrical... the factory an electrical junction box for the installation of this smoke alarm and for its...) The electrical system of the home as the primary power source and a battery as a secondary...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... general electrical circuit. More than one smoke alarm is permitted to be placed on the same electrical... basement and must install at the factory an electrical junction box for the installation of this smoke... powered from: (i) The electrical system of the home as the primary power source and a battery as...

  3. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Failure of that power to the power unit of any steering gear; or (3) Occurrence of a low oil level in any oil reservoir of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. (e) An audible and a visible alarm... of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. Note: See § 62.50-30(f) of this...

  4. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Failure of that power to the power unit of any steering gear; or (3) Occurrence of a low oil level in any oil reservoir of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. (e) An audible and a visible alarm... of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. Note: See § 62.50-30(f) of this...

  5. A radar unattended ground sensor with micro-Doppler capabilities for false alarm reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, Dave; Silvious, Jerry; Burke, Ed

    2010-10-01

    Unattended ground sensors (UGS) provide the capability to inexpensively secure remote borders and other areas of interest. However, the presence of normal animal activity can often trigger a false alarm. Accurately detecting humans and distinguishing them from natural fauna is an important issue in security applications to reduce false alarm rates and improve the probability of detection. In particular, it is important to detect and classify people who are moving in remote locations and transmit back detections and analysis over extended periods at a low cost and with minimal maintenance. We developed and demonstrate a compact radar technology that is scalable to a variety of ultra-lightweight and low-power platforms for wide area persistent surveillance as an unattended, unmanned, and man-portable ground sensor. The radar uses micro-Doppler processing to characterize the tracks of moving targets and to then eliminate unimportant detections due to animals as well as characterize the activity of human detections. False alarms from sensors are a major liability that hinders widespread use. Incorporating rudimentary intelligence into sensors can reduce false alarms but can also result in a reduced probability of detection. Allowing an initial classification that can be updated with new observations and tracked over time provides a more robust framework for false alarm reduction at the cost of additional sensor observations. This paper explores these tradeoffs with a small radar sensor for border security. Multiple measurements were done to try to characterize the micro-Doppler of human versus animal and vehicular motion across a range of activities. Measurements were taken at the multiple sites with realistic but low levels of clutter. Animals move with a quadrupedal motion, which can be distinguished from the bipedal human motion. The micro-Doppler of a vehicle with rotating parts is also shown, along with ground truth images. Comparisons show large variations for

  6. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  7. Comparison of the sulfiding rate and mechanism of supported NiO and Ni sup 0 particles

    SciTech Connect

    Mangnus, P.J.; Landeveld, A.D. van; Moulijn, J.A. ); Poels, E.K. )

    1992-09-01

    The sulfiding rate and mechanism of (I) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported NiO and (II) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Ni{sup 0} particles have been studied using the temperature-programmed sulfiding technique. Both the surface and the core of Ni{sup 0} particles are easier to sulfide than those of NiO particles of comparable size. The Ni{sup 0} surface sulfides at 210 K and the inner layers sulfide between 270 and 500 K; simultaneously with the H{sub 2}S uptake H{sub 2} is produced. The surface layer of NiO and Ni{sup 0} surface species takes place at various temperatures because of differences in the elementary steps involved in H{sub 2}S dissociation. Compared to NiO particles, the surface of Ni{sup 0} particles sulfides at lower temperatures due to a higher dissociation rate of H{sub 2}S on these surfaces. The sulfiding rate of the core of the particles is determined by solid-state diffusion. Sulfiding of the core of the Ni{sup 0} particles is determined by the diffusion rate of the Ni{sup {delta}+} and to a lesser extent by the S{sup {delta}+} and to a lesser extent by the S{sup {delta}{minus}} ions, while sulfiding of the core of the NiO particles is most likely limited by diffusion of the O{sup 2{minus}} ions. Surface nickel sulfide species are relatively more stable than their bulk analogues, possibly due to a relatively high entropy content of surface layers.

  8. Sounding the Alarm: Health in the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Butler, Colin D

    2016-01-01

    There is growing scientific and public recognition that human actions, directly and indirectly, have profoundly changed the Earth system, in a still accelerating process, increasingly called the "Anthropocene". Planetary transformation, including of the atmosphere, climate, ecosystems and biodiversity, has enormous implications for human health, many of which are deeply disturbing, especially in low-income settings. A few health consequences of the Anthropocene have been partially recognized, including within environmental epidemiology, but their long-term consequences remain poorly understood and greatly under-rated. For example Syria could be a "sentinel" population, giving a glimpse to a much wider dystopian future. Health-Earth is a research network, co-founded in 2014, which seeks, with other groups, to catalyse a powerful curative response by the wider health community. This paper builds on a symposium presented by Health-Earth members at the 2015 conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology. It reviews and synthesizes parts of the large literature relevant to the interaction between the changing Earth system and human health. It concludes that this topic should be prominent within future environmental epidemiology and public health. Created by our species, these challenges may be soluble, but solutions require far more understanding and resources than are currently being made available. PMID:27376314

  9. Ozone depletion: 20 Years after the alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    Scientific curiosity in 1973 led to the challenge of determining the ultimate atmospheric fate of the chlorofluoromethanes, CFC-11 (CCl[sub 3]F) and CFC-12 (CCl[sub 2]F[sub 2]), whose presence at measurable levels in surface air had been detected only two years earlier. In retrospect, the decision to pursue the chemistry of CFC molecules to their final destruction and beyond foreordained an unusual outcome because CFCs are chemically inert and easily survive under almost all natural conditions. By midsummer 1994, the world is well on its way in transition to a CFC-free economy, although not yet to a CFC-free atmosphere. The rates of increase in atmospheric concentration for the three major CFCs (CFC-11, -12, and -113) have all slowed markedly in response to the restrictions of the revised Montreal protocol. Because of their long lifetimes, however, significant but gradually diminishing quantities of CFCs will remain in the atmosphere throughout the 21st century. Atomic chlorine will continue to be released into the stratosphere as long as CFCs persist, and ozone depletion will follow. The existence of the Montreal protocol and the agreement among industrial, governmental, and university scientists on its wisdom offers considerable promise for the handling of future global environmental problems.

  10. Sounding the Alarm: Health in the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Butler, Colin D

    2016-01-01

    There is growing scientific and public recognition that human actions, directly and indirectly, have profoundly changed the Earth system, in a still accelerating process, increasingly called the "Anthropocene". Planetary transformation, including of the atmosphere, climate, ecosystems and biodiversity, has enormous implications for human health, many of which are deeply disturbing, especially in low-income settings. A few health consequences of the Anthropocene have been partially recognized, including within environmental epidemiology, but their long-term consequences remain poorly understood and greatly under-rated. For example Syria could be a "sentinel" population, giving a glimpse to a much wider dystopian future. Health-Earth is a research network, co-founded in 2014, which seeks, with other groups, to catalyse a powerful curative response by the wider health community. This paper builds on a symposium presented by Health-Earth members at the 2015 conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology. It reviews and synthesizes parts of the large literature relevant to the interaction between the changing Earth system and human health. It concludes that this topic should be prominent within future environmental epidemiology and public health. Created by our species, these challenges may be soluble, but solutions require far more understanding and resources than are currently being made available.

  11. Sounding the Alarm: Health in the Anthropocene

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Colin D.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing scientific and public recognition that human actions, directly and indirectly, have profoundly changed the Earth system, in a still accelerating process, increasingly called the “Anthropocene”. Planetary transformation, including of the atmosphere, climate, ecosystems and biodiversity, has enormous implications for human health, many of which are deeply disturbing, especially in low-income settings. A few health consequences of the Anthropocene have been partially recognized, including within environmental epidemiology, but their long-term consequences remain poorly understood and greatly under-rated. For example Syria could be a “sentinel” population, giving a glimpse to a much wider dystopian future. Health-Earth is a research network, co-founded in 2014, which seeks, with other groups, to catalyse a powerful curative response by the wider health community. This paper builds on a symposium presented by Health-Earth members at the 2015 conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology. It reviews and synthesizes parts of the large literature relevant to the interaction between the changing Earth system and human health. It concludes that this topic should be prominent within future environmental epidemiology and public health. Created by our species, these challenges may be soluble, but solutions require far more understanding and resources than are currently being made available. PMID:27376314

  12. [Prediction model of net photosynthetic rate of ginseng under forest based on optimized parameters support vector machine].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-wei; Yu, Hai-ye; Zhang, Lei

    2011-05-01

    Using K-fold cross validation method and two support vector machine functions, four kernel functions, grid-search, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization, the authors constructed the support vector machine model of the best penalty parameter c and the best correlation coefficient. Using information granulation technology, the authors constructed P particle and epsilon particle about those factors affecting net photosynthetic rate, and reduced these dimensions of the determinant. P particle includes the percent of visible spectrum ingredients. Epsilon particle includes leaf temperature, scattering radiation, air temperature, and so on. It is possible to obtain the best correlation coefficient among photosynthetic effective radiation, visible spectrum and individual net photosynthetic rate by this technology. The authors constructed the training set and the forecasting set including photosynthetic effective radiation, P particle and epsilon particle. The result shows that epsilon-SVR-RBF-genetic algorithm model, nu-SVR-linear-grid-search model and nu-SVR-RBF-genetic algorithm model obtain the correlation coefficient of up to 97% about the forecasting set including photosynthetic effective radiation and P particle. The penalty parameter c of nu-SVR-linear-grid-search model is the minimum, so the model's generalization ability is the best. The authors forecasted the forecasting set including photosynthetic effective radiation, P particle and epsilon particle by the model, and the correlation coefficient is up to 96%.

  13. Application of a putative alarm cue hastens the arrival of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) at a trapping location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hume, John B.; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Luhring, Thomas M; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus is an invasive pest in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, threatening the persistence of important commercial and recreational fisheries. There is substantial interest in developing effective trapping practices via the application of behavior-modifying semiochemicals (odors). Here we report on the effectiveness of utilizing repellent and attractant odors in a push–pull configuration, commonly employed to tackle invertebrate pests, to improve trapping efficacy at permanent barriers to sea lamprey migration. When a half-stream channel was activated by a naturally derived repellent odor (a putative alarm cue), we found that sea lamprey located a trap entrance significantly faster than when no odor was present as a result of their redistribution within the stream. The presence of a partial sex pheromone, acting as an attractant within the trap, was not found to further decrease the time to when sea lamprey located a trap entrance relative to when the alarm cue alone was applied. Neither the application of alarm cue singly nor alarm cue and partial sex pheromone in combination was found to improve the numbers of sea lamprey captured in the trap versus when no odor was present — likely because nominal capture rate during control trials was unusually high during the study period. Behavioural guidance using these odors has the potential to both improve control of invasive non-native sea lamprey in the Great Lakes as well as improving the efficiency of fish passage devices used in the restoration of threatened lamprey species elsewhere.

  14. 45 CFR 307.30 - Federal financial participation at the 90 percent rate for statewide computerized support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT... planning, design, development, installation or enhancement of a computerized support enforcement system...

  15. 45 CFR 307.31 - Federal financial participation at the 80 percent rate for computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT..., design, development, installation, or enhancement of a computerized support enforcement system...

  16. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-20...) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the following: (i) The fire detection and alarm...

  17. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarms in high ambient noise areas must be supplemented by visual means, such as rotating beacons, that are visible throughout these areas. Red beacons must only be used for general or fire alarm...

  18. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarms in high ambient noise areas must be supplemented by visual means, such as rotating beacons, that are visible throughout these areas. Red beacons must only be used for general or fire alarm...

  19. Concatenation of ‘alert’ and ‘identity’ segments in dingoes’ alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Déaux, Eloïse C.; Allen, Andrew P.; Clarke, Jennifer A.; Charrier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Multicomponent signals can be formed by the uninterrupted concatenation of multiple call types. One such signal is found in dingoes, Canis familiaris dingo. This stereotyped, multicomponent ‘bark-howl’ vocalisation is formed by the concatenation of a noisy bark segment and a tonal howl segment. Both segments are structurally similar to bark and howl vocalisations produced independently in other contexts (e.g. intra- and inter-pack communication). Bark-howls are mainly uttered in response to human presence and were hypothesized to serve as alarm calls. We investigated the function of bark-howls and the respective roles of the bark and howl segments. We found that dingoes could discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar howl segments, after having only heard familiar howl vocalisations (i.e. different calls). We propose that howl segments could function as ‘identity signals’ and allow receivers to modulate their responses according to the caller’s characteristics. The bark segment increased receivers’ attention levels, providing support for earlier observational claims that barks have an ‘alerting’ function. Lastly, dingoes were more likely to display vigilance behaviours upon hearing bark-howl vocalisations, lending support to the alarm function hypothesis. Canid vocalisations, such as the dingo bark-howl, may provide a model system to investigate the selective pressures shaping complex communication systems. PMID:27460289

  20. SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in

  1. A silica-supported solid dispersion of bifendate using supercritical carbon dioxide method with enhanced dissolution rate and oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Cai, Cuifang; Liu, Muhua; Li, Yun; Guo, Bei; Chang, Hui; Zhang, Xiangrong; Yang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, to enhance the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of bifendate, a silica-supported solid dispersion (SD) of bifendate was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) technology. The properties of bifendate-silica SD were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (X-RD) and scanning electron microscopy. The pharmacokinetic study was carried out in beagle dogs using commercial bifendate dropping pills as a reference which is a conventional SD formulation of bifendate and PEG6000. A novel method of Ultra Performance Convergence Chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPC(2)™-MS/MS) method was applied to determine bifendate concentration in plasma. The amorphous state of bifendate in bifendate-silica SD was revealed in X-RD and DSC when the ratios of bifendate and silica were 1:15 and 1:19, respectively. In vitro dissolution rate was significantly improved with cumulative release of 67% within 20 min relative to 8% for the physical mixture of bifendate and silica, and which was also higher than the commercial dropping pill of 52%. After storage at 75% relative humidity (RH) for 10 d, no recrystallization was found and reduced dissolution rate was obtained due to the absorption of moisture. In pharmacokinetic study, Cmax and AUC0-t for bifendate-silica SD were 153.1 ng/ml and 979.8 ng h/ml, respectively. AUC0-t of bifendate-silica SDs was ∼1.6-fold higher than that of the commercial dropping pills. These results suggest that adsorbing bifendate onto porous silica via ScCO2 technique could be a feasible method to enhance oral bioavailability together with a higher dissolution rate.

  2. 46 CFR 76.35-10 - Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. 76.35-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-10 Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. (a... passageways, stairway enclosures, public spaces, or similar locations where they will be readily available...

  3. 46 CFR 76.35-10 - Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. 76.35-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-10 Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. (a... passageways, stairway enclosures, public spaces, or similar locations where they will be readily available...

  4. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked: “WHEN...

  6. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously...

  7. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously...

  9. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  10. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously...

  11. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked: “WHEN...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked: “WHEN...

  13. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked:...

  14. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked:...

  15. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 Section... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must be conspicuously marked:...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment... backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning devices... sounds at least once for each three feet of reverse movement; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment... backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning devices... sounds at least once for each three feet of reverse movement; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment... backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning devices... sounds at least once for each three feet of reverse movement; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  4. The role of youth's ratings of the importance of socially supportive behaviors in the relationship between social support and self-concept.

    PubMed

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Rueger, Sandra Yu; Brown, Sarah E; Summers, Kelly Hodgson

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the perceived frequency and perceived importance of social support with youth's self-concept. Data from a large representative sample of 921 children and adolescents in grades 3 through 12 were analyzed. Results indicated that the relationships between the frequency of social support from parents, teachers, classmates, and close friends with self-concept were significant. However, only the perceived importance of social support from teachers was significantly related to self-concept. Finally, an interaction was found between the frequency of social support and the importance of social support from classmates and close friends on self-concept. These results suggest that self-evaluations of the importance of teacher support may be especially influential for youths' self-concept, and that the ability to discount the value of support from classmates and friends, when it is lacking, may be protective to the self-concept of children and adolescents.

  5. On preserving robustness-false alarm tradeoff in media hashing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Zhu, X.; Yuan, J.; Chang, E.-C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses one of the important issues in generating a robust media hash. Robustness of a media hashing algorithm is primarily determined by three factors, (1) robustness-false alarm tradeoff achieved by the chosen feature representation, (2) accuracy of the bit extraction step and (3) the distance measure used to measure similarity (dissimilarity) between two hashes. The robustness-false alarm tradeoff in feature space is measured by a similarity (dissimilarity) measure and it defines a limit on the performance of the hashing algorithm. The distance measure used to compute the distance between the hashes determines how far this tradeoff in the feature space is preserved through the bit extraction step. Hence the bit extraction step is crucial, in defining the robustness of a hashing algorithm. Although this is recognized as an important requirement by all, to our knowledge there is no work in the existing literature that elucidates the effcacy of their algorithm based on their effectiveness in improving this tradeoff compared to other methods. This paper specifically demonstrates the kind of robustness false alarm tradeoff achieved by existing methods and proposes a method for hashing that clearly improves this tradeoff.

  6. Ultra low frequency electromagnetic fire alarm system for underground mines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During an underground mine fire, air can be rapidly depleted of oxygen and contaminated with smoke and toxic fire gases. Any delay in warning miners could have disastrous consequences. Unfortunately, present mine fire alarm systems, such as stench, audible or visual alarms, telephones, and messengers, are often slow, unreliable, and limited in mine area coverage. Recent research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines has demonstrated that ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic signaling can be used for an underground mine fire alarm. In field tests of prototype equipment at five mines, electromagnetic signals from 630 to 2,000 Hz were transmitted through mine rock for distances as great as 1,645 m to an intrinsically safe receiver. The prototype system uses off-the-shelf components and state-of-the-art technology to ensure high reliability and low cost. When utilized, this technology would enable simultaneous and instantaneous warning of all underground personnel, regardless of their location or work activity, thereby increasing the likelihood of their successfully escaping a mine disaster. This paper presents the theoretical basis for through-the-rock ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic transmission, design of the prototype transmitter and receiver, and the results of in-mine tests of the prototype system.

  7. Raman water vapour concentration measurements for reduction of false alarms in forest fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.

    2009-09-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of environmental catastrophe, with the natural outcomes of serious ecological and economic damages, together with the possibility to endanger human safety. At the aim to reduce this catastrophe several author have been shown that the Laser light scattering can be uses to reveals the particulate emitted in the smoke. Infact experimental and theoretical investigations have shown that lidar is a powerful tool to detect the tenuous smoke plumes produced by forest fires at an early stage. In early 90's Arbolino and Andreucci have shown the theoretical possibility to detect the particulate emitted in atmosphere from smoke forest fire. Vilar at all have shown experimentally the possibility to measure the density variation in atmosphere due to plume emitted in forest fire event. Gaudio at all. have already shown that it is possible to evaluate water vapor emitted in smoke of vegetable fuel using a CO2 dial system. In this paper a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of a lidar system in fire surveillance of wooded areas will be presented. In particular we intend propose a technique to minimizing the false alarm in the detection of forest fire by lidar based on a measurement of second components emitted in a combustion process. Usually to detect a fire alarm a rapid increase of aerosol amount is measured. If the backscattering signal report a peak, the presences of a forest fire will be probable. Our idea to confirm this hypothesis is measure the second components emitted in a forest fire at the aim to minimize the false alarm. The simulated measurements of the humidity amount within the smoke plume will be carried out by means of Raman analysis. Fixing the burning rate of the vegetable-fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated.

  8. Facile synthesis of self-supported Ni2P nanosheet@Ni sponge composite for high-rate battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, F.; Xie, D.; Zhong, Y.; Wang, D. H.; Xia, X. H.; Gu, C. D.; Wang, X. L.; Tu, J. P.

    2016-10-01

    To meet the requirements for high-rate battery with desirable performance, a self-supported Ni2P@Ni sponge electrode is synthesized via simple steps, in which the Ni sponge substrate is synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method and the Ni2P nanosheets grown on the novel substrate are converted from Ni(OH)2 via a phosphorization reaction. This hybrid composite combines the 3D porous structure of Ni sponge and high capacity of Ni2P nanosheets, which exhibits lightweight, flexible and highly-conductive properties, resulting in an excellent specific capacity of 430.3 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and remaining as high as 77.0% capacity even at 40 A g-1. More importantly, the Ni2P@Ni sponge//C cell exhibits the maximum energy density of 182.1 W h kg-1 at a power density of 205 W kg-1 along with superior capacity retention of 85.2% after 3000 cycles. It is suggested that the Ni2P nanosheet@ Ni sponge composite is a promising electrode material for high-rate batteries.

  9. Increasing smoke alarm operability through theory-based health education: a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ted R; Bergen, Gwen; Ballesteros, Michael F; Bhattacharya, Soma; Gielen, Andrea Carlson; Sheppard, Monique S

    2015-01-01

    Background Although working smoke alarms halve deaths in residential fires, many households do not keep alarms operational. We tested whether theory-based education increases alarm operability. Methods Randomised multiarm trial, with a single arm randomly selected for use each day, in low-income neighbourhoods in Maryland, USA. Intervention arms: (1) Full Education combining a health belief module with a social-cognitive theory module that provided hands-on practice installing alarm batteries and using the alarm’s hush button; (2) Hands-on Practice social-cognitive module supplemented by typical fire department education; (3) Current Norm receiving typical fire department education only. Four hundred and thirty-six homes recruited through churches or by knocking on doors in 2005–2008. Followup visits checked alarm operability in 370 homes (85%) 1–3.5 years after installation. Main outcome measures: number of homes with working alarms defined as alarms with working batteries or hard-wired and number of working alarms per home. Regressions controlled for alarm status preintervention; demographics and beliefs about fire risks and alarm effectiveness. Results Homes in the Full Education and Practice arms were more likely to have a functioning smoke alarm at follow-up (OR=2.77, 95% CI 1.09 to 7.03) and had an average of 0.32 more working alarms per home (95% CI 0.09 to 0.56). Working alarms per home rose 16%. Full Education and Practice had similar effectiveness (p=0.97 on both outcome measures). Conclusions Without exceeding typical fire department installation time, installers can achieve greater smoke alarm operability. Hands-on practice is key. Two years after installation, for every three homes that received hands-on practice, one had an additional working alarm. Trial registration number http://www.clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00139126. PMID:25165090

  10. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, Bryce A.

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  11. Social familiarity affects Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana diana) alarm call responses in habitat-specific ways.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Claudia; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Male Diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. Calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other's calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. Here, we tested whether male Diana monkeys responding to each other's alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in Taï Forest (Ivory Coast) and on Tiwai Island (Sierra Leone). At both sites, we found specific acoustic markers in male alarm call responses that discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers, but response patterns were site-specific. On Tiwai Island, males responded to familiar males' eagle alarms with 'standard' eagle alarm calls, whereas unfamiliar males triggered acoustically atypical eagle alarms. The opposite was found in Taï Forest where males responded to unfamiliar males' eagle alarm calls with 'standard' eagle alarms, and with atypical eagle alarms to familiar males' calls. Moreover, only Taï, but not Tiwai, males also marked familiarity with the caller in their leopard-induced alarms. We concluded that male Diana monkeys encode not only predator type but also signaller familiarity in their alarm calls, although in population-specific ways. We explain these inter-site differences in vocal behaviour in terms of differences in predation pressure and population density. We discuss the adaptive function and implications of this behaviour for the origins of acoustic flexibility in primate communication. PMID:26998336

  12. Smoke alarm ownership and installation: a comparison of a rural and a suburban community in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Jones, A R; Thompson, C J; Davis, M K

    2001-10-01

    As part of a smoke alarm giveaway and installation program (The Get-Alarmed Campaign), a total of 454 households were surveyed in two counties in Georgia, one metropolitan and one nonmetropolitan. The targeted communities in these counties had a high prevalence of low-income and minority populations and thus were at high risk of house fire-related morbidity and mortality. The objectives of the program were to determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms, and to install at least one smoke alarm and/or smoke alarm batteries in 100% of participating homes in need. Characteristics associated with smoke alarm ownership included home ownership, having a higher income, and having a central heating source, factors which should be considered in targeting future intervention strategies. At onset, 159/454 households (35.0%) had no smoke alarms installed and 56/275 households with existing smoke alarms (20.4%) had none that were functional. Regardless of ownership status, a free smoke alarm was installed in the household of 93.8% of participants and new batteries were installed in existing smoke alarms for 31.7% of participants. This project illustrates the usefulness of a door-to-door campaign in increasing smoke alarm ownership in both a rural and a suburban community with a high concentration of residents at high risk of house fire-related morbidity and mortality.

  13. Smoke alarm ownership and installation: a comparison of a rural and a suburban community in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Jones, A R; Thompson, C J; Davis, M K

    2001-10-01

    As part of a smoke alarm giveaway and installation program (The Get-Alarmed Campaign), a total of 454 households were surveyed in two counties in Georgia, one metropolitan and one nonmetropolitan. The targeted communities in these counties had a high prevalence of low-income and minority populations and thus were at high risk of house fire-related morbidity and mortality. The objectives of the program were to determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms, and to install at least one smoke alarm and/or smoke alarm batteries in 100% of participating homes in need. Characteristics associated with smoke alarm ownership included home ownership, having a higher income, and having a central heating source, factors which should be considered in targeting future intervention strategies. At onset, 159/454 households (35.0%) had no smoke alarms installed and 56/275 households with existing smoke alarms (20.4%) had none that were functional. Regardless of ownership status, a free smoke alarm was installed in the household of 93.8% of participants and new batteries were installed in existing smoke alarms for 31.7% of participants. This project illustrates the usefulness of a door-to-door campaign in increasing smoke alarm ownership in both a rural and a suburban community with a high concentration of residents at high risk of house fire-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:11554496

  14. Effect of vibratory soldier alarm signals on the foraging behavior of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Inta, R; Evans, T A; Lai, J C S

    2009-02-01

    Termite soldiers produce a vibratory alarm signal to warn conspecific workers. This study recorded and characterized the alarm signals of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and then investigated the effect of playing these recorded alarm signals on C. acinaciformis feeding activity. Foraging groups of termites were offered paired wooden blocks: either one block, continuously stimulated with a vibratory alarm signal, paired with a nonstimulated block (the alarm treatment), continuously stimulated with a pink noise signal, paired with a nonstimulated block (control for nonspecific vibrations) or two nonstimulated blocks (control for environmental effects), for 4 wk. The amount of wood eaten in the blocks stimulated by the alarm signals was significantly less than the paired nonstimulated blocks, while there seemed to be no preference in the case of the pink noise playback or control for direction. Importantly, the termites seemed not to have adapted to the recorded alarm signal over the 4-wk duration of the experiment, unlike previous studies using nonbiologically derived signals.

  15. Speed-accuracy tradeoffs and false alarms in bee responses to cryptic predators.

    PubMed

    Ings, Thomas C; Chittka, Lars

    2008-10-14

    Learning plays a crucial role in predator avoidance [1-3], but little is known about how the type of experience with predators molds future prey behavior. Specifically, is predator-avoidance learning and memory retention disrupted by cryptic coloration of predators, such as crab spiders [4, 5]? How does experience with different predators affect foraging decisions? We evaluated these questions by exposing foraging bumblebees to controlled predation risk from predators (robotic crab spiders) that were either cryptic or highly contrasting, as assessed by a quantitative model of bee color perception [6]. Our results from 3D tracking software reveal a speed-accuracy tradeoff [7]: Bees slow their inspection flights after learning that there is a risk from cryptic spiders. The adjustment of inspection effort results in accurate predator detection, leveling out predation risk at the expense of foraging time. Overnight-retention tests reveal no decline in performance, but bees that had experienced cryptic predators are more prone to "false alarms" (rejection of foraging opportunities on safe flowers) than those that had experienced conspicuous predators. Therefore, bees in the cryptic-spider treatment made a functional decision to trade off reduced foraging efficiency via increased inspection times and false-alarm rates against higher potential fitness loss from being injured or eaten.

  16. Development of sleep apnea syndrome screening algorithm by using heart rate variability analysis and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Chikao; Fujiwara, Koichi; Matsuo, Masahiro; Kano, Manabu; Kadotani, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Although sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is a common sleep disorder, most patients with sleep apnea are undiagnosed and untreated because it is difficult for patients themselves to notice SAS in daily living. Polysomnography (PSG) is a gold standard test for sleep disorder diagnosis, however PSG cannot be performed in many hospitals. This fact motivates us to develop an SAS screening system that can be used easily at home. The autonomic nervous function of a patient changes during apnea. Since changes in the autonomic nervous function affect fluctuation of the R-R interval (RRI) of an electrocardiogram (ECG), called heart rate variability (HRV), SAS can be detected through monitoring HRV. The present work proposes a new HRV-based SAS screening algorithm by utilizing support vector machine (SVM), which is a well-known pattern recognition method. In the proposed algorithm, various HRV features are derived from RRI data in both apnea and normal respiration periods of patients and healthy people, and an apnea/normal respiration (A/N) discriminant model is built from the derived HRV features by SVM. The result of applying the proposed SAS screening algorithm to clinical data demonstrates that it can discriminate patients with sleep apnea and healthy people appropriately. The sensitivity and the specificity of the proposed algorithm were 100% and 86%, respectively.

  17. Deaths resulting from residential fires and the prevalence of smoke alarms--United States, 1991-1995.

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    In 1995, residential fires accounted for an estimated 3600 deaths and approximately 18,600 injuries. In addition, property damage and other direct costs have been estimated to exceed more than $4 billion annually. To determine residential fire-related death rates, CDC analyzed death certificate data from 1991 to 1995 from U.S. vital statistics mortality tapes. Data from CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) was used to determine the prevalence of smoke alarms in U.S. households. This report presents the findings of these analyses, which indicate a seasonal variation in fire-related deaths and a high prevalence of smoke alarms in residences in the United States. PMID:9776167

  18. Environmental toxins: alarming impacts of pesticides on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Pallav; Banerjee, Rajdeb

    2014-10-01

    This review comprehensively summarizes the effects of more than 15 mostly used pesticides on male reproductive physiology, as recent experimental and epidemiological research have indicated their alarming impact on overall human health. Mechanisms have described that pesticide exposure damages spermatozoa, alter Sertoli or Leydig cell function, both in vitro and in vivo and thus affects semen quality. But, the literature suggests a need for more intricate research in those pesticides that are defined as mutagens or carcinogens and directly affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This literature review also proposes specific solutions to overcome these health effects.

  19. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    PubMed Central

    Luis, Juan Aponte; Galán, Juan Antonio Gómez; Espigado, Javier Alcina

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  20. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires.

    PubMed

    Aponte Luis, Juan; Gómez Galán, Juan Antonio; Alcina Espigado, Javier

    2015-08-21

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects.