Science.gov

Sample records for alarm set points

  1. Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.C.

    1987-05-01

    Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment.

  2. Attitude of resident doctors towards intensive care units' alarm settings.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rakesh; Bhalotra, Anju R; Goel, Nitesh; Pruthi, Amit; Bhadoria, Poonam; Anand, Raktima

    2010-11-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) monitors have alarm options to intimate the staff of critical incidents but these alarms needs to be adjusted in every patient. With this objective in mind, this study was done among resident doctors, with the aim of assessing the existing attitude among resident doctors towards ICU alarm settings. This study was conducted among residents working at ICU of a multispeciality centre, with the help of a printed questionnaire. The study involved 80 residents. All residents were in full agreement on routine use of ECG, pulse oximeter, capnograph and NIBP monitoring. 86% residents realised the necessity of monitoring oxygen concentration, apnoea monitoring and expired minute ventilation monitoring. 87% PGs and 70% SRs routinely checked alarm limits for various parameters. 50% PGs and 46.6% SRs set these alarm limits. The initial response to an alarm among all the residents was to disable the alarm temporarily and try to look for a cause. 92% of PGs and 98% of SRs were aware of alarms priority and colour coding. 55% residents believed that the alarm occurred due to patient disturbance, 15% believed that alarm was due to technical problem with monitor/sensor and 30% thought it was truly related to patient's clinical status. 82% residents set the alarms by themselves, 10% believed that alarms should be adjusted by nurse, 4% believed the technical staff should take responsibility of setting alarm limits and 4% believed that alarm levels should be pre-adjusted by the manufacturer. We conclude that although alarms are an important, indispensable, and lifesaving feature, they can be a nuisance and can compromise quality and safety of care by frequent false positive alarms. We should be familiar of the alarm modes, check and reset the alarm settings at regular interval or after a change in clinical status of the patient. PMID:21224968

  3. Alarms Philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    White, Karen S; Kasemir, Kay

    2009-01-01

    An effective alarm system consists of a mechanism to monitor control points and generate alarm notifications, tools for operators to view, hear, acknowledge and handle alarms and a good configuration. Despite the availability of numerous fully featured tools, accelerator alarm systems continue to be disappointing to operations, frequently to the point of alarms being permanently silenced or totally ignored. This is often due to configurations that produce an excessive number of alarms or fail to communicate the required operator response. Most accelerator controls systems do a good job of monitoring specified points and generating notifications when parameters exceed predefined limits. In some cases, improved tools can help, but more often, poor configuration is the root cause of ineffective alarm systems. A SNS, we have invested considerable effort in generating appropriate configurations using a rigorous set of rules based on best practices in the industrial process controls community. This paper will discuss our alarm configuration philosophy and operator response to our new system.

  4. Statistical criteria to set alarm levels for continuous measurements of ground contamination.

    PubMed

    Brandl, A; Jimenez, A D Herrera

    2008-08-01

    In the course of the decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the site of the Austrian Research Centers at Seibersdorf, the operator and licensee, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, conducted an extensive site survey and characterization to demonstrate compliance with regulatory site release criteria. This survey included radiological characterization of approximately 400,000 m(2) of open land on the Austrian Research Centers premises. Part of this survey was conducted using a mobile large-area gas proportional counter, continuously recording measurements while it was moved at a speed of 0.5 ms(-1). In order to set reasonable investigation levels, two alarm levels based on statistical considerations were developed. This paper describes the derivation of these alarm levels and the operational experience gained by detector deployment in the field. PMID:18617795

  5. Statistical criteria to set alarm levels for continuous measurements of ground contamination.

    PubMed

    Brandl, A; Jimenez, A D Herrera

    2008-08-01

    In the course of the decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the site of the Austrian Research Centers at Seibersdorf, the operator and licensee, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, conducted an extensive site survey and characterization to demonstrate compliance with regulatory site release criteria. This survey included radiological characterization of approximately 400,000 m(2) of open land on the Austrian Research Centers premises. Part of this survey was conducted using a mobile large-area gas proportional counter, continuously recording measurements while it was moved at a speed of 0.5 ms(-1). In order to set reasonable investigation levels, two alarm levels based on statistical considerations were developed. This paper describes the derivation of these alarm levels and the operational experience gained by detector deployment in the field.

  6. Set point calculations for RAPID project

    SciTech Connect

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    1999-11-19

    This change modifies accuracies of the water skid temperature indicators and controllers TIC-410. TI-412, TI-413, TIC-413, TIC-414, TIC-415. Acknowledges ability to calibrate PQIT-367 and modifies the accuracy of that instrument loop. Adjusts the allowable dilution dater temperature from 110-130F to 102-130F based on PCP Rev.2 and adjusts alarm and other points to reflect that change. Removes revision numbers for all references. Numerous additional changes (fixing typos, more detailed explanations etc.) throughout.

  7. Comparison of the identification and ease of use of two alarm sound sets by critical and acute care nurses with little or no music training: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Atyeo, J; Sanderson, P M

    2015-07-01

    The melodic alarm sound set for medical electrical equipment that was recommended in the International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-8 standard has proven difficult for clinicians to learn and remember, especially clinicians with little prior formal music training. An alarm sound set proposed by Patterson and Edworthy in 1986 might improve performance for such participants. In this study, 31 critical and acute care nurses with less than one year of formal music training identified alarm sounds while they calculated drug dosages. Sixteen nurses used the IEC and 15 used the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sound set. The mean (SD) percentage of alarms correctly identified by nurses was 51.3 (25.6)% for the IEC alarm set and 72.1 (18.8)% for the Patterson-Edworthy alarms (p = 0.016). Nurses using the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sound set reported that it was easier to distinguish between alarm sounds than did nurses using the IEC alarm sound set (p = 0.015). Principles used to construct the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sounds should be adopted for future alarm sound sets.

  8. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOEpatents

    Burke, William F.; Winiecki, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of an electrical system for varying the temperature with strain, the instrument including opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  9. Set point calculations for RAPID project

    SciTech Connect

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    1999-10-18

    The Respond and Pump in Days (RAPID) project was initiated to pump part of the contents of tank 241-SY-101 into tank 241-SY-102. This document establishes the basis for all set points and ranges used in the RAPID project.

  10. Remote Monitor Alarm System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

  11. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOEpatents

    Burke, W.F.; Winiecki, A.L.

    1984-10-17

    An instrument is described for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of means for varying the temperature with strain. The instrument includes opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  12. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Set Point Determination

    SciTech Connect

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-01-12

    This document provides the calculations used to determine the error of safety class signals used for the CVD process These errors are used with the Parameter limits to arrive at the initial set point. The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to process anomalies that, if unmitigated would result in a safety event. Specifically actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO on high tempered water MCO inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge the SCIC receives signals from MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum) helium flow rate, bay high temperature switches, seismic trips and time under vacuum trips.

  13. False alarm reduction in critical care.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this challenge, the design of the challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  14. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1987-04-13

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

  15. Understanding Clinical Alarm Safety.

    PubMed

    Lukasewicz, Carol L; Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Patient safety organizations and health care accreditation agencies recognize the significance of clinical alarm hazards. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, a nonprofit organization focused on development and use of safe and effective medical equipment, identifies alarm management as a major issue for health care organizations. ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization that researches approaches for improving patient safety and quality of care, identifies alarm hazards as the most significant of the "Top Ten Health Technology Hazards" for 2014. A new Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal focusing on clinical alarm safety contains new requirements for accredited hospitals to be fully implemented by 2016. Through a fictional unfolding case study, this article reviews selected contributing factors to clinical alarm hazards present in inpatient, high-acuity settings. Understanding these factors improves contributions by nurses to clinical alarm safety practice.

  16. Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function.

    PubMed

    Liew, Khang Jie; Ramli, Ahmad; Abd Majid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study.

  17. Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Ahmad; Abd. Majid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study. PMID:27315105

  18. D0 Cryo System ODH and Cryo Alarm System Response

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-05

    The D0 Cryo System is monitored by a computerized process control system and an ODH safety system. During steady state operations the cryo system will be unmanned and system experts will depend on communication systems for notification of system problems. The FIRUS system meets the minimum communication requirement and is supplemented with an autodialer which attempts to contact cryo operators by pager or phone. The RD/Safety Department requires the ODH monitor system to be connected to the labwide FIRUS system. which enables the Communications Center to receive alarms and notify the proper experts of the condition. The ODH system will have two alarm points. One for an ODH alarm and one for a system trouble alarm. The autodialer system has replaced a former cryo operations summation alarm point in the FIRUS system. This has freed space on the FIRUS system and has allowed the cryo experts more flexibility in setting up their own communication link. The FIRUS and the autodialer systems receive alarms and access lists of experts to call for notification of problems. Attempts to contact these experts will continue until the alarm or alarms is acknowledged.

  19. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  20. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1988-04-22

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

  1. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1988-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  2. Robust Point Set Registration Using Gaussian Mixture Models.

    PubMed

    Jian, Bing; Vemuri, Baba C

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a unified framework for the rigid and nonrigid point set registration problem in the presence of significant amounts of noise and outliers. The key idea of this registration framework is to represent the input point sets using Gaussian mixture models. Then, the problem of point set registration is reformulated as the problem of aligning two Gaussian mixtures such that a statistical discrepancy measure between the two corresponding mixtures is minimized. We show that the popular iterative closest point (ICP) method [1] and several existing point set registration methods [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7] in the field are closely related and can be reinterpreted meaningfully in our general framework. Our instantiation of this general framework is based on the the L2 distance between two Gaussian mixtures, which has the closed-form expression and in turn leads to a computationally efficient registration algorithm. The resulting registration algorithm exhibits inherent statistical robustness, has an intuitive interpretation, and is simple to implement. We also provide theoretical and experimental comparisons with other robust methods for point set registration. PMID:21173443

  3. The triangular maps with closed sets of periodic points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupka, Jiri

    2006-07-01

    In a recent paper we provided a characterization of triangular maps of the square, i.e., maps given by F(x,y)=(f(x),gx(y)), satisfying condition (P1) that any chain recurrent point is periodic. For continuous maps of the interval, there is a list of 18 other conditions equivalent to (P1), including (P2) that there is no infinite [omega]-limit set, (P3) that the set of periodic points is closed and (P4) that any regularly recurrent point is periodic, for instance. We provide an almost complete classification among these conditions for triangular maps, improve a result given by C. Arteaga [C. Arteaga, Smooth triangular maps of the square with closed set of periodic points, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 196 (1995) 987-997] and state an open problem concerning minimal sets of the triangular maps. The paper solves partially a problem formulated by A.N. Sharkovsky in the eighties. The mentioned open problem, the validity of (P4) => (P3), is related to the question whether some regularly recurrent point lies in the fibres over an f-minimal set possessing a regularly recurrent point. We answered this question in the positive for triangular maps with nondecreasing fiber maps. Consequently, the classification is completed for monotone triangular maps.

  4. Three dimensional mesh generation by triangulation of arbitrary point sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Timothy J.

    1987-01-01

    A method for generating an unstructured mesh is described. The approach is quite general and joins an arbitrary set of points to produce a covering of three dimensional space by tetrahedra. After removing the tetrahedra that connect surface points, a mesh suitable for a finite element based flow solver is obtained. Details of the triangulation algorithm are provided together with an analysis of the algorithm efficiency and validity.

  5. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  6. Point Set Registration via Particle Filtering and Stochastic Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Romeil; Dambreville, Samuel; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a particle filtering approach for the problem of registering two point sets that differ by a rigid body transformation. Typically, registration algorithms compute the transformation parameters by maximizing a metric given an estimate of the correspondence between points across the two sets of interest. This can be viewed as a posterior estimation problem, in which the corresponding distribution can naturally be estimated using a particle filter. In this work, we treat motion as a local variation in pose parameters obtained by running a few iterations of a certain local optimizer. Employing this idea, we introduce stochastic motion dynamics to widen the narrow band of convergence often found in local optimizer approaches for registration. Thus, the novelty of our method is threefold: First, we employ a particle filtering scheme to drive the point set registration process. Second, we present a local optimizer that is motivated by the correlation measure. Third, we increase the robustness of the registration performance by introducing a dynamic model of uncertainty for the transformation parameters. In contrast with other techniques, our approach requires no annealing schedule, which results in a reduction in computational complexity (with respect to particle size) as well as maintains the temporal coherency of the state (no loss of information). Also unlike some alternative approaches for point set registration, we make no geometric assumptions on the two data sets. Experimental results are provided that demonstrate the robustness of the algorithm to initialization, noise, missing structures, and/or differing point densities in each set, on several challenging 2D and 3D registration scenarios. PMID:20558877

  7. Simulation Parameters Settings Methodology Proposal Based on Leverage Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janošek, Michal; Kocian, Václav

    Simulation belongs to one of the most time consuming phases of complex system design. It is necessary to test our model with number of parameters of the entire simulation, control mechanism and components. We test various scenarios and strategies. In this article we would like to present the methodology proposal for simulation parameters settings based on leverage points' hierarchy developed by Donella H. Meadows to aid the simulation process.

  8. A time-domain CMOS oscillator-based thermostat with digital set-point programming.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lin, Shih-Hao

    2013-01-29

    This paper presents a time-domain CMOS oscillator-based thermostat with digital set-point programming [without a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) or external resistor] to achieve on-chip thermal management of modern VLSI systems. A time-domain delay-line-based thermostat with multiplexers (MUXs) was used to substantially reduce the power consumption and chip size, and can benefit from the performance enhancement due to the scaling down of fabrication processes. For further cost reduction and accuracy enhancement, this paper proposes a thermostat using two oscillators that are suitable for time-domain curvature compensation instead of longer linear delay lines. The final time comparison was achieved using a time comparator with a built-in custom hysteresis to generate the corresponding temperature alarm and control. The chip size of the circuit was reduced to 0.12 mm2 in a 0.35-mm TSMC CMOS process. The thermostat operates from 0 to 90 °C, and achieved a fine resolution better than 0.05 °C and an improved inaccuracy of ± 0.6 °C after two-point calibration for eight packaged chips. The power consumption was 30 µW at a sample rate of 10 samples/s.

  9. Stabilization and set-point regulation of underactuated mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loccufier, Mia

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical systems are referred to as underactuated if the number of independent actuators are fewer than the number of degrees of freedom, a general encountered problem in engineering applications. The considered mechanical systems belong to the class of Euler- Lagrange systems where both kinetic energy and potential energy are modeled in their most general form and energy dissipation is modeled according to the dissipation function of Rayleigh, i.e. viscous damping forces are assumed. The control objectives are stabilization and set-point regulation. The structure of the controller is a parallel combination of static output feedback with dynamic output feedback where nonlinear amplifiers are included. An energy based approach with Liapunov functions and the Kalman-Yacubovich-Popov main lemma yields alternative stability theorems. A number of conditions are introduced with respect to the controller's structure in order to guarantee stability. However, sufficient design freedom is left to choose a proper tuning principle and obtain the specified control objectives such as fast convergence to a set-point combined with disturbance rejection. A restriction on the control input energy can be incorporated as well. The applicability of the method will be illustrated with planar manipulators. The main contribution is that a methodology is developed which incorporates many controllers and tuning facilities.

  10. Thermoregulatory set point decreases after hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin W; Whitehurst, Marvin E; Gordon, Christopher J; Carroll, Robert G

    2005-03-01

    Hemorrhage in rats causes a drop in body core temperature that is proportional to the hemorrhage volume. We tested the hypothesis that the hemorrhagic hypothermia is due to a downward shift in the thermoregulatory set point. If so, rats subjected to hemorrhage would prefer a cooler ambient temperature to enhance heat loss during the posthemorrhage period. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with carotid arterial catheters and biotelemetry temperature probes. Two days later, rats were placed in a temperature gradient chamber that allowed the rat to move between ambient temperatures of 15 degrees C to 40 degrees C. Rat location within the gradient was recorded as the selected ambient temperature. After 48 h, a 24 mL/kg hemorrhage was induced via the carotid cannula followed by a 24-h recovery period in the gradient. Body core and selected ambient temperatures significantly decreased after hemorrhage. Within 50 min, selected ambient temperature decreased by 11 degrees C, and returned to normal 100 min after hemorrhage. Within 80 min after hemorrhage, core temperature decreased by 2.3 degrees C, and returned to normal by 8 h after hemorrhage. Expanded analysis of the first hour after hemorrhage showed that reduction in selected ambient temperature preceded the drop in body core temperature. Importantly, the decrease in selected ambient temperature persisted even during the peak decrease in body core temperature. These results indicate that a decrease in thermoregulatory set point contributes to the drop in body core temperature after hemorrhage. PMID:15718921

  11. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  12. SBR on-line monitoring by set-point titration.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, N; Ficara, E; Canziani, R; Luccarini, L; Ciappelloni, F; Ratini, P; Pirani, M; Mariani, S

    2006-01-01

    The applicability of set-point titration for monitoring biological processes has been widely demonstrated in the literature. Based on published and on-going experiences, some operating procedures have been specifically developed to be applied to SBRs, so that real-time information about the process and/or the influent can be obtained. This, in turn, would allow plant operators to select the most appropriate actions properly and timely. Five operating modes are described for the monitoring of (1) influent toxicity, (2) influent N-content, (3) nitrification capacity, (4) end of the nitrification reaction, and (5) nitrate effluent concentration, and are currently tested on the on-line titrator TITAAN (TITrimetric Automated ANalyser) which is in operation on a pilot scale SBR. PMID:16722107

  13. Point-to-set lengths, local structure, and glassiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaida, Sho; Berthier, Ludovic; Charbonneau, Patrick; Tarjus, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    The growing sluggishness of glass-forming liquids is thought to be accompanied by growing structural order. The nature of such order, however, remains hotly debated. A decade ago, point-to-set (PTS) correlation lengths were proposed as measures of amorphous order in glass formers, but recent results raise doubts as to their generality. Here, we extend the definition of PTS correlations to agnostically capture any type of growing order in liquids, be it local or amorphous. This advance enables the formulation of a clear distinction between slowing down due to conventional critical ordering and that due to glassiness, and provides a unified framework to assess the relative importance of specific local order and generic amorphous order in glass formation.

  14. Improved alarm tracking for better accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Nemesure, S.; Marr, G.; Shrey, T.; Kling, N.; Hammons, L.; Ingrassia, P.; D'Ottavio, T.

    2011-03-28

    An alarm system is a vital component of any accelerator, as it provides a warning that some element of the system is not functioning properly. The severity and age of the alarm may sometimes signify whether urgent or deferred attention is required. For example, older alarms may be given a lower priority if an assumption is made that someone else is already investigating it, whereas those of higher severity or alarms that are more current may indicate the need for an immediate response. The alarm history also provides valuable information regarding the functionality of the overall system, thus careful tracking of these data is likely to improve response time, remove uncertainty about the current status and assist in the ability to promptly respond to the same warning/trigger in the future. Since one goal of every alarm display is to be free of alarms, a clear and concise presentation of an alarm along with useful historic annotations can help the end user address the warning more quickly, thus expediting the elimination of such alarm conditions. By defining a discrete set of very specific alarm management states and by utilizing database resources to maintain a complete and easily accessible alarm history, we anticipate facilitated work flow due to more efficient operator response and management of alarms.

  15. IMPEDANCE ALARM SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Cowen, R.G.

    1959-09-29

    A description is given of electric protective systems and burglar alarm systems of the capacitance type in which the approach of an intruder at a place to be protected varies the capacitance in an electric circuit and the change is thereafter communicated to a remote point to actuate an alarm. According to the invention, an astable transitor multi-vibrator has the amplitude at its output voltage controlled by a change in the sensing capacitance. The sensing capacitance is effectively connected between collector and base of one stage of the multivibrator circuit through the detector-to-monitor line. The output of the detector is a small d-c voltage across the detector-to-monitor line. This d- c voltage is amplified and monitored at the other end of the line, where an appropriate alarm is actuated if a sudden change in the voltage occurs. The present system has a high degree of sensitivity and is very difficult to defeat by known techniques.

  16. Practical alarm filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, M.; Corsberg, D. )

    1994-02-01

    An expert system-based alarm filtering method is described which prioritizes and reduces the number of alarms facing an operator. This patented alarm filtering methodology was originally developed and implemented in a pressurized water reactor, and subsequently in a chemical processing facility. Both applications were in LISP and both were successful. In the chemical processing facility, for instance, alarm filtering reduced the quantity of alarm messages by 90%. 6 figs.

  17. The PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015: Reducing False Arrhythmia Alarms in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Shahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 Physio-Net/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1,250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A collection of 750 data segments was made available for training and a set of 500 was held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program’s performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year’s Challenge. PMID:27331073

  18. Automatic set-point titration for monitoring nitrification in SBRs.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, N; Ficara, E; Bonelli, S; Canziani, R; Ciappelloni, F; Mariani, S; Pirani, M; Ratini, P; Mazouni, D; Harmand, J

    2008-01-01

    Nitrification is usually the bottleneck of biological nitrogen removal processes. In SBRs systems, it is not often enough to monitor dissolved oxygen, pH and ORP to spot problems which may occur in nitrification processes. Therefore, automated supervision systems should be designed to include the possibility of monitoring the activity of nitrifying populations. Though the applicability of set-point titration for monitoring biological processes has been widely demonstrated in the literature, the possibility of an automated procedure is still at its early stage of industrial development. In this work, the use of an at-line automated titrator named TITAAN (TITrimetric Automated ANalyser) is presented. The completely automated sensor enables us to track nitrification rate trend with time in an SBR, detecting the causes leading to slower specific nitrification rates. It was also possible to perform early detection of toxic compounds in the influent by assessing their effect on the nitrifying biomass. Nitrifications rates were determined with average errors+/-10% (on 26 tests), never exceeding 20% as compared with UV-spectrophotometric determinations.

  19. Automatic set-point titration for monitoring nitrification in SBRs.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, N; Ficara, E; Bonelli, S; Canziani, R; Ciappelloni, F; Mariani, S; Pirani, M; Ratini, P; Mazouni, D; Harmand, J

    2008-01-01

    Nitrification is usually the bottleneck of biological nitrogen removal processes. In SBRs systems, it is not often enough to monitor dissolved oxygen, pH and ORP to spot problems which may occur in nitrification processes. Therefore, automated supervision systems should be designed to include the possibility of monitoring the activity of nitrifying populations. Though the applicability of set-point titration for monitoring biological processes has been widely demonstrated in the literature, the possibility of an automated procedure is still at its early stage of industrial development. In this work, the use of an at-line automated titrator named TITAAN (TITrimetric Automated ANalyser) is presented. The completely automated sensor enables us to track nitrification rate trend with time in an SBR, detecting the causes leading to slower specific nitrification rates. It was also possible to perform early detection of toxic compounds in the influent by assessing their effect on the nitrifying biomass. Nitrifications rates were determined with average errors+/-10% (on 26 tests), never exceeding 20% as compared with UV-spectrophotometric determinations. PMID:18701782

  20. Intelligent alarming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braden, W. B.

    1992-01-01

    This talk discusses the importance of providing a process operator with concise information about a process fault including a root cause diagnosis of the problem, a suggested best action for correcting the fault, and prioritization of the problem set. A decision tree approach is used to illustrate one type of approach for determining the root cause of a problem. Fault detection in several different types of scenarios is addressed, including pump malfunctions and pipeline leaks. The talk stresses the need for a good data rectification strategy and good process models along with a method for presenting the findings to the process operator in a focused and understandable way. A real time expert system is discussed as an effective tool to help provide operators with this type of information. The use of expert systems in the analysis of actual versus predicted results from neural networks and other types of process models is discussed.

  1. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  2. T-Farm complex alarm upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

  3. Media Agenda-Setting Theory: Points of Departure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, R. Warwick

    Reviewing the historical development of media agenda-setting theory suggests that topics emphasized by the mass news media become the topics people think are most important. The vast majority of agenda-setting studies, however, rely on aggregate measures of media and public agendas, and produce very little support for the original theory as there…

  4. On Motivating Operations at the Point of Online Purchase Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Arntzen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior analysis can be applied over a wide range of economic topics in which the main focus is the contingencies that influence the behavior of the economic agent. This paper provides an overview on the work that has been done on the impact from motivating operations at the point of online purchase situation. Motivating operations, a…

  5. D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Markely, D.; /Fermilab

    1992-08-03

    The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 bistable inputs, but is expandable to 64 bistable inputs with the purchase of more electronic cards at an approximate cost of $260 per card (8 bistable inputs). The auto dialer also has the capability for analog inputs, analog outputs, and bistable outputs none of which D0 uses or intends to use. The auto dialer can be called on its operating phone line to describe current alarms with the proper password. The Auto Dialer can dial lab extensions, lab pagers, and any number outside the lab. It cannot dial a long distance pager. The auto dialer monitors alarms and alarm conditions via the T1565 PLC, upon an alarm condition it initiates a phone calling sequence of preprogrammed lists with assigned priorities. When someone is reached, the auto dialer describes the individual alarm it is calling for, by a preprogrammed set of words for that individual alarm, spoken by a female voice. The called person then has a chance to acknowledge the alarm over the telephone, if the alarm is not acknowledged the auto dialer will disconnect and call the next person on the list. The auto dialer will continue to cycle through the list until it is acknowledged, reset, or the alarm condition no longer exists.

  6. Turning point sets the stage for emergency preparedness planning.

    PubMed

    Bekemeier, Betty; Dahl, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Nearly a billion dollars were made available to state health departments through federal grants in the spring of 2002 for public health emergency preparedness plans. Twenty-one states had already been participating for some years in The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Turning Point Initiative. This article illustrates how earlier practice and experience in developing cross-sector collaborations and institutionalizing a model of broad-based partnerships for public health decision making can increase effectiveness and efficiency in responding to a call for action around an emergency. PMID:15503602

  7. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  8. Bed exit alarms.

    PubMed

    2004-09-01

    Bed-exit alarms alert caregivers that a patient who should not get out of bed unassisted is doing so. These alarms can help reduce the likelihood of falls and can promote speedy assistance to patients who have already fallen. But as we described in our May 2004 Guidance Article on bed-exit alarms, they don't themselves prevent falls. They are only effective if used as part of an overall fall-prevention program and with a clear understanding of their limitations. This Evaluation examines the effectiveness of 16 bed-exit alarms from seven suppliers. Our ratings focus primarily on each product's reliability in detecting bed-exit events and alerting caregivers, its ability to minimize nuisance alarms (alarms that sound even though the patient isn't leaving the bed or that sound while a caregiver is helping the patient to leave the bed), and its resistance to deliberate or inadvertent tampering. Twelve of the products use pressure-sensor-activated alarms (mainly sensor pads placed on or under the mattress); three use a cord that can attach to the patient's garment, alarming if the cord is pulled loose from the control unit; and one is a position-sensitive alarm attached to a leg cuff. All the products reliably detect attempted or successful bed exits. But they vary greatly in how effectively they alert staff, minimize nuisance alarms, and resist tampering. Ease of use and battery performance also vary for many units. Of the pressure-sensor units, three are rated Preferred. Those units meet most of our criteria and have no significant disadvantages. Five of the other pressure-sensor products are Acceptable, and the remaining four are Not Recommended. All three cord-activated alarms are rated Acceptable, as is the patient-worn alarm.

  9. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set AGENCY: United... the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The coin set will be offered...

  10. The graph representation of the problem of pairing points from two sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzejszczak, Tomasz; Orwat, Justyna

    2016-06-01

    The validation procedure of hand detection algorithms required the creation of scoring method for a set of detected points according to set of ground truth points. In this paper a method of finding all points pairs with a smallest mutual distance is described. The problem of finding pairs is represented in graph form and solved with use of Dijkstra's algorithm. The problem is also described with use of an example.

  11. Smart smoke alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  12. Alarm Notification System

    1995-03-12

    AN/EMS, the Alarm Notification Energy Management System, is used to monitor digital sensors in PETC buildings and to notify the safety/security operator by both a video and an audio system when a possibly hazardous condition arises.

  13. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  14. Floating point only SIMD instruction set architecture including compare, select, Boolean, and alignment operations

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K.

    2011-03-01

    Mechanisms for implementing a floating point only single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture are provided. A processor is provided that comprises an issue unit, an execution unit coupled to the issue unit, and a vector register file coupled to the execution unit. The execution unit has logic that implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA). The floating point vector registers of the vector register file store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements. The processor may be part of a data processing system.

  15. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test. PMID:21747329

  16. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ok Min; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Methods Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. One bed out of 56 ICU beds was randomly assigned to each observation time unit. Results Overall 2,184 clinical alarms were counted for 48 hours of observation, and 45.5 clinical alarms occurred per hour per subject. Of these, 1,394 alarms (63.8%) were categorized as false alarms. The alarm fatigue score was 24.3 ± 4.0 out of 35. The highest scoring item was "always get bothered due to clinical alarms". The highest scoring item in obstacles was "frequent false alarms, which lead to reduced attention or response to alarms". Conclusions Nurses reported that they felt some fatigue due to clinical alarms, and false alarms were also obstacles to proper management. An appropriate hospital policy should be developed to reduce false alarms and nurses' alarm fatigue. PMID:26893950

  17. Performance improvement of PI controllers through dynamic set-point weighting.

    PubMed

    Mudi, Rajani K; Dey, Chanchal

    2011-04-01

    Responses of high-order systems under Ziegler-Nichols tuned PI controllers (ZNPIs) are characterized by excessive oscillation with a large overshoot. Although, a fixed set-point weighting based PI controller (FSWPI) may decrease the overshoot considerably, it fails to reduce the oscillation in the set-point response. Moreover, both FSWPI and ZNPI exhibit equally poor load regulation. Keeping in mind an overall improved performance, we propose an online dynamic set-point weighting technique for ZNPIs. The dynamic set-point weighting factor (β(d)) is heuristically derived from the instantaneous process trend. Performance of the proposed dynamic set-point weighting based PI controller (DSWPI) for various second- and third-order processes including a pH process shows a significant improvement during both the set-point and load disturbance responses over other methods. Stability and robustness of the proposed DSWPI are addressed. Effectiveness of the DSWPI is demonstrated through the real-time implementation on a practical DC position control system.

  18. An Optimal Set of Flesh Points on Tongue and Lips for Speech-Movement Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jun; Samal, Ashok; Rong, Panying; Green, Jordan R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine an optimal set of flesh points on the tongue and lips for classifying speech movements. Method: The authors used electromagnetic articulographs (Carstens AG500 and NDI Wave) to record tongue and lip movements from 13 healthy talkers who articulated 8 vowels, 11 consonants, a phonetically balanced set of…

  19. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  20. A PERFECT MATCH CONDITION FOR POINT-SET MATCHING PROBLEMS USING THE OPTIMAL MASS TRANSPORT APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, PENGWEN; LIN, CHING-LONG; CHERN, I-LIANG

    2013-01-01

    We study the performance of optimal mass transport-based methods applied to point-set matching problems. The present study, which is based on the L2 mass transport cost, states that perfect matches always occur when the product of the point-set cardinality and the norm of the curl of the non-rigid deformation field does not exceed some constant. This analytic result is justified by a numerical study of matching two sets of pulmonary vascular tree branch points whose displacement is caused by the lung volume changes in the same human subject. The nearly perfect match performance verifies the effectiveness of this mass transport-based approach. PMID:23687536

  1. Study on the RF Set Point for the PEFP DTL by using a phase scan method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Ji-Ho; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-12-01

    The drift tube linac (DTL) is used to accelerate proton beams from 20 MeV to 100 MeV in the linear accelerator of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP). The phase scan signature method is a common technique to determine the radio-frequency (rf) set point, including the rf amplitude and phase, in DTL tanks. In this work, we applied the phase scan method to the first tank of the PEFP's DTL in order to study the procedure for determining the rf set point by using artificial experimental data generated by using the PARMILA code.

  2. Control of ELT false alarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

  3. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  4. Parallel algorithm of generating set points for a manipulator with straight line and circular motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Jim Z. C.; Chao, Ming

    1992-06-01

    A parallel algorithm of generating set points in Cartesian space for a manipulator with straight-line and circular motions is described. This algorithm is developed for parallel computation and does not have the problem of the wobbling approach vector that affects many techniques. When the scheme is executed serially, the computing time is about two-thirds that of the conventional technique.

  5. Public Data Set: Control and Automation of the Pegasus Multi-point Thomson Scattering System

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bodner, Grant M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000324979172); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Reusch, Joshua A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000284249422); Rodriguez Sanchez, Cuauhtemoc [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000334712586); Schlossberg, David J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000287139448)

    2016-08-12

    This public data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in G.M. Bodner et al., 'Control and Automation of the Pegasus Multi-point Thomson Scattering System,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 11E523 (2016).

  6. An Experimental Design for Examining Thermoregulatory Set Points in Ectothermic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a protocol for examining the mechanisms of animal thermoregulation in a straightforward but more sophisticated manner than using a thermal gradient. Describes a methodology for conducting operant conditioning to examine thermal set points for ectothermic animals. Contains 20 references. (WRM)

  7. Robust group-wise rigid registration of point sets using t-mixture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, Nishant; Gooya, Ali; Frangi, Alejandro F.; Taylor, Zeike A.

    2016-03-01

    A probabilistic framework for robust, group-wise rigid alignment of point-sets using a mixture of Students t-distribution especially when the point sets are of varying lengths, are corrupted by an unknown degree of outliers or in the presence of missing data. Medical images (in particular magnetic resonance (MR) images), their segmentations and consequently point-sets generated from these are highly susceptible to corruption by outliers. This poses a problem for robust correspondence estimation and accurate alignment of shapes, necessary for training statistical shape models (SSMs). To address these issues, this study proposes to use a t-mixture model (TMM), to approximate the underlying joint probability density of a group of similar shapes and align them to a common reference frame. The heavy-tailed nature of t-distributions provides a more robust registration framework in comparison to state of the art algorithms. Significant reduction in alignment errors is achieved in the presence of outliers, using the proposed TMM-based group-wise rigid registration method, in comparison to its Gaussian mixture model (GMM) counterparts. The proposed TMM-framework is compared with a group-wise variant of the well-known Coherent Point Drift (CPD) algorithm and two other group-wise methods using GMMs, using both synthetic and real data sets. Rigid alignment errors for groups of shapes are quantified using the Hausdorff distance (HD) and quadratic surface distance (QSD) metrics.

  8. An affine point-set and line invariant algorithm for photo-identification of gray whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandan, Chandan; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Hillman, Gilbert; Wursig, Bernd

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents an affine point-set and line invariant algorithm within a statistical framework, and its application to photo-identification of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). White patches (blotches) appearing on a gray whale's left and right flukes (the flattened broad paddle-like tail) constitute unique identifying features and have been used here for individual identification. The fluke area is extracted from a fluke image via the live-wire edge detection algorithm, followed by optimal thresholding of the fluke area to obtain the blotches. Affine point-set and line invariants of the blotch points are extracted based on three reference points, namely the left and right tips and the middle notch-like point on the fluke. A set of statistics is derived from the invariant values and used as the feature vector representing a database image. The database images are then ranked depending on the degree of similarity between a query and database feature vectors. The results show that the use of this algorithm leads to a reduction in the amount of manual search that is normally done by marine biologists.

  9. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, D.W.

    1995-04-11

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

  10. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Don W.

    1995-01-01

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

  11. Regions of stability with unequal saturation limits and non-zero set point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.; Shrivastava, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Constraints on the magnitudes of control variables limit the region where open-loop unstable systems can be stabilized using feedback control. Variations in regions of stability with unequal control saturation limits and non-zero set points are illustrated for single-input unstable linear systems which have one or two unstable eigenvalues. The regions of stability for saddle-point- and unstable-node-type singularities increase with the increase in one of the saturation limits, but they become invariant when the larger control limit exceeds a certain value; the stability regions vanish for non-zero set-points that saturate the controls. The unstable-focus-type singularity exhibits strikingly different characteristics. These results suggest guidelines for obtaining desired stability regions for different types of singularities.

  12. Generating and executing programs for a floating point single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-04-16

    Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.

  13. Bed-exit alarm effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Capezuti, Elizabeth; Brush, Barbara L.; Lane, Stephen; Rabinowitz, Hannah U.; Secic, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the accuracy of two types of bed-exit alarms to detect bed-exiting body movements: pressure-sensitive and a pressure sensitive combined with infrared beam detectors (dual sensor system). We also evaluated the occurrence of nuisance alarms, or alarms that are activated when a participant does not attempt to get out of bed. Fourteen nursing home residents were directly observed for a total of 256 nights or 1,636.5 hours; an average of 18.3 ± 22.3 (± S.D.) nights/participant for an average of 6.4 ± 1.2 hours/night. After adjusting for body movements via repeated measures, Poisson regression modeling, the least squares adjusted means show a marginally significant difference between the type of alarm groups on the number of true positives (mean/S.E.M. = 0.086/1.617) for pressure-sensitive vs. dual sensor alarm (0.593/1.238; p = 0.0599) indicating that the dual sensor alarm may have a higher number of true positives. While the dual sensor bed-exit alarm was more accurate than the pressure sensitive alarm in identifying bed-exiting body movements and reducing the incidence of false alarms, false alarms were not eliminated altogether. Alarms are not a substitute for staff; adequate staff availability is still necessary when residents need or wish to exit bed. PMID:18508138

  14. Bed-exit alarm effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Capezuti, Elizabeth; Brush, Barbara L; Lane, Stephen; Rabinowitz, Hannah U; Secic, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the accuracy of two types of bed-exit alarms to detect bed-exiting body movements: pressure-sensitive and a pressure-sensitive combined with infrared (IR) beam detectors (dual sensor system). We also evaluated the occurrence of nuisance alarms, or alarms that are activated when a participant does not attempt to get out of bed. Fourteen nursing home residents were directly observed for a total of 256 nights or 1636.5h; an average of 18.3+/-22.3 (+/-S.D.) nights/participant for an average of 6.4+/-1.2 h/night. After adjusting for body movements via repeated measures, Poisson regression modeling, the least squares adjusted means (LSM) show a marginally significant difference between the type of alarm groups on the number of true positives (NTP) (mean/S.E.M.=0.086/1.617) for pressure-sensitive versus dual sensor alarm (0.593/1.238; p=0.0599) indicating that the dual sensor alarm may have a higher NTP. While the dual sensor bed-exit alarm was more accurate than the pressure-sensitive alarm in identifying bed-exiting body movements and reducing the incidence of false alarms, false alarms were not eliminated altogether. Alarms are not a substitute for staff; adequate staff availability is still necessary when residents need or wish to exit bed.

  15. Improved detection and false alarm rejection for chemical vapors using passive hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, William J.; Miyashiro, Rex; Gittins, Christopher M.; Konno, Daisei; Chang, Shing; Farr, Matt; Perkins, Brad

    2013-05-01

    Two AIRIS sensors were tested at Dugway Proving Grounds against chemical agent vapor simulants. The primary objectives of the test were to: 1) assess performance of algorithm improvements designed to reduce false alarm rates with a special emphasis on solar effects, and 3) evaluate performance in target detection at 5 km. The tests included 66 total releases comprising alternating 120 kg glacial acetic acid (GAA) and 60 kg triethyl phosphate (TEP) events. The AIRIS sensors had common algorithms, detection thresholds, and sensor parameters. The sensors used the target set defined for the Joint Service Lightweight Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) with TEP substituted for GA and GAA substituted for VX. They were exercised at two sites located at either 3 km or 5 km from the release point. Data from the tests will be presented showing that: 1) excellent detection capability was obtained at both ranges with significantly shorter alarm times at 5 km, 2) inter-sensor comparison revealed very comparable performance, 3) false alarm rates < 1 incident per 10 hours running time over 143 hours of sensor operations were achieved, 4) algorithm improvements eliminated both solar and cloud false alarms. The algorithms enabling the improved false alarm rejection will be discussed. The sensor technology has recently been extended to address the problem of detection of liquid and solid chemical agents and toxic industrial chemical on surfaces. The phenomenology and applicability of passive infrared hyperspectral imaging to this problem will be discussed and demonstrated.

  16. Articulated Non-Rigid Point Set Registration for Human Pose Estimation from 3D Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Song; Fan, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generative framework for 3D human pose estimation that is able to operate on both individual point sets and sequential depth data. We formulate human pose estimation as a point set registration problem, where we propose three new approaches to address several major technical challenges in this research. First, we integrate two registration techniques that have a complementary nature to cope with non-rigid and articulated deformations of the human body under a variety of poses. This unique combination allows us to handle point sets of complex body motion and large pose variation without any initial conditions, as required by most existing approaches. Second, we introduce an efficient pose tracking strategy to deal with sequential depth data, where the major challenge is the incomplete data due to self-occlusions and view changes. We introduce a visible point extraction method to initialize a new template for the current frame from the previous frame, which effectively reduces the ambiguity and uncertainty during registration. Third, to support robust and stable pose tracking, we develop a segment volume validation technique to detect tracking failures and to re-initialize pose registration if needed. The experimental results on both benchmark 3D laser scan and depth datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework when compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26131673

  17. Hypo- and Hyperglycemic Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Howsmon, Daniel; Bequette, B. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery that insulin regulates blood glucose by Banting and Best in 1922, the symptoms and risks associated with hypoglycemia became widely recognized. This article reviews devices to warn individuals of impending hypo- and hyperglycemia; biosignals used by these devices include electroencephalography, electrocardiography, skin galvanic resistance, diabetes alert dogs, and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). While systems based on other technology are increasing in performance and decreasing in size, CGM technology remains the best method for both reactive and predictive alarming of hypo- or hyperglycemia. PMID:25931581

  18. Validation of non-rigid point-set registration methods using a porcine bladder pelvic phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariaee, Roja; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Brown, Colin J.; Spadinger, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The problem of accurate dose accumulation in fractionated radiotherapy treatment for highly deformable organs, such as bladder, has garnered increasing interest over the past few years. However, more research is required in order to find a robust and efficient solution and to increase the accuracy over the current methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of utilizing non-rigid (affine or deformable) point-set registration in accumulating dose in bladder of different sizes and shapes. A pelvic phantom was built to house an ex vivo porcine bladder with fiducial landmarks adhered onto its surface. Four different volume fillings of the bladder were used (90, 180, 360 and 480 cc). The performance of MATLAB implementations of five different methods were compared, in aligning the bladder contour point-sets. The approaches evaluated were coherent point drift (CPD), gaussian mixture model, shape context, thin-plate spline robust point matching (TPS-RPM) and finite iterative closest point (ICP-finite). The evaluation metrics included registration runtime, target registration error (TRE), root-mean-square error (RMS) and Hausdorff distance (HD). The reference (source) dataset was alternated through all four points-sets, in order to study the effect of reference volume on the registration outcomes. While all deformable algorithms provided reasonable registration results, CPD provided the best TRE values (6.4 mm), and TPS-RPM yielded the best mean RMS and HD values (1.4 and 6.8 mm, respectively). ICP-finite was the fastest technique and TPS-RPM, the slowest.

  19. The thermal set point of water vapor and life in the condensed state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Paul W.

    Application of the Planck-Benzinger thermal work function to biological systems has demonstrated a basic pattern for life processes, in that there is a lower cutoff point, Th, where entropy is favorable but enthalpy is unfavorable, i.e. DeltaH0(Th)(+) = TDeltaS0(Th)(+), and upper cutoff, Tm, above which enthalpy is favorable but entropy unfavorable, i.e. DeltaH0(Tm)(-) = TDeltaS0(Tm)(-). Only between these two limits, where DeltaG0(T) = 0, is the net chemical driving force favorable for interacting biological processes. In the case of water vapor condensation, the compensatory temperatures, Th and Tm, are 30 K and 380 K. As water is a part of every living system, this suggests that the single point at which the system is its most stable, defined as the thermal set point, TS, must fall between the limits defined by the compensatory temperatures, 30 K and 380 K. We find that each interacting biological system will exhibit a negative minimum of Gibbs free energy change at a single well-defined temperature, TS, where the bound unavailable energy TDeltaS0 = 0. At this point, DeltaH0(TS)(-) = DeltaG0(TS)(-)minimum, the maximum work can be accomplished. For water vapor condensation, the thermal set point falls at 260 K and TCp at DeltaCp0(T) = 0 is 130 K. In examining interacting protein systems, it would appear that the heat capacity change of reaction of water within the system determines the behavior of the other thermodynamic functions. It is clear that the requirements for the existence of a condensed state of water and the existence of life are essentially the same, and are uniquely linked to a characteristic thermal set point. Without the existence of a condensed state, life would not exist.

  20. An Optimal Set of Flesh Points on Tongue and Lips for Speech-Movement Classification

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Ashok; Rong, Panying; Green, Jordan R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The authors sought to determine an optimal set of flesh points on the tongue and lips for classifying speech movements. Method The authors used electromagnetic articulographs (Carstens AG500 and NDI Wave) to record tongue and lip movements from 13 healthy talkers who articulated 8 vowels, 11 consonants, a phonetically balanced set of words, and a set of short phrases during the recording. We used a machine-learning classifier (support-vector machine) to classify the speech stimuli on the basis of articulatory movements. We then compared classification accuracies of the flesh-point combinations to determine an optimal set of sensors. Results When data from the 4 sensors (T1: the vicinity between the tongue tip and tongue blade; T4: the tongue-body back; UL: the upper lip; and LL: the lower lip) were combined, phoneme and word classifications were most accurate and were comparable with the full set (including T2: the tongue-body front; and T3: the tongue-body front). Conclusion We identified a 4-sensor set—that is, T1, T4, UL, LL—that yielded a classification accuracy (91%–95%) equivalent to that using all 6 sensors. These findings provide an empirical basis for selecting sensors and their locations for scientific and emerging clinical applications that incorporate articulatory movements. PMID:26564030

  1. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P.

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  2. Deformable Registration of Feature-Endowed Point Sets Based on Tensor Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wassermann, Demian; Ross, James; Washko, George; Wells, William M.; San Jose-Estepar, Raul

    2014-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is a framework to register anatomical structures characterized as a point set where each point has an associated symmetric matrix. These matrices can represent problem-dependent characteristics of the registered structure. For example, in airways, matrices can represent the orientation and thickness of the structure. Our framework relies on a dense tensor field representation which we implement sparsely as a kernel mixture of tensor fields. We equip the space of tensor fields with a norm that serves as a similarity measure. To calculate the optimal transformation between two structures we minimize this measure using an analytical gradient for the similarity measure and the deformation field, which we restrict to be a diffeomorphism. We illustrate the value of our tensor field model by comparing our results with scalar and vector field based models. Finally, we evaluate our registration algorithm on synthetic data sets and validate our approach on manually annotated airway trees. PMID:25473253

  3. Distributed Computation of the knn Graph for Large High-Dimensional Point Sets

    PubMed Central

    Plaku, Erion; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    2009-01-01

    High-dimensional problems arising from robot motion planning, biology, data mining, and geographic information systems often require the computation of k nearest neighbor (knn) graphs. The knn graph of a data set is obtained by connecting each point to its k closest points. As the research in the above-mentioned fields progressively addresses problems of unprecedented complexity, the demand for computing knn graphs based on arbitrary distance metrics and large high-dimensional data sets increases, exceeding resources available to a single machine. In this work we efficiently distribute the computation of knn graphs for clusters of processors with message passing. Extensions to our distributed framework include the computation of graphs based on other proximity queries, such as approximate knn or range queries. Our experiments show nearly linear speedup with over one hundred processors and indicate that similar speedup can be obtained with several hundred processors. PMID:19847318

  4. An algorithm for minimum-cost set-point ordering in a cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm for minimum cost ordering of set points in a cryogenic wind tunnel is developed. The procedure generates a matrix of dynamic state transition costs, which is evaluated by means of a single-volume lumped model of the cryogenic wind tunnel and the use of some idealized minimum-costs, which is evaluated by means of a single-volume lumped model of the cryogenic wind tunnel and the use of some idealized minimum-cost state-transition control strategies. A branch and bound algorithm is employed to determine the least costly sequence of state transitions from the transition-cost matrix. Some numerical results based on data for the National Transonic Facility are presented which show a strong preference for state transitions that consume to coolant. Results also show that the choice of the terminal set point in an open odering can produce a wide variation in total cost.

  5. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable... the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable... the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable... the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable... the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  9. Robust CPD Algorithm for Non-Rigid Point Set Registration Based on Structure Information

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lei; Li, Guangyao; Xiao, Mang; Xie, Li

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Coherent Point Drift (CPD) algorithm has become a very popular and efficient method for point set registration. However, this method does not take into consideration the neighborhood structure information of points to find the correspondence and requires a manual assignment of the outlier ratio. Therefore, CPD is not robust for large degrees of degradation. In this paper, an improved method is proposed to overcome the two limitations of CPD. A structure descriptor, such as shape context, is used to perform the auxiliary calculation of the correspondence, and the proportion of each GMM component is adjusted by the similarity. The outlier ratio is formulated in the EM framework so that it can be automatically calculated and optimized iteratively. The experimental results on both synthetic data and real data demonstrate that the proposed method described here is more robust to deformation, noise, occlusion, and outliers than CPD and other state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26866918

  10. Robust CPD Algorithm for Non-Rigid Point Set Registration Based on Structure Information.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lei; Li, Guangyao; Xiao, Mang; Xie, Li

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Coherent Point Drift (CPD) algorithm has become a very popular and efficient method for point set registration. However, this method does not take into consideration the neighborhood structure information of points to find the correspondence and requires a manual assignment of the outlier ratio. Therefore, CPD is not robust for large degrees of degradation. In this paper, an improved method is proposed to overcome the two limitations of CPD. A structure descriptor, such as shape context, is used to perform the auxiliary calculation of the correspondence, and the proportion of each GMM component is adjusted by the similarity. The outlier ratio is formulated in the EM framework so that it can be automatically calculated and optimized iteratively. The experimental results on both synthetic data and real data demonstrate that the proposed method described here is more robust to deformation, noise, occlusion, and outliers than CPD and other state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26866918

  11. Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Low Resource Settings: Present Status and Future Role of Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shikha; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; Estrela, Pedro; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2015-08-13

    The inability to diagnose numerous diseases rapidly is a significant cause of the disparity of deaths resulting from both communicable and non-communicable diseases in the developing world in comparison to the developed world. Existing diagnostic instrumentation usually requires sophisticated infrastructure, stable electrical power, expensive reagents, long assay times, and highly trained personnel which is not often available in limited resource settings. This review will critically survey and analyse the current lateral flow-based point-of-care (POC) technologies, which have made a major impact on diagnostic testing in developing countries over the last 50 years. The future of POC technologies including the applications of microfluidics, which allows miniaturisation and integration of complex functions that facilitate their usage in limited resource settings, is discussed The advantages offered by such systems, including low cost, ruggedness and the capacity to generate accurate and reliable results rapidly, are well suited to the clinical and social settings of the developing world.

  12. Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Low Resource Settings: Present Status and Future Role of Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; Estrela, Pedro; O’Kennedy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The inability to diagnose numerous diseases rapidly is a significant cause of the disparity of deaths resulting from both communicable and non-communicable diseases in the developing world in comparison to the developed world. Existing diagnostic instrumentation usually requires sophisticated infrastructure, stable electrical power, expensive reagents, long assay times, and highly trained personnel which is not often available in limited resource settings. This review will critically survey and analyse the current lateral flow-based point-of-care (POC) technologies, which have made a major impact on diagnostic testing in developing countries over the last 50 years. The future of POC technologies including the applications of microfluidics, which allows miniaturisation and integration of complex functions that facilitate their usage in limited resource settings, is discussed The advantages offered by such systems, including low cost, ruggedness and the capacity to generate accurate and reliable results rapidly, are well suited to the clinical and social settings of the developing world. PMID:26287254

  13. General melting point prediction based on a diverse compound data set and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, M; Glen, Robert C; Bender, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    We report the development of a robust and general model for the prediction of melting points. It is based on a diverse data set of 4173 compounds and employs a large number of 2D and 3D descriptors to capture molecular physicochemical and other graph-based properties. Dimensionality reduction is performed by principal component analysis, while a fully connected feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network is employed for model generation. The melting point is a fundamental physicochemical property of a molecule that is controlled by both single-molecule properties and intermolecular interactions due to packing in the solid state. Thus, it is difficult to predict, and previously only melting point models for clearly defined and smaller compound sets have been developed. Here we derive the first general model that covers a comparatively large and relevant part of organic chemical space. The final model is based on 2D descriptors, which are found to contain more relevant information than the 3D descriptors calculated. Internal random validation of the model achieves a correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.661 with an average absolute error of 37.6 degrees C. The model is internally consistent with a correlation coefficient of the test set of Q(2) = 0.658 (average absolute error 38.2 degrees C) and a correlation coefficient of the internal validation set of Q(2) = 0.645 (average absolute error 39.8 degrees C). Additional validation was performed on an external drug data set consisting of 277 compounds. On this external data set a correlation coefficient of Q(2) = 0.662 (average absolute error 32.6 degrees C) was achieved, showing ability of the model to generalize. Compared to an earlier model for the prediction of melting points of druglike compounds our model exhibits slightly improved performance, despite the much larger chemical space covered. The remaining model error is due to molecular properties that are not captured using single-molecule based

  14. Alarm management system

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, D.D.; Elm, W.C.; Lipner, M.H.; Butterworth, G.E.; Easter, J.R.

    1989-03-28

    An alarm management system is described, comprising: a light water pressurized nuclear power plant; sensors coupled to the plant indicating the state of the plant; a sensor signal processor, operatively connected to the sensors, for producing state signals indicating the state of the sensors monitoring the power plant from the sensor signals and for combining the state signals using rule based algorithms to produce abnormality indication signals; a message processor, operatively connected to the sensor signal processor for receiving the abnormality indication signals; a spatially dedicated parallel display for each function, operatively connected to the message processor, for displaying the portion of the messages simultaneously; and a serial display, operatively connected to the message processor, for displaying the message in the queues in priority order within category within function upon request, the message processor outputting messages from the queue to the parallel display as display space becomes available on the parallel display due to an abnormality being resolved.

  15. Touch and gravitropic set-point angle interact to modulate gravitropic growth in roots.

    PubMed

    Massa, G D; Gilroy, S

    2003-01-01

    Plant roots must sense and respond to a variety of environmental stimuli as they grow through the soil. Touch and gravity represent two of the mechanical signals that roots must integrate to elicit the appropriate root growth patterns and root system architecture. Obstacles such as rocks will impede the general downwardly directed gravitropic growth of the root system and so these soil features must be sensed and this information processed for an appropriate alteration in gravitropic growth to allow the root to avoid the obstruction. We show that primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis do appear to sense and respond to mechanical barriers placed in their path of growth in a qualitatively similar fashion. Both types of roots exhibited a differential growth response upon contacting the obstacle that directed the main axis of elongation parallel to the barrier. This growth habit was maintained until the obstacle was circumvented, at which point normal gravitropic growth was resumed. Thus, the gravitational set-point angle of the primary and lateral roots prior to encountering the barrier were 95 degrees and 136 degrees respectively and after growing off the end of the obstacle identical set-point angles were reinstated. However, whilst tracking across the barrier, quantitative differences in response were observed between these two classes of roots. The root tip of the primary root maintained an angle of 136 degrees to the horizontal as it traversed the barrier whereas the lateral roots adopted an angle of 154 degrees. Thus, this root tip angle appeared dependent on the gravitropic set-point angle of the root type with the difference in tracking angle quantitatively reflecting differences in initial set-point angle. Concave and convex barriers were also used to analyze the response of the root to tracking along a continuously varying surface. The roots maintained the a fairly fixed angle to gravity on the curved surface implying a constant resetting of this tip angle

  16. Touch and gravitropic set-point angle interact to modulate gravitropic growth in roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, G. D.; Gilroy, S.

    2003-01-01

    Plant roots must sense and respond to a variety of environmental stimuli as they grow through the soil. Touch and gravity represent two of the mechanical signals that roots must integrate to elicit the appropriate root growth patterns and root system architecture. Obstacles such as rocks will impede the general downwardly directed gravitropic growth of the root system and so these soil features must be sensed and this information processed for an appropriate alteration in gravitropic growth to allow the root to avoid the obstruction. We show that primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis do appear to sense and respond to mechanical barriers placed in their path of growth in a qualitatively similar fashion. Both types of roots exhibited a differential growth response upon contacting the obstacle that directed the main axis of elongation parallel to the barrier. This growth habit was maintained until the obstacle was circumvented, at which point normal gravitropic growth was resumed. Thus, the gravitational set-point angle of the primary and lateral roots prior to encountering the barrier were 95 degrees and 136 degrees respectively and after growing off the end of the obstacle identical set-point angles were reinstated. However, whilst tracking across the barrier, quantitative differences in response were observed between these two classes of roots. The root tip of the primary root maintained an angle of 136 degrees to the horizontal as it traversed the barrier whereas the lateral roots adopted an angle of 154 degrees. Thus, this root tip angle appeared dependent on the gravitropic set-point angle of the root type with the difference in tracking angle quantitatively reflecting differences in initial set-point angle. Concave and convex barriers were also used to analyze the response of the root to tracking along a continuously varying surface. The roots maintained the a fairly fixed angle to gravity on the curved surface implying a constant resetting of this tip angle

  17. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  18. Nurses' Perceptions and Practices Toward Clinical Alarms in a Transplant Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: Exploring Key Issues Leading to Alarm Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Rapp, Kami Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive care units (ICUs) are complex work environments where false alarms occur more frequently than on non-critical care units. The Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal .06.01.01 targeted improving the safety of clinical alarm systems and required health care facilities to establish alarm systems safety as a hospital priority by July 2014. An important initial step toward this requirement is identifying ICU nurses’ perceptions and common clinical practices toward clinical alarms, where little information is available. Objective Our aim was to determine perceptions and practices of transplant/cardiac ICU (TCICU) nurses toward clinical alarms and benchmark the results against the 2011 Healthcare Technology Foundation’s (HTF) Clinical Alarms Committee Survey. Methods A quality improvement project was conducted on a 20-bed TCICU with 39 full- and part-time nurses. Nurses were surveyed about their perceptions and attitudes toward and practices on clinical alarms using an adapted HTF clinical alarms survey. Results were compared to the 2011 HTF data. Correlations among variables were examined. Results All TCICU nurses provided usable responses (N=39, 100%). Almost all nurses (95%-98%) believed that false alarms are frequent, disrupt care, and reduce trust in alarm systems, causing nurses to inappropriately disable them. Unlike the 2011 HTF clinical alarms survey results, a significantly higher percentage of our TCICU nurses believed that existing devices are complex, questioned the ability and adequacy of the new monitoring systems to solve alarm management issues, pointed to the lack of prompt response to alarms, and indicated the lack of clinical policy on alarm management (P<.01). Major themes in the narrative data focused on nurses’ frustration related to the excessive number of alarms and poor usability of the cardiac monitors. A lack of standardized approaches exists in changing patients’ electrodes and individualizing parameters

  19. Body temperature set-point and the conscious perception of skin temperature in obese women.

    PubMed

    Zahorska-Markiewicz, B; Staszkiewicz, M

    1987-01-01

    Obese and control women were immersed in a bath of water kept at 37 degrees C. Oral temperature was measured. The subjects left hand was placed outside the bath for the local application of thermal stimuli between 20 degrees and 45 degrees C, subjects reporting the most pleasant temperature. The lower oral temperatures and lower levels of skin temperature rated as pleasant by obese women as compared with women of normal body weight or less suggests that in obesity the set-point of body temperature is lowered.

  20. Concave soft sets, critical soft points, and union-soft ideals of ordered semigroups.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young Bae; Song, Seok Zun; Muhiuddin, G

    2014-01-01

    The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed. PMID:25405223

  1. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A.; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  2. Dual-time-point Imaging and Delayed-time-point Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/Computed Tomography Imaging in Various Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Segtnan, Eivind Antonsen; Grupe, Peter; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2016-01-01

    The techniques of dual-time-point imaging (DTPI) and delayed-time-point imaging, which are mostly being used for distinction between inflammatory and malignant diseases, has increased the specificity of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET for diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. A gradually increasing trend of FDG uptake over time has been shown in malignant cells, and a decreasing or constant trend has been shown in inflammatory/infectious processes. Tumor heterogeneity can be assessed by using early and delayed imaging because differences between primary versus metastatic sites become more detectable compared with single time points. This article discusses the applications of DTPI and delayed-time-point imaging.

  3. The role of the mtDNA set point in differentiation, development and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; St John, Justin C

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA replication is critical for maintaining mtDNA copy number to generate sufficient cellular energy that is required for development and for functional cells. In early development, mtDNA copy number is strictly regulated at different stages, and, as a result, the establishment of the mtDNA set point is required for sequential cell lineage commitment. The failure to establish the mtDNA set point results in incomplete differentiation or embryonic arrest. The regulation of mtDNA copy number during differentiation is closely associated with cellular gene expression, especially with the pluripotency network, and DNA methylation profiles. The findings from cancer research highlight the relationship between mitochondrial function, mtDNA copy number and DNA methylation in regulating differentiation. DNA methylation at exon 2 of DNA polymerase gamma subunit A (POLGA) has been shown to be a key factor, which can be modulated to change the mtDNA copy number and cell fate of differentiating and tumour cells. The present review combines multi-disciplinary data from mitochondria, development, epigenetics and tumorigenesis, which could provide novel insights for further research, especially for developmental disorders and cancers. PMID:27679856

  4. The Contribution of Viral Genotype to Plasma Viral Set-Point in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hodcroft, Emma; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Fearnhill, Esther; Phillips, Andrew; Dunn, David; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pillay, Deenan; Leigh Brown, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Disease progression in HIV-infected individuals varies greatly, and while the environmental and host factors influencing this variation have been widely investigated, the viral contribution to variation in set-point viral load, a predictor of disease progression, is less clear. Previous studies, using transmission-pairs and analysis of phylogenetic signal in small numbers of individuals, have produced a wide range of viral genetic effect estimates. Here we present a novel application of a population-scale method based in quantitative genetics to estimate the viral genetic effect on set-point viral load in the UK subtype B HIV-1 epidemic, based on a very large data set. Analyzing the initial viral load and associated pol sequence, both taken before anti-retroviral therapy, of 8,483 patients, we estimate the proportion of variance in viral load explained by viral genetic effects to be 5.7% (CI 2.8–8.6%). We also estimated the change in viral load over time due to selection on the virus and environmental effects to be a decline of 0.05 log10 copies/mL/year, in contrast to recent studies which suggested a reported small increase in viral load over the last 20 years might be due to evolutionary changes in the virus. Our results suggest that in the UK epidemic, subtype B has a small but significant viral genetic effect on viral load. By allowing the analysis of large sample sizes, we expect our approach to be applicable to the estimation of the genetic contribution to traits in many organisms. PMID:24789308

  5. The Set Point Theory of Well-Being Has Serious Flaws: On the Eve of a Scientific Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Set-point theory is the main research paradigm in the field of subjective well-being (SWB). It has been extended and refined for 30 years to take in new results. The central plank of the theory is that adult set-points do not change, except temporarily in the face of major life events. There was always some "discordant data," including evidence…

  6. Students' Understanding of Limiting Behavior at a Point for Functions from [Set of Real Numbers][superscript 2] to [Set of Real Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamona-Downs, Joanna K.; Megalou, Foteini J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine students' understanding of the limiting behavior of a function from [set of real numbers][superscript 2] to [set of real numbers] at a point "P." This understanding depends on which definition is used for a limit. Several definitions are considered; two of these concern the notion of a neighborhood of "P", while…

  7. Loop Heat Pipe Operation Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) have been used for thermal control of several NASA and commercial orbiting spacecraft. The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its compensation chamber (CC). Most LHPs use the CC temperature for feedback control of its operating temperature. There exists a thermal resistance between the heat source to be cooled by the LHP and the LHP's CC. Even if the CC set point temperature is controlled precisely, the heat source temperature will still vary with its heat output. For most applications, controlling the heat source temperature is of most interest. A logical question to ask is: "Can the heat source temperature be used for feedback control of the LHP operation?" A test program has been implemented to answer the above question. Objective is to investigate the LHP performance using the CC temperature and the heat source temperature for feedback control

  8. Loop Heat Pipe Operation Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its reservoir. Controlling the reservoir saturation temperature is commonly accomplished by cold biasing the reservoir and using electrical heaters to provide the required control power. Using this method, the loop operating temperature can be controlled within +/- 0.5K. However, because of the thermal resistance that exists between the heat source and the LHP evaporator, the heat source temperature will vary with its heat output even if LHP operating temperature is kept constant. Since maintaining a constant heat source temperature is of most interest, a question often raised is whether the heat source temperature can be used for LHP set point temperature control. A test program with a miniature LHP has been carried out to investigate the effects on the LHP operation when the control temperature sensor is placed on the heat source instead of the reservoir. In these tests, the LHP reservoir is cold-biased and is heated by a control heater. Tests results show that it is feasible to use the heat source temperature for feedback control of the LHP operation. Using this method, the heat source temperature can be maintained within a tight range for moderate and high powers. At low powers, however, temperature oscillations may occur due to interactions among the reservoir control heater power, the heat source mass, and the heat output from the heat source. In addition, the heat source temperature could temporarily deviate from its set point during fast thermal transients. The implication is that more sophisticated feedback control algorithms need to be implemented for LHP transient operation when the heat source temperature is used for feedback control.

  9. Telomere length is inherited with resetting of the telomere set-point.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Y Jeffrey; Calado, Rodrigo T; Hathcock, Karen S; Lansdorp, Peter M; Young, Neal S; Hodes, Richard J

    2010-06-01

    We have studied models of telomerase haploinsufficiency in humans and mice to analyze regulation of telomere length and the significance of "set points" in inheritance of telomere length. In three families with clinical syndromes associated with short telomeres resulting from haploinsufficient mutations in TERT, the gene encoding telomerase reverse transcriptase, we asked whether restoration of normal genotypes in offspring of affected individuals would elongate inherited short telomeres. Telomeres were shorter than normal in some but not all genotypically normal offspring of telomerase-mutant parents or grandparents. Analysis of these findings was complicated by heterogeneity of telomere length among individuals, as well as by the admixing of telomeres inherited from affected parents with those inherited from unaffected ("wild-type" TERT) parents. To understand further the inheritance of telomere length, we established a shortened-telomere mouse model. When Tert(+/-) heterozygous mice were successively cross-bred through 17 generations, telomere length shortened progressively. The late-generation Tert(+/-) mice were intercrossed to produce genotypically wild-type Tert(+/+) mice, for which telomere length was characterized. Strikingly, telomere length in these Tert(+/+) mice was not longer than that of their Tert(+/-) parents. Moreover, when successive crosses were carried out among these short-telomere Tert(+/+) offspring mice, telomere length was stable, with no elongation up to six generations. This breeding strategy therefore has established a mouse strain, B6.ST (short telomeres), with C57BL/6 genotype and stable short telomeres. These findings suggest that the set point of telomere lengths of offspring is determined by the telomere lengths of their parents in the presence of normal expression of telomerase.

  10. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  11. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  12. Feasibility of HIV point-of-care tests for resource-limited settings: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Wendy; Gous, Natasha; Ford, Nathan; Scott, Lesley E

    2014-01-01

    Improved access to anti-retroviral therapy increases the need for affordable monitoring using assays such as CD4 and/or viral load in resource-limited settings. Barriers to accessing treatment, high rates of loss to initiation and poor retention in care are prompting the need to find alternatives to conventional centralized laboratory testing in certain countries. Strong advocacy has led to a rapidly expanding repertoire of point-of-care tests for HIV. point-of-care testing is not without its challenges: poor regulatory control, lack of guidelines, absence of quality monitoring and lack of industry standards for connectivity, to name a few. The management of HIV increasingly requires a multidisciplinary testing approach involving hematology, chemistry, and tests associated with the management of non-communicable diseases, thus added expertise is needed. This is further complicated by additional human resource requirements and the need for continuous training, a sustainable supply chain, and reimbursement strategies. It is clear that to ensure appropriate national implementation either in a tiered laboratory model or a total decentralized model, clear country-specific assessments need to be conducted. PMID:25197773

  13. Evaluating Diagnostic Point-of-Care Tests in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K; Hyle, Emily P; Noubary, Farzad; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Wilson, Douglas; Bishai, William; Rodriguez, William; Bassett, Ingrid V

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic point-of-care (POC) testing is intended to minimize the time to obtain a test result, thereby allowing clinicians and patients to make an expeditious clinical decision. As POC tests expand into resource-limited settings (RLS), the benefits must outweigh the costs. To optimize POC testing in RLS, diagnostic POC tests need rigorous evaluations focused on relevant clinical outcomes and operational costs, which differ from evaluations of conventional diagnostic tests. Here, we reviewed published studies on POC testing in RLS, and found no clearly defined metric for the clinical utility of POC testing. Therefore, we propose a framework for evaluating POC tests, and suggest and define the term “test efficacy” to describe a diagnostic test’s capacity to support a clinical decision within its operational context. We also proposed revised criteria for an ideal diagnostic POC test in resource-limited settings. Through systematic evaluations, comparisons between centralized diagnostic testing and novel POC technologies can be more formalized, and health officials can better determine which POC technologies represent valuable additions to their clinical programs. PMID:24332389

  14. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Alarming increase in refugees.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  16. Interactive Discovery of New Phenomena in Martian Point Spectra and Hyperspectral Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, K.; Lanza, N.; Thompson, D. R.; Blaney, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    In sifting through large martian data sets to find observations of particular scientific interest, there is always a lingering question of "what are we missing?" Targeted searches for materials such as phyllosilicates or carbonates might successfully identify key observations of each, but given limited analysis time we might inadvertently pass over other equally interesting compositions. Data sets with high dimensionality pose an additional challenge for efficient analysis and interpretation. Two prime examples are point spectra such as those collected by LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instruments like ChemCam on the Mars Science Laboratory and hyperspectral data such as that collected by CRISM on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. We have developed DEMUD (Discovery through Eigenbasis Modeling of Uninteresting Data), a method that quickly scans through large data sets to identify observations that stand out as unusual or anomalous. It focuses attention on new or unexpected observations, accelerating the discovery of new phenomena. Further, DEMUD learns from feedback. Each item it selects can be designated 'interesting' or 'uninteresting'. DEMUD learns to ignore items deemed uninteresting even if they are otherwise anomalous (e.g., observations that contain noise, bad pixels, or even just novelties that are now well understood). DEMUD progressively peels back layers of anomalies in the data set, without specializing on one particular science goal. It therefore remains open to discovering new phenomena that may not have been anticipated by the mission prior to data collection. This data-driven analysis based on statistical properties can complement model-based interpretations of the observations. In addition to highlighting items of interest, DEMUD also provides explanations for individual decisions, e.g., highlighting specific wavelengths where the chosen sample has unusually high, or low, intensity. It therefore can greatly accelerate not just the discovery

  17. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  18. The ALARM Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhardt, Ira

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted over three recent semesters of an introductory calculus course to test whether it was possible to quantify the effect that difficulty with basic algebraic and arithmetic computation had on individual performance. Points lost during the term were classified as being due to either algebraic and arithmetic mistakes…

  19. Genetic analysis of the gravitropic set-point angle in lateral roots of arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, J. L.; Hangarter, R. P.

    2003-05-01

    Research on gravity responses in plants has mostly focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically orient to a vertical orientation. However, the distribution of lateral organs and their characteristically non-vertical growth orientation are critical for the determination of plant form. For example, in Arabidopsis, when lateral roots emerge from the primary root, they grow at a nearly horizontal orientation. As they elongate, the roots slowly curve until they eventually reach a vertical orientation. The regulation of this lateral root orientation is an important component affecting overall root system architecture. We found that this change in orientation is not simply due to the onset of gravitropic competence, as non-vertical lateral roots are capable of both positive and negative gravitropism. Thus, the horizontal growth of new lateral roots appears to be determined by what is called the gravitropic set-point angle (GSA). This developmental control of the GSA of lateral roots in Arabidopsis provides a useful system for investigating the components involved in regulating gravitropic responses. Using this system, we have identified several Arabidopsis mutants that have altered lateral root orientations but maintain normal primary root orientation.

  20. Genetic analysis of the gravitropic set-point angle in lateral roots of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mullen, J L; Hangarter, R P

    2003-01-01

    Research on gravity responses in plants has mostly focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically orient to a vertical orientation. However, the distribution of lateral organs and their characteristically non-vertical growth orientation are critical for the determination of plant form. For example, in Arabidopsis, when lateral roots emerge from the primary root, they grow at a nearly horizontal orientation. As they elongate, the roots slowly curve until they eventually reach a vertical orientation. The regulation of this lateral root orientation is an important component affecting overall root system architecture. We found that this change in orientation is not simply due to the onset of gravitropic competence, as non-vertical lateral roots are capable of both positive and negative gravitropism. Thus, the horizontal growth of new lateral roots appears to be determined by what is called the gravitropic set-point angle (GSA). This developmental control of the GSA of lateral roots in Arabidopsis provides a useful system for investigating the components involved in regulating gravitropic responses. Using this system, we have identified several Arabidopsis mutants that have altered lateral root orientations but maintain normal primary root orientation.

  1. Criticality as a Set-Point for Adaptive Behavior in Neuromorphic Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Stepp, Nigel D.; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware are designed by drawing inspiration from biology to overcome limitations of current computer architectures while forging the development of a new class of autonomous systems that can exhibit adaptive behaviors. Several designs in the recent past are capable of emulating large scale networks but avoid complexity in network dynamics by minimizing the number of dynamic variables that are supported and tunable in hardware. We believe that this is due to the lack of a clear understanding of how to design self-tuning complex systems. It has been widely demonstrated that criticality appears to be the default state of the brain and manifests in the form of spontaneous scale-invariant cascades of neural activity. Experiment, theory and recent models have shown that neuronal networks at criticality demonstrate optimal information transfer, learning and information processing capabilities that affect behavior. In this perspective article, we argue that understanding how large scale neuromorphic electronics can be designed to enable emergent adaptive behavior will require an understanding of how networks emulated by such hardware can self-tune local parameters to maintain criticality as a set-point. We believe that such capability will enable the design of truly scalable intelligent systems using neuromorphic hardware that embrace complexity in network dynamics rather than avoiding it. PMID:26648839

  2. Genetic analysis of the gravitropic set-point angle in lateral roots of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J. L.; Hangarter, R. P.; Kiss, J. Z. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Research on gravity responses in plants has mostly focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically orient to a vertical orientation. However, the distribution of lateral organs and their characteristically non-vertical growth orientation are critical for the determination of plant form. For example, in Arabidopsis, when lateral roots emerge from the primary root, they grow at a nearly horizontal orientation. As they elongate, the roots slowly curve until they eventually reach a vertical orientation. The regulation of this lateral root orientation is an important component affecting overall root system architecture. We found that this change in orientation is not simply due to the onset of gravitropic competence, as non-vertical lateral roots are capable of both positive and negative gravitropism. Thus, the horizontal growth of new lateral roots appears to be determined by what is called the gravitropic set-point angle (GSA). This developmental control of the GSA of lateral roots in Arabidopsis provides a useful system for investigating the components involved in regulating gravitropic responses. Using this system, we have identified several Arabidopsis mutants that have altered lateral root orientations but maintain normal primary root orientation. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Criticality as a Set-Point for Adaptive Behavior in Neuromorphic Hardware.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Stepp, Nigel D; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware are designed by drawing inspiration from biology to overcome limitations of current computer architectures while forging the development of a new class of autonomous systems that can exhibit adaptive behaviors. Several designs in the recent past are capable of emulating large scale networks but avoid complexity in network dynamics by minimizing the number of dynamic variables that are supported and tunable in hardware. We believe that this is due to the lack of a clear understanding of how to design self-tuning complex systems. It has been widely demonstrated that criticality appears to be the default state of the brain and manifests in the form of spontaneous scale-invariant cascades of neural activity. Experiment, theory and recent models have shown that neuronal networks at criticality demonstrate optimal information transfer, learning and information processing capabilities that affect behavior. In this perspective article, we argue that understanding how large scale neuromorphic electronics can be designed to enable emergent adaptive behavior will require an understanding of how networks emulated by such hardware can self-tune local parameters to maintain criticality as a set-point. We believe that such capability will enable the design of truly scalable intelligent systems using neuromorphic hardware that embrace complexity in network dynamics rather than avoiding it. PMID:26648839

  4. Genetics of the gravitropic set-point angle in lateral organs of Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, J.; Hangarter, R.

    Research on gravity responses in plants has mostly focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically orient to a vertical orientation. However, the distribution of lateral organs and their typically non-vertical growth orientation are critical for the determination of plant form. For example, in Arabidopsis, when lateral roots emerge from the primary root, they grow at a nearly horizontal orientation. As they elongate, the roots slowly curve until they eventually reach a vertical orientation. The regulation of this lateral root orientation is an important component affecting the overall root system architecture. We found that this change in orientation is not simply due to the onset of gravitropic competence, as non-vertical lateral roots are capable of both positive and negative gravitropism. Thus, the horizontal growth the new lateral roots is determined by what is called the gravitropic set-point angle (GSA). This developmental control of the GSA of lateral roots in Arabidopsis provides a useful system for investigating the components involved in regulating gravitropic responses. Using this system, we have identified several Arabidopsis mutants that have altered lateral root orientations but maintain normal primary root orientation. Two of these mutants also have altered orientation of their rosette leaves, indicating some common mechanisms in the positioning of root and shoot lateral organs. Rosette leaves and lateral roots also have in common a regulation of orientation by red light that may be due to red-light-dependent changes in the GSA. Further molecular and physiological analyses of the GSA mutants will provide insight into the basis of GSA regulation and, thus, a better understanding of how gravity controls plant architecture. [This work was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through grant no. NCC 2-1200.

  5. An application of a dynamical set point policy to main irrigation canals using in-line storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemy Shahdany, S. M.; Maestre, J. M.; Van Overloop, P. J.; Monem, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    In this study a set of different set points are taken into account for several pools of the Dez irrigation canal. The set points are calculated according to the water demands that are expected during the next hours. The rationale behind considering a group of set points is that it can be interesting to store water into different pools, as in-line reservoirs, in order to reduce the delay time and to compensate possible mismatches between upstream supply and downstream demand. A severe and sudden increasing - decreasing flow schedule has been applied by using Sobek hydrodynamic model for normal operation and operation with using in-line storage. A controller is used to choose between these set points in order to obtain the highest possible control performance. To this end, we consider a model predictive controller that follows each of the set points. As a consequence, different control vectors are calculated and only the one that minimizes the expected cost is implemented. This policy is repeated in a receding horizon fashion each time step. Finally, in order to test the proposed technique, we have carried out different simulations that compare it with other popular techniques such as local feedback PI and standard MPC. The proposed method enables main irrigation canals continue to flow at night in large and medium size main canals.

  6. The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Chen, Xihui; Danilova, Katia

    2009-01-01

    Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

  7. Non-rigid point set registration of curves: registration of the superficial vessel centerlines of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marreiros, Filipe M. M.; Wang, Chunliang; Rossitti, Sandro; Smedby, Örjan

    2016-03-01

    In this study we present a non-rigid point set registration for 3D curves (composed by 3D set of points). The method was evaluated in the task of registration of 3D superficial vessels of the brain where it was used to match vessel centerline points. It consists of a combination of the Coherent Point Drift (CPD) and the Thin-Plate Spline (TPS) semilandmarks. The CPD is used to perform the initial matching of centerline 3D points, while the semilandmark method iteratively relaxes/slides the points. For the evaluation, a Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) dataset was used. Deformations were applied to the extracted vessels centerlines to simulate brain bulging and sinking, using a TPS deformation where a few control points were manipulated to obtain the desired transformation (T1). Once the correspondences are known, the corresponding points are used to define a new TPS deformation(T2). The errors are measured in the deformed space, by transforming the original points using T1 and T2 and measuring the distance between them. To simulate cases where the deformed vessel data is incomplete, parts of the reference vessels were cut and then deformed. Furthermore, anisotropic normally distributed noise was added. The results show that the error estimates (root mean square error and mean error) are below 1 mm, even in the presence of noise and incomplete data.

  8. Onsite Portable Alarm System - Its Merit and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saita, J.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Recently an existence of the earthquake early warning system (EEWS) becomes popular. In general, the EEWS will be installed in a fixed observation site and it may consist of several separated components such as a sensing portion, A/D converter, an information processing potion and so on. The processed information for warning may be transmitted to network via fixed communication line, and therefore this kind of alarm system is called as Network Alarm System. On the other hand, after the severe earthquake damage, it is very important to save the disaster victims immediately. These rescue staffs are also under the risk of aftershocks and need a local alarm not depending on the network, so this kind of alarm can be called as Onsite Alarm. But the common early warning system is too complex to set onsite temporary, and even if possible to install, the alarm is too late to receive at the epicentral area. However, the new generation earthquake early warning system FREQL can issue the P wave alarm by minimum 0.2 seconds after P wave detection. And FREQL is characterized as the unique all-in-one seismometer with power unit. At the time of the 2004 Niigata-Ken-Chuetsu earthquake, a land slide attacked a car just passing. A hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department pulled the survivor, one baby, from the land slide area. During their activity the rescue team was exposed to the risk of secondary hazards caused by the aftershocks. It was clear that it is necessary to use a portable warning system to issue the onsite P wave alarm. Because FREQL was originally developed as portable equipment, Tokyo Fire Department asked us to modify it to the portable equipment with the loud sound and the light signal. In this moment, this portable FREQL has equipped in nation wide. When the hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department was sent to Pakistan as a task force for rescue work of the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, the portable FREQL was used as important onsite portable warning system and P

  9. The homeostatic set point of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis – maximum curvature theory for personalized euthyroid targets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite rendering serum free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) within the normal population ranges broadly defined as euthyroidism, many patients being treated for hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism persistently experience subnormal well-being discordant from their pre-disease healthy euthyroid state. This suggests that intra-individual physiological optimal ranges are narrower than laboratory-quoted normal ranges and implies the existence of a homeostatic set point encoded in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis that is unique to every individual. Methods We have previously shown that the dose–response characteristic of the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) unit to circulating thyroid hormone levels follows a negative exponential curve. This led to the discovery that the normal reference intervals of TSH and FT4 fall within the ‘knee’ region of this curve where the maximum curvature of the exponential HP characteristic occurs. Based on this observation, we develop the theoretical framework localizing the position of euthyroid homeostasis over the point of maximum curvature of the HP characteristic. Results The euthyroid set points of patients with primary hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can be readily derived from their calculated HP curve parameters using the parsimonious mathematical model above. It can be shown that every individual has a euthyroid set point that is unique and often different from other individuals. Conclusions In this treatise, we provide evidence supporting a set point-based approach in tailoring euthyroid targets. Rendering FT4 and TSH within the laboratory normal ranges can be clinically suboptimal if these hormone levels are distant from the individualized euthyroid homeostatic set point. This mathematical technique permits the euthyroid set point to be realistically computed using an algorithm readily implementable for computer-aided calculations to facilitate precise targeted dosing of patients in this modern

  10. Xcel Energy implements an alarm management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, J.; Abreu, G.

    2007-11-15

    Not so long ago, Xcel Energy's Pawnee Station, a 505 MW coal-fired generating station in Brush, Colorado, USA was commonly generating 300 to 400 alarms per 8-hour shift. The article describes how the alarm system was revised and improved by tackling alarm dead-bands, and rationalising alarms for routine events. Operators are trained to understand the functions of alarm management components, their use and response, and obtain feedback. Today the power station reports about one alarm per hour. 3 photos.

  11. Eye-Tracking Students' Attention to PowerPoint Photographs in a Science Education Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slykhuis, David A.; Wiebe, Eric N.; Annetta, Len A.

    2005-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology allows for the determination of the exact location of the point of gaze of a subject's eye. This study sought to take advantage of this ability to determine how students attend to science related photographs. Pre-service science teachers were shown a PowerPoint[TM] Presentation with embedded photographs. The photographs…

  12. Sets meeting isometric copies of the lattice Z2 in exactly one point

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Steve; Mauldin, R. Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The construction of a subset S of ℝ2 such that each isometric copy of ℤ2 (the lattice points in the plane) meets S in exactly one point is indicated. This provides a positive answer to a problem of H. Steinhaus [Sierpiński, W. (1958) Fund. Math. 46, 191–194]. PMID:12466499

  13. Multiple Time Courses of Vestibular Set-Point Adaptation Revealed by Sustained Magnetic Field Stimulation of the Labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Jareonsettasin, Prem; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Ward, Bryan K; Roberts, Dale C; Schubert, Michael C; Zee, David S

    2016-05-23

    A major focus in neurobiology is how the brain adapts its motor behavior to changes in its internal and external environments [1, 2]. Much is known about adaptively optimizing the amplitude and direction of eye and limb movements, for example, but little is known about another essential form of learning, "set-point" adaptation. Set-point adaptation balances tonic activity so that reciprocally acting, agonist and antagonist muscles have a stable platform from which to launch accurate movements. Here, we use the vestibulo-ocular reflex-a simple behavior that stabilizes the position of the eye while the head is moving-to investigate how tonic activity is adapted toward a new set point to prevent eye drift when the head is still [3, 4]. Set-point adaptation was elicited with magneto-hydrodynamic vestibular stimulation (MVS) by placing normal humans in a 7T MRI for 90 min. MVS is ideal for prolonged labyrinthine activation because it mimics constant head acceleration and induces a sustained nystagmus similar to natural vestibular lesions [5, 6]. The MVS-induced nystagmus diminished slowly but incompletely over multiple timescales. We propose a new adaptation hypothesis, using a cascade of imperfect mathematical integrators, that reproduces the response to MVS (and more natural chair rotations), including the gradual decrease in nystagmus as the set point changes over progressively longer time courses. MVS set-point adaptation is a biological model with applications to basic neurophysiological research into all types of movements [7], functional brain imaging [8], and treatment of vestibular and higher-level attentional disorders by introducing new biases to counteract pathological ones [9]. PMID:27185559

  14. Testing Set-Point Theory in a Swiss National Sample: Reaction and Adaptation to Major Life Events.

    PubMed

    Anusic, Ivana; Yap, Stevie C Y; Lucas, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    Set-point theory posits that individuals react to the experience of major life events, but quickly adapt back to pre-event baseline levels of subjective well-being in the years following the event. A large, nationally representative panel study of Swiss households was used to examine set-point theory by investigating the extent of adaptation following the experience of marriage, childbirth, widowhood, unemployment, and disability. Our results demonstrate that major life events are associated with marked change in life satisfaction and, for some events (e.g., marriage, disability), these changes are relatively long lasting even when accounting for normative, age related change.

  15. Priority coding for control room alarms

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

  16. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis... type of device includes conditioned response enuresis alarms. (b) Classification. Class II...

  17. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm resolution capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  20. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  2. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  3. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  4. Estimation of melting points of large set of persistent organic pollutants utilizing QSPR approach.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Marquita; Sizochenko, Natalia; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The presence of polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as Cl/Br-substituted benzenes, biphenyls, diphenyl ethers, and naphthalenes has been identified in all environmental compartments. The exposure to these compounds can pose potential risk not only for ecological systems, but also for human health. Therefore, efficient tools for comprehensive environmental risk assessment for POPs are required. Among the factors vital for environmental transport and fate processes is melting point of a compound. In this study, we estimated the melting points of a large group (1419 compounds) of chloro- and bromo- derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes, diphenylethers, and benzenes by utilizing quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) techniques. The compounds were classified by applying structure-based clustering methods followed by GA-PLS modeling. In addition, random forest method has been applied to develop more general models. Factors responsible for melting point behavior and predictive ability of each method were discussed.

  5. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  10. Public Data Set: A Novel, Cost-Effective, Multi-Point Thomson Scattering System on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    DOE Data Explorer

    Schlossberg, David J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000287139448); Bodner, Grant M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000324979172); Reusch, Joshua A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000284249422); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Rodriguez Sanchez, Cuauhtemoc [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000334712586)

    2016-08-13

    This public data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in D.J. Schlossberg et. al., 'A Novel, Cost-Effective, Multi-Point Thomson Scattering System on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment,' accepted for publication in Review of Scientific Instruments.

  11. Set Point Calculations for RAPID Project [Removal of Hold for HNF-5087 and HNF-5088 and HNF-5089

    SciTech Connect

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    1999-09-02

    The Respond and Pump in Days (RAPID) project was initiated to pump part of the contents of tank 241-SY-101 into tanks 241-SY-102. This document establishes the basis for all set points and ranges used in the RAPID project.

  12. Algorithms for projecting a point onto a level surface of a continuous function on a compact set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunova, N. K.; Dulliev, A. M.; Zabotin, V. I.

    2014-09-01

    Given an equation f( x) = 0, the problem of finding its solution nearest to a given point is considered. In contrast to the authors' previous works dealing with this problem, exact algorithms are proposed assuming that the function f is continuous on a compact set. The convergence of the algorithms is proved, and their performance is illustrated with test examples.

  13. Alarm Pheromone Processing in the Ant Brain: An Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mizunami, Makoto; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons (PNs), to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive PNs are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system. PMID:20676235

  14. Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Mizunami, Makoto; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons (PNs), to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive PNs are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system. PMID:20676235

  15. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Markman

    2001-08-06

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of

  16. Progress in the development of paper-based diagnostics for low-resource point-of-care settings

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Samantha; Thiessen, Gregory; Fu, Elain

    2014-01-01

    This Review focuses on recent work in the field of paper microfluidics that specifically addresses the goal of translating the multistep processes that are characteristic of gold-standard laboratory tests to low-resource point-of-care settings. A major challenge is to implement multistep processes with the robust fluid control required to achieve the necessary sensitivity and specificity of a given application in a user-friendly package that minimizes equipment. We review key work in the areas of fluidic controls for automation in paper-based devices, readout methods that minimize dedicated equipment, and power and heating methods that are compatible with low-resource point-of-care settings. We also highlight a focused set of recent applications and discuss future challenges. PMID:24256361

  17. Volume reconstruction of point cloud data sets derived from computational geodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, D. A.

    2012-05-01

    One of the most widely used numerical modeling techniques in geodynamics to study the evolution of geomaterials is the "marker-and-cell" technique. In such methods the material lithology is represented by Lagrangian particles (markers), while the continuum equations are solved on a background mesh. Significant research has been devoted to improving the efficiency and scalability of these numerical methods to enable high-resolution simulations to be performed on modest computational resources. In contrast, little attention has been given to developing visualization techniques suitable for interrogation high-resolution 3D particle data sets. We describe an efficient algorithm for performing a volume reconstruction of the lithology field defined via particles (code available upon request from the author). The algorithm generates an Approximate Voronoi Diagram (AVD) which transforms particle data sets into a cell-based, volumetric data set. The volumetric representation enables cross sections of the material configuration to be constructed efficiently and unambiguously, thereby enabling the interior material structure of the simulation results to be analyzed. Examples from geodynamic simulations are used to demonstrate visual results possible using this visualization technique. Performance comparisons are made between existing implementations of exact and approximate Voronoi diagrams. Overall, the AVD developed herein is found to be extremely competitive as a visualizing tool for massive particle data sets as it is extremely efficient, has low memory requirements and can be trivially used in a distributed memory computing environment.

  18. The Set-Point Theory of Well-Being: Negative Results and Consequent Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    An adequate theory of happiness or subjective well-being (SWB) needs to link at least three sets of variables: stable person characteristics (including personality traits), life events and measures of well-being (life satisfaction, positive affects) and ill-being (anxiety, depression, negative affects). It also needs to be based on long-term data…

  19. Eye-Tracking Students' Attention to PowerPoint Photographs in a Science Education Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slykhuis, David A.; Wiebe, Eric N.; Annetta, Len A.

    2005-12-01

    Eye-tracking technology allows for the determination of the exact location of the point of gaze of a subject's eye. This study sought to take advantage of this ability to determine how students attend to science related photographs. Pre-service science teachers were shown a PowerPointTM Presentation with embedded photographs. The photographs were classified according the Pozzer and Roth (2003) classification scheme. Special focus was given to the photographs classified as complimentary, most highly integrated with the text, and decorative, the least integrated with the text. A second variable, accompanying audio narration, was integrated into the study design. Analysis indicated complimentary photographs received significantly more attention from the subjects. The effect of audio narration was to blur this distinction as students spent a greater amount of time on the given slides. Using eye-tracking technology, this study was able to confirm that students' devote more attention to highly relevant photographs.

  20. The serial position, distance, and congruity effects of reference point setting in comparative judgments.

    PubMed

    Jou, Jerwen

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the serial position function in serial order memory derives from a gradient of activation strength, with the end anchor point having the highest strength and accessibility. Subjects memorized an ordered series of names and were tested on their memory of the order with a comparative judgment task. In Experiment 1, a traditional comparative judgment task was used in which they chose the one member in a pair that was either higher or lower in the ranking on the attribute dimension. The 3 typical effects from comparative judgment for serial items--the bowed serial position function, the distance effect, and the congruity effect--were obtained. In Experiment 2, subjects were instructed to choose the item either closer to or farther from the middle reference point of the series. Remarkably different forms of the 3 effects were obtained. Most notable was a deep drop in the middle of the RT function, supporting the activation gradient hypothesis but further separating the role of the reference point from that of the endpoints in the assumption of the activation strength gradient theories. The findings also generalized the concept of each of these 3 effects.

  1. Beyond Maximum Independent Set: AN Extended Model for Point-Feature Label Placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Wolff, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Map labeling is a classical problem of cartography that has frequently been approached by combinatorial optimization. Given a set of features in the map and for each feature a set of label candidates, a common problem is to select an independent set of labels (that is, a labeling without label-label overlaps) that contains as many labels as possible and at most one label for each feature. To obtain solutions of high cartographic quality, the labels can be weighted and one can maximize the total weight (rather than the number) of the selected labels. We argue, however, that when maximizing the weight of the labeling, interdependences between labels are insufficiently addressed. Furthermore, in a maximum-weight labeling, the labels tend to be densely packed and thus the map background can be occluded too much. We propose extensions of an existing model to overcome these limitations. Since even without our extensions the problem is NP-hard, we cannot hope for an efficient exact algorithm for the problem. Therefore, we present a formalization of our model as an integer linear program (ILP). This allows us to compute optimal solutions in reasonable time, which we demonstrate for randomly generated instances.

  2. Point of care testing for antiretroviral therapy-related lactic acidosis in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Ivers, Louise C; Mukherjee, Joia S

    2006-03-21

    Lactic acidosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of patients on ART. In the developing world, definitive diagnosis by laboratory measurement of lactate may be impossible. Point-of-care devices are available that provide simple, accurate measurements of lactic acid levels at relatively low cost. Their use in an HIV treatment programme in rural Haiti has greatly assisted clinical decision-making in patients with symptoms suggestive of lactic acidosis. PMID:16514312

  3. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Logan M

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  4. Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Nora; Ganesh, Gayatri; Patil, Mamata; Yellappa, Vijayashree; Pant Pai, Nitika; Vadnais, Caroline; Pai, Madhukar

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems. Methods In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers), patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors. Results In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is ‘relationships’ among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of ‘infrastructure’. Challenges with both result in ‘modified practices’ often favouring empirical (symptomatic) treatment over treatment guided by testing. Conclusions Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined

  5. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dionigi, Alberto; Canestrari, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar), with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia), observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1) clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient’s well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2) clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3) few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research. PMID:27547261

  6. Application of the Reactor Analysis Support Package LWR set-point analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R.E.; Sorensen, J.M.; May, R.S.; Doran, K.J.; Trikouros, N.G.; Mozzias, E.S.

    1989-07-01

    Frequently, a situation is encountered in which the technical specification setpoints established by the plant safety analysis are judged to be unacceptable from a plant operational standpoint. This report documents the application of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Reactor Analysis Support Package (RASP) Light Water Reactor (LWR) setpoint analysis guidelines to provide justification for relaxing the high pressure setpoints at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generation Station. More Specifically, the plant operation's staff determined that it was desirable to provide increased margin for measurement uncertainties in the high pressure instrument and safety valve setpoints. Previous experience had indicated that there was insufficient margin to justify the desired setpoints using conventional deterministic inputs to the safety analysis and plant performance evaluation process. Therefore, it was determined that the RASP LWR setpoint analysis guidelines, which incorporated the use of a statistical combination of uncertainties methodology, would be used to establish an acceptable set of high pressure setpoints. This report documents the results of applying the RASP setpoint analysis guidelines to provide justification for an acceptable set of high pressure setpoints for the Oyster Creek station. 14 refs., 53 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Alberto; Canestrari, Carla

    2016-08-01

    Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar), with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia), observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1) clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient's well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2) clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3) few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research. PMID:27547261

  8. Clowning in Health Care Settings: The Point of View of Adults.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Alberto; Canestrari, Carla

    2016-08-01

    Within the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in investigating the effects of clown intervention in a large variety of clinical settings. Many studies have focused on the effects of clown intervention on children. However, few studies have investigated clowning effects on adults. This paper presents an overview of the concept of medical clowning followed by a literature review conducted on the empirical studies drawn from three data bases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar), with the aim of mapping and discussing the evidence of clowning effects on non-children, namely adults. The following areas were investigated: Adult and elderly patients (mainly those with dementia), observers of clowning, namely non-hospitalized adults who are at the hospital as relatives of patients or health-care staff, and finally clowns themselves. The main results are that 1) clown intervention induces positive emotions, thereby enhancing the patient's well-being, reduces psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and prompts a decrease in negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress; 2) clown doctors are also well-perceived by relatives and healthcare staff and their presence appears to be useful in creating a lighter atmosphere in the health setting; 3) few pilot studies have been conducted on clown doctors and this lacuna represents a subject for future research.

  9. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communications or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.

  11. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  12. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  13. On Chinese earthquake history - An attempt to model an incomplete data set by point process analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, W.H.K.; Brillinger, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Since the 1950s, the Academia Sinica in Peking, People's Republic of China, has carried out extensive research on the Chinese earthquake history. With a historical record dating back some 3000 years, a wealth of information on Chinese earthquakes exists. Despite this monumental undertaking by the Academia Sinica, much work is still necessary to correct the existing earthquake data for historical changes in population, customs, modes of communication, and dynasties. In this paper we report on the status of our investigation of Chinese earthquake history and present some preliminary results. By applying point process analysis of earthquakes in 'Central China', we found suggestions of (1) lower earthquake activity at intervals of about 175 years and 375 years, and (2) higher earthquake activity at an interval of about 300 years. ?? 1979 Birkha??user Verlag.

  14. Sampling Point Compliance Tests for 325 Building at Set-Back Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2011-05-31

    The stack sampling system at the 325 Building (Radiochemical Processing Laboratory [RPL]) was constructed to comply with the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI’s) Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities (ANSI N13.1-1969). This standard provided prescriptive criteria for the location of radionuclide air-sampling systems. In 1999, the standard was revised (Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities [ANSI/Health Physics Society [HPS] 13.1-1999]) to provide performance-based criteria for the location of sampling systems. Testing was conducted for the 325 Building stack to determine whether the sampling system would meet the updated criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration in the revised ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 standard under normal operating conditions (Smith et al. 2010). Measurement results were within criteria for all tests. Additional testing and modeling was performed to determine whether the sampling system would meet criteria under set-back flow conditions. This included measurements taken from a scale model with one-third of the exhaust flow and computer modeling of the system with two-thirds of the exhaust flow. This report documents the results of the set-back flow condition measurements and modeling. Tests performed included flow angularity, uniformity of velocity, gas concentration, and particle concentration across the duct at the sampling location. Results are within ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests. These tests are applicable for the 325 Building stack under set-back exhaust flow operating conditions (980 - 45,400 cubic feet per minute [cfm]) with one fan running. The modeling results show that criteria are met for all tests using a two-fan configuration exhaust (flow modeled at 104,000 cfm). Combined with the results from the earlier normal operating conditions, the ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests

  15. Cellular release of and response to ATP as key determinants of the set-point of signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, R S; Gregorian, C; Insel, P A

    2000-04-21

    The determinants of "basal" activity of signaling pathways regulating cellular responses are poorly defined. One possibility is that cells release factors to establish the set-point of such pathways. Here we show that treatment of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with the nucleotidase apyrase decreases basal arachidonic acid release and cAMP production 30-40% and that inhibitors of P2Y receptor action also affect basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. Changing medium prominently increases extracellular levels of ATP in Madin-Darby canine kidney, COS-7, and HEK-293 cells. Mechanical stimulation of ATP release likely occurs in virtually every experimental protocol with cultured cells, implicating such release and P2Y receptor activation as critical in establishing the set-point for signal transduction pathways. PMID:10766795

  16. Cellular release of and response to ATP as key determinants of the set-point of signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, R S; Gregorian, C; Insel, P A

    2000-04-21

    The determinants of "basal" activity of signaling pathways regulating cellular responses are poorly defined. One possibility is that cells release factors to establish the set-point of such pathways. Here we show that treatment of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with the nucleotidase apyrase decreases basal arachidonic acid release and cAMP production 30-40% and that inhibitors of P2Y receptor action also affect basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. Changing medium prominently increases extracellular levels of ATP in Madin-Darby canine kidney, COS-7, and HEK-293 cells. Mechanical stimulation of ATP release likely occurs in virtually every experimental protocol with cultured cells, implicating such release and P2Y receptor activation as critical in establishing the set-point for signal transduction pathways.

  17. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  18. Unintentional injuries among children in resource poor settings: where do the fingers point?

    PubMed

    Balan, Bhuvaneswari; Lingam, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Every year, over 875,000 children between 0 and 18 years of age die as a result of unintentional injuries (UIs), with a higher proportion occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs): the WHO 2008 World Report on Child Injury Prevention shows a child UI death rate 3.4 times greater in LMICs than in high income countries (HICs) (41.7 per million vs 12.2 per million, respectively). Deaths due to injuries from drowning, burns and falls are significantly higher among LMICs at 7.8, 4.3 and 2.1 per million, respectively, as compared to HICs with 1.2, 0.4 and 0.4 per million, respectively. The authors present a review of childhood UIs in LMICs undertaken to determine demographic and socioeconomic risk factors. As in industrialised settings, age, gender and social deprivation are significant factors in determining UI-related vulnerability among children. However, certain patterns are unique to LMICs, including road traffic injuries among child pedestrians, drowning and accidental paraffin poisoning. These demand contextual understanding and the implementation of appropriate injury control measures, which are currently inadequate.

  19. Anomalous Geologic Setting of the Spencer-High Point Volcanic Field, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahashi, G. S.; Hughes, S. S.

    2006-12-01

    The Spencer-High Point (SHP) volcanic field comprises an ~1700 sq km mafic volcanic rift zone located near Yellowstone in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). SHP lava flows are both similar to and distinct from typical olivine tholeiite lavas of the ESRP. SHP has unique physical volcanic features characterized by numerous cinder cones and short lava flows; whereas, spatter ramparts, fissures and longer flows dominate in other ESRP regions. Topography and aerial photos indicate that vents are generally aligned northwest- southeast, which is sub-parallel to adjacent Basin and Range faults in much of the ESRP. Yet individual vents and other structural elements in SHP where Basin and Range, ESRP and thrust-faulted mountain belts all intersect, are elongated in a more east-west direction. Distinct structural control is manifested in an overall southward slope over the entire volcanic field. Short lava flows tend to flow north or south off of a central topographically higher zone of overlapping lava flows and smaller vents. Several smaller vents appear to be parasitic cones adjacent to larger eruptive centers. Contrary to these relations, preliminary geochemical data by Leeman (1982) and Kuntz et al. (1992) suggest SHP lavas are typical ESRP olivine tholeiite basalts, which notably have coarsely diktytaxitic texture. The central and eastern sections of the SHP field contain lavas with large (3-8cm), clear, euhedral plagioclase phenocrysts but without diktytaxitic texture. Lava flows in the central and eastern sections of SHP volcanic field are pahoehoe. These also contain crustal xenoliths implying a prolonged crustal history. Geochemical whole rock and microprobe analyses are currently being processed for petrogenetic history.

  20. Neural mechanisms of alarm pheromone signaling.

    PubMed

    Enjin, Anders; Suh, Greg Seong-Bae

    2013-03-01

    Alarm pheromones are important semiochemicals used by many animal species to alert conspecifics or other related species of impending danger. In this review, we describe recent developments in our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the ability of fruit flies, zebrafish and mice to mediate the detection of alarm pheromones. Specifically, alarm pheromones are detected in these species through specialized olfactory subsystems that are unique to the chemosensitive receptors, second messenger-signaling and physiology. Thus, the alarm pheromones appears to be detected by signaling mechanisms that are distinct from those seen in the canonical olfactory system.

  1. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  2. 33 CFR 127.207 - Warning alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.207 Warning alarms. (a) The...

  3. Early warnings and missed alarms for abrupt monsoon transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Z. A.; Kwasniok, F.; Boulton, C. A.; Cox, P. M.; Jones, R. T.; Lenton, T. M.; Turney, C. S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Palaeo-records from China demonstrate that the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) is dominated by abrupt and large magnitude monsoon shifts on millennial timescales, switching between periods of high and weak monsoon rains. It has been hypothesized that over these timescales, the EASM exhibits two stable states with bifurcation-type tipping points between them. Here we test this hypothesis by looking for early warning signals of past bifurcations in speleothem δ18O records from Sanbao Cave and Hulu Cave, China, spanning the penultimate glacial cycle. We find that although there are increases in both autocorrelation and variance preceding some of the monsoon transitions during this period, it is only immediately prior to the abrupt monsoon shift at the penultimate deglaciation (Termination II) that statistically significant increases are detected. To supplement our data analysis, we produce and analyse multiple model simulations that we derive from these data. We find hysteresis behaviour in our model simulations with transitions directly forced by solar insolation. However, signals of critical slowing down, which occur on the approach to a bifurcation, are only detectable in the model simulations when the change in system stability is sufficiently slow to be detected by the sampling resolution of the data set. This raises the possibility that the early warning "alarms" were missed in the speleothem data over the period 224-150 kyr and it was only at the monsoon termination that the change in the system stability was sufficiently slow to detect early warning signals.

  4. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communicationsmore » or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.« less

  5. Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents.

    PubMed

    Brechbühl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

    2013-03-19

    Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger.

  6. Point-of-care testing for HIV in an Irish prison setting: results from three major Irish prisons.

    PubMed

    Bannan, Ciaran L; Lynch, Pamela A; Conroy, Emmett P; O'Dea, Siobhan; Surah, Saloni; Betts-Symonds, Graham; Lyons, Fiona E

    2016-10-01

    HIV is more prevalent in the prison population compared to the general population. Prison inmates are at an increased risk of blood-borne infections. Considerable stigma has been documented amongst inmates with HIV infection. In collaboration with the schools, healthcare facilities, prison authorities and inmate Irish Red Cross groups in Wheatfield, Cloverhill and Mountjoy prisons in Dublin, Ireland, the Department of Genito Urinary Medicine and Infectious Diseases at St James' Hospital in Dublin developed a campaign for raising awareness of HIV, educating inmates about HIV and tackling HIV stigma. Following this campaign, large-scale point-of-care testing for HIV was offered over a short period. In total, 741 inmates were screened for HIV. One inmate tested positive for HIV. We experienced a large number of invalid test results, requiring formal laboratory serum testing, and a small number of false positive results. Large-scale point-of-care testing in the Irish prison setting is acceptable and achievable.

  7. SeaQuest/E906 Shift Alarm System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitts, Noah

    2014-09-01

    SeaQuest, Fermilab E906, is a fixed target experiment that measures the Drell-Yan cross-section ratio of proton-proton to proton-deuterium collisions in order to extract the sea anti-quark structure of the proton. SeaQuest will extend the measurements made by E866/NuSea with greater precision at higher Bjorken-x. The continuously running experiment is always being monitored. Those on shift must keep track of all of the detector readouts in order to make sure the experiment is running correctly. As an experiment that is still in its early stages of running, an alarm system for people on shift is being created to provide warnings, such as a plot showing a detector's performance is sufficiently different to need attention. This plan involves python scripts that track live data. When the data shows a problem within the experiment, a corresponding alarm ID is sent to the MySQL database which then sets off an alarm. These alarms, which will alert the person on shift through both an audible and visual response, are important for ensuring that issues do not go unnoticed, and to help make sure the experiment is recording good data.

  8. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  9. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  10. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  11. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  14. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  15. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  16. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  18. Alarm- And Power-Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stute, Rob; Galloway, F. Houston; Swindle, Bob; Bierman, Tracy Alan; Medelius, Pedro

    1994-01-01

    Electronic central monitoring system, called Remote Monitor Alarm System, RMAS, used to monitor malfunction alarms and power supplies of remotely located equipment modules of transmitting and receiving equipment in fiber-optic communication network at Kennedy Space Center. Includes central monitoring unit at location convenient for technicians, plus remote terminal unit at each remote site containing equipment to be monitored.

  19. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon... audible alarm in such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to... sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and...

  20. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon... audible alarm in such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to... sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and...

  1. Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

  2. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An...

  3. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An...

  4. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An...

  5. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An...

  6. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the...

  7. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the...

  8. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the...

  9. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the...

  10. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates an audible and visible alarm in the pilothouse when the actual... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping...

  11. Magnitude and kinetics of CD8+ T cell activation during hyperacute HIV infection impacts viral set point

    PubMed Central

    Ndhlovu, Zaza; Kamya, Philomena; Mewalal, Nikoshia; Kløverpris, Henrik N.; Nkosi, Thandeka; Pretorius, Karyn; Laher, Faatima; Ogunshola, Funsho; Chopera, Denis; Shekhar, Karthik; Ghebremichael, Musie; Ismail, Nasreen; Moodley, Amber; Malik, Amna; Leslie, Alasdair; Goulder, Philip J.R; Buus, Søren; Chakraborty, Arup; Dong, Krista; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary CD8+ T cells contribute to the control of HIV, but it is not clear whether initial immune responses modulate the viral set point. We screened high-risk uninfected women twice a week for plasma HIV RNA and identified twelve hyperacute infections. Onset of viremia elicited a massive HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, with limited bystander activation of non-HIV memory CD8+ T cells. HIV-specific CD8+ T cells secreted little interferon-γ, underwent rapid apoptosis and failed to upregulate the interleukin 7 receptor, known to be important for T cell survival. The rapidity to peak CD8+ T cell activation and the absolute magnitude of activation induced by the exponential rise in viremia were inversely correlated with set point viremia. These data indicate that rapid, high magnitude HIV-induced CD8+ T cell responses are crucial for subsequent immune control of acute infection, which has important implications for HIV vaccine design. PMID:26362266

  12. Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

  13. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  14. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  15. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13 Section 78.47-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

  18. An improved criticality alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Tyree, W.H.; Gilpin, H.E.; Balmer, D.K.; Vennitti, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado is the primary facility for the production of plutonium components used in the US arsenal of nuclear weapons. It is operated by EG&G under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE). There are ten production buildings on plant site with neutron based criticality alarm systems. These systems have been in operation for the past seventeen years. Changes in the interpretation of A.N.S.I. standards and DOE orders have precipitated an evaluation of detector sensitivity and placement criteria. As a result of this evaluation, improvements in detector design and calibration have improved detector sensitivity by a factor of six. Testing performed on the design defined a minimum sensitivity as required by A.N.S.I. 8.3 and provided information for saturation and survivability for a fission event of up to 1 {times} 10{sup 17} fissions in 80 microseconds. A rigorous testing and calibration program has been developed and is in place. Neutron sensitivity is certified at a nearby reactor which is traceable to N.I.S.T.. 4 refs.

  19. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  20. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each bilge alarm must activate its alarm whenever clean water is used for cleaning or zeroing purposes...) Access to the bilge alarm must require the breaking of a seal, except when— (1) Re-zeroing the...

  1. Evaluation of alarm systems for medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Hyman, W A

    1982-01-01

    The provision of automatic alarm systems on medical equipment is generally designed to supplement the user's ability to monitor a variety of device and patient variables simultaneously. The potential value of such systems in improving the safety and efficacy of medical care is accompanied by the potential for false reliance on or other misuse of the alarm systems. Therefore the alarm provisions become an important aspect of clinical engineering assessment of equipment with respect to selection, user training, hazard analysis, and the provision of effective and appropriate preventive maintenance programs. PMID:10257190

  2. An Set-Free, All Digital Controlled Point-of-Load Regulator for Next Generation Power Systems: ADC-POL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adell, Philippe C.; Liu, Tao; Vermeire, Bert; Bakkaloglu, Bertan; Aveline, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a digitally controlled programmable point-of-load regulator for next-generation power systems. A novel digital control scheme was designed to minimize single-event effect (SEE)-induced transient effects. By effectively programming the loop transmission, the POL can trade off transient response time with SET robustness. The IC works with 1 to 5.5 V input voltage, 1-4.5V regulated output voltage, high efficiency (peak efficiency at 94%) and power of up to 5 W. The design was fabricated in the AMI i2t100 0.7 mu m complimentary, metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and characterized with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) pulsed laser system.

  3. Monoamines and protein intake: are control mechanisms designed to monitor a threshold intake or a set point?

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, J D; Fernstrom, M H

    2001-08-01

    The concentration of TYR in brain changes directly with dietary protein content in the 0-10% PE range, but not higher. The effect is large: TYR concentrations rise as much as two- to threefold between 0% and 10% dietary protein content. This increase produces a clear stimulation of the rate of catecholamine synthesis, observed both for DA and NE, and notably in the hypothalamus, a brain area involved in appetite regulation. A similar relationship to chronic dietary protein intake may also exist for tryptophan and its neurotransmitter product, 5HT. Because the natural diet of rats, the animal model most commonly used in such studies, typically contains between 6% and 14% protein, and may contain less under unfavorable environmental circumstances, rats in the wild may frequently operate on the portion of the protein intake curve producing maximal changes in brain TYR (and perhaps TRP) concentrations. If so, then the production of catecholamines and 5HT may be similarly affected. By such a scenario, the brain might receive information regarding the animal's success in acquiring adequate amounts of protein in its diet. A similar argument can also be made for monkeys in the wild, based on their dietary habits, and thus possibly for humans. From this perspective, animals are hypothesized to monitor/regulate their intake of protein based on a threshold, rather than a set-point model. This notion is not new or unique to amino acids. For example, one current notion of leptin action is that it serves as a signal for energy intake important during periods of deficiency, but not excess. More generally, given the primacy in nature of the need to acquire adequate amounts of food in order to survive and reproduce, and the difficulty in achieving this nutritional goal, it may be that appetite control mechanisms have evolved in nature to center more on attaining and exceeding adequacy than on maintaining intake around a set-point well in excess of adequacy.

  4. A New Set of Chemical Starting Points with Plasmodium falciparum Transmission-Blocking Potential for Antimalarial Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Almela, Maria Jesus; Lozano, Sonia; Lelièvre, Joël; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Coterón, José Miguel; Rodrigues, Janneth; Gonzalez, Carolina; Herreros, Esperanza

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of new antimalarials with transmission blocking activity remains a key issue in efforts to control malaria and eventually eradicate the disease. Recently, high-throughput screening (HTS) assays have been successfully applied to Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages to screen millions of compounds, with the identification of thousands of new active molecules, some of which are already in clinical phases. The same approach has now been applied to identify compounds that are active against P. falciparum gametocytes, the parasite stage responsible for transmission. This study reports screening results for the Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set (TCAMS), of approximately 13,533 molecules, against P. falciparum stage V gametocytes. Secondary confirmation and cytotoxicity assays led to the identification of 98 selective molecules with dual activity against gametocytes and asexual stages. Hit compounds were chemically clustered and analyzed for appropriate physicochemical properties. The TCAMS chemical space around the prioritized hits was also studied. A selection of hit compounds was assessed ex vivo in the standard membrane feeding assay and demonstrated complete block in transmission. As a result of this effort, new chemical structures not connected to previously described antimalarials have been identified. This new set of compounds may serve as starting points for future drug discovery programs as well as tool compounds for identifying new modes of action involved in malaria transmission. PMID:26317851

  5. A New Set of Chemical Starting Points with Plasmodium falciparum Transmission-Blocking Potential for Antimalarial Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Almela, Maria Jesus; Lozano, Sonia; Lelièvre, Joël; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Coterón, José Miguel; Rodrigues, Janneth; Gonzalez, Carolina; Herreros, Esperanza

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of new antimalarials with transmission blocking activity remains a key issue in efforts to control malaria and eventually eradicate the disease. Recently, high-throughput screening (HTS) assays have been successfully applied to Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages to screen millions of compounds, with the identification of thousands of new active molecules, some of which are already in clinical phases. The same approach has now been applied to identify compounds that are active against P. falciparum gametocytes, the parasite stage responsible for transmission. This study reports screening results for the Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set (TCAMS), of approximately 13,533 molecules, against P. falciparum stage V gametocytes. Secondary confirmation and cytotoxicity assays led to the identification of 98 selective molecules with dual activity against gametocytes and asexual stages. Hit compounds were chemically clustered and analyzed for appropriate physicochemical properties. The TCAMS chemical space around the prioritized hits was also studied. A selection of hit compounds was assessed ex vivo in the standard membrane feeding assay and demonstrated complete block in transmission. As a result of this effort, new chemical structures not connected to previously described antimalarials have been identified. This new set of compounds may serve as starting points for future drug discovery programs as well as tool compounds for identifying new modes of action involved in malaria transmission. PMID:26317851

  6. SU-E-P-08: Alarming Range of Seed Activities Ordered for I-125 Plaque Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the variation in I-125 seed activities ordered by various clinics for their plaque brachytherapy cases under a standardized set of assumptions. Methods: A majority of the plaque programs in North America were contacted and a survey was designed to give a few standardized cases to allow inter-comparison of seed activities ordered. Tumor dose, treatment duration, number of seeds, plaque, and tumor apex were held constant in order to reveal differences in prescription point, seed type, and seed activity. Results: While the survey is presently underway, preliminary results show alarmingly wide variations between centers. Differences up to 45% have been found with 15% differences being common. Conclusion: Though knowledge of the TG-43 dose calculation formalism is common, a number of factors in the field of plaque brachytherapy lead to alarming differences in activity of I-125 seeds being ordered for a given tumor. Knowledge of the present reality of widely varying treatment activities, and thus doses to tumor and normal structures, should serve as motivation for centers involved in this modality to review their programs with others in the community and share their experiences.

  7. Design of a Novel Low Cost Point of Care Tampon (POCkeT) Colposcope for Use in Resource Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Christopher T.; Krieger, Marlee S.; Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Asma, Betsy; Muasher, Lisa C.; Schmitt, John W.; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current guidelines by WHO for cervical cancer screening in low- and middle-income countries involves visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) of the cervix, followed by treatment during the same visit or a subsequent visit with cryotherapy if a suspicious lesion is found. Implementation of these guidelines is hampered by a lack of: trained health workers, reliable technology, and access to screening facilities. A low cost ultra-portable Point of Care Tampon based digital colposcope (POCkeT Colposcope) for use at the community level setting, which has the unique form factor of a tampon, can be inserted into the vagina to capture images of the cervix, which are on par with that of a state of the art colposcope, at a fraction of the cost. A repository of images to be compiled that can be used to empower front line workers to become more effective through virtual dynamic training. By task shifting to the community setting, this technology could potentially provide significantly greater cervical screening access to where the most vulnerable women live. The POCkeT Colposcope’s concentric LED ring provides comparable white and green field illumination at a fraction of the electrical power required in commercial colposcopes. Evaluation with standard optical imaging targets to assess the POCkeT Colposcope against the state of the art digital colposcope and other VIAM technologies. Results Our POCkeT Colposcope has comparable resolving power, color reproduction accuracy, minimal lens distortion, and illumination when compared to commercially available colposcopes. In vitro and pilot in vivo imaging results are promising with our POCkeT Colposcope capturing comparable quality images to commercial systems. Conclusion The POCkeT Colposcope is capable of capturing images suitable for cervical lesion analysis. Our portable low cost system could potentially increase access to cervical cancer screening in limited resource settings through task shifting to community

  8. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conspicuously and centrally located and be marked as required by 46 CFR 97.37-9; and (3) Use stored gas power... approved audible alarm if: (1) The space is normally accessible to persons onboard while the vessel...

  9. A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.

    2009-04-01

    Key words: Simple Event Correlator, Agent Platform, Ontology, Semantic Web, Distributed Systems, Emergency Management The importance of recognition of emergency's typology to control the critical situation for security of citizens has been always recognized. It follows this aspect is very important for proper management of a hazardous event. In this work we present a solution for the recognition of emergency's typology adopted by an Italian research project, called CI6 (Centro Integrato per Servizi di Emergenza Innovativi). In our approach, CI6 receives alarms by citizen or people involved in the work (for example: police, operator of 112, and so on). CI6 represents any alarm by a set of information, including a text that describes it and obtained when the user points out the danger, and a pair of coordinates for its location. The system realizes an analysis of text and automatically infers information on the type of emergencies by means a set of parsing rules and rules of inference applied by a independent module: a correlator of events based on their log and called Simple Event Correlator (SEC). SEC, integrated in CI6's platform, is an open source and platform independent event correlation tool. SEC accepts input both files and text derived from standard input, making it flexible because it can be matched to any application that is able to write its output to a file stream. The SEC configuration is stored in text files as rules, each rule specifying an event matching condition, an action list, and optionally a Boolean expression whose truth value decides whether the rule can be applied at a given moment. SEC can produce output events by executing user-specified shell scripts or programs, by writing messages to files, and by various other means. SEC has been successfully applied in various domains like network management, system monitoring, data security, intrusion detection, log file monitoring and analysis, etc; it has been used or integrated with many

  10. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

  11. Evaluation of generic medical information accessed via mobile phones at the point of care in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, Hayley; Chang, Aileen Y; Kyer, Andrea; Ketshogileng, Dineo; Taylor, Lynne; Chandra, Amit; Dacso, Matthew; Kung, Shiang-Ju; Rijken, Taatske; Fontelo, Paul; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Seymour, Anne K; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many mobile phone resources have been developed to increase access to health education in the developing world, yet few studies have compared these resources or quantified their performance in a resource-limited setting. This study aims to compare the performance of resident physicians in answering clinical scenarios using PubMed abstracts accessed via the PubMed for Handhelds (PubMed4Hh) website versus medical/drug reference applications (Medical Apps) accessed via software on the mobile phone. Methods A two-arm comparative study with crossover design was conducted. Subjects, who were resident physicians at the University of Botswana, completed eight scenarios, each with multi-part questions. The primary outcome was a grade for each question. The primary independent variable was the intervention arm and other independent variables included residency and question. Results Within each question type there were significant differences in ‘percentage correct’ between Medical Apps and PubMed4Hh for three of the six types of questions: drug-related, diagnosis/definitions, and treatment/management. Within each of these question types, Medical Apps had a higher percentage of fully correct responses than PubMed4Hh (63% vs 13%, 33% vs 12%, and 41% vs 13%, respectively). PubMed4Hh performed better for epidemiologic questions. Conclusions While mobile access to primary literature remains important and serves an information niche, mobile applications with condensed content may be more appropriate for point-of-care information needs. Further research is required to examine the specific information needs of clinicians in resource-limited settings and to evaluate the appropriateness of current resources in bridging location- and context-specific information gaps. PMID:23535665

  12. A hybrid semi-automatic method for liver segmentation based on level-set methods using multiple seed points.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Hee Chul; Choi, Younggeun; Lee, Wonsup; Wang, Baojian; Yang, Jaedo; Hwang, Hongpil; Kim, Ji Hyun; Song, Jisoo; Cho, Baik Hwan; You, Heecheon

    2014-01-01

    The present study developed a hybrid semi-automatic method to extract the liver from abdominal computerized tomography (CT) images. The proposed hybrid method consists of a customized fast-marching level-set method for detection of an optimal initial liver region from multiple seed points selected by the user and a threshold-based level-set method for extraction of the actual liver region based on the initial liver region. The performance of the hybrid method was compared with those of the 2D region growing method implemented in OsiriX using abdominal CT datasets of 15 patients. The hybrid method showed a significantly higher accuracy in liver extraction (similarity index, SI=97.6 ± 0.5%; false positive error, FPE = 2.2 ± 0.7%; false negative error, FNE=2.5 ± 0.8%; average symmetric surface distance, ASD=1.4 ± 0.5mm) than the 2D (SI=94.0 ± 1.9%; FPE = 5.3 ± 1.1%; FNE=6.5 ± 3.7%; ASD=6.7 ± 3.8mm) region growing method. The total liver extraction time per CT dataset of the hybrid method (77 ± 10 s) is significantly less than the 2D region growing method (575 ± 136 s). The interaction time per CT dataset between the user and a computer of the hybrid method (28 ± 4 s) is significantly shorter than the 2D region growing method (484 ± 126 s). The proposed hybrid method was found preferred for liver segmentation in preoperative virtual liver surgery planning.

  13. Vaccination of macaques with long-standing SIVmac251 infection lowers the viral set point after cessation of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Tryniszewska, Elzbieta; Nacsa, Janos; Lewis, Mark G; Silvera, Peter; Montefiori, David; Venzon, David; Hel, Zdenek; Parks, Robyn Washington; Moniuszko, Marcin; Tartaglia, Jim; Smith, Kendall A; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2002-11-01

    A cohort of rhesus macaques with long-standing SIVmac251 infection (> or =5 mo) was treated with continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). A group of eight macaques was vaccinated with or without simultaneous administration of low dose IL-2 with the highly attenuated poxvirus vector (NYVAC) vaccine candidate expressing the SIVmac structural gag-pol-env (gpe) genes and a novel chimeric fusion protein derived from the rev-tat-nef (rtn) regulatory genes. Control groups consisted of mock-vaccinated macaques or animals treated only with IL-2. Vaccination significantly expanded both virus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses, and IL-2 further increased the vaccine-induced response to an immunodominant Gag epitope. Following antiretroviral treatment interruption, the viral set point was significantly lower in vaccinated than in control macaques for at least 4 consecutive mo, and viral containment was inversely correlated with vaccine-induced, virus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. These data provide the proof of concept that therapeutic vaccination before cessation of ART may be a feasible approach in the clinical management of HIV-1 infection.

  14. Design of set-point weighting PIλ + Dμ controller for vertical magnetic flux controller in Damavand tokamak.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, H; Fatehi, A

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a simple method is presented for tuning weighted PI(λ) + D(μ) controller parameters based on the pole placement controller of pseudo-second-order fractional systems. One of the advantages of this controller is capability of reducing the disturbance effects and improving response to input, simultaneously. In the following sections, the performance of this controller is evaluated experimentally to control the vertical magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak. For this work, at first a fractional order model is identified using output-error technique in time domain. For various practical experiments, having desired time responses for magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak, is vital. To approach this, at first the desired closed loop reference models are obtained based on generalized characteristic ratio assignment method in fractional order systems. After that, for the identified model, a set-point weighting PI(λ) + D(μ) controller is designed and simulated. Finally, this controller is implemented on digital signal processor control system of the plant to fast/slow control of magnetic flux. The practical results show appropriate performance of this controller.

  15. PIMA Point of Care CD4+ Cell Count Machines in Remote MNCH Settings: Lessons Learned from Seven Districts in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai; Chiyaka, Edward T.; Mushayi, Wellington; Musuka, Godfrey; Naluyinda-Kitabire, Florence; Mushavi, Angella; Chikwasha, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    An evaluation was commissioned to generate evidence on the impact of PIMA point-of-care CD4+ count machines in maternal and new-born child health settings in Zimbabwe; document best practices, lessons learned, challenges, and recommendations related to scale up of this new technology. A mixed methodology approach that included 31 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in procurement, distribution, and use of the POC machines was employed. Additionally, data was also abstracted from 207 patient records from 35 sites with the PIMA POC CD4+ count machines and 10 other comparative sites without the machine. A clearer training strategy was found to be necessary. The average time taken to initiate clients on antiretroviral treatment (ART) was substantially less, 15 days (IQR-1-149) for sites with a PIMA POC machine as compared to 32.7 days (IQR-1-192) at sites with no PIMA POC machine. There was general satisfaction because of the presence of the PIMA POC CD4+ count machine at sites that also initiated ART. PMID:24847177

  16. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system. Each sprinkler alarm system, including annunciator,...

  17. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  18. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  19. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  20. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  1. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  3. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  4. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  5. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  6. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  7. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section....050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to bilge alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in §...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  13. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

  14. Insights into the Problem of Alarm Fatigue with Physiologic Monitor Devices: A Comprehensive Observational Study of Consecutive Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Barbara J.; Harris, Patricia; Zègre-Hemsey, Jessica K.; Mammone, Tina; Schindler, Daniel; Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Tinoco, Adelita; Ding, Quan; Hu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Physiologic monitors are plagued with alarms that create a cacophony of sounds and visual alerts causing “alarm fatigue” which creates an unsafe patient environment because a life-threatening event may be missed in this milieu of sensory overload. Using a state-of-the-art technology acquisition infrastructure, all monitor data including 7 ECG leads, all pressure, SpO2, and respiration waveforms as well as user settings and alarms were stored on 461 adults treated in intensive care units. Using a well-defined alarm annotation protocol, nurse scientists with 95% inter-rater reliability annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms. Results A total of 2,558,760 unique alarms occurred in the 31-day study period: arrhythmia, 1,154,201; parameter, 612,927; technical, 791,632. There were 381,560 audible alarms for an audible alarm burden of 187/bed/day. 88.8% of the 12,671 annotated arrhythmia alarms were false positives. Conditions causing excessive alarms included inappropriate alarm settings, persistent atrial fibrillation, and non-actionable events such as PVC's and brief spikes in ST segments. Low amplitude QRS complexes in some, but not all available ECG leads caused undercounting and false arrhythmia alarms. Wide QRS complexes due to bundle branch block or ventricular pacemaker rhythm caused false alarms. 93% of the 168 true ventricular tachycardia alarms were not sustained long enough to warrant treatment. Discussion The excessive number of physiologic monitor alarms is a complex interplay of inappropriate user settings, patient conditions, and algorithm deficiencies. Device solutions should focus on use of all available ECG leads to identify non-artifact leads and leads with adequate QRS amplitude. Devices should provide prompts to aide in more appropriate tailoring of alarm settings to individual patients. Atrial fibrillation alarms should be limited to new onset and termination of the arrhythmia and delays for ST-segment and other parameter alarms should be

  15. SAMBA HIV semiquantitative test, a new point-of-care viral-load-monitoring assay for resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Allyson V; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Edemaga, Daniel; Joshi, Hrishikesh A; De Ruiter, Annemiek; Szumilin, Elisabeth; Jendrulek, Isabelle; McGuire, Megan; Goel, Neha; Sharma, Pia I; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Lee, Helen H

    2014-09-01

    Routine viral-load (VL) testing of HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used to monitor treatment efficacy. However, due to logistical challenges, implementation of VL has been difficult in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the SAMBA semi-Q (simple amplification-based assay semiquantitative test for HIV-1) in London, Malawi, and Uganda. The SAMBA semi-Q can distinguish between patients with VLs above and below 1,000 copies/ml. The SAMBA semi-Q was validated with diluted clinical samples and blinded plasma samples collected from HIV-1-positive individuals. SAMBA semi-Q results were compared with results from the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, v2.0. Testing of 96 2- to 10-fold dilutions of four samples containing HIV-1 subtype C as well as 488 samples from patients in the United Kingdom, Malawi, and Uganda yielded an overall accuracy for the SAMBA semi-Q of 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.8 to 99.9%) and 96.9% (95% CI 94.9 to 98.3%), respectively, compared to to the Roche test. Analysis of VL data from patients in Malawi and Uganda showed that the SAMBA cutoff of 1,000 copies/ml appropriately distinguished treated from untreated individuals. Furthermore, analysis of the viral loads of 232 patients on ART in Malawi and Uganda revealed similar patterns for virological control, defined as either <1,000 copies/ml (SAMBA cutoff) or <5,000 copies/ml (WHO 2010 criterion; WHO, Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach, 2010). This study suggests that the SAMBA semi-Q has adequate concurrency with the gold standard measurements for viral load. This test can allow VL monitoring of patients on ART at the point of care in resource-limited settings.

  16. SAMBA HIV Semiquantitative Test, a New Point-of-Care Viral-Load-Monitoring Assay for Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Allyson V.; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Edemaga, Daniel; Joshi, Hrishikesh A.; De Ruiter, Annemiek; Szumilin, Elisabeth; Jendrulek, Isabelle; McGuire, Megan; Goel, Neha; Sharma, Pia I.; Allain, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Routine viral-load (VL) testing of HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used to monitor treatment efficacy. However, due to logistical challenges, implementation of VL has been difficult in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the SAMBA semi-Q (simple amplification-based assay semiquantitative test for HIV-1) in London, Malawi, and Uganda. The SAMBA semi-Q can distinguish between patients with VLs above and below 1,000 copies/ml. The SAMBA semi-Q was validated with diluted clinical samples and blinded plasma samples collected from HIV-1-positive individuals. SAMBA semi-Q results were compared with results from the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, v2.0. Testing of 96 2- to 10-fold dilutions of four samples containing HIV-1 subtype C as well as 488 samples from patients in the United Kingdom, Malawi, and Uganda yielded an overall accuracy for the SAMBA semi-Q of 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.8 to 99.9%) and 96.9% (95% CI 94.9 to 98.3%), respectively, compared to to the Roche test. Analysis of VL data from patients in Malawi and Uganda showed that the SAMBA cutoff of 1,000 copies/ml appropriately distinguished treated from untreated individuals. Furthermore, analysis of the viral loads of 232 patients on ART in Malawi and Uganda revealed similar patterns for virological control, defined as either <1,000 copies/ml (SAMBA cutoff) or <5,000 copies/ml (WHO 2010 criterion; WHO, Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach, 2010). This study suggests that the SAMBA semi-Q has adequate concurrency with the gold standard measurements for viral load. This test can allow VL monitoring of patients on ART at the point of care in resource-limited settings. PMID:25031444

  17. Loop Heat Pipe Transient Behavior Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control with Thermoelectric Converter on Reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its reservoir. Controlling the reservoir saturation temperature is commonly done by cold biasing the reservoir and using electrical heaters to provide the required control power. With this method, the loop operating temperature can be controlled within 0.5K or better. However, because the thermal resistance that exists between the heat source and the LHP evaporator, the heat source temperature will vary with its heat output even if the LHP operating temperature is kept constant. Since maintaining a constant heat source temperature is of most interest, a question often raised is whether the heat source temperature can be used for LHP set point temperature control. A test program with a miniature LHP was carried out to investigate the effects on the LHP operation when the control temperature sensor was placed on the heat source instead of the reservoir. In these tests, the LHP reservoir was cold-biased and was heated by a control heater. Test results show that it was feasible to use the heat source temperature for feedback control of the LHP operation. In particular, when a thermoelectric converter was used as the reservoir control heater, the heat source temperature could be maintained within a tight range using a proportional-integral-derivative or on/off control algorithm. Moreover, because the TEC could provide both heating and cooling to the reservoir, temperature oscillations during fast transients such as loop startup could be eliminated or substantially reduced when compared to using an electrical heater as the control heater.

  18. Decision-making and response strategies in interaction with alarms: the impact of alarm reliability, availability of alarm validity information and workload.

    PubMed

    Manzey, Dietrich; Gérard, Nina; Wiczorek, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Responding to alarm systems which usually commit a number of false alarms and/or misses involves decision-making under uncertainty. Four laboratory experiments including a total of 256 participants were conducted to gain comprehensive insight into humans' dealing with this uncertainty. Specifically, it was investigated how responses to alarms/non-alarms are affected by the predictive validities of these events, and to what extent response strategies depend on whether or not the validity of alarms/non-alarms can be cross-checked against other data. Among others, the results suggest that, without cross-check possibility (experiment 1), low levels of predictive validity of alarms ( ≤ 0.5) led most participants to use one of two different strategies which both involved non-responding to a significant number of alarms (cry-wolf effect). Yet, providing access to alarm validity information reduced this effect dramatically (experiment 2). This latter result emerged independent of the effort needed for cross-checkings of alarms (experiment 3), but was affected by the workload imposed by concurrent tasks (experiment 4). Theoretical and practical consequences of these results for decision-making and response selection in interaction with alarm systems, as well as the design of effective alarm systems, are discussed.

  19. ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

  20. The acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sarah J; Aisbett, Brad; Tait, Jamie L; Turner, Anne I; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night. Sixteen healthy males aged 25 ± 4 years (mean ± SD) spent four consecutive days and nights in a sleep laboratory. This research used a within-participants design with repeated measures for time, alarm condition (alarm or control), and trial (day or night). When an alarm sounded, participants were required to mobilize immediately. Saliva samples for cortisol analysis were collected 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min after mobilization, and at corresponding times in control conditions. Heart rate was measured continuously throughout the study. Heart rate was higher in the day (F20,442 = 9.140, P < 0.001) and night (F23,459 = 8.356, P < 0.001) alarm conditions compared to the respective control conditions. There was no difference in saliva cortisol between day alarm and day control conditions. Cortisol was higher (F6,183 = 2.450, P < 0.001) following the night alarm and mobilization compared to the night control condition. The magnitude of difference in cortisol between night control and night alarm conditions was greater (F6,174 = 4.071, P < 0.001) than the magnitude of difference between the day control and day alarm conditions. The augmented heart rate response to the day and night alarms supports previous observations in field settings. Variations in the cortisol responses between conditions across the day and night may relate to differences in participants’ ability to interpret the alarm when sleeping versus when awake. PMID:27157688

  1. The acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sarah J; Aisbett, Brad; Tait, Jamie L; Turner, Anne I; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night. Sixteen healthy males aged 25 ± 4 years (mean ± SD) spent four consecutive days and nights in a sleep laboratory. This research used a within-participants design with repeated measures for time, alarm condition (alarm or control), and trial (day or night). When an alarm sounded, participants were required to mobilize immediately. Saliva samples for cortisol analysis were collected 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min after mobilization, and at corresponding times in control conditions. Heart rate was measured continuously throughout the study. Heart rate was higher in the day (F(20,442) = 9.140, P < 0.001) and night (F(23,459) = 8.356, P < 0.001) alarm conditions compared to the respective control conditions. There was no difference in saliva cortisol between day alarm and day control conditions. Cortisol was higher (F(6,183) = 2.450, P < 0.001) following the night alarm and mobilization compared to the night control condition. The magnitude of difference in cortisol between night control and night alarm conditions was greater (F(6,174) = 4.071, P < 0.001) than the magnitude of difference between the day control and day alarm conditions. The augmented heart rate response to the day and night alarms supports previous observations in field settings. Variations in the cortisol responses between conditions across the day and night may relate to differences in participants' ability to interpret the alarm when sleeping versus when awake.

  2. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  3. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to persons on board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide... automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and... arranged as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into...

  4. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  5. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  6. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  7. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  8. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  9. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to persons on board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide... automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and... arranged as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into...

  10. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  11. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... automatically and audibly for at least 20 seconds before carbon dioxide is discharged into the space; (2) Be..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) A protected space must be fitted with...

  12. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  13. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  14. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  15. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  16. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an... periodically unattended machinery space, the auxiliary boiler trip alarm required by 46 CFR 62.35-50, Table 62..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS...

  17. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula... similar future occurrences. (e) The licensee shall provide an ability to rapidly assess the validity...

  18. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  19. Reduction of false arrhythmia alarms using signal selection and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Eerikäinen, Linda M; Vanschoren, Joaquin; Rooijakkers, Michael J; Vullings, Rik; Aarts, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm that classifies whether a generated cardiac arrhythmia alarm is true or false. The large number of false alarms in intensive care is a severe issue. The noise peaks caused by alarms can be high and in a noisy environment nurses can experience stress and fatigue. In addition, patient safety is compromised because reaction time of the caregivers to true alarms is reduced. The data for the algorithm development consisted of records of electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure, and photoplethysmogram signals in which an alarm for either asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation or flutter, or ventricular tachycardia occurs. First, heart beats are extracted from every signal. Next, the algorithm selects the most reliable signal pair from the available signals by comparing how well the detected beats match between different signals based on [Formula: see text]-score and selecting the best match. From the selected signal pair, arrhythmia specific features, such as heart rate features and signal purity index are computed for the alarm classification. The classification is performed with five separate Random Forest models. In addition, information on the local noise level of the selected ECG lead is added to the classification. The algorithm was trained and evaluated with the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015 data set. In the test set the overall true positive rates were 93 and 95% and true negative rates 80 and 83%, respectively for events with no information and events with information after the alarm. The overall challenge scores were 77.39 and 81.58. PMID:27454128

  20. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  1. 8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d... (13 millimeters) high as follows: Attention General Alarm—When Alarm Sounds Go to Your Station. (e)...

  3. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d) Each general alarm bell and flashing red light must be identified with red lettering at least 1/2...

  4. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d) Each general alarm bell and flashing red light must be identified with red lettering at least 1/2...

  5. Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

  6. Public Data Set: Erratum: "Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Burke, Marcus G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000176193724); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Schlossberg, David J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000287139448); Winz, Gregory R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000177627184)

    2016-07-18

    This data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in M.G. Burke et al., 'Erratum: "Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)],' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 079902 (2016).

  7. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5a: Geometria - Conjuntos de Puntos (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5a: Geometry - Sets of Points).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in the booklet include points, lines, planes, space, angles, and intersection and union of sets. (MK)

  8. Validation of Landsat-7 ETM+ MEM Thermal Improvement in Thermal Vacuum Tests and in Flight Due to Lower Louver Set Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    1999-01-01

    The Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) Main Electronics Module (MEM) power supply heat sink temperature is critical to the Landsat-7 mission. It is strongly dependent on the thermal louver design. A lower power supply heat sink temperature increases the reliability of the MEM, and reduces the risk of over heating and thermal shut-down. After the power supply failures in ETM+ instrument thermal vacuum tests #1 and #2, the author performed detailed thermal analyses of the MEM, and proposed to reduce the louver set-points by 7C. At the 1998 Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), the author presented a paper that included results of thermal analysis of the MEM. It showed that a 70C reduction of the louver set points could reduce the maximum power supply heat sink temperature in thermal vacuum test and in flight to below 20"C in the cooler outgas mode and in the nominal imaging mode, and has no significant impact on the standby heater duty cycle. It also showed that the effect of Earth infrared and albedo on the power supply heat sink temperature is small. The louver set point reduction was implemented in June 1998, just prior to ETM+ thermal vacuum test #3. Results of the thermal vacuum tests, and temperature data in flight validate the MEM thermal performance improvement due to the 70C reduction of the louver set points.

  9. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  12. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  13. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  14. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  15. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  16. Alarm fatigue: a roadmap for mitigating the cacophony of beeps.

    PubMed

    Purbaugh, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon known as alarm fatigue is the direct result of excessive alarms in hospitals. This article highlights the effects of alarm fatigue and reviews current clinical recommendations and guidelines to raise nurse awareness and provide tools to combat the problem. PMID:24310707

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not...

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not...

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual alarm boxes shall be clearly and permanently marked “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” Existing boxes not...

  1. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  2. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  3. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping... Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a) An approved manual alarm system shall be installed in all areas, other than the main machinery spaces,...

  4. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  5. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  6. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually...; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or (iv) An observer...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually...; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or (iv) An observer...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually...; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or (iv) An observer...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually...; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or (iv) An observer...

  10. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  11. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  12. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a supply of more than 136 kilograms (300 pounds) of CO2, except a system that protects a tank, must have an alarm that sounds for at least 20 seconds before the CO2 is released into the space. (b) Each audible alarm for a CO2 system must have the...

  13. Alarm annunciation in a graphical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.G.

    1994-08-01

    Well-designed graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows{trademark} or UNIX{trademark} -- based X-Windows, provide a capability for enhanced display of security alarm information. Conversely, a poorly designed interface can quickly overwhelm an operator. This paper describes types of graphical information that can be displayed and offers guidance on how to best display that information. Limits are proposed for the complexity of the user interface, and guidelines are suggested for the display of maps and sensors.

  14. Science communication and the Swedish acrylamide "alarm".

    PubMed

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E

    2003-01-01

    On April 24, 2002 the Swedish National Food Administration along with a group of researchers at the University of Stockholm raised an alarm regarding potential health risks associated with eating fried and baked foods such as potatoes and bread. Scientists had found high levels of acrylamide (up to 500 times more acrylamide than that allowed in drinking water by the World Health Organisation), a substance widely believed to cause cancer, in cooked high starch foods. The outcomes of this "alarm" were immediate. In Sweden sales of chips fell by 30-50 percent over a 3-day period following the press conference, and share prices among several fried food manufacturers fell substantially, as stock analysts were fearful that consumption of fried foods would decrease significantly. Four days after the press conference, however, consumers began eating fried food as normal and a number of researchers and journalists in Sweden and elsewhere took the view that the alarm had been both exaggerated and ill placed. In this study, I evaluate the science communication process associated with the scare, based on a content analysis of a select group of Swedish broad sheets from just previous to the April 2002 press conference to the present time (December 2002). In addition, the study is based on interviews with the various Swedish regulators involved in the process itself (in particular at the Swedish National Food Administration) as well as with the scientists responsible for the study at Stockholm University and relevant journalists and politicians.

  15. New drugs and patient-centred end-points in old age: setting the wheels in motion.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Arduino A; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Older patients with various degrees of frailty and disability, a key population target of pharmacological interventions in acute and chronic disease states, are virtually neglected in pre-marketing studies assessing the efficacy and safety of investigational drugs. Moreover, aggressively pursuing established therapeutic targets in old age, e.g. blood pressure, serum glucose or cholesterol concentrations, is not necessarily associated with the beneficial effects, and the acceptable safety, reported in younger patient cohorts. Measures of self-reported health and functional status might represent additional, more meaningful, therapeutic end-points in the older population, particularly in patients with significant frailty and relatively short life expectancy, e.g. in the presence of cancer and/or neurodegenerative disease conditions. Strategies enhancing early knowledge about key pharmacological characteristics of investigational drugs targeting older adults are discussed, together with the rationale for incorporating non-traditional, patient-centred, end-points in this ever-increasing group. PMID:26455964

  16. Smoke alarms in the home: what every physician should know.

    PubMed

    Sultan, M A; Feldman, W M

    1985-12-15

    Primary care physicians interested in health education and accident prevention should be knowledgeable about smoke alarms (smoke detectors with built-in alarms). Either ionization or photoelectric smoke alarms can help save lives if they are properly installed and maintained. The number, site and maintenance of smoke alarms in the home and the steps a person should take in the event of a fire are discussed. Considering the rates of death, disability and disfigurement associated with residential fires, early warning devices such as smoke alarms make sense. PMID:4063931

  17. LBTO Alarm Notification/Management and Error Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Peña, M. D.; Biddick, C.; Summers, K.; Summers, D.

    2015-09-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO) Telescope Control System (TCS) is comprised of fifteen subsystems and accepts commands from the operator, as well as from six pairs of instruments. To the operator the TCS presents as a high-level set of GUIs with each GUI corresponding to one specific subsystem and providing full state information and varying degrees of control. The TCS GUIs not only provide the operators with broad control over all aspects of the telescope, but each individual GUI also reports problems within its domain through the use of color-coded messages and widgets indicating the seriousness of the issue. While there is significant problem reporting available to the operator, until recently there was no centralized and persistent visual indication or “annunciator” display for issues. In order to provide a way to present problems in a centralized and persistent fashion with “on-the-spot guidance” to ease the job of the operator and to have an acknowledge capability, the LBTO project decided to leverage an existing Alarm Handler which is a GUI client application associated with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)1. This paper briefly describes the TCS sources of problem reporting information and how the EPICS Alarm Handler supplements the current system.

  18. [Customers who have bought a comfort alarm also bought wireless cable and volleyball rackets : legal and medical aspects of so-called comfort alarms].

    PubMed

    Röhrig, R; Kaiser, J

    2014-06-01

    The word "secondary alarm" also sometimes known as "comfort alarm" means that a system indicates a critical situation (alarm condition) but this does not happen with the safety of an alarm system. A closer inspection of the small print reveals that the comfort alarm is in reality not an alarm but only additional information. This article summarizes in compact form what consequences this has for the user and what precautions should be taken when acquiring an alarm system.

  19. A new information-theoretic measure to control the robustness-sensitivity trade-off for DMFFD point-set registration.

    PubMed

    Tustison, Nicholas J; Awate, Suyash P; Song, Gang; Cook, Tessa S; Gee, James C

    2009-01-01

    An essential component of many medical image analysis protocols is the establishment and manipulation of feature correspondences. These image features can assume such forms spanning the range of functions of individual or regional pixel intensities to geometric structures extracted as a preprocessing segmentation step. Many algorithms focusing on the latter set of salient features attempt to reduce these structures to such geometric primitives as surfaces, curves and/or points for correspondence-based study. Although the latter geometric primitive forms the basis of many of these algorithms, unrealistic constraints such as assumptions of identical cardinality between point-sets hinder general usage. Furthermore, the local structure for certain point-sets derived from segmentation processes is often ignored. In this paper, we introduce a family of novel information-theoretic measures for pooint-set registration derived as a generalization of the well-known Shannon entropy known as the Havrda-Charvat-Tsallis entropy. This divergence measure permits a fine-tuning between robustness and sensitivity emphasis. In addition, we employ a directly manipulated free-form deformation (DMFFD) transformation model, a recently developed variant of the well-known FFD transformation model. PMID:19694265

  20. Examination of criticality accident alarm coverage on the operating floors of the X-333, X-330, and X-326 facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Woollard, J.; Skapik, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an evaluation of Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) coverage of the operating floors (first floors) of the X-333, X-330, and X-326 buildings. CAAS coverage of the process cell floors (second floors) has been evaluated in previous reports. Coverage of the roadways around the three processing buildings by the cell floor detectors in these buildings has also been verified in a previous report. In order to evaluate coverage, the facilities were modeled using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer Code (MCNP). MCNP was then used to simulate criticality accidents at various locations throughout the operating floors of the buildings and the associated neutron flux at the current detector locations was calculated. The neutron flux was then converted to an absorbed dose rate (in tissue) and compared with the Portsmouth criticality accident alarm set-point of 5mrad/hr. The parameters defining the simulated criticality accidents have been calculated as ``the minimum accident of concern`` as defined in ANSI Standard ANS 8.3-1986. These calculations are documented in Portsmouth report number POEF-SH-31. The results of this evaluation indicate that the X-333 Operating Floor CAAS may not alarm in response to a minimum accident of concern. This is primarily because of shielding provided by the numerous concrete columns used to support the second floor of this building and the large distances between the CAAS detectors. Conversely, the results indicate that the X-326 and the X-330 CAAS systems would alarm in response to a minimum accident of concern occurring on the operating floors of these buildings. It should be noted that the cell floors in these two buildings are supported with steel I-beams instead of the concrete columns used in the X-333 building.

  1. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Sarah A; Bonter, David N

    2013-01-01

    The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

  2. Specification of business rules for the development of hospital alarm system: application to the pharmaceutical validation.

    PubMed

    Boussadi, Abdelali; Bousquet, Cedric; Sabatier, Brigitte; Colombet, Isabelle; Degoulet, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    Although clinical alarm systems are part of the knowledge management setting within healthcare organisations, modelling of business processes related to decision support and knowledge representation of decision rules are seldom described. We propose a customization of the Unified Process that takes into account user requirements for clinical alarm systems by introducing the Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR). This methodology was applied to the design and implementation of a clinical alarm system for pharmaceutical validation at the European Hospital Georges Pompidou (HEGP). Rules were implemented using the IlogJRules Business Rule Management System. We produced 3 business rules patterns and 427 instances of rules. As SBVR is close to natural language, pharmacists were able to understand rules and participate to their design.

  3. Recurrent hamstring muscle injury: applying the limited evidence in the professional football setting with a seven-point programme

    PubMed Central

    Brukner, Peter; Nealon, Andrew; Morgan, Christopher; Burgess, Darren; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent hamstring injuries are a major problem in sports such as football. The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent hamstring injuries and examine the evidence for each intervention. A professional footballer sustained five hamstring injuries in a relatively short period of time. The injury was managed successfully with a seven-point programme—biomechanical assessment and correction, neurodynamics, core stability, eccentric strengthening, an overload running programme, injection therapies and stretching/relaxation. The evidence for each of these treatment options is reviewed. It is impossible to be definite about which aspects of the programme contributed to a successful outcome. Only limited evidence is available in most cases; therefore, decisions regarding the use of different treatment modalities must be made by using a combination of clinical experience and research evidence. PMID:23322894

  4. Immuno-epidemiological Modeling of HIV-1 Predicts High Heritability of the Set-Point Virus Load, while Selection for CTL Escape Dominates Virulence Evolution

    PubMed Central

    van Dorp, Christiaan H.; van Boven, Michiel; de Boer, Rob J.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that HIV-1 has evolved its set-point virus load to be optimized for transmission. Previous epidemiological models and studies into the heritability of set-point virus load confirm that this mode of adaptation within the human population is feasible. However, during the many cycles of replication between infection of a host and transmission to the next host, HIV-1 is under selection for escape from immune responses, and not transmission. Here we investigate with computational and mathematical models how these two levels of selection, within-host and between-host, are intertwined. We find that when the rate of immune escape is comparable to what has been observed in patients, immune selection within hosts is dominant over selection for transmission. Surprisingly, we do find high values for set-point virus load heritability, and argue that high heritability estimates can be caused by the ‘footprints’ left by differing hosts' immune systems on the virus. PMID:25522184

  5. Do smoke alarms still function a year after installation? A follow-up of the get-alarmed campaign.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corleen J; Jones, Alma R; Davis, Mary Kidd; Caplan, Lee S

    2004-04-01

    The Get-Alarmed Campaign Follow-up Study was the second phase of an initiative to assure that homes of families at high risk of fire-related injury and death had functioning smoke alarms. Smoke alarms and/or batteries were installed in over 94 percent of 454 participating households in Schley and Henry Counties, Georgia, in 2000. Before the study began, 60.6 percent of these homes had smoke alarms, but only 36.6 percent had functioning smoke alarms. The follow-up study was designed to determine the experiences of participants with smoke alarms and whether participating households had functioning smoke alarms a year after baseline. Participants were phoned or visited and asked about their experiences with smoke alarms since the baseline study. During the interview, they were asked to test a smoke alarm, the results of which could frequently be heard. Respondents included 237 from Schley County and 113 from Henry County, for an overall 77.1 percent response rate. While 80.3 percent of respondents had a smoke alarm that was heard by the interviewer when it was tested, 6.6 percent reported that their smoke alarm had been disabled or had a dead battery. Over 75 percent of respondents had smoke alarm sound offs in the prior year, predominately due to cooking smoke, but only about 5 percent reported removing the battery or otherwise disabling it to prevent sound offs. However, the measures taken may render a household unprotected at a critical time. Efforts to increase protection with smoke alarms should be augmented with programs to insure adequate and timely testing and maintenance of existing smoke alarms. PMID:15065735

  6. Alarm handler for the advanced photon source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.; Cha, B.K.; Anderson, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, will have a control system employing graphics workstations at the operator interface level and VME-based microprocessors operating with a distributed database at the field level. The alarm handler is an application utilizing X-Windows running on one or more operator interface workstations which monitors alarms generated by the VME-based microprocessors. Alarms can be grouped in a hierarchical manner. The operator can monitor, acknowledge, and mask alarms either individually or aggregately. Alarm changes of state and all operator modifications are logged. When alarms occur, display windows are automatically generated conveying system and subsystem relationships and severity. Menus are used to modify the alarm action configuration files and to obtain help. Since alarm groups are defined via an alarm configuration file, the alarm handler is a general purpose application which can be customized to monitor a single subsystem or configured to monitor the entire accelerator complex. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Medical History of Elderly Patients in the Emergency Setting: Not an Easy Point-of-Care Diagnostic Marker.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Tobias; Slagman, Anna; Senkin, Arthur; Möckel, Martin; Searle, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Medical histories are a crucially important diagnostic tool. Elderly patients represent a large and increasing group of emergency patients. Due to cognitive deficits, taking a reliable medical history in this patient group can be difficult. We sought to evaluate the medical history-taking in emergency patients above 75 years of age with respect to duration and completeness. Methods. Anonymous data of consecutive patients were recorded. Times for the defined basic medical history-taking were documented, as were the availability of other sources and times to assess these. Results. Data of 104 patients were included in the analysis. In a quarter of patients (25%, n = 26) no complete basic medical history could be obtained. In the group of patients where complete data could be gathered, only 16 patients were able to provide all necessary information on their own. Including other sources like relatives or GPs prolonged the time until complete medical history from 7.3 minutes (patient only) to 26.4 (+relatives) and 56.3 (+GP) minutes. Conclusions. Medical histories are important diagnostic tools in the emergency setting and are prolonged in the elderly, especially if additional documentation and third parties need to be involved. New technologies like emergency medical cards might help to improve the availability of important patient data but implementation of these technologies is costly and faces data protection issues. PMID:26421190

  8. Indoor and outdoor social alarms: understanding users' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sjölinder, Marie; Avatare Nöu, Anneli

    2014-03-07

    The elderly population is increasing and there is a need to provide care and safety at a high level with limited resources. New social alarm solutions may contribute to safety and independence for many elderly. However, it is important to understand the needs within the user group. This work studied social alarms in a broad sense and from several user perspectives. In the first study, social alarm use and its aspects were investigated. To understand where there may be problems and weaknesses, users, caregivers, managers of municipalities, and personnel at alarm centers were interviewed. The interviews helped identify a number of problems. For municipalities, the processes of procuring new alarms and managing their organization were found to be complex. The effect of this was that the same social alarm systems had been ordered over and over again without taking into account new user needs or new technical solutions. For alarm users, one large problem was that the alarms had very limited reach and were designed for indoor use only. This has resulted in users hesitating to leave their homes, which in turn has negative effects due to lack of physical activity and fewer social contacts. One important result from the first study was the need for a social alarm solution that worked outdoors. In a second study, needs regarding outdoor social alarms were investigated. The results from this study showed that wearable outdoor alarms must be easy to use, provide communication, and be well designed. Finally, these alarms must work both indoors and outdoors, and the user should not have to worry about where he/she is or who is acting on an alarm.

  9. Evaluation of the benchmark dose for point of departure determination for a variety of chemical classes in applied regulatory settings.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Hoda; Grundy, Jean E; Bose, Ranjan

    2012-05-01

    Repeated-dose studies received by the New Substances Assessment and Control Bureau (NSACB) of Health Canada are used to provide hazard information toward risk calculation. These studies provide a point of departure (POD), traditionally the NOAEL or LOAEL, which is used to extrapolate the quantity of substance above which adverse effects can be expected in humans. This project explored the use of benchmark dose (BMD) modeling as an alternative to this approach for studies with few dose groups. Continuous data from oral repeated-dose studies for chemicals previously assessed by NSACB were reanalyzed using U.S. EPA benchmark dose software (BMDS) to determine the BMD and BMD 95% lower confidence limit (BMDL(05) ) for each endpoint critical to NOAEL or LOAEL determination for each chemical. Endpoint-specific benchmark dose-response levels , indicative of adversity, were consistently applied. An overall BMD and BMDL(05) were calculated for each chemical using the geometric mean. The POD obtained from benchmark analysis was then compared with the traditional toxicity thresholds originally used for risk assessment. The BMD and BMDL(05) generally were higher than the NOAEL, but lower than the LOAEL. BMDL(05) was generally constant at 57% of the BMD. Benchmark provided a clear advantage in health risk assessment when a LOAEL was the only POD identified, or when dose groups were widely distributed. Although the benchmark method cannot always be applied, in the selected studies with few dose groups it provided a more accurate estimate of the real no-adverse-effect level of a substance.

  10. The response of the temperature of cold-point mesopause to solar activity based on SABER data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chaoli; Liu, Dong; Wei, Heli; Wang, Yingjian; Dai, Congming; Wu, Pengfei; Zhu, Wenyue; Rao, Ruizhong

    2016-07-01

    The thermal structure and energy balance of upper atmosphere are dominated by solar activity. The response of cold-point mesopause (CPM) to solar activity is an important form. This article presents the response of the temperature of CPM (T-CPM) to solar activity using 14 year Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry data series over 80°S-80°N regions. These regions are divided into 16 latitude zones with 10° interval, and the spatial areas of 80°S-80°N, 180°W-180°E are divided into 96 lattices with 10°(latitude) × 60°(longitude) grid. The annual-mean values of T-CPM and F10.7 are calculated. The least squares regression method and correlation analysis are applied to these annual-mean series. First, the results show that the global T-CPM is significantly correlated to solar activity at the 0.05 level of significance with correlation coefficient of 0.90. The global solar response of T-CPM is 4.89 ± 0.67 K/100 solar flux unit. Then, for each latitude zone, the solar response of T-CPM and its fluctuation are obtained. The solar response of T-CPM becomes stronger with increasing latitude. The fluctuation ranges of solar response at middle-latitude regions are smaller than those of the equator and high-latitude regions, and the global distribution takes on W shape. The corelationship analysis shows that the T-CPM is significantly correlated to solar activity at the 0.05 level of significance for each latitude zone. The correlation coefficients at middle-latitude regions are higher than those of the equator and high-latitude regions, and the global distribution takes on M shape. At last, for each grid cell, the response of T-CPM to solar activity and their correlation coefficient are presented.

  11. Alarm system for a nuclear control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  12. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2001-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  13. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  14. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  15. Alarm Management System for the D/3 Distributed Control System

    1997-03-19

    As industrial processes continue to grow in size and complexity, the Distrubuted Control Systems that automate and monitor these processes expand in a like manner. This increase in control system complexity has resulted in ever increasing numbers of alarms presented to the operator. The challenge for today's control system designer is to find innovative ways to present alarm information to the operator such that despite the large number of alarms, the operator is able tomore » quickly assess the status of the plant and immediately respond to the most critical alarms in a timely manner. This software package, designed and developed for the Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator/Waste Removal Distributed Control System installed on the H-Area Tank Farm, provides an alarm system which utilizes the annunciator (SKID) panel as a means of statusing the plant and providing single keystroke access to the display on which an alarm resides.« less

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered...

  17. 5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing cable strand alarm located at Beach and Hyde Streets. A strand in the cable (see CA-12-7) forces the fork forward, alerting the powerhouse to the strand by means of an electrical warning device. This strand alarm operates in essentially the same manner as those first used in the 1880s. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Analysis of the Optimal Cut-point for HIV-p24 Antigen Testing to Diagnose HIV Infection in HIV-Exposed Children from Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    Tamhane, M.; Gautney, B.; Shiu, C.; Segaren, N.; Jeannis, L.; Eustache, C.; Simeon-Fadois, Y.; Chen, Y. H.; De, D.; Irivinti, S.; Tamma, P.; Thompson, C. B.; Khamadi, S.; Siberry, G.K.; Persaud, D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleic-acid-testing (NAT) to diagnose HIV infection in children under age 18 months provides a barrier to HIV-testing in exposed children from resource-constrained settings. The ultrasensitive HIV- p24- antigen (Up24) assay is cheaper and easier to perform and is sensitive (84–98%) and specific (98–100%). The cut-point optical density (OD) selected for discriminating between positive and negative samples may need assessment due to regional differences in mother-to-child HIV-transmission rates. Objectives We used receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves and logistic regression analyses to assess the effect of various cut-points on the diagnostic performance of Up24 for HIV-infection status among HIV-exposed children. Positive and negative predictive values at different rates of disease prevalence were also estimated. Study design A study of Up24 testing on dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected from 278 HIV-exposed Haitian children, 3–24-months of age, in whom HIV-infection status was determined by NAT on the same DBS card. Results The sensitivity and specificity of Up24 varied by the cut-point-OD value selected. At a cut-point-OD of 8-fold the standard deviation of the negative control (NCSD), sensitivity and specificity of Up24 were maximized [87.8% (95% CI, 83.9–91.6) and 92% (95% CI, 88.8–95.2), respectively]. In lower prevalence settings (5%), positive and negative predictive values of Up24 were maximal (75.9% and 98.8%, respectively) at a cut-point-OD that was 15-fold the NCSD. Conclusions In low prevalence settings, a high degree of specificity can be achieved with Up24 testing of HIV-exposed children when a higher cut-point OD is used; a feature that may facilitate more frequent use of Up24 antigen testing for HIV-exposed children. PMID:21330193

  19. Automated quantitative dose-response modeling and point of departure determination for large toxicogenomic and high-throughput screening data sets.

    PubMed

    Burgoon, Lyle D; Zacharewski, Timothy R

    2008-08-01

    Regulatory and homeland security agencies undertake safety and risk assessments to assess the potential hazards of radiation, chemical, biological, and pharmaceutical agents. By law, these assessments must be science-based to ensure public safety and environmental quality. These agencies use dose-response modeling and benchmark dose methods to identify points of departure across single end points elicited by the agent. Regulatory agencies have also begun to examine toxicogenomic data to identify novel biomarkers of exposure and assess potential toxicity. The ToxResponse Modeler streamlines analyses and point of departure (POD) calculations across hundreds of responses (e.g., differential gene expression, changes in metabolite levels) through an automated process capable of large-scale modeling and model selection. The application identifies the best-fit dose-response model utilizing particle swarm optimization and calculates the probabilistic POD. The application analyzed a publicly available 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin dose-response data set of hepatic gene expression data in C57BL/6 mice to identify putative biomarkers. The Gene Ontology mapped these responses to specific functions to differentiate adaptive effects from toxic responses. In principle, safety and risk assessors could use the automated ToxResponse Modeler to analyze any large dose-response data set including outputs from high-throughput screening assays to assist with the ranking and prioritization of compounds that warrant further investigation or development.

  20. Evaluation of nine different types of enuresis alarms.

    PubMed

    Goel, K M; Thomson, R B; Gibb, E M; McAinsh, T F

    1984-08-01

    One hundred enuretic children were treated in closely supervised trial conditions with nine commonly used enuresis alarm systems available commercially in the United Kingdom. Although there was little difference between the systems in terms of their effectiveness in stopping bed wetting, parents preferred the Eastleigh and Urilarm De-Luxe models which had distinct advantages in respect of false alarms, breakdowns, and durability of pads. Enuresis alarms that perform poorly in these respects may lead to loss of enthusiasm and non-compliance. The systems vary widely in price, but a private buyer may find a cheaper alarm just as effective. PMID:6476872

  1. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems.

    PubMed

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  2. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 11: Estimation of Bladder-Wall Cumulative Dose in Multi-Fraction Image-Based Gynaecological Brachytherapy Using Deformable Point Set Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Zakariaee, R; Brown, C J; Hamarneh, G; Parsons, C A; Spadinger, I

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetric parameters based on dose-volume histograms (DVH) of contoured structures are routinely used to evaluate dose delivered to target structures and organs at risk. However, the DVH provides no information on the spatial distribution of the dose in situations of repeated fractions with changes in organ shape or size. The aim of this research was to develop methods to more accurately determine geometrically localized, cumulative dose to the bladder wall in intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. The CT scans and treatment plans of 20 cervical cancer patients were used. Each patient was treated with five high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy fractions of 600cGy prescribed dose. The bladder inner and outer surfaces were delineated using MIM Maestro software (MIM Software Inc.) and were imported into MATLAB (MathWorks) as 3-dimensional point clouds constituting the “bladder wall”. A point-set registration toolbox for MATLAB, Coherent Point Drift (CPD), was used to non-rigidly transform the bladder-wall points from four of the fractions to the coordinate system of the remaining (reference) fraction, which was chosen to be the emptiest bladder for each patient. The doses were accumulated on the reference fraction and new cumulative dosimetric parameters were calculated. The LENT-SOMA toxicity scores of these patients were studied against the cumulative dose parameters. Based on this study, there was no significant correlation between the toxicity scores and the determined cumulative dose parameters.

  3. Personality and serotonin transporter genotype interact with social context to affect immunity and viral set-point in simian immunodeficiency virus disease.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, John P; Abel, Kristina; Mendoza, Sally P; Blozis, Shelley A; McChesney, Michael B; Cole, Steve W; Mason, William A

    2008-07-01

    From the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, stress has been a suspected contributor to the wide variation seen in disease progression, and some evidence supports this idea. Not all individuals respond to a stressor in the same way, however, and little is known about the biological mechanisms by which variations in individuals' responses to their environment affect disease-relevant immunologic processes. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus/rhesus macaque model of AIDS, we explored how personality (Sociability) and genotype (serotonin transporter promoter) independently interact with social context (Stable or Unstable social conditions) to influence behavioral expression, plasma cortisol concentrations, SIV-specific IgG, and expression of genes associated with Type I interferon early in infection. SIV viral RNA set-point was strongly and negatively correlated with survival as expected. Set-point was also associated with expression of interferon-stimulated genes, with CXCR3 expression, and with SIV-specific IgG titers. Poorer immune responses, in turn, were associated with display of sustained aggression and submission. Personality and genotype acted independently as well as in interaction with social condition to affect behavioral responses. Together, the data support an "interactionist" perspective [Eysenck, H.J., 1991. Personality, stress and disease: an interactionist perspective. Psychol. Inquiry 2, 221-232] on disease. Given that an important goal of HIV treatment is to maintain viral set-point as low as possible, our data suggest that supplementing anti-retroviral therapy with behavioral or pharmacologic modulation of other aspects of an organism's functioning might prolong survival, particularly among individuals living under conditions of threat or uncertainty.

  4. Design of anti-burglar alarm systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şchiopu, Paul; Costea, Aurelian

    2015-02-01

    Security, as an important element that defines the quality of a system, represents the capacity of a system to preserve his own functional characteristics under pressure of external disruptive agents capable to represent danger for the system, for the environment of the system, and for the life of people inside the defined risk zone. The main goal of security is system stability. With ever new ideas, technology, procedures, actions and specialized institutions, integrated security services offer protection, surveillance and optimum conditions for system to function and to be used properly. Therefore, security represents the main quality parameter of all systems and processes, without it efficiency was not possible. Keyword list: Security; Anti-Burglar Alarm

  5. The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

    1995-01-01

    Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture. PMID:7816823

  6. Evaluation of orthogonal/dissimilar RP-HPLC systems sets for their suitability as method-development starting points for drug impurity profiles.

    PubMed

    Van Gyseghem, E; Deconinck, E; Dumarey, M; Jimidar, M; Sneyers, R; Redlich, D; Verhoeven, E; Peys, W; De Smet, M; Vander Heyden, Y

    2008-10-01

    Orthogonal or dissimilar separation systems provide different selectivities and their application can facilitate the development of methods to identify and quantify impurities in a drug substance. Two sets of chromatographic systems potentially applicable for method development were evaluated using four drug/impurity profiles. The sets consist of orthogonal or dissimilar systems and systems with good overall separation properties, selected in earlier studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate these systems for selectivity differences in the impurity profiles. These differences should allow determining the number of compounds occurring in an impurity profile. Then, one or a very limited number of systems is to be proposed for further method development. To examine the selectivity changes and separation quality for each impurity profile, both the normalized retention times tau and the resolutions between pairs of consecutively eluting peaks were plotted on parallel axes, representing the systems. For each profile, several systems of the studied sets can serve as potential starting points for further method development. All impurities could be separated from the active substance and from each other on at least one system. However, for the different profiles, different systems were selected as best, which makes that each system in a given set has its importance, depending on the properties of the profile.

  7. An Approach to Alleviate the False Alarm in Building Change Detection from Urban Vhr Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Hou, J. L.; Deng, M.

    2016-06-01

    Building change detection from very-high-resolution (VHR) urban remote sensing image frequently encounter the challenge of serious false alarm caused by different illumination or viewing angles in bi-temporal images. An approach to alleviate the false alarm in urban building change detection is proposed in this paper. Firstly, as shadows casted by urban buildings are of distinct spectral and shape feature, it adopts a supervised object-based classification technique to extract them in this paper. Secondly, on the opposite direction of sunlight illumination, a straight line is drawn along the principal orientation of building in every extracted shadow region. Starting from the straight line and moving toward the sunlight direction, a rectangular area is constructed to cover partial shadow and rooftop of each building. Thirdly, an algebra and geometry invariant based method is used to abstract the spatial topological relationship of the potential unchanged buildings from all central points of the rectangular area. Finally, based on an oriented texture curvature descriptor, an index is established to determine the actual false alarm in building change detection result. The experiment results validate that the proposed method can be used as an effective framework to alleviate the false alarm in building change detection from urban VHR image.

  8. Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

  9. 1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22, showing layout of rooms. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Edwards Test Station, Fire Alarm Plan, Bldg. E-22,' drawing no. EFA/11-1, December 15, 1961. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) through (a)(5), (a)(7), (a)(8), (a)(10), (a)(11), and (a)(13). (2) The tests in this section must be... actuation of the alarm is taken. The alarm is then fed with water for 15 minutes. (3) Repeat steps in... steps in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section using iron oxide concentrations of 50 ppm and 100...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842 Cargo system: Controls and alarms. The master shall ensure that the cargo emergency shut-down system and...

  12. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indicating and alarm systems. 58.25-25 Section 58.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-25 Indicating and alarm systems. (a) Indication of the rudder angle must be provided both...

  13. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  14. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  15. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LEVEL ALARM.” Cargo Temperature Control Systems ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo...

  16. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LEVEL ALARM.” Cargo Temperature Control Systems ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo...

  17. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  18. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  19. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  20. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  1. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of alarm signals. 80.318 Section 80.318 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety...

  2. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers to this section or requires a cargo to have...

  3. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  4. Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallonee, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

  5. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  6. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  7. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  8. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  9. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  10. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  11. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  12. Validation of Rapid Point-of-Care (POC) Tests for Detection of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Field and Laboratory Settings in the Gambia, Western Africa

    PubMed Central

    Njai, Harr Freeya; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Sanneh, Bakary; Ferguson, Lynne; Ndow, Gibril; Mendy, Maimuna; Sow, Amina; Lo, Gora; Toure-Kane, Coumba; Tanaka, Junko; Taal, Makie; D'alessandro, Umberto; Njie, Ramou; Thursz, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Point-of-care tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could be an ideal tool for a large-scale HBV screening/treatment program in SSA. Using data from the PROLIFICA (Prevention of Liver Fibrosis and Cancer in Africa) program, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of three point-of-care tests (Determine, Vikia, and Espline) for the detection of HBsAg in the field or a laboratory setting in the Gambia. In the field, we used finger-prick whole blood for the Determine and Vikia tests and dried blood spots for the reference standard test (AxSYM HBsAg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]). In the laboratory we used serum for the Determine, Espline, and reference test (Architect chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay). Of 773 participants recruited at the community and 227 known chronic HBV carriers (1,000 subjects in total), 293 were positive for HBsAg. The sensitivity and specificity of the Determine test were 88.5% and 100% in the field and 95.3% and 93.3% in the laboratory setting, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 99.8% for the Vikia test (in the field) and 93.9% and 94.7% for the Espline test (in the laboratory). There was no evidence that one kit was better than another. Most of the patients with false-negative results (18/19) were classified as inactive chronic carriers. In summary, the three point-of-care tests had acceptable ranges of diagnostic accuracy. These tests may represent accurate, rapid, and inexpensive alternatives to serology testing for the screening of HBV infection at field level in SSA. PMID:25631805

  13. 46 CFR 76.35-10 - Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. 76.35-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-10 Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. (a) There shall be at least one manual alarm box in each zone. (b) Manual alarms shall be located in...

  14. From alarm systems to smart houses.

    PubMed

    Vlaskamp, F J

    1992-01-01

    The percentage of senior citizens in the Netherlands will rise in coming years. The expected percentage for the year 2010 of persons over age 65 in the total population is 15%. More persons over age 65 than ever before will continue to live in their own environment. Emergency response systems (ERS) can support independent living. The most common type of organization distributing ERS is a small, partly subsidized local alarm organization run by a social welfare office for the elderly. Government subsidy has been reduced in recent years which has motivated small organizations to join together into larger regional organizations in order to get a more solid financial base. On the other hand new semi-commercial and commercial organizations have come into being. These developments are part of the growing importance of home care, leading to more medical applications of ERS. User satisfaction with ERS is high. Portable triggers can enhance the effectiveness of the system. However, many users do not wear the portable trigger when feeling well. Future technical developments will result in multifunctionality of ERS-devices. In the long term the hardware of today will be integrated in a multimedia home terminal replacing the telephone. The portable trigger will remain the only specific hardware at home for ERS.

  15. Pattern discovery in critical alarms originating from neonates under intensive care.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Atallah, Louis; Feijs, Loe; Van Huffel, Sabine; Andriessen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Patient monitoring generates a large number of alarms, the vast majority of which are false. Excessive non-actionable medical alarms lead to alarm fatigue, a well-recognized patient safety issue. While multiple approaches to reduce alarm fatigue have been explored, patterns in alarming and inter-alarm relationships, as they manifest in the clinical workspace, are largely a black-box and hamper research efforts towards reducing alarms. The aim of this study is to detect opportunities to safely reduce alarm pressure, by developing techniques to identify, capture and visualize patterns in alarms. Nearly 500 000 critical medical alarms were acquired from a neonatal intensive care unit over a 20 month period. Heuristic techniques were developed to extract the inter-alarm relationships. These included identifying the presence of alarm clusters, patterns of transition from one alarm category to another, temporal associations amongst alarms and determination of prevalent sequences in which alarms manifest. Desaturation, bradycardia and apnea constituted 86% of all alarms and demonstrated distinctive periodic increases in the number of alarms that were synchronized with nursing care and enteral feeding. By inhibiting further alarms of a category for a short duration of time (30 s/60 s), non-actionable physiological alarms could be reduced by 20%. The patterns of transition from one alarm category to another and the time duration between such transitions revealed the presence of close temporal associations and multiparametric derangement. Examination of the prevalent alarm sequences reveals that while many sequences comprised of multiple alarms, nearly 65% of the sequences were isolated instances of alarms and are potentially irreducible. Patterns in alarming, as they manifest in the clinical workspace were identified and visualized. This information can be exploited to investigate strategies for reducing alarms.

  16. Neural pathways for the processing of alarm pheromone in the ant brain.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2007-12-01

    Social insects like ants exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. In the ant Camponotus obscuripes, we have reported that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe (primary olfactory center). Alarm pheromone signals are then transmitted, mainly via uniglomerular projection neurons (uni-PNs), to the protocerebrum (PR), where sensory signals are integrated to form motor commands for behavioral responses. In this study, we physiologically and morphologically characterized 63 alarm pheromone-sensitive PR neurons in ants by using intracellular recording and staining techniques. Most of the pheromone-sensitive PR neurons had dendrites in the mushroom body (MB), the lateral horn, or the medial PR. Some neurons with dendrites in these areas responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and may participate in the control of specific behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons responded also to non-pheromonal odors, in contrast to uni-PNs, most of which responded specifically to alarm pheromones. Responses to non-pheromonal odors were most prominent in efferent neurons of the MB lobe, suggesting that they may participate in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal information. We found a class of PR neurons that receives input in all of these pheromone-processing areas and terminates in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of pheromone-sensitized aggressive behavior, which is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. PMID:17912739

  17. The Clinical and Economic Impact of Point-of-Care CD4 Testing in Mozambique and Other Resource-Limited Settings: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hyle, Emily P.; Jani, Ilesh V.; Lehe, Jonathan; Su, Amanda E.; Wood, Robin; Quevedo, Jorge; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V.; Pei, Pamela P.; Paltiel, A. David; Resch, Stephen; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Peter, Trevor; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Point-of-care CD4 tests at HIV diagnosis could improve linkage to care in resource-limited settings. Our objective is to evaluate the clinical and economic impact of point-of-care CD4 tests compared to laboratory-based tests in Mozambique. Methods and Findings We use a validated model of HIV testing, linkage, and treatment (CEPAC-International) to examine two strategies of immunological staging in Mozambique: (1) laboratory-based CD4 testing (LAB-CD4) and (2) point-of-care CD4 testing (POC-CD4). Model outcomes include 5-y survival, life expectancy, lifetime costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Input parameters include linkage to care (LAB-CD4, 34%; POC-CD4, 61%), probability of correctly detecting antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility (sensitivity: LAB-CD4, 100%; POC-CD4, 90%) or ART ineligibility (specificity: LAB-CD4, 100%; POC-CD4, 85%), and test cost (LAB-CD4, US$10; POC-CD4, US$24). In sensitivity analyses, we vary POC-CD4-specific parameters, as well as cohort and setting parameters to reflect a range of scenarios in sub-Saharan Africa. We consider ICERs less than three times the per capita gross domestic product in Mozambique (US$570) to be cost-effective, and ICERs less than one times the per capita gross domestic product in Mozambique to be very cost-effective. Projected 5-y survival in HIV-infected persons with LAB-CD4 is 60.9% (95% CI, 60.9%–61.0%), increasing to 65.0% (95% CI, 64.9%–65.1%) with POC-CD4. Discounted life expectancy and per person lifetime costs with LAB-CD4 are 9.6 y (95% CI, 9.6–9.6 y) and US$2,440 (95% CI, US$2,440–US$2,450) and increase with POC-CD4 to 10.3 y (95% CI, 10.3–10.3 y) and US$2,800 (95% CI, US$2,790–US$2,800); the ICER of POC-CD4 compared to LAB-CD4 is US$500/year of life saved (YLS) (95% CI, US$480–US$520/YLS). POC-CD4 improves clinical outcomes and remains near the very cost-effective threshold in sensitivity analyses, even if point-of-care CD4 tests have lower sensitivity

  18. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

  19. Reducing false intracranial pressure alarms using morphological waveform features.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates, a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern recognition methods. Models are trained in a supervised fashion from a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarm episodes extracted from 108 neurosurgical patients. The comparative analysis provided between spectral regression, kernel spectral regression, and support vector machines indicates the significant improvement of the proposed framework in detecting false ICP alarms in comparison to a threshold-based technique that is conventionally used. Another contribution of this work is to exploit an adaptive discretization to reduce the dimensionality of the input features. The resulting features lead to a decrease of 30% of false ICP alarms without compromising sensitivity.

  20. Open-source point-of-care electronic medical records for use in resource-limited settings: systematic review and questionnaire surveys

    PubMed Central

    Bru, Juan; Berger, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Background Point-of-care electronic medical records (EMRs) are a key tool to manage chronic illness. Several EMRs have been developed for use in treating HIV and tuberculosis, but their applicability to primary care, technical requirements and clinical functionalities are largely unknown. Objectives This study aimed to address the needs of clinicians from resource-limited settings without reliable internet access who are considering adopting an open-source EMR. Study eligibility criteria Open-source point-of-care EMRs suitable for use in areas without reliable internet access. Study appraisal and synthesis methods The authors conducted a comprehensive search of all open-source EMRs suitable for sites without reliable internet access. The authors surveyed clinician users and technical implementers from a single site and technical developers of each software product. The authors evaluated availability, cost and technical requirements. Results The hardware and software for all six systems is easily available, but they vary considerably in proprietary components, installation requirements and customisability. Limitations This study relied solely on self-report from informants who developed and who actively use the included products. Conclusions and implications of key findings Clinical functionalities vary greatly among the systems, and none of the systems yet meet minimum requirements for effective implementation in a primary care resource-limited setting. The safe prescribing of medications is a particular concern with current tools. The dearth of fully functional EMR systems indicates a need for a greater emphasis by global funding agencies to move beyond disease-specific EMR systems and develop a universal open-source health informatics platform. PMID:22763661

  1. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  2. Early warnings and missed alarms for abrupt monsoon transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Z. A.; Kwasniok, F.; Boulton, C. A.; Cox, P. M.; Jones, R. T.; Lenton, T. M.; Turney, C. S. M.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeo-records from China (Cheng et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2008, 2001) demonstrate the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) is dominated by abrupt and large magnitude monsoon shifts on millennial timescales, switching between periods of high and weak monsoon rains. It has been hypothesised that over these timescales, the EASM exhibits two stable states with bifurcation-type tipping points between them (Schewe et al., 2012). Here we test this hypothesis by looking for early warning signals of past bifurcations in speleothem records from Sanbao Cave and Hulu Cave, China (Wang et al., 2008, 2001), spanning the penultimate glacial cycle, and in multiple model simulations derived from the data. We find hysteresis behaviour in our model simulations with transitions directly forced by solar insolation. We detect critical slowing down prior to an abrupt monsoon shift during the penultimate deglaciation consistent with long-term orbital forcing. However, such signals are only detectable when the change in system stability is sufficiently slow to be detected by the sampling resolution of the dataset, raising the possibility that the alarm was missed and a similar forcing drove earlier EASM shifts.

  3. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Rachel A.; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Media reports linking unusual animal behaviour with earthquakes can potentially create false alarms and unnecessary anxiety among people that live in earthquake risk zones. Recently large frog swarms in China and elsewhere have been reported as earthquake precursors in the media. By examining international media reports of frog swarms since 1850 in comparison to earthquake data, it was concluded that frog swarms are naturally occurring dispersal behaviour of juveniles and are not associated with earthquakes. However, the media in seismic risk areas may be more likely to report frog swarms, and more likely to disseminate reports on frog swarms after earthquakes have occurred, leading to an apparent link between frog swarms and earthquakes. Abstract In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by

  4. False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

    2013-05-01

    A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

  5. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  6. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concentration of iron oxide. Any change in the bilge alarm reading during the 5 minutes is recorded. (3) Repeat steps in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section using iron oxide concentrations of 50 ppm and 100...

  7. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... concentration of iron oxide. Any change in the bilge alarm reading during the 5 minutes is recorded. (3) Repeat steps in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section using iron oxide concentrations of 50 ppm and 100...

  8. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... concentration of iron oxide. Any change in the bilge alarm reading during the 5 minutes is recorded. (3) Repeat steps in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section using iron oxide concentrations of 50 ppm and 100...

  9. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... concentration of iron oxide. Any change in the bilge alarm reading during the 5 minutes is recorded. (3) Repeat steps in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section using iron oxide concentrations of 50 ppm and 100...

  10. SCADA alarms processing for wind turbine component failure detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, E.; Reder, M.; Melero, J. J.

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbine failure and downtime can often compromise the profitability of a wind farm due to their high impact on the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Early detection of failures can facilitate the changeover from corrective maintenance towards a predictive approach. This paper presents a cost-effective methodology to combine various alarm analysis techniques, using data from the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, in order to detect component failures. The approach categorises the alarms according to a reviewed taxonomy, turning overwhelming data into valuable information to assess component status. Then, different alarms analysis techniques are applied for two purposes: the evaluation of the SCADA alarm system capability to detect failures, and the investigation of the relation between components faults being followed by failure occurrences in others. Various case studies are presented and discussed. The study highlights the relationship between faulty behaviour in different components and between failures and adverse environmental conditions.

  11. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr. ); McGinnis, B. )

    1990-08-31

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

  13. A distributed approach to alarm management in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Estudillo-Valderrama, Miguel A; Talaminos-Barroso, Alejandro; Roa, Laura M; Naranjo-Hernández, David; Reina-Tosina, Javier; Aresté-Fosalba, Nuria; Milán-Martín, José A

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the feasibility study of using a distributed approach for the management of alarms from chronic kidney disease patients. In a first place, the key issues regarding alarm definition, classification, and prioritization according to available normalization efforts are analyzed for the main scenarios addressed in hemodialysis. Then, the middleware proposed for alarm management is described, which follows the publish/subscribe pattern, and supports the Object Management Group data distribution service (DDS) standard. This standard facilitates the real-time monitoring of the exchanged information, as well as the scalability and interoperability of the solution developed regarding the different stakeholders and resources involved. Finally, the results section shows, through the proof of concept studied, the viability of DDS for the activation of emergency protocols in terms of alarm prioritization and personalization, as well as some remarks about security, privacy, and real-time communication performance.

  14. Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance of the northwest wing - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Design and development of a personal alarm monitor for use by first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehntholt, Daniel J.; Louie, Alan S.; Marenchic, Ingrid G.; Forni, Ronald J.

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a small, portable alarm device that can be used by first responders to an emergency event to warn of the presence of low levels of a toxic nerve gas. The device consists of a rigid reusable portion and a consumable packet that is sensitive to the presence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as the nerve gases Sarin or Soman. The sensitivity level of the alarm is set to be at initial physiological response at the meiosis level, orders of magnitude below lethal concentrations. The AChE enzyme used is specific for nerve-type toxins. A color development reaction is used to demonstrate continued activity of the enzyme over its twelve-hour operational cycle.

  16. Heterospecific alarm call recognition in a non-vocal reptile.

    PubMed

    Vitousek, Maren N; Adelman, James S; Gregory, Nathan C; Clair, James J H St

    2007-12-22

    The ability to recognize and respond to the alarm calls of heterospecifics has previously been described only in species with vocal communication. Here we provide evidence that a non-vocal reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), can eavesdrop on the alarm call of the Galápagos mockingbird (Nesomimus parvulus) and respond with anti-predator behaviour. Eavesdropping on complex heterospecific communications demonstrates a remarkable degree of auditory discrimination in a non-vocal species.

  17. How Drivers Respond to Alarms Adapted to Their Braking Behaviour?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Genya; Itoh, Makoto

    Determining appropriate alarm timing for Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) may play an important role in enhancing system acceptance by drivers. It is not always true that a common alarm trigger logic is suitable for all drivers, because presented alarms may be differently viewed for each driver, i.e., paying attention or requiring appropriate actions. The current study focused on adaptive alarm timing which was adjusted in response to braking behaviour for collision avoidance for the individual. In Experiment I, the braking performance of individual driver was measured repeatedly to assess the variation of each performance. We utilised the following two indices: elapsed time from the deceleration of the lead car to release of the accelerator (accelerator release time) and elapsed time to application of the brakes (braking response time). Two alarm timings were then determined based on these two indices: (i) the median of the accelerator release time of the driver and (ii) the median of the braking response time of the driver. Experiment II compared the two alarm timings for each driver in order to investigate which timing is more appropriate for enhancing driver trust in the driver-adaptive FCWS and the system effectiveness. The results showed that the timing of the accelerator release time increased the trust ratings more than the timing of braking response. The timing of the braking response time induced a longer response time to application of the brakes. Moreover, the degree to which the response time was longer depended on alarm timing preference of the driver. The possible benefit and drawback of driver-adaptive alarm timing are discussed.

  18. An alarm processing system for a nuclear power plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.O.; Chang, S.H. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on an alarm processing system (APS) developed that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help operators to make decisions. Alarms in nuclear power plants are classified into generalized and special alarms. Generalized alarms are further classified into global and local alarms. For each type of alarm, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The processing for the generalized alarms is based on model-based reasoning. The special alarms are processed by the cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to both the plant state and the consistencies among the alarms. This APS is built on a workstation using the Prolog language.

  19. A fast and low-cost genotyping method for hepatitis B virus based on pattern recognition in point-of-care settings.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xianbo; Song, Liuwei; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Meng; Yuan, Quan; Ge, Shengxiang; Min, Xiaoping; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    A fast and low-cost method for HBV genotyping especially for genotypes A, B, C and D was developed and tested. A classifier was used to detect and analyze a one-step immunoassay lateral flow strip functionalized with genotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) on multiple capture lines in the form of pattern recognition for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. The fluorescent signals from the capture lines and the background of the strip were collected via multiple optical channels in parallel. A digital HBV genotyping model, whose inputs are the fluorescent signals and outputs are a group of genotype-specific digital binary codes (0/1), was developed based on the HBV genotyping strategy. Meanwhile, a companion decoding table was established to cover all possible pairing cases between the states of a group of genotype-specific digital binary codes and the HBV genotyping results. A logical analyzing module was constructed to process the detected signals in parallel without program control, and its outputs were used to drive a set of LED indicators, which determine the HBV genotype. Comparing to the nucleic acid analysis to HBV viruses, much faster HBV genotyping with significantly lower cost can be obtained with the developed method. PMID:27306485

  20. A fast and low-cost genotyping method for hepatitis B virus based on pattern recognition in point-of-care settings

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xianbo; Song, Liuwei; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Meng; Yuan, Quan; Ge, Shengxiang; Min, Xiaoping; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    A fast and low-cost method for HBV genotyping especially for genotypes A, B, C and D was developed and tested. A classifier was used to detect and analyze a one-step immunoassay lateral flow strip functionalized with genotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) on multiple capture lines in the form of pattern recognition for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. The fluorescent signals from the capture lines and the background of the strip were collected via multiple optical channels in parallel. A digital HBV genotyping model, whose inputs are the fluorescent signals and outputs are a group of genotype-specific digital binary codes (0/1), was developed based on the HBV genotyping strategy. Meanwhile, a companion decoding table was established to cover all possible pairing cases between the states of a group of genotype-specific digital binary codes and the HBV genotyping results. A logical analyzing module was constructed to process the detected signals in parallel without program control, and its outputs were used to drive a set of LED indicators, which determine the HBV genotype. Comparing to the nucleic acid analysis to HBV viruses, much faster HBV genotyping with significantly lower cost can be obtained with the developed method. PMID:27306485

  1. Performance Requirements to Achieve Cost-Effectiveness of Point-of-Care Tests for Sepsis Among Patients with Febrile Illness in Low-Resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Penno, Erin C; Crump, John A; Baird, Sarah J

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial sepsis is an important cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries, yet distinguishing patients with sepsis from those with other illnesses remains a challenge. Currently, management decisions are based on clinical assessment using algorithms such as Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness. Efforts to develop and evaluate point-of-care tests (POCTs) for sepsis to guide decisions on the use of antimicrobials are underway. To establish the minimum performance characteristics of such a test, we varied the characteristics of a hypothetical POCT for sepsis required for it to be cost-effective and applied a decision tree model to a population of febrile patients presenting at the district hospital level in a low-resource setting. We used a case fatality probability of 20% for appropriately treated sepsis and of 50% for inappropriately treated sepsis. On the basis of clinical assessment for sepsis with established sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.62, we found that a POCT for sepsis with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.94 was cost-effective, resulting in parity in survival but costing $1.14 less per live saved. A POCT with accuracy equivalent to the best malaria rapid diagnostic test was cheaper and more effective than clinical assessment. PMID:26195467

  2. Adaptive Changes of the Insig1/SREBP1/SCD1 Set Point Help Adipose Tissue to Cope With Increased Storage Demands of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carobbio, Stefania; Hagen, Rachel M.; Lelliott, Christopher J.; Slawik, Marc; Medina-Gomez, Gema; Tan, Chong-Yew; Sicard, Audrey; Atherton, Helen J.; Barbarroja, Nuria; Bjursell, Mikael; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Virtue, Sam; Tuthill, Antoinette; Lefai, Etienne; Laville, Martine; Wu, Tingting; Considine, Robert V.; Vidal, Hubert; Langin, Dominique; Oresic, Matej; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Griffin, Julian L.; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; López, Miguel; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity imposes unprecedented challenges on human adipose tissue (WAT) storage capacity that may benefit from adaptive mechanisms to maintain adipocyte functionality. Here, we demonstrate that changes in the regulatory feedback set point control of Insig1/SREBP1 represent an adaptive response that preserves WAT lipid homeostasis in obese and insulin-resistant states. In our experiments, we show that Insig1 mRNA expression decreases in WAT from mice with obesity-associated insulin resistance and from morbidly obese humans and in in vitro models of adipocyte insulin resistance. Insig1 downregulation is part of an adaptive response that promotes the maintenance of SREBP1 maturation and facilitates lipogenesis and availability of appropriate levels of fatty acid unsaturation, partially compensating the antilipogenic effect associated with insulin resistance. We describe for the first time the existence of this adaptive mechanism in WAT, which involves Insig1/SREBP1 and preserves the degree of lipid unsaturation under conditions of obesity-induced insulin resistance. These adaptive mechanisms contribute to maintain lipid desaturation through preferential SCD1 regulation and facilitate fat storage in WAT, despite on-going metabolic stress. PMID:23919961

  3. Design of set-point weighting PI{sup λ} + D{sup μ} controller for vertical magnetic flux controller in Damavand tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Rasouli, H.; Fatehi, A.

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, a simple method is presented for tuning weighted PI{sup λ} + D{sup μ} controller parameters based on the pole placement controller of pseudo-second-order fractional systems. One of the advantages of this controller is capability of reducing the disturbance effects and improving response to input, simultaneously. In the following sections, the performance of this controller is evaluated experimentally to control the vertical magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak. For this work, at first a fractional order model is identified using output-error technique in time domain. For various practical experiments, having desired time responses for magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak, is vital. To approach this, at first the desired closed loop reference models are obtained based on generalized characteristic ratio assignment method in fractional order systems. After that, for the identified model, a set-point weighting PI{sup λ} + D{sup μ} controller is designed and simulated. Finally, this controller is implemented on digital signal processor control system of the plant to fast/slow control of magnetic flux. The practical results show appropriate performance of this controller.

  4. Performance Requirements to Achieve Cost-Effectiveness of Point-of-Care Tests for Sepsis among Patients with Febrile Illness in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Penno, Erin C.; Crump, John A.; Baird, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial sepsis is an important cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries, yet distinguishing patients with sepsis from those with other illnesses remains a challenge. Currently, management decisions are based on clinical assessment using algorithms such as Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness. Efforts to develop and evaluate point-of-care tests (POCTs) for sepsis to guide decisions on the use of antimicrobials are underway. To establish the minimum performance characteristics of such a test, we varied the characteristics of a hypothetical POCT for sepsis required for it to be cost-effective and applied a decision tree model to a population of febrile patients presenting at the district hospital level in a low-resource setting. We used a case fatality probability of 20% for appropriately treated sepsis and of 50% for inappropriately treated sepsis. On the basis of clinical assessment for sepsis with established sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.62, we found that a POCT for sepsis with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.94 was cost-effective, resulting in parity in survival but costing $1.14 less per live saved. A POCT with accuracy equivalent to the best malaria rapid diagnostic test was cheaper and more effective than clinical assessment. PMID:26195467

  5. Comparing responses of four ungulate species to playbacks of baboon alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Dawn M; Bergman, Thore J; Cheney, Dorothy L; Nicholson, James R; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that a wide range of animals can recognize and respond appropriately to calls produced by other species. Social learning has been implicated as a possible mechanism by which heterospecific call recognition might develop. To examine whether familiarity and/or shared vulnerability with the calling species might influence the ability of sympatric species to distinguish heterospecific alarm calls, we tested whether four ungulate species (impala: Aepyceros melampus; tsessebe: Damaliscus lunatus; zebra: Equus burchelli; wildebeest: Connochaetes taurinus) could distinguish baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) alarm calls from other loud baboon calls produced during intra-specific aggressive interactions ('contest' calls). Overall, subjects' responses were stronger following playback of alarm calls than contest calls. Of the species tested, impala showed the strongest responses and the greatest difference in composite response scores, suggesting they were best able to differentiate call types. Compared with the other ungulate species, impala are the most frequent associates of baboons. Moreover, like baboons, they are susceptible to both lion and leopard attacks, whereas leopards rarely take the larger ungulates. Although it seems possible that high rates of association and/or shared vulnerability may influence impala's greater ability to distinguish among baboon call types, our results point to a stronger influence of familiarity. Ours is the first study to compare such abilities among several community members with variable natural histories, and we discuss future experiments that would more systematically examine development of these skills in young ungulates.

  6. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers...-operated engineers' assistance-needed alarm that is: (a) Operated from: (1) The engine control room, if...

  7. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers...-operated engineers' assistance-needed alarm that is: (a) Operated from: (1) The engine control room, if...

  8. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113... COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers...-operated engineers' assistance-needed alarm that is: (a) Operated from: (1) The engine control room, if...

  9. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT...

  10. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT...

  11. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT...

  12. Molecular recognition in a diverse set of protein-ligand interactions studied with molecular dynamics simulations and end-point free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liwei; Hurley, Thomas D; Meroueh, Samy O

    2013-10-28

    End-point free energy calculations using MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA provide a detailed understanding of molecular recognition in protein-ligand interactions. The binding free energy can be used to rank-order protein-ligand structures in virtual screening for compound or target identification. Here, we carry out free energy calculations for a diverse set of 11 proteins bound to 14 small molecules using extensive explicit-solvent MD simulations. The structure of these complexes was previously solved by crystallography and their binding studied with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data enabling direct comparison to the MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA calculations. Four MM-GBSA and three MM-PBSA calculations reproduced the ITC free energy within 1 kcal·mol(-1) highlighting the challenges in reproducing the absolute free energy from end-point free energy calculations. MM-GBSA exhibited better rank-ordering with a Spearman ρ of 0.68 compared to 0.40 for MM-PBSA with dielectric constant (ε = 1). An increase in ε resulted in significantly better rank-ordering for MM-PBSA (ρ = 0.91 for ε = 10), but larger ε significantly reduced the contributions of electrostatics, suggesting that the improvement is due to the nonpolar and entropy components, rather than a better representation of the electrostatics. The SVRKB scoring function applied to MD snapshots resulted in excellent rank-ordering (ρ = 0.81). Calculations of the configurational entropy using normal-mode analysis led to free energies that correlated significantly better to the ITC free energy than the MD-based quasi-harmonic approach, but the computed entropies showed no correlation with the ITC entropy. When the adaptation energy is taken into consideration by running separate simulations for complex, apo, and ligand (MM-PBSAADAPT), there is less agreement with the ITC data for the individual free energies, but remarkably good rank-ordering is observed (ρ = 0.89). Interestingly, filtering MD snapshots by prescoring

  13. Cross-sectional comparison of point-of-care with laboratory HbA1c in detecting diabetes in real-world remote Aboriginal settings

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Julia V; Oh, May S; Hadgraft, Nyssa; Singleton, Sally; Isaacs, Kim; Atkinson, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine if point-of-care (POC) glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is sufficiently accurate in real-world remote settings to predict or exclude the diagnosis of diabetes based on laboratory HbA1c measurements. Design Cross-sectional study comparing POC capillary HbA1c results with corresponding venous HbA1c levels measured in a reference laboratory. Participants Aboriginal patients ≥15 years old who were due for diabetes screening at the participating clinics were invited to participate. Two hundred and fifty-five Aboriginal participants were enrolled and 241 were included in the analysis. Setting 6 primary healthcare sites in the remote Kimberley region of Western Australia from September 2011 to November 2013. Main outcome measures Concordance and mean differences between POC capillary blood HbA1c measurement and laboratory measurement of venous blood HbA1c level; POC capillary blood HbA1c equivalence value for screening for diabetes or a high risk of developing diabetes; sensitivity, specificity and positive-predictive value for diagnosing and screening for diabetes; barriers to conducting POC testing. Results Concordance between POC and laboratory results was good (ρ=0.88, p<0.001). The mean difference was −0.15% (95% limits of agreement, −0.67% to 0.36%). POC HbA1c measurements ≥6.5%, 48 mmol/mol had a specificity of 98.2% and sensitivity of 73.7% for laboratory measurements ≥6.5%. The POC equivalence value for screening for diabetes or a high risk of developing diabetes was ≥5.7%, 39 mmol/mol (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 76.7% for laboratory measurements ≥6.0%, 42 mmol/mol). Staff trained by other clinic staff ‘on the job’ performed as well as people with formal accredited training. Staff reported difficulty in maintaining formal accreditation. Conclusions POC HbA1c testing is sufficiently accurate to be a useful component in screening for, and diagnosing, diabetes in remote communities. Limited local training is

  14. FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  15. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-08-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets. PMID:26237691

  16. Fault Diagnosis with Multi-State Alarms in a Nuclear Power Control Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart A. Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-09-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effects of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized the use of three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. Sensitivity and criterion based on the Signal Detection Theory were used to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  17. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  18. Quantitative trait loci influencing honeybee alarm pheromone levels.

    PubMed

    Hunt, G J; Collins, A M; Rivera, R; Page, R E; Guzmán-Novoa, E

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping procedures were used to identify loci that influence the levels of alarm pheromones found in the stinging apparatus of worker honeybees. An F1 queen was produced from a cross between a queen of European origin and a drone descended from an African subspecies. Haploid drones from the hybrid queen were individually backcrossed to European queens to produce 172 colonies. Samples of stings were taken from backcross workers of these colonies. Alarm pheromone levels were determined by gas chromatography. RAPD markers were scored from the haploid drone fathers of these colonies. The multiple-QTL model (MQM) of MapQTL was used to identify QTLs that influence the levels of four alarm pheromone components. Seven independent, potential QTLs were identified with LOD scores greater than two, and one at LOD 1.88. We identified one QTL for n-decyl acetate, three for n-octanol, four for isopentyl acetate, and one for hexyl acetate. One region of linkage group XI shows a strong influence on body size and the levels of three alarm pheromone components. This locus explained 40% of the variance for the amount of n-decyl acetate (LOD 6.57). In general, the QTLs influencing alarm pheromone levels were independent of previously identified loci that influenced the stinging behavior of these colonies. The only exception was a potential locus influencing levels of n-octanol, which was inversely correlated with stinging behavior. PMID:10544503

  19. Wild birds learn to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; McLachlan, Jessica R; Igic, Branislav

    2015-08-01

    Many vertebrates gain critical information about danger by eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls [1], providing an excellent context in which to study information flow among species in animal communities [2-4]. A fundamental but unresolved question is how individuals recognize other species' alarm calls. Although individuals respond to heterospecific calls that are acoustically similar to their own, alarms vary greatly among species, and eavesdropping probably also requires learning [1]. Surprisingly, however, we lack studies demonstrating such learning. Here, we show experimentally that individual wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize previously unfamiliar alarm calls. We trained individuals by broadcasting unfamiliar sounds while simultaneously presenting gliding predatory birds. Fairy-wrens in the experiment originally ignored these sounds, but most fled in response to the sounds after two days' training. The learned response was not due to increased responsiveness in general or to sensitization following repeated exposure and was independent of sound structure. Learning can therefore help explain the taxonomic diversity of eavesdropping and the refining of behavior to suit the local community. In combination with previous work on unfamiliar predator recognition (e.g., [5]), our results imply rapid spread of anti-predator behavior within wild populations and suggest methods for training captive-bred animals before release into the wild [6]. A remaining challenge is to assess the importance and consequences of direct association of unfamiliar sounds with predators, compared with social learning-such as associating unfamiliar sounds with conspecific alarms.

  20. Quantitative trait loci influencing honeybee alarm pheromone levels.

    PubMed

    Hunt, G J; Collins, A M; Rivera, R; Page, R E; Guzmán-Novoa, E

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping procedures were used to identify loci that influence the levels of alarm pheromones found in the stinging apparatus of worker honeybees. An F1 queen was produced from a cross between a queen of European origin and a drone descended from an African subspecies. Haploid drones from the hybrid queen were individually backcrossed to European queens to produce 172 colonies. Samples of stings were taken from backcross workers of these colonies. Alarm pheromone levels were determined by gas chromatography. RAPD markers were scored from the haploid drone fathers of these colonies. The multiple-QTL model (MQM) of MapQTL was used to identify QTLs that influence the levels of four alarm pheromone components. Seven independent, potential QTLs were identified with LOD scores greater than two, and one at LOD 1.88. We identified one QTL for n-decyl acetate, three for n-octanol, four for isopentyl acetate, and one for hexyl acetate. One region of linkage group XI shows a strong influence on body size and the levels of three alarm pheromone components. This locus explained 40% of the variance for the amount of n-decyl acetate (LOD 6.57). In general, the QTLs influencing alarm pheromone levels were independent of previously identified loci that influenced the stinging behavior of these colonies. The only exception was a potential locus influencing levels of n-octanol, which was inversely correlated with stinging behavior.

  1. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the "threat" set of spectra

  2. Controlling misses and false alarms in a machine learning framework for predicting uniformity of printed pages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work1 , we presented a block-based technique to analyze printed page uniformity both visually and metrically. The features learned from the models were then employed in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) framework to classify the pages into one of the two categories of acceptable and unacceptable quality. In this paper, we introduce a set of tools for machine learning in the assessment of printed page uniformity. This work is primarily targeted to the printing industry, specifically the ubiquitous laser, electrophotographic printer. We use features that are well-correlated with the rankings of expert observers to develop a novel machine learning framework that allows one to achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate, subject to a chosen "miss" rate. Surprisingly, most of the research that has been conducted on machine learning does not consider this framework. During the process of developing a new product, test engineers will print hundreds of test pages, which can be scanned and then analyzed by an autonomous algorithm. Among these pages, most may be of acceptable quality. The objective is to find the ones that are not. These will provide critically important information to systems designers, regarding issues that need to be addressed in improving the printer design. A "miss" is defined to be a page that is not of acceptable quality to an expert observer that the prediction algorithm declares to be a "pass". Misses are a serious problem, since they represent problems that will not be seen by the systems designers. On the other hand, "false alarms" correspond to pages that an expert observer would declare to be of acceptable quality, but which are flagged by the prediction algorithm as "fails". In a typical printer testing and development scenario, such pages would be examined by an expert, and found to be of acceptable quality after all. "False alarm" pages result in extra pages to be examined by expert observers, which increases labor cost. But "false

  3. Results of LLNL investigation of NYCT data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, K; Harrison, M; Guo, M; Groza, M

    2007-08-01

    Upon examination we have concluded that none of the alarms indicate the presence of a real threat. A brief history and results from our examination of the NYCT ASP occupancy data sets dated from 2007-05-14 19:11:07 to 2007-06-20 15:46:15 are presented in this letter report. When the ASP data collection campaign at NYCT was completed, rather than being shut down, the Canberra ASP annunciator box was unplugged leaving the data acquisition system running. By the time it was discovered that the ASP was still acquiring data about 15,000 occupancies had been recorded. Among these were about 500 alarms (classified by the ASP analysis system as either Threat Alarms or Suspect Alarms). At your request, these alarms have been investigated. Our conclusion is that none of the alarm data sets indicate the presence of a real threat (within statistics). The data sets (ICD1 and ICD2 files with concurrent JPEG pictures) were delivered to LLNL on a removable hard drive labeled FOUO. The contents of the data disk amounted to 53.39 GB of data requiring over two days for the standard LLNL virus checking software to scan before work could really get started. Our first step was to walk through the directory structure of the disk and create a database of occupancies. For each occupancy, the database was populated with the occupancy date and time, occupancy number, file path to the ICD1 data and the alarm ('No Alarm', 'Suspect Alarm' or 'Threat Alarm') from the ICD2 file along with some other incidental data. In an attempt to get a global understanding of what was going on, we investigated the occupancy information. The occupancy date/time and alarm type were binned into one-hour counts. These data are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  4. Hemodynamic-impact-based prioritization of ventricular tachycardia alarms.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kalpit; Lexa, Michael; Matthews, Brett; Genc, Sahika

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach) is a very serious condition that occurs when the ventricles are driven at high rates. The abnormal excitation pathways make ventricular contraction less synchronous resulting in less effective filling and emptying of the left ventricles. However, almost half of the V-tach alarms declared through processing of patterns observed in electrocardiography are not clinically actionable. The focus of this study is to provide guidance on determining whether a technically-correct V-tach alarm is clinically-actionable by determining its "hemodynamic impact". A supervisory learning approach based on conditional inference trees to determine the hemodynamic impact of a V-tach alarm based on extracted features is described. According to preliminary results on a subset of Multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care II (MIMIC-II) database, true positive rate of more than 90% can be achieved. PMID:25570734

  5. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2011-02-23

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively.

  6. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2011-02-23

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

  7. Field response of tadpoles to conspecific and heterospecific alarm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, M.J.; Claeson, S.

    1998-01-01

    Many organisms use chemical cues from a variety of sources to mediate predator avoidance. Response to heterospecific alarm cues has been demonstrated for tadpoles within but not among taxa and alarm response behavior has seldom been examined under field conditions. This study examined the response of three sympatric amphibian larvae and predaceous larval Dytiscus sp. (diving beetle) to damage-release signals in natural ponds by using capture rates from treated funnel traps as an index of larval behavior. Hyla regilla (Pacific tree frog) tadpoles avoided traps treated with either crushed conspecifics or with Rana aurora (red-legged frog) tadpoles but the larger ranids and Arabystoma macrodactylum (long-toed salamander) did not respond to either treatment. H. regilla tadpoles were likely susceptible to any potential predators of ranid tadpoles in these ponds and this result is consistent with the hypothesis that a response to heterospecific alarm occurs in sympatric prey with shared predators.

  8. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  9. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  10. Alarm timing, trust and driver expectation for forward collision warning systems.

    PubMed

    Abe, Genya; Richardson, John

    2006-09-01

    In order to improve road safety, automobile manufacturers are now developing Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS). However, there has been insufficient consideration of how drivers may respond to FCWS. This driving simulator study focused on alarm timing and its impact on driver response to alarm. The experimental investigation considered driver perception of alarm timings and its influence on trust at three driving speeds (40, 60 and 70 mile/h) and two time headways (1.7 and 2.2 s). The results showed that alarm effectiveness varied in response to driving conditions. Alarm promptness had a greater influence on ratings of trust than improvements in braking performance enabled by the alarm system. Moreover, alarms which were presented after braking actions had been initiated were viewed as late alarms. It is concluded that drivers typically expect alarms to be presented before they initiate braking actions and when this does not happen driver trust in the system is substantially decreased. PMID:16364231

  11. Alarm timing, trust and driver expectation for forward collision warning systems.

    PubMed

    Abe, Genya; Richardson, John

    2006-09-01

    In order to improve road safety, automobile manufacturers are now developing Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS). However, there has been insufficient consideration of how drivers may respond to FCWS. This driving simulator study focused on alarm timing and its impact on driver response to alarm. The experimental investigation considered driver perception of alarm timings and its influence on trust at three driving speeds (40, 60 and 70 mile/h) and two time headways (1.7 and 2.2 s). The results showed that alarm effectiveness varied in response to driving conditions. Alarm promptness had a greater influence on ratings of trust than improvements in braking performance enabled by the alarm system. Moreover, alarms which were presented after braking actions had been initiated were viewed as late alarms. It is concluded that drivers typically expect alarms to be presented before they initiate braking actions and when this does not happen driver trust in the system is substantially decreased.

  12. Evaluation of fire-safety programs that use 10-year smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark; Wilson, Jonathan; Akoto, Judith; Dixon, Sherry; Jacobs, David E; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2010-10-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE) program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered "10-year" smoke alarms in homes at high risk for fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still present and functional 8-10 years after installation and (2) understand factors related to smoke alarm presence and functionality. Data on a total of 384 homes and 601 smoke alarms in five states were collected and analyzed. Only one-third of alarms were still functional; 37% of installed alarms were missing; and 30% of alarms were present, but not functioning. Alarms were less likely to be functioning if they were installed in the kitchen and if homes had a different resident at follow-up. Of the 351 alarms that were present and had a battery at the time of the evaluation, only 21% contained lithium-powered batteries. Of these, 78% were still functioning. Programs that install lithium-powered alarms should use units that have sealed-in batteries and "hush" buttons. Additionally, education should be given on smoke alarm maintenance that includes a message that batteries in these alarms should not be replaced. Lithium-powered smoke alarms should last up to 10 years if maintained properly. PMID:20177753

  13. Role of Large Clinical Datasets From Physiologic Monitors in Improving the Safety of Clinical Alarm Systems and Methodological Considerations: A Case From Philips Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Charles Calhoun; Staggers, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Background Large datasets of the audit log of modern physiologic monitoring devices have rarely been used for predictive modeling, capturing unsafe practices, or guiding initiatives on alarm systems safety. Objective This paper (1) describes a large clinical dataset using the audit log of the physiologic monitors, (2) discusses benefits and challenges of using the audit log in identifying the most important alarm signals and improving the safety of clinical alarm systems, and (3) provides suggestions for presenting alarm data and improving the audit log of the physiologic monitors. Methods At a 20-bed transplant cardiac intensive care unit, alarm data recorded via the audit log of bedside monitors were retrieved from the server of the central station monitor. Results Benefits of the audit log are many. They include easily retrievable data at no cost, complete alarm records, easy capture of inconsistent and unsafe practices, and easy identification of bedside monitors missed from a unit change of alarm settings adjustments. Challenges in analyzing the audit log are related to the time-consuming processes of data cleaning and analysis, and limited storage and retrieval capabilities of the monitors. Conclusions The audit log is a function of current capabilities of the physiologic monitoring systems, monitor’s configuration, and alarm management practices by clinicians. Despite current challenges in data retrieval and analysis, large digitalized clinical datasets hold great promise in performance, safety, and quality improvement. Vendors, clinicians, researchers, and professional organizations should work closely to identify the most useful format and type of clinical data to expand medical devices’ log capacity. PMID:27694097

  14. Hyperspectral matched filter with false-alarm mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipietro, Robert S.; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Lockwood, Ronald B.; Cooley, Thomas; Jacobson, John

    2012-01-01

    One of the fundamental challenges for a hyperspectral imaging surveillance system is the detection of sub-pixel objects in background clutter. The background surrounding the object, which acts as interference, provides the major obstacle to successful detection. One algorithm that is widely used in hyperspectral detection and successfully suppresses the background in many situations is the matched filter detector. However, the matched filter also produces false alarms in many situations. We use three simple and well-established concepts--the target-background replacement model, the matched filter, and Mahalanobis distance--to develop the matched filter with false alarm mitigation (MF-FAM), a dual-threshold detector capable of eliminating many matched filter false alarms. We compare this algorithm to the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF), a popular approach to matched filter false alarm mitigation found in the ENVI® software environment. The two algorithms are shown to produce nearly identical results using real hyperspectral data, but the MF-FAM is shown to be operationally, computationally, and theoretically simpler than the MTMF.

  15. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....14132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and... automatic reverse-activated strobe light may be used at night in lieu of an audible reverse alarm. (c)...

  16. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  17. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  18. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of producing a signal or tone distinct from any other audible signal on the vessel. (b) Electronic devices used... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  19. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of producing a signal or tone distinct from any other audible signal on the vessel. (b) Electronic devices used... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  20. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of producing a signal or tone distinct from any other audible signal on the vessel. (b) Electronic devices used... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  1. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of producing a signal or tone distinct from any other audible signal on the vessel. (b) Electronic devices used... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  2. 46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... emergency alarm signal must be an electrically-operated bell, klaxon, or other warning device capable of producing a signal or tone distinct from any other audible signal on the vessel. (b) Electronic devices used... underway in moderate weather unless flashing red lights are used in accordance with 46 CFR 113.25-10(b)....

  3. Detection system ensures positive alarm activation in digital message loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokros, P.; Burstein, A.; Hewitt, E. D.

    1966-01-01

    Lost Word Detection System /LOWDS/ provides special identification for each error detection message transmitted from receiver to transmitter. The message is identified as an original message or an n-times retransmitted message so the receiver can detect where a retransmission request was not fulfilled and activate an alarm.

  4. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occurs. (d) Each bilge alarm must have a ppm display. Emulsions and/or the type of oil must not affect... purposes of checking instrument drift and repeatability of the instrument reading, as well as the ability to re-zero the instrument. The accuracy of the readings must at all times remain within the...

  5. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... occurs. (d) Each bilge alarm must have a ppm display. Emulsions and/or the type of oil must not affect... purposes of checking instrument drift and repeatability of the instrument reading, as well as the ability to re-zero the instrument. The accuracy of the readings must at all times remain within the...

  6. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  7. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  8. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  9. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  10. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  11. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  12. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  13. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... oil reservoir of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. (e) An audible and a visible alarm... of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. Note: See § 62.50-30(f) of this subchapter... the pilothouse upon— (1) Failure of the electric power to the control system of any steering gear;...

  14. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... oil reservoir of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. (e) An audible and a visible alarm... of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. Note: See § 62.50-30(f) of this subchapter... the pilothouse upon— (1) Failure of the electric power to the control system of any steering gear;...

  15. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157.440 Section 157.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... autopilot status and warns personnel of the requirement to disengage the autopilot if positive...

  16. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157.440 Section 157.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... autopilot status and warns personnel of the requirement to disengage the autopilot if positive...

  17. 46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarm bells. 167.40-5 Section 167.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain... possesses: (a) Positive contact; (b) Watertightness (when located in open spaces subject to weather);...

  18. 33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Autopilot alarm or indicator. 157.440 Section 157.440 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... autopilot status and warns personnel of the requirement to disengage the autopilot if positive...

  19. 47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress... attract the attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The... attention of the person on watch or to actuate automatic devices giving the alarm....

  20. 47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress... attract the attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The... attention of the person on watch or to actuate automatic devices giving the alarm....

  1. 47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress... attract the attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The... attention of the person on watch or to actuate automatic devices giving the alarm....

  2. 47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress... attract the attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The... attention of the person on watch or to actuate automatic devices giving the alarm....

  3. 47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress... attract the attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The... attention of the person on watch or to actuate automatic devices giving the alarm....

  4. 49 CFR 229.115 - Slip/slide alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sliding wheels on powered axles under power. When two or more locomotives are coupled in multiple or remote control, the wheel slip/slide alarm of each locomotive shall be shown in the cab of the... road service, or continue in road service following a daily inspection, unless the wheel...

  5. 49 CFR 229.115 - Slip/slide alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sliding wheels on powered axles under power. When two or more locomotives are coupled in multiple or remote control, the wheel slip/slide alarm of each locomotive shall be shown in the cab of the... road service, or continue in road service following a daily inspection, unless the wheel...

  6. 49 CFR 229.115 - Slip/slide alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sliding wheels on powered axles under power. When two or more locomotives are coupled in multiple or remote control, the wheel slip/slide alarm of each locomotive shall be shown in the cab of the... road service, or continue in road service following a daily inspection, unless the wheel...

  7. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  8. Evaluating injury prevention programs: the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    PubMed

    Mallonee, S

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of injury prevention programs is critical for measuring program effects on reducing injury-related morbidity and mortality or on increasing the adoption of safety practices. During the planning and implementation of injury prevention programs, evaluation data also can be used to test program strategies and to measure the program's penetration among the target population. The availability of this early data enables program managers to refine a program, increasing the likelihood of successful outcomes. The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project illustrates how an evaluation was designed to inform program decisions by providing methodologically sound data on program processes and outcomes. This community intervention trial was instituted to reduce residential fire-related injuries and deaths in a geographic area of Oklahoma City that was disproportionately affected by this problem. The distribution of free smoke alarms in targeted neighborhoods was accompanied by written educational pamphlets and home-based follow-up to test whether the alarms were functioning correctly. Early evaluation during the planning and implementation phases of the program allowed for midcourse corrections that increased the program's impact on desired outcomes. During the six years following the project, the residential fire-related injury rate decreased 81% in the target population but only 7% in the rest of Oklahoma City. This dramatic decline in fire-related injuries in the target area is largely attributed to the free smoke alarm distribution as well as to educational efforts promoting awareness about residential fires and their prevention. PMID:10911692

  9. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller... and barge unit of combined 1600 gross registered tons or more shall be equipped with— (a)...

  10. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller... and barge unit of combined 1600 gross registered tons or more shall be equipped with— (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller... and barge unit of combined 1600 gross registered tons or more shall be equipped with— (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller... and barge unit of combined 1600 gross registered tons or more shall be equipped with— (a)...

  13. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller... and barge unit of combined 1600 gross registered tons or more shall be equipped with— (a)...

  14. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... general electrical circuit. More than one smoke alarm is permitted to be placed on the same electrical... basement and must install at the factory an electrical junction box for the installation of this smoke... powered from: (i) The electrical system of the home as the primary power source and a battery as...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... general electrical circuit. More than one smoke alarm is permitted to be placed on the same electrical... basement and must install at the factory an electrical junction box for the installation of this smoke... powered from: (i) The electrical system of the home as the primary power source and a battery as...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... general electrical circuit. More than one smoke alarm is permitted to be placed on the same electrical... basement and must install at the factory an electrical junction box for the installation of this smoke... powered from: (i) The electrical system of the home as the primary power source and a battery as...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mounted on an electrical outlet box and connected by a permanent wiring method to a general electrical... the factory an electrical junction box for the installation of this smoke alarm and for its...) The electrical system of the home as the primary power source and a battery as a secondary...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... general electrical circuit. More than one smoke alarm is permitted to be placed on the same electrical... basement and must install at the factory an electrical junction box for the installation of this smoke... powered from: (i) The electrical system of the home as the primary power source and a battery as...

  19. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Failure of that power to the power unit of any steering gear; or (3) Occurrence of a low oil level in any oil reservoir of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. (e) An audible and a visible alarm... of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. Note: See § 62.50-30(f) of this...

  20. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Failure of that power to the power unit of any steering gear; or (3) Occurrence of a low oil level in any oil reservoir of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. (e) An audible and a visible alarm... of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. Note: See § 62.50-30(f) of this...

  1. Sounding the Alarm: Health in the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Butler, Colin D

    2016-01-01

    There is growing scientific and public recognition that human actions, directly and indirectly, have profoundly changed the Earth system, in a still accelerating process, increasingly called the "Anthropocene". Planetary transformation, including of the atmosphere, climate, ecosystems and biodiversity, has enormous implications for human health, many of which are deeply disturbing, especially in low-income settings. A few health consequences of the Anthropocene have been partially recognized, including within environmental epidemiology, but their long-term consequences remain poorly understood and greatly under-rated. For example Syria could be a "sentinel" population, giving a glimpse to a much wider dystopian future. Health-Earth is a research network, co-founded in 2014, which seeks, with other groups, to catalyse a powerful curative response by the wider health community. This paper builds on a symposium presented by Health-Earth members at the 2015 conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology. It reviews and synthesizes parts of the large literature relevant to the interaction between the changing Earth system and human health. It concludes that this topic should be prominent within future environmental epidemiology and public health. Created by our species, these challenges may be soluble, but solutions require far more understanding and resources than are currently being made available. PMID:27376314

  2. Sounding the Alarm: Health in the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Butler, Colin D

    2016-01-01

    There is growing scientific and public recognition that human actions, directly and indirectly, have profoundly changed the Earth system, in a still accelerating process, increasingly called the "Anthropocene". Planetary transformation, including of the atmosphere, climate, ecosystems and biodiversity, has enormous implications for human health, many of which are deeply disturbing, especially in low-income settings. A few health consequences of the Anthropocene have been partially recognized, including within environmental epidemiology, but their long-term consequences remain poorly understood and greatly under-rated. For example Syria could be a "sentinel" population, giving a glimpse to a much wider dystopian future. Health-Earth is a research network, co-founded in 2014, which seeks, with other groups, to catalyse a powerful curative response by the wider health community. This paper builds on a symposium presented by Health-Earth members at the 2015 conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology. It reviews and synthesizes parts of the large literature relevant to the interaction between the changing Earth system and human health. It concludes that this topic should be prominent within future environmental epidemiology and public health. Created by our species, these challenges may be soluble, but solutions require far more understanding and resources than are currently being made available.

  3. Pancreas Transplantation: An Alarming Crisis in Confidence.

    PubMed

    Stratta, R J; Gruessner, A C; Odorico, J S; Fridell, J A; Gruessner, R W G

    2016-09-01

    In the past decade, the annual number of pancreas transplantations performed in the United States has steadily declined. From 2004 to 2011, the overall number of simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantations in the United States declined by 10%, whereas the decreases in pancreas after kidney (PAK) and pancreas transplant alone (PTA) procedures were 55% and 34%, respectively. Paradoxically, this has occurred in the setting of improvements in graft and patient survival outcomes and transplanting higher-risk patients. Only 11 centers in the United States currently perform ≥20 pancreas transplantations per year, and most centers perform <5 pancreas transplantations annually; many do not perform PAKs or PTAs. This national trend in decreasing numbers of pancreas transplantations is related to a number of factors including lack of a primary referral source, improvements in diabetes care and management, changing donor and recipient considerations, inadequate training opportunities, and increasing risk aversion because of regulatory scrutiny. A national initiative is needed to "reinvigorate" SPK and PAK procedures as preferred transplantation options for appropriately selected uremic patients taking insulin regardless of C-peptide levels or "type" of diabetes. Moreover, many patients may benefit from PTAs because all categories of pancreas transplantation are not only life enhancing but also life extending procedures. PMID:27232750

  4. Sounding the Alarm: Health in the Anthropocene

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Colin D.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing scientific and public recognition that human actions, directly and indirectly, have profoundly changed the Earth system, in a still accelerating process, increasingly called the “Anthropocene”. Planetary transformation, including of the atmosphere, climate, ecosystems and biodiversity, has enormous implications for human health, many of which are deeply disturbing, especially in low-income settings. A few health consequences of the Anthropocene have been partially recognized, including within environmental epidemiology, but their long-term consequences remain poorly understood and greatly under-rated. For example Syria could be a “sentinel” population, giving a glimpse to a much wider dystopian future. Health-Earth is a research network, co-founded in 2014, which seeks, with other groups, to catalyse a powerful curative response by the wider health community. This paper builds on a symposium presented by Health-Earth members at the 2015 conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology. It reviews and synthesizes parts of the large literature relevant to the interaction between the changing Earth system and human health. It concludes that this topic should be prominent within future environmental epidemiology and public health. Created by our species, these challenges may be soluble, but solutions require far more understanding and resources than are currently being made available. PMID:27376314

  5. Sounding the alarm about suicide risk.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Commission (TJC) issued a Sentinel Event Alert, noting that in too many instances healthcare providers are not recognizing signs of suicide risk in patients who present for care. While the agency calls on all frontline providers to screen for suicide risk, experts note the issue is of particular importance to EDs because this is one of the most likely places for patients at high risk for suicide to present. Beyond identifying risk, experts note emergency providers and staff must receive training to effectively manage patients at risk for suicide. Further, TJC calls for the development of appropriate referral sources and mechanisms for follow-up contact. TJC reports that between 2010 and 2014, its Sentinel Event Database received 1,089 reports of suicides. The most common root cause was inadequate assessment. According to TJC, in 2014 more than 21% of accredited behavioral health organizations and 5% of accredited hospitals were non-compliant with conducting a risk assessment to identify patient characteristics or environmental factors related to suicide risk. Beyond instances of obvious risk, strong tipoffs that suicide is a concern include signs of hopelessness or evidence that the patient has no sense of the future. Further, experts note the strongest indicator of a future suicide attempt is a past attempt, so evidence in the record of a past suicide attempt, or a family history of suicide, should be taken very seriously. Researchers found that a three-item instrument, dubbed the Patient Safety Screener-3, can double the number of patients identified as at risk for suicide over usual care in a busy emergency setting. Experts recommend asking screening questions during the primary nursing assessment for most patients, and at triage for patients who present with a primary psychiatric complaint. Some experts suggest regionalizing mental health care, much like the country does with trauma care. However, communities must ensure they maintain adequate funding

  6. Sounding the alarm about suicide risk.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Commission (TJC) issued a Sentinel Event Alert, noting that in too many instances healthcare providers are not recognizing signs of suicide risk in patients who present for care. While the agency calls on all frontline providers to screen for suicide risk, experts note the issue is of particular importance to EDs because this is one of the most likely places for patients at high risk for suicide to present. Beyond identifying risk, experts note emergency providers and staff must receive training to effectively manage patients at risk for suicide. Further, TJC calls for the development of appropriate referral sources and mechanisms for follow-up contact. TJC reports that between 2010 and 2014, its Sentinel Event Database received 1,089 reports of suicides. The most common root cause was inadequate assessment. According to TJC, in 2014 more than 21% of accredited behavioral health organizations and 5% of accredited hospitals were non-compliant with conducting a risk assessment to identify patient characteristics or environmental factors related to suicide risk. Beyond instances of obvious risk, strong tipoffs that suicide is a concern include signs of hopelessness or evidence that the patient has no sense of the future. Further, experts note the strongest indicator of a future suicide attempt is a past attempt, so evidence in the record of a past suicide attempt, or a family history of suicide, should be taken very seriously. Researchers found that a three-item instrument, dubbed the Patient Safety Screener-3, can double the number of patients identified as at risk for suicide over usual care in a busy emergency setting. Experts recommend asking screening questions during the primary nursing assessment for most patients, and at triage for patients who present with a primary psychiatric complaint. Some experts suggest regionalizing mental health care, much like the country does with trauma care. However, communities must ensure they maintain adequate funding

  7. SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in

  8. An Examination of the Relationship between Advisor/Advisee Personality Similarity with Student Satisfaction and Grade Point Average in a Community College Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Arlene

    2010-01-01

    The success of a student within the academic environment is a result of interaction of various factors. This study was designed to consider how personality similarity between the advisor and advisee may enhance advising, student satisfaction, and grade point average effort. The study concentrated on the relationship of personality characteristics…

  9. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-20...) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the following: (i) The fire detection and alarm...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  11. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  12. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  13. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate.... This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits....

  14. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarms in high ambient noise areas must be supplemented by visual means, such as rotating beacons, that are visible throughout these areas. Red beacons must only be used for general or fire alarm...

  15. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarms in high ambient noise areas must be supplemented by visual means, such as rotating beacons, that are visible throughout these areas. Red beacons must only be used for general or fire alarm...

  16. The temperatures of Giordano Bruno crater observed by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment: Application of an effective field of view model for a point-based data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J.-P.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Paige, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    Point based planetary datasets are typically stored as discrete records that represent an infinitesimal location on the target body. Instrumental effects and spacecraft motion during integration time can cause single points to inadequately represent the total area on the target that contributes to an observation. Production of mapped data products from these data for scientific analysis proceeds by binning points onto rectangular grids. Empty bins occur where data coverage is insufficient relative to grid resolution, a common problem at high latitudes in cylindrical projections, and remedial interpolation can lead to high uncertainty areas and artifacts in maps. To address such issues and make better use of available data, we present a method to calculate the ground-projected effective field of view (EFOV) for point-based datasets, using knowledge of instrumental characteristics and observation geometry. We apply this approach to data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, a visible to far-infrared multispectral radiometer which acquires radiometric measurements of reflected visible and emitted infrared radiation of the Moon in 9 spectral channels between 0.35 and 400 μm. Analysis of gridded radiance from crater Giordano Bruno, a 22 km diameter rayed crater, is used to demonstrate our gridding procedure. Diviner data, with such processing, reveals details of the surface that are seen in the high-resolution LRO Camera NAC images. Brightness temperatures and anisothermality observed in Diviner's IR channels show the thermophysical properties of the crater ejecta to be very heterogeneous indicative of minimal mechanical disruption by micrometeoroid impacts consistent with a very young (<10 Ma) formation age as the lunar surface becomes rapidly homogenized over time. This heterogeneity has implications for crater-count studies as regions of high anisothermality are characterized by large blocks of material and lower crater

  17. From data point timelines to a well curated data set, data mining of experimental data and chemical structure data from scientific articles, problems and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Ruusmann, Villu; Maran, Uko

    2013-07-01

    The scientific literature is important source of experimental and chemical structure data. Very often this data has been harvested into smaller or bigger data collections leaving the data quality and curation issues on shoulders of users. The current research presents a systematic and reproducible workflow for collecting series of data points from scientific literature and assembling a database that is suitable for the purposes of high quality modelling and decision support. The quality assurance aspect of the workflow is concerned with the curation of both chemical structures and associated toxicity values at (1) single data point level and (2) collection of data points level. The assembly of a database employs a novel "timeline" approach. The workflow is implemented as a software solution and its applicability is demonstrated on the example of the Tetrahymena pyriformis acute aquatic toxicity endpoint. A literature collection of 86 primary publications for T. pyriformis was found to contain 2,072 chemical compounds and 2,498 unique toxicity values, which divide into 2,440 numerical and 58 textual values. Every chemical compound was assigned to a preferred toxicity value. Examples for most common chemical and toxicological data curation scenarios are discussed.

  18. 46 CFR 76.35-10 - Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. 76.35-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-10 Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. (a... passageways, stairway enclosures, public spaces, or similar locations where they will be readily available...

  19. 46 CFR 76.35-10 - Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. 76.35-10... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-10 Location and spacing of manual alarm boxes. (a... passageways, stairway enclosures, public spaces, or similar locations where they will be readily available...

  20. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...