Science.gov

Sample records for alarm rate support

  1. Building Ultra-Low False Alarm Rate Support Vector Classifier Ensembles Using Random Subspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B Y; Lemmond, T D; Hanley, W G

    2008-10-06

    This paper presents the Cost-Sensitive Random Subspace Support Vector Classifier (CS-RS-SVC), a new learning algorithm that combines random subspace sampling and bagging with Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Classifiers to more effectively address detection applications burdened by unequal misclassification requirements. When compared to its conventional, non-cost-sensitive counterpart on a two-class signal detection application, random subspace sampling is shown to very effectively leverage the additional flexibility offered by the Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Classifier, yielding a more than four-fold increase in the detection rate at a false alarm rate (FAR) of zero. Moreover, the CS-RS-SVC is shown to be fairly robust to constraints on the feature subspace dimensionality, enabling reductions in computation time of up to 82% with minimal performance degradation.

  2. Estimation of the patient monitor alarm rate for a quantitative analysis of new alarm settings.

    PubMed

    de Waele, Stijn; Nielsen, Larry; Frassica, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In many critical care units, default patient monitor alarm settings are not fine-tuned to the vital signs of the patient population. As a consequence there are many alarms. A large fraction of the alarms are not clinically actionable, thus contributing to alarm fatigue. Recent attention to this phenomenon has resulted in attempts in many institutions to decrease the overall alarm load of clinicians by altering the trigger thresholds for monitored parameters. Typically, new alarm settings are defined based on clinical knowledge and patient population norms and tried empirically on new patients without quantitative knowledge about the potential impact of these new settings. We introduce alarm regeneration as a method to estimate the alarm rate of new alarm settings using recorded patient monitor data. This method enables evaluation of several alarm setting scenarios prior to using these settings in the clinical setting. An expression for the alarm rate variance is derived for the calculation of statistical confidence intervals on the results.

  3. Expert system constant false alarm rate processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldygo, William J., Jr.; Wicks, Michael C.

    1993-10-01

    The requirements for high detection probability and low false alarm probability in modern wide area surveillance radars are rarely met due to spatial variations in clutter characteristics. Many filtering and CFAR detection algorithms have been developed to effectively deal with these variations; however, any single algorithm is likely to exhibit excessive false alarms and intolerably low detection probabilities in a dynamically changing environment. A great deal of research has led to advances in the state of the art in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and numerous areas have been identified for application to radar signal processing. The approach suggested here, discussed in a patent application submitted by the authors, is to intelligently select the filtering and CFAR detection algorithms being executed at any given time, based upon the observed characteristics of the interference environment. This approach requires sensing the environment, employing the most suitable algorithms, and applying an appropriate multiple algorithm fusion scheme or consensus algorithm to produce a global detection decision.

  4. Analysis of constant false alarm rate sidelobe canceller criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, I. S.; Brennan, L. E.

    1985-05-01

    In this final report, the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection criterion for a sidelobe canceller (SLC) system, introduced in the last quarterly progress report, is found completely and analyzed. This new detection test for radar exhibits the desirable CFAR property that its probability of a false alarm (PFA) is functionally independent of the covariance of the actual noise field encountered. As a consequence, such a CFAR SLC system is ideally suited to cope with the newly evolving smart jammer threat to radar. An important objective, set in the last quarterly progress report, was to find both the false alarm and signal detection probabilities of this test. The first and most important of these two goals has been met. The probability of a false alarm (or PFA) of this CFAR SLC detection criterion is derived in closed form in this report. The success in finding the PFA is due primarily to the use of a generalization of Cochran's theorem.

  5. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  6. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  7. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  8. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  9. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  10. SETI Pulse Detection Algorithm: Analysis of False-alarm Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, B. K.

    1983-01-01

    Some earlier work by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Science Working Group (SWG) on the derivation of spectrum analyzer thresholds for a pulse detection algorithm based on an analysis of false alarm rates is extended. The algorithm previously analyzed was intended to detect a finite sequence of i periodically spaced pulses that did not necessarily occupy the entire observation interval. This algorithm would recognize the presence of such a signal only if all i-received pulse powers exceeded a threshold T(i): these thresholds were selected to achieve a desired false alarm rate, independent of i. To simplify the analysis, it was assumed that the pulses were synchronous with the spectrum sample times. This analysis extends the earlier effort to include infinite and/or asynchronous pulse trains. Furthermore, to decrease the possibility of missing an extraterrestrial intelligence signal, the algorithm was modified to detect a pulse train even if some of the received pulse powers fall below the threshold. The analysis employs geometrical arguments that make it conceptually easy to incorporate boundary conditions imposed on the derivation of the false alarm rates. While the exact results can be somewhat complex, simple closed form approximations are derived that produce a negligible loss of accuracy.

  11. False alarm rates of three third-generation pulse oximeters in PACU, ICU and IABP patients.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Norbert O; Urankar, Sabine; Kroeber, Steffi

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to determine alarm rates--in particular the frequency of false positive alarms--of three third-generation pulse oximeters in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), the intensive care unit (ICU), and in patients with an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP): Nellcor Symphony N-3000, a Masimo IVY 2000, and Agilent Viridia CMS 2000. All alarms were classified into technical/physiological and false/correct. 235 consecutive ASA physical status I-IV patients after surgery were included into the study. In the PACU false positive alarms were rare: CMS n = 60, N-3000 n = 60, Masimo n = 87. Bland-Altman testing discovered only negligible differences of alarm rates and dropout times. Out of a total of 728 alarms 67.3% were classified as false positive in ICU-patients: 97 alarms by CMS, 176 by N-3000 and 218 by Masimo SET. If IABP was present, CMS indicated a significant smaller number of false positive alarms (n = 35, 7.2%) when compared to Masimo SET (n = 188, 38.9%) and N-3000 (n = 229, 47.4%), consecutively the majority of false positive alarms (76.2%) can be rated as a result of the interference of IABP. Unless IABP (and to a considerably smaller extent cardiac arrhythmia) is present the pulse oximeters do not differ significantly regarding sensitivity and specificity.

  12. Sensor fusion methods for reducing false alarms in heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gabriel; Brusamarello, Valner

    2016-12-01

    Automatic patient monitoring is an essential resource in hospitals for good health care management. While alarms caused by abnormal physiological conditions are important for the delivery of fast treatment, they can be also a source of unnecessary noise because of false alarms caused by electromagnetic interference or motion artifacts. One significant source of false alarms is related to heart rate, which is triggered when the heart rhythm of the patient is too fast or too slow. In this work, the fusion of different physiological sensors is explored in order to create a robust heart rate estimation. A set of algorithms using heart rate variability index, Bayesian inference, neural networks, fuzzy logic and majority voting is proposed to fuse the information from the electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure and photoplethysmogram. Three kinds of information are extracted from each source, namely, heart rate variability, the heart rate difference between sensors and the spectral analysis of low and high noise of each sensor. This information is used as input to the algorithms. Twenty recordings selected from the MIMIC database were used to validate the system. The results showed that neural networks fusion had the best false alarm reduction of 92.5 %, while the Bayesian technique had a reduction of 84.3 %, fuzzy logic 80.6 %, majority voter 72.5 % and the heart rate variability index 67.5 %. Therefore, the proposed algorithms showed good performance and could be useful in bedside monitors.

  13. Constant false alarm rate algorithm for the dim-small target detection based on the distribution characteristics of target coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiao-Liang; Ren, Kan; Qian, Wei-xian; Wang, Peng-cheng

    2015-10-01

    CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) is a key technology in Infrared dim-small target detection system. Because the traditional constant false alarm rate detection algorithm gets the probability density distribution which is based on the pixel information of each area in the whole image and calculates the target segmentation threshold of each area by formula of Constant false alarm rate, the problems including the difficulty of probability distribution statistics and large amount of algorithm calculation and long delay time are existing. In order to solve the above problems effectively, a formula of Constant false alarm rate based on target coordinates distribution is presented. Firstly, this paper proposes a new formula of Constant false alarm rate by improving the traditional formula of Constant false alarm rate based on the single grayscale distribution which objective statistical distribution features are introduced. So the control of false alarm according to the target distribution information is implemented more accurately and the problem of high false alarm that is caused of the complex background in local area as the cloud reflection and the ground clutter interference is solved. At the same time, in order to reduce the amount of algorithm calculation and improve the real-time characteristics of algorithm, this paper divides the constant false-alarm statistical area through two-dimensional probability density distribution of target number adaptively which is different from the general identifying methods of constant false-alarm statistical area. Finally, the target segmentation threshold of next frame is calculated by iteration based on the function of target distribution probability density in image sequence which can achieve the purpose of controlling the false alarm until the false alarm is down to the upper limit. The experiment results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the operation time and meet the real-time requirements on

  14. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the "threat" set of spectra

  15. A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.

    2009-04-01

    application as CiscoWorks, HP OpenView NNM and Operation, BMC Patrol, etc. Analysis of text of an alarm can detect some keywords that allow to classify the particular event. The inference rules were developed by means an analysis about news regard real emergency found by web reaserches. We have seen that often a kind of emergency is characterized by more keyword. Keywords are not uniquely associated with a specific emergency, but they can be shared by different types of emergencies (such as. keyword "landslide" can be associated both emergency "landslide" and emergency "Flood"). However, the identification of two or more keywords associated with a particular type of emergency identified in most cases the correct type of emergency. So, for example, if text contains words as "water", "flood", "overflowing", "landslide" o other words belonging to the set of defined keywords or words that have some root of keywords, the system "decides" that this alarm belongs to specific typology, in this case "flood typology". The system has the memory of this information, so if a new alarm is reported and belongs to one of the typology already identified, it proceeds with the comparison of coordinates. The comparison between the centers of the alarms allows to see if they describe an area inscribed in an ideal circle that has centered on the first alarm and radius defined by the typology above mentioned. If this happens the system CI6 creates an emergency that has centered on the centre of that area and typology equal to that of the alarms. It follows that an emergency is represented by at least two alarms. Thus, the system suggests to manager (CI6's user) the possibility that most alarms can concern same events and makes a classification of this event. It is important to stress that CI6 is a system of decision support, hence also this service is limited to providing advice to the user to facilitate his task, leaving him the decision to accept it or not. REFERENCES SEC (Simple Event Correlator

  16. Alarm system management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response.

    PubMed

    Rayo, Michael F; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-04-01

    Although there are powerful incentives for creating alarm management programmes to reduce 'alarm fatigue', they do not provide guidance on how to reduce the likelihood that clinicians will disregard critical alarms. The literature cites numerous phenomena that contribute to alarm fatigue, although many of these, including total rate of alarms, are not supported in the literature as factors that directly impact alarm response. The contributor that is most frequently associated with alarm response is informativeness, which is defined as the proportion of total alarms that successfully conveys a specific event, and the extent to which it is a hazard. Informativeness is low across all healthcare applications, consistently ranging from 1% to 20%. Because of its likelihood and strong evidential support, informativeness should be evaluated before other contributors are considered. Methods for measuring informativeness and alarm response are discussed. Design directions for potential interventions, as well as design alternatives to traditional alarms, are also discussed. With the increased attention and investment in alarm system management that alarm interventions are currently receiving, initiatives that focus on informativeness and the other evidence-based measures identified will allow us to more effectively, efficiently and reliably redirect clinician attention, ultimately improving alarm response. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Combining Gravitational Wave Events with their Electromagnetic Counterparts: A Realistic Joint False-Alarm Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen; Klimenko, Sergey; LIGO Team

    2017-01-01

    We present a false-alarm rate for a joint detection of gravitational wave (GW) events and associated electromagnetic (EM) counterparts for Advanced LIGO and Virgo (LV) observations during the first years of operation. Using simulated GW events and their recostructed probability skymaps, we tile over the error regions using sets of archival wide-field telescope survey images and recover the number of astrophysical transients to be expected during LV-EM followup. With the known GW event injection coordinates we inject artificial electromagnetic (EM) sources at that site based on theoretical and observational models on a one-to-one basis. We calculate the EM false-alarm probability using an unsupervised machine learning algorithm based on shapelet analysis which has shown to be a strong discriminator between astrophysical transients and image artifacts while reducing the set of transients to be manually vetted by five orders of magnitude. We also show the performance of our method in context with other machine-learned transient classification and reduction algorithms, showing comparability without the need for a large set of training data opening the possibility for next-generation telescopes to take advantage of this pipeline for LV-EM followup missions.

  18. Systematic review of physiologic monitor alarm characteristics and pragmatic interventions to reduce alarm frequency

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Christine Weirich; Goel, Veena V.; Ely, Elizabeth; Stave, Christopher D.; Stemler, Shannon; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alarm fatigue from frequent nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms is frequently named as a threat to patient safety. Purpose To critically examine the available literature relevant to alarm fatigue. Data Sources Articles published in English, Spanish, or French between January 1980 and April 2015 indexed in PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Study Selection Articles focused on hospital physiologic monitor alarms addressing any of the following: 1) the proportion of alarms that are actionable, 2) the relationship between alarm exposure and nurse response time, and 3) the effectiveness of interventions in reducing alarm frequency. Data Extraction We extracted data on setting, collection methods, proportion of alarms determined to be actionable, nurse response time, and associations between interventions and alarm rates. Data Synthesis Our search produced 24 observational studies focused on alarm characteristics and response time and 8 studies evaluating interventions. Actionable alarm proportion ranged from <1% to 36% across a range of hospital settings. Two studies showed relationships between high alarm exposure and longer nurse response time. Most intervention studies included multiple components implemented simultaneously. While studies varied widely, and many had high risk of bias, promising but still unproven interventions include widening alarm parameters, instituting alarm delays, and using disposable electrocardiographic wires or frequently changed electrocardiographic electrodes. Conclusions Physiologic monitor alarms are commonly nonactionable, and evidence supporting the concept of alarm fatigue is emerging. Several interventions have the potential to reduce alarms safely, but more rigorously designed studies with attention to possible unintended consequences are needed. PMID:26663904

  19. Systematic Review of Physiologic Monitor Alarm Characteristics and Pragmatic Interventions to Reduce Alarm Frequency.

    PubMed

    Paine, Christine Weirich; Goel, Veena V; Ely, Elizabeth; Stave, Christopher D; Stemler, Shannon; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P

    2016-02-01

    Alarm fatigue from frequent nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms is frequently named as a threat to patient safety. To critically examine the available literature relevant to alarm fatigue. Articles published in English, Spanish, or French between January 1980 and April 2015 indexed in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Articles focused on hospital physiologic monitor alarms addressing any of the following: (1) the proportion of alarms that are actionable, (2) the relationship between alarm exposure and nurse response time, and (3) the effectiveness of interventions in reducing alarm frequency. We extracted data on setting, collection methods, proportion of alarms determined to be actionable, nurse response time, and associations between interventions and alarm rates. Our search produced 24 observational studies focused on alarm characteristics and response time and 8 studies evaluating interventions. Actionable alarm proportion ranged from <1% to 36% across a range of hospital settings. Two studies showed relationships between high alarm exposure and longer nurse response time. Most intervention studies included multiple components implemented simultaneously. Although studies varied widely, and many had high risk of bias, promising but still unproven interventions include widening alarm parameters, instituting alarm delays, and using disposable electrocardiographic wires or frequently changed electrocardiographic electrodes. Physiologic monitor alarms are commonly nonactionable, and evidence supporting the concept of alarm fatigue is emerging. Several interventions have the potential to reduce alarms safely, but more rigorously designed studies with attention to possible unintended consequences are needed. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  20. Impact of Mandatory Carbon Monoxide Alarms: An Investigation of the Effects on Detection and Poisoning Rates in New York City.

    PubMed

    Wheeler-Martin, Katherine; Soghoian, Sari; Prosser, Jane M; Manini, Alex F; Marker, Elizabeth; Stajic, Marina; Prezant, David; Nelson, Lewis S; Hoffman, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the impact of New York City's (NYC's) 2004 carbon monoxide (CO) alarm legislation on CO incident detection and poisoning rates. We compared CO poisoning deaths, hospitalizations, exposures reported to Poison Control, and fire department investigations, before and after the law for 2000 to 2010. Use of CO alarms was assessed in the 2009 NYC Community Health Survey. Investigations that found indoor CO levels greater than 9 parts per million increased nearly 7-fold after the law (P < .001). There were nonsignificant decreases in unintentional, nonfire-related CO poisoning hospitalization rates (P = .114) and death rates (P = .216). After we controlled for ambient temperature, the law's effect on hospitalizations remained nonsignificantly protective (incidence rate ratio = 0.747; 95% confidence interval = 0.520, 1.074). By 2009, 83% of NYC residents reported having CO alarms; only 54% also recently tested or replaced their batteries. Mandating CO alarms significantly increased the detection of potentially hazardous CO levels in NYC homes. Small numbers and detection bias might have limited the discovery of significant decreases in poisoning outcomes. Investigation of individual poisoning circumstances since the law might elucidate remaining gaps in awareness and proper use of CO alarms.

  1. Impact of Mandatory Carbon Monoxide Alarms: An Investigation of the Effects on Detection and Poisoning Rates in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler-Martin, Katherine; Soghoian, Sari; Manini, Alex F.; Marker, Elizabeth; Stajic, Marina; Prezant, David; Nelson, Lewis S.; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to evaluate the impact of New York City’s (NYC’s) 2004 carbon monoxide (CO) alarm legislation on CO incident detection and poisoning rates. Methods. We compared CO poisoning deaths, hospitalizations, exposures reported to Poison Control, and fire department investigations, before and after the law for 2000 to 2010. Use of CO alarms was assessed in the 2009 NYC Community Health Survey. Results. Investigations that found indoor CO levels greater than 9 parts per million increased nearly 7-fold after the law (P < .001). There were nonsignificant decreases in unintentional, nonfire-related CO poisoning hospitalization rates (P = .114) and death rates (P = .216). After we controlled for ambient temperature, the law’s effect on hospitalizations remained nonsignificantly protective (incidence rate ratio = 0.747; 95% confidence interval = 0.520, 1.074). By 2009, 83% of NYC residents reported having CO alarms; only 54% also recently tested or replaced their batteries. Conclusions. Mandating CO alarms significantly increased the detection of potentially hazardous CO levels in NYC homes. Small numbers and detection bias might have limited the discovery of significant decreases in poisoning outcomes. Investigation of individual poisoning circumstances since the law might elucidate remaining gaps in awareness and proper use of CO alarms. PMID:26066948

  2. Medical audible alarms: a review

    PubMed Central

    Edworthy, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

  3. Detection of exudates in fundus imagery using a constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Manish; Kapoor, Elina

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults in the United States. The presence of exudates in fundus imagery is the early sign of diabetic retinopathy so detection of these lesions is essential in preventing further ocular damage. In this paper we present a novel technique to automatically detect exudates in fundus imagery that is robust against spatial and temporal variations of background noise. The detection threshold is adjusted dynamically, based on the local noise statics around the pixel under test in order to maintain a pre-determined, constant false alarm rate (CFAR). The CFAR detector is often used to detect bright targets in radar imagery where the background clutter can vary considerably from scene to scene and with angle to the scene. Similarly, the CFAR detector addresses the challenge of detecting exudate lesions in RGB and multispectral fundus imagery where the background clutter often exhibits variations in brightness and texture. These variations present a challenge to common, global thresholding detection algorithms and other methods. Performance of the CFAR algorithm is tested against a publicly available, annotated, diabetic retinopathy database and preliminary testing suggests that performance of the CFAR detector proves to be superior to techniques such as Otsu thresholding.

  4. Regularized learning of linear ordered-statistic constant false alarm rate filters (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Cummings, Ian; Botts, Jonathan; Summers, Jason E.

    2017-05-01

    The linear ordered statistic (LOS) is a parameterized ordered statistic (OS) that is a weighted average of a rank-ordered sample. LOS operators are useful generalizations of aggregation as they can represent any linear aggregation, from minimum to maximum, including conventional aggregations, such as mean and median. In the fuzzy logic field, these aggregations are called ordered weighted averages (OWAs). Here, we present a method for learning LOS operators from training data, viz., data for which you know the output of the desired LOS. We then extend the learning process with regularization, such that a lower complexity or sparse LOS can be learned. Hence, we discuss what 'lower complexity' means in this context and how to represent that in the optimization procedure. Finally, we apply our learning methods to the well-known constant-false-alarm-rate (CFAR) detection problem, specifically for the case of background levels modeled by long-tailed distributions, such as the K-distribution. These backgrounds arise in several pertinent imaging problems, including the modeling of clutter in synthetic aperture radar and sonar (SAR and SAS) and in wireless communications.

  5. Alarms Philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    White, Karen S; Kasemir, Kay

    2009-01-01

    An effective alarm system consists of a mechanism to monitor control points and generate alarm notifications, tools for operators to view, hear, acknowledge and handle alarms and a good configuration. Despite the availability of numerous fully featured tools, accelerator alarm systems continue to be disappointing to operations, frequently to the point of alarms being permanently silenced or totally ignored. This is often due to configurations that produce an excessive number of alarms or fail to communicate the required operator response. Most accelerator controls systems do a good job of monitoring specified points and generating notifications when parameters exceed predefined limits. In some cases, improved tools can help, but more often, poor configuration is the root cause of ineffective alarm systems. A SNS, we have invested considerable effort in generating appropriate configurations using a rigorous set of rules based on best practices in the industrial process controls community. This paper will discuss our alarm configuration philosophy and operator response to our new system.

  6. The d-Prime directive: Assessing costs and benefits in recognition by dissociating mixed-list false alarm rates.

    PubMed

    Forrin, Noah D; Groot, Brianna; MacLeod, Colin M

    2016-07-01

    It can be difficult to judge the effectiveness of encoding techniques in a within-subject design. Consider the production effect-the finding that words read aloud are better remembered than words read silently. In the absence of a baseline, a within-subject production effect in a mixed study list could reflect a benefit of reading aloud, a cost of reading silently, or both. To help interpret within-subject data, memory researchers have compared within-subject and between-subjects designs, with the between-subjects (i.e., pure list) conditions serving as baselines against which the within-subject (i.e., mixed-list) conditions are compared. In the present article, the authors highlight a shortcoming of using this comparison to assess costs and benefits in recognition. Unlike between-subjects experiments where separate false alarm rates are obtained for each condition, the typical within-subject experiment yields a collapsed false alarm rate, which, the authors argue, can potentially bias calculations of memory discrimination (d'). Across 3 experiments that used production as the encoding manipulation, they used a typical mixed-list versus pure-list design (Experiment 1) and then made modifications to this design (Experiments 2 and 3) that yielded separate mixed-list false alarm rates. The results of the latter 2 experiments demonstrated that words that are read aloud in a mixed list have an overall memorial benefit over words that are read aloud in a pure list-both in terms of increased hits and reduced false alarms. The authors frame these results in terms of the distinctiveness heuristic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Application Prospects of the Russian Hazard Alarm System Supporting Safe Flights of Operated Space Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V.; Sokolov, N.; Kozlov, V.; Kornienko, Y.

    2013-08-01

    The issues are considered of elaboration and development of the Russian hazard alarm system to provide safe flight of operated space vehicles and life activities on Earth under the conditions of increasingly congested near-Earth space environment. The results are given characterizing the appearance intensity of hazardous approaches of space vehicles with space debris in the different areas of near-Earth space. The estimated probabilities are given of space vehicles collisions with the space objects, and also the statistical data on safety zone violations of space vehicles, performance of avoidance maneuvers, coordinates and time of deorbiting of the falling space objects. There is also a description of development prospects of the hazard alarm system.

  8. Bed exit alarms.

    PubMed

    2004-09-01

    Bed-exit alarms alert caregivers that a patient who should not get out of bed unassisted is doing so. These alarms can help reduce the likelihood of falls and can promote speedy assistance to patients who have already fallen. But as we described in our May 2004 Guidance Article on bed-exit alarms, they don't themselves prevent falls. They are only effective if used as part of an overall fall-prevention program and with a clear understanding of their limitations. This Evaluation examines the effectiveness of 16 bed-exit alarms from seven suppliers. Our ratings focus primarily on each product's reliability in detecting bed-exit events and alerting caregivers, its ability to minimize nuisance alarms (alarms that sound even though the patient isn't leaving the bed or that sound while a caregiver is helping the patient to leave the bed), and its resistance to deliberate or inadvertent tampering. Twelve of the products use pressure-sensor-activated alarms (mainly sensor pads placed on or under the mattress); three use a cord that can attach to the patient's garment, alarming if the cord is pulled loose from the control unit; and one is a position-sensitive alarm attached to a leg cuff. All the products reliably detect attempted or successful bed exits. But they vary greatly in how effectively they alert staff, minimize nuisance alarms, and resist tampering. Ease of use and battery performance also vary for many units. Of the pressure-sensor units, three are rated Preferred. Those units meet most of our criteria and have no significant disadvantages. Five of the other pressure-sensor products are Acceptable, and the remaining four are Not Recommended. All three cord-activated alarms are rated Acceptable, as is the patient-worn alarm.

  9. Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.

    PubMed

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings.

  10. Alarm Safety and Alarm Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kendall R; Hagadorn, James I; Sink, David W

    2017-09-01

    Clinical alarm systems have received significant attention in recent years following warnings from hospital accrediting and health care technology organizations regarding patient harm caused by unsafe practices. Alarm desensitization or fatigue from frequent, false, or unnecessary alarms, has led to serious events and even patient deaths. Other concerns include settings inappropriate to patient population or condition, inadequate staff training, and improper use or disabling. Research on human factors in alarm response and of functionality of medical devices will help clinicians develop appropriate policies, practices, and device settings for clinical alarms in neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alarming attrition rates among HIV-infected individuals in pre-antiretroviral therapy care in Myanmar, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Oo, Myo Minn; Gupta, Vivek; Aung, Thet Ko; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Oo, Htun Nyunt; Kumar, Ajay Mv

    2016-01-01

    High retention rates have been documented among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Myanmar. However, there is no information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in care before initiation of ART (pre-ART care). We assessed attrition (loss-to-follow-up [LTFU] and death) rates among HIV-infected individuals in pre-ART care and their associated factors over a 4-year period. In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted routinely collected data of HIV-infected adults (>15 years old) entering pre-ART care (June 2011-June 2014) as part of an Integrated HIV Care (IHC) programme, Myanmar. Attrition rates per 100 person-years and cumulative incidence of attrition were calculated. Factors associated with attrition were examined by calculating hazard ratios (HRs). Of 18,037 HIV-infected adults enrolled in the IHC programme, 11,464 (63%) entered pre-ART care (60% men, mean age 37 years, median cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count 160 cells/µL). Of the 11,464 eligible participants, 3,712 (32%) underwent attrition of which 43% were due to deaths and 57% were due to LTFU. The attrition rate was 78 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 75-80). The cumulative incidence of attrition was 70% at the end of a 4-year follow-up, of which nearly 90% occurred in the first 6 months. Male sex (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4-1.6), WHO clinical Stage 3 and 4, CD4 count <200 cells/µL, abnormal BMI, and anaemia were statistically significant predictors of attrition. Pre-ART care attrition among persons living with HIV in Myanmar was alarmingly high - with most attrition occurring within the first 6 months. Strategies aimed at improving early HIV diagnosis and initiation of ART are needed. Suggestions include comprehensive nutrition support and intensified monitoring to prevent pre-ART care attrition by tracking patients who do not return for pre-ART care appointments. It is high time that Myanmar moves towards a 'test and treat' approach and ultimately eliminates

  12. Alarming attrition rates among HIV-infected individuals in pre-antiretroviral therapy care in Myanmar, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Oo, Myo Minn; Gupta, Vivek; Aung, Thet Ko; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Oo, Htun Nyunt; Kumar, Ajay MV

    2016-01-01

    Background High retention rates have been documented among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Myanmar. However, there is no information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in care before initiation of ART (pre-ART care). We assessed attrition (loss-to-follow-up [LTFU] and death) rates among HIV-infected individuals in pre-ART care and their associated factors over a 4-year period. Design In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted routinely collected data of HIV-infected adults (>15 years old) entering pre-ART care (June 2011–June 2014) as part of an Integrated HIV Care (IHC) programme, Myanmar. Attrition rates per 100 person-years and cumulative incidence of attrition were calculated. Factors associated with attrition were examined by calculating hazard ratios (HRs). Results Of 18,037 HIV-infected adults enrolled in the IHC programme, 11,464 (63%) entered pre-ART care (60% men, mean age 37 years, median cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count 160 cells/µL). Of the 11,464 eligible participants, 3,712 (32%) underwent attrition of which 43% were due to deaths and 57% were due to LTFU. The attrition rate was 78 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 75–80). The cumulative incidence of attrition was 70% at the end of a 4-year follow-up, of which nearly 90% occurred in the first 6 months. Male sex (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4–1.6), WHO clinical Stage 3 and 4, CD4 count <200 cells/µL, abnormal BMI, and anaemia were statistically significant predictors of attrition. Conclusions Pre-ART care attrition among persons living with HIV in Myanmar was alarmingly high – with most attrition occurring within the first 6 months. Strategies aimed at improving early HIV diagnosis and initiation of ART are needed. Suggestions include comprehensive nutrition support and intensified monitoring to prevent pre-ART care attrition by tracking patients who do not return for pre-ART care appointments. It is high time that Myanmar moves towards a

  13. Effect of station-specific alerting and ramp-up tones on firefighters' alarm time heart rates.

    PubMed

    MacNeal, James J; Cone, David C; Wistrom, Christopher L

    2016-11-01

    A number of long-term health effects are suffered by emergency responders, some influenced by psychological stress and fatigue. This study explored if stress and fatigue can be reduced by changing the method by which firefighters are alerted to emergency responses. Over several months, the method by which responders at a fire department were alerted was altered. Firefighter heart rates were measured first with standard alerting as a control (phase 1: all stations alerted simultaneously, with high-volume tones). The department then implemented station-specific (phase 2) and gradual volume ramp-up (phase 3) tone alerting, and heart rate increases were compared. The Fatigue Severity Score was used to examine firefighter fatigue, and the department administered a follow-up survey on personnel preferences. Individual heart rate increases (Δbpm) ranged from 2-48 bpm. Median increases were 7 bpm (IQR 4-11 bpm) during phase 1 (72.2% of alarms Δbpm<10), 7 bpm (IQR 5-12 bpm) during phase 2 (60.7% of alarms Δbpm<10), and 5 bpm (IQR 3-8 bpm) during phase 3 (82.7% of alarms Δbpm<10). The difference in medians was lower for phases 1 and 2 than for phase 3 (p = 0.0069), and more alarms in phase 3 resulted in increases of <10 bpm than in phase 2 (p = 0.0089). The Fatigue Severity Scale showed little variability: median scores 7 in phase 1, 8 in phase 2, and 7 in phase 3. Firefighters reported a strong preference for the "ramp-up" tones, and were roughly evenly divided between preferring alerting all stations simultaneously 24/7 (40% rating this 4 or 5 on a five-point Likert scale), station-specific alerting 24/7 (47.5%), or all stations during the day but station-specific at night (40%). Ramp-up tones were perceived as the best method to reduce stress during the day and overnight. Small but significant decreases in the amount of tachycardic response to station alerting are associated with simple alterations in alerting methods. Station-specific and ramp-up tones improve

  14. Inverse identification of the release location, temporal rates, and sensor alarming time of an airborne pollutant source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Zhou, H; Wang, S

    2015-08-01

    With an accidental release of an airborne pollutant, it is always critical to know where, when, and how the pollutant has been released. Then, emergency measures can be scientifically advised to prevent any possible harm. This investigation proposes an inverse model to identify the release location, the temporal rate profile, and the sensor alarming time from the start of a pollutant release. The first step is to implement the inverse operation to the cause-effect matrix to obtain the release rate profiles for discrete candidate scenarios with concentration information provided by one sensor. The second step is to interpret the occurrence probability of each solution in the first step with the Bayesian model by matching the concentration at the other sensor. The proposed model was applied to identify a single pollutant source in a two-dimensional enclosure using measurement data and in a three-dimensional aircraft cabin with simulated data. The results show that the model is able to correctly determine the pollutant source location, the temporal rate profile, and the sensor alarming time. The known conditions for input into the inverse model include a steady flow field and the valid temporal concentrations at two different locations. The proposed inverse model can tell where, when, and how a gaseous pollutant has been accidently released based on the monitoring concentrations measured by two sensors. This methodology can be useful for providing emergency protection to indoor occupants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Experimental investigation on lower nuisance alarm rate phase-sensitive OTDR using the combination of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sheng; Sheng, Xinzhi; Lou, Shuqin

    2016-03-01

    Phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (φ-OTDR) currently suffers from high nuisance alarm rate (NAR) due to fluctuation of scattering light intensity, nonlinear coherent addition, and ambient noises in complicated noisy environments. In order to lower NAR, a φ-OTDR combined with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this system, φ-OTDR takes the role of detecting and locating the disturbance and MZI verifies the real disturbance by using an alarm threshold. Experimental results demonstrate that NAR of φ-OTDR with MZI can be efficiently reduced to ∼1% from ∼15% of a single φ-OTDR and a high probability of detection of ∼97% is achieved. Furthermore, the dependences of NAR and probability of detection on the pulse width and sampling rate is investigated. When the pulse width is changed from 0.1 to 1 μs and sampling rate vary in the range from 10 to 50 MS/s, NAR and probability of detection only exist a little fluctuation. The proposed scheme is helpful to reduce NAR of the current single φ-OTDR without introduction of complicated algorithm and also have simple configuration with low cost.

  16. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects’ performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode. PMID:27314235

  17. Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, K.M.

    1998-08-01

    The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

  18. Monitor alarm fatigue: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Cvach, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Alarm fatigue is a national problem and the number one medical device technology hazard in 2012. The problem of alarm desensitization is multifaceted and related to a high false alarm rate, poor positive predictive value, lack of alarm standardization, and the number of alarming medical devices in hospitals today. This integrative review synthesizes research and non-research findings published between 1/1/2000 and 10/1/2011 using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice model. Seventy-two articles were included. Research evidence was organized into five main themes: excessive alarms and effects on staff; nurse's response to alarms; alarm sounds and audibility; technology to reduce false alarms; and alarm notification systems. Non-research evidence was divided into two main themes: strategies to reduce alarm desensitization, and alarm priority and notification systems. Evidence-based practice recommendations and gaps in research are summarized.

  19. Alarm fatigue.

    PubMed

    Sendelbach, Sue

    2012-09-01

    The number of false high alarms in the hospital setting remains a serious problem. False alarms have desensitized care providers and, at times, have led to dire consequences for patients. Efforts by both industry and clinicians are beginning to address this situation in collaborative approaches. Research is needed to establish an evidence base around issues such as which patients need to be monitored, and what the threshold settings and delay settings should be on devices. Initial and ongoing education needs to be considered for any new medical device, and be included in the hospital's annual budget. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved process control alarm operation.

    PubMed

    Bristol, E H

    2001-01-01

    Alarms are the main connection from the automation to the operator, when addressing process operation outside of its normal function. They are often as much a source of operator overload and consternation as help. Better engineering of the relative role of the operator and automation would materially help overcome the difficulties. Expert systems have been proposed as a solution. But Expert systems are really another form of automation. There remains that aspect of the alarms, which must address our inability to cover and understand a possibly larger domain of the operation not appropriate to traditional controls or present-day automation. Appropriate tools for this domain must support operator discretion and initiative. The paper suggests a set of such general, computer science based, tools requiring only the most basic configuration. They are viewed as implemented on top of those properly detailed alarm displays and interlocks, which reflect the more formal plant operating policies. They include: (a) Various forms of alarm logging and trending; (b) Short, automatically generated, word summaries of alarm activity, which allow low level data to propagate to the highest levels, including: one word and priority summaries; (c) Causal alarm pattern analyses that help the operator to predict or diagnose alarm behavior; (d) Automatic adaptation of alarms and alarm limits to varying process situations; (e) Uniform use of alarm policies to simplify alarm configuration.

  1. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patricia R; Zègre-Hemsey, Jessica K; Schindler, Daniel; Bai, Yong; Pelter, Michele M; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    number and 2) the duration of false arrhythmia alarms per 24-hour period, using nonparametric statistics to minimize the influence of outliers. Among the significant associations were the following: age ≥60 years (P=0.013; P=0.034), confused mental status (P<0.001 for both comparisons), cardiovascular diagnoses (P<0.001 for both comparisons), electrocardiographic (ECG) features, such as wide ECG waveforms that correspond to ventricular depolarization known as QRS complex due to bundle branch block (BBB) (P=0.003; P=0.004) or ventricular paced rhythm (P=0.002 for both comparisons), respiratory diagnoses (P=0.004 for both comparisons), and support with mechanical ventilation, including those with primary diagnoses other than respiratory ones (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Patients likely to trigger a higher number of false arrhythmia alarms may be those with older age, confusion, cardiovascular diagnoses, and ECG features that indicate BBB or ventricular pacing, respiratory diagnoses, and mechanical ventilatory support. Algorithm improvements could focus on better noise reduction (eg, motion artifact with confused state) and distinguishing BBB and paced rhythms from ventricular arrhythmias. Increasing awareness of patient conditions that apparently trigger a higher rate of false arrhythmia alarms may be useful for reducing unnecessary noise and improving alarm management.

  2. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Patricia R; Zègre-Hemsey, Jessica K; Schindler, Daniel; Bai, Yong; Pelter, Michele M; Hu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    characteristics were compared in relation to 1) the number and 2) the duration of false arrhythmia alarms per 24-hour period, using nonparametric statistics to minimize the influence of outliers. Among the significant associations were the following: age ≥60 years (P=0.013; P=0.034), confused mental status (P<0.001 for both comparisons), cardiovascular diagnoses (P<0.001 for both comparisons), electrocardiographic (ECG) features, such as wide ECG waveforms that correspond to ventricular depolarization known as QRS complex due to bundle branch block (BBB) (P=0.003; P=0.004) or ventricular paced rhythm (P=0.002 for both comparisons), respiratory diagnoses (P=0.004 for both comparisons), and support with mechanical ventilation, including those with primary diagnoses other than respiratory ones (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Conclusion Patients likely to trigger a higher number of false arrhythmia alarms may be those with older age, confusion, cardiovascular diagnoses, and ECG features that indicate BBB or ventricular pacing, respiratory diagnoses, and mechanical ventilatory support. Algorithm improvements could focus on better noise reduction (eg, motion artifact with confused state) and distinguishing BBB and paced rhythms from ventricular arrhythmias. Increasing awareness of patient conditions that apparently trigger a higher rate of false arrhythmia alarms may be useful for reducing unnecessary noise and improving alarm management. PMID:28458554

  3. Integrating monitor alarms with laboratory test results to enhance patient deterioration prediction.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yong; Do, Duc H; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Schindler, Daniel; Boyle, Noel G; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Patient monitors in modern hospitals have become ubiquitous but they generate an excessive number of false alarms causing alarm fatigue. Our previous work showed that combinations of frequently co-occurring monitor alarms, called SuperAlarm patterns, were capable of predicting in-hospital code blue events at a lower alarm frequency. In the present study, we extend the conceptual domain of a SuperAlarm to incorporate laboratory test results along with monitor alarms so as to build an integrated data set to mine SuperAlarm patterns. We propose two approaches to integrate monitor alarms with laboratory test results and use a maximal frequent itemsets mining algorithm to find SuperAlarm patterns. Under an acceptable false positive rate FPRmax, optimal parameters including the minimum support threshold and the length of time window for the algorithm to find the combinations of monitor alarms and laboratory test results are determined based on a 10-fold cross-validation set. SuperAlarm candidates are generated under these optimal parameters. The final SuperAlarm patterns are obtained by further removing the candidates with false positive rate>FPRmax. The performance of SuperAlarm patterns are assessed using an independent test data set. First, we calculate the sensitivity with respect to prediction window and the sensitivity with respect to lead time. Second, we calculate the false SuperAlarm ratio (ratio of the hourly number of SuperAlarm triggers for control patients to that of the monitor alarms, or that of regular monitor alarms plus laboratory test results if the SuperAlarm patterns contain laboratory test results) and the work-up to detection ratio, WDR (ratio of the number of patients triggering any SuperAlarm patterns to that of code blue patients triggering any SuperAlarm patterns). The experiment results demonstrate that when varying FPRmax between 0.02 and 0.15, the SuperAlarm patterns composed of monitor alarms along with the last two laboratory test results

  4. Criticality accident alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% {sup 235}U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs.

  5. Semi-supervised detection of intracranial pressure alarms using waveform dynamics.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Fabien; Hu, Xiao

    2013-04-01

    Patient monitoring systems in intensive care units (ICU) are usually set to trigger alarms when abnormal values are detected. Alarms are generated by threshold-crossing rules that lead to high false alarm rates. This is a recognized issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. Recently developed smart alarm models require alarms to be validated by experts during the training phase. The manual annotation process involved is time-consuming and virtually impossible to achieve for the thousands of alarms recorded in the ICU every week. To tackle this problem, we investigate in this study if the use of semi-supervised learning methods, that can naturally integrate unlabeled data samples in the model, can be used to improve the accuracy of the alarm detection. As a proof of concept, the detection system is evaluated on intracranial pressure (ICP) signal alarms. Specific morphological and trending features are extracted from the ICP signal waveform to capture the dynamic of the signal prior to alarms. This study is based on a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarms recorded from 108 neurosurgical patients. A comparative analysis is provided between kernel spectral regression (SR-KDA) and support vector machine (SVM) both modified for the semi-supervised setting. Results obtained during the experimental evaluations indicate that the two models can significantly reduce false alarms using unlabeled samples; especially in the presence of a restrained number of labeled examples. At a true alarm recognition rate of 99%, the false alarm reduction rates improved from 9% (supervised) to 27% (semi-supervised) for SR-KDA, and from 3% (supervised) to 16% (semi-supervised) for SVM.

  6. Behavioural implications of alarm mistrust as a function of task workload.

    PubMed

    Bliss, J P; Dunn, M C

    2000-09-01

    The research was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing primary task and alarm workload on alarm mistrust as reflected by alarm and primary task performances. A total of 126 undergraduate students performed a complex psychomotor task battery three times, with the number of concurrent tasks increasing each time. During their performance, the students were required to react to an alarm system (including visual and auditory components) of questionable reliability. Depending on the group to which participants were assigned, the alarm presentation rate constituted a low-, medium- or high-workload condition. Alarm response data (times, frequencies, accuracies) and primary task data (tracking error) were analyzed to assess performance differences as a function of primary and secondary task workload levels. Results generally supported the hypotheses: increasing primary task and alarm task workload degraded alarm response performance. Also, response frequencies supported earlier research suggesting that participants 'probability match' their response rates to alarm system reliability. The results are discussed with regard to the cry-wolf effect, attention theory and alarm system design.

  7. Association between exposure to nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms and response time in a children's hospital.

    PubMed

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Lin, Richard; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Paine, Christine W; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Localio, A Russell; Keren, Ron

    2015-06-01

    Alarm fatigue is reported to be a major threat to patient safety, yet little empirical data support its existence in the hospital. To determine if nurses exposed to high rates of nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms respond more slowly to subsequent alarms that could represent life-threatening conditions. Observational study using video. Freestanding children's hospital. Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients requiring inotropic support and/or mechanical ventilation, and medical ward patients. None. Actionable alarms were defined as correctly identifying physiologic status and warranting clinical intervention or consultation. We measured response time to alarms occurring while there were no clinicians in the patient's room. We evaluated the association between the number of nonactionable alarms the patient had in the preceding 120 minutes (categorized as 0-29, 30-79, or 80+ alarms) and response time to subsequent alarms in the same patient using a log-rank test that accounts for within-nurse clustering. We observed 36 nurses for 210 hours with 5070 alarms; 87.1% of PICU and 99.0% of ward clinical alarms were nonactionable. Kaplan-Meier plots showed incremental increases in response time as the number of nonactionable alarms in the preceding 120 minutes increased (log-rank test stratified by nurse P < 0.001 in PICU, P = 0.009 in the ward). Most alarms were nonactionable, and response time increased as nonactionable alarm exposure increased. Alarm fatigue could explain these findings. Future studies should evaluate the simultaneous influence of workload and other factors that can impact response time. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  8. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  9. Are melodic medical equipment alarms easily learned?

    PubMed

    Wee, Alexandra N; Sanderson, Penelope M

    2008-02-01

    We tested melodic auditory alarms recommended in the IEC 60601-1-8 standard for medical electrical equipment for ease of learning and discrimination, and for effectiveness during a timeshared task. Twenty-two critical care nurses learned the IEC 60601-1-8 melodic alarms over two training sessions more than a week apart, with or without mnemonics suggested in the standard. Subsequently, the nurses identified alarms arriving at quasi random intervals while performing a timeshared arithmetic task. Only one nurse (4.5%) identified the alarms with 100% accuracy after two training sessions. Mnemonics did not improve overall alarm identification accuracy (mnemonic = 56%, nonmnemonic = 55%) but led to a narrower range of confusions between alarms. Nurses responded faster (P < 0.0001) and more accurately (P = 0.032) to medium priority than high priority alarms, despite rating high priority alarms as sounding more urgent (P < 0.0001). Nurses with at least 1 yr of formal musical training identified the alarms much more accurately (musical training = 73%, no musical training = 38%, P < 0.0001), perceived a greater distinction between high and medium priority alarms (P = 0.002), and found identifying the alarms easier overall (P = 0.023). During the timeshared task, nurses' responses were slower (P = 0.002) and became less accurate (P = 0.02). The slow rate of learning and persistent confusions suggest that the IEC 60601-1-8 melodic alarms should be redesigned before they are adopted for clinical practice.

  10. Association between exposure to non-actionable physiologic monitor alarms and response time in a children's hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bonafide, Christopher P.; Lin, Richard; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Paine, Christine W.; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E.; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Localio, A. Russell; Keren, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background Alarm fatigue is reported to be a major threat to patient safety, yet little empirical data support its existence in the hospital. Objective To determine if nurses exposed to high rates of non-actionable physiologic monitor alarms respond more slowly to subsequent alarms that could represent life-threatening conditions. Design Observational study using video. Setting Freestanding children's hospital. Patients (1) Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients requiring inotropic support and/or mechanical ventilation, and (2) medical ward patients. Intervention None. Measurements Actionable alarms were defined as correctly identifying physiologic status and warranting clinical intervention or consultation. We measured response time to alarms occurring while there were no clinicians in the patient's room. We evaluated the association between the number of non-actionable alarms the patient had in the preceding 120 minutes (categorized as 0-29, 30-79, or 80+ alarms) and response time to subsequent alarms in the same patient using a log-rank test that accounts for within-nurse clustering. Results We observed 36 nurses for 210 hours with 5070 alarms; 87.1% of PICU and 99.0% of ward clinical alarms were non-actionable. Kaplan-Meier plots showed incremental increases in response time as the number of non-actionable alarms in the preceding 120 minutes increased (log-rank test stratified by nurse P<.001 in PICU, P=.009 on ward). Conclusions Most alarms were non-actionable, and response time increased as nonactionable alarm exposure increased. Alarm fatigue could explain these findings. Future studies should evaluate the simultaneous influence of workload and other factors that can impact response time. PMID:25873486

  11. Remote Monitor Alarm System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

  12. Smoke alarm use: prevalence and household predictors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, I

    1996-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of smoke alarm use among families with children and to identify household factors that predict the absence of a smoke alarm. Cross sectional analysis of data collected in the September and November 1995 Omnibus Survey, conducted by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the UK. A random sample of British households. Interviews were completed with 4,043 householders. The response rate was 78%. 29% of British households do not have a smoke alarm and smoke alarms were absent in 20% of households with children under 15 years. A smoke alarm was absent in 41% of privately rented homes compared with 17% of owner occupied homes. Living in private rental accommodation was the strongest household predictor of the absence of a smoke alarm (odds ratio = 3.25, 95% confidence interval 1.94 to 5.42). Householders who had heard of National Fire Safety Week or the TV smoke alarm advertising campaign were significantly more likely to have a smoke alarm. The apparent effect of these campaigns was greatest in families with children. Smoke alarm use has continued to increase but a substantial proportion of British homes still do not have smoke alarms. Homes at greatest risk of residential fire are the least likely to have an alarm. Health professionals may be able to increase smoke alarm use among families with children, by counselling families about the benefits of smoke alarms. They may also be effective in this regard by lobbying local councils, houseing associations, or private landlords to install alarms in all properties and by advocating for national legislation.

  13. Smoke alarm use: prevalence and household predictors.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, I.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of smoke alarm use among families with children and to identify household factors that predict the absence of a smoke alarm. DESIGN: Cross sectional analysis of data collected in the September and November 1995 Omnibus Survey, conducted by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the UK. SUBJECTS: A random sample of British households. Interviews were completed with 4,043 householders. The response rate was 78%. RESULTS: 29% of British households do not have a smoke alarm and smoke alarms were absent in 20% of households with children under 15 years. A smoke alarm was absent in 41% of privately rented homes compared with 17% of owner occupied homes. Living in private rental accommodation was the strongest household predictor of the absence of a smoke alarm (odds ratio = 3.25, 95% confidence interval 1.94 to 5.42). Householders who had heard of National Fire Safety Week or the TV smoke alarm advertising campaign were significantly more likely to have a smoke alarm. The apparent effect of these campaigns was greatest in families with children. CONCLUSIONS: Smoke alarm use has continued to increase but a substantial proportion of British homes still do not have smoke alarms. Homes at greatest risk of residential fire are the least likely to have an alarm. Health professionals may be able to increase smoke alarm use among families with children, by counselling families about the benefits of smoke alarms. They may also be effective in this regard by lobbying local councils, houseing associations, or private landlords to install alarms in all properties and by advocating for national legislation. PMID:9346105

  14. Ionization and photoelectric smoke alarms in rural Alaskan homes.

    PubMed

    Fazzini, T M; Perkins, R; Grossman, D

    2000-08-01

    To compare rates of nuisance alarms and disconnection between ionization and photoelectric smoke alarms. A prospective cohort study. Four Inupiat Eskimo villages in the Northwest Arctic Borough region of Alaska, 48 km (30 mi) above the Arctic Circle. Households in 4 communities with similar populations, number of homes, mean income, size of household, and square footage per home. Two villages had photoelectric alarms installed (58 homes), and 2 other villages had ionization alarms installed (65 homes) in standard locations. Follow-up household surveys were conducted after 6 months to determine rates of false alarms and detector disconnection. All of the households that could be contacted 104/123 agreed to participate in the follow-up surveys. Main outcome measures The proportion of households experiencing false alarms and the proportion of disabled alarms in households in each of the test communities. Homes with ionization alarms had more than 8 times the rate of false alarms as those with photoelectric alarms. Eleven of the ionization alarms (19%) were disconnected compared with 2 of the photoelectric devices (4%). In small rural residences, photoelectric smoke alarms have lower rates of false alarms and disconnection. Photoelectric alarms may be the preferred choice for dwellings with limited living space or frequent false alarms.

  15. Ionization and photoelectric smoke alarms in rural Alaskan homes

    PubMed Central

    Fazzini, Thomas M; Perkins, Ron; Grossman, David

    2000-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of nuisance alarms and disconnection between ionization and photoelectric smoke alarms. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Four Inupiat Eskimo villages in the NorthwestArctic Borough region of Alaska, 48 km (30 mi) above the Arctic Circle.Subjects Households in 4 communities with similar populations, number of homes, mean income, size of household, and square footage per home.Intervention Two villages had photoelectric alarms installed (58homes), and 2 other villages had ionization alarms installed (65 homes) in standard locations. Follow-up household surveys were conducted after 6 months to determine rates of false alarms and detector disconnection. All of the households that could be contacted 104/123 agreed to participate in the follow-up surveys. Main outcome measures The proportion of households experiencing false alarms and the proportion of disabled alarms in households in each of the test communities. Results Homes with ionization alarms had more than 8 times the rate of false alarms as those with photoelectric alarms. Eleven of the ionization alarms (19%) were disconnected compared with2 of the photoelectric devices (4%). Conclusions In small rural residences, photoelectric smoke alarms have lower rates of false alarms and disconnection. Photoelectric alarms may be the preferred choice for dwellings with limited living space or frequent false alarms. PMID:10924426

  16. ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

  17. Medical device alarms.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Matthias; Görges, Matthias; Fried, Roland; Such, Olaf; Wrede, Christian; Imhoff, Michael

    2011-04-01

    The high number of false positive alarms has long been known to be a serious problem in critical care medicine - yet it remains unresolved. At the same time, threats to patient safety due to missing or suppressed alarms are being reported. The purpose of this paper is to present results from a workshop titled "Too many alarms? Too few alarms?" organized by the Section Patient Monitoring and the Workgroup Alarms of the German Association of Biomedical Engineering of the Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies. The current situation regarding alarms and their problems in intensive care, such as lack of clinical relevance, alarm fatigue, workload increases due to clinically irrelevant alarms, usability problems in alarm systems, problems with manuals and training, and missing alarms due to operator error are outlined, followed by a discussion of solutions and strategies to improve the current situation. Finally, the need for more research and development, focusing on signal quality considerations, networking of medical devices at the bedside, diagnostic alarms and predictive warnings, usability of alarm systems, education of healthcare providers, creation of annotated clinical databases for testing, standardization efforts, and patient monitoring in the regular ward, are called for.

  18. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  19. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P.

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  20. Communication Alarm Processor Expert System.

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; Hemmelman, K.M.; Rasmussen, R.D.; Borys, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype expert system is being developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bonneville Power Administration to process alarms from Bonneville's microwave communication system. The microwave system transmits data from power facilities in four Pacific Northwestern states to a central operations control facility. The communications alarm processor (CAP) will receive real-time data, diagnose operational problems, archive alarm information, and support analysis aimed at improving equipment maintenance. The expert system will operate in an advisory capacity. The ultimate goal is to develop systems that will enhance the operation and maintenance for the entire power system. This paper describes Bonneville's operations, the domain and architecture of the expert system, the methods used for knowledge representation and acquisition, the hardware and software of the prototype, and implementation challenges of real-time expert systems. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

  2. Understanding Clinical Alarm Safety.

    PubMed

    Lukasewicz, Carol L; Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Patient safety organizations and health care accreditation agencies recognize the significance of clinical alarm hazards. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, a nonprofit organization focused on development and use of safe and effective medical equipment, identifies alarm management as a major issue for health care organizations. ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization that researches approaches for improving patient safety and quality of care, identifies alarm hazards as the most significant of the "Top Ten Health Technology Hazards" for 2014. A new Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal focusing on clinical alarm safety contains new requirements for accredited hospitals to be fully implemented by 2016. Through a fictional unfolding case study, this article reviews selected contributing factors to clinical alarm hazards present in inpatient, high-acuity settings. Understanding these factors improves contributions by nurses to clinical alarm safety practice.

  3. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  4. Anesthesia alarms in context: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Seagull, F J; Sanderson, P M

    2001-01-01

    This paper surveys current work on the design of alarms for anesthesia environments and notes some of the problems arising from the need to interpret alarms in context. Anesthetists' responses to audible alarms in the operating room were observed across four types of surgical procedure (laparoscopic, arthroscopic, cardiac, and intracranial) and across three phases of a procedure (induction, maintenance, and emergence). Alarms were classified as (a) requiring a corrective response, (b) being the intended result of a decision, (c) being ignored as a nuisance alarm, or (d) functioning as a reminder. Results revealed strong effects of the type of procedure and phase of procedure on the number and rate of audible alarms. Some alarms were relatively confined to specific phases; others were seen across phases, and responses differed according to phase. These results were interpreted in light of their significance for the development of effective alarm systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of alarm systems that are more informative and more sensitive to operative context than are current systems.

  5. Personal Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-17

    Software that runs on smartphones and desktop web browsers and notifies border officials of radiation alarms. It displays images and data associated with an alarm and provides a variety of reports. DOE had a need for discrete notification. PAS replaces the lights and sounds of a Radiation Portal Monitor.

  6. Do nuisance alarms decrease functionality of smoke alarms near the kitchen? Findings from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingzhen; Jones, Michael P; Cheng, Gang; Ramirez, Marizen; Taylor, Craig; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2011-06-01

    Many home fires begin in the kitchen. Kitchen smoke alarms are more likely to produce nuisance alarms, but few previous studies have examined the role of alarm sensor and battery types on the functionality of smoke alarms located nearest to the kitchen. Data were analysed from a 2×2 factorial randomised controlled trial conducted in rural Iowa homes (n=628). Enrolled households were randomly assigned into one of four smoke alarm/battery combinations: ionisation/zinc, ionisation/lithium, photoelectric/zinc and photoelectric/lithium. Alarm functionality was determined using a smoke test. Alarm type and battery type were compared using an intent-to-treat analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that might impact the functionality of smoke alarms located nearest to the kitchen 42 months after installation. Photoelectric alarms with lithium batteries had the highest rate of functionality (90.2%), whereas ionisation alarms with carbon/zinc batteries had the lowest (76.5%). Forty-two months following installation, 6.4% more of photoelectric alarms were functional than ionisation alarms, and 7.9% more of alarms with lithium batteries were functional than those with carbon/zinc batteries. Logistic regression revealed that when the indicator of nuisance alarms was included, the effect of alarm type became statistically insignificant and ionisation alarms were less likely to be functional at 42 months, partly due to increased nuisance alarms. Alarm type is an important consideration for certain locations. Photoelectric alarms may be more appropriate for installation nearest to the kitchen despite their increased cost. These findings can help guide consumer choices to increase protection against home fire-related injuries and deaths.

  7. Editorial: False Alarm Reduction in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 Physio-Net/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1,250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this Challenge, the design of the Challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  8. A Community Hospital's Evaluation of Alarm Management Safety Factors.

    PubMed

    Kurnat-Thoma, Emma; Shah, Kayuri

    2016-12-01

    The Joint Commission's 2014 National Patient Safety Goals required hospitals to evaluate alarm safety in 2014-2015 and implement alarm safety policies. The aim of this study was to assess common alarm management safety factors in our 187-bed community hospital. Two weeks' worth of IV pump report data was evaluated to characterize 33 IV pump alarm types. Hospital and IV pump noise was measured, and an alarm management nurse survey was conducted. There were 8731 total IV pump alarms/alerts (24-hour mean, 623.6) across 6 units. The 2-minute idle alarm accounted for 32.4% of all total IV alarms/alerts, suggestive of high levels of nurse multitasking and nurse work interruptions. IV pump volumes contributed to overall hospital noise. Survey data identified patient units and alarm safety practices needing additional support. Characterization of IV pump alarms/alerts is an emerging area of scientific inquiry. Findings indicate the need for organizations to evaluate alarm burden and alarm management safety practices to reduce alarm fatigue risks.

  9. VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Morris, J.M.

    1958-11-01

    A vlsual alarm system, particularly a system incorporating a gas-fllled diode glow bulb, for indicating a minor alarm and also a major alarm is presented. In operation, the disclosed system responds to a signal indlcative of a caution condition by applying a d-c voltage across the glow bulb to induce a glow at one electrode. If a signal indicative of a critlcal condition is received, the system applies an a-c voltage across tbe glow bulb to produce a glow discharge at each electrode.

  10. Novel approach to cardiac alarm management on telemetry units.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Deborah A; Covelle, Patricia M; Piepenbrink, James C; Villanova, Karen L; Cuneo, Charlotte L; Awtry, Eric H

    2014-01-01

    General medical-surgical units struggle with how best to use cardiac monitor alarms to alert nursing staff to important abnormal heart rates (HRs) and rhythms while limiting inappropriate and unnecessary alarms that may undermine both patient safety and quality of care. When alarms are more often false than true, the nursing staff's sense of urgency in responding to alarms is diminished. In this syndrome of "clinical alarm fatigue," the simple burden of alarms desensitizes caregivers to alarms. Noise levels associated with frequent alarms may also heighten patient anxiety and disrupt their perception of a healing environment. Alarm fatigue experienced by nurses and patients is a significant problem and innovative solutions are needed. The purpose of this quality improvement study was to determine variables that would safely reduce noncritical telemetry and monitor alarms on a general medical-surgical unit where standard manufacturer defaults contributed to excessive audible alarms. Mining of alarm data and direct observations of staff's response to alarms were used to identify the self-reset warning alarms for bradycardia, tachycardia, and HR limits as the largest contributors of audible alarms. In this quality improvement study, the alarms for bradycardia, tachycardia, and HR limits were changed to "crisis," requiring nursing staff to view and act on the alarm each time it sounded. The limits for HR were HR low 45 bpm and HR high 130 bpm. An overall 89% reduction in total mean weekly audible alarms was achieved on the pilot unit (t = 8.84; P < .0001) without requirement for additional resources or technology. Staff and patient satisfaction also improved. There were no adverse events related to missed cardiac monitoring events, and the incidence of code blues decreased by 50%. Alarms with self-reset capabilities may result in an excess number of audible alarms and clinical alarm fatigue. By eliminating self-resetting alarms, the volume of audible alarms and

  11. Alarm mistrust in automobiles: how collision alarm reliability affects driving.

    PubMed

    Bliss, James P; Acton, Sarah A

    2003-11-01

    As roadways become more congested, there is greater potential for automobile accidents and incidents. To improve roadway safety, automobile manufacturers are now designing and incorporating collision avoidance warning systems; yet, there has been little investigation of how the reliability of alarm signals might impact driver performance. We measured driving and alarm reaction performances following alarms of various reliability levels. In Experiment One, 70 participants operated a driving simulator while being presented console emitted collision alarms that were 50%, 75%, or 100% reliable. In Experiment Two, the same participants were presented spatially generated collision alarms of the same reliability levels. The results were similar in both experiments: alarm and automobile swerving reactions were significantly better when alarms were more reliable; however, drivers still failed to avoid collisions following reliable alarms. These results emphasize that alarm designers should maximize alarm reliability while minimizing alarm invasiveness.

  12. A Model of Clinical Alarm Errors in Hospital.

    PubMed

    Busch-Vishniac, Ilene

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been much attention paid recently to clinical alarms, research has primarily focused on particular aspects of the clinical alarm problem, such as how to reduce nuisance alarms. This paper takes a broad view of clinical alarms and develops a model of errors in alarm handling and how they affect patients directly. Based on reports in the literature, I estimate that alarms that should sound by current standards do not sound about 9% of the time. Additionally, about 3% of alarms that are clinically significant are ignored, either intentionally or because they were inaudible. However, these errors produce a very low rate of reported alarm-related deaths and other adverse effects (on the order of a couple adverse effects per 10 million alarm errors). While it is not yet possible to estimate the probabilities of clinical alarms having an adverse impact on patients other than the patient whose alarm is sounding, such indirect adverse effects likely occur at a low level as a result of disruption of staff workflow, creation of a noisy hospital environment, and contribution to communication difficulties. Consideration of alarms should include not only the patient connected to the device that is sounding, but also the impact of the alarm on other patients in the vicinity.

  13. Smart smoke alarm

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  14. Fire alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Koehling, E.

    1995-01-01

    This test procedure is the documentation for the testing of the 4 fire alarm bells which rewired during the remodeling of the Emergency Operations Center in the Richland, Washington, Federal Office Building.

  15. Sounding the Alarm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordasco, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the use of alarms and other early-detection devices to effectively protect students in life-threatening fire situations. Ohio State University's multidiscipline approach to life safety is illustrated. (GR)

  16. Alarm Notification System

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-12

    AN/EMS, the Alarm Notification Energy Management System, is used to monitor digital sensors in PETC buildings and to notify the safety/security operator by both a video and an audio system when a possibly hazardous condition arises.

  17. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  18. Evaluation of automatically learned intelligent alarm systems.

    PubMed

    Müller, B; Hasman, A; Blom, J A

    1997-11-01

    In this contribution it is investigated whether a combination of mathematical simulation and inductive machine learning can replace the usual knowledge elicitation techniques. To test this a domain was selected for which knowledge based systems had a high performance: intelligent alarm systems. A mathematical model of a breathing circuit and ventilated patient was implemented in PSpice. Airway pressure, gas flows and CO2 concentration were simulated with this model, during normal functioning of the breathing circuit and during several mishaps, for a wide range of simulated patients. With an inductive machine learning program, classification trees were created from the simulated patient data. The classification trees described each breathing circuit mishap in terms of changes in signal feature values with respect to the normal situation and were implemented as alarm system knowledge bases. The alarm systems were tested with data measured at 17 mechanically ventilated animals. During ventilation of the animals several mishaps were introduced. For each animal, 93-100% of all mishaps could be detected correctly by the alarm systems. The false alarm rate ranged on average from one false alarm per h to one false alarm every 2.5 h. It was concluded that the suggested approach to knowledge elicitation was successful.

  19. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Markman

    2001-08-06

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of

  20. The problem of alarm fatigue.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Up to 99 percent of alarms sounding on hospital units are false alarms signaling no real danger to patients. These false alarms can lead to alarm fatigue and alarm burden, and may divert health care providers' attention away from significant alarms heralding actual or impending harm. As the health care environment continues to become more dependent upon technological monitoring devices used for patient care, nurses must become aware of the possibility and consequences of alarm fatigue and ways to prevent it from negatively affecting their practice, as well as the possible consequences for patient care.

  1. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test.

  2. Smart alarms from medical devices in the OR and ICU.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Michael; Kuhls, Silvia; Gather, Ursula; Fried, Roland

    2009-03-01

    Alarms in medical devices are a matter of concern in critical and perioperative care. The high rate of false alarms is not only a nuisance for patients and caregivers, but can also compromise patient safety and effectiveness of care. The development of alarm systems has lagged behind the technological advances of medical devices over the last 20 years. From a clinical perspective, major improvements in alarm algorithms are urgently needed. This review gives an overview of the current clinical situation and the underlying problems, and discusses different methods from statistics and computational science and their potential for clinical application. Some examples of the application of new alarm algorithms to clinical data are presented.

  3. Changes in Default Alarm Settings and Standard In-Service are Insufficient to Improve Alarm Fatigue in an Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Paper, Bruce Michael

    2016-01-11

    Clinical alarm systems safety is a national concern, specifically in intensive care units (ICUs) where alarm rates are known to be the highest. Interventional projects that examined the effect of changing default alarm settings on overall alarm rate and on clinicians' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms and alarm fatigue are scarce. To examine if (1) a change in default alarm settings of the cardiac monitors and (2) in-service nursing education on cardiac monitor use in an ICU would result in reducing alarm rate and in improving nurses' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms. This quality improvement project took place in a 20-bed transplant/cardiac ICU with a total of 39 nurses. We implemented a unit-wide change of default alarm settings involving 17 parameters of the cardiac monitors. All nurses received an in-service education on monitor use. Alarm data were collected from the audit log of the cardiac monitors 10 weeks before and 10 weeks after the change in monitors' parameters. Nurses' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms were measured using the Healthcare Technology Foundation National Clinical Alarms Survey, pre- and postintervention. Alarm rate was 87.86 alarms/patient day (a total of 64,500 alarms) at the preintervention period compared to 59.18 alarms/patient day (49,319 alarms) postintervention (P=.01). At baseline, Arterial Blood Pressure (ABP), Pair Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs), and Peripheral Capillary Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) alarms were the highest. ABP and SpO2 alarms remained among the top three at the postproject period. Out of the 39 ICU nurses, 24 (62%) provided complete pre- and postproject survey questionnaires. Compared to the preintervention survey, no remarkable changes in the postproject period were reported in nurses' attitudes. Themes in the narrative data were related to poor usability of cardiac monitors and the frequent alarms. The data showed great variation among nurses in terms of changing

  4. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ok Min; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Methods Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. One bed out of 56 ICU beds was randomly assigned to each observation time unit. Results Overall 2,184 clinical alarms were counted for 48 hours of observation, and 45.5 clinical alarms occurred per hour per subject. Of these, 1,394 alarms (63.8%) were categorized as false alarms. The alarm fatigue score was 24.3 ± 4.0 out of 35. The highest scoring item was "always get bothered due to clinical alarms". The highest scoring item in obstacles was "frequent false alarms, which lead to reduced attention or response to alarms". Conclusions Nurses reported that they felt some fatigue due to clinical alarms, and false alarms were also obstacles to proper management. An appropriate hospital policy should be developed to reduce false alarms and nurses' alarm fatigue. PMID:26893950

  5. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ok Min; Kim, Hwasoon; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. One bed out of 56 ICU beds was randomly assigned to each observation time unit. Overall 2,184 clinical alarms were counted for 48 hours of observation, and 45.5 clinical alarms occurred per hour per subject. Of these, 1,394 alarms (63.8%) were categorized as false alarms. The alarm fatigue score was 24.3 ± 4.0 out of 35. The highest scoring item was "always get bothered due to clinical alarms". The highest scoring item in obstacles was "frequent false alarms, which lead to reduced attention or response to alarms". Nurses reported that they felt some fatigue due to clinical alarms, and false alarms were also obstacles to proper management. An appropriate hospital policy should be developed to reduce false alarms and nurses' alarm fatigue.

  6. The implications of probability matching for clinician response to vital sign alarms: a theoretical study of alarm fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bailey, James M

    2015-01-01

    Alarm fatigue has been recognised as a significant health technology safety risk. 'Probability matching', in which clinicians respond to the alarm at a rate identical to the perceived reliability of the alarm, has been postulated as a model to explain alarm fatigue. In this article, we quantitatively explore the implications of probability matching for systolic blood pressure alarms. We find that probability matching could have a profound effect on clinician response to the alarm, with a response rate of only 8.6% when the alarm threshold is 90 mm Hg and the optimal threshold for a systolic blood pressure alarm would only be 77 mm Hg. We use the mathematical framework to assess a mitigation strategy when clinicians have a limit to the capacity to respond. We find that a tiered alarm in which clinicians receive information on the severity of vital sign perturbation significantly improves the opportunity to rescue patients. Practitioner Summary: Using a theoretical model, we predict that probability matching, a postulated model of clinician behaviour, can result in a profound decrease in clinician response to alarms for decreased blood pressure. A mitigating strategy is to create alarms that convey information on the degree of vital sign perturbation.

  7. Conspecific injury raises an alarm in medaka

    PubMed Central

    Mathuru, Ajay S.

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1930s, Karl von Frisch reported that semiochemicals released upon injury, act as alarm substances (Schreckstoff) in fish. In Ostariophysi species, club cells in the epidermis are believed to contain cues related to alarm substance; however, the function of club cells, primarily as reservoirs of alarm substance has been debated. Here, I describe an alarm response in the Japanese rice fish Oryzias latipes (medaka), a member of the order Beloniformes. The response to alarm substance (Schreckreaction) in medaka is characterized by bouts of immobility and an increase in cortisol levels within minutes of exposure to conspecific skin extract. Histological analysis, however, suggests that club cells are either rare or absent in the medaka epidermis. In addition to describing an uncharacterized behavior in a vertebrate popular for genetic and developmental studies, these results support the hypothesis that the primary function of epidermal club cells may be unrelated to a role as alarm substance cells. The existence of similar behavioral responses in two evolutionarily distant but well established laboratory models, the zebrafish and the medaka, offers the possibility of comparative analyses of neural circuits encoding innate fear. PMID:27824153

  8. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  9. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  10. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

  11. Alarming increase in refugees.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  12. Control of ELT false alarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

  13. IMPEDANCE ALARM SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Cowen, R.G.

    1959-09-29

    A description is given of electric protective systems and burglar alarm systems of the capacitance type in which the approach of an intruder at a place to be protected varies the capacitance in an electric circuit and the change is thereafter communicated to a remote point to actuate an alarm. According to the invention, an astable transitor multi-vibrator has the amplitude at its output voltage controlled by a change in the sensing capacitance. The sensing capacitance is effectively connected between collector and base of one stage of the multivibrator circuit through the detector-to-monitor line. The output of the detector is a small d-c voltage across the detector-to-monitor line. This d- c voltage is amplified and monitored at the other end of the line, where an appropriate alarm is actuated if a sudden change in the voltage occurs. The present system has a high degree of sensitivity and is very difficult to defeat by known techniques.

  14. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Logan M

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  15. The alarm system and a possible way forward.

    PubMed

    Alm, Håkan; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to make a review of studies concerning problems with alarm systems and to make a theoretical analysis of these problems. The aim is also to show some general design ideas to improve alarm presentation in process descriptions. Using research results from situation awareness and decision making a number of suggestions for further development of alarm systems are presented. Recommendations include providing operators of complex systems feedback that can support their mental models and situational awareness. Furthermore a recommendation is to design alarm systems that can learn from experience.

  16. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  17. Data-Driven Implementation of Alarm Reduction Interventions in a Cardiovascular Surgical ICU.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sharon H; Doyle, Peter A; Sapirstein, Adam; Cvach, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Alarm fatigue in the ICU setting has been well documented in the literature. The ICU's high-intensity environment requires staff's vigilant attention, and distraction from false and non-actionable alarms pulls staff away from important tasks, creates dissatisfaction, and is a potential patient safety risk if alarms are missed or ignored. This project was intended to improve patient safety by optimizing alarm systems in a cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit (CVSICU). Specific aims were to examine nurses' attitudes toward clinical alarm signals, assess nurses' ability to discriminate audible alarm signals, and implement a bundled set of best practices for monitor alarm reduction without undermining patient safety. CVSICU nurses completed an alarm perception survey and participated in alarm discriminability testing. Nurse survey data and baseline monitor alarm data were used to select targeted alarm reduction interventions, which were progressively phased in. Monitor alarm data and cardiorespiratory event data were trended over one year. Five of the most frequent CVSICU monitor alarm types-pulse oximetry, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse oximetry sensor, and ventricular tachycardia > 2-were targeted. After implementation, there was a 61% reduction in average alarms per monitored bed and a downward trend in cardiorespiratory events. To reduce alarm fatigue it is important to decrease alarm burden through targeted interventions. Methods to reduce non-actionable alarms include adding short delays to allow alarm self-correction, adjusting default alarm threshold limits, providing alarm notification through a secondary device, and teaching staff to optimize alarm settings for individual patients. Copyright © 2016 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Addressing the flaws of current critical alarms: a fuzzy constraint satisfaction approach.

    PubMed

    Otero, Abraham; Félix, Paulo; Barro, Senén; Palacios, Francisco

    2009-11-01

    Threshold alarms, the support supplied by commercial monitoring devices to supervise the signs that pathologies produce over physiological variables, generate a large amount of false positives, owing to the high number of artifacts in monitoring signals, and they are not capable of satisfactorily representing and identifying all monitoring criteria used by healthcare staff. The lack of an adequate support for monitoring the evolution of physical variables prevents the suitable exploitation of the information obtained when monitoring critical patients. This work proposes a solution for designing intelligent alarms capable of addressing the flaws and limitations of threshold alarms. The solution proposed is based on the multivariable fuzzy temporal profile (MFTP) model, a formal model for describing certain monitoring criteria as a set of morphologies defined over the temporal evolution of the patient's physiological variables, and a set of relations between them. The MFTP model represents these morphologies through a network of fuzzy constraints between a set of points in the evolution of the variables which the physician considers especially relevant. We also provide a knowledge acquisition tool, TRACE, with which clinical staff can design and edit alarms based on the MFTP model. Sixteen alarms were designed using the MFTP model; these were capable of supervising monitoring criteria that could be satisfactorily supervised with commercial monitoring devices. The alarms were validated over a total of 196h of recordings of physiological variables from 78 different patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Of the 912 alarm triggerings, only 7% were false positives. A study of the usability of the tool TRACE was also carried out. After a brief training seminar, five physicians and four nurses designed a number of alarms with this tool. They were then asked to fill in the standard System Usability Scale test. The average score was 68.2. The proposal presented herein

  19. Hypo- and Hyperglycemic Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Howsmon, Daniel; Bequette, B. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery that insulin regulates blood glucose by Banting and Best in 1922, the symptoms and risks associated with hypoglycemia became widely recognized. This article reviews devices to warn individuals of impending hypo- and hyperglycemia; biosignals used by these devices include electroencephalography, electrocardiography, skin galvanic resistance, diabetes alert dogs, and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). While systems based on other technology are increasing in performance and decreasing in size, CGM technology remains the best method for both reactive and predictive alarming of hypo- or hyperglycemia. PMID:25931581

  20. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  1. Assessment of Clinical Alarms Influencing Nurses' Perceptions of Alarm Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Emalie M; Costanzo, Cindy L

    Excessive clinical alarms have inundated health care for years. Multiple governing bodies, organizations, and facilities have deemed alarm management a priority. Alarm management is a multifaceted problem that affects all health care organizations and clinical staff, especially those in critical care units. Ultimately, the lack of knowledge regarding nurses' perceptions to alarm management and alarm fatigue creates patient safety chiasms. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to understand nurses' perceptions of alarm fatigue (utilizing the Healthcare Technology Foundation's Clinical Alarms Committee Survey) while implementing interventions that improve patient safety. The design of this qualitative study is an electronically distributed survey to 31 nurses who work in critical care. The Healthcare Technology Foundation clinical alarms survey has 36 questions with various answering strategies distributed (with permission) via e-mail access by BlueQ through Creighton University. Twenty-six respondents (n = 26) completed the survey, with 42% being intensive care unit nurses and 58% being progressive care unit nurses. The majority of nurses (n = 23, 88%) agreed that nuisance alarms occur frequently and disrupt patient care (n = 25, 96%). A lack of standardized method was noted to alarm management and parameter changes. Multiple patterns emerged that initiated the need for further examination and improvement. Following the survey, themes emerged, and changes were implemented including the following: an alarm management policy was created, tools were provided to staff for easy usage, staff were educated using hands-on practice at an annual training summit, and sustainability was created through continuation of alarm management assessment and improvement.

  2. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1987-04-13

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

  3. Family Support, Self-Rated Health, and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Annmarie; Scaturo, Douglas J.; Sprafkin, Robert P.; Lantinga, Larry J.; Fiese, Barbara H.; Brand, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive health care is becoming an important issue; however, little is known about the complex relationships between perceived family support, self-rated health, and psychological distress in mixed middle-aged/older primary care patient samples. Method: In this cross-sectional and predominantly male sample of 137 patients attending their appointments at a primary care clinic in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, participants completed several questionnaires including the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve; the General Health Questionnaire-12; the Symptom Checklist-10; and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) screening questionnaire and interview. Data were collected in 1998. Eighteen percent of the participants were diagnosed with a mood disorder, and 15% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (PRIME-MD diagnoses). Results: Perceived family support and self-rated health were negatively associated with psychological symptoms and certain psychological disorders, while perceived family support and self-rated health were positively rated. In addition, the interaction between perceived family support and self-rated health was significant (p < .01) in relating to psychological symptoms such that psychological symptoms were most elevated in participants reporting dissatisfying family support combined with poor self-rated health. However, the cross-sectional nature of the study prevents causal conclusions from being made. Conclusions: Physicians and other health care professionals are encouraged to assess both the perceived family support and self-rated health in an effort to conceptualize their patients' problems in a more comprehensive manner. PMID:15154021

  4. Rate Support Grant and the Education Service: An Extended Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Alexander

    1977-01-01

    Education in Great Britain has been receiving a diminishing share of the financial cake since the inception of the Rate Support Grant system and, particularly, since the introduction of post-Bains Local Authority structures. (Author/IRT)

  5. The "Let's Get Alarmed!" initiative: a smoke alarm giveaway programme.

    PubMed

    DiGuiseppi, C; Slater, S; Roberts, I; Adams, L; Sculpher, M; Wade, A; McCarthy, M

    1999-09-01

    To reduce fires and fire related injuries by increasing the prevalence of functioning smoke alarms in high risk households. The programme was delivered in an inner London area with above average material deprivation and below average smoke alarm ownership. The target population included low income and rental households and households with elderly persons or young children. Forty wards, averaging 4000 households each, were randomised to intervention or control status. Free smoke alarms and fire safety information were distributed in intervention wards by community groups and workers as part of routine activities and by paid workers who visited target neighbourhoods. Recipients provided data on household age distribution and housing tenure. Programme costs were documented from a societal perspective. Data are being collected on smoke alarm ownership and function, and on fires and related injuries and their costs. Community and paid workers distributed 20,050 smoke alarms, potentially sufficient to increase smoke alarm ownership by 50% in intervention wards. Compared with the total study population, recipients included greater proportions of low income and rental households and households including children under 5 years or adults aged 65 and older. Total programme costs were 145,087 Pounds. It is possible to implement a large scale smoke alarm giveaway programme targeted to high risk households in a densely populated, multicultural, materially deprived community. The programme's effects on the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms and the incidence of fires and fire related injuries, and its cost effectiveness, are being evaluated as a randomized controlled trial.

  6. Effects of an intervention to increase bed alarm use to prevent falls in hospitalized patients: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Shorr, Ronald I; Chandler, A Michelle; Mion, Lorraine C; Waters, Teresa M; Liu, Minzhao; Daniels, Michael J; Kessler, Lori A; Miller, Stephen T

    2012-11-20

    Bed alarm systems intended to prevent hospital falls have not been formally evaluated. To investigate whether an intervention aimed at increasing bed alarm use decreases hospital falls and related events. Pair-matched, cluster randomized trial over 18 months. Nursing units were allocated by computer-generated randomization on the basis of baseline fall rates. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to unit assignment; outcome assessors may have become unblinded. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00183053) 16 nursing units in an urban community hospital. 27 672 inpatients in general medical, surgical, and specialty units. Education, training, and technical support to promote use of a standard bed alarm system (intervention units); bed alarms available but not formally promoted or supported (control units). Pre-post difference in change in falls per 1000 patient-days (primary end point); number of patients who fell, fall-related injuries, and number of patients restrained (secondary end points). Prevalence of alarm use was 64.41 days per 1000 patient-days on intervention units and 1.79 days per 1000 patient-days on control units (P = 0.004). There was no difference in change in fall rates per 1000 patient-days (risk ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.53]; difference, 0.41 [CI, -1.05 to 2.47], which corresponds to a greater difference in falls in control vs. intervention units) or in the number of patients who fell, injurious fall rates, or the number of patients physically restrained on intervention units compared with control units. The study was conducted at a single site and was slightly underpowered compared with the initial design. An intervention designed to increase bed alarm use in an urban hospital increased alarm use but had no statistically or clinically significant effect on fall-related events or physical restraint use. National Institute on Aging.

  7. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  8. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  9. Alarm Fatigue: Causes and Effects.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Marc; Hüske-Kraus, Dirk; Klausen, Andreas; Koch, Christian; Schlauch, Wolfgang; Röhrig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The term "Alarm fatigue" is commonly used to describe the effect which a high number of alarms can have on caregivers: Frequent alarms, many of which are avoidable, can lead to inadequate responses, severely impacting patient safety. In the first step of a long-term effort to address this problem, both the direct and indirect impact of alarms, as well as possible causes of unnecessary alarms were focused. Models of these causes and impacts were developed using a scoping review which included guided interviews with experts from medical informatics, clinicians and medical device manufacturers. These models can provide the methodical grounds for the definition of targeted interventions and the assessment of their effects.

  10. Substation alarm multiplexing system (SAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    ElBadaly, H.; Gaughan, J.; Ward, G.; Amengual, S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes an on going R&D project to develop, design, install, and assess the field performance of an advanced substation alarm system. SAMS provides a highly fault-tolerant system for the reporting of equipment alarms. SAMS separates and identifies each of the multiple alarm contacts, transmits an alarm condition over existing substation two-wire system, and displays the alarm source, and its associated technical information, on a touch-screen monitor inside the substation control room, and a remote central location and on a hand held terminal which may be carried anywhere within the substation. SAMS is currently installed at the Sherman Creek substation in the Bronx for the purpose of a three month field evaluation.

  11. Smoke alarm installation and function in inner London council housing.

    PubMed

    DiGuiseppi, C; Roberts, I; Speirs, N

    1999-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms in council (public) housing in a low income, multi-ethnic urban area. Cross sectional study. 40 materially deprived electoral wards in two inner London boroughs. Occupants of 315 addresses randomly selected from council housing lists, with 75% response rate. Installation and function of smoke alarms based on inspection and testing. 39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33% to 46%) of council tenants owned a smoke alarm, 31% (95% CI 25% to 38%) had an installed alarm (of which 54% were correctly installed), and 16% (95% CI 12% to 22%) had at least one installed, functioning alarm. Alarms most commonly failed because they lacked batteries (72%). In multivariate modelling, having an installed, functioning alarm was most strongly associated with living in a house versus a flat (apartment) (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0), having two resident adults versus one (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5), and recognising stills from a Home Office television smoke alarm campaign (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5). Fires are a leading cause of child injury and death, particularly among those younger than 5 years of age and those in social classes IV and V. Smoke alarms are associated with a significantly reduced risk of death in residential fires, and are more protective in households with young children. Few council properties in a multi-ethnic, materially deprived urban area had any installed, functioning smoke alarms, despite a high risk of residential fires and fire related injuries in such areas. Effective methods to increase the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms must be identified.

  12. Smoke alarm installation and function in inner London council housing

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Speirs, N.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms in council (public) housing in a low income, multi-ethnic urban area.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study.
SETTING—40 materially deprived electoral wards in two inner London boroughs.
PARTICIPANTS—Occupants of 315 addresses randomly selected from council housing lists, with 75% response rate.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Installation and function of smoke alarms based on inspection and testing.
RESULTS—39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33% to 46%) of council tenants owned a smoke alarm, 31% (95% CI 25% to 38%) had an installed alarm (of which 54% were correctly installed), and 16% (95% CI 12% to 22%) had at least one installed, functioning alarm. Alarms most commonly failed because they lacked batteries (72%). In multivariate modelling, having an installed, functioning alarm was most strongly associated with living in a house versus a flat (apartment) (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0), having two resident adults versus one (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5), and recognising stills from a Home Office television smoke alarm campaign (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5).
CONCLUSIONS—Fires are a leading cause of child injury and death, particularly among those younger than 5 years of age and those in social classes IV and V. Smoke alarms are associated with a significantly reduced risk of death in residential fires, and are more protective in households with young children. Few council properties in a multi-ethnic, materially deprived urban area had any installed, functioning smoke alarms, despite a high risk of residential fires and fire related injuries in such areas. Effective methods to increase the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms must be identified.

 PMID:10519711

  13. Retrospective analysis of pulse oximeter alarm settings in an intensive care unit patient population.

    PubMed

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Strauss, David G; Scully, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    The cacophony of alerts and alarms in a hospital produced by medical devices results in alarm fatigue. The pulse oximeter is one of the most common sources of alarms. One of the ways to reduce alarm rates is to adjust alarm settings at the bedside. This study is aimed to retrospectively examine individual pulse oximeter alarm settings on alarm rates and inter- and intra- patient variability. Nine hundred sixty-two previously collected intensive care unit (ICU) patient records were obtained from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II Database (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA). Inclusion criteria included patient records that contained SpO2 trend data sampled at 1 Hz for at least 1 h and a matching clinical record. SpO2 alarm rates were simulated by applying a range of thresholds (84, 86, 88, and 90 %) and delay times (10 to 60 s) to the SpO2 data. Patient records with at least 12 h of SpO2 data were examined for the variability in alarm rate over time. Decreasing SpO2 thresholds and increasing delay times resulted in decreased alarm rates. A limited number of patient records accounted for most alarms, and this number increased as alarm settings loosened (the top 10 % of patient records were responsible for 57.4 % of all alarms at an SpO2 threshold of 90 % and 15 s delay and 81.6 % at an SpO2 threshold of 84 % and 45 s delay). Alarm rates were not consistent over time for individual patients with periods of high and low alarms for all alarm settings. Pulse oximeter SpO2 alarm rates are variable between patients and over time, and the alarm rate and the extent of inter- and intra-patient variability can be affected by the alarm settings. Personalized alarm settings for a patient's current status may help to reduce alarm fatigue for nurses.

  14. Alarm fatigue: a patient safety concern.

    PubMed

    Sendelbach, Sue; Funk, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that 72% to 99% of clinical alarms are false. The high number of false alarms has led to alarm fatigue. Alarm fatigue is sensory overload when clinicians are exposed to an excessive number of alarms, which can result in desensitization to alarms and missed alarms. Patient deaths have been attributed to alarm fatigue. Patient safety and regulatory agencies have focused on the issue of alarm fatigue, and it is a 2014 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal. Quality improvement projects have demonstrated that strategies such as daily electrocardiogram electrode changes, proper skin preparation, education, and customization of alarm parameters have been able to decrease the number of false alarms. These and other strategies need to be tested in rigorous clinical trials to determine whether they reduce alarm burden without compromising patient safety.

  15. The "Let's Get Alarmed!" initiative: a smoke alarm giveaway programme

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Slater, S.; Roberts, I.; Adams, L.; Sculpher, M.; Wade, A.; McCarthy, M.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—To reduce fires and fire related injuries by increasing the prevalence of functioning smoke alarms in high risk households. Setting—The programme was delivered in an inner London area with above average material deprivation and below average smoke alarm ownership. The target population included low income and rental households and households with elderly persons or young children. Methods—Forty wards, averaging 4000 households each, were randomised to intervention or control status. Free smoke alarms and fire safety information were distributed in intervention wards by community groups and workers as part of routine activities and by paid workers who visited target neighbourhoods. Recipients provided data on household age distribution and housing tenure. Programme costs were documented from a societal perspective. Data are being collected on smoke alarm ownership and function, and on fires and related injuries and their costs. Results—Community and paid workers distributed 20 050 smoke alarms, potentially sufficient to increase smoke alarm ownership by 50% in intervention wards. Compared with the total study population, recipients included greater proportions of low income and rental households and households including children under 5 years or adults aged 65 and older. Total programme costs were £145 087. Conclusions—It is possible to implement a large scale smoke alarm giveaway programme targeted to high risk households in a densely populated, multicultural, materially deprived community. The programme's effects on the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms and the incidence of fires and fire related injuries, and its cost effectiveness, are being evaluated as a randomised controlled trial. PMID:10518263

  16. Aviation Support Equipment Technician E 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is designed as a self study text for use by Navy and Naval Reserve personnel preparing to meet the professional qualifications for advancement to Petty Officer Third Class and Petty Officer Second Class in the rating of Aviation Support Equipment (ASE) Technician E (Electrical). The first chapter provides information on the…

  17. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  18. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  19. Predators on Campus: Examining the Alarming Rate of Sexual Assaults on U.S. College and University Campuses and Why Prevention Communication Messages Are Failing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    An abundance of surveys and news reports have clearly indicated that sexual assaults and other violent crimes are prevalent on U.S. college and university campuses. What isn't as well known is how little is being done by most institutions to try and reduce this fact. Poor awareness of the reality of crime rates, combined with widespread policies…

  20. Changes in Default Alarm Settings and Standard In-Service are Insufficient to Improve Alarm Fatigue in an Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Paper, Bruce Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical alarm systems safety is a national concern, specifically in intensive care units (ICUs) where alarm rates are known to be the highest. Interventional projects that examined the effect of changing default alarm settings on overall alarm rate and on clinicians’ attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms and alarm fatigue are scarce. Objective To examine if (1) a change in default alarm settings of the cardiac monitors and (2) in-service nursing education on cardiac monitor use in an ICU would result in reducing alarm rate and in improving nurses’ attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms. Methods This quality improvement project took place in a 20-bed transplant/cardiac ICU with a total of 39 nurses. We implemented a unit-wide change of default alarm settings involving 17 parameters of the cardiac monitors. All nurses received an in-service education on monitor use. Alarm data were collected from the audit log of the cardiac monitors 10 weeks before and 10 weeks after the change in monitors’ parameters. Nurses’ attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms were measured using the Healthcare Technology Foundation National Clinical Alarms Survey, pre- and postintervention. Results Alarm rate was 87.86 alarms/patient day (a total of 64,500 alarms) at the preintervention period compared to 59.18 alarms/patient day (49,319 alarms) postintervention (P=.01). At baseline, Arterial Blood Pressure (ABP), Pair Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs), and Peripheral Capillary Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) alarms were the highest. ABP and SpO2 alarms remained among the top three at the postproject period. Out of the 39 ICU nurses, 24 (62%) provided complete pre- and postproject survey questionnaires. Compared to the preintervention survey, no remarkable changes in the postproject period were reported in nurses’ attitudes. Themes in the narrative data were related to poor usability of cardiac monitors and the frequent alarms. The data showed

  1. Effects of an Intervention to Increase Bed Alarm Use to Prevent Falls in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shorr, Ronald I.; Chandler, A. Michelle; Mion, Lorraine C.; Waters, Teresa M.; Liu, Minzhao; Daniels, Michael J.; Kessler, Lori A.; Miller, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bed alarm systems intended to prevent hospital falls have not been formally evaluated. Objective To investigate whether an intervention aimed at increasing bed alarm use decreases hospital falls and related events. Design Pair-matched, cluster randomized trial over 18 months. Nursing units were allocated by computer-generated randomization on the basis of baseline fall rates. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to unit assignment; outcome assessors may have become unblinded. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00183053) Setting 16 nursing units in an urban community hospital. Patients 27 672 inpatients in general medical, surgical, and specialty units. Intervention Education, training, and technical support to promote use of a standard bed alarm system (intervention units); bed alarms available but not formally promoted or supported (control units). Measurements Pre–post difference in change in falls per 1000 patient-days (primary end point); number of patients who fell, fall-related injuries, and number of patients restrained (secondary end points). Results Prevalence of alarm use was 64.41 days per 1000 patient-days on intervention units and 1.79 days per 1000 patient-days on control units (P = 0.004). There was no difference in change in fall rates per 1000 patient-days (risk ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.53]; difference, 0.41 [CI, −1.05 to 2.47], which corresponds to a greater difference in falls in control vs. intervention units) or in the number of patients who fell, injurious fall rates, or the number of patients physically restrained on intervention units compared with control units. Limitation The study was conducted at a single site and was slightly underpowered compared with the initial design. Conclusion An intervention designed to increase bed alarm use in an urban hospital increased alarm use but had no statistically or clinically significant effect on fall-related events or physical restraint use. Primary Funding

  2. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1988-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  3. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  4. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1988-04-22

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

  5. Attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms.

    PubMed

    Funk, Marjorie; Clark, J Tobey; Bauld, Thomas J; Ott, Jennifer C; Coss, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The number of devices with alarms has multiplied in recent years, causing alarm fatigue in bedside clinicians. Alarm fatigue is now recognized as a critical safety issue. To determine if attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms have changed since 2005. The Healthcare Technology Foundation's Clinical Alarms Committee developed an online survey for hospital personnel that addressed attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms. They administered it in 2005-2006 and in 2011 and compared the results. Respondents were asked about their level of agreement with 19 statements about alarms. Many of the statements revealed no significant differences between the 2 survey years, although some differences were apparent. Respondents to the 2011 survey were significantly more likely to agree with statements about alarm sounds differentiating the priority of alarm and the helpfulness of central alarm management. Respondents in 2011 were significantly less likely to feel that nuisance alarms occur frequently and disrupt patient care. Respondents also ranked the importance of 9 different alarm issues. In both years, they ranked frequent false alarms as the most important. In response to a new question in the 2011 survey, 18% of respondents reported patients' experiencing adverse events related to alarms at their institutions. Since 2005-2006 when the first survey was conducted, not much has changed. False alarms continue to contribute to a noisy hospital environment, and sentinel events related to alarm fatigue persist. Alarm hazards are a significant patient safety issue.

  6. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in... described in § 342.0(b) that files to establish or change rates by filing cost, revenue, and throughput data...

  7. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in... described in § 342.0(b) that files to establish or change rates by filing cost, revenue, and throughput data...

  8. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in... described in § 342.0(b) that files to establish or change rates by filing cost, revenue, and throughput data...

  9. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in... described in § 342.0(b) that files to establish or change rates by filing cost, revenue, and throughput data...

  10. Reducing False Intracranial Pressure Alarms using Morphological Waveform Features

    PubMed Central

    Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units (ICU) are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern recognition methods. Models are trained in a supervised fashion from a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labelled alarm episodes extracted from 108 neurosurgical patients. The comparative analysis provided between spectral regression, kernel spectral regression, and support vector machines indicates the significant improvement of the proposed framework in detecting false ICP alarms in comparison to a threshold-based technique that is conventionally used. Another contribution of this work is to exploit an adaptive discretization to reduce the dimensionality of the input features. The resulting features lead to a decrease of 30% of false ICP alarms without compromising sensitivity. PMID:22851230

  11. Reducing false intracranial pressure alarms using morphological waveform features.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates, a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern recognition methods. Models are trained in a supervised fashion from a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarm episodes extracted from 108 neurosurgical patients. The comparative analysis provided between spectral regression, kernel spectral regression, and support vector machines indicates the significant improvement of the proposed framework in detecting false ICP alarms in comparison to a threshold-based technique that is conventionally used. Another contribution of this work is to exploit an adaptive discretization to reduce the dimensionality of the input features. The resulting features lead to a decrease of 30% of false ICP alarms without compromising sensitivity.

  12. Design and operation of the communication alarm processor expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; Wiggen, T.P.; Hemmelman, K.M.; Borys, S.F.; Rasmussen, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the expert system design, verification testing, installation, and initial operating experiences of the Communications Alarm Processor (CAP), a prototype expert system developed for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system is designed to assist operators by receiving and diagnosing alarms from Bonneville's Microwave Communications System. The microwave system transmits data from power facilities in four Pacific Northwestern states to Dittmer, Bonneville's central operations control center. The prototype is limited to one of seven branches of the communications network and a subset of alarm systems and alarm types. CAP receives real-time data, diagnoses operational problems, archives alarm information, and supports analysis aimed at improving equipment maintenance. The expert system operates in an advisory capacity so diagnoses are presented to operators for their review and concurrence before being archived. CAP employs a backward chaining approach for diagnosing alarms. The system, which was delivered in January 1989, resides on a VAX 3200 workstation under the VMS operating system and utilizes C code to retrieve and process alarm data. An expert system shell, Nexpert Object, was used to develop the expert system. The ultimate goal is to develop expert systems that will enhance power system operation and maintenance. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Use of pagers with an alarm escalation system to reduce cardiac monitor alarm signals.

    PubMed

    Cvach, Maria M; Frank, Robert J; Doyle, Pete; Stevens, Zeina Khouri

    2014-01-01

    Alarm fatigue desensitizes nurses to alarm signals and presents potential for patient harm. This project describes an innovative method of communicating cardiac monitor alarms to pagers using an alarm escalation algorithm. This innovation was tested on 2 surgical progressive care units over a 6-month period. There was a significant decrease in mean frequency and duration of high-priority monitor alarms and improvement in nurses' perception of alarm response time, using this method of alarm communication.

  14. PT-SAFE: a software tool for development and annunciation of medical audible alarms.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Christopher L; McNeer, Richard R

    2012-03-01

    Recent reports by The Joint Commission as well as the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation have indicated that medical audible alarm effectiveness needs to be improved. Several recent studies have explored various approaches to improving the audible alarms, motivating the authors to develop real-time software capable of comparing such alarms. We sought to devise software that would allow for the development of a variety of audible alarm designs that could also integrate into existing operating room equipment configurations. The software is meant to be used as a tool for alarm researchers to quickly evaluate novel alarm designs. A software tool was developed for the purpose of creating and annunciating audible alarms. The alarms consisted of annunciators that were mapped to vital sign data received from a patient monitor. An object-oriented approach to software design was used to create a tool that is flexible and modular at run-time, can annunciate wave-files from disk, and can be programmed with MATLAB by the user to create custom alarm algorithms. The software was tested in a simulated operating room to measure technical performance and to validate the time-to-annunciation against existing equipment alarms. The software tool showed efficacy in a simulated operating room environment by providing alarm annunciation in response to physiologic and ventilator signals generated by a human patient simulator, on average 6.2 seconds faster than existing equipment alarms. Performance analysis showed that the software was capable of supporting up to 15 audible alarms on a mid-grade laptop computer before audio dropouts occurred. These results suggest that this software tool provides a foundation for rapidly staging multiple audible alarm sets from the laboratory to a simulation environment for the purpose of evaluating novel alarm designs, thus producing valuable findings for medical audible alarm standardization.

  15. Reduction of clinically irrelevant alarms in patient monitoring by adaptive time delays.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Felix; Goepfert, Matthias S; Franz, Frank; Laule, David; Reiter, Beate; Goetz, Alwin E; Reuter, Daniel A

    2017-02-01

    The problem of high rates of false alarms in patient monitoring in anesthesiology and intensive care medicine is well known but remains unsolved. False alarms desensitize the medical staff, leading to ignored true alarms and reduced quality of patient care. A database of intra-operative monitoring data was analyzed to find characteristic alarm patterns. The original data were re-evaluated to find relevant events and to rate the severity of these events. Based on this analysis an adaptive time delay was developed that individually delays the alarms depending on the grade of threshold deviation. The conventional threshold algorithm led to 4893 alarms. 3515 (71.84 %) of these alarms were annotated as clinically irrelevant. In total 81.0 % of all clinically irrelevant alarms were caused by only mild and/or brief threshold violations. We implemented the new algorithm for selected parameters. These parameters equipped with adaptive validation delays led to 1729 alarms. 931 (53.85 %) alarms were annotated as clinically irrelevant. 632 alarms indicated the 645 clinically relevant events. The positive predictive value of occurring alarms improved from 28.16 % (conventional algorithm) to 46.15 % (new algorithm). 13 events were missed. The false positive alarm reduction rate of the algorithm ranged from 33 to 86.75 %. The overall reduction was 73.51 %. The implementation of this algorithm may be able to suppress a large percentage of false alarms. The effect of this approach has not been demonstrated but shows promise for reducing alarm fatigue. Its safety needs to be proven in a prospective study.

  16. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility.

    PubMed

    Henninger, D L; Tri, T O; Packham, N J

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  17. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, D. L.; Tri, T. O.; Packham, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  18. Alarm fatigue: impacts on patient safety.

    PubMed

    Ruskin, Keith J; Hueske-Kraus, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Electronic medical devices are an integral part of patient care. As new devices are introduced, the number of alarms to which a healthcare professional may be exposed may be as high as 1000 alarms per shift. The US Food and Drug Administration has reported over 500 alarm-related patient deaths in five years. The Joint Commission, recognizing the clinical significance of alarm fatigue, has made clinical alarm management a National Patient Safety Goal. Potential solutions to alarm fatigue include technical, organizational, and educational interventions. Selecting only the right monitors (i.e., avoiding overmonitoring), judicious selection of alarm limits, and multimodal alarms can all reduce the number of nuisance alarms to which a healthcare worker is exposed. Alarm fatigue can jeopardize safety, but some clinical solutions such as setting appropriate thresholds and avoiding overmonitoring are available.

  19. Nurses' experiences with bed exit alarms may lead to ambivalence about their effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hubbartt, Beth; Davis, Sarah G; Kautz, Donald D

    2011-01-01

    The literature reports conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness of any single intervention, including bed exit alarms, in preventing falls. Yet bed exit alarms are widely used in healthcare settings as part of comprehensive fall-prevention programs even though no large-scale randomized controlled trials have demonstrated their effectiveness. As a part of a quality improvement project, bed alarms were piloted on two nursing units in a Level I trauma center. Nurses' patterns of use, their experiences and beliefs about bed alarms, and the literature regarding bed exit alarms were explored. Alarms were used with confused and agitated patients who did not fall. Nurses said that bed alarms may have helped prevent falls, but, even with bed alarms in use, nurses still needed to monitor their patients hourly. The conflicting experiences of nurses using the alarms, combined with nurses' comments and literature both supporting and not supporting bed alarms, shed light on the dilemma nurses face when prioritizing safe patient care and the ambivalence some nurses experience regarding bed alarms.

  20. An experimental investigation of the effects of alarm processing and display on operator performance

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Brown, W.; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G.; Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance, operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition, operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. No deficient

  1. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  2. A new method for defining and managing process alarms and for correcting process operation when an alarm occurs.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Robin; Thorpe, Richard; Wilson, John

    2004-11-11

    A new mathematical treatment of alarms that considers them as multi-variable interactions between process variables has provided the first-ever method to calculate values for alarm limits. This has resulted in substantial reductions in false alarms and hence in alarm annunciation rates in field trials. It has also unified alarm management, process control and product quality control into a single mathematical framework so that operations improvement and hence economic benefits are obtained at the same time as increased process safety. Additionally, an algorithm has been developed that advises what changes should be made to Manipulable process variables to clear an alarm. The multi-variable Best Operating Zone at the heart of the method is derived from existing historical data using equation-free methods. It does not require a first-principles process model or an expensive series of process identification experiments. Integral with the method is a new format Process Operator Display that uses only existing variables to fully describe the multi-variable operating space. This combination of features makes it an affordable and maintainable solution for small plants and single items of equipment as well as for the largest plants. In many cases, it also provides the justification for the investments about to be made or already made in process historian systems. Field Trials have been and are being conducted at IneosChlor and Mallinckrodt Chemicals, both in the UK, of the new geometric process control (GPC) method for improving the quality of both process operations and product by providing Process Alarms and Alerts of much high quality than ever before. The paper describes the methods used, including a simple visual method for Alarm Rationalisation that quickly delivers large sets of Consistent Alarm Limits, and the extension to full Alert Management with highlights from the Field Trials to indicate the overall effectiveness of the method in practice.

  3. Gas exchange rates of potato stands for bioregenerative life support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L.; Yorio, Neil C.; Sager, John C.; Knott, William M.

    Plants can provide a means for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) while generating oxygen (O2) and clean water for life support systems in space. To study this, 20 m2 stands of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants were grown in a large (113 m3 vol.), atmospherically closed chamber. Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 by the stands was detected about 10 DAP (days after planting), after which photosynthetic rates rose rapidly as stand ground cover and total light interception increased. Photosynthetic rates peaked ca. 50 DAP near 45 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 under 865 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF (average photosynthetic photon flux), and near 35 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 under 655 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF. Short term changes in PPF caused a linear response in stand photosynthetic rates up to 1100 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF, with a light compensation point of 185 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF. Comparisons of stand photosynthetic rates at different CO2 concentrations showed a classic C3 response, with saturation occurring near 1200 μmol mol-1 CO2 and compensation near 100 μmol mol-1 CO2. In one study, the photoperiod was changed from 12 h light/12 h dark to continuous light at 58 DAP. This caused a decrease in net photosynthetic rates within 48 h and eventual damage (scorching) of upper canopy leaves, suggesting the abrupt change stressed the plants and/or caused feedback effects on photosynthesis. Dark period (night) respiration rates increased during early growth as standing biomass increased and peaked near 9 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 ca. 50 DAP, after which rates declined gradually with age. Stand transpiration showed a rapid rise with canopy ground cover and peaked ca. 50 DAP near 8.9 L m-2 d-1 under 860 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF and near 6.3 L m-2 d-1 under 650 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF. Based on the best photosynthetic rates from these studies, approximately 25 m2 of potato plants under continuous cultivation would be required to support the CO2 removal and O2 requirements for one person.

  4. False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

    2012-09-01

    Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

  5. Citing reports of alarm-related deaths, the Joint Commission issues a sentinel event alert for hospitals to improve medical device alarm safety.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    As medical devices become more widely used in hospitals, there is evidence that providers are becoming overwhelmed by the alarms that emanate from these machines. Experts link the problem with 566 alarm-related deaths reported in an FDA database between January 2005 and June 2010, and 80 alarm-related deaths reported in The Joint Commission's (TJC) own sentinel event database between January 2009 and June 2012. The ED is among the hospital sites where the adverse events reported to TJC most often occurred. Providers in some hospital units have to deal with thousands of alarm signals every day, and an estimated 85% to 95% of these alerts don't require any intervention, according to TJC. Experts say with so much noise and so many false alarms, clinicians can become desensitized to the medical-device alarms. The types of alarms that administrators should be most concerned about in the ED are dysrhythmia alarms on heart monitors, oxygen saturation alarms, and signals that a patient has a low respiratory rate. Experts urge hospitals to develop cross-disciplinary teams to address alarm safety on an ongoing basis, and to assemble action plans for improvement that contain baseline metrics that can be used to chart progress.

  6. An Evidence-Based Approach to Reducing Cardiac Telemetry Alarm Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, Ekta; Mankoo, Jaspreet; Kerr, Charles

    2017-08-01

    It is estimated that between 80% and 99% of alarms in the clinical areas are in actionable alarms (Gross, Dahl, & Nielson). Alarm management is one of the Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goals (2014) because sentinel events have directly been linked to the devices generating these alarms. At an acute care facility in Boston, a multidisciplinary team consisting of Nursing, Biomedical Engineers, Patient Safety and Providers was formed to conduct a pilot study on the state of telemetry alarms on a surgical floor. An evidence-based approach was taken utilizing Philips Real-time data exporter alarms tracking software to capture all telemetry alarms during a 43-day time span. Likewise, noise meters were placed near telemetry alarm speakers to track decibel levels within the aforementioned timeframe for 21 days. Analysis of the data showed that clinically insignificant Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVC) alarms accounted for more than 40% of all alarms in the unit within the time span, while also contributing to an average noise level of 58.49 dB. In response to the data, the interdisciplinary team approved to permanently default the settings for PAIR PVC, MULTIFORM PVC, and RUN PVC alarms to off. The results showed a 54% decrease in the rate of alarms per bed per day, and an average noise reduction of 2.3 dB between the two selected noise measurement areas. Organizing a multidisciplinary team provides an effective framework toward analyzing and addressing cardiac telemetry alarm fatigue. Looking at quantitative datasets for clinical care areas through various lenses helps identify opportunities for improvement in regards to highlighting alarms that are not actionable. Pilot changes to alarm parameters can be tested for their environmental impact in the care area. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Chen, Xihui; Danilova, Katia

    2009-01-01

    Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

  8. Optimized support vector regression for drilling rate of penetration estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghi, Asadollah; Ansari, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Mahsa

    2015-12-01

    In the petroleum industry, drilling optimization involves the selection of operating conditions for achieving the desired depth with the minimum expenditure while requirements of personal safety, environment protection, adequate information of penetrated formations and productivity are fulfilled. Since drilling optimization is highly dependent on the rate of penetration (ROP), estimation of this parameter is of great importance during well planning. In this research, a novel approach called `optimized support vector regression' is employed for making a formulation between input variables and ROP. Algorithms used for optimizing the support vector regression are the genetic algorithm (GA) and the cuckoo search algorithm (CS). Optimization implementation improved the support vector regression performance by virtue of selecting proper values for its parameters. In order to evaluate the ability of optimization algorithms in enhancing SVR performance, their results were compared to the hybrid of pattern search and grid search (HPG) which is conventionally employed for optimizing SVR. The results demonstrated that the CS algorithm achieved further improvement on prediction accuracy of SVR compared to the GA and HPG as well. Moreover, the predictive model derived from back propagation neural network (BPNN), which is the traditional approach for estimating ROP, is selected for comparisons with CSSVR. The comparative results revealed the superiority of CSSVR. This study inferred that CSSVR is a viable option for precise estimation of ROP.

  9. Empirically-supported and non-empirically supported therapies for bulimia nervosa: retrospective patient ratings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirically supported therapies for bulimia nervosa include cognitive behaviour therapy and interpersonal therapy. Whilst these treatments have been shown to be effective in multiple randomised controlled trials, little research has investigated how they are perceived by patients who receive them. This study investigated whether empirically-supported psychological therapies (ESTs) are associated with superior self-rated treatment outcomes in clients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN). Results 98 adults who had received psychological therapy for BN in the United Kingdom completed a questionnaire which retrospectively assessed the specific contents of their psychological therapy and self-rated treatment outcomes. Around half the sample, fifty three participants reported receiving an EST. Fifty of these received Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) and three Interpersonal Therapy (IPT). Where therapy met expert criteria for Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa (CBT-BN, an EST) participants reported superior treatment outcomes than those who appeared to receive non-specialist cognitive-behavioural therapy. However, self-rated treatment outcomes were similar overall between those whose therapy met criteria for ESTs and those whose therapy did not. Conclusions The findings offer tentative support for the perceived helpfulness of CBT-BN as evaluated in controlled research trials. Cognitive-behavioural therapies for BN, as they are delivered in the UK, may not necessarily be perceived as more beneficial by clients with BN than psychological therapies which currently have less empirical support. PMID:24999419

  10. Smoke Alarm Giveaway and Installation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Mack, Karin A.; Diekman, Shane T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of residential fire injury and death is substantial. Targeted smoke alarm giveaway and installation programs are popular interventions used to reduce residential fire mortality and morbidity. Purpose To evaluate the cost effectiveness and cost benefit of implementing a giveaway or installation program in a small hypothetic community with a high risk of fire death and injury through a decision-analysis model. Methods Model inputs included program costs; program effectiveness (life-years and quality-adjusted life-years saved); and monetized program benefits (medical cost, productivity, property loss and quality-of-life losses averted) and were identified through structured reviews of existing literature (done in 2011) and supplemented by expert opinion. Future costs and effectiveness were discounted at a rate of 3% per year. All costs were expressed in 2011 U.S. dollars. Results Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) resulted in anaverage cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) of $51,404 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) saved and $45,630 per QALY for the giveaway and installation programs, respectively. Cost–benefit analysis (CBA) showed that both programs were associated with a positive net benefit with a benefit–cost ratio of 2.1 and 2.3, respectively. Smoke alarm functional rate, baseline prevalence of functional alarms, and baseline home fire death rate were among the most influential factors for the CEA and CBA results. Conclusions Both giveaway and installation programs have an average cost-effectiveness ratio similar to or lower than the median cost-effectiveness ratio reported for other interventionsto reduce fatal injuries in homes. Although more effort is required, installation programs result in lower cost per outcome achieved compared with giveaways. PMID:22992356

  11. Alarms about structural alerts.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vinicius; Muratov, Eugene; Capuzzi, Stephen; Politi, Regina; Low, Yen; Braga, Rodolpho; Zakharov, Alexey V; Sedykh, Alexander; Mokshyna, Elena; Farag, Sherif; Andrade, Carolina; Kuz'min, Victor; Fourches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander

    2016-08-21

    Structural alerts are widely accepted in chemical toxicology and regulatory decision support as a simple and transparent means to flag potential chemical hazards or group compounds into categories for read-across. However, there has been a growing concern that alerts disproportionally flag too many chemicals as toxic, which questions their reliability as toxicity markers. Conversely, the rigorously developed and properly validated statistical QSAR models can accurately and reliably predict the toxicity of a chemical; however, their use in regulatory toxicology has been hampered by the lack of transparency and interpretability. We demonstrate that contrary to the common perception of QSAR models as "black boxes" they can be used to identify statistically significant chemical substructures (QSAR-based alerts) that influence toxicity. We show through several case studies, however, that the mere presence of structural alerts in a chemical, irrespective of the derivation method (expert-based or QSAR-based), should be perceived only as hypotheses of possible toxicological effect. We propose a new approach that synergistically integrates structural alerts and rigorously validated QSAR models for a more transparent and accurate safety assessment of new chemicals.

  12. Dental emergency rates at two expeditionary medical support facilities supporting operations enduring and Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Dunn, William J; Langsten, Robert E; Flores, Salvador; Fandell, Jay E

    2004-07-01

    This study reports dental emergency rates and distribution of causes of dental emergencies at two expeditionary medical support facilities supporting operations Enduring Freedom/ Iraqi Freedom. A retrospective cohort analysis of 9948 soldiers deployed to Prince Sultan Air Base, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and 1467 soldiers at Baghdad International Airport, Iraq, was accomplished from a phased deployment from January 2003 to September 2003. Procedures were divided into 11 categories: endodontic, extraction of teeth other than third molars, extraction of third molar teeth, restoration of teeth (caries), restoration of broken teeth (not caries), orthodontic bracket/wire problem, sensitive teeth, temperomandibular pain, periodontal, oral pathology, and prosthodontic. The dental emergency rates for Prince Sultan Air Base and Baghdad International Airport were 153 and 145 dental emergencies per 1000 soldiers per year, respectively. Most of the emergencies were because of dental caries. Pain from third molars was the second most common reason for visiting the dental clinic.

  13. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices...

  14. Multi-parameter vital sign database to assist in alarm optimization for general care units.

    PubMed

    Welch, James; Kanter, Benjamin; Skora, Brooke; McCombie, Scott; Henry, Isaac; McCombie, Devin; Kennedy, Rosemary; Soller, Babs

    2016-12-01

    Continual vital sign assessment on the general care, medical-surgical floor is expected to provide early indication of patient deterioration and increase the effectiveness of rapid response teams. However, there is concern that continual, multi-parameter vital sign monitoring will produce alarm fatigue. The objective of this study was the development of a methodology to help care teams optimize alarm settings. An on-body wireless monitoring system was used to continually assess heart rate, respiratory rate, SpO2 and noninvasive blood pressure in the general ward of ten hospitals between April 1, 2014 and January 19, 2015. These data, 94,575 h for 3430 patients are contained in a large database, accessible with cloud computing tools. Simulation scenarios assessed the total alarm rate as a function of threshold and annunciation delay (s). The total alarm rate of ten alarms/patient/day predicted from the cloud-hosted database was the same as the total alarm rate for a 10 day evaluation (1550 h for 36 patients) in an independent hospital. Plots of vital sign distributions in the cloud-hosted database were similar to other large databases published by different authors. The cloud-hosted database can be used to run simulations for various alarm thresholds and annunciation delays to predict the total alarm burden experienced by nursing staff. This methodology might, in the future, be used to help reduce alarm fatigue without sacrificing the ability to continually monitor all vital signs.

  15. Priority coding for control room alarms

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

  16. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the smoke...

  17. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the smoke...

  18. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an audible alarm. A visual indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by low water. (d) For a... Requirements § 63.15-7 Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system...

  19. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an audible alarm. A visual indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by low water. (d) For a... Requirements § 63.15-7 Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system...

  20. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an audible alarm. A visual indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by low water. (d) For a... Requirements § 63.15-7 Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system...

  1. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an audible alarm. A visual indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by low water. (d) For a... Requirements § 63.15-7 Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system...

  2. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  5. 46 CFR 129.530 - General alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm. 129.530 Section 129.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.530 General alarm. Each vessel must be fitted with a general alarm that...

  6. 46 CFR 129.530 - General alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm. 129.530 Section 129.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.530 General alarm. Each vessel must be fitted with a general alarm that...

  7. 46 CFR 129.530 - General alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm. 129.530 Section 129.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.530 General alarm. Each vessel must be fitted with a general alarm that...

  8. Improved alarm tracking for better accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Nemesure, S.; Marr, G.; Shrey, T.; Kling, N.; Hammons, L.; Ingrassia, P.; D'Ottavio, T.

    2011-03-28

    An alarm system is a vital component of any accelerator, as it provides a warning that some element of the system is not functioning properly. The severity and age of the alarm may sometimes signify whether urgent or deferred attention is required. For example, older alarms may be given a lower priority if an assumption is made that someone else is already investigating it, whereas those of higher severity or alarms that are more current may indicate the need for an immediate response. The alarm history also provides valuable information regarding the functionality of the overall system, thus careful tracking of these data is likely to improve response time, remove uncertainty about the current status and assist in the ability to promptly respond to the same warning/trigger in the future. Since one goal of every alarm display is to be free of alarms, a clear and concise presentation of an alarm along with useful historic annotations can help the end user address the warning more quickly, thus expediting the elimination of such alarm conditions. By defining a discrete set of very specific alarm management states and by utilizing database resources to maintain a complete and easily accessible alarm history, we anticipate facilitated work flow due to more efficient operator response and management of alarms.

  9. Make an Alarm! Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    After reading the story "Dear Mr. Henshaw" by Beverly Cleary, students build an alarm system for something in the classroom as the main character, Leigh, does to protect his lunchbox from thieves. Students learn about alarms and use their creativity to create an alarm system to protect their lockers, desk, or classroom door. This activity uses a…

  10. 46 CFR 129.530 - General alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm. 129.530 Section 129.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.530 General alarm. Each vessel must be fitted with a general alarm...

  11. 46 CFR 129.530 - General alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm. 129.530 Section 129.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.530 General alarm. Each vessel must be fitted with a general alarm...

  12. Correlating data from different sensors to increase the positive predictive value of alarms: an empiric assessment.

    PubMed

    Bitan, Yuval; O'Connor, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Alarm fatigue from high false alarm rate is a well described phenomenon in the intensive care unit (ICU). Progress to further reduce false alarms must employ a new strategy. Highly sensitive alarms invariably have a very high false alarm rate. Clinically useful alarms have a high Positive-Predictive Value. Our goal is to demonstrate one approach to suppressing false alarms using an algorithm that correlates information across sensors and replicates the ways that human evaluators discriminate artifact from real signal. After obtaining IRB approval and waiver of informed consent, a set of definitions, (hypovolemia, left ventricular shock, tamponade, hemodynamically significant ventricular tachycardia, and hemodynamically significant supraventricular tachycardia), were installed in the monitors in a 10 bed cardiothoracic ICU and evaluated over an 85 day study period. The logic of the algorithms was intended to replicate the logic of practitioners, and correlated information across sensors in a way similar to that used by practitioners. The performance of the alarms was evaluated via a daily interview with the ICU attending and review of the tracings recorded over the previous 24 hours in the monitor. True alarms and false alarms were identified by an expert clinician, and the performance of the algorithms evaluated using the standard definitions of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Between 1 and 221 instances of defined events occurred over the duration of the study, and the positive predictive value of the definitions varied between 4.1% and 84%. Correlation of information across alarms can suppress artifact, increase the positive predictive value of alarms, and can employ more sophisticated definitions of alarm events than present single-sensor based systems.

  13. Monitor alarm fatigue: standardizing use of physiological monitors and decreasing nuisance alarms.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kelly Creighton; Cvach, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Reliance on physiological monitors to continuously "watch" patients and to alert the nurse when a serious rhythm problem occurs is standard practice on monitored units. Alarms are intended to alert clinicians to deviations from a predetermined "normal" status. However, alarm fatigue may occur when the sheer number of monitor alarms overwhelms clinicians, possibly leading to alarms being disabled, silenced, or ignored. Excessive numbers of monitor alarms and fear that nurses have become desensitized to these alarms was the impetus for a unit-based quality improvement project. Small tests of change to improve alarm management were conducted on a medical progressive care unit. The types and frequency of monitor alarms in the unit were assessed. Nurses were trained to individualize patients' alarm parameter limits and levels. Monitor software was modified to promote audibility of critical alarms. Critical monitor alarms were reduced 43% from baseline data. The reduction of alarms could be attributed to adjustment of monitor alarm defaults, careful assessment and customization of monitor alarm parameter limits and levels, and implementation of an interdisciplinary monitor policy. Although alarms are important and sometimes life-saving, they can compromise patients' safety if ignored. This unit-based quality improvement initiative was beneficial as a starting point for revamping alarm management throughout the institution.

  14. Signal Quality Analysis of Ambulatory Electrocardiograms to Gate False Myocardial Ischemia Alarms.

    PubMed

    Abdelazez, Mohamed; Quesnel, Patrick X; Chan, Adrian D C; Yang, Homer

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to propose and validate an alarm gating system for a myocardial ischemia monitoring system that uses ambulatory electrocardiogram. The PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation study recommended the selective administration of β blockers to patients at risk of cardiac events following noncardiac surgery. Patients at risk are identified by monitoring ST segment deviations in the electrocardiogram (ECG); however, patients are encouraged to ambulate to improve recovery, which deteriorates the signal quality of the ECG leading to false alarms. The proposed alarm gating system computes a signal quality index (SQI) to quantify the ECG signal quality and rejects alarms with a low SQI. The system was validated by artificially contaminating ECG records with motion artifact records obtained from the long-term ST database and MIT-BIH noise stress test database, respectively. Without alarm gating, the myocardial ischemia monitoring system attained a Precision of 0.31 and a Recall of 0.78. The alarm gating improved the Precision to 0.58 with a reduction of Recall to 0.77. The proposed system successfully gated false alarms with future work exploring the misidentification of fiducial points by myocardial ischemia monitoring systems. The reduction of false alarms due to the proposed system will decrease the incidence of the alarm fatigue condition typically found in clinicians. Alarm fatigue condition was rated as the top patient safety hazard from 2012 to 2015 by the Emergency Care Research Institute.

  15. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  16. Sparse Support Vector Machine for Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Classification.

    PubMed

    Spilka, Jiri; Frecon, Jordan; Leonarduzzi, Roberto; Pustelnik, Nelly; Abry, Patrice; Doret, Muriel

    2016-03-24

    Fetal Heart Rate (FHR) monitoring is routinely used in clinical practice to help obstetricians assess fetal health status during delivery. However, early detection of fetal acidosis that allows relevant decisions for operative delivery remains a challenging task, receiving considerable attention. This contribution promotes Sparse Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification that permits to select a small number of relevant features and to achieve efficient fetal acidosis detection. A comprehensive set of features is used for FHR description, including enhanced and computerized clinical features, frequency domain, and scaling and multifractal features, all computed on a large (1288 subjects) and well documented database. The individual performance obtained for each feature independently is discussed first. Then, it is shown that the automatic selection of a sparse subset of features achieves satisfactory classification performance (sensitivity 0.73 and specificity 0.75, outperforming clinical practice). The subset of selected features (average depth of decelerations MADdtrd, baseline level 0, and variability H) receive simple interpretation in clinical practice. Intrapartum fetal acidosis detection is improved in several respects: A comprehensive set of features combining clinical, spectral and scale-free dynamics is used; an original multivariate classification targeting both sparse feature selection and high performance is devised; state-of-theart performance is obtained on a much larger database than that generally studied with description of common pitfalls in supervised classification performance assessments.

  17. Panic, Suffocation False Alarms, Separation Anxiety and Endogenous Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Preter, Maurice; Klein, Donald F.

    2008-01-01

    This review paper presents an amplification of the suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) of spontaneous panic (Klein, 1993). SFA postulates the existence of an evolved physiologic suffocation alarm system that monitors information about potential suffocation. Panic attacks maladaptively occur when the alarm is erroneously triggered. That panic is distinct from Cannon’s emergency fear response and Selye’s General Alarm Syndrome is shown by the prominence of intense air hunger during these attacks. Further, panic sufferers have chronic sighing abnormalities outside of the acute attack. Another basic physiologic distinction between fear and panic is the counter-intuitive lack of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation in panic. Understanding panic as provoked by indicators of potential suffocation, such as fluctuations in pCO2 and brain lactate, as well as environmental circumstances fits the observed respiratory abnormalities. However, that sudden loss, bereavement and childhood separation anxiety are also antecedents of “spontaneous” panic requires an integrative explanation. Because of the opioid system’s central regulatory role in both disordered breathing and separation distress, we detail the role of opioidergic dysfunction in decreasing the suffocation alarm threshold. We present results from our laboratory where the naloxone-lactate challenge in normals produces supportive evidence for the endorphinergic defect hypothesis in the form of a distress episode of specific tidal volume hyperventilation paralleling challenge-produced and clinical panic. PMID:17765379

  18. Dental emergency rates at an expeditionary medical support facility supporting Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Dunn, William Jackson

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the dental emergency rate and the distribution of cause of dental emergencies at an Expeditionary Medical Support +25 medical facility during a 6-month deployment in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. A retrospective cohort analysis of 1,972 soldiers stationed at Seeb Air Base, Sultanate of Oman, was accomplished from a phased deployment from March to September 2002. Procedures were divided into 11 categories: endodontic, extraction of teeth other than third molars, extraction of third molar teeth, restoration of teeth (caries), restoration of broken teeth (not caries), orthodontic bracket/wire problem, sensitive teeth, temperomandibular pain, periodontal, oral pathology, and prosthodontic. One hundred thirty-five dental emergency visits were recorded, corresponding to a rate of 137 dental emergencies per 1,000 soldiers per year. Most of the emergencies (34.8%) were due to caries. Pain from third molars was the second most common reason for visiting the dental clinic (19.3%).

  19. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2011-02-23

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively.

  20. Classifying Alarms: Seeking Durability, Credibility, Consistency, and Simplicity.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, Judy Reed; Schlesinger, Joseph J; McNeer, Richard R; Kristensen, Michael Sonne; Bennett, Christopher L

    2017-02-01

    Alongside the development and testing of new audible alarms intended to support International Electrotechnical Commission 60601-1-8, a global standard concerned with alarm safety, the categories of risk that the standard denotes require further thought and possible updating. In this article, we revisit the origins of the categories covered by the standard. These categories were based on the ways that tissue damage can be caused. We consider these categories from the varied professional perspectives of the authors: human factors, semiotics, clinical practice, and the patient or family (layperson). We conclude that while the categories possess many clinically applicable and defensible features from our range of perspectives, the advances in alarm design now available may allow a more flexible approach. We present a three-tier system with superordinate, basic, and subordinate levels that fit both within the thinking embodied in the current standard and possible new developments.

  1. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Simon W.; Manser, Marta B.

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the ‘unpredictability hypothesis’ by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

  2. The "suffocation alarm" theory of panic attacks: a critical commentary.

    PubMed

    Ley, R

    1994-12-01

    In 1993 Klein proposed a "false suffocation alarm" theory of panic attacks, claiming that many spontaneous panic attacks are due to a "suffocation monitor" in the brain erroneously signaling a lack of useful air, and triggering an evolved "suffocation alarm system". He proposed that carbon dioxide acts as a panic stimulus because rising arterial CO2 suggests suffocation may be imminent." The present paper provides a critical analysis of Klein's theory and concludes that there is neither empirical evidence nor compelling argument to support the assumptions or the proposed neurological mechanism of a "suffocation alarm", true or false, or a CO2 "suffocation monitor." Data relevant to the role of breathing in the phenomenon of panic can be parsimoniously subsumed within the domain of dyspnea.

  3. False alarm reduction during landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, P. J.; Chongpison, A.; Doraisamy, L.

    2007-04-01

    Quadrupole Resonance sensors have the unique capability of detecting explosives from buried, plastic-cased antipersonnel and antitank landmines. The chemical specificity of this radio-frequency technique provides the potential to deliver remarkably low false alarm rates during landmine detection. This is of particular importance to deminers, who frequently come across numerous clutter items before uncovering a mine. Quadrupole Resonance is typically utilized in a confirmation mode; preceded by rapid primary scans carried out by, for example, metal detectors, ground penetrating radars or a fusion of these. Significant technical and scientific advances have resulted in the fabrication of handheld and vehicle mounted Quadrupole Resonance landmine detectors in compact, power-efficient configurations. The development work is focused on baseline sensitivity increase, as well as the achievement of high detection performance under field conditions. The mine detection capability of Quadrupole Resonance detectors has been evaluated during various blind tests. A modular handheld unit, combining primary and confirmation sensors, was designed to be operated by a single person. A series of field tests demonstrate the unique capability of Quadrupole Resonance for significant false alarm reduction.

  4. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  6. Alarm upgrade meets new standards.

    PubMed

    2004-11-01

    When Bedford Hospital NHS Trust decided to replace its ageing and increasingly unreliable fire detection and alarm system, it was looking to achieve more than just compliance with the latest regulations. It wanted a flexible, state-of-the-art system that would not only meet its current requirements but would also be easy to adapt and inexpensive to maintain. The pound 1 million Gent Vigilon fire system now operating across the site has given it just that. The 15-month long project to install the system was completed without a single ward or operating theatre having to be shut down.

  7. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communications or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.

  8. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  9. A novel algorithm for reducing false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Chandan; Sharma, Sonal; Jalali, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Alarm fatigue in intensive care units (ICU) is one of the top healthcare issues in the US. False alarms in ICU will decrease the quality of care and staff response time over the alarms. Normally, false alarm will cause desensitization of the clinical staff which leads to warnings and misleading, if the triggered alarm is true. In this study, we have proposed a multi-model ensemble approach to reduce the false alarm rate in monitoring systems. We have used 750 patient records from PhysioNet database. At First arrhythmia based features from electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) features were extracted from the records. Next, the dataset has been separated into two subsets on the basis of available features information. The first dataset (DS1) is the combination of ECG physiological, ABP and PPG features. Their correlation coefficient and p-values criteria have been applied for relevant alarm-wise feature-set selection, and random forest classifier was used for model development and validation. The threshold based approach was used on second dataset (DS2) which is the combination of arrhythmia, ABP and PPG features. The developed ensemble model is able to achieve sensitivity 83.33-100 % (average 95.56 %) being true alarms and suppress false alarms rate 66.67-89% (average 77.25%). The predictability of classifier shows the advantage to deal with unbalanced set of information, therefore overall model performance has reached to 83.96% accuracy.

  10. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  11. Field response of tadpoles to conspecific and heterospecific alarm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, M.J.; Claeson, S.

    1998-01-01

    Many organisms use chemical cues from a variety of sources to mediate predator avoidance. Response to heterospecific alarm cues has been demonstrated for tadpoles within but not among taxa and alarm response behavior has seldom been examined under field conditions. This study examined the response of three sympatric amphibian larvae and predaceous larval Dytiscus sp. (diving beetle) to damage-release signals in natural ponds by using capture rates from treated funnel traps as an index of larval behavior. Hyla regilla (Pacific tree frog) tadpoles avoided traps treated with either crushed conspecifics or with Rana aurora (red-legged frog) tadpoles but the larger ranids and Arabystoma macrodactylum (long-toed salamander) did not respond to either treatment. H. regilla tadpoles were likely susceptible to any potential predators of ranid tadpoles in these ponds and this result is consistent with the hypothesis that a response to heterospecific alarm occurs in sympatric prey with shared predators.

  12. Adherence with ethinylestradiol 20 μg/drospirenone 3 mg in a flexible extended regimen supported by the use of a digital tablet dispenser with or without acoustic alarm: an open-label, randomized, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Wiegratz, Inka; Elliesen, Jörg; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Walzer, Anja; Kirsch, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of a digital dispenser’s acoustic alarm function on adherence to ethinylestradiol (EE) 20 μg/drospirenone 3 mg in a flexible extended regimen (EE/drospirenoneFlex) among women in five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) seeking oral contraception. Study design Randomized, parallel-group open-label study. Methods Women aged 18–35 years received EE/drospirenoneFlex administered in a regimen with cycle lengths of their choice with the aid of a digital pill dispenser over 1 year. In group A (N=250), the dispenser’s acoustic alarm was activated (ie, acoustic alarm + visual reminder). In group B (N=249), the acoustic alarm was deactivated (ie, visual reminder only). In addition, the women recorded pill intake daily in diary cards. The primary efficacy variable was the mean delay of daily pill release after the dispenser reminded the woman to take a pill (reference time). Secondary efficacy variables included number of missed pills, contraceptive efficacy, bleeding pattern, tolerability, and user satisfaction. Results Dispenser data showed a mean (standard deviation [SD]) daily delay in pill release of 88 (126) minutes in group A vs 178 (140) minutes in group B (P<0.0001). Median (lower quartile, Q1; upper quartile, Q3) number of missed pills was 0 (0; 1) in group A vs 4 (1; 9) in group B (P<0.0001). Diary card results revealed similar trends; however, underreporting of missed pills was evident in both groups. No pregnancies were reported during 424 women-years of exposure. Across the two groups, the mean (SD) EE/drospirenoneFlex cycle length was 51.0 (31.8) days with strong regional differences, and the mean (SD) number of bleeding/spotting days was 50.4 (33.0) days. EE/drospirenoneFlex was well tolerated, and 80% of women were satisfied with treatment. Conclusion The dispenser’s activated acoustic alarm improved adherence with daily tablet intake of EE/drospirenoneFlex, reducing missed pills. EE

  13. Advanced Alarm Systems: Revision of Guidance and Its Technical Basis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    bulletins and information notices; inspection and investigative reports; licensee event reports; and Commission papers and their attachments. NRC...List System CANDU Canadian Deuterium Uranium CE Combustion Engineering CPIAS Critical Parameter Indication and Alarm System CRT cathode ray tube...strategy for CANDU plants, Davey et al., (1995) noted that warning of conditions potentially leading to upsets is enhanced by including rate and margin

  14. [The alarming increase of incapacity for work].

    PubMed

    Thibaut, P

    2013-09-01

    The alarming increase of incapacity for work The increase of incapacity for work in Belgium and in Europe is not a new phenomenon but only the transposition of an experience already lived on others continents (Canada--USA). The bio-psycho-social model proves to be, on the international level, as the more efficient view for the understanding of the mechanisms production of the disability and therefore of the incapacity for work. Following this approach, the chronic pain is the result of the dynamic interaction between physiological, psychological and social factors. It mentions also an existing link between the pain and the depression itself being a determining factor in the persistence of the incapacity for work. The bio-psycho-social model can only be conceived in the interdisciplinary approach, and will for sure allow to optimize the support and the use of medicines with a painkiller and depressive aim. The socio-economic impact created represents actually a real health problem.

  15. Controlling misses and false alarms in a machine learning framework for predicting uniformity of printed pages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work1 , we presented a block-based technique to analyze printed page uniformity both visually and metrically. The features learned from the models were then employed in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) framework to classify the pages into one of the two categories of acceptable and unacceptable quality. In this paper, we introduce a set of tools for machine learning in the assessment of printed page uniformity. This work is primarily targeted to the printing industry, specifically the ubiquitous laser, electrophotographic printer. We use features that are well-correlated with the rankings of expert observers to develop a novel machine learning framework that allows one to achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate, subject to a chosen "miss" rate. Surprisingly, most of the research that has been conducted on machine learning does not consider this framework. During the process of developing a new product, test engineers will print hundreds of test pages, which can be scanned and then analyzed by an autonomous algorithm. Among these pages, most may be of acceptable quality. The objective is to find the ones that are not. These will provide critically important information to systems designers, regarding issues that need to be addressed in improving the printer design. A "miss" is defined to be a page that is not of acceptable quality to an expert observer that the prediction algorithm declares to be a "pass". Misses are a serious problem, since they represent problems that will not be seen by the systems designers. On the other hand, "false alarms" correspond to pages that an expert observer would declare to be of acceptable quality, but which are flagged by the prediction algorithm as "fails". In a typical printer testing and development scenario, such pages would be examined by an expert, and found to be of acceptable quality after all. "False alarm" pages result in extra pages to be examined by expert observers, which increases labor cost. But "false

  16. Incidence of fires and related injuries after giving out free smoke alarms: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Roberts, Ian; Wade, Angie; Sculpher, Mark; Edwards, Phil; Godward, Catherine; Pan, Huiqi; Slater, Suzanne

    2002-11-02

    To measure the effect of giving out free smoke alarms on rates of fires and rates of fire related injury in a deprived multiethnic urban population. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Forty electoral wards in two boroughs of inner London, United Kingdom. Primarily households including elderly people or children and households that are in housing rented from the borough council. 20 050 smoke alarms, fittings, and educational brochures distributed free and installed on request. Rates of fires and related injuries during two years after the distribution; alarm ownership, installation, and function. Giving out free smoke alarms did not reduce injuries related to fire (rate ratio 1.3; 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.9), admissions to hospital and deaths (1.3; 0.7 to 2.3), or fires attended by the fire brigade (1.1; 0.96 to 1.3). Similar proportions of intervention and control households had installed alarms (36/119 (30%) v 35/109 (32%); odds ratio 0.9; 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.7) and working alarms (19/118 (16%) v 18/108 (17%); 0.9; 0.4 to 1.8). Giving out free smoke alarms in a deprived, multiethnic, urban community did not reduce injuries related to fire, mostly because few alarms had been installed or were maintained.

  17. Simulated data supporting inbreeding rate estimates from incomplete pedigrees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.

    2017-01-01

    This data release includes:(1) The data from simulations used to illustrate the behavior of inbreeding rate estimators. Estimating inbreeding rates is particularly difficult for natural populations because parentage information for many individuals may be incomplete. Our analyses illustrate the behavior of a newly-described inbreeding rate estimator that outperforms previously described approaches in the scientific literature.(2) Python source code ("analytical expressions", "computer simulations", and "empricial data set") that can be used to analyze these data.

  18. D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Markely, D.; /Fermilab

    1992-08-03

    The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 bistable inputs, but is expandable to 64 bistable inputs with the purchase of more electronic cards at an approximate cost of $260 per card (8 bistable inputs). The auto dialer also has the capability for analog inputs, analog outputs, and bistable outputs none of which D0 uses or intends to use. The auto dialer can be called on its operating phone line to describe current alarms with the proper password. The Auto Dialer can dial lab extensions, lab pagers, and any number outside the lab. It cannot dial a long distance pager. The auto dialer monitors alarms and alarm conditions via the T1565 PLC, upon an alarm condition it initiates a phone calling sequence of preprogrammed lists with assigned priorities. When someone is reached, the auto dialer describes the individual alarm it is calling for, by a preprogrammed set of words for that individual alarm, spoken by a female voice. The called person then has a chance to acknowledge the alarm over the telephone, if the alarm is not acknowledged the auto dialer will disconnect and call the next person on the list. The auto dialer will continue to cycle through the list until it is acknowledged, reset, or the alarm condition no longer exists.

  19. Comparison of social support content within online communities for high- and low-survival-rate cancers.

    PubMed

    Buis, Lorraine R; Whitten, Pamela

    2011-08-01

    People experiencing cancer use the Internet for many reasons, particularly for social support. This study sought to determine how social support content within online support communities for different cancers varied according to cancer survival rate. A quantitative content analysis was conducted on 3717 posts from eight online communities focused on cancers with high and low 5-year relative survival rates. Using Optimal Matching Theory, we predicted that low-survival-rate communities would have more emotional support content than high-survival-rate communities, and high-survival-rate communities would have more informational support content than low-survival-rate communities. Emotional support content was consistently more common than informational support. Overall, high-survival-rate communities had a greater proportion of posts containing emotional support content (75%) than low-survival-rate communities (66%) (χ1 = 20.89 [n = 2235], P < .001). Furthermore, low-survival-rate communities had a greater proportion of posts containing informational support content (46%) than high-survival-rate communities (36%) (χ1 = 21.13 [n = 2235], P< .001). Although the relationships between survival rate and support types were significant, they were not as hypothesized. Deviations from theoretically predicted results suggest that individuals experiencing low-survival-rate cancers may have a greater desire for informational support online than individuals experiencing high-survival-rate cancers.

  20. Physiologic monitoring alarm load on medical/surgical floors of a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Gross, Brian; Dahl, Deborah; Nielsen, Larry

    2011-01-01

    It has been known to the public that high frequency of false and/or unnecessary alarms from patient monitoring devices causes "alarm fatigue" in critical care. But little is known about the impact to care on the less acute patients located outside the critical care areas, such as the traditional medical/surgical (med/surg) floor. As part of a larger population management study, we initiated continuous physiological monitoring to 79 beds of floor patients in a community hospital. In order to qualify the patient monitoring alarm load for subacute medical and surgical floor patients, we assessed alarm data from April 2009 to January 2010. A standard critical care monitoring system (Philips IntelliVue MP-5 and Telemetry) was installed and set to the default alarm limits. All waveform data available for the patient (typically ECG, RESP, PPG at 125hz 8 bit), all alarm conditions declared by the monitoring system, and 1 minute parameter trend data were saved to disk every 8 hours for all patients. A monitoring care protocol was created to determine whether the patient was monitored via the hardwired bedside or wirelessly via telemetry. Alarms were not announced on the care unit but instead notifications were the responsibility of remote telehealth center personnel. We retrospectively evaluated the frequency of alarms over specific physiologic thresholds (n= 4104 patients) and conducted adjudication of all alarms based on a smaller sampling (n=30 patients). For all patients, the average hours of monitoring per patient were 16.5 hours with a standard deviation (s) of 8.3 hours and a median of 22 hours. The average number of alarms (all severities) per patient was 69.7 (s =90.3, median =28) alarms. When this is adjusted to the duration of monitoring, the average per patient, per day rate was 95.6 (s =124.2, median =34.2) alarms. The adjudicated sample (n=30 patients) resulted in 34% of critical alarms (lethal arrhythmias, extreme high or low heart rate [HR], extreme

  1. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.

  2. Differences in alarm events between disposable and reusable electrocardiography lead wires.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nancy M; Murray, Terri; Bena, James F; Slifcak, Ellen; Roach, Joel D; Spence, Jackie; Burkle, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Disposable electrocardiographic lead wires (ECG-LWs) may not be as durable as reusable ones. To examine differences in alarm events between disposable and reusable ECG-LWs. Two cardiac telemetry units were randomized to reusable ECG-LWs, and 2 units alternated between disposable and reusable ECG-LWs for 4 months. A remote monitoring team, blinded to ECG-LW type, assessed frequency and type of alarm events by using total counts and rates per 100 patient days. Event rates were compared by using generalized linear mixed-effect models for differences and noninferiority between wire types. In 1611 patients and 9385.5 patient days of ECG monitoring, patient characteristics were similar between groups. Rates of alarms for no telemetry, leads fail, or leads off were lower in disposable ECG-LWs (adjusted relative risk [95% CI], 0.71 [0.53-0.96]; noninferiority P < .001; superiority P = .03) and monitoring (artifact) alarms were significantly noninferior (adjusted relative risk [95% CI]: 0.88, [0.62-1.24], P = .02; superiority P = .44). No between-group differences existed in false or true crisis alarms. Disposable ECG-LWs were noninferior to reusable ECG-LWs for all false-alarm events (N [rate per 100 patient days], disposable 2029 [79.1] vs reusable 6673 [97.9]; adjusted relative risk [95% CI]: 0.81 [0.63-1.06], P = .002; superiority P = .12.) Disposable ECG-LWs with patented push-button design had superior performance in reducing alarms created by no telemetry, leads fail, or leads off and significant noninferiority in all false-alarm rates compared with reusable ECG-LWs. Fewer ECG alarms may save nurses time, decrease alarm fatigue, and improve patient safety. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  3. Predictive combinations of monitor alarms preceding in-hospital code blue events.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao; Sapo, Monica; Nenov, Val; Barry, Tod; Kim, Sunghan; Do, Duc H; Boyle, Noel; Martin, Neil

    2012-10-01

    Bedside monitors are ubiquitous in acute care units of modern healthcare enterprises. However, they have been criticized for generating an excessive number of false positive alarms causing alarm fatigue among care givers and potentially compromising patient safety. We hypothesize that combinations of regular monitor alarms denoted as SuperAlarm set may be more indicative of ongoing patient deteriorations and hence predictive of in-hospital code blue events. The present work develops and assesses an alarm mining approach based on finding frequent combinations of single alarms that are also specific to code blue events to compose a SuperAlarm set. We use 4-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to investigate the influence of four algorithm parameters on the performance of the data mining approach. The results are obtained from millions of monitor alarms from a cohort of 223 adult code blue and 1768 control patients using a multiple 10-fold cross-validation experiment setup. Using the optimal setting of parameters determined in the cross-validation experiment, final SuperAlarm sets are mined from the training data and used on an independent test data set to simulate running a SuperAlarm set against live regular monitor alarms. The ANOVA shows that the content of a SuperAlarm set is influenced by a subset of key algorithm parameters. Simulation of the extracted SuperAlarm set shows that it can predict code blue events one hour ahead with sensitivity between 66.7% and 90.9% while producing false SuperAlarms for control patients that account for between 2.2% and 11.2% of regular monitor alarms depending on user-supplied acceptable false positive rate. We conclude that even though the present work is still preliminary due to the usage of a moderately-sized database to test our hypothesis it represents an effort to develop algorithms to alleviate the alarm fatigue issue in a unique way. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alarm Fatigue: Use of an Evidence-Based Alarm Management Strategy.

    PubMed

    Turmell, Jacob W; Coke, Lola; Catinella, Rachel; Hosford, Tracy; Majeski, Amy

    The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of an evidence-based alarm management strategy on patient safety. An alarm management program reduced alarms up to 30%. Evaluation of patients on continuous cardiac monitoring showed a 3.5% decrease in census. This alarm management strategy has the potential to save $136 500 and 841 hours of registered nurses' time per year. No patient harm occurred during the 2-year project.

  5. Development and alarm threshold evaluation of a side rail integrated sensor technology for the prevention of falls.

    PubMed

    Hilbe, Johannes; Schulc, Eva; Linder, Barbara; Them, Christa

    2010-03-01

    Patient falls constitute a serious problem both for the persons fallen and for the institutions involved. Bed-exit alarm systems are used to reduce patient falls. Existing bed-exit alarm systems have several disadvantages depending on the technology used. As in "Evaluation of Bed-Exit Alarms" stated, restless, light weighted, uncooperative, incontinent and confused patients require different systems. The aim of this work is to present the research and development process of the integrated, universally applicable BUCINATOR bed-exit-alarm system. The use-case technique was applied to capture the functional requirements for the development of the new integrated bed-exit alarm system. An experimental study was carried out to collect data regarding preliminary sensitivity and specificity for alarm set-off. Major identified requirements for an optimized bed-exit alarm system were usability, wide range usage, low costs, hygiene factors, integration into nursing beds and nurse call systems and an adequate alarm/false alarm ratio with early alarm trigger functionality. On the basis of the criteria mentioned above, a sensor system was developed, comprising tubes with an air-filled passageway attached on the top of side rails. These tubes are coupled via lines to transducers which trigger an alarm when a predetermined level of pressure is reached. Both the preliminary sensitivity (96.0%) and the specificity (>or=95.5%) of the trigger level indicate a satisfactory alarm/false alarm ratio which is now to be evaluated in a clinical trial. After experimental testing, BUCINATOR shows great potential to be a reliable bed-exit alarm system. In general, bed-exit alarm systems with extended features could play a major role in ambient assisted living technologies. Besides the theoretical evaluation, it will be imperative to perform more tests and to gather more data about the effect on fall rates and resulting injuries. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Automated support tool for variable rate irrigation prescriptions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) enables center pivot management to better meet non-uniform water and fertility needs. This is accomplished through correctly matching system water application with spatial and temporal variability within the field. A computer program was modified to accommodate GIS dat...

  7. T-Farm complex alarm upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

  8. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon... audible alarm in such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to... sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and the...

  9. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon... audible alarm in such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to... sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and the...

  10. Structured alarm systems for the operating room.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, P J; Schreiber, J

    1989-07-01

    The administration of anesthesia may be viewed as a closed-loop control system consisting of three major components: the anesthesia system, the patient, and the system operator. A monitoring and alarm system during anesthesia should not be limited to only one of the three major components but must include monitoring of the patient, the performance of the anesthesia system, and the action of the system operator. For an alarm system to be successful when an adverse condition occurs, an alarm must be generated and identified, the problem identified and corrected, and the patient stabilized before injury results. The authors describe the characteristics of a structured alarm system that maximizes the time available to correct a potential problem before injury begins, that clearly identifies the cause of the problem, and that prioritizes alarms according to the urgency of the required response. Alarms should be easy to temporarily silence, have built-in alarm default settings to prevent the inadvertant use of settings meant for a previous patient, and have a graphic display that enables the operator to detect problems or trends before an alarm sounds.

  11. Residential smoke alarms and fire escape plans.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, P A; Sacks, J J; Ryan, G W; Bender, P F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of U.S. homes with installed smoke alarms, smoke alarms on the same floor as occupants' bedrooms, and fire escape plans. METHODS: The authors analyzed data on smoke alarm use and fire escape planning from a 1994 stratified random telephone survey of 5238 U.S. households. RESULTS: Respondents from 91% of surveyed households reported the presence of at least one installed smoke alarm, and 94% of respondents reported having an alarm on the same level of the home as their sleeping area. The prevalence of installed smoke alarms varied by highest education level in the household and income level. Sixty percent of all households had designed or discussed a fire escape plan at least once; only 17% of these households had actually practiced one. CONCLUSIONS: Although overall use of smoke alarms was high, certain population subgroups were less likely to have smoke alarms or to have them installed on the same floor as bedrooms. Fire escape planning, another important safety measure, was somewhat less common, and very few respondents reported having practiced a fire escape plan with the members of their household. PMID:9769771

  12. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  14. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  17. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  18. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a...

  19. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a...

  20. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a...

  1. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a...

  2. Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

  3. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51...

  4. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51...

  5. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51...

  6. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51...

  7. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51...

  8. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis...

  9. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis...

  10. Design of portable valuables touch alarm circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Biqing; Li, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the name of the alarm is portable touch burglar alarm. It not only has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size and light weight, but it is easy on the trigger, the circuit is simple and easy to be implemented, besides, it works stably. This alarm is featured with simple design, convenient use, strong flexibility and reliable performance, thus it can be installed on the door or window and even can be carried on human's body. When the human body touches the metal valuables that need to be protected, the device will start the alarm equipment so as to make the bell keep ringing, and the alarm sound stops until the power is cut off.

  11. The Lighthouse Alarm and Locator trial - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Melander-Wikman, A; Jansson, M; Hallberg, J; Mörtberg, C; Gard, G

    2007-01-01

    An important factor for health is the possibility to be active and mobile. To make this possible various kinds of support are needed. Integrating geographical information systems technology and user experiences is important in the development of more user-friendly positioning devices. The Lighthouse Alarm and Locator trial aimed to test a new mobile alarm system with additional functionality such as positioning and monitoring of vital signs which can be used regardless of location (in hospital, at home). The system was tested by elderly persons from a pensioner organisation and home care personnel answered up on the alarms. After the tests qualitative interviews were performed with the two groups. The results showed that their experiences of the new mobile alarm system could be described in three main categories: to be supervised, to feel safe and to be mobile. These categories formed a theme: Positioning - an ethical dilemma. The clients' mobility was perceived to increase. The personnel did not think that positioning was ethical but the clients (elderly) did.

  12. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the actual...

  13. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the actual...

  14. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the actual...

  15. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the actual...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audible and visual alarms. 154.1365 Section 154.1365... Instrumentation § 154.1365 Audible and visual alarms. (a) Each audible alarm must have an arrangement that allows... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only...

  17. The impact of recent changes in smoke alarm legislation on residential fire injuries and smoke alarm ownership in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Lara A; Poulos, Roslyn G; Sherker, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) state legislation changed from requiring smoke alarms in new houses only to all houses. We evaluated the impact of this legislative change on residential fire injury and smoke alarm ownership characteristics. Residential fire injuries for 2002 to 2010 were identified from hospitalization data for all hospitals in NSW. Data relating to smoke alarm ownership and demographic factors were obtained from the NSW Population Health Survey. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to analyze trends over time. Prior to the introduction of universal legislation, hospitalization rates were increasing slightly; however, following the introduction of legislation, hospitalization rates decreased by an estimated 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.7-55.8) annually. Smoke alarm ownership increased from 73.3% (95% CI, 72.5-74.2) prelegislation to 93.6% (95% CI, 93.1-94.2) 18 months postlegislation. Thirty percent of households reported testing their alarms regularly. Speaking a language other than English (relative risks [RRs], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.44-2.99), allowing smoking in the home (RR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.31-2.27), and being part of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic group (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.14-1.91) remain major risk factors for nonownership. Broadening the scope of state legislation has had a positive impact on residential fire-related hospitalizations and smoke alarm ownership. However, it is of concern that the legislation has been the least effective in increasing smoke alarm ownership among non-English-speaking households, in households where smoking is allowed, in low socioeconomic households, and that a high proportion of householders do not test their smoke alarms regularly. Targeted campaigns are needed to reach these high-risk groups and to ensure that smoke alarms are functional.

  18. The PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015: Reducing False Arrhythmia Alarms in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Shahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 Physio-Net/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1,250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A collection of 750 data segments was made available for training and a set of 500 was held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program’s performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year’s Challenge. PMID:27331073

  19. Using behavioral science to improve fire escape behaviors in response to a smoke alarm.

    PubMed

    Thompson, N J; Waterman, M B; Sleet, D A

    2004-01-01

    Although the likelihood of fire-related death in homes with smoke alarms is about one-half that in homes without alarms, alarm effectiveness is limited by behavior. Only 16% of residents of homes with alarms have developed and practiced plans for escape when the alarm sounds. We reviewed literature to identify behavioral constructs that influence smoke alarm use. We then convened experts in the behavioral aspects of smoke alarms who reviewed the constructs and determined that the appropriate areas for behavioral focus were formulating, practicing, and implementing escape plans should an alarm sound. They subsequently identified important behaviors to be addressed by burn-prevention programs and incorporated the constructs into a behavioral model for use in such programs. Finally, we organized the available literature to support this model and make programmatic recommendations. Many gaps remain in behavioral research to improve fire escape planning and practice. Future research must select the target behavior, apply behavioral theories, and distinguish between initiation and maintenance of behaviors associated with planning, practicing, and implementing home fire escape plans.

  20. Photolysis Rate Coefficient Calculations in Support of SOLVE II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, William H.

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of photolysis rate coefficients (or "j-values") is essential to determining the photochemical reaction rates that define ozone loss and other crucial processes in the atmosphere. j-Values can be calculated with radiative transfer models, derived from actinic flux observations, or inferred from trace gas measurements. The primary objective of the present effort was the accurate calculation of j-values in the Arctic twilight along NASA DC-8 flight tracks during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II), based in Kiruna, Sweden (68 degrees N, 20 degrees E) during January-February 2003. The JHU/APL radiative transfer model was utilized to produce a large suite of j-values for photolysis processes (over 70 reactions) relevant to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The calculations take into account the actual changes in ozone abundance and apparent albedo of clouds and the Earth surface along the aircraft flight tracks as observed by in situ and remote sensing platforms (e.g., EP-TOMS). A secondary objective was to analyze solar irradiance data from NCAR s Direct beam Irradiance Atmospheric Spectrometer (DIAS) on-board the NASA DC-8 and to start the development of a flexible, multi-species spectral fitting technique for the independent retrieval of O3,O2.02, and aerosol optical properties.

  1. Evaluating injury prevention programs: the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    PubMed

    Mallonee, S

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of injury prevention programs is critical for measuring program effects on reducing injury-related morbidity and mortality or on increasing the adoption of safety practices. During the planning and implementation of injury prevention programs, evaluation data also can be used to test program strategies and to measure the program's penetration among the target population. The availability of this early data enables program managers to refine a program, increasing the likelihood of successful outcomes. The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project illustrates how an evaluation was designed to inform program decisions by providing methodologically sound data on program processes and outcomes. This community intervention trial was instituted to reduce residential fire-related injuries and deaths in a geographic area of Oklahoma City that was disproportionately affected by this problem. The distribution of free smoke alarms in targeted neighborhoods was accompanied by written educational pamphlets and home-based follow-up to test whether the alarms were functioning correctly. Early evaluation during the planning and implementation phases of the program allowed for midcourse corrections that increased the program's impact on desired outcomes. During the six years following the project, the residential fire-related injury rate decreased 81% in the target population but only 7% in the rest of Oklahoma City. This dramatic decline in fire-related injuries in the target area is largely attributed to the free smoke alarm distribution as well as to educational efforts promoting awareness about residential fires and their prevention.

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the...

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the...

  4. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  6. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  7. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households.

  8. Photolysis Rate Coefficient Calculations in Support of SOLVE Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Steven A.; Swartz, William H.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives for this SOLVE project were 3-fold. First, we sought to calculate a complete set of photolysis rate coefficients (j-values) for the campaign along the ER-2 and DC-8 flight tracks. En route to this goal, it would be necessary to develop a comprehensive set of input geophysical conditions (e.g., ozone profiles), derived from various climatological, aircraft, and remotely sensed datasets, in order to model the radiative transfer of the atmosphere accurately. These j-values would then need validation by comparison with flux-derived j-value measurements. The second objective was to analyze chemistry along back trajectories using the NASA/Goddard chemistry trajectory model initialized with measurements of trace atmospheric constituents. This modeling effort would provide insight into the completeness of current measurements and the chemistry of Arctic wintertime ozone loss. Finally, we sought to coordinate stellar occultation measurements of ozone (and thus ozone loss) during SOLVE using the Midcourse Space Experiment(MSX)/Ultraviolet and Visible Imagers and Spectrographic Imagers (UVISI) satellite instrument. Such measurements would determine ozone loss during the Arctic polar night and represent the first significant science application of space-based stellar occultation in the Earth's atmosphere.

  9. Photolysis Rate Coefficient Calculations in Support of SOLVE Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Steven A.; Swartz, William H.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives for this SOLVE project were 3-fold. First, we sought to calculate a complete set of photolysis rate coefficients (j-values) for the campaign along the ER-2 and DC-8 flight tracks. En route to this goal, it would be necessary to develop a comprehensive set of input geophysical conditions (e.g., ozone profiles), derived from various climatological, aircraft, and remotely sensed datasets, in order to model the radiative transfer of the atmosphere accurately. These j-values would then need validation by comparison with flux-derived j-value measurements. The second objective was to analyze chemistry along back trajectories using the NASA/Goddard chemistry trajectory model initialized with measurements of trace atmospheric constituents. This modeling effort would provide insight into the completeness of current measurements and the chemistry of Arctic wintertime ozone loss. Finally, we sought to coordinate stellar occultation measurements of ozone (and thus ozone loss) during SOLVE using the MSX/UVISI satellite instrument. Such measurements would determine ozone loss during the Arctic polar night and represent the first significant science application of space-based stellar occultation in the Earth's atmosphere.

  10. Nurse Competence on Physiologic Monitors Use: Toward Eliminating Alarm Fatigue in Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Sowan, Azizeh K; Vera, Ana G; Fonseca, Elma I; Reed, Charles C; Tarriela, Albert F; Berndt, Andrea E

    2017-01-01

    Studies on nurse competence on alarm management are a few and tend to be focused on limited skills. In response to Phase II of implementing the National Patient Safety Goal on clinical alarm systems safety, this study assessed nurses' perceived competence on physiologic monitors use in intensive care units (ICUs) and developed and validated a tool for this purpose. This descriptive study took place in a Magnet hospital in a Southwestern state of the U.S. A Nurse Competence on Philips Physiologic Monitors Use Survey was created and went through validation by 13 expert ICU nurses. The survey included 5 subscales with 59 rated items and two open-ended questions. Items on the first 4 subscales reflect most common tasks nurses perform using physiologic monitors. Items on the fifth subscale (advanced functions) reflect rarely used skills and were included to understand the scope of utilizing advanced physiologic monitors' features. Thirty nurses from 4 adult ICUs were invited to respond to the survey. Thirty nurses (100%) responded to the survey. The majority of nurses were from Neuro (47%) and Surgical Trauma (37%) ICUs. The data supported the high reliability and construct validity of the survey. At least one (3%) to 8 nurses (27%) reported lack of confidence on each item on the survey. On the first four subscales, 3% - 40% of the nurses reported they had never heard of or used 27 features/functions on the monitors. No relationships were found between subscales' scores and demographic characteristics (p > .05). Nurses asked for training on navigating the central-station monitor and troubleshooting alarms, and the use of unit-specific super users to tailor training to users' needs. This is the first study to create and test a list of competencies for physiologic monitors use. Rigorous, periodic and individualized training is essential for safe and appropriate use of physiologic monitors and to decrease alarm fatigue. Training should be comprehensive to include all

  11. Nurse Competence on Physiologic Monitors Use: Toward Eliminating Alarm Fatigue in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Sowan, Azizeh K.; Vera, Ana G.; Fonseca, Elma I.; Reed, Charles C.; Tarriela, Albert F.; Berndt, Andrea E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Studies on nurse competence on alarm management are a few and tend to be focused on limited skills. In response to Phase II of implementing the National Patient Safety Goal on clinical alarm systems safety, this study assessed nurses’ perceived competence on physiologic monitors use in intensive care units (ICUs) and developed and validated a tool for this purpose. Methods: This descriptive study took place in a Magnet hospital in a Southwestern state of the U.S. A Nurse Competence on Philips Physiologic Monitors Use Survey was created and went through validation by 13 expert ICU nurses. The survey included 5 subscales with 59 rated items and two open-ended questions. Items on the first 4 subscales reflect most common tasks nurses perform using physiologic monitors. Items on the fifth subscale (advanced functions) reflect rarely used skills and were included to understand the scope of utilizing advanced physiologic monitors’ features. Thirty nurses from 4 adult ICUs were invited to respond to the survey. Results: Thirty nurses (100%) responded to the survey. The majority of nurses were from Neuro (47%) and Surgical Trauma (37%) ICUs. The data supported the high reliability and construct validity of the survey. At least one (3%) to 8 nurses (27%) reported lack of confidence on each item on the survey. On the first four subscales, 3% - 40% of the nurses reported they had never heard of or used 27 features/functions on the monitors. No relationships were found between subscales’ scores and demographic characteristics (p > .05). Nurses asked for training on navigating the central-station monitor and troubleshooting alarms, and the use of unit-specific super users to tailor training to users’ needs. Conclusion: This is the first study to create and test a list of competencies for physiologic monitors use. Rigorous, periodic and individualized training is essential for safe and appropriate use of physiologic monitors and to decrease alarm fatigue

  12. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Access to the bilge alarm must require the breaking of a seal, except when— (1) Re-zeroing the instrument...) Each bilge alarm must activate its alarm whenever clean water is used for cleaning or zeroing...

  13. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of -0/+20 percent of the rated time delay period throughout the operating temperature range and range of delay settings. (b) The pre-discharge alarm must: (1) Sound for the duration of the time delay;...

  14. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of -0/+20 percent of the rated time delay period throughout the operating temperature range and range of delay settings. (b) The pre-discharge alarm must: (1) Sound for the duration of the time delay;...

  15. Evaluation of alarm systems for medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Hyman, W A

    1982-01-01

    The provision of automatic alarm systems on medical equipment is generally designed to supplement the user's ability to monitor a variety of device and patient variables simultaneously. The potential value of such systems in improving the safety and efficacy of medical care is accompanied by the potential for false reliance on or other misuse of the alarm systems. Therefore the alarm provisions become an important aspect of clinical engineering assessment of equipment with respect to selection, user training, hazard analysis, and the provision of effective and appropriate preventive maintenance programs.

  16. Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.C.

    1987-05-01

    Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment.

  17. Locomotor effects of a low-frequency fire alarm on C57BL/6 male mice: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Povroznik, Jessica M; Faith, Robert E; Kessler, Matthew J; Ali, Frank N; Kosik, James; Prince, Stephen; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate acoustic conditions for animal welfare and data collection are crucial in biomedical research facilities. Negative impacts of disruptive sound are known and can include auditory damage, immune function changes, and behavioral alterations. One type of disruptive sound occurring in research facilities is that of fire alarms. To ameliorate this problem, many facilities have incorporated the use of low-frequency fire alarms that emit tones outside the rodent audible range. The impact of these devices has been assumed to be negligible. However, this has yet to be evaluated with controlled behavioral experiments. Thus, our objective was to investigate the impact of low-frequency fire alarm exposure on locomotor behavior in the open field, a test sensitive to acoustic stimuli disruption. Male mice were randomized to three alarm exposure groups (No-Alarm; Alarm-During; and Alarm-After) and placed in individual photobeam-activated locomotor chambers. The Alarm-During group displayed significantly reduced horizontal locomotion, with a trend towards reduced vertical locomotion. These data suggest that a low-frequency brief alarm tone can temporarily disrupt movement, a valuable insight should an alarm be deployed. Further, findings support close collaboration between researchers and institutional facility staff to ensure appropriate acoustic conditions are maintained, whenever possible, for research animals.

  18. Evaluation of criticality alarm response at the WEMCO Fernald site

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Westfall, R.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1992-11-01

    This work quantifies the expected dose rates at a series of criticality alarm locations due to several postulated criticality accidents at the Westinghouse Environmental MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF OHIO (WEMCO) Fernald site. One- and two-dimensional discrete- ordinates calculations were performed for seven different shielding configurations using leakage spectra corresponding to two specific postulated critical events. In addition, an estimate of the gaseous fission products released during the hypothetical accident was made using ORIGEN-S point-depletion code.

  19. Alarm Systems: Library Confounds Criminal Capers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjettum, Pamela

    1978-01-01

    Tells the story of a small town library faced with the problem of preventing nuisance burglaries of the type becoming more and more common. The problems of selecting the right type of alarm system are discussed. (JPF)

  20. Alarm Systems: Library Confounds Criminal Capers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjettum, Pamela

    1978-01-01

    Tells the story of a small town library faced with the problem of preventing nuisance burglaries of the type becoming more and more common. The problems of selecting the right type of alarm system are discussed. (JPF)

  1. Giving radioiodine? Think about airport security alarms.

    PubMed

    Kaniuka-Jakubowska, S; Lewczuk, A; Mizan-Gross, K; Obołończyk, L; Lass, P; Sworczak, K

    2012-01-01

    An increased sensitivity of airport detectors, a growing number of isotopic tests, and globalization of the society have raised a number of false positive radioactive alarms at airports and public places. This paper presents two new cases of patients who triggered airport security alarms after receiving 740MBq of (131)I for non-toxic goitre and attempts to compare surprisingly limited literature concerning this problem. A 57-year-old man triggered a security alarm at three different airports on the 17th, 28th, and 31st day after radioiodine exposure. Interestingly enough, in the meantime, on the 18th and 22nd day, no radiation was detected in him at the airport where he was twice detained as a source of radiation later on. The second case presents a 45-year-old woman who activated security alarm detectors while crossing a border on her coach trip 28 days after radioiodine administration.

  2. Counting the cost of false alarms.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    While fire and rescue service personnel, the Government, those responsible for fire safety in the healthcare sector, the Health and Safety Executive, fire and rescue services, and indeed fire alarm and detection equipment manufacturers, must be pleased that the number of false fire alarms continues to fall, fire services still attended just under 585,000 fires or false alarm incidents across Great Britain in 2011/12. Of this total, 272,000 were actual fires, of which around 24,000 were in premises classified by the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) as 'other buildings', i.e. not 'dwellings', a category that includes healthcare facilities (representing a 4% fall on 2010-2011). HEJ looks behind the statistics, and at the possibility that some fire services could, in future, charge healthcare providers that persistently report incidents that turn out to be false alarms.

  3. Development of Advanced Alarm System for SMART

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Seoung, Duk-hyun; Suh, Sang-moon; Lee, Jong-bok; Park, Geun-ok; Koo, In-soo

    2004-07-01

    A SMART-Alarm System (SMART-AS) is a new system being developed as part of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) project. The SMART-AS employs modern digital technology to implement the alarm functions of the SMART. The use of modern digital technology can provide advanced alarm processing in which new algorithms such as a signal validation, advanced alarm processing logic and other features are applied to improve the control room man-machine interfaces. This paper will describe the design process of the SMART-AS, improving the system reliability and availability using the reliability prediction tool, design strategies regarding the human performance topics associated with a computer-based SMART-AS and the results of the performance analysis using a prototype of the SMART-AS. (authors)

  4. From alarm systems to smart houses.

    PubMed

    Vlaskamp, F J

    1992-01-01

    The percentage of senior citizens in the Netherlands will rise in coming years. The expected percentage for the year 2010 of persons over age 65 in the total population is 15%. More persons over age 65 than ever before will continue to live in their own environment. Emergency response systems (ERS) can support independent living. The most common type of organization distributing ERS is a small, partly subsidized local alarm organization run by a social welfare office for the elderly. Government subsidy has been reduced in recent years which has motivated small organizations to join together into larger regional organizations in order to get a more solid financial base. On the other hand new semi-commercial and commercial organizations have come into being. These developments are part of the growing importance of home care, leading to more medical applications of ERS. User satisfaction with ERS is high. Portable triggers can enhance the effectiveness of the system. However, many users do not wear the portable trigger when feeling well. Future technical developments will result in multifunctionality of ERS-devices. In the long term the hardware of today will be integrated in a multimedia home terminal replacing the telephone. The portable trigger will remain the only specific hardware at home for ERS.

  5. Chimpanzee Alarm Call Production Meets Key Criteria for Intentionality

    PubMed Central

    Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W.; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language. PMID:24146908

  6. Potential Nematode Alarm Pheromone Induces Acute Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Loeza-Cabrera, Mario; Liu, Zheng; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Nguyen, Julie K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Yuna; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A; Zhong, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a visible or audible signal or alarm when atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, such as premature contraction or ventricular fibrillation, occurs. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The guidance...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a visible or audible signal or alarm when atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, such as premature contraction or ventricular fibrillation, occurs. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The guidance...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a visible or audible signal or alarm when atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, such as premature contraction or ventricular fibrillation, occurs. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The guidance...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a visible or audible signal or alarm when atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, such as premature contraction or ventricular fibrillation, occurs. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The guidance...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a visible or audible signal or alarm when atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, such as premature contraction or ventricular fibrillation, occurs. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The guidance...

  12. Incidence of fires and related injuries after giving out free smoke alarms: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Roberts, Ian; Wade, Angie; Sculpher, Mark; Edwards, Phil; Godward, Catherine; Pan, Huiqi; Slater, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Objective To measure the effect of giving out free smoke alarms on rates of fires and rates of fire related injury in a deprived multiethnic urban population. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Forty electoral wards in two boroughs of inner London, United Kingdom. Participants Primarily households including elderly people or children and households that are in housing rented from the borough council. Intervention 20 050 smoke alarms, fittings, and educational brochures distributed free and installed on request. Main outcome measures Rates of fires and related injuries during two years after the distribution; alarm ownership, installation, and function. Results Giving out free smoke alarms did not reduce injuries related to fire (rate ratio 1.3; 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.9), admissions to hospital and deaths (1.3; 0.7 to 2.3), or fires attended by the fire brigade (1.1; 0.96 to 1.3). Similar proportions of intervention and control households had installed alarms (36/119 (30%) v 35/109 (32%); odds ratio 0.9; 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.7) and working alarms (19/118 (16%) v 18/108 (17%); 0.9; 0.4 to 1.8). Conclusions Giving out free smoke alarms in a deprived, multiethnic, urban community did not reduce injuries related to fire, mostly because few alarms had been installed or were maintained. What is already known on this topicIn the United Kingdom, residential fires caused 466 deaths and 14 600 non-fatal injuries in 1999The risk of death from fire is associated with socioeconomic classOne study reported an 80% decline in hospitalisations and deaths from residential fires after free smoke alarms were distributed in an area at high risk, but these results may not apply in other settings, and evidence from randomised controlled trials is lackingWhat this study addsGiving out free smoke alarms in a multiethnic poor urban population did not reduce injuries related to fire or firesGiving smoke alarms away may be a waste of resources and of

  13. Estimating the proportion of homes with functioning smoke alarms: a comparison of telephone survey and household survey results.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, M R; Mallonee, S; Istre, G R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the proportion of homes with functioning smoke alarms in a low-income area experiencing a high rate of residential fire-related injuries. METHODS: An on-site survey of households was conducted to confirm the results of a telephone survey. RESULTS: In the telephone survey, 71% of households reported having functioning smoke alarms. In the household survey, 66% of households reported having functioning alarms; however, when the alarms were tested, the percentage dropped to 49%. CONCLUSIONS: Telephone surveys may overestimate the presence of functioning smoke alarms in some populations. Thus, the use of telephone surveys to establish baseline measures could significantly affect the evaluation of smoke-alarm giveaway programs. PMID:10394329

  14. Advanced Monitoring Is Associated with Fewer Alarm Events During Planned Moderate Procedure-Related Sedation: A 2-Part Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lenart, John; Malkin, Mathew; Meineke, Minhthy N.; Qoshlli, Silvana; Neumann, Monica; Jacobson, J. Paul; Kruger, Alison; Ching, Jeffrey; Hassanian, Mohammad; Um, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnostic and interventional procedures are often facilitated by moderate procedure-related sedation. Many studies support the overall safety of this sedation; however, adverse cardiovascular and respiratory events are reported in up to 70% of these procedures, more frequently in very young, very old, or sicker patients. Monitoring with pulse oximetry may underreport hypoventilation during sedation, particularly if supplemental oxygen is provided. Capnometry may result in false alarms during sedation when patients mouth breathe or displace sampling devices. Advanced monitor use during sedation may allow event detection before complications develop. This 2-part pilot study used advanced monitors during planned moderate sedation to (1) determine incidences of desaturation, low respiratory rate, and deeper than intended sedation alarm events; and (2) determine whether advanced monitor use is associated with fewer alarm events. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing scheduled gastroenterology or interventional radiology procedures with planned moderate sedation given by dedicated sedation nurses under the direction of procedural physicians (procedural sedation team) were monitored per standard protocols (electrocardiography blood pressure, pulse oximetry, and capnometry) and advanced monitors (acoustic respiratory monitoring and processed electroencephalograpy). Data were collected to computers for analysis. Advanced monitor parameters were not visible to teams in part 1 (standard) but were visible to teams in part 2 (advanced). Alarm events were defined as desaturation—Spo2 ≤92%; respiratory depression, acoustic respiratory rate ≤8 breaths per minute, and deeper than intended sedation, indicated by processed electroencephalograpy. The number of alarm events was compared. RESULTS: Of 100 patients enrolled, 10 were excluded for data collection computer malfunction or consent withdrawal. Data were analyzed from 90 patients (44 standard and 46 advanced

  15. Proximate Factors Underpinning Receiver Responses to Deceptive False Alarm Calls in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys: Is It Counterdeception?

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls

  16. Proximate factors underpinning receiver responses to deceptive false alarm calls in wild tufted capuchin monkeys: is it counterdeception?

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-07-01

    Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls

  17. The double slit experiment and the time reversed fire alarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabi, Tarek

    2011-03-01

    When both slits of the double slit experiment are open, closing one paradoxically increases the detection rate at some points on the detection screen. Feynman famously warned that temptation to "understand" such a puzzling feature only draws us into blind alleys. Nevertheless, we gain insight into this feature by drawing an analogy between the double slit experiment and a time reversed fire alarm. Much as closing the slit increases probability of a future detection, ruling out fire drill scenarios, having heard the fire alarm, increases probability of a past fire (using Bayesian inference). Classically, Bayesian inference is associated with computing probabilities of past events. We therefore identify this feature of the double slit experiment with a time reversed thermodynamic arrow. We believe that much of the enigma of quantum mechanics is simply due to some variation of time's arrow.

  18. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) ...

  20. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” ...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) ...

  2. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  3. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  4. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” ...

  5. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next to...

  6. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next to...

  7. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  8. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57...

  13. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarm signals. 113.25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-12 Alarm signals. (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of...

  14. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm signals. 113.25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-12 Alarm signals. (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of...

  15. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm signals. 113.25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-12 Alarm signals. (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of...

  16. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarm signals. 113.25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-12 Alarm signals. (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of...

  17. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318... § 80.318 Use of alarm signals. (a) The radiotelegraph or radiotelephone alarm signal, as appropriate... transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations...

  18. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318... § 80.318 Use of alarm signals. (a) The radiotelegraph or radiotelephone alarm signal, as appropriate... transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations...

  19. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318... § 80.318 Use of alarm signals. (a) The radiotelegraph or radiotelephone alarm signal, as appropriate... transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations...

  20. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarm signals. 113.25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-12 Alarm signals. (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of...

  1. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318... § 80.318 Use of alarm signals. (a) The radiotelegraph or radiotelephone alarm signal, as appropriate... transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations...

  2. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318... § 80.318 Use of alarm signals. (a) The radiotelegraph or radiotelephone alarm signal, as appropriate... transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  7. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section....050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to bilge alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in §...

  8. Vibroacoustic Stimulation of the Fetus Using a Conventional Mechanical Alarm Clock.

    PubMed

    Brezinka; Lechner; Stephan; Pfeiffer

    1998-12-01

    > Objective: For more than 20 years, vibroacoustic stimulation testing (VAST) using an artificial larynx has been used worldwide when fetal heart rate monitoring produced patterns with absent or very low variability. In addition to the artificial larynx many other appliances have been used to stimulate a seemingly dormant fetus, but these have rarely been evaluated properly. In this study we tried to evaluate the use of standard mechanical wind-up alarm clocks for VAST. Methods: VAST with an alarm clock was performed successfully in 80 women with normal pregnancies from 36 weeks to term. It was tested by placing the alarm clock on the maternal abdomen just above the fetal head or on the controlateral side of the maternal abdomen to see whether position made any difference and whether coupling with ultrasound gel applied between the alarm clock and the maternal abdomen would affect the degree of fetal reaction to VAST as expressed in heart rate acceleration. Similarly, the effect of the alarm clock VAST on subjective and objective fetal movement patterns as registered by kineto-cardiotocotraphy (K-CTG) in addition to heart rate patterns was investigated. Results: All fetuses showed heart rate acceleration, an increase in heart variability, and increase in movement patterns in the 6 min after the application of alarm clock VAST. No statistically significant difference was found which would favor a particular placement of the alarm clock on the maternal abdomen or the use of ultrasound coupling gel. When K-CTG was performed, patient-perceived fetal movements as expressed with an event marker showed agreement with the machine-registered movements only when patients could see the tracing during registration and no accordance when the K-CTG was turned toward the wall during registation. Conclusion: In keeping with the ALARA principle a conventional wind-up alarm clock appears to be an inexpensive and effective alternative to the electrolarynx.

  9. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

  10. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 0.1 History of Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of one learning module on the history of alarms is one of eight such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study…

  11. Two sympatric species of passerine birds imitate the same raptor calls in alarm contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnayake, Chaminda P.; Goodale, Eben; Kotagama, Sarath W.

    2010-01-01

    While some avian mimics appear to select sounds randomly, other species preferentially imitate sounds such as predator calls that are associated with danger. Previous work has shown that the Greater Racket-tailed Drongo ( Dicrurus paradiseus) incorporates predator calls and heterospecific alarm calls into its own species-typical alarm vocalizations. Here, we show that another passerine species, the Sri Lanka Magpie ( Urocissa ornata), which inhabits the same Sri Lankan rainforest, imitates three of the same predator calls that drongos do. For two of these call types, there is evidence that magpies also use them in alarm contexts. Our results support the hypothesis that imitated predator calls can serve as signals of alarm to multiple species.

  12. Patient Safety Implications of Electronic Alerts and Alarms of Maternal - Fetal Status During Labor.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey; Davidson, Leigh Ann

    2016-01-01

    When nurses care for women during labor, they encounter numerous alerts and alarms from electronic fetal monitors and their surveillance systems. Notifications of values of physiologic parameters for a woman and fetus that may be outside preset limits are generated via visual and audible cues. There is no standardization of these alert and alarm parameters among electronic fetal monitoring vendors in the United States, and there are no data supporting their sensitivity and specificity. Agreement among professional organizations about physiologic parameters for alerts and alarms commonly used during labor is lacking. It is unknown if labor nurses view the alerts and alarms as helpful or a nuisance. There is no evidence that they promote or hinder patient safety. This clinical issue warrants our attention as labor nurses. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. Cooperative warning systems: The impact of false and unnecessary alarms on drivers' compliance.

    PubMed

    Naujoks, Frederik; Kiesel, Andrea; Neukum, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Cooperative warning systems have a great potential to prevent traffic accidents. However, because of their predictive nature, they might also go along with an increased frequency of incorrect alarms that could limit their effectiveness. To better understand the consequences associated with incorrect alarms, a driving simulator study with N=80 drivers was conducted to investigate how situational context and warning urgency jointly influence drivers' compliance with an unreliable advisory warning system (AWS). The participants encountered several critical urban driving situations and were either assisted by a 100% reliable AWS, a 60% reliable AWS that generated false alarms (without obvious reason) or a 60% reliable AWS that generated unnecessary alarms (with plausible reason). A baseline drive without any assistance was also introduced to the study. The warnings were presented either only visually or visual-auditory. In line with previous research, drivers' compliance and effectiveness of the AWS was reduced by false alarms but not by unnecessary alarms. However, this so-called cry wolf effect (Breznitz, 1984) was only found in the visual-auditory condition, whereas there was no effect of warning reliability in the condition with visual AWS. Furthermore, false but not unnecessary alarms caused the participants to rate the AWS less favourably during a follow-up interview. In spite of these negative effects of false alarms, a reduction in the frequency of safety-critical events (SCEs) and an earlier braking onset were evident in all assisted drives compared with that of non-assisted driving, even when the AWS was unreliable. The results may thus lower concerns about the negative consequences of warning drivers unnecessarily about upcoming traffic conflicts if the reasons of these alarms are comprehensible. From a perspective of designing AWS, we recommend to use less urgent warnings to prevent the cry wolf effect.

  14. Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients.

    PubMed

    Bridi, Adriana Carla; Louro, Thiago Quinellato; da Silva, Roberto Carlos Lyra

    2014-01-01

    to identify the number of electro-medical pieces of equipment in a coronary care unit, characterize their types, and analyze implications for the safety of patients from the perspective of alarm fatigue. this quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-participatory study was conducted in a coronary care unit of a cardiology hospital with 170 beds. a total of 426 alarms were recorded in 40 hours of observation: 227 were triggered by multi-parametric monitors and 199 were triggered by other equipment (infusion pumps, dialysis pumps, mechanical ventilators, and intra-aortic balloons); that is an average of 10.6 alarms per hour. the results reinforce the importance of properly configuring physiological variables, the volume and parameters of alarms of multi-parametric monitors within the routine of intensive care units. The alarms of equipment intended to protect patients have increased noise within the unit, the level of distraction and interruptions in the workflow, leading to a false sense of security.

  15. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, D.W.

    1995-04-11

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

  16. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Don W.

    1995-01-01

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

  17. Residential carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning risks: correlates of observed CO alarm use in urban households.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Eileen M; Gielen, Andrea C; Shields, Wendy C; Stepnitz, Rebecca; Parker, Elizabeth; Ma, Xia; Bishai, David

    2013-10-01

    The authors conducted a household survey and observation to assess carbon monoxide (CO) knowledge and risks as well as prevalence of CO alarms in an urban community prior to the enactment of a mandatory ordinance requiring CO alarms in one U.S. city. From July to December 2009, household surveys and observations were completed in 603 residences. Participants were mostly African-American (61%), women (70%), 25-54 years in age (66%), and with a high school education or less (51%). Most homes visited contained CO-producing appliances, including gas stoves (86%), gas furnaces (82%), and gas water heaters (79%). Participants' overall mean percentage correct knowledge score was 57%. CO alarms were reported by 33% of participants and observed among 28% of households. Low rates of CO knowledge and CO alarm ownership, combined with high rates of CO-producing sources in homes, suggests the need for widespread campaigns to promote CO alarms. Recommendations are also made to integrate the lessons learned from the public health community's experience promoting smoke alarms.

  18. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    PubMed Central

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  19. A revival of the alarm system: Making the alarm list useful during incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, J. E.; Oehman, B.; Calzada, A.; Nihlwing, C.; Jokstad, H.; Kristianssen, L. I.; Kvalem, J.; Lind, M.

    2006-07-01

    In control rooms there are often problems with information overload, which means that the operators may receive more information than they are able to interpret. The most serious information overload occurs in two types of situations. The first is when the operating state of the plant changes, which often gives raise to a shower of alarms and events. Such an alarm shower is expected, but can be dangerous, because it may hide other alarms originating from unrelated faults. The second problem occurs when a fault causes several consequential faults, leading to a so-called alarm cascade. Because the alarms seldom arrive in correct time order, it can be very difficult to analyze such a cascade, and the information overload occurs in exactly the moment when a potentially dangerous situation starts. In an ongoing project, GoalArt and IFE are cooperating in testing and evaluating GoalArt's methods for alarm reduction and root cause analysis. The testing comprises two specific algorithms, root cause analysis and state-based alarm priority. The GoalArt system has been integrated with the HAMBO simulator so that operators can evaluate the algorithms on-line. (authors)

  20. The Impact of Institutional Student Support on Graduation Rates in US Ph.D. Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolli, Thomas; Agasisti, Tommaso; Johnes, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Using National Research Council data, we investigate the determinants of graduation rates in US Ph.D. programmes. We emphasise the impact that support and facilities offered to doctoral students have on completion rates. Significant, strong and positive effects are found for the provision of on-site graduate conferences and dedicated workspace,…

  1. 45 CFR 307.35 - Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate for computerized support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.35 Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate for computerized support enforcement systems. Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate is available... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal financial participation at the applicable...

  2. 45 CFR 307.35 - Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate for computerized support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.35 Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate for computerized support enforcement systems. Federal financial participation at the applicable matching rate is available... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal financial participation at the applicable...

  3. [Implementation of an automatic alarms system for early detection of patients with severe sepsis].

    PubMed

    Ferreras, José María; Judez, Diego; Tirado, Gabriel; Aspiroz, Carmen; Martínez-Álvarez, Rosa; Dorado, Paloma; Ezpeleta, Ana; Marrón, Rafael; Gargallo, Begoña; Herranz, Clara

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of a software tool integrated into the medical electronic history at the time of emergency triage. The aim was the early detection of patients with severe sepsis, and the potential impact of this software tool on reducing the mortality rate in patients treated. The study consisted of two comparative samples. Patient selection was performed retrospectively into two groups using ICD-9 codes from the hospital and emergency department discharge reports. The codes were 038.9, 995.9 and 995.92 for sepsis, and 785.52 for severe sepsis and septic shock. The sample called «alarms» consisted of patients studied after implementing the sepsis alarm system in the Emergency Department computer system. There were two types of alarms, a serious one and an alert one depending on the on vital signs defined. The historical sample called «no alarms» consisted of patients seen in the Emergency Department during the year before the introduction of the alarm system. The compliance rate of the sepsis treatment package was higher in the «alarms» sample, compared to the sample without alarms, with blood cultures, 96.3% versus 80.9% (P<.001), antibiotic treatment in less than one hour, 62.9% vs. 39.3% (P<.001), determination of lactic acid, 91.4% vs. 77.9% (P<.001), and applying appropriate volume, 57.7% vs 54.3% (P=.052), respectively. The hospital mortality was reduced in absolute terms from 25% in the sample without alarms to 13.6% in the sample with alarms. Survival at 30 days was higher in the sample with alarms (Log Rank=.004). There were no studies that evaluated the effectiveness of an alarm system in our literature search. An electronic identification system for patients with sepsis allows acting earlier, better compliance with basic measures, and a reduction in hospital stay and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights

  4. Mianserin affects alarm reaction to conspecific chemical alarm cues in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2017-02-01

    In this study, I show that mianserin, a chemical with serotonin and adrenoceptor antagonist activities, increases fish vulnerability to a potential predator threat, when prey fish must deal with this threat based on conspecific chemical alarm cues. For that, I evaluated whether mianserin, diluted in the water, influences the behavioral responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to conspecific skin extract (chemical alarm cues). I found that, while mianserin did not abolished antipredator responses, this drug mitigates some components of this defensive reaction. Thus, a potential decrease in serotonin and adrenergic activities reduces the ability of dealing with predators when perceiving conspecific chemical alarm cues.

  5. Social support at work, heart rate, and cortisol: a self-monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Evans, O; Steptoe, A

    2001-10-01

    This study assessed the influence of work social support on self-monitored heart rate, blood pressure, and salivary cortisol recorded on 3 work days and 2 leisure days from 61 nurses and 32 accountants (40 men, 53 women). Heart rate and blood pressure were higher during the day at work than in the evening or on leisure days. Cortisol was higher on leisure than work days and was lower in the evening than in the day. Low social support at work was associated with elevated heart rate during the daytime and evening of work days, an effect that persisted after controlling for psychological distress, age, sex, smoking, and physical activity. Work social support was not related to cortisol on work days, but on leisure days cortisol was elevated among individuals reporting high social support. There were few differences between men and women, and no important occupational effects.

  6. Students' ratings of teacher support and academic and social-emotional well-being.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Jaclyn E; Demaray, Michelle K; Malecki, Christine K; Terry, Melissa N; Clary, Michael; Elzinga, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Data on students' perceptions of teacher social support, academic functioning, and social-emotional functioning were collected from a sample of 796 7th and 8th grade middle school students using the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS; Malecki, Demaray, & Elliott, 2000), Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) and school records, and the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children, Second Edition, Adolescent Version, (BASC-2 SRP-A; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). The purpose of the current study was to examine possible gender differences in perceptions of the frequency and importance of different types of teacher support and the related academic and social-emotional outcomes. Girls rated Emotional and Appraisal Support as more important than did boys. Teacher Emotional Support was significantly and positively related to grade point average (GPA) for boys and girls. For girls only, Emotional and Informational Support were significantly related to ITBS Reading scores, and Emotional, Informational, and Instrumental Support were significantly related to ITBS Math scores. Regarding social-emotional variables, Emotional Support was significantly and negatively related to School Problems, Internalizing Problems, Inattention/Hyperactivity, and overall Emotional Symptoms and positively related to Personal Adjustment for both boys and girls. Furthermore, Emotional Support from teachers was more strongly related to Inattention/Hyperactivity for girls than boys. These results emphasize the importance of providing teacher social support, especially emotional support, to students in early adolescence and recognizing gender differences in the function of specific types of teacher support. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Design of Alarm Sound of Home Care Equipment Based on Age-related Auditory Sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibano, Jun-Ichi; Tadano, Shigeru; Kaneko, Hirotaka

    A wide variety of home care equipment has been developed to support the independent lifestyle and care taking of elderly persons. Almost all of the equipment has an alarm designed to alert a care person or to sound a warning in case of an emergency. Due to the fact that aging human beings' senses physiologically, weaken and deteriorate, each alarm's sound must be designed to account for the full range of elderly person's hearing loss. Since the alarms are usually heard indoors, it is also necessary to evaluate the relationship between the basic characteristics of the sounds and living area's layout. In this study, we investigated the sounds of various alarms of the home care equipment based on both the age-related hearing characteristics of elderly persons and the propagation property of the sounds indoors. As a result, it was determined that the hearing characteristics of elderly persons are attuned to sounds which have a frequency from 700Hz to 1kHz, and it was learned that the indoor absorption ratio of sound is smallest when the frequency is 1kHz. Therefore, a frequency of 1kHz is good for the alarm sound of home care equipment. A flow chart to design the alarm sound of home care equipment was proposed, taking into account the extent of age-related auditory sense deterioration.

  8. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to persons on board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide... automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and... arranged as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  9. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The...

  10. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space...

  11. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space...

  12. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The...

  13. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... automatically and audibly for at least 20 seconds before carbon dioxide is discharged into the space; (2) Be..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) A protected space must be fitted with an...

  14. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to persons on board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide... automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and... arranged as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  15. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The...

  16. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The...

  17. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The...

  18. An Undergraduate Experiment in Alarm System Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, R. A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving data acquisition by a computer, digital signal transmission from the computer to a digital logic circuit and signal interpretation by this circuit. The system is being used at the Illinois Institute of Technology. Discusses the fundamental concepts involved. Demonstrates the alarm experiment as it is used in…

  19. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  20. Stand-alone tsunami alarm equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Akio; Hayashi, Yutaka; Miyaoka, Kazuki; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Baba, Toshitaka; Catalán, Patricio A.; Zelaya, Cecilia; Riquelme Vasquez, Felipe; Sanchez-Olavarria, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Sergio

    2017-05-01

    One of the quickest means of tsunami evacuation is transfer to higher ground soon after strong and long ground shaking. Ground shaking itself is a good initiator of the evacuation from disastrous tsunami. Longer period seismic waves are considered to be more correlated with the earthquake magnitude. We investigated the possible application of this to tsunami hazard alarm using single-site ground motion observation. Information from the mass media is sometimes unavailable due to power failure soon after a large earthquake. Even when an official alarm is available, multiple information sources of tsunami alert would help people become aware of the coming risk of a tsunami. Thus, a device that indicates risk of a tsunami without requiring other data would be helpful to those who should evacuate. Since the sensitivity of a low-cost MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer is sufficient for this purpose, tsunami alarm equipment for home use may be easily realized. Amplitude of long-period (20 s cutoff) displacement was proposed as the threshold for the alarm based on empirical relationships among magnitude, tsunami height, hypocentral distance, and peak ground displacement of seismic waves. Application of this method to recent major earthquakes indicated that such equipment could effectively alert people to the possibility of tsunami.

  1. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS General... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table...

  2. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  3. Smoke alarm giveaway and installation programs: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Mack, Karin A; Diekman, Shane T

    2012-10-01

    The burden of residential fire injury and death is substantial. Targeted smoke alarm giveaway and installation programs are popular interventions used to reduce residential fire mortality and morbidity. To evaluate the cost effectiveness and cost benefit of implementing a giveaway or installation program in a small hypothetic community with a high risk of fire death and injury through a decision-analysis model. Model inputs included program costs; program effectiveness (life-years and quality-adjusted life-years saved); and monetized program benefits (medical cost, productivity, property loss and quality-of-life losses averted) and were identified through structured reviews of existing literature (done in 2011) and supplemented by expert opinion. Future costs and effectiveness were discounted at a rate of 3% per year. All costs were expressed in 2011 U.S. dollars. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) resulted in an average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) of $51,404 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) saved and $45,630 per QALY for the giveaway and installation programs, respectively. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) showed that both programs were associated with a positive net benefit with a benefit-cost ratio of 2.1 and 2.3, respectively. Smoke alarm functional rate, baseline prevalence of functional alarms, and baseline home fire death rate were among the most influential factors for the CEA and CBA results. Both giveaway and installation programs have an average cost-effectiveness ratio similar to or lower than the median cost-effectiveness ratio reported for other interventions to reduce fatal injuries in homes. Although more effort is required, installation programs result in lower cost per outcome achieved compared with giveaways. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Description of ALARMA: the alarm algorithm developed for the Nuclear Car Wash

    SciTech Connect

    Luu, T; Biltoft, P; Church, J; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Pruet, J; Prussin, S; Slaughter, D

    2006-11-28

    The goal of any alarm algorithm should be that it provide the necessary tools to derive confidence limits on whether the existence of fissile materials is present in cargo containers. It should be able to extract these limits from (usually) noisy and/or weak data while maintaining a false alarm rate (FAR) that is economically suitable for port operations. It should also be able to perform its analysis within a reasonably short amount of time (i.e. {approx} seconds). To achieve this, it is essential that the algorithm be able to identify and subtract any interference signature that might otherwise be confused with a fissile signature. Lastly, the algorithm itself should be user-intuitive and user-friendly so that port operators with little or no experience with detection algorithms may use it with relative ease. In support of the Nuclear Car Wash project at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, we have developed an alarm algorithm that satisfies the above requirements. The description of the this alarm algorithm, dubbed ALARMA, is the purpose of this technical report. The experimental setup of the nuclear car wash has been well documented [1, 2, 3]. The presence of fissile materials is inferred by examining the {beta}-delayed gamma spectrum induced after a brief neutron irradiation of cargo, particularly in the high-energy region above approximately 2.5 MeV. In this region naturally occurring gamma rays are virtually non-existent. Thermal-neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}P, on the other hand, leaves a unique {beta}-delayed spectrum [4]. This spectrum comes from decays of fission products having half-lives as large as 30 seconds, many of which have high Q-values. Since high-energy photons penetrate matter more freely, it is natural to look for unique fissile signatures in this energy region after neutron irradiation. The goal of this interrogation procedure is a 95% success rate of detection of as little as 5 kilograms of fissile material while retaining

  5. Can early breastfeeding support increase the 6-8 week breastfeeding prevalence rate?

    PubMed

    Price, Linda

    2014-05-01

    Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and babies and is an important strategy to reduce health inequalities (UNICEF, 2010). The Baby Friendly Initiative, a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates, has been adopted by the trust. In line with the trust's priorities, the health visiting team initiated a project to increase the 6-8 breastfeeding prevalence rates. Breastfeeding mothers in a defined project area were offered breastfeeding support in their homes within the first postnatal week. Although the results after six months did demonstrate an overall increase in the 6-8 week prevalence rate of 5%, the monthly figures where disappointingly inconsistent and it was difficult to attribute the rise to the increased support offered. Nevertheless, the feedback from mothers who received support demonstrated that it was valued and had a positive impact on their confidence to continue to breastfeed.

  6. 46 CFR 183.550 - General alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.550 General alarm systems. All vessels... required by § 184.610 of this chapter may be used to sound the general alarm signal....

  7. 8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

  9. Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor expert system:

    SciTech Connect

    Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.; Tonn, B. ); Wiggen, T. ); MacGregor, D. )

    1990-06-01

    This report describes the Communications Alarm Processor (CAP), a prototype expert system developed for the Bonneville Power Administration by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system is designed to receive and diagnose alarms from Bonneville's Microwave Communications System (MCS). The prototype encompasses one of seven branches of the communications network and a subset of alarm systems and alarm types from each system. The expert system employs a backward chaining approach to diagnosing alarms. Alarms are fed into the expert system directly from the communication system via RS232 ports and sophisticated alarm filtering and mailbox software. Alarm diagnoses are presented to operators for their review and concurrence before the diagnoses are archived. Statistical software is incorporated to allow analysis of archived data for report generation and maintenance studies. The delivered system resides on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 3200 workstation and utilizes Nexpert Object and SAS for the expert system and statistical analysis, respectively. 11 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d) Each general alarm bell and flashing red light must be identified with red lettering at least 1/2 inch...

  11. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  12. Concatenation of 'alert' and 'identity' segments in dingoes' alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Déaux, Eloïse C; Allen, Andrew P; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle

    2016-07-27

    Multicomponent signals can be formed by the uninterrupted concatenation of multiple call types. One such signal is found in dingoes, Canis familiaris dingo. This stereotyped, multicomponent 'bark-howl' vocalisation is formed by the concatenation of a noisy bark segment and a tonal howl segment. Both segments are structurally similar to bark and howl vocalisations produced independently in other contexts (e.g. intra- and inter-pack communication). Bark-howls are mainly uttered in response to human presence and were hypothesized to serve as alarm calls. We investigated the function of bark-howls and the respective roles of the bark and howl segments. We found that dingoes could discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar howl segments, after having only heard familiar howl vocalisations (i.e. different calls). We propose that howl segments could function as 'identity signals' and allow receivers to modulate their responses according to the caller's characteristics. The bark segment increased receivers' attention levels, providing support for earlier observational claims that barks have an 'alerting' function. Lastly, dingoes were more likely to display vigilance behaviours upon hearing bark-howl vocalisations, lending support to the alarm function hypothesis. Canid vocalisations, such as the dingo bark-howl, may provide a model system to investigate the selective pressures shaping complex communication systems.

  13. Perspectives on use of personal alarms by older fallers

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kylie; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Sutherland, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background: Personal alarms are proposed as a reliable mechanism for older people to obtain assistance after falling. However, little is known about how older people feel about owning and using personal alarms. Aim: This paper reports on experiences of independently living older people, who have recently fallen, regarding alarm use and their independence. Method: Volunteers older than 65 years who had sustained a fall in the previous six months were sought via community invitations. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted to gain information about their fall and their perspectives on personal alarm use. Interviews were content-analyzed to identify key concepts and themes. Results: Thirty-one interviews were conducted. Twenty callers owned personal alarms. Four subgroups of older fallers were identified; the first group used personal alarms effectively and were advocates for their benefits, the second group owned an alarm but did not use it effectively, the third group did not own alarms mostly because of cost, although were receptive to an alarm should one be provided, and the fourth group did not have an alarm and would not use it even if it was provided. Discussion: Personal alarms produce positive experiences when used effectively by the right people. The cost of personal alarms prohibits some older fallers from being effective alarm users. However, other elderly fallers remain unwilling to consider alarm use even if one was provided. In view of their cost, personal alarms should be targeted to people who will benefit most. Alternative strategies should be considered when alarms are unlikely to be used appropriately. PMID:20830199

  14. Do you want some spiritual support? Different rates of positive response to chaplains' versus nurses' offer.

    PubMed

    Martinuz, Marco; Dürst, Anne-Véronique; Faouzi, Mohamed; Pétremand, Daniel; Reichel, Virginie; Ortega, Barbara; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Access to spiritual support appears to be important in the hospital setting. The offer of spiritual support can be done by different providers such as doctors, nurses or chaplains. Who should initiate or coordinate this spiritual care. This study addresses the following questions: 1) How many patients accept spiritual proposition? 2) What is the better mode of proposition? The study's objectives are the assessment and comparison of the rates of acceptance to an offer of spiritual support made by nurses and chaplains. Two hundred twenty-three consecutive hospitalized patients hospitalized received a proposal of spiritual support and were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. Results revealed that 85.8% of patients accepted the offer in the chaplains' group and 38.5% in the nurses' group. Acceptance of the offer of spiritual support was positively associated with the proposal being made by the chaplains by the frequency of meditation and age, and negatively related to physical well-being.

  15. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism modulates the effects of social support on heart rate variability

    PubMed Central

    Kanthak, Magdalena K.; Chen, Frances S.; Kumsta, Robert; Hill, LaBarron K.; Thayer, Julian F.; Heinrichs, Markus

    2017-01-01

    A large body of empirical research has demonstrated stress-buffering effects of social support. However, recent studies suggest that genetic variation of the oxytocin system (specifically, a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, of the oxytocin receptor gene) modulates the efficacy of social support. The timing and neurobiological basis of this genetic modulation were investigated using a standardized, laboratory-based psychological stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G). To index potential stress buffering effects of social support mediated by the oxytocin system, heart rate variability (HRV) was obtained before and during the TSST-G from 40 healthy participants. Results indicate that social support is associated with higher HRV only in G allele carriers. Specifically, social support increased heart rate variability during direct social interaction and only in individuals with at least one copy of the G allele of rs53576. These findings support the idea that the stress-attenuating effects of social support are modulated by genetic variation of the oxytocin system. PMID:26903384

  16. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  17. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  18. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  19. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  20. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  1. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  2. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system. Each...

  3. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system. Each...

  4. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system. Each...

  5. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system. Each...

  6. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system. Each...

  7. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  8. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  9. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...

  10. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....

  11. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....

  12. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...

  13. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells...

  14. Alarm fatigue: a roadmap for mitigating the cacophony of beeps.

    PubMed

    Purbaugh, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon known as alarm fatigue is the direct result of excessive alarms in hospitals. This article highlights the effects of alarm fatigue and reviews current clinical recommendations and guidelines to raise nurse awareness and provide tools to combat the problem.

  15. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  20. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not...

  2. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which are...

  3. False Fire Alarms: A Deviant Pattern of Seeking Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camblin, Louise; Weinland, Laura

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the phenomenon of false fire alarms, the deliberate, intentional false reporting of fires, by mentally troubled persons as a primitive kind of help-seeking behavior. Several common themes found by reviewing false alarm cases are presented. Suggests that identifying the intrapsychic dynamics of false alarm reporters could be useful in…

  4. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which are...

  5. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which are...

  6. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....

  7. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...

  8. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...

  9. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....

  10. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...

  11. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72.15-15 (c)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces...

  13. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section 97.37-50... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 92.15-10(d)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required...

  14. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section 97.37-50... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 92.15-10(d)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required...

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section 97.37-50... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 92.15-10(d)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required...

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72.15-15 (c)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces...

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72.15-15 (c)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces...

  18. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section 97.37-50... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 92.15-10(d)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72.15-15 (c)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces...

  20. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section 97.37-50... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 92.15-10(d)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72.15-15 (c)(4) of this subchapter, which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces...

  2. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping... Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a) An approved manual alarm system shall be installed in all areas, other than the main machinery spaces,...

  3. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  4. Multiple meter monitoring circuits served by single alarm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandini, U.

    1967-01-01

    Circuitry for multiple meter relay circuits provides complete isolation for each circuit served by a single alarm and permits alarm reset after an out-of-tolerance event in one relay circuit so that the remaining relay circuits continue to be alarm protected.

  5. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occurs. (d) Each bilge alarm must have a ppm display. Emulsions and/or the type of oil must not affect... alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in § 162... in a vessel's fixed piping system, when— (1) the oil content of the mixture being measured by the...

  6. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  7. Alarm annunciation in a graphical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.G.

    1994-08-01

    Well-designed graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows{trademark} or UNIX{trademark} -- based X-Windows, provide a capability for enhanced display of security alarm information. Conversely, a poorly designed interface can quickly overwhelm an operator. This paper describes types of graphical information that can be displayed and offers guidance on how to best display that information. Limits are proposed for the complexity of the user interface, and guidelines are suggested for the display of maps and sensors.

  8. Reducing false alarms in the ICU by quantifying self-similarity of multimodal biosignals.

    PubMed

    Antink, Christoph Hoog; Leonhardt, Steffen; Walter, Marian

    2016-08-01

    False arrhythmia alarms pose a major threat to the quality of care in today's ICU. Thus, the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015 aimed at reducing false alarms by exploiting multimodal cardiac signals recorded by a patient monitor. False alarms for asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular flutter/fibrillation as well as ventricular tachycardia were to be reduced using two electrocardiogram channels, up to two cardiac signals of mechanical origin as well as a respiratory signal. In this paper, an approach combining multimodal rhythmicity estimation and machine learning is presented. Using standard short-time autocorrelation and robust beat-to-beat interval estimation, the signal's self-similarity is analyzed. In particular, beat intervals as well as quality measures are derived which are further quantified using basic mathematical operations (min, mean, max, etc). Moreover, methods from the realm of image processing, 2D Fourier transformation combined with principal component analysis, are employed for dimensionality reduction. Several machine learning approaches are evaluated including linear discriminant analysis and random forest. Using an alarm-independent reduction strategy, an overall false alarm reduction with a score of 65.52 in terms of the real-time scoring system of the challenge is achieved on a hidden dataset. Employing an alarm-specific strategy, an overall real-time score of 78.20 at a true positive rate of 95% and a true negative rate of 78% is achieved. While the results for some categories still need improvement, false alarms for extreme tachycardia are suppressed with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  9. Postnatal Support Strategies for Improving Rates of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Case of Caesarean Baby.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, E; Chowdhury, R B; Begum, S; Shapla, N R; Shahida, S M

    2015-10-01

    Despite awarness of the many advantages of breast feeding exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate is still lower than recommended practice and the rate is less in case of caesarean baby. In an effort towards achieving better breast feeding practices, UNICEF and WHO launched the baby friendly hospital initiative in 1991 to ensure that all maternity facilities support mothers in making the best choice about feeding. The implementation of effective programs improves rates of short and long term exclusive breast feeding even in case of caesarean baby. The objective of present study was to investigate whether postnatal support improves the rate of exclusive breast feeding in case of caesarean baby compared with usual hospital care. This was a longitudinal study over one and half year period, from April 2009 to October 2011 done in Combined Military Hospital in Mymensingh. A total of 565 pregnant women were included this study. Primary outcome was early establishment of breast feeding after caesarean section. Secondary outcome was exclusive breast feeding at discharge from hospital, two weeks and six weeks after caesarean section delivery. Early establishment of breast feeding within one hour after caesarean section was higher in postnatal support group than usual care group (70.29% vs. 57.14%). Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in the postnatal support strategies group were significantly higher when compared with those who received usual hospital care at discharge (89.13% vs. 75.94%, p=0.004), at 2 weeks (85.51% vs. 53.38%, p<0.001) and at 6 weeks (74.64% vs. 38.35%, p<0.001). Postnatal lactation support, as single intervention based in hospital significantly improves rates of exclusive breast feeding.

  10. Differences in alarm calls of juvenile and adult European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus): Findings on permanently marked animals from a semi-natural enclosure.

    PubMed

    Schneiderov, Irena; Schnitzerov, Petra; Uhlikov, Jitka; Brandl, Pavel; Zouhar, Jan; Matejů, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) emits alarm calls that warn conspecifics of potential danger. Although it has been observed that inexperienced juveniles of this species emit alarm calls that sound similar to those of adults, studies focusing on juvenile alarm calls are lacking. We analyzed the acoustic structure of alarm calls emitted by six permanently marked European ground squirrels living in a semi-natural enclosure when they were juveniles and after 1 year as adults. We found that the acoustic structure of the juvenile alarm calls was significantly different from those of adults and that the alarm calls underwent nearly the same changes in all studied individuals. All juveniles emitted alarm calls consisting of one element with almost constant frequency, but their alarm calls included a second frequency-modulated element after their first hibernation as adults. Our data show that the duration of the first element is significantly shorter in adults than in juveniles. Additionally, the frequency of the first element is significantly higher in adults than in juveniles. Similar to previous findings in other Palearctic ground squirrel species, our data are inconsistent with the assumption that juvenile mammals emit vocalizations with higher fundamental frequencies than adults. However, our results do not support the previously suggested hypothesis that juvenile ground squirrels conceal information regarding their age in their alarm calls because we found significant differences in alarm calls of juveniles and adults. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Poison and alarm: the Asian hornet Vespa velutina uses sting venom volatiles as an alarm pheromone.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ya-Nan; Wen, Ping; Dong, Shi-Hao; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C

    2017-02-15

    In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans. This species is native to Asia and has now invaded Europe. Despite growing interest in V. velutina, it was unknown whether it possessed an alarm pheromone. We show that these hornets use sting venom as an alarm pheromone. Sting venom volatiles were strongly attractive to hornet workers and triggered attacks. Two major venom fractions, consisting of monoketones and diketones, also elicited attack. We used gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to isolate 13 known and 3 unknown aliphatic ketones and alcohols in venom that elicited conspicuous hornet antennal activity. Two of the unknown compounds may be an undecen-2-one and an undecene-2,10-dinone. Three major compounds (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one and undecan-2-one) triggered attacks, but only nonan-2-one did so at biologically relevant levels (10 hornet equivalents). Nonan-2-one thus deserves particular attention. However, the key alarm releasers for V. velutina remain to be identified. Such identification will help to illuminate the evolution and function of alarm compounds in hornets. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. E-Rate to Support Wireless E-Mail, Internet Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with federal E-rate program's support of school leaders' Blackberry habit. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has cleared the way to allow money from the $2.25 billion program of subsidies for school technology to apply to e-mail service for mobile, wireless devices, such as the BlackBerry, which are increasingly…

  13. 34 CFR 668.47 - Report on athletic program participation rates and financial support data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report on athletic program participation rates and financial support data. 668.47 Section 668.47 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL...

  14. E-Rate to Support Wireless E-Mail, Internet Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with federal E-rate program's support of school leaders' Blackberry habit. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has cleared the way to allow money from the $2.25 billion program of subsidies for school technology to apply to e-mail service for mobile, wireless devices, such as the BlackBerry, which are increasingly…

  15. Aviation Support Equipment Technician M 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    One of a series of training manuals prepared for enlisted personnel in the Navy and Naval Reserve, this self-study unit relates directly to the occupational qualifications of the Aviation Support Equipment Technician M rating. Contents include a 15-chapter text followed by a subject index, qualifications for advancement, and the associated…

  16. Alarm systems detect volcanic tremor and earthquake swarms during Redoubt eruption, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, G.; West, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    We ran two alarm algorithms on real-time data from Redoubt volcano during the 2009 crisis. The first algorithm was designed to detect escalations in continuous seismicity (tremor). This is implemented within an application called IceWeb which computes reduced displacement, and produces plots of reduced displacement and spectrograms linked to the Alaska Volcano Observatory internal webpage every 10 minutes. Reduced displacement is a measure of the amplitude of volcanic tremor, and is computed by applying a geometrical spreading correction to a displacement seismogram. When the reduced displacement at multiple stations exceeds pre-defined thresholds and there has been a factor of 3 increase in reduced displacement over the previous hour, a tremor alarm is declared. The second algorithm was to designed to detect earthquake swarms. The mean and median event rates are computed every 5 minutes based on the last hour of data from a real-time event catalog. By comparing these with thresholds, three swarm alarm conditions can be declared: a new swarm, an escalation in a swarm, and the end of a swarm. The end of swarm alarm is important as it may mark a transition from swarm to continuous tremor. Alarms from both systems were dispatched using a generic alarm management system which implements a call-down list, allowing observatory scientists to be called in sequence until someone acknowledged the alarm via a confirmation web page. The results of this simple approach are encouraging. The tremor alarm algorithm detected 26 of the 27 explosive eruptions that occurred from 23 March - 4 April. The swarm alarm algorithm detected all five of the main volcanic earthquake swarm episodes which occurred during the Redoubt crisis on 26-27 February, 21-23 March, 26 March, 2-4 April and 3-7 May. The end-of-swarm alarms on 23 March and 4 April were particularly helpful as they were caused by transitions from swarm to tremor shortly preceding explosive eruptions; transitions which were

  17. Improved detection and false alarm rejection for chemical vapors using passive hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, William J.; Miyashiro, Rex; Gittins, Christopher M.; Konno, Daisei; Chang, Shing; Farr, Matt; Perkins, Brad

    2013-05-01

    Two AIRIS sensors were tested at Dugway Proving Grounds against chemical agent vapor simulants. The primary objectives of the test were to: 1) assess performance of algorithm improvements designed to reduce false alarm rates with a special emphasis on solar effects, and 3) evaluate performance in target detection at 5 km. The tests included 66 total releases comprising alternating 120 kg glacial acetic acid (GAA) and 60 kg triethyl phosphate (TEP) events. The AIRIS sensors had common algorithms, detection thresholds, and sensor parameters. The sensors used the target set defined for the Joint Service Lightweight Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) with TEP substituted for GA and GAA substituted for VX. They were exercised at two sites located at either 3 km or 5 km from the release point. Data from the tests will be presented showing that: 1) excellent detection capability was obtained at both ranges with significantly shorter alarm times at 5 km, 2) inter-sensor comparison revealed very comparable performance, 3) false alarm rates < 1 incident per 10 hours running time over 143 hours of sensor operations were achieved, 4) algorithm improvements eliminated both solar and cloud false alarms. The algorithms enabling the improved false alarm rejection will be discussed. The sensor technology has recently been extended to address the problem of detection of liquid and solid chemical agents and toxic industrial chemical on surfaces. The phenomenology and applicability of passive infrared hyperspectral imaging to this problem will be discussed and demonstrated.

  18. Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients1

    PubMed Central

    Bridi, Adriana Carla; Louro, Thiago Quinellato; da Silva, Roberto Carlos Lyra

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to identify the number of electro-medical pieces of equipment in a coronary care unit, characterize their types, and analyze implications for the safety of patients from the perspective of alarm fatigue. METHOD: this quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-participatory study was conducted in a coronary care unit of a cardiology hospital with 170 beds. RESULTS: a total of 426 alarms were recorded in 40 hours of observation: 227 were triggered by multi-parametric monitors and 199 were triggered by other equipment (infusion pumps, dialysis pumps, mechanical ventilators, and intra-aortic balloons); that is an average of 10.6 alarms per hour. CONCLUSION: the results reinforce the importance of properly configuring physiological variables, the volume and parameters of alarms of multi-parametric monitors within the routine of intensive care units. The alarms of equipment intended to protect patients have increased noise within the unit, the level of distraction and interruptions in the workflow, leading to a false sense of security. PMID:25591100

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Novice Teacher Support Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warsame, Kitty B.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are leaving their profession at alarming rates. As a result, retaining novice teachers has become a major concern for policy makers, school districts, administrators, and teaching staff throughout the United States. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of novice teacher induction support structures in a southwestern…

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Novice Teacher Support Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warsame, Kitty B.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are leaving their profession at alarming rates. As a result, retaining novice teachers has become a major concern for policy makers, school districts, administrators, and teaching staff throughout the United States. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of novice teacher induction support structures in a southwestern…

  1. Bridging the Gap: The Halifax New Teacher Support Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Alayne

    2013-01-01

    New teachers require specific and targeted support, as witnessed by alarming rates of attrition in their first years in the profession. Research shows they often struggle to bridge the gap between their university study and effective practice, especially with issues such as assessment, classroom management and diversity. New teachers should have…

  2. The Development and Validation of the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason Y.; Worrell, Frank C.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2015-01-01

    Patient memory for treatment information is poor, and worse memory for treatment information is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Memory support techniques have been harnessed to improve patient memory for treatment. However, a measure of memory support used by treatment providers during sessions has yet to be established. The present study reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS) – an observer-rated scale designed to measure memory support. Forty-two adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomized to either cognitive therapy plus memory support (CS+MS; n = 22) or cognitive therapy as-usual (CT-as-usual; n = 20). At post-treatment, patients freely recalled treatment points via the Patient Recall Task. Sessions (n = 171) were coded for memory support using the MSRS, 65% of which were also assessed for the quality of cognitive therapy via the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS). A unidimensional scale composed of 8 items was developed using exploratory factor analysis, though a larger sample is needed to further assess the factor structure of MSRS scores. High inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities of MSRS scores were observed across seven MSRS coders. MSRS scores were higher in the CT+MS condition compared to CT-as-usual, demonstrating group differentiation ability. MSRS scores were positively associated with Patient Recall Task scores but not associated with CTRS scores, demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, respectively. Results indicate that the MSRS yields reliable and valid scores for measuring treatment providers’ use of memory support while delivering cognitive therapy. PMID:26389597

  3. Randomized controlled trial of ionization and photoelectric smoke alarm functionality.

    PubMed

    Mueller, B A; Sidman, E A; Alter, H; Perkins, R; Grossman, D C

    2008-04-01

    To compare functionality, reasons for non-function, and nuisance alarm levels of two common types of smoke alarms after installation in low- to mid-level income households in King County, Washington. Randomized controlled trial of 761 households. An ionization or photoelectric smoke alarm was installed between June 1, 2000 and July 31, 2002. Main outcome measures were: percentage of study alarms that were working, observed reasons for non-functional status, and self-reported frequency of nuisance alarms at 9 and 15 months of follow-up. At 9 months after installation, 20% of ionization, vs 5% of photoelectric alarms were non-functional, a difference that persisted at 15 months, with the most common reasons for both types being a disconnected or absent battery. The risk ratio for ionization, relative to photoelectric alarms, being non-functional or removed was 2.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 4.1) at 15 months of follow-up. These findings were not altered by educational level, or the presence of smokers, children <5 years, or adults > or =65 years. Burn prevention efforts are geared towards increasing smoke alarm ownership and improving maintenance of functional status. Results suggest that the selective use of photoelectric alarms by fire injury prevention programs or consumers may provide longer-term protection in similar populations. Designing smoke alarms that minimize nuisance alarming may also result in longer term functionality.

  4. Clinical alarm hazards: a "top ten" health technology safety concern.

    PubMed

    Keller, James P

    2012-01-01

    For the past several years ECRI Institute has published a list of Top Ten Health Technology Hazards. This list is based on ECRI's extensive research in health technology safety and on data provided to its problemreporting systems. For every year that the Top Ten list has been published, Alarm Hazards have been at or near the top of the list. Improving alarm safety requires a systematic review of a hospital's alarm-based technologies and analysis of alarm management policies like alarm escalation strategies and staffing patterns. It also requires careful selection of alarm setting criteria for each clinical care area. This article will overview the clinical alarm problems that have been identified through ECRI Institute's research and analysis of various problem reporting databases, including those operated by ECRI Institute. It will also highlight suggestions for improvement, particularly from a technology design and technology management perspective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Residential carbon monoxide alarm use: opportunities for poisoning prevention.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B; Weaver, Lindell K

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of carbon monoxide (CO) alarm usage in localities where they are not required is poorly defined and the reasons for failing to have a home CO alarm have never been described. In this study, the authors conducted a computer-based survey among employees of similar major medical centers in Seattle, Washington, and Salt Lake City, Utah. Questions were asked about the prevalence of use of residential smoke and CO alarms with regard to home style and structure, ownership status, and energy use. Respondents not using home CO detectors were asked the reasons. Among 1,351 individuals participating in the survey, 98% reported residential use of smoke alarms, while only 51% used CO alarms. CO alarm use was more common among residents of Utah than Washington, among home owners than renters, and among those with single family homes rather than other styles. Reasons for failure to use CO alarms related largely to lack of knowledge about the devices and motivation.

  6. How long do smoke alarms function? A cross-sectional follow-up survey of a smoke alarm installation programme.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Mary A; Roper, Carey; Campa, Emily; Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Carlin, Debra K; Istre, Gregory R

    2014-04-01

    To assess the functionality of lithium-powered smoke alarms that had been installed through a community-based programme called Operation Installation (OI). A random sample was chosen of homes that had received smoke alarms through OI, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 years previously. Sampled homes were visited, and information collected included functional status of smoke alarms. For homes in the 6-, 8- and 10-year sample, smoke alarms were removed and tested for battery and alarm function. 800 homes were included in the survey results; 1884 smoke alarms had been installed through OI. The proportion of homes that had at least one functioning OI smoke alarm ranged from 91.8% for year 2 sample to 19.8% for year 10. Of the originally installed smoke alarms in year 10 sample, 45.5% had been removed and 59% (64/108) of those that were still installed were not functioning. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of at least one working alarm in the home was associated positively with the number of smoke alarms that were originally installed and whether the original occupant was still living in the home, and negatively with the length of time since the smoke alarm was installed, and whether there was a smoker in the home. Testing of the smoke alarms revealed that most non-functioning alarms had missing or dead batteries. Less than a quarter of the originally installed smoke alarms were still present and functioning by year 10. These findings have important implications for smoke alarm installation programmes.

  7. Communication Strategies and Timeliness of Response to Life Critical Telemetry Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Bonzheim, Kimberly A.; Gebara, Rani I.; O'Hare, Bridget M.; Ellis, R. Darin; Brand, Monique A.; Balar, Salil D.; Stockman, Rita; Sciberras, Annette M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: A centralized electrocardiogram telemetry monitoring system (TMS) facilitates early identification of critical arrhythmias and acute medical decompensation. Timely intervention can only be performed if abnormalities are communicated rapidly to the direct caregiver. The study objectives were to measure effectiveness of bi-directional voice communication badges versus one-way alphanumeric pagers for telemetry alarm response and communication loop closure. Methods: A sequential observational pilot study of nursing response to TMS alarms compared communication technologies on four nursing units in a 1,061 bed tertiary care hospital with 264 TMS channels of telemetry over a 2-year period. Subsequently, the communication technologies were compared in a randomized fashion on a 68-bed progressive cardiac care unit. Caregivers were blinded to the protocol. All alarm responses were recorded during two periods using either pagers or voice communication devices. Alarm response time and closure of the communication loop were analyzed in a blinded fashion. Results: The direct communication functionality of the badge significantly shortened the time to first contact, time to completion, and rate of closure of the communication loop in both the pilot and study phases. Median time to first contact with the communication badge was 0.5 min, compared to 1.6 min with pager communication (p < 0.0003). Communication loop closure was achieved in 100% of clinical alarms using the badge versus 19% with the pager (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Communication badge technology reduced alarm time to first contact and completion as well as facilitated communication loop closures. Immediate two-way communication significantly impacted practice, alarm management, and resulted in faster bedside care. PMID:21457122

  8. Medical students' subjective ratings of stress levels and awareness of student support services about mental health.

    PubMed

    Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Norgren Jaconelli, Sanna; Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S; Hunt, Glenn

    2013-06-01

    To descriptively assess medical students' concerns for their mental and emotional state, perceived need to conceal mental problems, perceived level of support at university, knowledge and use of student support services, and experience of stresses of daily life. From March to September 2011, medical students at an Australian university were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. 475 responses were received. Students rated study and examinations (48.9%), financial concerns (38.1%), isolation (19.4%) and relationship concerns (19.2%) as very or extremely stressful issues. Knowledge of available support services was high, with 90.8% indicating they were aware of the university's medical centre. Treatment rates were modest (31.7%). Students' concerns about their mental state were generally low, but one in five strongly felt they needed to conceal their emotional problems. Despite widespread awareness of appropriate support services, a large proportion of students felt they needed to conceal mental and emotional problems. Overall treatment rates for students who were greatly concerned about their mental and emotional state appeared modest, and, although comparable with those of similarly aged community populations, may reflect undertreatment. It would be appropriate for universities to address stressors identified by students. Strategies for encouraging distressed students to obtain appropriate assessment and treatment should also be explored. Those students who do seek healthcare are most likely to see a primary care physician, suggesting an important screening role for these health professionals.

  9. Treatment of distillery vinasse in a high rate anaerobic reactor using low density polyethylene supports.

    PubMed

    Thanikal, J V; Torrijos, M; Habouzit, F; Moletta, R

    2007-01-01

    An anaerobic fixed bed reactor, filled with small floating supports of polyethylene material (Bioflow 30) as inert media, was operated for 6 months to treat vinasse (wine residue after distillation). Bioflow 30 has a density of 0.93 and a specific area of 320 m2/m3. The experimental results showed that the efficiency of the reactor in removal of soluble COD was very good with a maximum organic loading rate of more than 30 g of COD/L x d and a COD removal efficiency of more than 80%. Bioflow 30 showed a high capability of biomass retention with 4-6 g of dried solids per support. Thus, at the end of the experiment, the fixed biomass represented 57 g of solids/L of reactor. The visual observation of the supports and the specific activity (0.54 g COD/g solids x d) of the fixed solids, which remained close to the values obtained with suspended biomass, showed that entrapment was playing an important role in the retention of the biomass inside the reactor. It was then possible to operate the reactor with a very high loading rate as the result of the increase of the solids in the reactor and the maintaining of the specific activity. Bioflow 30 is then an excellent support for use in a high rate anaerobic fixed bed.

  10. Success rate in implant-supported overdenture and implant-supported fixed denture in cleft lip and palate patients

    PubMed Central

    Zanolla, Jaine; Amado, Flávio Monteiro; da Silva, Willian Saranholi; Ayub, Bruno; de Almeida, Ana Lúcia Pompéia Fraga; Soares, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prosthetic treatment in cleft patients is challenging. Based on this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the longevity of prosthetic rehabilitation treatment with implant-supported overdenture (IOD) and implant-supported fixed denture (IFD) in cleft lip and palate patients in a period of 22 years. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 72 patients were analyzed (29 males and 43 females), and the survival rate of the implants was evaluated. Moreover, the prostheses’ time of use and the reason for the changing of these were also evaluated. Results: Four-hundred-seventeen implants were installed, and 370 implants survive today. The mean survival time of the implants was 7.6 years. Regarding the 97 prostheses made, the time of average use was 3.28 for the IFDs and 3.92 for IODs. The reasons for the replacements of the prostheses were mainly: fracture of the acrylic base (29.6%) and loss of vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) (18.5%) in the IFDs. Moreover, in IODs, these were accounted for the loss of VDO due to teeth damage (17.2%) and implant loss (14.6%). Conclusions: The maintenance of the prostheses was challenging because the patients had difficulties returning for periodic control, but this fact did not result in the decrease of the success rate of the implants. The longevity of implants and prostheses was satisfactory; however, the prostheses showed repetitions mainly due to the wear of the teeth, with decreased vertical dimension and fracture of acrylic base. PMID:28299262

  11. Using support vector machines for anomalous change detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P; Steinwart, Ingo; Llamocca, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We cast anomalous change detection as a binary classification problem, and use a support vector machine (SVM) to build a detector that does not depend on assumptions about the underlying data distribution. To speed up the computation, our SVM is implemented, in part, on a graphical processing unit. Results on real and simulated anomalous changes are used to compare performance to algorithms which effectively assume a Gaussian distribution. In this paper, we investigate the use of support vector machines (SVMs) with radial basis kernels for finding anomalous changes. Compared to typical applications of SVMs, we are operating in a regime of very low false alarm rate. This means that even for relatively large training sets, the data are quite meager in the regime of operational interest. This drives us to use larger training sets, which in turn places more of a computational burden on the SVM. We initially considered three different approaches to to address the need to work in the very low false alarm rate regime. The first is a standard SVM which is trained at one threshold (where more reliable estimates of false alarm rates are possible) and then re-thresholded for the low false alarm rate regime. The second uses the same thresholding approach, but employs a so-called least squares SVM; here a quadratic (instead of a hinge-based) loss function is employed, and for this model, there are good theoretical arguments in favor of adjusting the threshold in a straightforward manner. The third approach employs a weighted support vector machine, where the weights for the two types of errors (false alarm and missed detection) are automatically adjusted to achieve the desired false alarm rate. We have found in previous experiments (not shown here) that the first two types can in some cases work well, while in other cases they do not. This renders both approaches unreliable for automated change detection. By contrast, the third approach reliably produces good results, but at

  12. Validity of smoke alarm self-report measures and reasons for over-reporting.

    PubMed

    Stepnitz, Rebecca; Shields, Wendy; McDonald, Eileen; Gielen, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Many residential fire deaths occur in homes with no or non-functioning smoke alarms (SAs). Self-reported SA coverage is high, but studies have found varying validity for self-report measures. The authors aim to: (1) determine over-reporting of coverage, (2) describe socio-demographic correlates of over-reporting and (3) report reasons for over-reporting. The authors surveyed 603 households in a large, urban area about fire safety behaviours and then tested all SAs in the home. 23 participants who over-reported their SA coverage were telephoned and asked about why they had misreported. Full coverage was reported in 70% of households but observed in only 41%, with a low positive predictive value (54.2%) for the self-report measure. Most over-reporters assumed alarms were working because they were mounted or did not think a working alarm in a basement or attic was needed to be fully protected. If alarms cannot be tested, researchers or those counselling residents on fire safety should carefully probe self-reported coverage. Our findings support efforts to equip more homes with hard-wired or 10 year lithium battery alarms to reduce the need for user maintenance.

  13. Support Effects on Bronsted acid site densities and alcohol dehydration turnover rates on tungsten oxide domains

    SciTech Connect

    Macht, Josef; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; May-Lozano, Marcos; Soled, Stuart L.; Wang, Yong; Iglesia, Enrique

    2005-03-01

    Initial activity and acid site density of several WAl, WSi (MCM41) and one WSn sample were determined. Trans/cis 2-butene selectivity is dependent on the support. Presumably, these differences are due to subtle differences in base strengths. 2-Butanol dehydration rates (per W-atom) reached maximum values at intermediate WOx surface densities on WAl, as reported for 2-butanol dehydration reactions on WZr. Titration results indicate that Bronsted acid sites are required for 2-butanol dehydration on WAl, WSi and WSn. UV-visible studies suggest that WAl is much more difficult to reduce than WZr. The detection of reduced centers on WAl, the number of which correlates to Bronsted acid site density and catalyst activity, as well as the temperature dependence of Bronsted acid site density indicate the in-situ formation of these active sites. We infer that this mechanism is common among all supported WOx samples described in this study. Turnover rates are a function of Bronsted acid site density only. High acid site densities lead to high turnover rates. Higher active site densities may cause stronger conjugate bases, as a higher electron density has to be stabilized, and thus weaker acidity, enabling a faster rate of product desorption. The maximum achievable active site density is dependent on the support. WZr reaches a higher active site density than WAl.

  14. Linking questionnaire reports and observer ratings of young couples’ hostility and support

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Frederick O.; Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Surjadi, Florenzia F.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have correlated observer ratings with questionnaire self- and partner-reports of behaviors in close relationships. However, few studies have actually proposed and tested longitudinal models that link observer ratings to past behaviors and to questionnaire self- and partner-reports of behaviors during an observational task. Using data from a panel of 324 young couples, we demonstrate that (1) observer ratings of hostility and support are significantly related to couple reports of the same behavior in the relationship two years earlier, and (2) respondent and partner questionnaire reports of hostility and support during the observational task converge with observer ratings of the same behavior even after controlling for earlier self- and partner-reports. These findings demonstrate that observer reports based on brief discussion tasks reflect the tenor of the relationship over a relatively long period of time. They also demonstrate that couple reports of hostile interactions reflect observable behaviors beyond that attributed to earlier self- and partner-reports. Consistent with previous research, effect sizes are larger for hostility than support but there are few differences between men and women. PMID:22662768

  15. Exposure to a putative alarm cue reduces downstream drift in larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wagner, C M; Kierczynski, K E; Hume, J B; Luhring, T M

    2016-09-01

    An experimental mesocosm study suggested larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus detect and respond to an alarm cue released by dead adult conspecifics. Larvae exhibited a reduced tendency to move downstream when exposed to the cue and were less likely to move under continuous v. pulsed exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to the alarm cue would probably result in retraction into the burrow, consistent with the blind, cryptic lifestyle of the larval P. marinus.

  16. Specification of business rules for the development of hospital alarm system: application to the pharmaceutical validation.

    PubMed

    Boussadi, Abdelali; Bousquet, Cedric; Sabatier, Brigitte; Colombet, Isabelle; Degoulet, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    Although clinical alarm systems are part of the knowledge management setting within healthcare organisations, modelling of business processes related to decision support and knowledge representation of decision rules are seldom described. We propose a customization of the Unified Process that takes into account user requirements for clinical alarm systems by introducing the Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR). This methodology was applied to the design and implementation of a clinical alarm system for pharmaceutical validation at the European Hospital Georges Pompidou (HEGP). Rules were implemented using the IlogJRules Business Rule Management System. We produced 3 business rules patterns and 427 instances of rules. As SBVR is close to natural language, pharmacists were able to understand rules and participate to their design.

  17. Comparison of a personalized parent voice smoke alarm with a conventional residential tone smoke alarm for awakening children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gary A; Splaingard, Mark; Hayes, John R; Xiang, Huiyun

    2006-10-01

    Conventional residential tone smoke alarms fail to awaken the majority of children during slow wave sleep. With the objective of identifying a more effective smoke alarm for children, we compared a personalized parent voice smoke alarm with a conventional residential tone smoke alarm, both presented at 100 dB, with respect to their ability to awaken children 6- to 12-years-old from stage 4 sleep and prompt their performance of a simulated self-rescue escape procedure. Using a randomized, nonblinded, clinical research design, a volunteer sample of healthy children 6- to 12-years-old was enrolled in the study. Children were trained how to perform a simulated self-rescue escape procedure when they heard a smoke alarm. Each child's mother recorded a voice alarm message, "First name! First name! Wake up! Get out of bed! Leave the room!" For each child, either the voice or tone smoke alarm was randomly selected and triggered during the first cycle of stage 4 sleep, and then the other alarm was triggered during the second cycle of stage 4 sleep. Children's sleep stage was monitored by electroencephalography, electro-oculography, and chin electromyography. The 4 main outcome measures included the number of children who awakened, the number of children who escaped, the time to awakening, and the time to escape. Twenty-four children were enrolled. The median age was 9 years, and 11 (46%) were boys. One half of the children received the parent voice alarm first, and one half received the tone alarm first; however, the order that the alarm stimuli were presented was not statistically associated with awakening or escaping. Twenty-three (96%) of the 24 subjects awakened to the parent voice alarm compared with 14 (58%) to the tone alarm. One child did not awaken to either stimulus. Nine children awakened to their parent's voice but not to the tone, whereas none awakened to only the tone and not the voice. Twenty (83%) of the subjects in the parent voice alarm group successfully

  18. The impact of intonation and valence on objective and subjective attention capture by auditory alarms.

    PubMed

    Ljungberg, Jessica K; Parmentier, Fabrice

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to study the involuntary capture of attention by spoken words varying in intonation and valence. In studies of verbal alarms, the propensity of alarms to capture attention has been primarily assessed with the use of subjective ratings of their perceived urgency. Past studies suggest that such ratings vary with the alarms' spoken urgency and content. We measured attention capture by spoken words varying in valence (negative vs. neutral) and intonation (urgently vs. nonurgently spoken) through subjective ratings and behavioral measures. The key behavioral measure was the response latency to visual stimuli in the presence of spoken words breaking away from the periodical repetition of a tone. The results showed that all words captured attention relative to a baseline standard tone but that this effect was partly counteracted by a relative speeding of responses for urgently compared with nonurgently spoken words. Word valence did not affect behavioral performance. Rating data showed that both intonation and valence increased significantly perceived urgency and attention grabbing without any interaction. The data suggest a congruency between subjective ratings and behavioral performance with respect to spoken intonation but not valence. This study demonstrates the usefulness and feasibility of objective measures of attention capture to help design efficient alarm systems.

  19. When rumination counts: Perceived social support and heart rate variability in daily life.

    PubMed

    Gerteis, Ann Kathrin S; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas R

    2016-07-01

    Rumination and social support could modulate cardiac activity. Although both variables are somehow interrelated, they are often studied independently, and their interplay is seldom considered. We aimed to analyze the interaction of rumination and perceived social support on vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) in daily life. The sample consisted of 117 healthy participants (57% female, mean age = 27.9, SD = 5.5 years). Ambulatory HRV (root mean squared successive differences), respiration, body position, and body movements were recorded continuously on three consecutive weekdays. Momentary social, situational, and cognitive-affective variables (affect, ruminative thoughts, perceived social support) were assessed using a computerized diary. There was a significant interaction between momentary rumination and perceived social support on ambulatory HRV: When participants were involved in social interactions with low social support, concurrent rumination was associated with attenuated HRV. However, when rumination was accompanied by a strong sense of support, HRV significantly increased. The quality of social interactions and rumination seem to interact in daily life to predict cardiac autonomic control. The results stress the necessity to consider the interplay of psychological and social factors in order to evaluate beneficial or adverse effects on cardiac health. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. One plus one: Binary alarm calls retain individual signature for longer periods than single-note alarms in the European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus).

    PubMed

    Schneiderová, Irena; Volodina, Elena V; Matrosova, Vera A; Volodin, Ilya A

    2017-05-01

    Ground squirrels emit species-specific alarm calls that, among other characteristics, differ by the number of elements. Unlike some species that produce single-element calls, e.g., the Speckled ground squirrel (Spermophilus suslicus), individual European ground squirrels (S. citellus) frequently emit binary-element calls in addition to single-element calls. We tested the hypothesis that the time stability of individuality encoded in alarm calls might be better retained by complicating their acoustic structure by adding extra elements. In a semi-captive colony of individually marked European ground squirrels, we repeatedly recorded alarm calls that were produced towards a human by 12 adult (2 males and 10 females) live-trapped animals. Repeated recordings occurred within time spans of a few hours, 2days and 1year from the first recording. Our results showed that individual calls were highly similar within recordings, but less similar between recordings separated by time spans. Individual differences were best retained when we used nine acoustic variables from both elements. The differences were worse when we used nine variables from only the first element and worst when we used nine variables from only the second element. These results supported the caller reliability hypothesis for species that produce multiple-note alarms, e.g., the Richardson's ground squirrel (S. richardsonii). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On Alarm Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichoń, Jacek; Kapelko, Rafał; Lemiesz, Jakub; Zawada, Marcin

    We consider the problem of efficient alarm protocol for ad-hoc radio networks consisting of devices that try to gain access for transmission through a shared radio communication channel. The problem arise in tasks that sensors have to quickly inform the target user about an alert situation such as presence of fire, dangerous radiation, seismic vibrations, and more. In this paper, we present a protocol which uses O(logn) time slots and show that Ω(logn/loglogn) is a lower bound for used time slots.

  2. Security alarm communication and display systems development

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a variety of alarm communication and display systems for a broad spectrum of users. This paper will briefly describe the latest systems developed for the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the Department of State (DOS) applications. Applications covered will vary from relatively small facilities to large complex sites. Ongoing system developments will also be discussed. The concluding section will summarize the practical, implementable state-of-the-art features available in new systems. 6 figs.

  3. Chemical Alarm Cues Are Conserved within the Coral Reef Fish Family Pomacentridae

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Matthew D.; Cowman, Peter F.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    Fishes are known to use chemical alarm cues from both conspecifics and heterospecifics to assess local predation risks and enhance predator detection. Yet it is unknown how recognition of heterospecific cues arises for coral reef fishes. Here, we test if naïve juvenile fish have an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues. We also examine if there is a relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response to these cues and the degree to which species are related to each other. Naïve juvenile anemone fish, Amphiprion percula, were tested to see if they displayed antipredator responses to chemical alarm cues from four closely related heterospecific species (family Pomacentridae), a distantly related sympatric species (Asterropteryx semipunctatus) and a saltwater (control). Juveniles displayed significant reductions in foraging rate when exposed to all four confamilial heterospecific species but they did not respond to the distantly related sympatric species or the saltwater control. There was also a strong relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response and the extent to which species were related, with responses weakening as species became more distantly related. These findings demonstrate that chemical alarm cues are conserved within the pomacentrid family, providing juveniles with an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues as predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness hypothesis. PMID:23094047

  4. Chair alarm for patient fall prevention based on gesture recognition and interactivity.

    PubMed

    Knight, Heather; Lee, Jae-Kyu; Ma, Hongshen

    2008-01-01

    The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The GRiT chair alarm uses an array of capacitive proximity sensors and pressure sensors to create a map of the patient's sitting position, which is then processed using gesture recognition algorithms to determine when a patient is attempting to stand and to alarm the care providers. This system also uses a range of voice and light feedback to encourage the patient to remain seated and/or to make use of the system's integrated nurse-call function. This system can be seamlessly integrated into existing hospital WiFi networks to send notifications and approximate patient location through existing nurse call systems.

  5. Validation of Loss and Continuation Rate Models to Support Navy Community Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    IMPACT model.)  Per discussion with BUPERS, at the E-8 level, AM and AME personnel may be advanced to AMCS (Senior Chief Aviation Structural...Mechanic). At the E-9 level, AMCS and ADCS (Senior Chief Aviation Machinist’s Mate) personnel look towards advancement to AFCM (Master Chief Aviation...Tennessee 38055-1000  www.nprst.navy.mil NPRST-TR-14-2 February 2014 Validation of Loss and Continuation Rate Models to Support Navy Community

  6. Alarm handler for the advanced photon source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.; Cha, B.K.; Anderson, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, will have a control system employing graphics workstations at the operator interface level and VME-based microprocessors operating with a distributed database at the field level. The alarm handler is an application utilizing X-Windows running on one or more operator interface workstations which monitors alarms generated by the VME-based microprocessors. Alarms can be grouped in a hierarchical manner. The operator can monitor, acknowledge, and mask alarms either individually or aggregately. Alarm changes of state and all operator modifications are logged. When alarms occur, display windows are automatically generated conveying system and subsystem relationships and severity. Menus are used to modify the alarm action configuration files and to obtain help. Since alarm groups are defined via an alarm configuration file, the alarm handler is a general purpose application which can be customized to monitor a single subsystem or configured to monitor the entire accelerator complex. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Sunrise alarm clock for the hearing impaired - biomed 2011.

    PubMed

    Follum, James D; Catchpole, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    The Sunrise Alarm Clock is a device designed to be more effective than standard alarm clocks and more pleasant than specialty devices in waking the hearing impaired. This is accomplished with the inclusion of visual, physical, and audio alarms. The visual alarm stimulus is created by manipulating the light output of a bedside lamp to mimic the sunrise. This is achieved by varying the duty cycle of a pulse width modulated signal supplied through a standard three-prong receptacle located on the side of the alarm clock. Physical alarms are in the form of wristbands containing vibrating motors. Finally, audio alarms are provided with both volume and pitch control to match the user’s specific needs. The entire system is designed with two users in mind by providing two independently controlled receptacles, wristbands, and audio systems. At the conclusion of development, a nearly fully functional prototype has been produced. The prototype’s audio and physical alarm system along with one visual alarm are fully functional. Shortcomings include poor timekeeping accuracy and problems clearly displaying the time. Even so, this development in sleep technology is capable of performing its task and waking its user with all three alarm systems.

  8. The Impact of Reduced Pulse Oximetry Use on Alarm Frequency.

    PubMed

    Schondelmeyer, Amanda C; Brady, Patrick W; Sucharew, Heidi; Huang, Guixia; Hofacer, Kelsey E; Simmons, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    Concerns about alarm fatigue prompted The Joint Commission to issue a Sentinel Event Alert urging hospitals to minimize alarms. We previously conducted a quality improvement project on a single unit that reduced time on continuous pulse oximetry, a common source of physiologic monitor alarms, for patients with wheezing (ie, asthma and bronchiolitis, wheezing-associated respiratory infections). To study the impact of our improvement work on overall physiologic monitor alarm frequency for these patients. This was a retrospective cohort study at a freestanding children's hospital over an 8-week period. We compared alarm count, including respiratory, cardiac, and pulse oximetry alarms, for patients admitted to the intervention unit with the alarm count for similar patients on a control unit by using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. We used negative binomial regression to evaluate differences in alarm count between the units, adjusting for age, medical comorbidity, and length of stay. There were 101 patients on the intervention unit and 46 patients on the control unit. The percentage of patients with medical comorbidities was significantly higher on the intervention unit (P=.01). Median alarm count per day for patients on the intervention unit was lower; however, this difference was not statistically significant (71 vs 76 alarms per patient-day, P=.29). The multivariable model estimated a nonsignificant 6.4-count decrease in alarms for patients on the intervention unit. Reducing continuous pulse oximetry use alone may not make substantial reductions in overall alarm counts. Even on our intervention unit, alarm burden remained quite high. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Autotrend Evaluation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    represent a level of uncertainty in the performance analysis. The performance analysis produced the following Key Performance Indicators ( KPIs ) as...Identity KPI Key Performance Indicator MooN M-out-of-N MSPU Modernized Signal Processor Unit NFF No Fault Found PAT Parameter Allocation Table PD

  10. Expert System Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Processor has been developed on a Sun Sparc Station 4/470 using a commercial-off-the-shelf software development package called G2 by Gensym Corporation...size of the training data set. A prototype expert system CFAR Processor has been presented which applies artificial intelligence to CFAR detection

  11. Socioeconomic status, social support and self-rated health among lone mothers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Jeon, Gyeong-Suk; Jang, Soong-Nang

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association of socioeconomic status and social support with the differences in self-rated health between lone and partnered mothers in South Korea. Data came from women living with their children in the baseline survey of Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Family (N = 6,370) that yielded a very high response rate (95.8%). Compared to partnered mothers, lone mothers had a significantly higher risk of poor/fair health after adjusting for mediating factors (living natural parent, emotional support from siblings, social activities, educational attainment, equivalized household income, and subjective economic status). When all factors were individually included in the base model, each factor contributed to this difference. Subjective economic status explained 28.0% of the excess risk of poor/fair health among women in the lone compared to the partnered status. All factors combined accounted for 41.4% of the excess risk among lone mothers. The findings clearly indicate that lone mothers have poorer self-rated health than partnered mothers do, but this detrimental effect cannot be entirely explained by the socioeconomic and social support-mediating factors.

  12. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2001-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  13. Alarm system for a nuclear control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  14. A Modified Coal Mine Roof Rating Classification System to Design Support Requirements in Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Abbas; Lee, Yongha; Medina, Mario Andres Guardado

    2017-10-01

    The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) classification system has been applied in a number of coal mines worldwide including Australia. However, the current system cannot be used directly to design support measures in underground mines. Two case studies, the Eliza Hill project in Australia and Tabas coal mine in Iran were analyzed to assess the impact of various rock properties and gallery geometry on stability and to modify the CMRR classification system. Having considered the CMRR system as a working classification system, applicable information and related coal mine data were selected from the two case records. The CMRR value was evaluated and analysed by undertaking correlation between CMRR and factor of safety, followed by a parametric study based on various rock properties and gallery geometries. To improve the applicability of the current system, the CMRR system was then modified by adding additional parameters, namely, the width of roof span and the density of overburden rock. Consequently, based on the modified CMRR system (mCMRR) roof support requirements were recommended to select the suitable rock bolting system including length and spacing of rock bolt. Numerical modelling were then undertaken to verify the support requirements recommended. The support requirements recommended by the mCMRR were found to be relatively identical with numerical analysis results. Support systems proposed by mCMRR can assist mining engineers to assess the stability of underground coal mines or verify the results of other design tools.

  15. A Modified Coal Mine Roof Rating Classification System to Design Support Requirements in Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Abbas; Lee, Yongha; Medina, Mario Andres Guardado

    2017-01-01

    The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) classification system has been applied in a number of coal mines worldwide including Australia. However, the current system cannot be used directly to design support measures in underground mines. Two case studies, the Eliza Hill project in Australia and Tabas coal mine in Iran were analyzed to assess the impact of various rock properties and gallery geometry on stability and to modify the CMRR classification system. Having considered the CMRR system as a working classification system, applicable information and related coal mine data were selected from the two case records. The CMRR value was evaluated and analysed by undertaking correlation between CMRR and factor of safety, followed by a parametric study based on various rock properties and gallery geometries. To improve the applicability of the current system, the CMRR system was then modified by adding additional parameters, namely, the width of roof span and the density of overburden rock. Consequently, based on the modified CMRR system (mCMRR) roof support requirements were recommended to select the suitable rock bolting system including length and spacing of rock bolt. Numerical modelling were then undertaken to verify the support requirements recommended. The support requirements recommended by the mCMRR were found to be relatively identical with numerical analysis results. Support systems proposed by mCMRR can assist mining engineers to assess the stability of underground coal mines or verify the results of other design tools.

  16. Changes in smoke alarm coverage following two fire department home visiting programs: what predicts success?

    PubMed

    Gielen, Andrea C; Perry, Elise C; Shields, Wendy C; McDonald, Eileen; Frattaroli, Shannon; Jones, Vanya

    2014-12-01

    Door-to-door canvassing and installation of smoke alarms have been found to be effective at increasing the number of homes protected. This analysis reports on how smoke alarm coverage changes six months after a home visiting program in a large urban sample, and how this change varies by characteristics of the residents and characteristics of the services delivered during the home visit. Fire department Standard and Enhanced home visiting programs were compared. During the home visit, fire fighters installed lithium battery smoke alarms. Residents in the Enhanced program received tailored education about fire safety. Six months after the home visit, participating residences were visited to complete a follow-up survey and to have the installed alarms checked. 81% of the 672 homes that had a working smoke alarm on every level of the home at the end of the home visit remained safe at follow-up, and 87% of the residents found the home visit was very useful, and these rates did not differ between the Enhanced and Standard programs. The degree to which firefighters delivered their services varied, although households in which the resident's engagement with the fire department team was rated as excellent were 3.96 times as likely to be safe at follow-up compared to those with poor or fair resident engagement (p=0.03). There is a need to better understand how to maximize the time spent with residents during smoke alarm home visiting programs. This study helps with the development of methods needed for implementing and evaluating such programs in real-world settings.

  17. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  18. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  19. Male monkeys remember which group members have given alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A; de Vries, Han

    2005-01-01

    Primates give alarm calls in response to the presence of predators. In some species, such as the Thomas langur (Presbytis thomasi), males only emit alarm calls if there is an audience. An unanswered question is whether the audience's behaviour influences how long the male will continue his alarm calling. We tested three hypotheses that might explain the alarm calling duration of male Thomas langurs: the fatigue, group size and group member behaviour hypotheses. Fatigue and group size did not influence male alarm calling duration. We found that males only ceased calling shortly after all individuals in his group had given at least one alarm call. This shows that males keep track of and thus remember which group members have called. PMID:16608694

  20. Male monkeys remember which group members have given alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Wich, Serge A; de Vries, Han

    2006-03-22

    Primates give alarm calls in response to the presence of predators. In some species, such as the Thomas langur (Presbytis thomasi), males only emit alarm calls if there is an audience. An unanswered question is whether the audience's behaviour influences how long the male will continue his alarm calling. We tested three hypotheses that might explain the alarm calling duration of male Thomas langurs: the fatigue, group size and group member behaviour hypotheses. Fatigue and group size did not influence male alarm calling duration. We found that males only ceased calling shortly after all individuals in his group had given at least one alarm call. This shows that males keep track of and thus remember which group members have called.

  1. An investigation of training strategies to improve alarm reactions.

    PubMed

    Bliss, James P; Chancey, Eric T

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have suggested that operator training may improve operator reactions; however, researchers have not documented this for alarm reactions. The goal of this research was to train participants to react to alarms using sensor activity patterns. In Experiment 1, 80 undergraduates monitored a simulated security screen while completing a primary word search task. They received spatial, temporal, single sensor, or no training to respond to alarms of differing reliability levels. Analyses revealed more appropriate and quicker reactions when participants were trained and when the alarms were reliable. In Experiment 2, 56 participants practiced time estimation by simple repetition, performance feedback, or performance feedback and temporal subdivision. They then reacted to alarms based on elapsed time between sensor activity and alarm onset. Surprisingly, results indicated that participants did not benefit differentially from temporal interval training, focusing instead on advertised system reliability. Researchers should replicate these findings with realistic tasks and real-world complex task operators.

  2. Alarm pheromones-chemical signaling in response to danger.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, François J; Haubruge, Eric; Mescher, Mark C

    2010-01-01

    Many animals respond to the threat of predation by producing alarm signals that warn other individuals of the presence of danger or otherwise reduce the success of predators. While alarm signals may be visual or auditory as well as chemical, alarm pheromones are common, especially among insects and aquatic organisms. Plants too emit chemical signals in response to attack by insect herbivores that recruit the herbivores' natural enemies and can induce preparations for defense in neighboring plants (or other parts of the same plant). In this chapter, we discuss our current understanding of chemical alarm signaling in a variety of animal groups (including social and presocial insects, marine invertebrates, fish, and mammals) and in plants. We also briefly discuss the exploitation of alarm pheromones as foraging cues for natural enemies. We conclude with a brief discussion of the potential exploitation of alarm signaling to achieve the applied goal of managing pest species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Social support and the self-rated health of older people

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yue; Zhang, Chen-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Quan; Li, Zhanzhan; Jiang, Caixiao; Huang, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The lack of social support in elderly populations incurs real societal costs and can lead to their poor health. The aim of this study is to investigate the self-rated health (SRH) and social support among older people as well as its associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 312 urban community-dwelling elderly aged 65 to 90 years in Tainan Taiwan and Fuzhou Fujian Province from March 2012 to October 2012. A Spearson correlation test, independent t test, a Pearson χ2 test, a linear regression analysis, and a multiple-level model were performed to analyze the results. The participants identified children as the most important source of objective and subjective support, followed by spouse and relatives. Tainan's elderly received more daily life assistance and emotional support, showed stronger awareness of the need to seek help, and maintained a higher frequency of social interactions compared with the elderly in Fuzhou. The mean objective support, subjective support, and support utilization scores as well as the overall social support among Tainan's elderly were significantly high compared with the scores among Fuzhou's elderly. Further, Tainan's elderly rated better SRH than Fuzhou's elderly. Correlation analysis showed that social support was significantly correlated with city, age, living conditions, marital status, and SRH. Multiple linear regression analysis, with social support as a dependent variable, retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model: city (4.792, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.068–6.516, P = 0.000), age (−0.805, 95% CI: −1.394 to −0.135, P = 0.013), marital status (−1.260, 95% CI: −1.891 to −0.629, P = 0.000), living conditions (4.069, 95% CI: 3.022–5.116, P = 0.000), and SRH −1.941, 95% CI: −3.194 to −0.688, P = 0.003). The multiple-level model showed that city would impact older people's social support (χ2 = 5.103, P < 0.001). Marital status (−2.133, 95

  4. 5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing cable strand alarm located at Beach and Hyde Streets. A strand in the cable (see CA-12-7) forces the fork forward, alerting the powerhouse to the strand by means of an electrical warning device. This strand alarm operates in essentially the same manner as those first used in the 1880s. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. Associations between supportive leadership and employees self-rated health in an occupational sample.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Burkhard; Loerbroks, Adrian; Herr, Raphael M; Wilson, Mark G; Jarczok, Marc N; Litaker, David; Mauss, Daniel; Bosch, Jos A; Fischer, Joachim E

    2014-01-01

    Protecting the health of the work force has become an important issue in public health research. This study aims to explore potential associations between supportive leadership style (SLS), an aspect of leadership behavior, and self-rated health (SRH) among employees. We drew on cross-sectional data from a cohort of industrial workers (n = 3,331), collected in 2009. We assessed employees' ratings of supportive, employee-oriented leadership behavior at their job, their SRH, and work stress as measured by the effort-reward model and scales measuring demands, control, and social support. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the perception of poor SLS and poor SRH controlling for work-related stress and other confounders. Sensitivity analyses stratified models by sex, age, and managerial position to test the robustness of associations. Perception of poor SLS was associated with poor SRH [OR 2.39 (95 % CI 1.95-2.92)]. Although attenuated following adjustment for measures of work-related stress and other confounders [OR 1.60 (95 % CI 1.26-2.04)], the magnitude, direction, and significance of this association remained robust in stratified models in most subgroups. SLS appears to be relevant to health in the workplace. Leadership behavior may represent a promising area for future research with potential for promoting better health in a large segment of the adult population.

  6. Weight loss support seeking on twitter: the impact of weight on follow back rates and interactions.

    PubMed

    May, Christine N; Waring, Molly E; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Oleski, Jessica L; Olendzki, Effie; Evans, Martinus; Carey, Jennifer; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2017-03-01

    People seek weight loss support on online social networks, but little is known about how to build a supportive community. We created four Twitter accounts portraying women interested in weight loss (two obese, two normal weight/overweight) and followed health care professional and peer accounts for 2-5 weeks. We examined follow back rates, interactions, and organic follows from professionals and peers by weight status. Follow back rates did not differ by weight status when following professionals (6.8 % normal weight/overweight vs 11.0 % for obese; p = 0.4167) or peers (6.7 % for normal weight/overweight vs 10.8 % for obese; p = 0.1548). Number of interactions and organic followers also did not differ by weight status. Peers interacted with study accounts significantly more than professionals (p = 0.0138), but interactions were infrequent. Women seeking weight loss support on Twitter may need to be present for more than 5 weeks to build an interactive weight loss community.

  7. [How Much Alarm Can the Human Being Tolerate?

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Benedikt; Peters, Jürgen; Frey, Ulrich H

    2017-07-01

    Due to growing technisation of intensive care the number of devices with integrated alarm systems is steadily increasing. However, most of the sounding alarms are false alarms causing high levels of frustration, aggression and inappropriate behaviour amongst the medical personnel. All this jeopardises patient care. The high number of alarms also disturb the patients interrupting their sleep and provokes anxiety, and also increases the already high noise level in intensive care units and the operating theatre alike. In the interest of the medical staff and our patients, we should reduce the high frequency of false alarms by using modern alarm algorithms techniques, lower both noise exposure and stress load with the help of modern individualized alarm systems and by increasing awareness on the dangers of alarm fatigue through training and by using individualized patient-related alarm limits. Despite economic challenges hospitals and intensive care units should optimize staffing, thereby lowering the risk to patients and improving employee satisfaction. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Northwest side, northeast part, looking southeast, note fire alarm box ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest side, northeast part, looking southeast, note fire alarm box at right - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. A national online survey on the effectiveness of clinical alarms.

    PubMed

    Korniewicz, Denise M; Clark, Tobey; David, Yadin

    2008-01-01

    To develop a national online survey to be administered by the American College of Clinical Engineers Healthcare Technology Foundation to hospitals and healthcare workers to determine the problems associated with alarms in hospitals. An online survey was developed by a 16-member task force representing professionals from clinical engineering, nursing, and technology to evaluate the reasons health-care workers do not respond to clinical alarms. A total of 1327 persons responded to the survey; most (94%) worked in acute care hospitals. About half of the respondents were registered nurses (51%), and one-third of respondents (31%) worked in a critical care unit. Most respondents (>90%) agreed or strongly agreed with the statements covering the purpose of clinical alarms and the need for prioritized and easily differentiated audible and visual alarms. Likewise, many respondents identified nuisance alarms as problematic; most agreed or strongly agreed that the alarms occur frequently (81%), disrupt patient care (77%), and can reduce trust in alarms and cause caregivers to disable them (78%). Effective clinical alarm management relies on (1) equipment designs that promote appropriate use, (2) clinicians who take an active role in learning how to use equipment safely over its full range of capabilities, and (3) hospitals that recognize the complexities of managing clinical alarms and devote the necessary resources to develop effective management schemes.

  10. Fuzzy Based Decision Support System for Condition Assessment and Rating of Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Karusala, Ramanjaneyulu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a knowledge based decision support system has been developed to efficiently handle the issues such as distress diagnosis, assessment of damages and condition rating of existing bridges towards developing an exclusive and robust Bridge Management System (BMS) for sustainable bridges. The Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES) diagnoses the distresses and finds the cause of distress in the bridge by processing the data which are heuristic and combined with site inspection results, laboratory test results etc. The coupling of symbolic and numeric type of data has been successfully implemented in the expert system to strengthen its decision making process. Finally, the condition rating of the bridge is carried out using the assessment results obtained from the KBES and the information received from the bridge inspector. A systematic procedure has been developed using fuzzy mathematics for condition rating of bridges by combining the fuzzy weighted average and resolution identity technique. The proposed methodologies and the decision support system will facilitate in developing a robust and exclusive BMS for a network of bridges across the country and allow the bridge engineers and decision makers to carry out maintenance of bridges in a rational and systematic way.

  11. Estimates of evaporation rates from wounds for various dressing/support surface combinations.

    PubMed

    Lachenbruch, Charlie; VanGilder, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The management of exudate is an essential aspect of wound care. The wound bed must remain moist to promote healing, but care must be taken to remove excess fluid to avoid maceration and subsequent breakdown of the periwound site, which could serve as a possible portal to infection. Excess fluid is typically absorbed into and/or evaporates through the wound dressing or may be managed by a powered vacuum-assisted closure device. Although the moisture vapor permeability has been studied for dressings, the rate of evaporation associated with wound's immediate treatment environment, or dressing/treatment surface interface, has not been addressed to date. It is essential for caregivers to have an understanding of how these 2 interventions work together in order to provide optimal care to the wound patient. The purpose of this study was to provide estimates of evaporative withdrawal rates for various wound dressings and therapeutic support surfaces.

  12. The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.

    PubMed

    Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

    1995-01-03

    Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture.

  13. The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

    1995-01-01

    Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture. PMID:7816823

  14. Survival and complication rates of implant-supported fixed partial dentures with cantilevers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zurdo, José; Romão, Cristina; Wennström, Jan L

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present systematic review was to analyze the potential effect of incorporation of cantilever extensions on the survival rate of implant-supported fixed partial dental prostheses (FPDPs) and the incidence of technical and biological complications, as reported in longitudinal studies with at least 5 years of follow-up. A MEDLINE search was conducted up to and including November 2008 for longitudinal studies with a mean follow-up period of at least 5 years. Two reviewers performed screening and data abstraction independently. Prosthesis-based data on survival/failure rate, technical complications (prosthesis-related problems, implant loss) and biological complications (marginal bone loss) were analyzed. The search provided 103 titles with abstract. Full-text analysis was performed of 12 articles, out of which three were finally included. Two of the studies had a prospective or retrospective case-control design, whereas the third was a prospective cohort study. The 5-year survival rate of cantilever FPDPs varied between 89.9% and 92.7% (weighted mean 91.9%), with implant fracture as the main cause for failures. The corresponding survival rate for FPDPs without cantilever extensions was 96.3-96.2% (weighted mean 95.8%). Technical complications related to the supra-constructions in the three included studies were reported to occur at a frequency of 13-26% (weighted mean 20.3%) for cantilever FPDPs compared with 0-12% (9.7%) for non-cantilever FPDPs. The most common complications were minor porcelain fractures and bridge-screw loosening. For cantilever FPDPs, the 5-year event-free survival rate varied between 66.7% and 79.2% (weighted mean 71.7%) and between 83.1% and 96.3% (weighted mean 85.9%) for non-cantilever FPDPs. No statistically significant differences were reported with regard to peri-implant bone-level change between the two prosthetic groups, either at the prosthesis or at the implant level. Data on implant-supported FPDPs with cantilever

  15. The Relationships between Support System Failures and College Students' Ratings of Self and Family: Do They Vary across Family Configuration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.

    1993-01-01

    College students (n=130) described support system failures they encountered during childhood and adolescence through responses on Personal History Inventory and ratings of self and family on Personal Attribute Inventory. Found significant direct relationships between level of support system failures and negativeness expressed in ratings of both…

  16. 45 CFR 307.30 - Federal financial participation at the 90 percent rate for statewide computerized support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... planning, design, development, installation or enhancement of a computerized support enforcement system as... determines that the computerized support enforcement system or alternative system configuration is designed... rate for statewide computerized support enforcement systems. 307.30 Section 307.30 Public Welfare...

  17. 45 CFR 307.30 - Federal financial participation at the 90 percent rate for statewide computerized support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... planning, design, development, installation or enhancement of a computerized support enforcement system as... determines that the computerized support enforcement system or alternative system configuration is designed... rate for statewide computerized support enforcement systems. 307.30 Section 307.30 Public Welfare...

  18. [Citalopram, escitalopram and prolonged QT: warning or alarm?].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Enric; Vieira, Sara; Garcia-Moll, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The alerts issued by regulatory agencies on the potential cardiac toxicity of citalopram and escitalopram have caused alarm among clinicians. A review of the data concerning this topic shows that the alarm should be limited to patients with a history of syncope or poisoning. As a precautionary measure, an electrocardiogram should be performed on elderly patients.

  19. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401... indicators and alarms. Every vessel of 1600 gross registered tons or integrated tug and barge or articulated... propeller shall be equipped with— (a) A pitch indicator in the wheelhouse and the engine room; and...

  20. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157.440 Section 157.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... § 157.440 Autopilot alarm or indicator. (a) A tankship owner or operator shall ensure that...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... photoelectric type. (ii) In each room designed for sleeping. (iii) On the ceiling of the upper level near the... home designed to be placed over a basement, the manufacturer must provide a smoke alarm for the... circuit. The wiring circuit for the alarm must not include any switches between the...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... photoelectric type. (ii) In each room designed for sleeping. (iii) On the ceiling of the upper level near the... home designed to be placed over a basement, the manufacturer must provide a smoke alarm for the... circuit. The wiring circuit for the alarm must not include any switches between the...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... photoelectric type. (ii) In each room designed for sleeping. (iii) On the ceiling of the upper level near the... home designed to be placed over a basement, the manufacturer must provide a smoke alarm for the... circuit. The wiring circuit for the alarm must not include any switches between the...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... photoelectric type. (ii) In each room designed for sleeping. (iii) On the ceiling of the upper level near the... home designed to be placed over a basement, the manufacturer must provide a smoke alarm for the... circuit. The wiring circuit for the alarm must not include any switches between the...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... each room designed for sleeping. (iii) On the ceiling of the upper level near the top or above each... placed over a basement, the manufacturer must provide a smoke alarm for the basement and must install at... circuit for the alarm must not include any switches between the over-current protective device and...

  6. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  7. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157.440 Section 157.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... § 157.440 Autopilot alarm or indicator. (a) A tankship owner or operator shall ensure that...

  8. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401... indicators and alarms. Every vessel of 1600 gross registered tons or integrated tug and barge or articulated... propeller shall be equipped with— (a) A pitch indicator in the wheelhouse and the engine room; and...

  9. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  10. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  11. 1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22, showing layout of rooms. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Edwards Test Station, Fire Alarm Plan, Bldg. E-22,' drawing no. EFA/11-1, December 15, 1961. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in...

  13. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in...

  14. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a...

  17. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a...

  18. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a...

  19. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a...

  20. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a...