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Sample records for alarm system based

  1. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  2. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1988-04-22

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

  3. Alarm system management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response.

    PubMed

    Rayo, Michael F; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-04-01

    Although there are powerful incentives for creating alarm management programmes to reduce 'alarm fatigue', they do not provide guidance on how to reduce the likelihood that clinicians will disregard critical alarms. The literature cites numerous phenomena that contribute to alarm fatigue, although many of these, including total rate of alarms, are not supported in the literature as factors that directly impact alarm response. The contributor that is most frequently associated with alarm response is informativeness, which is defined as the proportion of total alarms that successfully conveys a specific event, and the extent to which it is a hazard. Informativeness is low across all healthcare applications, consistently ranging from 1% to 20%. Because of its likelihood and strong evidential support, informativeness should be evaluated before other contributors are considered. Methods for measuring informativeness and alarm response are discussed. Design directions for potential interventions, as well as design alternatives to traditional alarms, are also discussed. With the increased attention and investment in alarm system management that alarm interventions are currently receiving, initiatives that focus on informativeness and the other evidence-based measures identified will allow us to more effectively, efficiently and reliably redirect clinician attention, ultimately improving alarm response. PMID:25734193

  4. Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

    2010-11-01

    With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

  5. Hypoglycemia Early Alarm Systems Based On Multivariable Models

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Bayrak, Elif S; Quinn, Lauretta; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Rollins, Derrick; Cinar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a major challenge of artificial pancreas systems and a source of concern for potential users and parents of young children with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Early alarms to warn the potential of hypoglycemia are essential and should provide enough time to take action to avoid hypoglycemia. Many alarm systems proposed in the literature are based on interpretation of recent trends in glucose values. In the present study, subject-specific recursive linear time series models are introduced as a better alternative to capture glucose variations and predict future blood glucose concentrations. These models are then used in hypoglycemia early alarm systems that notify patients to take action to prevent hypoglycemia before it happens. The models developed and the hypoglycemia alarm system are tested retrospectively using T1D subject data. A Savitzky-Golay filter and a Kalman filter are used to reduce noise in patient data. The hypoglycemia alarm algorithm is developed by using predictions of future glucose concentrations from recursive models. The modeling algorithm enables the dynamic adaptation of models to inter-/intra-subject variation and glycemic disturbances and provides satisfactory glucose concentration prediction with relatively small error. The alarm systems demonstrate good performance in prediction of hypoglycemia and ultimately in prevention of its occurrence. PMID:24187436

  6. Web-based integrated alarm monitoring system in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Akitsugu; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Akutagawa, Masatake; Ohnishi, Yoshiaki; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2005-01-01

    A web-based monitoring system for the alarm of equipment has developed for the conventional environment of Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The system communicates with equipment using Data Collection Interface (DCI) that converts the protocol of the output of equipment from RS-232C to TCP/IP. The system creates a web-document that can be referred from any internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using the system, a staff can easily monitor the state of the patient and the equipment. If the system is installed in the ICU, monitoring and management for the equipment will be highly improved. PMID:17281636

  7. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1987-04-13

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

  8. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  9. IMPEDANCE ALARM SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Cowen, R.G.

    1959-09-29

    A description is given of electric protective systems and burglar alarm systems of the capacitance type in which the approach of an intruder at a place to be protected varies the capacitance in an electric circuit and the change is thereafter communicated to a remote point to actuate an alarm. According to the invention, an astable transitor multi-vibrator has the amplitude at its output voltage controlled by a change in the sensing capacitance. The sensing capacitance is effectively connected between collector and base of one stage of the multivibrator circuit through the detector-to-monitor line. The output of the detector is a small d-c voltage across the detector-to-monitor line. This d- c voltage is amplified and monitored at the other end of the line, where an appropriate alarm is actuated if a sudden change in the voltage occurs. The present system has a high degree of sensitivity and is very difficult to defeat by known techniques.

  10. Alarm Notification System

    1995-03-12

    AN/EMS, the Alarm Notification Energy Management System, is used to monitor digital sensors in PETC buildings and to notify the safety/security operator by both a video and an audio system when a possibly hazardous condition arises.

  11. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1988-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  12. The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Chen, Xihui; Danilova, Katia

    2009-01-01

    Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

  13. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  14. The Performance of Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting System in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ta-Yi; Hsiao, Nai-Chi; Wu, Yih-Min

    2016-04-01

    The Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan has operated an earthquake early warning (EEW) system and issued warnings to schools and government agencies since 2014. Because the real-time seismic data streams are integrated by the Earthworm software, some EEW modules were created under the Earthworm platform. The system is named Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting (eBEAR) system, which is currently operating. The eBEAR system consists of new Earthworm modules for managing P-wave phase picking, trigger associations, hypocenter locations, magnitude estimations, and alert filtering prior to broadcasting. Here, we outline the methodology and performance of the eBEAR system. The online performance of the eBEAR system indicated that the average reporting times afforded by the system are approximately 15 and 26 s for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively. Comparing to the earthquake catalog, the difference of the epicenters are less than 10 km for inland earthquakes; the difference of the magnitude are about 0.3. No false alarms generated by the system, but there were three false alarms issued by human. Due to the wrong operations, the EEW information created by off-line test were sent. However, we have learned from it and improved the standard operation procedure in the EEW system.

  15. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Markman

    2001-08-06

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of

  16. Personal Alarm System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Trouble in the classroom is an unpleasant fact of modern life. Space technology can't stop the trouble from occurring, but it can prevent it from spreading. In recognition of this, NASA and the Sacramento, Cal. Unified School District developed a personal security system based on space telemetry technology. The first application was for schools, but the simplicity and reliability of the system has made it more widely applicable. The heart of the system is an ultrasonic pen-size transmitter. It can be used by prison guards, teachers, or others such as the handicapped and the elderly.

  17. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  18. Development of Advanced Alarm System for SMART

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Seoung, Duk-hyun; Suh, Sang-moon; Lee, Jong-bok; Park, Geun-ok; Koo, In-soo

    2004-07-01

    A SMART-Alarm System (SMART-AS) is a new system being developed as part of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) project. The SMART-AS employs modern digital technology to implement the alarm functions of the SMART. The use of modern digital technology can provide advanced alarm processing in which new algorithms such as a signal validation, advanced alarm processing logic and other features are applied to improve the control room man-machine interfaces. This paper will describe the design process of the SMART-AS, improving the system reliability and availability using the reliability prediction tool, design strategies regarding the human performance topics associated with a computer-based SMART-AS and the results of the performance analysis using a prototype of the SMART-AS. (authors)

  19. Intensive care alarm system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J. L.; Herbert, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Inductive loop has been added to commercially available call system fitted with earphone receiver. System transmits high frequency signals to nurse's receiver to announce patient's need for help without disturbing others.

  20. Design and validation of an intelligent patient monitoring and alarm system based on a fuzzy logic process model.

    PubMed

    Becker, K; Thull, B; Käsmacher-Leidinger, H; Stemmer, J; Rau, G; Kalff, G; Zimmermann, H J

    1997-09-01

    The process of patient care performed by an anaesthesiologist during high invasive surgery requires fundamental knowledge of the physiologic processes and a long standing experience in patient management to cope with the inter-individual variability of the patients. Biomedical engineering research improves the patient monitoring task by providing technical devices to measure a large number of a patient's vital parameters. These measurements improve the safety of the patient during the surgical procedure, because pathological states can be recognised earlier, but may also lead to an increased cognitive load of the physician. In order to reduce cognitive strain and to support intra-operative monitoring for the anaesthesiologist an intelligent patient monitoring and alarm system has been proposed and implemented which evaluates a patient's haemodynamic state on the basis of a current vital parameter constellation with a knowledge-based approach. In this paper general design aspects and evaluation of the intelligent patient monitoring and alarm system in the operating theatre are described. The validation of the inference engine of the intelligent patient monitoring and alarm system was performed in two steps. Firstly, the knowledge base was validated with real patient data which was acquired online in the operating theatre. Secondly, a research prototype of the whole system was implemented in the operating theatre. In the first step, the anaesthetists were asked to enter a state variable evaluation before a drug application or any other intervention on the patient into a recording system. These state variable evaluations were compared to those generated by the intelligent alarm system on the same vital parameter constellations. Altogether 641 state variable evaluations were entered by six different physicians. In total, the sensitivity of alarm recognition is 99.3%, the specificity is 66% and the predictability is 45%. The second step was performed using a research

  1. An improved criticality alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Tyree, W.H.; Gilpin, H.E.; Balmer, D.K.; Vennitti, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado is the primary facility for the production of plutonium components used in the US arsenal of nuclear weapons. It is operated by EG&G under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE). There are ten production buildings on plant site with neutron based criticality alarm systems. These systems have been in operation for the past seventeen years. Changes in the interpretation of A.N.S.I. standards and DOE orders have precipitated an evaluation of detector sensitivity and placement criteria. As a result of this evaluation, improvements in detector design and calibration have improved detector sensitivity by a factor of six. Testing performed on the design defined a minimum sensitivity as required by A.N.S.I. 8.3 and provided information for saturation and survivability for a fission event of up to 1 {times} 10{sup 17} fissions in 80 microseconds. A rigorous testing and calibration program has been developed and is in place. Neutron sensitivity is certified at a nearby reactor which is traceable to N.I.S.T.. 4 refs.

  2. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-07-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are made at the time the alarm is activated. Alarming areas are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer-generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  4. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  5. Criticality alarm system for plutonium process operations

    SciTech Connect

    Tyree, W H; Urano, H

    1981-05-25

    A criticality alarm system using neutron detection is described. The system includes a neutron detection unit with an internal operational testing mode. The unit uses a Li/sup 6/F foil for the production of alpha particles from a thermal neturon flux, a thorium-230 alpha particle source for the continuous monitoring of the raidation detection circuits, and an internal clock which produces an alarmed condition if the detector amplifier circuit fails. This neutron detector unit is designed to replace the existing neutron detector in the criticality alarm systems at Rocky Flats. Coincidence circuits, interface system and audio signal generators used in the output of the alarm system are described. The system meets the criteria for the American National Standards and the USDOE Manual Chapter for detection, alarm, and signal output requirements.

  6. The monitoring and alarm system based on distributed temperature fiber sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-qiang; Zhao, Yu-liang; Zhang, Yu-ye; Wang, Shu-juan

    2014-09-01

    Air material depot is a warehouse which store consumed all the parts and equipment vault of the plane. In order to ensure the various aviation equipment integrity of the backup piece rate, the inside temperature of depot must be controlled within a certain range. Therefore, the depot must be equipped a self-contained temperature real-time monitoring system. This paper presents a distributed temperature sensing alarm system to apply to real-time measure spatial distribution of temperature field. In order to eliminate influence to the scattering strength from the light source instability and the fiber bending splice loss and to improve temperature measurement accuracy, the system design used dual-channel dual- wavelength comparison method which make Anti-Stokes as signal channel and Stokes as a reference channel to collect signals of two channel respectively and detect the ratio of the two channels' signals. The light of LD directional coupling to the sensing optical fiber in the temperature field to test, domain reflect light from the sensing optical fiber directional coupling to receive channel again, Rayleigh domain reflect light is filtered after optical filter, the Anti-Stokes and Stokes are both taken out, converted and magnified, the two signals is digitalized by A/D Converter, and written to the storage machine , which linear cumulative to the content of the storage unit, The distributed measurement of the temperature field to test is finished. The collected 2900 measuring points real-time on 2km of optical fiber. The spatial resolution of the system was 0.7m, measurement range was -20-370°C, and measurement error was ± 2 °C. All index of the system achieved the desired objective. To get an accurate temperature field spatial distribution and the information of temporal variation, the system enabled real-time temperature of aviation depot monitoring and early warning . As a new sensing technology, the distributed fiber optic sensor has the functions of self

  7. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates...

  8. Development of medical equipment alarm monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoshinori; Ogaito, Tatoku; Kasamatsu, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    In a hospital, we use a large number of medical equipment. In these use, I support the safe use by the alarm such as errors from medical equipment. There is the instrument notifying of alarm in communication, but there is the instrument by a sound and the light. For the medical safety management, confirmation of the alarm is important. We thought that stability was improved by integrating alarm from the instrument of the different type. Therefore, we thought that we integrated alarm from medical equipment. We decided to transmit an alarm signal from medical equipment by adding radio module program unit. The type of the radio used IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) at a point of view of low power, International Standard, simple radio equipment. This system deals with only alarm information from medical equipment and does not handle the data. However, we understood that we were helpful very much even if it was only alarm information. We were able to in this way reduce the number of incidents. PMID:23920969

  9. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  10. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which are... the control unit and terminating at manual fire alarm boxes. Power failure alarm devices may be... alarm system control unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for...

  11. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  12. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  13. Alarm Systems: Library Confounds Criminal Capers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjettum, Pamela

    1978-01-01

    Tells the story of a small town library faced with the problem of preventing nuisance burglaries of the type becoming more and more common. The problems of selecting the right type of alarm system are discussed. (JPF)

  14. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  15. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system. Each sprinkler alarm system, including annunciator,...

  16. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  17. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  18. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  19. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  20. Research on the fire alarming system of fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yaobin

    2007-09-01

    The application of fiber grating sensing technology in fire alarming based on temperature detection has the advantages of high accuracy, high reliability and strong immunity from electronic and magnetic fields. It is especially advantageous to use this system in the petroleum and chemistry industry because it can provide an extraordinary safe means for the fire alarm. But due to the traditional optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is limited by the optic source bandwidth, the number of its multiplexing points is few. In this paper WDM technology will be developed mixing with Identified Bragg, which is called Identified and Wavelength Multiplexing, to build the Fiber Grating (FBG) fire alarm system integrated with computers. Some technologies applied in fire alarming system of fiber grating such as the transmission of test signals which pass through modulate and demodulate, the disposal of software system, the output of control signal and the strong ability of anti-disturbance have been studied and discussed.

  1. Alarms Philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    White, Karen S; Kasemir, Kay

    2009-01-01

    An effective alarm system consists of a mechanism to monitor control points and generate alarm notifications, tools for operators to view, hear, acknowledge and handle alarms and a good configuration. Despite the availability of numerous fully featured tools, accelerator alarm systems continue to be disappointing to operations, frequently to the point of alarms being permanently silenced or totally ignored. This is often due to configurations that produce an excessive number of alarms or fail to communicate the required operator response. Most accelerator controls systems do a good job of monitoring specified points and generating notifications when parameters exceed predefined limits. In some cases, improved tools can help, but more often, poor configuration is the root cause of ineffective alarm systems. A SNS, we have invested considerable effort in generating appropriate configurations using a rigorous set of rules based on best practices in the industrial process controls community. This paper will discuss our alarm configuration philosophy and operator response to our new system.

  2. Volumetric Security Alarm Based on a Spherical Ultrasonic Transducer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayin, Umut; Scaini, Davide; Arteaga, Daniel

    Most of the existent alarm systems depend on physical or visual contact. The detection area is often limited depending on the type of the transducer, creating blind spots. Our proposition is a truly volumetric alarm system that can detect any movement in the intrusion area, based on monitoring the change over time of the impulse response of the room, which acts as an acoustic footprint. The device depends on an omnidirectional ultrasonic transducer array emitting sweep signals to calculate the impulse response in short intervals. Any change in the room conditions is monitored through a correlation function. The sensitivity of the alarm to different objects and different environments depends on the sweep duration, sweep bandwidth, and sweep interval. Successful detection of intrusions also depends on the size of the monitoring area and requires an adjustment of emitted ultrasound power. Strong air flow affects the performance of the alarm. A method for separating moving objects from strong air flow is devised using an adaptive thresholding on the correlation function involving a series of impulse response measurements. The alarm system can be also used for fire detection since air flow sourced from heating objects differ from random nature of the present air flow. Several measurements are made to test the integrity of the alarm in rooms sizing from 834-2080m3 with irregular geometries and various objects. The proposed system can efficiently detect intrusion whilst adequate emitting power is provided.

  3. An Undergraduate Experiment in Alarm System Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, R. A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving data acquisition by a computer, digital signal transmission from the computer to a digital logic circuit and signal interpretation by this circuit. The system is being used at the Illinois Institute of Technology. Discusses the fundamental concepts involved. Demonstrates the alarm experiment as it is used in…

  4. Research of pulse signal processing based on sleep-monitoring alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaisheng; Zeng, Yuan

    2009-07-01

    From pulse diagnosis of Chinese herbalist doctor to the research of cardiovascular system by modem iatrology,they all have showed and proved that human pulse has a good affinity with diseases,especially cardiovascular diseases. Human pulse contains much physical information, and it will be propitious to know the human healthy state early so as to get therapy and recovery early when pulse signal is often detected and analyzed. study how to use the embedded microcontroller to transmit physiological signal from human to personal computer by infrared communication, and the normal sphygmic parameter in one's sleeping is compared with the one measured in order to judge whether one's sleeping condition is normal, finally ascertain the best control plan.

  5. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  6. Alarm Management System for the D/3 Distributed Control System

    1997-03-19

    As industrial processes continue to grow in size and complexity, the Distrubuted Control Systems that automate and monitor these processes expand in a like manner. This increase in control system complexity has resulted in ever increasing numbers of alarms presented to the operator. The challenge for today's control system designer is to find innovative ways to present alarm information to the operator such that despite the large number of alarms, the operator is able tomore » quickly assess the status of the plant and immediately respond to the most critical alarms in a timely manner. This software package, designed and developed for the Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator/Waste Removal Distributed Control System installed on the H-Area Tank Farm, provides an alarm system which utilizes the annunciator (SKID) panel as a means of statusing the plant and providing single keystroke access to the display on which an alarm resides.« less

  7. Alarm Management System for the D/3 Distributed Control System

    SciTech Connect

    McEver, M.

    1997-03-19

    As industrial processes continue to grow in size and complexity, the Distrubuted Control Systems that automate and monitor these processes expand in a like manner. This increase in control system complexity has resulted in ever increasing numbers of alarms presented to the operator. The challenge for today's control system designer is to find innovative ways to present alarm information to the operator such that despite the large number of alarms, the operator is able to quickly assess the status of the plant and immediately respond to the most critical alarms in a timely manner. This software package, designed and developed for the Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator/Waste Removal Distributed Control System installed on the H-Area Tank Farm, provides an alarm system which utilizes the annunciator (SKID) panel as a means of statusing the plant and providing single keystroke access to the display on which an alarm resides.

  8. From alarm systems to smart houses.

    PubMed

    Vlaskamp, F J

    1992-01-01

    The percentage of senior citizens in the Netherlands will rise in coming years. The expected percentage for the year 2010 of persons over age 65 in the total population is 15%. More persons over age 65 than ever before will continue to live in their own environment. Emergency response systems (ERS) can support independent living. The most common type of organization distributing ERS is a small, partly subsidized local alarm organization run by a social welfare office for the elderly. Government subsidy has been reduced in recent years which has motivated small organizations to join together into larger regional organizations in order to get a more solid financial base. On the other hand new semi-commercial and commercial organizations have come into being. These developments are part of the growing importance of home care, leading to more medical applications of ERS. User satisfaction with ERS is high. Portable triggers can enhance the effectiveness of the system. However, many users do not wear the portable trigger when feeling well. Future technical developments will result in multifunctionality of ERS-devices. In the long term the hardware of today will be integrated in a multimedia home terminal replacing the telephone. The portable trigger will remain the only specific hardware at home for ERS. PMID:10126436

  9. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  10. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  11. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  12. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  13. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  14. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  15. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping... Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a) An approved manual alarm system shall be installed in all areas, other than the main machinery spaces,...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

  17. Alarm system for a nuclear control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  18. Design of anti-burglar alarm systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şchiopu, Paul; Costea, Aurelian

    2015-02-01

    Security, as an important element that defines the quality of a system, represents the capacity of a system to preserve his own functional characteristics under pressure of external disruptive agents capable to represent danger for the system, for the environment of the system, and for the life of people inside the defined risk zone. The main goal of security is system stability. With ever new ideas, technology, procedures, actions and specialized institutions, integrated security services offer protection, surveillance and optimum conditions for system to function and to be used properly. Therefore, security represents the main quality parameter of all systems and processes, without it efficiency was not possible. Keyword list: Security; Anti-Burglar Alarm

  19. Development of an on-line expert system for integrated alarm processing in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Gon; Choi, Seong Soo; Kang, Ki Sig; Chang, Soon Heung

    1994-12-31

    An on-line expert system, called AFDS (Alarm Filtering and Diagnostic System), has been developed to assist operators in effectively maintaining plant safety and to enhance plant availability using advanced computer technologies for alarm processing. The AFDS is designed to perform alarm filtering and overall plantwide diagnosis when an abnormal state occurs. in addition to these functions, it carries out alarm prognosis to provide the operator with prediction-based messages and to generate high-level alarms that can be used as another diagnostic information. The system is developed on a SUN SPARC 2 workstation, and its target domain is the alarm system in the main control room of Yonggwang units 1 and 2.

  20. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indicating and alarm systems. 58.25-25 Section 58.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-25 Indicating and alarm systems. (a) Indication of the rudder angle must be provided both...

  1. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indicating and alarm systems. 58.25-25 Section 58.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-25 Indicating and alarm systems. (a) Indication of the rudder angle must be provided both...

  2. 46 CFR 183.550 - General alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm systems. 183.550 Section 183.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.550 General alarm systems. All...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee... alarms required on various fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression... in this section that pertain to maintenance, testing and inspection shall apply to all local...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee... alarms required on various fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression... in this section that pertain to maintenance, testing and inspection shall apply to all local...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee... alarms required on various fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression... in this section that pertain to maintenance, testing and inspection shall apply to all local...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842 Cargo system: Controls and alarms. The master...

  9. Multistation alarm system for eruptive activity based on the automatic classification of volcanic tremor: specifications and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Horst; Falsaperla, Susanna; Messina, Alfio; Spampinato, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    With over fifty eruptive episodes (Strombolian activity, lava fountains, and lava flows) between 2006 and 2013, Mt Etna, Italy, underscored its role as the most active volcano in Europe. Seven paroxysmal lava fountains at the South East Crater occurred in 2007-2008 and 46 at the New South East Crater between 2011 and 2013. Month-lasting lava emissions affected the upper eastern flank of the volcano in 2006 and 2008-2009. On this background, effective monitoring and forecast of volcanic phenomena are a first order issue for their potential socio-economic impact in a densely populated region like the town of Catania and its surroundings. For example, explosive activity has often formed thick ash clouds with widespread tephra fall able to disrupt the air traffic, as well as to cause severe problems at infrastructures, such as highways and roads. For timely information on changes in the state of the volcano and possible onset of dangerous eruptive phenomena, the analysis of the continuous background seismic signal, the so-called volcanic tremor, turned out of paramount importance. Changes in the state of the volcano as well as in its eruptive style are usually concurrent with variations of the spectral characteristics (amplitude and frequency content) of tremor. The huge amount of digital data continuously acquired by INGV's broadband seismic stations every day makes a manual analysis difficult, and techniques of automatic classification of the tremor signal are therefore applied. The application of unsupervised classification techniques to the tremor data revealed significant changes well before the onset of the eruptive episodes. This evidence led to the development of specific software packages related to real-time processing of the tremor data. The operational characteristics of these tools - fail-safe, robustness with respect to noise and data outages, as well as computational efficiency - allowed the identification of criteria for automatic alarm flagging. The

  10. Use of pagers with an alarm escalation system to reduce cardiac monitor alarm signals.

    PubMed

    Cvach, Maria M; Frank, Robert J; Doyle, Pete; Stevens, Zeina Khouri

    2014-01-01

    Alarm fatigue desensitizes nurses to alarm signals and presents potential for patient harm. This project describes an innovative method of communicating cardiac monitor alarms to pagers using an alarm escalation algorithm. This innovation was tested on 2 surgical progressive care units over a 6-month period. There was a significant decrease in mean frequency and duration of high-priority monitor alarms and improvement in nurses' perception of alarm response time, using this method of alarm communication. PMID:23963169

  11. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  12. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  13. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  14. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  15. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  16. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, D.W.

    1995-04-11

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

  17. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Don W.

    1995-01-01

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

  18. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF OLD, PUNCHTYPE MASTER FIRE ALARM SYSTEM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF OLD, PUNCH-TYPE MASTER FIRE ALARM SYSTEM, LOCATED ON S WALL OF ENGINE STORAGE ROOM; LOOKING S. (Ceronie and Ryan) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 22, Westervelt Avenue & Buffington Street, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  19. Orthos, an alarm system for the ALICE DAQ operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapeland, Sylvain; Carena, Franco; Carena, Wisla; Chibante Barroso, Vasco; Costa, Filippo; Denes, Ervin; Divia, Roberto; Fuchs, Ulrich; Grigore, Alexandru; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Soos, Csaba; Telesca, Adriana; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; von Haller, Barthelemy

    2012-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The DAQ (Data Acquisition System) facilities handle the data flow from the detectors electronics up to the mass storage. The DAQ system is based on a large farm of commodity hardware consisting of more than 600 devices (Linux PCs, storage, network switches), and controls hundreds of distributed hardware and software components interacting together. This paper presents Orthos, the alarm system used to detect, log, report, and follow-up abnormal situations on the DAQ machines at the experimental area. The main objective of this package is to integrate alarm detection and notification mechanisms with a full-featured issues tracker, in order to prioritize, assign, and fix system failures optimally. This tool relies on a database repository with a logic engine, SQL interfaces to inject or query metrics, and dynamic web pages for user interaction. We describe the system architecture, the technologies used for the implementation, and the integration with existing monitoring tools.

  20. Onsite Portable Alarm System - Its Merit and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saita, J.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Recently an existence of the earthquake early warning system (EEWS) becomes popular. In general, the EEWS will be installed in a fixed observation site and it may consist of several separated components such as a sensing portion, A/D converter, an information processing potion and so on. The processed information for warning may be transmitted to network via fixed communication line, and therefore this kind of alarm system is called as Network Alarm System. On the other hand, after the severe earthquake damage, it is very important to save the disaster victims immediately. These rescue staffs are also under the risk of aftershocks and need a local alarm not depending on the network, so this kind of alarm can be called as Onsite Alarm. But the common early warning system is too complex to set onsite temporary, and even if possible to install, the alarm is too late to receive at the epicentral area. However, the new generation earthquake early warning system FREQL can issue the P wave alarm by minimum 0.2 seconds after P wave detection. And FREQL is characterized as the unique all-in-one seismometer with power unit. At the time of the 2004 Niigata-Ken-Chuetsu earthquake, a land slide attacked a car just passing. A hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department pulled the survivor, one baby, from the land slide area. During their activity the rescue team was exposed to the risk of secondary hazards caused by the aftershocks. It was clear that it is necessary to use a portable warning system to issue the onsite P wave alarm. Because FREQL was originally developed as portable equipment, Tokyo Fire Department asked us to modify it to the portable equipment with the loud sound and the light signal. In this moment, this portable FREQL has equipped in nation wide. When the hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department was sent to Pakistan as a task force for rescue work of the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, the portable FREQL was used as important onsite portable warning system and P

  1. Nuisance alarm suppression techniques for fibre-optic intrusion detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

    2012-02-01

    The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fibre-optic intrusion detection systems is important for maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and minimize nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. A level crossings algorithm is presented for suppressing torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fibre-optic fence-based perimeter intrusion detection system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr, and intrusion events can be detected simultaneously during rain periods. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented demonstrating the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of nuisance and intrusion events in a buried pipeline fibre-optic intrusion detection system. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fibre-optic Mach Zehnder interferometer.

  2. Hemodynamic-impact-based prioritization of ventricular tachycardia alarms.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kalpit; Lexa, Michael; Matthews, Brett; Genc, Sahika

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach) is a very serious condition that occurs when the ventricles are driven at high rates. The abnormal excitation pathways make ventricular contraction less synchronous resulting in less effective filling and emptying of the left ventricles. However, almost half of the V-tach alarms declared through processing of patterns observed in electrocardiography are not clinically actionable. The focus of this study is to provide guidance on determining whether a technically-correct V-tach alarm is clinically-actionable by determining its "hemodynamic impact". A supervisory learning approach based on conditional inference trees to determine the hemodynamic impact of a V-tach alarm based on extracted features is described. According to preliminary results on a subset of Multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care II (MIMIC-II) database, true positive rate of more than 90% can be achieved. PMID:25570734

  3. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  4. A TWACS system alarm function for distribution automation

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, S.T.; Radford, D. )

    1994-04-01

    A new application designated as the System Alarm Function'' is made possible by using the Unsolicited Inbound'' capability recently developed for the Two Way Automatic Communication System (TWACS) System-10, which is already used by several electric utilities in the USA for demand side management, remote metering and distribution automation is reviewed here. The UNSOLICITED INBOUND'' algorithm development, the operational issues that are pertinent to the understanding of collisions between multiple alarms and the effects on the alarm response time'' are discussed in detail. This master-to-master relationship between remote transponders in the distribution network and the central control computer opens the door to multiple functional capabilities in the area of distribution automation and remote monitoring.

  5. Development of real time alarm/surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiyoshi, M.; Uchida, S.; Suenaga, S.; Iwabuchi, M.; Fujimoto, T.; Yoshimura, A.

    1987-07-01

    PNC has carried out real time alarm/surveillance system as a part of its r and d programs on the physical protection systems for its nuclear facilities from 1984 to 1986. The guard operates a closed circuit television (CCTV) camera to see whether the alarms are caused from intruders or from accident in the existing physical protection systems. But it is very difficult to assess rapidly moving objects using such a TV system. Monitor images are used to be continuously recorded by VTR, but it does not seem to be very suitable or it takes quite a long time to play back. Aiming at more effective and reliable physical protection systems, a new alarm/surveillance system was developed, the system detects persons entering into the surveillance zone and provides effective means to confirm. The system detects moving persons in a double fenced zone using image processing technique. Detection information such as time, position, detected images are displayed, printed and recorded, so that cause of false alarms, if occurred can be found easily.

  6. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  7. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  8. Development and Evaluation of New Coupling System for Lower Limb Prostheses with Acoustic Alarm System

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Ahmadian, Jalil; Rahmati, Bizhan; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with lower limb amputation need a secure suspension system for their prosthetic devices. A new coupling system was developed that is capable of suspending the prosthesis. The system's safety is ensured through an acoustic alarm system. This article explains how the system works and provides an in vivo evaluation of the device with regard to pistoning during walking. The system was designed to be used with silicone liners and is based on the requirements of prosthetic suspension systems. Mechanical testing was performed using a universal testing machine. The pistoning during walking was measured using a motion analysis system. The new coupling device produced significantly less pistoning compared to a common suspension system (pin/lock). The safety alarm system would buzz if the suspension was going to fail. The new coupling system could securely suspend the prostheses in transtibial amputees and produced less vertical movement than the pin/lock system. PMID:23881340

  9. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842...

  13. 46 CFR 120.550 - General alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm systems. 120.550 Section 120.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION...

  14. A technical approach for determining the importance of information in computerized alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, D.S.; Lim, J.J.

    1994-06-10

    Computerized alarm and access control systems must be treated as special entities rather than as generic automated information systems. This distinction arises due to the real-time control and monitoring functions performed by these systems at classified facilities and the degree of centralization of a site`s safeguards system information in the associated databases. As an added requirement for these systems, DOE safeguards and security classification policy is to protect information whose dissemination has the potential for significantly increasing the probability of successful adversary action against the facility, or lowering adversary resources needed for a successful attack. Thus at issue is just how valuable would specific alarm system information be to an adversary with a higher order objective. We have developed and applied a technical approach for determining the importance of information contained in computerized alarm and access control systems. The methodology is based on vulnerability assessment rather than blanket classification rules. This method uses a system architecture diagram to guide the analysis and to develop adversary defeat methods for each node and link. These defeat methods are evaluated with respect to required adversary resources, technical difficulty, and detection capability. Then they are incorporated into site vulnerability assessments to determine the significance of alarm system information in the context of a facility attack. This methodology was successfully applied to the Argus alarm, access control, and assessment system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Argus is software-driven, contains interrelated databases, shares host computers, and communicates with field processors and alarms through a common network. The evaluation results provided insights into the importance of alarm system information while the methodology itself provided a framework for addressing associated information protection issues.

  15. Monitor alarm fatigue: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Cvach, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Alarm fatigue is a national problem and the number one medical device technology hazard in 2012. The problem of alarm desensitization is multifaceted and related to a high false alarm rate, poor positive predictive value, lack of alarm standardization, and the number of alarming medical devices in hospitals today. This integrative review synthesizes research and non-research findings published between 1/1/2000 and 10/1/2011 using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice model. Seventy-two articles were included. Research evidence was organized into five main themes: excessive alarms and effects on staff; nurse's response to alarms; alarm sounds and audibility; technology to reduce false alarms; and alarm notification systems. Non-research evidence was divided into two main themes: strategies to reduce alarm desensitization, and alarm priority and notification systems. Evidence-based practice recommendations and gaps in research are summarized. PMID:22839984

  16. False alarm reduction in BSN-based cardiac monitoring using signal quality and activity type information.

    PubMed

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  17. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    PubMed Central

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  18. SeaQuest/E906 Shift Alarm System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitts, Noah

    2014-09-01

    SeaQuest, Fermilab E906, is a fixed target experiment that measures the Drell-Yan cross-section ratio of proton-proton to proton-deuterium collisions in order to extract the sea anti-quark structure of the proton. SeaQuest will extend the measurements made by E866/NuSea with greater precision at higher Bjorken-x. The continuously running experiment is always being monitored. Those on shift must keep track of all of the detector readouts in order to make sure the experiment is running correctly. As an experiment that is still in its early stages of running, an alarm system for people on shift is being created to provide warnings, such as a plot showing a detector's performance is sufficiently different to need attention. This plan involves python scripts that track live data. When the data shows a problem within the experiment, a corresponding alarm ID is sent to the MySQL database which then sets off an alarm. These alarms, which will alert the person on shift through both an audible and visual response, are important for ensuring that issues do not go unnoticed, and to help make sure the experiment is recording good data.

  19. Constant false alarm rate algorithm for the dim-small target detection based on the distribution characteristics of target coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiao-Liang; Ren, Kan; Qian, Wei-xian; Wang, Peng-cheng

    2015-10-01

    CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) is a key technology in Infrared dim-small target detection system. Because the traditional constant false alarm rate detection algorithm gets the probability density distribution which is based on the pixel information of each area in the whole image and calculates the target segmentation threshold of each area by formula of Constant false alarm rate, the problems including the difficulty of probability distribution statistics and large amount of algorithm calculation and long delay time are existing. In order to solve the above problems effectively, a formula of Constant false alarm rate based on target coordinates distribution is presented. Firstly, this paper proposes a new formula of Constant false alarm rate by improving the traditional formula of Constant false alarm rate based on the single grayscale distribution which objective statistical distribution features are introduced. So the control of false alarm according to the target distribution information is implemented more accurately and the problem of high false alarm that is caused of the complex background in local area as the cloud reflection and the ground clutter interference is solved. At the same time, in order to reduce the amount of algorithm calculation and improve the real-time characteristics of algorithm, this paper divides the constant false-alarm statistical area through two-dimensional probability density distribution of target number adaptively which is different from the general identifying methods of constant false-alarm statistical area. Finally, the target segmentation threshold of next frame is calculated by iteration based on the function of target distribution probability density in image sequence which can achieve the purpose of controlling the false alarm until the false alarm is down to the upper limit. The experiment results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the operation time and meet the real-time requirements on

  20. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-08-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets. PMID:26237691

  1. Alarm timing, trust and driver expectation for forward collision warning systems.

    PubMed

    Abe, Genya; Richardson, John

    2006-09-01

    In order to improve road safety, automobile manufacturers are now developing Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS). However, there has been insufficient consideration of how drivers may respond to FCWS. This driving simulator study focused on alarm timing and its impact on driver response to alarm. The experimental investigation considered driver perception of alarm timings and its influence on trust at three driving speeds (40, 60 and 70 mile/h) and two time headways (1.7 and 2.2 s). The results showed that alarm effectiveness varied in response to driving conditions. Alarm promptness had a greater influence on ratings of trust than improvements in braking performance enabled by the alarm system. Moreover, alarms which were presented after braking actions had been initiated were viewed as late alarms. It is concluded that drivers typically expect alarms to be presented before they initiate braking actions and when this does not happen driver trust in the system is substantially decreased. PMID:16364231

  2. All-optical SOA latch fail-safe alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2004-11-01

    Emergency alarm systems, for example, that switch off critical processes in process plant, are vulnerable to deliberate or accidental sabotage through coupling of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) to wires and/or from sparks due to broken wires. A proposed system significantly reduces vulnerability by using a fast all-optical latch in conjunction with an optical sensor and optical fibers. Sparks cannot be created on breaking an optical beam and electromagnetic field transients have negligible effect on optical signals. The optical latch uses optical semiconductor amplifiers (SOAs) configured to form a flip-flop. The flip-flop latches after the occurrence of an intrusion that may be as short as a few nanoseconds, much faster than most environmental changes occur. Detection of an emergency or any break in connections causes the light to drop, triggering the alarm. Computer simulation shows that the all-optical latch is fast and effective.

  3. Ultra low frequency electromagnetic fire alarm system for underground mines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During an underground mine fire, air can be rapidly depleted of oxygen and contaminated with smoke and toxic fire gases. Any delay in warning miners could have disastrous consequences. Unfortunately, present mine fire alarm systems, such as stench, audible or visual alarms, telephones, and messengers, are often slow, unreliable, and limited in mine area coverage. Recent research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines has demonstrated that ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic signaling can be used for an underground mine fire alarm. In field tests of prototype equipment at five mines, electromagnetic signals from 630 to 2,000 Hz were transmitted through mine rock for distances as great as 1,645 m to an intrinsically safe receiver. The prototype system uses off-the-shelf components and state-of-the-art technology to ensure high reliability and low cost. When utilized, this technology would enable simultaneous and instantaneous warning of all underground personnel, regardless of their location or work activity, thereby increasing the likelihood of their successfully escaping a mine disaster. This paper presents the theoretical basis for through-the-rock ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic transmission, design of the prototype transmitter and receiver, and the results of in-mine tests of the prototype system.

  4. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, Bryce A.

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  5. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  9. 33 CFR 149.665 - What are the requirements for a general alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...? Each pumping platform complex must have a general alarm system that: (a) Is capable of being manually activated by using alarm boxes; (b) Is audible in all parts of the pumping platform complex, except in...

  10. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    PubMed Central

    Luis, Juan Aponte; Galán, Juan Antonio Gómez; Espigado, Javier Alcina

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  11. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires.

    PubMed

    Aponte Luis, Juan; Gómez Galán, Juan Antonio; Alcina Espigado, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  12. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  13. Increasing smoke alarm operability through theory-based health education: a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ted R; Bergen, Gwen; Ballesteros, Michael F; Bhattacharya, Soma; Gielen, Andrea Carlson; Sheppard, Monique S

    2015-01-01

    Background Although working smoke alarms halve deaths in residential fires, many households do not keep alarms operational. We tested whether theory-based education increases alarm operability. Methods Randomised multiarm trial, with a single arm randomly selected for use each day, in low-income neighbourhoods in Maryland, USA. Intervention arms: (1) Full Education combining a health belief module with a social-cognitive theory module that provided hands-on practice installing alarm batteries and using the alarm’s hush button; (2) Hands-on Practice social-cognitive module supplemented by typical fire department education; (3) Current Norm receiving typical fire department education only. Four hundred and thirty-six homes recruited through churches or by knocking on doors in 2005–2008. Followup visits checked alarm operability in 370 homes (85%) 1–3.5 years after installation. Main outcome measures: number of homes with working alarms defined as alarms with working batteries or hard-wired and number of working alarms per home. Regressions controlled for alarm status preintervention; demographics and beliefs about fire risks and alarm effectiveness. Results Homes in the Full Education and Practice arms were more likely to have a functioning smoke alarm at follow-up (OR=2.77, 95% CI 1.09 to 7.03) and had an average of 0.32 more working alarms per home (95% CI 0.09 to 0.56). Working alarms per home rose 16%. Full Education and Practice had similar effectiveness (p=0.97 on both outcome measures). Conclusions Without exceeding typical fire department installation time, installers can achieve greater smoke alarm operability. Hands-on practice is key. Two years after installation, for every three homes that received hands-on practice, one had an additional working alarm. Trial registration number http://www.clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00139126. PMID:25165090

  14. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  15. Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

  16. Multiple-Parameter, Low-False-Alarm Fire-Detection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Greensburg, Paul; McKnight, Robert; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, C. C.; Dutta, Prabir; Makel, Darby; Blake, D.; Sue-Antillio, Jill

    2007-01-01

    Fire-detection systems incorporating multiple sensors that measure multiple parameters are being developed for use in storage depots, cargo bays of ships and aircraft, and other locations not amenable to frequent, direct visual inspection. These systems are intended to improve upon conventional smoke detectors, now used in such locations, that reliably detect fires but also frequently generate false alarms: for example, conventional smoke detectors based on the blockage of light by smoke particles are also affected by dust particles and water droplets and, thus, are often susceptible to false alarms. In contrast, by utilizing multiple parameters associated with fires, i.e. not only obscuration by smoke particles but also concentrations of multiple chemical species that are commonly generated in combustion, false alarms can be significantly decreased while still detecting fires as reliably as older smoke-detector systems do. The present development includes fabrication of sensors that have, variously, micrometer- or nanometer-sized features so that such multiple sensors can be integrated into arrays that have sizes, weights, and power demands smaller than those of older macroscopic sensors. The sensors include resistors, electrochemical cells, and Schottky diodes that exhibit different sensitivities to the various airborne chemicals of interest. In a system of this type, the sensor readings are digitized and processed by advanced signal-processing hardware and software to extract such chemical indications of fires as abnormally high concentrations of CO and CO2, possibly in combination with H2 and/or hydrocarbons. The system also includes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based particle detector and classifier device to increase the reliability of measurements of chemical species and particulates. In parallel research, software for modeling the evolution of a fire within an aircraft cargo bay has been developed. The model implemented in the software can

  17. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability

  18. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  19. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  20. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  1. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  2. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  3. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  4. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  5. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  6. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  7. The research of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Tiejun; Wan, Jiaonan; Zhang, Juwen; Wang, Rui

    For the rigorous traffic safety issues resulting from rapid transportation development, as well as the more and more attention paid to the traffic accidents dynamic analysis and pre-alarm methods, combined with the practical needs of the highway safety management, this paper summarizes the experience of traffic safety pre-alarm research both in domestic and abroad, designs the frame of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system from the function and software engineering requirement, and refines kernel modules such as accident prone section judgement, traffic safety pre-alarm analysis and perfecting safety measures analysis, in order to guide the exploitation and application of the system.

  8. A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring

    2011-09-01

    By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

  9. Visual display and alarm system for wind tunnel static and dynamic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanly, Richard D.; Fogarty, James T.

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel balance monitor and alarm system developed at NASA Ames Research Center will produce several beneficial results. The costs of wind tunnel delays because of inadvertent balance damage and the costs of balance repair or replacement can be greatly reduced or eliminated with better real-time information on the balance static and dynamic loading. The wind tunnel itself will have enhanced utility with the elimination of overly cautious limits on test conditions. The microprocessor-based system features automatic scaling and 16 multicolored LED bargraphs to indicate both static and dynamic components of the signals from eight individual channels. Five individually programmable alarm levels are available with relay closures for internal or external visual and audible warning devices and other functions such as automatic activation of external recording devices, model positioning mechanism, or tunnel shutdown.

  10. Visual display and alarm system for wind tunnel static and dynamic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanly, Richard D.; Fogarty, James T.

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel balance monitor and alarm system developed at NASA Ames Research Center will produce several beneficial results. The costs of wind tunnel delays because of inadvertent balance damage and the costs of balance repair or replacement can be greatly reduced or eliminated with better real-time information on the balance static and dynamic loading. The wind tunnel itself will have enhanced utility with the elimination of overly cautious limits on test conditions. The microprocessor-based system features automatic scaling and 16 multicolored LED bargraphs to indicate both static and dynamic components of the signals from eight individual channels. Five individually programmable alarm levels are available with relay closures for internal or external visual and audible warning devices and other functions such as automatic activation of external recording devices, model positioning mechanisms, or tunnel shutdown.

  11. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  12. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  13. Emergency Vehicle Alarm System for Deaf Drivers by Using LEDs and Vibration Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Noriaki; Morimoto, Kazunari; Kozuki, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Tomonori

    We are developing the emergency vehicle alarm system for deaf drivers by using LEDs and vibration devices. In order to design the alarm for deaf drivers, we have conducted basic experiment in order to evaluate perceptual characteristic on visibility of LED.

  14. A Fault Alarm and Diagnosis Method Based on Sensitive Parameters and Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Ziyun; Lv, Zhiquan; Zhu, Qunxiong; Xu, Fengtian; Jiang, Zhinong

    2015-08-01

    Study on the extraction of fault feature and the diagnostic technique of reciprocating compressor is one of the hot research topics in the field of reciprocating machinery fault diagnosis at present. A large number of feature extraction and classification methods have been widely applied in the related research, but the practical fault alarm and the accuracy of diagnosis have not been effectively improved. Developing feature extraction and classification methods to meet the requirements of typical fault alarm and automatic diagnosis in practical engineering is urgent task. The typical mechanical faults of reciprocating compressor are presented in the paper, and the existing data of online monitoring system is used to extract fault feature parameters within 15 types in total; the inner sensitive connection between faults and the feature parameters has been made clear by using the distance evaluation technique, also sensitive characteristic parameters of different faults have been obtained. On this basis, a method based on fault feature parameters and support vector machine (SVM) is developed, which will be applied to practical fault diagnosis. A better ability of early fault warning has been proved by the experiment and the practical fault cases. Automatic classification by using the SVM to the data of fault alarm has obtained better diagnostic accuracy.

  15. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  16. A new logic-based alarm analyzer for on-line operational environment

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, H.; Liu, C.C.; Sforna, M.

    1996-08-01

    Existing fault diagnostic techniques for power systems are based on the operation of breakers using on-line alarm messages available from the Energy Management Systems (EMSs). Some utility systems also acquire, on-line, the information on relay operations in order to increase the precision of fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a new on-line fault diagnosis system called Intelligent Alarm Analyzer (IAA). This paper identifies the information from sequence-of-events recorders (SERs) at the substations that can be used in the EMS environment. The breaker operations together with the selected SER information provide sufficient data to help pinpoint the fault location(s) and malfunctioning device(s) on-line. The proposed IAA is capable of handling transmission line, busbar and transformer faults as well as relay and breaker malfunctions. The other unique feature of IAA is its logic-based algorithms implemented in an object-oriented software structure. Based on the testing with the actual data from ENEL, the Italian power system, the proposed implementation is highly efficient and promising for the on-line environment.

  17. SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in

  18. Alarm communication and display systems for high security department of energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An Alarm Communication and Display System collects alarm data, presents information to security operators, and enables the operators to enter commands affecting security operations; the ultimate goal of the system is to provide rapid assessment of alarms. This paper presents an overview of the architecture and operating principles used for alarm communication and display systems developed for application at several Department of Energy facilities. Although facilities have unique requirements and procedures, the architecture and operating principles of the ACDS presented in this paper have allowed site-specific implementations at several Department of Energy facilities. In addition, this technology has been transferred to other DOE facilities for adaptation to their requirements. Further efforts to enhance ACDS technology include the use of local area network technology to assist in peripheral switching, a distributed CCTV video switching system, and state-of-the-art hardware changes which improve system performance and effectiveness.

  19. The evolution of urgency-based and functionally referential alarm calls in ground-dwelling species.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Roman D; Manser, Marta B

    2009-03-01

    A major evolutionary force driving functionally referential alarm calls is the need for different strategies to escape various predator types in complex structured habitats. In contrast, a single escape strategy appears to be sufficient in less-structured open habitats, and under such conditions urgency-dependent alarm calls may be favored. Nevertheless, some species, such as meerkats (Suricata suricatta), have evolved functionally referential alarm calls despite living in open areas, using only bolt-holes for retreat. To understand the evolution of different alarm call systems, we investigated the calls of sympatric Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) and compared their antipredator and foraging behavior with that of meerkats. Cape ground squirrels emitted urgency-dependent alarm calls and responded to playbacks depending on urgency, not predator type. Vigilance behavior and habitat use differed between the two species. Meerkats roam widely to find prey and for efficient foraging depend on coordinated predator vigilance and escape behavior. As herbivores with smaller territories, Cape ground squirrels depend less on coordinated antipredator behavior, and urgency-dependent alarm calls encode all essential information. We conclude that habitat complexity does not explain the evolution of functionally referential alarm calls in all species, and other constraints, such as the need to coordinate group movements to maintain foraging efficiency, could be more relevant. PMID:19199527

  20. A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.

    2009-04-01

    Key words: Simple Event Correlator, Agent Platform, Ontology, Semantic Web, Distributed Systems, Emergency Management The importance of recognition of emergency's typology to control the critical situation for security of citizens has been always recognized. It follows this aspect is very important for proper management of a hazardous event. In this work we present a solution for the recognition of emergency's typology adopted by an Italian research project, called CI6 (Centro Integrato per Servizi di Emergenza Innovativi). In our approach, CI6 receives alarms by citizen or people involved in the work (for example: police, operator of 112, and so on). CI6 represents any alarm by a set of information, including a text that describes it and obtained when the user points out the danger, and a pair of coordinates for its location. The system realizes an analysis of text and automatically infers information on the type of emergencies by means a set of parsing rules and rules of inference applied by a independent module: a correlator of events based on their log and called Simple Event Correlator (SEC). SEC, integrated in CI6's platform, is an open source and platform independent event correlation tool. SEC accepts input both files and text derived from standard input, making it flexible because it can be matched to any application that is able to write its output to a file stream. The SEC configuration is stored in text files as rules, each rule specifying an event matching condition, an action list, and optionally a Boolean expression whose truth value decides whether the rule can be applied at a given moment. SEC can produce output events by executing user-specified shell scripts or programs, by writing messages to files, and by various other means. SEC has been successfully applied in various domains like network management, system monitoring, data security, intrusion detection, log file monitoring and analysis, etc; it has been used or integrated with many

  1. 40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... communication equipment or an alarm system? 267.34 Section 267.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... have access to communication equipment or an alarm system? (a) Whenever hazardous waste is being poured... to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or through visual or...

  2. Earthquake alarm system for the Maui-A offshore platform, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.G.; Beck, J.L.

    1983-02-01

    Situated in the Tasman Sea, the Maui A offshore gas production platform has an earthquake alarm system that gives immediate warning when the seismic accelerations reach half the platform's design level. The system monitors only the response of the lower modes of the platform, as these make the major contribution to the stresses in the structure. In order to reduce the risk of false alarms, a radio link with similar detectors on shore confirms that an earthquake has occurred.

  3. Design of Alarm Sound of Home Care Equipment Based on Age-related Auditory Sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibano, Jun-Ichi; Tadano, Shigeru; Kaneko, Hirotaka

    A wide variety of home care equipment has been developed to support the independent lifestyle and care taking of elderly persons. Almost all of the equipment has an alarm designed to alert a care person or to sound a warning in case of an emergency. Due to the fact that aging human beings' senses physiologically, weaken and deteriorate, each alarm's sound must be designed to account for the full range of elderly person's hearing loss. Since the alarms are usually heard indoors, it is also necessary to evaluate the relationship between the basic characteristics of the sounds and living area's layout. In this study, we investigated the sounds of various alarms of the home care equipment based on both the age-related hearing characteristics of elderly persons and the propagation property of the sounds indoors. As a result, it was determined that the hearing characteristics of elderly persons are attuned to sounds which have a frequency from 700Hz to 1kHz, and it was learned that the indoor absorption ratio of sound is smallest when the frequency is 1kHz. Therefore, a frequency of 1kHz is good for the alarm sound of home care equipment. A flow chart to design the alarm sound of home care equipment was proposed, taking into account the extent of age-related auditory sense deterioration.

  4. Driver fatigue alarm based on eye detection and gaze estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xinghua; Xu, Lu; Yang, Jingyu

    2007-11-01

    The driver assistant system has attracted much attention as an essential component of intelligent transportation systems. One task of driver assistant system is to prevent the drivers from fatigue. For the fatigue detection it is natural that the information about eyes should be utilized. The driver fatigue can be divided into two types, one is the sleep with eyes close and another is the sleep with eyes open. Considering that the fatigue detection is related with the prior knowledge and probabilistic statistics, the dynamic Bayesian network is used as the analysis tool to perform the reasoning of fatigue. Two kinds of experiments are performed to verify the system effectiveness, one is based on the video got from the laboratory and another is based on the video got from the real driving situation. Ten persons participate in the test and the experimental result is that, in the laboratory all the fatigue events can be detected, and in the practical vehicle the detection ratio is about 85%. Experiments show that in most of situations the proposed system works and the corresponding performance is satisfying.

  5. False-alarm mitigation and feature-based discrimination for airborne mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Deepak; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Ganju, Ritesh; Swonger, C. W.

    2004-09-01

    The aim of an anomaly detector is to locate spatial target locations that show significantly different spectral/spatial characteristics as compared to the background. Typical anomaly detectors can achieve a high probability of detection, however at the cost of significantly high false alarm rates. For successful minefield detection there is a need for a further processing step to identify mine-like targets and/or reject non-mine targets in order to improve the mine detection to false alarm ratio. In this paper, we discuss a number of false alarm mitigation (FAM) modalities for MWIR imagery. In particular, we investigate measures based on circularity, gray scale shape profile and reflection symmetry. The performance of these modalities is evaluated for false alarm mitigation using real airborne MWIR data at different times of the day and for different spectral bands. We also motivate a feature based clustering and discrimination scheme based on these modalities to classify similar targets. While false alarm mitigation is primarily used to reject non-mine like targets, feature based clustering can be used to select similar-looking mine-like targets. Minefield detection can subsequently proceed on each localized cluster of similar looking targets.

  6. An attributable cost model for a telecare system using advanced community alarms.

    PubMed

    Brownsell, S J; Bradley, D A; Bragg, R; Catling, P; Carlier, J

    2001-01-01

    We have developed an attributable cost model for a city-based telecare scheme involving 11,618 community alarm users. The equipment was assumed to cost 500 Pounds-1000 Pounds per installation, compared with 175 Pounds for the current system. Because of the significant additional capital cost of the proposed system, it would be necessary to borrow to finance it. For example, if the home equipment cost 500 Pounds per unit, an additional 2.2 million Pounds would be required. Nonetheless, it would be possible to achieve a return on the investment after 10 years. The principal savings would arise from reduced hospital bed costs and reduced residential care. The model suggests that the financial benefits of the proposed system would occur in the ratio of 4% to the local authority housing department, 43% to the National Health Service and 53% to the residential care provider. PMID:11331043

  7. Development of an on-line fuzzy expert system for integrated alarm processing in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S.S.; Kang, K.S.; Kim, H.G.; Chang, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    An on-line fuzzy expert system, called alarm filtering and diagnostic system (AFDS), was developed to provide the operator with clean alarm pictures and system-wide failure information during abnormal states through alarm filtering and diagnosis. In addition, it carries out alarm prognosis to warn the operator of process abnormalities. Clean alarm pictures that have no information overlapping are generated from multiple activated alarms at the alarm filtering stage. The meta rules for dynamic filtering were established on the basis of the alarm relationship network. In the case of alarm diagnosis, the relations between alarms and abnormal states are represented by means of fuzzy relations, and the compositional inference rule of fuzzy logic is utilized to infer abnormal states from the fuzzy relations. The AFDS offers the operator related operating procedures as well as diagnostic results. At the stage of alarm prognosis, the future values of some important critical safety parameters are predicted by means of Levinson algorithm selected from the comparative experiments, and the global trends of these parameters are estimated using data smoothing and fuzzy membership. This information enables early failure detection and is also used to supplement diagnostic symptoms.

  8. An embedded telecommunication cable auto-locating system of guard against theft and alarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Li, Jun; Jin, Tian-Bo; Zhang, Li-yong

    2005-12-01

    This system adopted two-level structure that was composed of Cable Monitoring And Controlling Device (CMCD) and Cable Monitoring Center (CMC). CMC receives the alarm data via the MODEM and the telephone net. In this way, the functions of typing the fault point's map, alarming and the cable management can be picked up. CMCD takes the processor chip Atemega128 as the center of the system that adopted the alternating current and direct current on-line switching electricity-supply mode. Also, the system includes four groups of independent power, the relay and the optical isolation to separate the system from the monitoring cable and the telephone net. CMCD accomplishes the cable real-time monitoring, malfunctions auto-locating, telephone voice alarming, long-distance parameters modification, data up-loading, error verifying and the telecommunication room's environment monitoring and so on. The longest distance of monitoring cable is 20 km, and the precision is 1%.

  9. Evaluating alternative responses to safeguards alarms

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-04-15

    This paper describes a quantitative approach to help evaluate and respond to safeguards alarms. These alarms may be generated internally by a facility's safeguards systems or externally by individuals claiming to have stolen special nuclear material (SNM). This approach can be used to identify the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error - and to evaluate alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to external threats. Based on the results of each alarm investigation step, the evaluation revises the likelihoods of possible causes of an alarm, and uses this information to determine the optimal sequence of further responses. The choice of an optimal sequence of responses takes into consideration the costs and benefits of successful thefts or hoaxes. These results provide an analytical basis for setting priorities and developing contingency plans for responding to safeguards alarms.

  10. Early aftershocks statistics: first results of prospective test of alarm-based model (EAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebalin, Peter; Narteau, Clement; Holschneider, Matthias; Schorlemmer, Danijel

    2010-05-01

    It was shown recently that the c-value systematically changes across different faulting styles and thus may reflect the state of stress. Hypothesizing that smaller c-values indicate places more vulnerable to moderate and large earthquakes, we suggested a simple alarm-based forecasting model, called EAST, submitted for the test in CSEP in California (3-month, M ≥ 4 class); the official test was started on July 1, 2009. We replaced the c-value by more robust parameter, the geometric average of the aftershock elapsed times (the ea-value). We normalize the ea-value calculated for last 5 years by the value calculated for preceding 25 years. When and where the normalized ea-value exceeds a given threshold, an 'alarm' is issued: an earthquake is expected to occur within the next 3 months. Retrospective tests of the model show good and stable results (even better for targets M ≥ 5). During the first 6 months of the prospective test 22 target earthquakes took place in the testing area. 14 of them (more than 60%) were forecasted with the alarm threshold resulting in only 1% of space-time occupied by alarms (5% if space is normalized by past earthquake frequencies). This highly encouraging result was obtained mostly due to successful forecast of the sequence of 11 earthquakes near Lone Pine in 1-9 October 2009. However, if we disregard aftershocks as targets, then 4 out of 9 main shocks occurred in alarms with normalized ea-value threshold resulting in 2.5% of normalized space-time occupied by alarms, the result is also impossible to get by chance at a significance level 1%. To expand the evaluation of the EAST model relative to larger number of forecast models, we have developed its frequency-based version. We estimate the expected frequency of earthquakes using joint retrospective statistics of targets and the ea-value.

  11. Medical audible alarms: a review

    PubMed Central

    Edworthy, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

  12. Specificity improvement for network distributed physiologic alarms based on a simple deterministic reactive intelligent agent in the critical care environment.

    PubMed

    Blum, James M; Kruger, Grant H; Sanders, Kathryn L; Gutierrez, Jorge; Rosenberg, Andrew L

    2009-02-01

    Automated physiologic alarms are available in most commercial physiologic monitors. However, due to the variability of data coming from the physiologic sensors describing the state of patients, false positive alarms frequently occur. Each alarm requires review and documentation, which consumes clinicians' time, may reduce patient safety through 'alert fatigue' and makes automated physician paging infeasible. To address these issues a computerized architecture based on simple reactive intelligent agent technology has been developed and implemented in a live critical care unit to facilitate the investigation of deterministic algorithms for the improvement of the sensitivity and specificity of physiologic alarms. The initial proposed algorithm uses a combination of median filters and production rules to make decisions about what alarms to generate. The alarms are used to classify the state of patients and alerts can be easily viewed and distributed using standard network, SQL database and Internet technologies. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a 28 day study was conducted in the University of Michigan Medical Center's 14 bed Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit. Alarms generated by patient monitors, the intelligent agent and alerts documented on patient flow sheets were compared. Significant improvements in the specificity of the physiologic alarms based on systolic and mean blood pressure was found on average to be 99% and 88% respectively. Even through significant improvements were noted based on this algorithm much work still needs to be done to ensure the sensitivity of alarms and methods to handle spurious sensor data due to patient or sensor movement and other influences. PMID:19169835

  13. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment §...

  14. CSER 95-003: Exemption from Criticality Alarm System requirement for 232-Z building

    SciTech Connect

    Nirider, L.T.; Miller, E.M.

    1995-05-18

    This CSER establishes an exemption for 232-Z from the requirement for a Criticality Alarm System, because the formation of a critical configuration is not a credible event for any circumstance involving the cleaning out and removal of the Burning Hood and associated equipment.

  15. 46 CFR 154.1330 - Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type C. 154.1330 Section 154.1330 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325 Section 154.1325 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation §...

  17. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: (1) Either complies with 46 CFR 108.405 or (2) Is designed and installed in compliance with a national consensus standard, as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.2, for fire detection and fire alarm... is defined in 29 CFR 1910.7, for such systems or hardware. (b) Sleeping quarters must be fitted...

  18. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) Either complies with 46 CFR 108.405 or (2) Is designed and installed in compliance with a national consensus standard, as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.2, for fire detection and fire alarm... is defined in 29 CFR 1910.7, for such systems or hardware. (b) Sleeping quarters must be fitted...

  19. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: (1) Either complies with 46 CFR 108.405 or (2) Is designed and installed in compliance with a national consensus standard, as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.2, for fire detection and fire alarm... is defined in 29 CFR 1910.7, for such systems or hardware. (b) Sleeping quarters must be fitted...

  20. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: (1) Either complies with 46 CFR 108.405 or (2) Is designed and installed in compliance with a national consensus standard, as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.2, for fire detection and fire alarm... is defined in 29 CFR 1910.7, for such systems or hardware. (b) Sleeping quarters must be fitted...

  1. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: (1) Either complies with 46 CFR 108.405 or (2) Is designed and installed in compliance with a national consensus standard, as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.2, for fire detection and fire alarm... is defined in 29 CFR 1910.7, for such systems or hardware. (b) Sleeping quarters must be fitted...

  2. Novel neural networks-based fault tolerant control scheme with fault alarm.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qikun; Jiang, Bin; Shi, Peng; Lim, Cheng-Chew

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive active fault-tolerant control for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown actuator fault is investigated. The actuator fault is assumed to have no traditional affine appearance of the system state variables and control input. The useful property of the basis function of the radial basis function neural network (NN), which will be used in the design of the fault tolerant controller, is explored. Based on the analysis of the design of normal and passive fault tolerant controllers, by using the implicit function theorem, a novel NN-based active fault-tolerant control scheme with fault alarm is proposed. Comparing with results in the literature, the fault-tolerant control scheme can minimize the time delay between fault occurrence and accommodation that is called the time delay due to fault diagnosis, and reduce the adverse effect on system performance. In addition, the FTC scheme has the advantages of a passive fault-tolerant control scheme as well as the traditional active fault-tolerant control scheme's properties. Furthermore, the fault-tolerant control scheme requires no additional fault detection and isolation model which is necessary in the traditional active fault-tolerant control scheme. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the developed techniques. PMID:25014982

  3. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY... the pilothouse upon— (1) Failure of the electric power to the control system of any steering gear; (2... oil reservoir of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. (e) An audible and a visible...

  4. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.240 General... thereafter. (f) A public address system or other means of alerting all individuals on board may be used...

  5. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.240 General... thereafter. (f) A public address system or other means of alerting all individuals on board may be used...

  6. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.240 General... thereafter. (f) A public address system or other means of alerting all individuals on board may be used...

  7. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.240 General... thereafter. (f) A public address system or other means of alerting all individuals on board may be used...

  8. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.240 General... thereafter. (f) A public address system or other means of alerting all individuals on board may be used...

  9. False ventricular tachycardia alarm suppression in the ICU based on the discrete wavelet transform in the ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, reducing the number of false positive cardiac monitor alarms (FA) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has become an issue of the utmost importance. In our work, we developed a robust methodology that, without the need for additional non-ECG waveforms, suppresses false positive ventricular tachycardia (VT) alarms without resulting in false negative alarms. Our approach is based on features extracted from the ECG signal 20 seconds prior to a triggered alarm. We applied a multi resolution wavelet transform to the ECG data 20seconds prior to the alarm trigger, extracted features from appropriately chosen scales and combined them across all available leads. These representations are presented to a L1-regularized logistic regression classifier. Results are shown in two datasets of physiological waveforms with manually assessed cardiac monitor alarms: the MIMIC II dataset, where we achieved a false alarm (FA) suppression of 21% with zero true alarm (TA) suppression; and a dataset compiled by UCSF and General Electric, where a 36% FA suppression was achieved with a zero TA suppression. The methodology described in this work could be implemented to reduce the number of false monitor alarms in other arrhythmias. PMID:25172188

  10. 78 FR 2683 - Carriage Standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS) Aboard U.S. Flagged Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Carriage Standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS) Aboard U.S... Guard announces the implementation date of carriage standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS), in accordance with the Articles of the International Convention for the Safety of Life...

  11. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  12. Applying an integrated neuro-expert system model in a real-time alarm processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Rajiv; Dillon, Tharam S.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper we propose an integrated model which is derived from the combination of a generic neuro-expert system model, an object model, and unix operating system process (UOSP) model. This integrated model reflects the strengths of both artificial neural nets (ANNs) and expert systems (ESs). A formalism of ES object, ANN object, UOSP object, and problem domain object is used for developing a set of generic data structures and methods. These generic data structures and methods help us to build heterogeneous ES-ANN objects with uniform communication interface. The integrated model is applied in a real-time alarm processing system for a non-trivial terminal power station. It is shown how features like hierarchical/distributed ES/ANN objects, inter process communication, and fast concurrent execution help to cope with real-time system constraints like, continuity, data variability, and fast response time.

  13. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  14. Silent emergency alarm system for schools and the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Read, W. S.; Roberts, V. W. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An emergency alert system is described. In a school each classroom (or other area) is instrumented with a hidden microphone and receiver tuned to a non-audible frequency. The receivers' outputs are connected to a central display unit in the school's administrative office. Each instructor is provided with a small concealable transmitter which, when hand activated by the instructor upon the occurrance of any emergency, generates a non-audible signal at the receiver's tuned frequency.

  15. Design of DroDeASys (Drowsy Detection and Alarming System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juvale, Hrishikesh B.; Mahajan, Anant S.; Bhagwat, Ashwin A.; Badiger, Vishal T.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.; Dhabe, Priyadarshan S.; Dhore, Manikrao L.

    The paper discusses the Drowsy Detection & Alarming System that has been developed, using a non-intrusive approach. The system is basically developed to detect drivers dozing at the wheel at night time driving. The system uses a small infra-red night vision camera that points directly towards the driver`s face and monitors the driver`s eyes in order to detect fatigue. In such a case when fatigue is detected, a warning signal is issued to alert the driver. This paper discusses the algorithms that have been used to detect drowsiness. The decision whether the driver is dozing or not is taken depending on whether the eyes are open for a specific number of frames. If the eyes are found to be closed for a certain number of consecutive frames then the driver is alerted with an alarm.

  16. Interevent times in a new alarm-based earthquake forecasting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, Abdelhak; Nanjo, Kazuyoshi; Zhuang, Jiancang; Satake, Kenji; Hamdache, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    This study introduces a new earthquake forecasting model that uses the moment ratio (MR) of the first to second order moments of earthquake interevent times as a precursory alarm index to forecast large earthquake events. This MR model is based on the idea that the MR is associated with anomalous long-term changes in background seismicity prior to large earthquake events. In a given region, the MR statistic is defined as the inverse of the index of dispersion or Fano factor, with MR values (or scores) providing a biased estimate of the relative regional frequency of background events, here termed the background fraction. To test the forecasting performance of this proposed MR model, a composite Japan-wide earthquake catalogue for the years between 679 and 2012 was compiled using the Japan Meteorological Agency catalogue for the period between 1923 and 2012, and the Utsu historical seismicity records between 679 and 1922. MR values were estimated by sampling interevent times from events with magnitude M ≥ 6 using an earthquake random sampling (ERS) algorithm developed during previous research. Three retrospective tests of M ≥ 7 target earthquakes were undertaken to evaluate the long-, intermediate- and short-term performance of MR forecasting, using mainly Molchan diagrams and optimal spatial maps obtained by minimizing forecasting error defined by miss and alarm rate addition. This testing indicates that the MR forecasting technique performs well at long-, intermediate- and short-term. The MR maps produced during long-term testing indicate significant alarm levels before 15 of the 18 shallow earthquakes within the testing region during the past two decades, with an alarm region covering about 20 per cent (alarm rate) of the testing region. The number of shallow events missed by forecasting was reduced by about 60 per cent after using the MR method instead of the relative intensity (RI) forecasting method. At short term, our model succeeded in forecasting the

  17. Development of a criticality alarm system neutron detector: Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, A.A.

    1989-05-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a prototype neutron detector for use in criticality alarm systems (CASs) at US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor facilities wherever significant amounts of fissile material are processed or stored. Constraints placed on the design of the detector were that the overall size of the detector was to be as small as practical, the input voltage requirements were to be no more than 24 V, and that the gamma sensitivity would be as low as possible. Also, the detector should give dosimetric neutron response, and should have sufficient temporal capabilities to measure the entire range from fast (>1 ms) to slow (seconds to minutes) excursions, and sufficient dynamic range to measure from background to over 100 times background levels to insure proper activation of the Immediate Evacuation Alarm (IEA). Finally, the detector should insure rapid (<1 s) activation of the IEA in the event of a criticality excursion. 24 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.

    PubMed

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings. PMID:24847936

  19. Technical Basis for the Use of Alarming Personal Criticality Detectors to Augment Permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in Areas Not Normally Occupied

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, K.R.

    2003-05-26

    The technical basis for the use of alarming personal criticality detectors (APCDs) to augment permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in areas not normally occupied is evaluated. All applicable DOE O 420.1A and ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 criticality alarm system requirements and recommendations are evaluated for applicability to APCDs. Based on this evaluation, design criteria and administrative requirements are presented for APCDs. Siemens EPD/Mk-2 and EPD-N devices are shown to meet the design criteria. A definition of not normally occupied is also presented.

  20. FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  1. Fault Diagnosis with Multi-State Alarms in a Nuclear Power Control Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart A. Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-09-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effects of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized the use of three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. Sensitivity and criterion based on the Signal Detection Theory were used to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  2. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strączkiewicz, M.; Barszcz, T.; Jabłoński, A.

    2015-07-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine.

  3. The Fine Tuning of Pain Thresholds: A Sophisticated Double Alarm System

    PubMed Central

    Plaghki, Léon; Decruynaere, Céline; Van Dooren, Paul; Le Bars, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    illustrates the role of nociception as a “double level” and “double release” alarm system based on level detectors. By contrast, warmth detection was found to be based on difference detectors. It is hypothesized that pain results from a CNS build-up process resulting from population coding and strongly influenced by the background temperatures surrounding at large the stimulation site. We propose an alternative solution to the conventional methods that only measure a single “threshold of pain”, without knowing which of the two systems is involved. PMID:20428245

  4. Hypo- and Hyperglycemic Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Howsmon, Daniel; Bequette, B. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery that insulin regulates blood glucose by Banting and Best in 1922, the symptoms and risks associated with hypoglycemia became widely recognized. This article reviews devices to warn individuals of impending hypo- and hyperglycemia; biosignals used by these devices include electroencephalography, electrocardiography, skin galvanic resistance, diabetes alert dogs, and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). While systems based on other technology are increasing in performance and decreasing in size, CGM technology remains the best method for both reactive and predictive alarming of hypo- or hyperglycemia. PMID:25931581

  5. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  6. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  7. Three-Alarm System: Revisited to treat Thumb-sucking Habit

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Manoj; Shetty, N Shridhar; Deoghare, Anushka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thumb and digit-sucking habits or non-nutritive sucking are considered to be the most prevalent among oral habits. Most children stop thumb sucking on their own. If the habit continues beyond 3 to 4 years of age, it not only affects the dental occlusion, but the shape of the thumb/digit may be altered as well. This article presents the management of thumb sucking by modified RURS, elbow guard incorporated with revised ‘three-alarm’ system. How to cite this article: Shetty RM, Shetty M, Shetty NS, Deoghare A. Three-Alarm System: Revisited to treat Thumb-sucking Habit. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):82-86. PMID:26124588

  8. Evidence of a suffocation alarm system within the periaqueductal gray matter of the rat.

    PubMed

    Schimitel, F G; de Almeida, G M; Pitol, D N; Armini, R S; Tufik, S; Schenberg, L C

    2012-01-01

    Dyspnea, hunger for air, and urge to flee are the cardinal symptoms of panic attacks. Patients also show baseline respiratory abnormalities and a higher rate of comorbid and antecedent respiratory diseases. Panic attacks are also precipitated by infusion of sodium lactate and inhalation of 5% CO₂ in predisposed patients but not in healthy volunteers or patients without panic disorder. Accordingly, Klein [Klein (1993) Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:306-317] suggested that clinical panic is the misfiring of an as-yet-unidentified suffocation alarm system. In rats, selective anoxia of chemoreceptor cells by potassium cyanide (KCN) and electrical and chemical stimulations of periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) produce defensive behaviors, which resemble panic attacks. Thus, here we examined the effects of single or combined administrations of CO₂ (8% and 13%) and KCN (10-80 μg, i.v.) on spontaneous and PAG-evoked behaviors of rats either intact or bearing electrolytic lesions of PAG. Exposure to CO₂ alone reduced grooming while increased exophthalmus, suggesting an arousal response to non-visual cues of environment. Unexpectedly, however, CO₂ attenuated PAG-evoked immobility, trotting, and galloping while facilitated defecation and micturition. Conversely, KCN produced all defensive behaviors of the rat and facilitated PAG-evoked trotting, galloping, and defecation. There were also facilitatory trends in PAG-evoked exophthalmus, immobility, and jumping. Moreover, whereas the KCN-evoked defensive behaviors were attenuated or even suppressed by discrete lesions of PAG, they were markedly facilitated by CO₂. Authors suggest that the PAG harbors an anoxia-sensitive suffocation alarm system which activation precipitates panic attacks and potentiates the subject responses to hypercapnia. PMID:22062132

  9. Life-threatening false alarm rejection in ICU: using the rule-based and multi-channel information fusion method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengyu; Zhao, Lina; Tang, Hong; Li, Qiao; Wei, Shoushui; Li, Jianqing

    2016-08-01

    False alarm (FA) rates as high as 86% have been reported in intensive care unit monitors. High FA rates decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient burdens and stresses. In this study, we proposed a rule-based and multi-channel information fusion method for accurately classifying the true or false alarms for five life-threatening arrhythmias: asystole (ASY), extreme bradycardia (EBR), extreme tachycardia (ETC), ventricular tachycardia (VTA) and ventricular flutter/fibrillation (VFB). The proposed method consisted of five steps: (1) signal pre-processing, (2) feature detection and validation, (3) true/false alarm determination for each channel, (4) 'real-time' true/false alarm determination and (5) 'retrospective' true/false alarm determination (if needed). Up to four signal channels, that is, two electrocardiogram signals, one arterial blood pressure and/or one photoplethysmogram signal were included in the analysis. Two events were set for the method validation: event 1 for 'real-time' and event 2 for 'retrospective' alarm classification. The results showed that 100% true positive ratio (i.e. sensitivity) on the training set were obtained for ASY, EBR, ETC and VFB types, and 94% for VTA type, accompanied by the corresponding true negative ratio (i.e. specificity) results of 93%, 81%, 78%, 85% and 50% respectively, resulting in the score values of 96.50, 90.70, 88.89, 92.31 and 64.90, as well as with a final score of 80.57 for event 1 and 79.12 for event 2. For the test set, the proposed method obtained the score of 88.73 for ASY, 77.78 for EBR, 89.92 for ETC, 67.74 for VFB and 61.04 for VTA types, with the final score of 71.68 for event 1 and 75.91 for event 2. PMID:27454710

  10. The postman always rings twice: two cases of shotgun deaths associated with an unconventional home security alarm system.

    PubMed

    Asirdizer, Mahmut; Turkmen, Nursel; Akan, Okan; Yavuz, Mehmet Sunay

    2014-06-01

    Injury and death cases caused by booby traps are not common in forensic medicine practice. Besides, installation of booby traps including firearms is generally for suicidal and rarely for homicidal purposes. Although few patents were described about home security alarm system that were created by firearms in the United States, 1 sample of injury with a similar unconventional mechanism of home safety system was reported by Asirdizer and Yavuz in 2009. In the published case report, the story of an electrical technician who was invited to a summer house by the homeowner to check the home security alarm system was reported. In the so-called report, he was stated to be injured by the shotgun attached to the unconventional home security alarm system while checking the system. As a result, the homeowner was convicted of a possible intent to cause a life-threatening injury to the technician.The so-called homeowner and his wife died by the same shotgun attached to the same unconventional home security alarm system 4 years on from the first event. In the present case report, we have aimed to present the findings of the crime scene and the autopsies of these unusual 2 deaths and to discuss individual and legal factors in paving the way for the deaths of 2 people. PMID:24781392

  11. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... permanent radiographic installations. 34.75 Section 34.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent...

  12. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... permanent radiographic installations. 34.75 Section 34.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent...

  13. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... permanent radiographic installations. 34.75 Section 34.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent...

  14. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... permanent radiographic installations. 34.75 Section 34.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent...

  15. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations. 34.75 Section 34.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS...

  16. Framework for analyzing safeguards alarms and response decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-06-11

    This paper describes a quantitative approach to help evaluate and respond to safeguards alarms. These alrms may be generated internally by a facility's safeguards systems or externally by individuals claiming to possess stolen Special Nuclear Material (SNM). This approach can be used to identify the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error - and to evaluate alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to external threats. Based on the results of each alarm investigation step, the evaluation revises the likelihoods of possible causes of an alarm, and uses this information to determine the optimal sequence of further responses. The choice of an optimal sequence of responses takes into consideration the costs and benefits of successful thefts or hoaxes. These results provide an analytical basis for setting priorities and developing contingency plans for responding to safeguards alarms.

  17. 40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operation must have immediate access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly... (immediately available at the scene of operation) or a hand-held two-way radio, capable of summoning...

  18. 40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involved in the operation must have immediate access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device... scene of operation) or a hand-held two-way radio, capable of summoning external emergency...

  19. Removal of criticality accident alarm systems at the Y-12 Plant waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses why criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs) were installed in certain waste management buildings at the Y-12 Plant, why the plant now wants to remove them, and what steps were taken to allow the US Department of Energy (DOE) to authorize the removal of the systems. To begin with, the systems in question were installed in the mid- to late-1980s. Some of the facilities were new, and there was no operating experience with the processes. A CAAS, although expensive, is an absolute necessity where criticality accidents are credible. But, they are a superfluous and unnecessary expense in those facilities where it has been determined that a criticality accident is incredible (defined as having a probability of <1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/yr). The PRAs have been performed to evaluate six Y-12 Plant waste management facilities, five storage facilities, and a nondestructive analysis facility, with an additional study now being performed on the West End Treatment Facility. The results to date have shown that the probability of various criticality accident scenarios at these facilities is <1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/yr and that the CAASs are not needed in these facilities.

  20. [Pre-alarming apparatus for earthquake based on mid-infrared trace methane detection].

    PubMed

    Qiu, He; Liu, Ming-jun; Tian, Xiao-feng

    2014-06-01

    With the rapid development of gas observation technology in seismic fracture zone, in order to accurately predict the earthquake, and reduce the people's lives and property losses caused by earthquake, a mid-infrared methane sensor was designed and developed, which is based on the microscopic relation between methane release and earthquake fissures on the crustal rocks. This instrument utilizes quantum cascaded laser (QCL) operating at 7.65 μm, combined with MIR multipass herriott cell with 76 m absorption path length to obtain low detection sensitivity down to 40 nmol x mol(-1) level in 4s acquisition time. Meanwhile, to decrease the primary noise source (1/f noise), semiconductor laser frequency modulation of direct absorption technology was utilized to obtain gas detection limitation as low as 5 nmol x mol(-1) (40 s acquiring time). In field experiments, controllable vibrator was used as vibration source, a number of trace methane detectors were placed with 100 m distance interval to carry out the dynamic measurement of methane concentration on the ground surface at different distances from the vibration source. Experimental results show that the instrument can monitor the release of underground methane before the earthquake and provide a novel measure as a pre-alarming for earthquake. PMID:25358158

  1. Conservatism in SRS Criticality Alarm System 12 Rad Zone Calculations - How Much is Enough?

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, K.R.

    2002-06-13

    Savannah River Site (SRS) uses two methods (i.e., Approximate Method and MCNP) of calculating the 12-rad zone. The reasons for the two-tier approach are described in Ref. 1 and 2. Lately, there have been occasions in which the use of either the Approximate Method (AM) or MCNP3 calculations indicated potential facility impacts. For example, one or both methods may indicate that a 12-rad zone extends outside of relatively thick shielding, or extends to the roof of a facility, or extends through shielding to part of a stairwell. In such cases, a criticality alarm system may have to be installed to protect workers in a small, localized area from a potential dose that is not substantially greater than 12 rad in air. But, is the potential dose really greater than 12 rad in air? A subcommittee was appointed to look into the two 12-rad zone calculation methods for the purpose of identifying items contributing to over-conservatism and under-conservatism, and to recommend a path forward.

  2. Transformation of Ground Vibration Signal for Debris-Flow Monitoring and Detection in Alarm Systems

    PubMed Central

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems. PMID:22666064

  3. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems.

    PubMed

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems. PMID:22666064

  4. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    SciTech Connect

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies.

  5. Improved detection and false alarm rejection using FLGPR and color imagery in a forward-looking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Spain, Christopher J.; Ho, K. C.; Keller, James M.; Ton, Tuan T.; Wong, David C.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    2010-04-01

    Forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR) has received a significant amount of attention for use in explosivehazards detection. A drawback to FLGPR is that it results in an excessive number of false detections. This paper presents our analysis of the explosive-hazards detection system tested by the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). The NVESD system combines an FLGPR with a visible-spectrum color camera. We present a target detection algorithm that uses a locally-adaptive detection scheme with spectrum-based features. The remaining FLGPR detections are then projected into the camera imagery and image-based features are collected. A one-class classifier is then used to reduce the number of false detections. We show that our proposed FLGPR target detection algorithm, coupled with our camera-based false alarm (FA) reduction method, is effective at reducing the number of FAs in test data collected at a US Army test facility.

  6. Performance comparison of phenomenology-based features to generic features for false alarm reduction in UWB SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Jay A.; Gorman, John D.

    1999-08-01

    A feature based approach is taken to reduce the occurrence of false alarms in foliage penetrating, ultra-wideband, synthetic aperture radar data. A set of 'generic' features is defined based on target size, shape, and pixel intensity. A second set of features is defined that contains generic features combined with features based on scattering phenomenology. Each set is combined using a quadratic polynomial discriminant (QPD), and performance is characterized by generating a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results show that the feature set containing phenomenological features improves performance against both broadside and end-on targets. Performance against end-on targets, however, is especially pronounced.

  7. An experimental investigation of the effects of alarm processing and display on operator performance

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Brown, W.; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G.; Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance, operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition, operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. No deficient

  8. Xcel Energy implements an alarm management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, J.; Abreu, G.

    2007-11-15

    Not so long ago, Xcel Energy's Pawnee Station, a 505 MW coal-fired generating station in Brush, Colorado, USA was commonly generating 300 to 400 alarms per 8-hour shift. The article describes how the alarm system was revised and improved by tackling alarm dead-bands, and rationalising alarms for routine events. Operators are trained to understand the functions of alarm management components, their use and response, and obtain feedback. Today the power station reports about one alarm per hour. 3 photos.

  9. What prompts help-seeking for cancer ‘alarm' symptoms? A primary care based survey

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, K L; Smith, C Friedemann; Winstanley, K; Wardle, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Encouraging prompt help-seeking for cancer symptoms can help shorten the patient interval and improve timely diagnosis. We explored factors associated with help-seeking in a primary care sample reporting ‘alarm' symptoms. Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to 9771 adults (⩾50 years of age and no cancer diagnosis) and 3766 (39%) returned it. Our sample included 1732 adults reporting at least one cancer ‘alarm' symptom; with a total of 2726 symptoms. Respondents completed questions relating to help-seeking, demographic and symptom characteristics (e.g., type, knowledge, concern, interference and attribution). Results: Over a third of people who reported a cancer ‘alarm' symptom in the past 3 months had not sought help from a doctor. An unexplained lump (odds ratio (OR) 2.46, 1.42–4.26) and persistent unexplained pain (OR 1.79, 1.19–2.69) were associated with increased likelihood of help-seeking. Symptom concern (OR 3.10, 2.19–4.39) and interference (OR 3.06, 2.15–4.36) were associated with an increased likelihood of seeking help independently of symptom type. People who were not working (OR 1.41, 1.09–1.83), were married/cohabiting rather than single (OR 1.38, 1.10–1.74) and were older (60–69 years) rather than younger (50–59 years; OR 1.33, 1.02–1.75) were more likely to have sought help. Conclusions: Our findings highlighted symptom type and symptom characteristics as key drivers of help-seeking. We also found that there may be specific demographic groups where encouraging help-seeking might be warranted. PMID:26794277

  10. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  11. Fire alarm system/fire suppression system for mobile tactical shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, F. K.; Lecours, C. A.; Radcliff, O.

    1985-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a fire detection/suppression capability for DoD standard family mobile tactical shelters. The systems developed and tested provide complete protection during all employment conditions; in garrison use, storage, transportation, and deployed field conditions. The reports outlines the requirement and the test and evaluation program. Two manufacturers of detection systems and two manufacturers of suppression systems were identified and qualified to meet the fire protection requirements for mobile tactical shelters.

  12. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  14. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  16. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  17. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  18. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  19. Improved alarm tracking for better accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Nemesure, S.; Marr, G.; Shrey, T.; Kling, N.; Hammons, L.; Ingrassia, P.; D'Ottavio, T.

    2011-03-28

    An alarm system is a vital component of any accelerator, as it provides a warning that some element of the system is not functioning properly. The severity and age of the alarm may sometimes signify whether urgent or deferred attention is required. For example, older alarms may be given a lower priority if an assumption is made that someone else is already investigating it, whereas those of higher severity or alarms that are more current may indicate the need for an immediate response. The alarm history also provides valuable information regarding the functionality of the overall system, thus careful tracking of these data is likely to improve response time, remove uncertainty about the current status and assist in the ability to promptly respond to the same warning/trigger in the future. Since one goal of every alarm display is to be free of alarms, a clear and concise presentation of an alarm along with useful historic annotations can help the end user address the warning more quickly, thus expediting the elimination of such alarm conditions. By defining a discrete set of very specific alarm management states and by utilizing database resources to maintain a complete and easily accessible alarm history, we anticipate facilitated work flow due to more efficient operator response and management of alarms.

  20. How tissue injury alarms the immune system and causes a systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is very prevalent among critically ill patients, particularly those with extensive tissue injury. Although downstream mediators (cytokines) and effector cells (phagocytes) have been identified, proximal mediators originating from injured tissues remained elusive. Alarmins (“danger signals”) released by necrotic/injured cells have been identified recently and certainly play a role in triggering local and systemic inflammation in critically ill patients. The most promising alarmin candidates are of mitochondrial origin, i.e. mitochondrial DNA and the chemotactic factor fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLP). ATP also is released from necrotic tissues and stimulates the assembly of the inflammasome, leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1ß. The identification of novel alarmins opens new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of severe SIRS, and SIRS-dependent organ dysfunction. PMID:22788849

  1. An alarm for monitoring CPAP.

    PubMed

    Carter, B; Clare, D; Hochmann, M; Osborne, A; Fraser, T

    1993-04-01

    We have built a device for use within the hospital and at home that is designed to warn of circuit disconnection when used in conjunction with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy delivered via ventilators or CPAP generating systems. The Royal Children's Hospital CPAP alarm is a compact, battery operated alarm and monitor of circuit pressure. The device includes intrinsic safety features including a safety blow-off valve, a high pressure alarm and design features that make the device practical, safe and easy to use by both trained hospital personnel and home care attendants with limited training. PMID:8517514

  2. Intelligent alarming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braden, W. B.

    1992-01-01

    This talk discusses the importance of providing a process operator with concise information about a process fault including a root cause diagnosis of the problem, a suggested best action for correcting the fault, and prioritization of the problem set. A decision tree approach is used to illustrate one type of approach for determining the root cause of a problem. Fault detection in several different types of scenarios is addressed, including pump malfunctions and pipeline leaks. The talk stresses the need for a good data rectification strategy and good process models along with a method for presenting the findings to the process operator in a focused and understandable way. A real time expert system is discussed as an effective tool to help provide operators with this type of information. The use of expert systems in the analysis of actual versus predicted results from neural networks and other types of process models is discussed.

  3. Evidence of a suffocation alarm system sensitive to clinically-effective treatments with the panicolytics clonazepam and fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Schimitel, Fagna Giacomin; Müller, Cláudia Janaina Torres; Tufik, Sérgio; Schenberg, Luiz Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Dyspnea, 'hunger for air', and the urge to flee are the cardinal symptoms of respiratory-type panic attacks. Patients also show baseline respiratory abnormalities and a higher rate of comorbid and antecedent respiratory diseases. Panic attacks are also precipitated by both the infusion of 0.5 M sodium lactate and the inhalation of 5-7% carbon dioxide (CO2) in predisposed patients, but not in healthy volunteers nor patients without panic disorder. Further studies show that patients with panic are also hyper-responsive to hypoxia. These and other observations led Klein (1993) to suggest that clinical panic is the misfiring of a suffocation alarm system. In rats, cytotoxic hypoxia of chemoreceptor cells by intravenous injection of potassium cyanide (KCN) produces short-lasting flight behaviors reminiscent of panic attacks. KCN-induced flight behaviors are blocked both by denervation of chemoreceptor cells and lesion of dorsal periaqueductal gray matter, a likely substrate of panic. Herein, we show that KCN-evoked flight behaviors are also attenuated by both acute and chronic treatment with clonazepam (0.01-0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and fluoxetine (1-4 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 21 days), respectively. Attenuation of KCN-evoked panic-like behaviors by clinically-effective treatment with panicolytics adds fresh evidence to the false suffocation alarm theory of panic disorder. PMID:25277323

  4. Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, K.M.

    1998-08-01

    The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

  5. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  10. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  11. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  12. Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

  13. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  14. A hybrid Bayesian-SVD based method to detect false alarms in PERSIANN precipitation estimation product using related physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghajarnia, Navid; Arasteh, Peyman D.; Araghinejad, Shahab; Liaghat, Majid A.

    2016-07-01

    Incorrect estimation of rainfall occurrence, so called False Alarm (FA) is one of the major sources of bias error of satellite based precipitation estimation products and may even cause lots of problems during the bias reduction and calibration processes. In this paper, a hybrid statistical method is introduced to detect FA events of PERSIANN dataset over Urmia Lake basin in northwest of Iran. The main FA detection model is based on Bayesian theorem at which four predictor parameters including PERSIANN rainfall estimations, brightness temperature (Tb), precipitable water (PW) and near surface air temperature (Tair) is considered as its input dataset. In order to decrease the dimensions of input dataset by summarizing their most important modes of variability and correlations to the reference dataset, a technique named singular value decomposition (SVD) is used. The application of Bayesian-SVD method in FA detection of Urmia Lake basin resulted in a trade-off between FA detection and Hit events loss. The results show success of proposed method in detecting about 30% of FA events in return for loss of about 12% of Hit events while better capability of this method in cold seasons is observed.

  15. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provided a smoke detecting or other suitable type fire detecting system. (c) Enclosed spaces which are “specially suitable for vehicles” shall be fitted with an approved fire or smoke detecting system....

  16. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms. 95.15-30 Section 95.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and...

  17. Black Juveniles in the Juvenile Justice System: A Cause for Alarm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFlore, Larry

    This report examines the representation of black youth in the juvenile justice system, describes changes in juvenile justice philosophy, and discusses policy implications. Black youth are overrepresented at all stages of the juvenile justice system compared to white youth. Positivist theories explain this overrepresentation as the result of…

  18. Implementation guidance for industrial-level security systems using radio frequency alarm links

    SciTech Connect

    Swank, R.G.

    1996-07-12

    Spread spectrum (SS) RF transmission technologies have properties that make the transmitted signal difficult to intercept, interpret, and jam. The digital code used in the modulation process results in a signal that has high reception reliability and supports multiple use of frequency bands and selective addressing. These attributes and the relatively low installation cost of RF systems make SSRF technologies candidate for communications links in security systems used for industrial sites, remote locations, and where trenching or other disturbances of soil or structures may not be desirable or may be costly. This guide provides a description of such a system and presents implementation methods that may be of engineering benefit.

  19. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.130 What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system... in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required under § 150.615 of...

  20. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.130 What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system... in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required under § 150.615 of...

  1. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.130 What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system... in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required under § 150.615 of...

  2. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.130 What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system... in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required under § 150.615 of...

  3. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.130 What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system... in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required under § 150.615 of...

  4. False alarms and missed events: the impact and origins of perceived inaccuracy in tornado warning systems.

    PubMed

    Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G

    2015-01-01

    Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up question--Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are--in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn impact the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. PMID:25082540

  5. Estimation of the patient monitor alarm rate for a quantitative analysis of new alarm settings.

    PubMed

    de Waele, Stijn; Nielsen, Larry; Frassica, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In many critical care units, default patient monitor alarm settings are not fine-tuned to the vital signs of the patient population. As a consequence there are many alarms. A large fraction of the alarms are not clinically actionable, thus contributing to alarm fatigue. Recent attention to this phenomenon has resulted in attempts in many institutions to decrease the overall alarm load of clinicians by altering the trigger thresholds for monitored parameters. Typically, new alarm settings are defined based on clinical knowledge and patient population norms and tried empirically on new patients without quantitative knowledge about the potential impact of these new settings. We introduce alarm regeneration as a method to estimate the alarm rate of new alarm settings using recorded patient monitor data. This method enables evaluation of several alarm setting scenarios prior to using these settings in the clinical setting. An expression for the alarm rate variance is derived for the calculation of statistical confidence intervals on the results. PMID:25571296

  6. W-026, acceptance test report fire alarm system (submittal number 1571.1)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, T.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-16

    This Acceptance Test Report was written by 3-D Protection Systems, Inc., and PCL Construction. WRAP I Facility Engineering, Solid Waste Fire Safety, Kaiser Acceptance Inspector and Hanford Fire Department personnel witnessed this test. All exceptions were resolved. The resolutions are attached. Contractor`s Material and Test Certificates are attached. Results from Solid Waste Industrial Hygiene sound level surveys are also included.

  7. Evaluation of ventilator alarms.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of ventilator alarms is being carried out for the DHSS within the Welsh National School of Medicine. The technical performance and safety assessments are being made within the Department of Anaesthetics and clinical trials within the South Glamorgan Area Health Authority. For this evaluation (published in 'Health Equipment Information' ['HEI'] No. 124 [June 1984]) one example of each model was assessed (Penlon IDP, Draeger, Medix Ventimonitor 101, BOC Medishield, East Ventilarm, Cape TTL) and the conclusions are based on the assumption that the sample was typical of normal production. This is a continuing programme and the next report will evaluate a group of infant ventilators. For full details of the evaluation findings, readers should consult 'HEI' 124. The following are extracts from the report. PMID:6398368

  8. False alarm reduction in critical care.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this challenge, the design of the challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  9. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarms. 193.15-30 Section 193.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-30 Alarms. (a) Space normally accessible to persons on board while...

  10. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon... audible alarm in such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to... sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and...

  11. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  13. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  14. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  17. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  18. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  19. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  20. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarms. 193.15-30 Section 193.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-30 Alarms. (a) Space normally accessible to persons on board while...

  1. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  2. 8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

  4. Decision-making and response strategies in interaction with alarms: the impact of alarm reliability, availability of alarm validity information and workload.

    PubMed

    Manzey, Dietrich; Gérard, Nina; Wiczorek, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Responding to alarm systems which usually commit a number of false alarms and/or misses involves decision-making under uncertainty. Four laboratory experiments including a total of 256 participants were conducted to gain comprehensive insight into humans' dealing with this uncertainty. Specifically, it was investigated how responses to alarms/non-alarms are affected by the predictive validities of these events, and to what extent response strategies depend on whether or not the validity of alarms/non-alarms can be cross-checked against other data. Among others, the results suggest that, without cross-check possibility (experiment 1), low levels of predictive validity of alarms ( ≤ 0.5) led most participants to use one of two different strategies which both involved non-responding to a significant number of alarms (cry-wolf effect). Yet, providing access to alarm validity information reduced this effect dramatically (experiment 2). This latter result emerged independent of the effort needed for cross-checkings of alarms (experiment 3), but was affected by the workload imposed by concurrent tasks (experiment 4). Theoretical and practical consequences of these results for decision-making and response selection in interaction with alarm systems, as well as the design of effective alarm systems, are discussed. PMID:25224606

  5. ED accreditation update. Hospitals put on notice: alarm management is a top priority for 2014.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Establishing alarm management as a new National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG), The Joint Commission (TJC) is calling on hospitals to make the issue a safety priority, and to begin establishing policies and procedures designed to minimize alarm fatigue among clinical staff. Beginning on January 1,2014, hospitals need to begin identifying the most important alarm signals to manage based on input from staff as well as factors such as patient risk, and the potential for harm as demonstrated by the device's history. By January 1,2016, hospitals need to have policies and procedures in place for managing alarms identified in the first phase of the NPSG's requirements. Also, staff and independent licensed practitioners need to be educated about the purpose and proper operation of alarm systems that they are responsible for. PMID:24058949

  6. Smart smoke alarm

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  7. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  8. Association of MACE-based insecticide resistance in Myzus persicae with reproductive rate, response to alarm pheromone and vulnerability to attack by Aphidius colemani.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen P; Kift, Neil B; Baverstock, Jason; Sime, Sue; Reynolds, Kelly; Jones, Julie E; Thompson, Robin; Tatchell, G Mark

    2003-11-01

    Reproductive success and response to alarm pheromone, both potentially important components of fitness, were assessed using clones of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) to establish associations with insecticide resistance conferred by insensitive modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE). Both traits showed significant trends that were apparently related to this mechanism. MACE forms appeared to reproduce at slower rates than non-MACE forms expressing moderate (R1) levels of another resistance mechanism based on elevated carboxylesterase. However, MACE forms were more responsive to alarm pheromone than their non-MACE counterparts. The potential implications for parasitoid performance were tested using two clones showing clear differences in alarm response. The level of parasitism of M persicae by the parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Viereck) was significantly lower in MACE forms on pepper crops compared to non-MACE forms. In addition, the distribution of MACE and non-MACE forms differed on the pepper plants, with more MACE forms being found on the growing points. The presence of the parasitoid A colemani did not alter this change in distribution. PMID:14620042

  9. A Model of Clinical Alarm Errors in Hospital.

    PubMed

    Busch-Vishniac, Ilene

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been much attention paid recently to clinical alarms, research has primarily focused on particular aspects of the clinical alarm problem, such as how to reduce nuisance alarms. This paper takes a broad view of clinical alarms and develops a model of errors in alarm handling and how they affect patients directly. Based on reports in the literature, I estimate that alarms that should sound by current standards do not sound about 9% of the time. Additionally, about 3% of alarms that are clinically significant are ignored, either intentionally or because they were inaudible. However, these errors produce a very low rate of reported alarm-related deaths and other adverse effects (on the order of a couple adverse effects per 10 million alarm errors). While it is not yet possible to estimate the probabilities of clinical alarms having an adverse impact on patients other than the patient whose alarm is sounding, such indirect adverse effects likely occur at a low level as a result of disruption of staff workflow, creation of a noisy hospital environment, and contribution to communication difficulties. Consideration of alarms should include not only the patient connected to the device that is sounding, but also the impact of the alarm on other patients in the vicinity. PMID:26196919

  10. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  11. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  12. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  13. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  14. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  15. 46 CFR 169.731 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 169.731 Section 169.731 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.731 General alarm bells. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over each general alarm bell must be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch...

  16. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...

  17. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...

  18. Hypo- and Hyperglycemic Alarms: Devices and Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Howsmon, Daniel; Bequette, B Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Soon after the discovery that insulin regulates blood glucose by Banting and Best in 1922, the symptoms and risks associated with hypoglycemia became widely recognized. This article reviews devices to warn individuals of impending hypo- and hyperglycemia; biosignals used by these devices include electroencephalography, electrocardiography, skin galvanic resistance, diabetes alert dogs, and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). While systems based on other technology are increasing in performance and decreasing in size, CGM technology remains the best method for both reactive and predictive alarming of hypo- or hyperglycemia. PMID:25931581

  19. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test. PMID:21747329

  20. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communications or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.

  1. Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.C.

    1987-05-01

    Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment.

  2. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ok Min; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Methods Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. One bed out of 56 ICU beds was randomly assigned to each observation time unit. Results Overall 2,184 clinical alarms were counted for 48 hours of observation, and 45.5 clinical alarms occurred per hour per subject. Of these, 1,394 alarms (63.8%) were categorized as false alarms. The alarm fatigue score was 24.3 ± 4.0 out of 35. The highest scoring item was "always get bothered due to clinical alarms". The highest scoring item in obstacles was "frequent false alarms, which lead to reduced attention or response to alarms". Conclusions Nurses reported that they felt some fatigue due to clinical alarms, and false alarms were also obstacles to proper management. An appropriate hospital policy should be developed to reduce false alarms and nurses' alarm fatigue. PMID:26893950

  3. Data Acquisition and Transmission System Based on Short Message Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi; Wu, Tong; Yang, Ruixia; Wang, Yao; Hou, Chunying

    The data collection and transmission system based on single chip microcontroller (SCM) uses the LCD screen to display the real-time data, and employs the button matrix as the interactive interface to enter the preset alarm value, the target cell phone numbers and the control signals. TC35i is used as the GSM module to transmit data and control information. The alarm short message (SMS) will be sent automatically when the data exceeds the preset alarm value. And user also can order the SCM to send the real-time data and complete the remote control by sending a SMS of specific format.

  4. Applications of the Petri net to simulate, test, and validate the performance and safety of complex, heterogeneous, multi-modality patient monitoring alarm systems.

    PubMed

    Sloane, E B; Gelhot, V

    2004-01-01

    This research is motivated by the rapid pace of medical device and information system integration. Although the ability to interconnect many medical devices and information systems may help improve patient care, there is no way to detect if incompatibilities between one or more devices might cause critical events such as patient alarms to go unnoticed or cause one or more of the devices to become stuck in a disabled state. Petri net tools allow automated testing of all possible states and transitions between devices and/or systems to detect potential failure modes in advance. This paper describes an early research project to use Petri nets to simulate and validate a multi-modality central patient monitoring system. A free Petri net tool, HPSim, is used to simulate two wireless patient monitoring networks: one with 44 heart monitors and a central monitoring system and a second version that includes an additional 44 wireless pulse oximeters. In the latter Petri net simulation, a potentially dangerous heart arrhythmia and pulse oximetry alarms were detected. PMID:17271039

  5. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

  6. 46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113.25-9 Section 113.25-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

  7. Judging the urgency of non-verbal auditory alarms: a case study.

    PubMed

    Arrabito, G Robert; Mondor, Todd; Kent, Kimberley

    2004-06-22

    When designed correctly, non-verbal auditory alarms can convey different levels of urgency to the aircrew, and thereby permit the operator to establish the appropriate level of priority to address the alarmed condition. The conveyed level of urgency of five non-verbal auditory alarms presently used in the Canadian Forces CH-146 Griffon helicopter was investigated. Pilots of the CH-146 Griffon helicopter and non-pilots rated the perceived urgency of the signals using a rating scale. The pilots also ranked the urgency of the alarms in a post-experiment questionnaire to reflect their assessment of the actual situation that triggers the alarms. The results of this investigation revealed that participants' ratings of perceived urgency appear to be based on the acoustic properties of the alarms which are known to affect the listener's perceived level of urgency. Although for 28% of the pilots the mapping of perceived urgency to the urgency of their perception of the triggering situation was statistically significant for three of the five alarms, the overall data suggest that the triggering situations are not adequately conveyed by the acoustic parameters inherent in the alarms. The pilots' judgement of the triggering situation was intended as a means of evaluating the reliability of the alerting system. These data will subsequently be discussed with respect to proposed enhancements in alerting systems as it relates to addressing the problem of phase of flight. These results call for more serious consideration of incorporating situational awareness in the design and assignment of auditory alarms in aircraft. PMID:15204277

  8. Analyzing safeguards alarms and response decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a quantitative model designed to help the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its licensees evaluate and respond to alarms indicating that special nuclear material (SNM) may be missing. The model is called the Alarm/Response (A/R) Model. The report demonstrates three principal uses of the A/R Model. The first is determining the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error. The second is evaluating alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to extortion threats from individuals claiming to possess SNM. For each possible alarm, the model identifies the best response, which can be used to develop contingency plans that the licensee and the NRC can carry out. The third use is to assist the NRC in setting performance standards, especially detection time requirements. In this application, the model helps to determine the value of more timely alarms produced by licensee safeguards systems. All three uses are demonstrated with hypothetical examples. A preliminary computer code produced sample results and determined the sensitivity of those results to subjective factors in the example.

  9. Control of ELT false alarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

  10. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Logan M

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  11. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. Each self-propelled...

  12. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. Each self-propelled...

  13. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. Each self-propelled...

  14. Evaluation of nine different types of enuresis alarms.

    PubMed

    Goel, K M; Thomson, R B; Gibb, E M; McAinsh, T F

    1984-08-01

    One hundred enuretic children were treated in closely supervised trial conditions with nine commonly used enuresis alarm systems available commercially in the United Kingdom. Although there was little difference between the systems in terms of their effectiveness in stopping bed wetting, parents preferred the Eastleigh and Urilarm De-Luxe models which had distinct advantages in respect of false alarms, breakdowns, and durability of pads. Enuresis alarms that perform poorly in these respects may lead to loss of enthusiasm and non-compliance. The systems vary widely in price, but a private buyer may find a cheaper alarm just as effective. PMID:6476872

  15. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communicationsmore » or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.« less

  16. Likelihood alarm displays. [for human operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorkin, Robert D.; Kantowitz, Barry H.; Kantowitz, Susan C.

    1988-01-01

    In a likelihood alarm display (LAD) information about event likelihood is computed by an automated monitoring system and encoded into an alerting signal for the human operator. Operator performance within a dual-task paradigm was evaluated with two LADs: a color-coded visual alarm and a linguistically coded synthetic speech alarm. The operator's primary task was one of tracking; the secondary task was to monitor a four-element numerical display and determine whether the data arose from a 'signal' or 'no-signal' condition. A simulated 'intelligent' monitoring system alerted the operator to the likelihood of a signal. The results indicated that (1) automated monitoring systems can improve performance on primary and secondary tasks; (2) LADs can improve the allocation of attention among tasks and provide information integrated into operator decisions; and (3) LADs do not necessarily add to the operator's attentional load.

  17. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P.

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  18. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  19. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  20. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  1. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  2. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a...

  3. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.445 Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2...

  4. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-20...) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the following: (i) The fire detection and alarm...

  5. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  6. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  7. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  8. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  9. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  10. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  11. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  12. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  13. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  14. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  15. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  16. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm..., Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, dated January 4, 1999 (incorporated by reference... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smoke alarm requirements....

  18. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm... reference, see § 3280.4), or UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, dated January 4... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke alarm requirements....

  19. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm... reference, see § 3280.4), or UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, dated January 4... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Smoke alarm requirements....

  20. 1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22, showing layout of rooms. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Edwards Test Station, Fire Alarm Plan, Bldg. E-22,' drawing no. EFA/11-1, December 15, 1961. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Optimal Sensor Location Design for Reliable Fault Detection in Presence of False Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Xiao, Deyun; Shah, Sirish L.

    2009-01-01

    To improve fault detection reliability, sensor location should be designed according to an optimization criterion with constraints imposed by issues of detectability and identifiability. Reliability requires the minimization of undetectability and false alarm probability due to random factors on sensor readings, which is not only related with sensor readings but also affected by fault propagation. This paper introduces the reliability criteria expression based on the missed/false alarm probability of each sensor and system topology or connectivity derived from the directed graph. The algorithm for the optimization problem is presented as a heuristic procedure. Finally, a boiler system is illustrated using the proposed method. PMID:22291524

  2. Alarm fatigue: a patient safety concern.

    PubMed

    Sendelbach, Sue; Funk, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that 72% to 99% of clinical alarms are false. The high number of false alarms has led to alarm fatigue. Alarm fatigue is sensory overload when clinicians are exposed to an excessive number of alarms, which can result in desensitization to alarms and missed alarms. Patient deaths have been attributed to alarm fatigue. Patient safety and regulatory agencies have focused on the issue of alarm fatigue, and it is a 2014 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal. Quality improvement projects have demonstrated that strategies such as daily electrocardiogram electrode changes, proper skin preparation, education, and customization of alarm parameters have been able to decrease the number of false alarms. These and other strategies need to be tested in rigorous clinical trials to determine whether they reduce alarm burden without compromising patient safety. PMID:24153215

  3. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  4. Effect of direct eye contact in PTSD related to interpersonal trauma: an fMRI study of activation of an innate alarm system

    PubMed Central

    Steuwe, Carolin; Daniels, Judith K.; Frewen, Paul A.; Densmore, Maria; Pannasch, Sebastian; Beblo, Thomas; Reiss, Jeffrey; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, direct eye contact initially leads to activation of a fast subcortical pathway, which then modulates a cortical route eliciting social cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the neurobiological effects of direct eye-to-eye contact using a virtual reality paradigm in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to prolonged childhood abuse. We examined 16 healthy comparison subjects and 16 patients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD using a virtual reality functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm involving direct vs averted gaze (happy, sad, neutral) as developed by Schrammel et al. in 2009. Irrespective of the displayed emotion, controls exhibited an increased blood oxygenation level-dependent response during direct vs averted gaze within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, left temporoparietal junction and right temporal pole. Under the same conditions, individuals with PTSD showed increased activation within the superior colliculus (SC)/periaqueductal gray (PAG) and locus coeruleus. Our findings suggest that healthy controls react to the exposure of direct gaze with an activation of a cortical route that enhances evaluative ‘top–down’ processes underlying social interactions. In individuals with PTSD, however, direct gaze leads to sustained activation of a subcortical route of eye-contact processing, an innate alarm system involving the SC and the underlying circuits of the PAG. PMID:22977200

  5. Effect of direct eye contact in PTSD related to interpersonal trauma: an fMRI study of activation of an innate alarm system.

    PubMed

    Steuwe, Carolin; Daniels, Judith K; Frewen, Paul A; Densmore, Maria; Pannasch, Sebastian; Beblo, Thomas; Reiss, Jeffrey; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, direct eye contact initially leads to activation of a fast subcortical pathway, which then modulates a cortical route eliciting social cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the neurobiological effects of direct eye-to-eye contact using a virtual reality paradigm in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to prolonged childhood abuse. We examined 16 healthy comparison subjects and 16 patients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD using a virtual reality functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm involving direct vs averted gaze (happy, sad, neutral) as developed by Schrammel et al. in 2009. Irrespective of the displayed emotion, controls exhibited an increased blood oxygenation level-dependent response during direct vs averted gaze within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, left temporoparietal junction and right temporal pole. Under the same conditions, individuals with PTSD showed increased activation within the superior colliculus (SC)/periaqueductal gray (PAG) and locus coeruleus. Our findings suggest that healthy controls react to the exposure of direct gaze with an activation of a cortical route that enhances evaluative 'top-down' processes underlying social interactions. In individuals with PTSD, however, direct gaze leads to sustained activation of a subcortical route of eye-contact processing, an innate alarm system involving the SC and the underlying circuits of the PAG. PMID:22977200

  6. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's temperature... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required....

  7. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's temperature... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required....

  8. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's temperature... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required....

  9. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  10. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  11. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  12. Changes in Default Alarm Settings and Standard In-Service are Insufficient to Improve Alarm Fatigue in an Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Paper, Bruce Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical alarm systems safety is a national concern, specifically in intensive care units (ICUs) where alarm rates are known to be the highest. Interventional projects that examined the effect of changing default alarm settings on overall alarm rate and on clinicians’ attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms and alarm fatigue are scarce. Objective To examine if (1) a change in default alarm settings of the cardiac monitors and (2) in-service nursing education on cardiac monitor use in an ICU would result in reducing alarm rate and in improving nurses’ attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms. Methods This quality improvement project took place in a 20-bed transplant/cardiac ICU with a total of 39 nurses. We implemented a unit-wide change of default alarm settings involving 17 parameters of the cardiac monitors. All nurses received an in-service education on monitor use. Alarm data were collected from the audit log of the cardiac monitors 10 weeks before and 10 weeks after the change in monitors’ parameters. Nurses’ attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms were measured using the Healthcare Technology Foundation National Clinical Alarms Survey, pre- and postintervention. Results Alarm rate was 87.86 alarms/patient day (a total of 64,500 alarms) at the preintervention period compared to 59.18 alarms/patient day (49,319 alarms) postintervention (P=.01). At baseline, Arterial Blood Pressure (ABP), Pair Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs), and Peripheral Capillary Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) alarms were the highest. ABP and SpO2 alarms remained among the top three at the postproject period. Out of the 39 ICU nurses, 24 (62%) provided complete pre- and postproject survey questionnaires. Compared to the preintervention survey, no remarkable changes in the postproject period were reported in nurses’ attitudes. Themes in the narrative data were related to poor usability of cardiac monitors and the frequent alarms. The data showed

  13. "Turn it off!": diabetes device alarm fatigue considerations for the present and the future.

    PubMed

    Shivers, Joseph P; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

    2013-05-01

    Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a "patient safety first" perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery. PMID:23759412

  14. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; Dunn, Michael E; Wagner, John C; McMahan, Kimberly L; Authier, Nicolas; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Wolff, Herve; Savanier, Laurence; Baclet, Nathalie; Lee, Yi-kang; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Masse, Veronique; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Naury, Sylvie; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Hunter, Richard; Kim, Soon; Dulik, George Michael; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available that

  15. Microcomputer based system for intrusion detection display and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    A system has been developed to aid in assessing intrusion alarms. Capabilities include color graphic and text displays, prioritized alarms, a high-speed dual loop communications system, a customized function keyboard for operator input and microprocessor controlled Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) and videodisc recording subsytems. The system, which is implemented on a DEC LSI-11/23 utilizing RSX-11S, is designed for use by an operator with no knowledge of computers. Most of the assessment functions can be performed with single keystrokes. During multi-alarm situations, the system manages the display, presenting information about the highest priority alarms to aid in operator assessment. Although the system prioritizes alarms, the operator is free to assess alarms in any order. The system supports multicenter operations. One center is responsible for assessing all alarms and is monitored and backed up by another center.

  16. Perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Kiriazis, Judith; Slobodchikoff, C N

    2006-07-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs have a complex alarm communication system. We show that the escape responses of prairie dogs to naturally occurring live predators differed depending upon the species of predator. We also show that playbacks of alarm calls that were elicited originally by the live predators produced the same escape responses as the live predators themselves. The escape responses fell into two qualitatively different categories: running to the burrow and diving inside for hawks and humans, and standing upright outside the burrow for coyotes and dogs. Within these two categories there were differences in response. For hawks, only the prairie dogs that were in the direct flight path of a stooping red-tailed hawk ran to their burrows and dove inside, while for humans and human alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and diving inside. For coyotes and coyote alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and standing alert at the burrow rims, while for domestic dogs and playbacks of alarm calls for domestic dogs the prairie dogs assumed an alert posture wherever they were feeding, but did not run to their burrows. These responses to both the live predators and to predator-elicited alarm calls suggest that the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs contain meaningful referential information about the categories of predators that approach a colony of prairie dogs. PMID:16529880

  17. Integrating monitor alarms with laboratory test results to enhance patient deterioration prediction.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yong; Do, Duc H; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Schindler, Daniel; Boyle, Noel G; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Patient monitors in modern hospitals have become ubiquitous but they generate an excessive number of false alarms causing alarm fatigue. Our previous work showed that combinations of frequently co-occurring monitor alarms, called SuperAlarm patterns, were capable of predicting in-hospital code blue events at a lower alarm frequency. In the present study, we extend the conceptual domain of a SuperAlarm to incorporate laboratory test results along with monitor alarms so as to build an integrated data set to mine SuperAlarm patterns. We propose two approaches to integrate monitor alarms with laboratory test results and use a maximal frequent itemsets mining algorithm to find SuperAlarm patterns. Under an acceptable false positive rate FPRmax, optimal parameters including the minimum support threshold and the length of time window for the algorithm to find the combinations of monitor alarms and laboratory test results are determined based on a 10-fold cross-validation set. SuperAlarm candidates are generated under these optimal parameters. The final SuperAlarm patterns are obtained by further removing the candidates with false positive rate>FPRmax. The performance of SuperAlarm patterns are assessed using an independent test data set. First, we calculate the sensitivity with respect to prediction window and the sensitivity with respect to lead time. Second, we calculate the false SuperAlarm ratio (ratio of the hourly number of SuperAlarm triggers for control patients to that of the monitor alarms, or that of regular monitor alarms plus laboratory test results if the SuperAlarm patterns contain laboratory test results) and the work-up to detection ratio, WDR (ratio of the number of patients triggering any SuperAlarm patterns to that of code blue patients triggering any SuperAlarm patterns). The experiment results demonstrate that when varying FPRmax between 0.02 and 0.15, the SuperAlarm patterns composed of monitor alarms along with the last two laboratory test results

  18. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a vessel of at least 7.9 meters (26 feet) in...

  19. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  20. False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

    2013-05-01

    A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

  1. False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

    2012-09-01

    Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

  2. The helpful or hindering effects of in-hospital patient monitor alarms on nurses: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Kuziemsky, Craig; MacDonald, Charlotte; King, W James

    2012-04-01

    Patient monitors generate alarms to signal changes in vital signs. Some research suggests these alarms can improve patient safety. Other reports caution that these systems generate false alarms and create nursing workflow interruptions. These findings require contextualization by qualitatively investigating the lived experiences of nurses working with these monitors. Research into the dynamics involved in nursing responses to alarms can provide insights for monitor development and implementation. This study's purposes were (1) to describe the frequency of alarms generated by patient monitors and nursing responses and (2) to report nurses' explanations of the impact of alarms on workflow and strategies for responding to alarms. Forty-nine hours of observations and 14 interviews were conducted at a Canadian medical center. Four hundred forty-six monitor alarms (1 every 6.59 minutes) were observed. Of these, 70% had no immediate response from nurses. Furthermore, 34 red alarms (potential life-threatening) were observed, with 41% having no immediate response. Nurses reported feeling overloaded by alarm frequency. They described learning to interpret alarm data and developing workaround strategies (eg, ignoring alarms). Paradoxically, alarms prompted nurses to regularly consider and interpret patient information. We suggest the interpretive work associated with workarounds may hold benefits mitigating the potential harms of ignoring alarms. PMID:22156767

  3. Index : A Rule Based Expert System For Computer Network Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaganty, Srinivas; Pitchai, Anandhi; Morgan, Thomas W.

    1988-03-01

    Communications is an expert intensive discipline. The application of expert systems for maintenance of large and complex networks, mainly as an aid in trouble shooting, can simplify the task of network management. The important steps involved in troubleshooting are fault detection, fault reporting, fault interpretation and fault isolation. At present, Network Maintenance Facilities are capable of detecting and reporting the faults to network personnel. Fault interpretation refers to the next step in the process, which involves coming up with reasons for the failure. Fault interpretation can be characterized in two ways. First, it involves such a diversity of facts that it is difficult to predict. Secondly, it embodies a wealth of knowledge in the form of network management personnel. The application of expert systems in these interpretive tasks is an important step towards automation of network maintenance. In this paper, INDEX (Intelligent Network Diagnosis Expediter), a rule based production system for computer network alarm interpretation is described. It acts as an intelligent filter for people analyzing network alarms. INDEX analyzes the alarms in the network and identifies proper maintenance action to be taken.The important feature of this production system is that it is data driven. Working memory is the principal data repository of production systems and its contents represent the current state of the problem. Control is based upon which productions match the constantly changing working memory elements. Implementation of the prototype is in OPS83. Major issues in rule based system development such as rule base organization, implementation and efficiency are discussed.

  4. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  9. Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Mizunami, Makoto; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons (PNs), to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive PNs are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system. PMID:20676235

  10. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  11. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  12. “Turn It Off!”: Diabetes Device Alarm Fatigue Considerations for the Present and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Shivers, Joseph P.; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a “patient safety first” perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery. PMID:23759412

  13. Health safe alarm evaluation. Final report. [Combustible gas/oxygen deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, M.A.; Bishop, E.C.

    1981-12-01

    The USAF Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory (USAF OEHL) conducted an evaluation of the National Mine Service Company, Model MX 241, Combination Combustible Gas/Oxygen Deficiency Alarm. The evaluation included determination of linearity of response to a calibration gas (hexane) and the instrument's ability to set the %LEL alarm at or below 5% LEL and oxygen alarm at or below 19.5% oxygen. Recommendation of the MX 241 for specific application was made based upon the evaluation results.

  14. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  15. Prototype explosives detection system based on nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.; Cappiello, C.C.; Gardner, S.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; White, J.M.; Zahrt, J.D.; Krauss, R.A.

    1993-12-01

    A-prototype explosives detection system that was developed for experimental evaluation of a nuclear resonance absorption techniques is described. The major subsystems are a proton accelerator and beam transport, high-temperature proton target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection station, and an image-processing/detection- alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  16. Prototype explosives-detection system based on nuclear-resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.; Cappiello, C.C.; Gardner, S.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; White, J.M.; Zahrt, J.D.; Krauss, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    A prototype explosives-detection system (EDS) that was developed for experimental evaluation of a nuclear-resonance absorption technique is described. The major subsystems are a proton accelerator and beam transport, high-temperature proton target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection station, and an image-processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  17. Soft real-time alarm messages for ATLAS TDAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darlea, G.; Al Shabibi, A.; Martin, B.; Lehmann Miotto, G.

    2010-05-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ network consists of three separate Ethernet-based networks (Data, Control and Management) with over 2000 end-nodes. The TDAQ system has to be aware of the meaningful network failures and events in order for it to take effective recovery actions. The first stage of the process is implemented with Spectrum, a commercial network management tool. Spectrum detects and registers all network events, then it publishes the information via a CORBA programming interface. A gateway program (called NSG—Network Service Gateway) connects to Spectrum through CORBA and exposes to its clients a Java RMI interface. This interface implements a callback mechanism that allows the clients to subscribe for monitoring "interesting" parts of the network. The last stage of the TDAQ network monitoring tool is implemented in a module named DNC (DAQ to Network Connection), which filters the events that are to be reported to the TDAQ system: it subscribes to the gateway only for the machines that are currently active in the system and it forwards only the alarms that are considered important for the current TDAQ data taking session. The network information is then synthesized and presented in a human-readable format. These messages can be further processed either by the shifter who is in charge, the network expert or the Online Expert System. This article aims to describe the different mechanisms of the chain that transports the network events to the front-end user, as well as the constraints and rules that govern the filtering and the final format of the alarm messages.

  18. False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James L.; Lawson, Janice K.; Aimonetti, William D.

    2011-03-29

    According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

  19. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  20. 33 CFR 127.1207 - Warning alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1207 Warning alarms. (a) Each...

  1. Temperature monitor and alarm for cryogenic instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, John B., Jr.; Keliher, Pat; Jeanpierre, Carlos

    1994-06-01

    Internal temperatures in filled cryostats must be continuously monitored to preserve the health and safety of hardware and personnel. The accidental response of cryogenic gases into the atmosphere pose a health threat and, if the gases are flammable, may lead to an explosion. One indication of an imminent cryogen release is the sudden increase in cryogen temperature. Although there are many data acquisition systems and temperature monitoring products commercially available, these systems lack the portability and safety features required during cryostat qualification tests and transport. This paper describes a temperature monitor and alarm circuit developed for the Spirit II solid hydrogen cryostat program. The instrument is battery-operated, accurate, portable, and intrinsically safe in an explosive atmosphere.

  2. Some comments on GMTI false alarm rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, A. W.

    2011-06-01

    A typical Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar specification includes the parameters Probability of Detection (PD) - typically on the order of 0.85, and False Alarm Rate (FAR) - typically on the order of 0.1 Hz. The PD is normally associated with a particular target 'size', such as Radar Cross Section (RCS) with perhaps some statistical description (e.g. Swerling number). However, the concept of FAR is embodied at a fundamental level in the detection process, which traditionally employs a Constant-FAR (CFAR) detector to set thresholds for initial decisions on whether a target is present or not. While useful, such a metric for radar specification and system comparison is not without some serious shortcomings. In particular, when comparing FAR across various radar systems, some degree of normalization needs to occur to account for perhaps swath width and scan rates. This in turn suggests some useful testing strategies.

  3. What can be done to reduce false alarms?

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Although (the Department for Communities and Local Government's 'Fire statistics' reveal) the number of such incidents has fallen every year since 2006/07, UK fire and rescue services still attended over 312,400 'false fire alarms,' i.e. instances where, on arriving at a site, they found no fire, in 2011/12. Such incidents have been a significant concern for healthcare facilities teams, and for the fire and rescue services serving them, for many years, and, although the past decade has seen determined efforts to substantially reduce the number bearing fruit, many believe far too many still occur. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports on a recent London roundtable discussion staged by two leading fire detection and alarm equipment specialists, Apollo Fire Detectors, and Static Systems Group, with IHEEM, which brought together experts to discuss what more can be done to minimise false fire alarms. PMID:23763086

  4. Putative involvement of the nitrergic system on the consolidation, but not initiation, of behavioral sensitization after conspecific alarm substance in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lima, Monica Gomes; Silva, Suéllen de Nazaré Dos Santos; Silva, Rhayra Xavier do Carmo; Oliveira, Karen Renata Herculano Matos; Batista, Evander de Jesus Oliveira; Maximino, Caio; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2015-12-01

    Stressful manipulations can sensitize the behavior of an organism, increasing anxiety-like behavior after a delay; this long-term stress sensitization can represent the pathophysiological basis of trauma- and stress-related disorders (TRSDs), of which the most prevalent is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A role for the glutamate-nitric oxide pathway in this sensitization is implied by behavioral, neurophysiological and genomic data on different species. Here, we report on the long-term sensitization of anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish and the possible participation of nitric oxide in this process. Zebrafish exposed to a conspecific alarm substance (AS) show increased anxiety-like behavior at least 24h after stimulus delivery. Blocking nitric oxide synthesis with l-NAME (5mg/kg) 30min, but not 90min, after AS exposure blocks the sensitization of scototaxis and risk assessment, while treatment 90min after exposure blocks the sensitization of thigmotaxis and erratic swimming; l-NAME was not effective when administered 30min before AS exposure. These data suggest a participation of nitric oxide in the consolidation, but not in the initiation, of behavioral sensitization after predator threat. PMID:26257339

  5. DHS Regional Reachback: Rapid Expert Radiation Alarm Assistance.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowerman,B.; Archer, D.; Young, J.; Monetti, M.; Savage, B.

    2008-07-13

    Following assessments that attacks with radiological and nuclear weapons are possible, detection system deployments are being supported at national and local levels. Detection systems include both, highly sensitive but non-discriminating detectors, as well as detectors and algorithms capable of distinguishing and identifying gamma rays by energy. The latter systems, usually handheld systems based on sodium iodide detectors, also provide analysis of the specific radionuclides present and are referred to as radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs). Studies have shown that sodium iodide based RIIDs fall far short of 100% accurate identifications. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) initiated the Regional Reachback (RRB) Program in 2006 to provide rapid expert interpretation of gamma spectroscopic data from radiation alarms from detection systems deployed by state and local authorities. With expert specialists on call 24/7, RRB provides an avenue for local and state authorities to verify routine results, interpret unknown identifications, and notify national response assets if needed. This paper will provide details of the RRE3 program, an outline of the analysis process, a description of the drills and training systems used to maintain specialists response performance, and examples of drills and incidents from the first full year of operation.

  6. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  7. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  8. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  9. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  10. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  11. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  12. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  13. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  14. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  15. T-Farm complex alarm upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

  16. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... alarm is a device intended for use in treatment of bedwetting. Through an electrical trigger...

  17. Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

  18. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An...

  19. Prototype explosives detection system based on nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.J.; Cappiello, C.C.

    1996-05-01

    A laboratory prototype system has been developed for the experimental evaluation of an explosives detection technique based on nuclear resonance absorption of gamma rays in nitrogen. Major subsystems include a radiofrequency quadrupole proton accelerator and associated beam transport system, a high-power gamma-ray production target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection system, and an image- processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  20. The PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015: Reducing False Arrhythmia Alarms in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Shahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 Physio-Net/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1,250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A collection of 750 data segments was made available for training and a set of 500 was held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program’s performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year’s Challenge. PMID:27331073

  1. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying with 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196.37-9...

  2. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying with 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196.37-9...

  3. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying with 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196.37-9...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audible and visual alarms. 154.1365 Section 154.1365... Instrumentation § 154.1365 Audible and visual alarms. (a) Each audible alarm must have an arrangement that allows... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only...

  5. Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

  6. The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

    1995-01-01

    Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture. PMID:7816823

  7. Video-based cargo fire verification system with fuzzy inference engine for commercial aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadok, Mokhtar; Zakrzewski, Radek; Zeliff, Bob

    2005-02-01

    Conventional smoke detection systems currently installed onboard aircraft are often subject to high rates of false alarms. Under current procedures, whenever an alarm is issued the pilot is obliged to release fire extinguishers and to divert to the nearest airport. Aircraft diversions are costly and dangerous in some situations. A reliable detection system that minimizes false-alarm rate and allows continuous monitoring of cargo compartments is highly desirable. A video-based system has been recently developed by Goodrich Corporation to address this problem. The Cargo Fire Verification System (CFVS) is a multi camera system designed to provide live stream video to the cockpit crew and to perform hotspot, fire, and smoke detection in aircraft cargo bays. In addition to video frames, the CFVS uses other sensor readings to discriminate between genuine events such as fire or smoke and nuisance alarms such as fog or dust. A Mamdani-type fuzzy inference engine is developed to provide approximate reasoning for decision making. In one implementation, Gaussian membership functions for frame intensity-based features, relative humidity, and temperature are constructed using experimental data to form the system inference engine. The CFVS performed better than conventional aircraft smoke detectors in all standardized tests.

  8. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  11. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  13. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  14. Person-Locator System Based On Wristband Radio Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick W.; Blaes, Brent R.; Chandler, Charles W.

    1995-01-01

    Computerized system based on wristband radio frequency (RF), passive transponders is being developed for use in real-time tracking of individuals in custodial institutions like prisons and mental hospitals. Includes monitoring system that contains central computer connected to low-power, high-frequency central transceiver. Transceiver connected to miniature transceiver nodes mounted unobtrusively at known locations throughout the institution. Wristband transponders embedded in common hospital wristbands. Wristbands tamperproof: each contains embedded wire loop which, when broken or torn off and discarded, causes wristband to disappear from system, thus causing alarm. Individuals could be located in a timely fashion at relatively low cost.

  15. A Warning System for Stromboli Volcano Based on Statistical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunnari, Giuseppe; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spata, Alessandro

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we describe a warning system based on statistical analysis for the purpose of monitoring ground deformation at the Sciara del Fuoco (Stromboli Volcano, Sicily). After a statistical analysis of ground deformation time-series measured at Stromboli by the monitoring system known as THEODOROS (THEOdolite and Distancemeter Robot Observatory of Stromboli), the paper describes the solution adopted for implementing the warning system. A robust statistical index has been defined in order to evaluate the movements of the area. A fuzzy approach has been proposed to evaluate an AI (Alarm Intensity) index which indicates the level of hazard of the Sciara del Fuoco sliding.

  16. Fire detection and alarm subsystem design description: 4 x 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR [High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor] Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    Fire Detection and Alarm is an early warning system used to detect and report the presence of a fire within the plant. It detects, annunciates, and records plant-wide fire alarms, subsystem trouble, and fire console operator actions.

  17. Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

  18. Evaluating injury prevention programs: the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    PubMed

    Mallonee, S

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of injury prevention programs is critical for measuring program effects on reducing injury-related morbidity and mortality or on increasing the adoption of safety practices. During the planning and implementation of injury prevention programs, evaluation data also can be used to test program strategies and to measure the program's penetration among the target population. The availability of this early data enables program managers to refine a program, increasing the likelihood of successful outcomes. The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project illustrates how an evaluation was designed to inform program decisions by providing methodologically sound data on program processes and outcomes. This community intervention trial was instituted to reduce residential fire-related injuries and deaths in a geographic area of Oklahoma City that was disproportionately affected by this problem. The distribution of free smoke alarms in targeted neighborhoods was accompanied by written educational pamphlets and home-based follow-up to test whether the alarms were functioning correctly. Early evaluation during the planning and implementation phases of the program allowed for midcourse corrections that increased the program's impact on desired outcomes. During the six years following the project, the residential fire-related injury rate decreased 81% in the target population but only 7% in the rest of Oklahoma City. This dramatic decline in fire-related injuries in the target area is largely attributed to the free smoke alarm distribution as well as to educational efforts promoting awareness about residential fires and their prevention. PMID:10911692

  19. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-20... there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the following:...

  20. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-20... there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the following:...

  1. A logic based expert system (LBES) for fault diagnosis of power system

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.M.; Kim, G.W.; Sohn, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper proposes an expert system for fault diagnosis of power system using a new inference method. Expertise is, in this paper, represented by logical implications and converted into a Boolean function. Unlike conventional rule-based expert systems, the expertise is converted into Prime Implicants (PIs) which are logically complete and sound. Therefore, off-line inference is possible by off-line identification of PIs, which reduces the on-line inference time considerably and makes it possible to utilize the proposed expert system in real-time environment. This paper also presents alarm verification and correction method for relay and circuit breaker (CB) using pre-identified PIs.

  2. Computational complexity issues in operative diagnosis of graph-based systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V. )

    1993-04-01

    Systems that can be modeled as graphs, such that nodes represent the components and the edges represent the fault propagation between the components, are considered. Some components are equipped with alarms that ring in response to faulty conditions. In these systems, two types of problems are studied: (a) fault diagnosis, and (b) alarm placement. The fault diagnosis problems deal with computing the set of all potential failure sources that correspond to a set of ringing alarms A[sub R]. First, the single faults, where exactly one component can become faulty at any time, are considered. Systems are classified into zero-time and nonzero-time systems based on fault propagation times, and the latter is further classified based on the knowledge of propagation times. For each of these classes algorithms are presented for single fault diagnosis. The problem of detecting multiple faults is shown to be NP-complete. An alarm placement problem, that requires a single fault to be uniquely diagnosed, is examined; various versions of this problem are shown to be NP-complete. The single fault diagnosis algorithms have been implemented and tested.

  3. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conspicuously and centrally located and be marked as required by 46 CFR 97.37-9; and (3) Use stored gas power... approved audible alarm if: (1) The space is normally accessible to persons onboard while the vessel...

  4. Controlling misses and false alarms in a machine learning framework for predicting uniformity of printed pages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work1 , we presented a block-based technique to analyze printed page uniformity both visually and metrically. The features learned from the models were then employed in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) framework to classify the pages into one of the two categories of acceptable and unacceptable quality. In this paper, we introduce a set of tools for machine learning in the assessment of printed page uniformity. This work is primarily targeted to the printing industry, specifically the ubiquitous laser, electrophotographic printer. We use features that are well-correlated with the rankings of expert observers to develop a novel machine learning framework that allows one to achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate, subject to a chosen "miss" rate. Surprisingly, most of the research that has been conducted on machine learning does not consider this framework. During the process of developing a new product, test engineers will print hundreds of test pages, which can be scanned and then analyzed by an autonomous algorithm. Among these pages, most may be of acceptable quality. The objective is to find the ones that are not. These will provide critically important information to systems designers, regarding issues that need to be addressed in improving the printer design. A "miss" is defined to be a page that is not of acceptable quality to an expert observer that the prediction algorithm declares to be a "pass". Misses are a serious problem, since they represent problems that will not be seen by the systems designers. On the other hand, "false alarms" correspond to pages that an expert observer would declare to be of acceptable quality, but which are flagged by the prediction algorithm as "fails". In a typical printer testing and development scenario, such pages would be examined by an expert, and found to be of acceptable quality after all. "False alarm" pages result in extra pages to be examined by expert observers, which increases labor cost. But "false

  5. [Portable Epileptic Seizure Monitoring Intelligent System Based on Android System].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wu, Shufeng; Yang, Chunlin; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Yu, Tao; Lu, Chengbiao; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    The clinical electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring systems based on personal computer system can not meet the requirements of portability and home usage. The epilepsy patients have to be monitored in hospital for an extended period of time, which imposes a heavy burden on hospitals. In the present study, we designed a portable 16-lead networked monitoring system based on the Android smart phone. The system uses some technologies including the active electrode, the WiFi wireless transmission, the multi-scale permutation entropy (MPE) algorithm, the back-propagation (BP) neural network algorithm, etc. Moreover, the software of Android mobile application can realize the processing and analysis of EEG data, the display of EEG waveform and the alarm of epileptic seizure. The system has been tested on the mobile phones with Android 2. 3 operating system or higher version and the results showed that this software ran accurately and steadily in the detection of epileptic seizure. In conclusion, this paper provides a portable and reliable solution for epileptic seizure monitoring in clinical and home applications. PMID:27382736

  6. National Fire Codes. A Compilation of NFPA Codes, Standards, Recommended Practices, and Manuals. Volume 7: Alarm and Special Extinguishing Systems. 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Protection Association, Boston, MA.

    These NFPA recommendations are phrased in terms of performance or objectives, the intent being to permit the utilization of any methods, devices, or materials which will produce the desired results. The major topics included are--(1) extinguishing systems, (2) standpipe and hose systems, (3) wetting agents, (4) fire hydrants, (5) water charges for…

  7. DHS Regional Reachback: Rapid Expert Radiation Alarm Assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Bowerman, Biasys; Archer, Daniel E; Young, John; Monetti, Matthew; Brian, Savage

    2008-01-01

    Following assessments that attacks with radiological and nuclear weapons are possible or even likely, detection system deployments are being supported at National and local levels. Detection systems include highly sensitive but non-discriminating detectors, as well as detectors and algorithms capable of distinguishing and identifying gamma rays by energy. The latter systems, usually handheld systems based on sodium iodide detectors, also provide analysis of the specific radionuclides present, and are referred to as radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs). Studies have shown that sodium iodide based RIIDs fall far short of 100% accurate identifications. The US Department of Homeland Security initiated the Regional Reachback (RRB) Program in 2006 to provide rapid expert interpretation of gamma spectroscopic data from radiation alarms from detection systems deployed by State and Local authorities. With expert specialists on call 24/7, RRB provides an avenue for Local and state Authorities to verify routine results, interpret unknown identifications, and notify national response assets if needed. Contact with RRB is through the DHS Joint Analysis Center (JAC), which functions as a fusion node for data correlation, transmittal, and analysis. After initial phone contacts, State/Local authorities transmit spectral data and incident information via e-mail or secure website. The JAC alerts the on-call RRB specialists, who are expected to provide an analysis within 30 minutes. This paper will provide details of the RRB program, an outline of the analysis process, a description of the drills and training systems used to maintain specialists response performance, and examples of drills and incidents from the first full year of operation.

  8. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section....050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to bilge alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in §...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  13. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  14. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  15. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  16. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  17. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  18. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  1. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section....050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to bilge alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in §...

  2. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

  3. Epidermal ‘alarm substance’ cells of fishes maintained by non-alarm functions: possible defence against pathogens, parasites and UVB radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chivers, Douglas P; Wisenden, Brian D; Hindman, Carrie J; Michalak, Tracy A; Kusch, Robin C; Kaminskyj, Susan G.W; Jack, Kristin L; Ferrari, Maud C.O; Pollock, Robyn J; Halbgewachs, Colin F; Pollock, Michael S; Alemadi, Shireen; James, Clayton T; Savaloja, Rachel K; Goater, Cameron P; Corwin, Amber; Mirza, Reehan S; Kiesecker, Joseph M; Brown, Grant E; Adrian, James C; Krone, Patrick H; Blaustein, Andrew R; Mathis, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    Many fishes possess specialized epidermal cells that are ruptured by the teeth of predators, thus reliably indicating the presence of an actively foraging predator. Understanding the evolution of these cells has intrigued evolutionary ecologists because the release of these alarm chemicals is not voluntary. Here, we show that predation pressure does not influence alarm cell production in fishes. Alarm cell production is stimulated by exposure to skin-penetrating pathogens (water moulds: Saprolegnia ferax and Saprolegnia parasitica), skin-penetrating parasites (larval trematodes: Teleorchis sp. and Uvulifer sp.) and correlated with exposure to UV radiation. Suppression of the immune system with environmentally relevant levels of Cd inhibits alarm cell production of fishes challenged with Saprolegnia. These data are the first evidence that alarm substance cells have an immune function against ubiquitous environmental challenges to epidermal integrity. Our results indicate that these specialized cells arose and are maintained by natural selection owing to selfish benefits unrelated to predator–prey interactions. Cell contents released when these cells are damaged in predator attacks have secondarily acquired an ecological role as alarm cues because selection favours receivers to detect and respond adaptively to public information about predation. PMID:17686729

  4. Sensor-based material tagging system

    SciTech Connect

    Vercellotti, L.C.; Cox, R.W.; Ravas, R.J.; Schlotterer, J.C. . Science and Technology Center)

    1991-01-01

    Electronic identification tags are being developed for tracking material and personnel. In applying electronic identification tags to radioactive materials safeguards, it is important to measure attributes of the material to ensure that the tag remains with the material. The addition of a microcontroller with an on-board analog-to-digital converter to an electronic identification tag application-specific integrated-circuit has been demonstrated as means to provide the tag with sensor data. Each tag is assembled into a housing, which serves as a scale for measuring the weight of a paint-can-sized container and its contents. Temperature rise of the can above ambient is also measured, and a piezoelectric detector detects disturbances and immediately puts the tag into its alarm and beacon mode. Radiation measurement was also considered, but the background from nearby containers was found to be excessive. The sensor-based tagging system allows tracking of the material in cans as it is stored in vaults or is moved through the manufacturing process. The paper presents details of the sensor-based material tagging system and describes a demonstration system.

  5. Sensor-based material tagging system

    SciTech Connect

    Vercellotti, L.C.; Cox, R.W.; Ravas, R.J.; Schlotterer, J.C.

    1991-12-31

    Electronic identification tags are being developed for tracking material and personnel. In applying electronic identification tags to radioactive materials safeguards, it is important to measure attributes of the material to ensure that the tag remains with the material. The addition of a microcontroller with an on-board analog-to-digital converter to an electronic identification tag application-specific integrated-circuit has been demonstrated as means to provide the tag with sensor data. Each tag is assembled into a housing, which serves as a scale for measuring the weight of a paint-can-sized container and its contents. Temperature rise of the can above ambient is also measured, and a piezoelectric detector detects disturbances and immediately puts the tag into its alarm and beacon mode. Radiation measurement was also considered, but the background from nearby containers was found to be excessive. The sensor-based tagging system allows tracking of the material in cans as it is stored in vaults or is moved through the manufacturing process. The paper presents details of the sensor-based material tagging system and describes a demonstration system.

  6. Adaptive Dispatching of Incidences Based on Reputation for SCADA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz, Cristina; Agudo, Isaac; Fernandez-Gago, Carmen; Roman, Rodrigo; Fernandez, Gerardo; Lopez, Javier

    SCADA systems represent a challenging scenario where the management of critical alarms is crucial. Their response to these alarms should be efficient and fast in order to mitigate or contain undesired effects. This work presents a mechanism, the Adaptive Assignment Manager (AAM) that will aid to react to incidences in a more efficient way by dynamically assigning alarms to the most suitable human operator. The mechanism uses various inputs for identifying the operators such as their availability, workload and reputation. In fact, we also define a reputation component that stores the reputation of the human operators and uses feedback from past experiences.

  7. SETI Pulse Detection Algorithm: Analysis of False-alarm Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, B. K.

    1983-01-01

    Some earlier work by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Science Working Group (SWG) on the derivation of spectrum analyzer thresholds for a pulse detection algorithm based on an analysis of false alarm rates is extended. The algorithm previously analyzed was intended to detect a finite sequence of i periodically spaced pulses that did not necessarily occupy the entire observation interval. This algorithm would recognize the presence of such a signal only if all i-received pulse powers exceeded a threshold T(i): these thresholds were selected to achieve a desired false alarm rate, independent of i. To simplify the analysis, it was assumed that the pulses were synchronous with the spectrum sample times. This analysis extends the earlier effort to include infinite and/or asynchronous pulse trains. Furthermore, to decrease the possibility of missing an extraterrestrial intelligence signal, the algorithm was modified to detect a pulse train even if some of the received pulse powers fall below the threshold. The analysis employs geometrical arguments that make it conceptually easy to incorporate boundary conditions imposed on the derivation of the false alarm rates. While the exact results can be somewhat complex, simple closed form approximations are derived that produce a negligible loss of accuracy.

  8. Raman water vapour concentration measurements for reduction of false alarms in forest fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.

    2009-09-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of environmental catastrophe, with the natural outcomes of serious ecological and economic damages, together with the possibility to endanger human safety. At the aim to reduce this catastrophe several author have been shown that the Laser light scattering can be uses to reveals the particulate emitted in the smoke. Infact experimental and theoretical investigations have shown that lidar is a powerful tool to detect the tenuous smoke plumes produced by forest fires at an early stage. In early 90's Arbolino and Andreucci have shown the theoretical possibility to detect the particulate emitted in atmosphere from smoke forest fire. Vilar at all have shown experimentally the possibility to measure the density variation in atmosphere due to plume emitted in forest fire event. Gaudio at all. have already shown that it is possible to evaluate water vapor emitted in smoke of vegetable fuel using a CO2 dial system. In this paper a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of a lidar system in fire surveillance of wooded areas will be presented. In particular we intend propose a technique to minimizing the false alarm in the detection of forest fire by lidar based on a measurement of second components emitted in a combustion process. Usually to detect a fire alarm a rapid increase of aerosol amount is measured. If the backscattering signal report a peak, the presences of a forest fire will be probable. Our idea to confirm this hypothesis is measure the second components emitted in a forest fire at the aim to minimize the false alarm. The simulated measurements of the humidity amount within the smoke plume will be carried out by means of Raman analysis. Fixing the burning rate of the vegetable-fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated.

  9. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

  10. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  11. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers §...

  12. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers §...

  13. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to persons on board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide... automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and... arranged as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into...

  14. Rainfall Hazards Prevention based on a Local Model Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buendia, F.; Ojeda, B.; Buendia Moya, G.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.

    2009-04-01

    Rainfall is one of the most important events of human life and society. Some rainfall phenomena like floods or hailstone are a threat to the agriculture, business and even life. However in the meteorological observatories there are methods to detect and alarm about this kind of events, nowadays the prediction techniques based on synoptic measurements need to be improved to achieve medium term feasible forecasts. Any deviation in the measurements or in the model description makes the forecast to diverge in time from the real atmosphere evolution. In this paper the advances in a local rainfall forecasting system based on time series estimation with General Regression Neural Networks are presented. The system is introduced, explaining the measurements, methodology and the current state of the development. The aim of the work is to provide a complementary criteria to the current forecast systems, based on the daily atmosphere observation and tracking over a certain place.

  15. Proximate Factors Underpinning Receiver Responses to Deceptive False Alarm Calls in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys: Is It Counterdeception?

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls

  16. Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Learn to Use Urine Alarms and Prompts to Avoid Large Urinary Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Bosco, Andrea; Zonno, Nadia; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether three patients with Alzheimer's disease could learn to use urine alarms and caregivers' prompts to eliminate large urinary accidents. As soon as the patient began to release urine, the alarm system presented auditory and vibratory signals. In relation to those signals, the caregiver would prompt/encourage the patient to…

  17. Patient Safety Implications of Electronic Alerts and Alarms of Maternal - Fetal Status During Labor.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey; Davidson, Leigh Ann

    2016-01-01

    When nurses care for women during labor, they encounter numerous alerts and alarms from electronic fetal monitors and their surveillance systems. Notifications of values of physiologic parameters for a woman and fetus that may be outside preset limits are generated via visual and audible cues. There is no standardization of these alert and alarm parameters among electronic fetal monitoring vendors in the United States, and there are no data supporting their sensitivity and specificity. Agreement among professional organizations about physiologic parameters for alerts and alarms commonly used during labor is lacking. It is unknown if labor nurses view the alerts and alarms as helpful or a nuisance. There is no evidence that they promote or hinder patient safety. This clinical issue warrants our attention as labor nurses. PMID:27520600

  18. Reducing False Alarm Rates for Critical Arrhythmias Using the Arterial Blood Pressure Waveform

    PubMed Central

    Aboukhalil, Anton; Nielsen, Larry; Saeed, Mohammed; Mark, Roger G.; Clifford, Gari D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, high false alarm (FA) rates have remained an important yet unresolved concern in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). High FA rates lead to desensitization of the attending staff to such warnings, with associated slowing in response times and detrimental decreases in the quality of care for the patient. False arrhythmia alarms are commonly due to single channel ECG artifacts and low voltage signals, and therefore it is likely that the FA rates may be reduced if information from other independent signals is used to form a more robust hypothesis of the alarm’s etiology. Methods A large multi-parameter ICU database (PhysioNet’s MIMIC II database) was used to investigate the frequency of five categories of false critical (“red” or “life-threatening”) ECG arrhythmia alarms produced by a commercial ICU monitoring system, namely: asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia. Non-critical (“yellow”) arrhythmia alarms were not considered in this study. Multiple expert reviews of 5,386 critical ECG arrhythmia alarms from a total of 447 adult patient records in the MIMIC II database were made using the associated 41,301 hours of simultaneous ECG and arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveforms. An algorithm to suppress false critical ECG arrhythmia alarms using morphological and timing information derived from the ABP signal was then tested. Results An average of 42.7% of the critical ECG arrhythmia alarms were found to be false, with each of the five alarm categories having FA rates between 23.1% and 90.7%. The FA suppression algorithm developed was able to suppress 59.7% of the false alarms, with FA reduction rates as high as 93.5% for asystole and 81.0% for extreme bradycardia. FA reduction rates were lowest for extreme tachycardia (63.7%) and ventricular-related alarms (58.2% for ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia and 33.0% for ventricular tachycardia

  19. Examination of criticality accident alarm coverage on the operating floors of Buildings X-333, X-330, and X-326 at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.S.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; Wollard, J.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1997-03-01

    The diffusion cascade processing equipment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is located in Buildings X-333, X-330, and X-326. These buildings were referred to as the cascade buildings. Because enriched uranium operations are performed within the cascade buildings, the potential for a criticality accident in these buildings exists. A Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) is in place to alarm in the event of a criticality accident. The CAAS is required to be designed to immediately detect the minimum accident-of-concern. A minimum accident-of-concern in an area with nominal shielding delivers the equivalent of an absorbed dose rate in free air of 20 rads per minute at a distance of 2 meters from the reacting material [Am86]. This report summarizes the analysis that was performed to evaluate the CAAS response to selected minimum accidents-of-concern on the operating floor of the cascade buildings. Selection of potential accident locations was based, in part, on the maximum distance to the closest CAAS detector. The other factor in selecting potential accident locations for analysis was the amount of intervening shielding between the accident location and CAAS detector. If the CAAS was predicted to alarm under conditions of significant shielding, then the system presumably would alarm in response to all accidents greater than the minimum accident-of-concern, at closer distances, and with less shielding.

  20. Transformation based endorsement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudkamp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Evidential reasoning techniques classically represent support for a hypothesis by a numeric value or an evidential interval. The combination of support is performed by an arithmetic rule which often requires restrictions to be placed on the set of possibilities. These assumptions usually require the hypotheses to be exhausitive and mutually exclusive. Endorsement based classification systems represent support for the alternatives symbolically rather than numerically. A framework for constructing endorsement systems is presented in which transformations are defined to generate and update the knowledge base. The interaction of the knowledge base and transformations produces a non-monotonic reasoning system. Two endorsement based reasoning systems are presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the transformational approach for reasoning with ambiguous and inconsistent information.

  1. Forest fire autonomous decision system based on fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Lu, Jianhua

    2010-11-01

    The proposed system integrates GPS / pseudolite / IMU and thermal camera in order to autonomously process the graphs by identification, extraction, tracking of forest fire or hot spots. The airborne detection platform, the graph-based algorithms and the signal processing frame are analyzed detailed; especially the rules of the decision function are expressed in terms of fuzzy logic, which is an appropriate method to express imprecise knowledge. The membership function and weights of the rules are fixed through a supervised learning process. The perception system in this paper is based on a network of sensorial stations and central stations. The sensorial stations collect data including infrared and visual images and meteorological information. The central stations exchange data to perform distributed analysis. The experiment results show that working procedure of detection system is reasonable and can accurately output the detection alarm and the computation of infrared oscillations.

  2. Forest fire autonomous decision system based on fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Lu, Jianhua

    2009-09-01

    The proposed system integrates GPS / pseudolite / IMU and thermal camera in order to autonomously process the graphs by identification, extraction, tracking of forest fire or hot spots. The airborne detection platform, the graph-based algorithms and the signal processing frame are analyzed detailed; especially the rules of the decision function are expressed in terms of fuzzy logic, which is an appropriate method to express imprecise knowledge. The membership function and weights of the rules are fixed through a supervised learning process. The perception system in this paper is based on a network of sensorial stations and central stations. The sensorial stations collect data including infrared and visual images and meteorological information. The central stations exchange data to perform distributed analysis. The experiment results show that working procedure of detection system is reasonable and can accurately output the detection alarm and the computation of infrared oscillations.

  3. Model-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    2007-01-01

    Engineers, who design systems using text specification documents, focus their work upon the completed system to meet Performance, time and budget goals. Consistency and integrity is difficult to maintain within text documents for a single complex system and more difficult to maintain as several systems are combined into higher-level systems, are maintained over decades, and evolve technically and in performance through updates. This system design approach frequently results in major changes during the system integration and test phase, and in time and budget overruns. Engineers who build system specification documents within a model-based systems environment go a step further and aggregate all of the data. They interrelate all of the data to insure consistency and integrity. After the model is constructed, the various system specification documents are prepared, all from the same database. The consistency and integrity of the model is assured, therefore the consistency and integrity of the various specification documents is insured. This article attempts to define model-based systems relative to such an environment. The intent is to expose the complexity of the enabling problem by outlining what is needed, why it is needed and how needs are being addressed by international standards writing teams.

  4. A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Robert D; Bennett, Thomas H

    2012-03-01

    Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

  5. A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics

    PubMed Central

    Magrath, Robert D.; Bennett, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

  6. Alarm pheromone is detected by the vomeronasal organ in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Kubota, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    It is widely known that a stressed animal releases specific pheromones, possibly for alarming nearby conspecifics. We previously investigated an alarm pheromone in male rats and found that this alarm pheromone evokes several responses, including increases in the defensive and risk assessment behaviors in a modified open-field test, and enhancement of the acoustic startle reflex. However, the role of the vomeronasal organ in these pheromone effects remains unclear. To clarify this point, vomeronasal organ-excising or sham surgeries were performed in male rats for use in 2 experimental models, after which they were exposed to alarm pheromone. We found that the vomeronasal organ-excising surgery blocked the effects of this alarm pheromone in both the modified open-field test and acoustic startle reflex test. In addition, the results of habituation/dishabituation test and soybean agglutinin binding to the accessory olfactory bulb suggested that the vomeronasal organ-excising surgery completely ablated the vomeronasal organ while preserving the functioning of the main olfactory system. From the above results, we showed that the vomeronasal organ plays an important role in alarm pheromone effects in the modified open-field test and acoustic startle reflex test. PMID:23821727

  7. Alarm fatigue: a roadmap for mitigating the cacophony of beeps.

    PubMed

    Purbaugh, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon known as alarm fatigue is the direct result of excessive alarms in hospitals. This article highlights the effects of alarm fatigue and reviews current clinical recommendations and guidelines to raise nurse awareness and provide tools to combat the problem. PMID:24310707

  8. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must...

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall...

  10. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm...

  11. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm...

  12. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm is calibrated and zeroed to manufacturer's instructions. (2) It is then fed with water for 15 minutes and then with a mixture of Test Fluid A and water in the following concentrations: 0 ppm, 15 ppm... actuation of the alarm is taken. The alarm is then fed with water for 15 minutes. (3) Repeat steps...

  13. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must...

  14. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  17. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  18. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  19. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  4. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  5. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in the pilothouse that activates the general alarm bell must be clearly and permanently identified either by...

  6. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be identified by marking “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION” next to the bell....

  7. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....

  8. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810 Shipping... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be...—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.”...

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  10. [Design of the remote monitoring system of vital sign based on smartphone and mobile internet].

    PubMed

    Wen, Chuanxue; Zhou, Hongjian; Zhang, Junfei

    2015-02-01

    The present paper presents the design of a remote monitoring system based on smartphone and mobile internet. The system can realize functions such as multi-physiological parameter collection, micromation of collecting equipment, real-time monitoring, remote data transmission, automatic alarm, physiological parameter analyze and Global Position System (GPS) location of patient's position. Besides acting as a receiver and transmission platform, smartphone can also process and analyze the physiological parameters, such as detection of the apnea from electrocardiogram (ECG). The system contains technologies of MCU, Bluetooth transmission, Android and Wed development, wavelet transform, mobile communication as a whole. It propels further developments of the remote mobile medical based on smartphone. PMID:25997272

  11. Smoke alarms in the home: what every physician should know.

    PubMed

    Sultan, M A; Feldman, W M

    1985-12-15

    Primary care physicians interested in health education and accident prevention should be knowledgeable about smoke alarms (smoke detectors with built-in alarms). Either ionization or photoelectric smoke alarms can help save lives if they are properly installed and maintained. The number, site and maintenance of smoke alarms in the home and the steps a person should take in the event of a fire are discussed. Considering the rates of death, disability and disfigurement associated with residential fires, early warning devices such as smoke alarms make sense. PMID:4063931

  12. Smoke alarms in the home: what every physician should know

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Mohammed A.; Feldman, William M.

    1985-01-01

    Primary care physicians interested in health education and accident prevention should be knowledgeable about smoke alarms (smoke detectors with built-in alarms). Either ionization or photoelectric smoke alarms can help save lives if they are properly installed and maintained. The number, site and maintenance of smoke alarms in the home and the steps a person should take in the event of a fire are discussed. Considering the rates of death, disability and disfigurement associated with residential fires, early warning devices such as smoke alarms make sense. PMID:4063931

  13. Arrangements of the intravenous parallel infusions with anti-reflux valves decreasing occlusion alarm delay

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Han Bum; Moon, Bong-Ki; Lee, Yeon-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Background The methods of arrangement of combined intravenous parallel infusions using anti-reflux valve (ARV), with and without anti-syphon valve (ASV) that could decrease occlusion alarm delay were investigated. Methods Occlusion challenge tests were mainly performed as bench experiments of four kinds of multiple parallel infusions (10 ml/h and 50 ml/h infusions), which were connected at the proximal or distal portion of ARV, with or without ASV. Alarm threshold was set to 1000 mmHg. Occlusion alarm delays and the compliances of the infusion systems were compared among groups. Results Without ASV, compared to 10 ml/h infusion alone distal to anti-reflux valve, 50 ml/h infusion distal to anti-reflux valve reduced the mean alarm delay from 416 ± 7 s to 81 ± 3 s (P < 0.001). Compared to 50 ml/h infusion alone, combined 10 ml/h and 50 ml/h infusion distal to ARV prolonged the alarm delay from 81 ± 3 s to 133 ± 6 s (P < 0.001). However, combined infusions distal to ARV with ASV significantly reduced the alarm delay from 133 ± 6 s to 74 ± 5 s (P < 0.001), and also reduced the compliance of the infusion system from 2.31 ± 0.12 to 1.20 ± 0.08 µl/mmHg (P < 0.001). Conclusions The infusion setup of faster infusion rate, lower compliant system using ASV could effectively decrease occlusion alarm delay during multiple intravenous parallel infusions using ARV. PMID:24851166

  14. Organic liquid scintillation detectors for on-the-fly neutron/gamma alarming and radionuclide identification in a pedestrian radiation portal monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit; Ruch, Marc L.; Poitrasson-Riviere, Alexis; Sagadevan, Athena; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara

    2015-07-01

    We present new experimental results from a radiation portal monitor based on the use of organic liquid scintillators. The system was tested as part of a 3He-free radiation portal monitor testing campaign at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy, in February 2014. The radiation portal monitor was subjected to a wide range of test conditions described in ANSI N42.35, including a variety of gamma-ray sources and a 20,000 n/s 252Cf source. A false alarm test tested whether radiation portal monitors ever alarmed in the presence of only natural background. The University of Michigan Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation Group's system triggered zero false alarms in 2739 trials. It consistently alarmed on a variety of gamma-ray sources travelling at 1.2 m/s at a 70 cm source to detector distance. The neutron source was detected at speeds up to 3 m/s and in configurations with up to 8 cm of high density polyethylene shielding. The success of on-the-fly radionuclide identification varied with the gamma-ray source measured as well as with which of two radionuclide identification methods was used. Both methods used a least squares comparison between the measured pulse height distributions to library spectra to pick the best match. The methods varied in how the pulse height distributions were modified prior to the least squares comparison. Correct identification rates were as high as 100% for highly enriched uranium, but as low as 50% for 241Am. Both radionuclide identification algorithms produced mixed results, but the concept of using liquid scintillation detectors for gamma-ray and neutron alarming in radiation portal monitor was validated.

  15. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm related C Programs for the 242-A MCS

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.F.

    1996-04-15

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades. This control system, called the Monitor and Control system (MCS), was installed in the 242-A evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme.

  16. LBTO Alarm Notification/Management and Error Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Peña, M. D.; Biddick, C.; Summers, K.; Summers, D.

    2015-09-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO) Telescope Control System (TCS) is comprised of fifteen subsystems and accepts commands from the operator, as well as from six pairs of instruments. To the operator the TCS presents as a high-level set of GUIs with each GUI corresponding to one specific subsystem and providing full state information and varying degrees of control. The TCS GUIs not only provide the operators with broad control over all aspects of the telescope, but each individual GUI also reports problems within its domain through the use of color-coded messages and widgets indicating the seriousness of the issue. While there is significant problem reporting available to the operator, until recently there was no centralized and persistent visual indication or “annunciator” display for issues. In order to provide a way to present problems in a centralized and persistent fashion with “on-the-spot guidance” to ease the job of the operator and to have an acknowledge capability, the LBTO project decided to leverage an existing Alarm Handler which is a GUI client application associated with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)1. This paper briefly describes the TCS sources of problem reporting information and how the EPICS Alarm Handler supplements the current system.

  17. [Design of Fall Detection System for Elderly People Based on MPU6050 Sensor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Zheng, Dongxue; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a falling detection system based on MPU6050 senor. The system consists of a MPU6050 sensor, a STM32 MCU and a set of Bluetooth 4.0 device: collecting and parsing the falling data, transferring the result to a smartphone, the smartphone: receiving the result, alarming the elder's family and hospital. This paper presentes a new judging algorithm based on the threshold of three-axis acceleration and angle deviation of body, in order to differentiate AF and normal daily activity. The result proves that the accuracy of the system is higher than 95%, which strongly highlight the robustness and reliability. PMID:26904872

  18. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Last at least 20 seconds; (ii) Be approved by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection during system... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-45 Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. (a) Each system protecting a space with greater than 6,000...

  19. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Last at least 20 seconds; (ii) Be approved by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection during system... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-45 Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. (a) Each system protecting a space with greater than 6,000...

  20. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Last at least 20 seconds; (ii) Be approved by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection during system... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-45 Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. (a) Each system protecting a space with greater than 6,000...

  1. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS Services and Sites in WLCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Perez, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Gutsche, O.; Sciabà, A.; Flix, J.; Kreuzer, P.; Fajardo, E.; Boccali, T.; Klute, M.; Gomes, D.; Kaselis, R.; Du, R.; Magini, N.; Butenas, I.; Wang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

  2. The implications of probability matching for clinician response to vital sign alarms: a theoretical study of alarm fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bailey, James M

    2015-01-01

    Alarm fatigue has been recognised as a significant health technology safety risk. 'Probability matching', in which clinicians respond to the alarm at a rate identical to the perceived reliability of the alarm, has been postulated as a model to explain alarm fatigue. In this article, we quantitatively explore the implications of probability matching for systolic blood pressure alarms. We find that probability matching could have a profound effect on clinician response to the alarm, with a response rate of only 8.6% when the alarm threshold is 90 mm Hg and the optimal threshold for a systolic blood pressure alarm would only be 77 mm Hg. We use the mathematical framework to assess a mitigation strategy when clinicians have a limit to the capacity to respond. We find that a tiered alarm in which clinicians receive information on the severity of vital sign perturbation significantly improves the opportunity to rescue patients. Practitioner Summary: Using a theoretical model, we predict that probability matching, a postulated model of clinician behaviour, can result in a profound decrease in clinician response to alarms for decreased blood pressure. A mitigating strategy is to create alarms that convey information on the degree of vital sign perturbation. PMID:25849772

  3. Concatenation of 'alert' and 'identity' segments in dingoes' alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Déaux, Eloïse C; Allen, Andrew P; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Multicomponent signals can be formed by the uninterrupted concatenation of multiple call types. One such signal is found in dingoes, Canis familiaris dingo. This stereotyped, multicomponent 'bark-howl' vocalisation is formed by the concatenation of a noisy bark segment and a tonal howl segment. Both segments are structurally similar to bark and howl vocalisations produced independently in other contexts (e.g. intra- and inter-pack communication). Bark-howls are mainly uttered in response to human presence and were hypothesized to serve as alarm calls. We investigated the function of bark-howls and the respective roles of the bark and howl segments. We found that dingoes could discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar howl segments, after having only heard familiar howl vocalisations (i.e. different calls). We propose that howl segments could function as 'identity signals' and allow receivers to modulate their responses according to the caller's characteristics. The bark segment increased receivers' attention levels, providing support for earlier observational claims that barks have an 'alerting' function. Lastly, dingoes were more likely to display vigilance behaviours upon hearing bark-howl vocalisations, lending support to the alarm function hypothesis. Canid vocalisations, such as the dingo bark-howl, may provide a model system to investigate the selective pressures shaping complex communication systems. PMID:27460289

  4. Do smoke alarms still function a year after installation? A follow-up of the get-alarmed campaign.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corleen J; Jones, Alma R; Davis, Mary Kidd; Caplan, Lee S

    2004-04-01

    The Get-Alarmed Campaign Follow-up Study was the second phase of an initiative to assure that homes of families at high risk of fire-related injury and death had functioning smoke alarms. Smoke alarms and/or batteries were installed in over 94 percent of 454 participating households in Schley and Henry Counties, Georgia, in 2000. Before the study began, 60.6 percent of these homes had smoke alarms, but only 36.6 percent had functioning smoke alarms. The follow-up study was designed to determine the experiences of participants with smoke alarms and whether participating households had functioning smoke alarms a year after baseline. Participants were phoned or visited and asked about their experiences with smoke alarms since the baseline study. During the interview, they were asked to test a smoke alarm, the results of which could frequently be heard. Respondents included 237 from Schley County and 113 from Henry County, for an overall 77.1 percent response rate. While 80.3 percent of respondents had a smoke alarm that was heard by the interviewer when it was tested, 6.6 percent reported that their smoke alarm had been disabled or had a dead battery. Over 75 percent of respondents had smoke alarm sound offs in the prior year, predominately due to cooking smoke, but only about 5 percent reported removing the battery or otherwise disabling it to prevent sound offs. However, the measures taken may render a household unprotected at a critical time. Efforts to increase protection with smoke alarms should be augmented with programs to insure adequate and timely testing and maintenance of existing smoke alarms. PMID:15065735

  5. Performance of the species-typical alarm response in young workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is induced by interactions with mature workers.

    PubMed

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire

    2014-01-01

    Young workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Meinert 1861 perceived nestmate alarm pheromone but did not display normal alarm behavior (orientation toward the source of emission, increased running speed). They changed their initial behavior when in the presence of older nestmates exhibiting normal alarm behavior. Four days later, the young ants exhibited an imperfect version of normal alarm behavior. This change of behavior did not occur in young ants, which were not exposed to older ants reacting to alarm pheromone. Queen ants perceived the alarm pheromone and, after a few seconds, moved toward its source. Thus, the ants' ability to sense the alarm pheromone and to identify it as an alarm signal is native, while the adult alarm reaction is acquired over time (= age based polyethism) by young ants. It is possible that the change in behavior observed in young ants could be initiated and/or enhanced (via experience-induced developmental plasticity, learning, and/or other mechanisms) by older ants exhibiting alarm behavior. PMID:25525102

  6. Performance of the Species-Typical Alarm Response in Young Workers of the Ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Is Induced by Interactions with Mature Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire

    2014-01-01

    Young workers of the ant Myrmica sabuleti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Meinert 1861 perceived nestmate alarm pheromone but did not display normal alarm behavior (orientation toward the source of emission, increased running speed). They changed their initial behavior when in the presence of older nestmates exhibiting normal alarm behavior. Four days later, the young ants exhibited an imperfect version of normal alarm behavior. This change of behavior did not occur in young ants, which were not exposed to older ants reacting to alarm pheromone. Queen ants perceived the alarm pheromone and, after a few seconds, moved toward its source. Thus, the ants’ ability to sense the alarm pheromone and to identify it as an alarm signal is native, while the adult alarm reaction is acquired over time (= age based polyethism) by young ants. It is possible that the change in behavior observed in young ants could be initiated and/or enhanced (via experience-induced developmental plasticity, learning, and/or other mechanisms) by older ants exhibiting alarm behavior. PMID:25525102

  7. Reducing false alarms in the ICU by quantifying self-similarity of multimodal biosignals.

    PubMed

    Antink, Christoph Hoog; Leonhardt, Steffen; Walter, Marian

    2016-08-01

    False arrhythmia alarms pose a major threat to the quality of care in today's ICU. Thus, the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015 aimed at reducing false alarms by exploiting multimodal cardiac signals recorded by a patient monitor. False alarms for asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular flutter/fibrillation as well as ventricular tachycardia were to be reduced using two electrocardiogram channels, up to two cardiac signals of mechanical origin as well as a respiratory signal. In this paper, an approach combining multimodal rhythmicity estimation and machine learning is presented. Using standard short-time autocorrelation and robust beat-to-beat interval estimation, the signal's self-similarity is analyzed. In particular, beat intervals as well as quality measures are derived which are further quantified using basic mathematical operations (min, mean, max, etc). Moreover, methods from the realm of image processing, 2D Fourier transformation combined with principal component analysis, are employed for dimensionality reduction. Several machine learning approaches are evaluated including linear discriminant analysis and random forest. Using an alarm-independent reduction strategy, an overall false alarm reduction with a score of 65.52 in terms of the real-time scoring system of the challenge is achieved on a hidden dataset. Employing an alarm-specific strategy, an overall real-time score of 78.20 at a true positive rate of 95% and a true negative rate of 78% is achieved. While the results for some categories still need improvement, false alarms for extreme tachycardia are suppressed with 100% sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27454256

  8. Interspecific Semantic Alarm Call Recognition in the Solitary Sahamalaza Sportive Lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Melanie; Schwitzer, Christoph; Gamba, Marco; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This “eavesdropping” was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species’ and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential signals to detect

  9. Interspecific semantic alarm call recognition in the solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Melanie; Schwitzer, Christoph; Gamba, Marco; Holderied, Marc W

    2013-01-01

    As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This "eavesdropping" was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species' and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential signals to detect

  10. Reduction of false arrhythmia alarms using signal selection and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Eerikäinen, Linda M; Vanschoren, Joaquin; Rooijakkers, Michael J; Vullings, Rik; Aarts, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm that classifies whether a generated cardiac arrhythmia alarm is true or false. The large number of false alarms in intensive care is a severe issue. The noise peaks caused by alarms can be high and in a noisy environment nurses can experience stress and fatigue. In addition, patient safety is compromised because reaction time of the caregivers to true alarms is reduced. The data for the algorithm development consisted of records of electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure, and photoplethysmogram signals in which an alarm for either asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation or flutter, or ventricular tachycardia occurs. First, heart beats are extracted from every signal. Next, the algorithm selects the most reliable signal pair from the available signals by comparing how well the detected beats match between different signals based on [Formula: see text]-score and selecting the best match. From the selected signal pair, arrhythmia specific features, such as heart rate features and signal purity index are computed for the alarm classification. The classification is performed with five separate Random Forest models. In addition, information on the local noise level of the selected ECG lead is added to the classification. The algorithm was trained and evaluated with the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015 data set. In the test set the overall true positive rates were 93 and 95% and true negative rates 80 and 83%, respectively for events with no information and events with information after the alarm. The overall challenge scores were 77.39 and 81.58. PMID:27454128

  11. Key Elements of a Successful Multi-System Collaboration for School-Based Mental Health: In-Depth Interviews with District and Agency Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joelle D.; Edwards, Jeffrey D.; Blackman, Kate F.; Wegmann, Kate M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming number of youth with unmet mental health needs in the US is a significant social problem. The pilot school-based mental health project described here established an innovative multi-system partnership between an urban school district, a public mental health agency, and a local university to better meet the mental health needs of youth…

  12. Satellite-based snow identification and its impact on monitoring photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Georg; Zehner, Mike; Becker, Gerd; Schroedter-Homscheidt, Marion

    2010-02-15

    Earth observation allows the separation of snow cover and cloudiness using multispectral measurements. Several satellite-based snow monitoring services are available, ranging from regional to world-wide scales. Using these data enables photovoltaic (PV) plant management to differentiate between failures due to snow coverage on a PV system and other error sources. Additionally, yield estimates for solar siting are improved. This paper presents a validation study from January to April 2006 comparing satellite-based datasets with ground measurements from German and Swiss meteorological stations. A false alarm rate, an error due to irradiance underestimation, the availability of daily data, and the classification accuracy are introduced as quality metrics. Compared to Switzerland, generally a higher accuracy is found in all datasets for Southern Germany. The most significant difference among the datasets is found in the error pattern shifting from too much snow (which results in an error due to underestimation of irradiance) to too little snow detection, causing a false alarm in PV monitoring. Overall, the data records of the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF), the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) are found to be most suitable for solar energy purposes. The IMS dataset has a low false alarm rate (4%) and a good data availability (100%) making it a good choice for power plant monitoring, but the error due to underestimation relevant in site auditing is large with 59%. If a cumulative snow cover algorithm is applied to achieve information every day as needed both for power plant monitoring and site auditing, both the DLR and the LSA SAF datasets are comparable with classification accuracies of 70%, false alarm rates of 37% and 34%, respectively, and errors due to irradiance underestimation in 26% and 27% of all coincidences. (author)

  13. 5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing cable strand alarm located at Beach and Hyde Streets. A strand in the cable (see CA-12-7) forces the fork forward, alerting the powerhouse to the strand by means of an electrical warning device. This strand alarm operates in essentially the same manner as those first used in the 1880s. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO...

  16. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO...

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered...

  18. The Application Research of Modern Intelligent Cold Chain Distribution System Based on Internet of Things Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Dehui; Gao, Shan

    This paper implemented an intelligent cold chain distribution system based on the technology of Internet of things, and took the protoplasmic beer logistics transport system as example. It realized the remote real-time monitoring material status, recorded the distribution information, dynamically adjusted the distribution tasks and other functions. At the same time, the system combined the Internet of things technology with weighted filtering algorithm, realized the real-time query of condition curve, emergency alarming, distribution data retrieval, intelligent distribution task arrangement, etc. According to the actual test, it can realize the optimization of inventory structure, and improve the efficiency of cold chain distribution.

  19. Using an alarm to improve drug trolley safety.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Emily; Pearson, Darcy; Moondi, Parvez; Gibson, John; Blunt, Mark; Young, Peter; Mariyaselvam, Maryanne

    Leaving drug trolleys unlocked and unattended during drug rounds creates opportunities for drug theft and tampering. A new device was developed by our trust to detect when an open drug trolley is left unattended; it then sounds an alarm to remind staff to return to the trolley. This article describes use of the alarm on general hospital wards in one trust in the east of England. When the alarm was installed into drug trolleys on ahospital ward, it reduced the number of times unlocked trolleys were left unattended. The drug trolley alarm successfully changed the behaviour of staff on drug rounds and, in so doing, improved patient safety. PMID:26625697

  20. Shadow Probability of Detection and False Alarm for Median-Filtered SAR Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter; Miller, John A.; Bishop, Edward E.; Horndt, Volker

    2014-06-01

    Median filtering reduces speckle in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery while preserving edges, at the expense of coarsening the resolution, by replacing the center pixel of a sliding window by the median value. For shadow detection, this approach helps distinguish shadows from clutter more easily, while preserving shadow shape delineations. However, the nonlinear operation alters the shadow and clutter distributions and statistics, which must be taken into consideration when computing probability of detection and false alarm metrics. Depending on system parameters, median filtering can improve probability of detection and false alarm by orders of magnitude. Herein, we examine shadow probability of detection and false alarm in a homogeneous, ideal clutter background after median filter post-processing. Some comments on multi-look processing effects with and without median filtering are also made.