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Sample records for alarm system caas

  1. CEM system: Lynchpin holding CAA compliance together

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, T.C.

    1995-05-01

    Continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) and associated reporting systems promise to be among the most important subjects in the electric power industry this year. With the first major deadline stipulated by the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 (CAA) now past, viable CEM/reporting systems are absolutely essential to the compliance and allowance-tracking of many powerplants. The implications and challenges of meeting CAA`s Title 5, which went into effect on January 1, 1995, are discussed here. Title 5 consolidates all existing air-pollution regulations into one comprehensive but ungainly operating-permit program. It stipulates that powerplant operators must file their permit applications; that is, estimate all point-source and fugitive emissions, specify all regulations that apply to them, and show how each rule will be met.

  2. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  3. Alarm Notification System

    1995-03-12

    AN/EMS, the Alarm Notification Energy Management System, is used to monitor digital sensors in PETC buildings and to notify the safety/security operator by both a video and an audio system when a possibly hazardous condition arises.

  4. Beta test results for the CAA mini-SAM system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.C.; Monagle, M.

    1997-04-01

    The mission of the Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) Program is to automate methods for chemical analysis of environmental samples. To accomplish this mission, the CAA team has developed automated laboratory systems based on a plug-and-work strategy for integrating components. Realizing that standardization is the key to implementing this strategy, CAA has developed, demonstrated, and encouraged commercialization of standards for laboratory automation. While the CAA mission is driven by the analyses in support of the extensive remediation programs of the Departments of Energy and Defense, it also impacts any industry that depends upon high volumes of repetitive chemical analysis. A Standard Analysis Method (SAM) is any collection of hardware and software used to automate part or all of a method. The method automated for the Mini-SAM testing is EPA Method 3550, which outlines semivolatiles extraction by sonication. The list of semivolatiles includes the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analytes of interest. The basic building block of a SAM is the Standard Laboratory Module (SLM). For the Mini-SAM test an automated sonication SLM and an automated concentration SLM were configured to perform the extraction and concentration processes. The Mini-SAM differs from the Full-SAM in that a fully automated delivery of materials, samples, and extracts is not required. The intent of the Beta Test of the Mini-SAM was threefold. Firstly, the Mini-SAM Beta Test met a milestone mandated by the Department of Energy in the course of the program effort. Secondly, the CAA Program secured an independent assessment of the equipment and its capabilities from Assagai Analytical Laboratory. Lastly, the Program captured real-world sample data. The independent assessment, coupled with CAA observation of equipment performance, was used to determine strengths and weaknesses of the Mini-SAM and to compile possible modifications for CAA engineers to address.

  5. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  6. IMPEDANCE ALARM SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Cowen, R.G.

    1959-09-29

    A description is given of electric protective systems and burglar alarm systems of the capacitance type in which the approach of an intruder at a place to be protected varies the capacitance in an electric circuit and the change is thereafter communicated to a remote point to actuate an alarm. According to the invention, an astable transitor multi-vibrator has the amplitude at its output voltage controlled by a change in the sensing capacitance. The sensing capacitance is effectively connected between collector and base of one stage of the multivibrator circuit through the detector-to-monitor line. The output of the detector is a small d-c voltage across the detector-to-monitor line. This d- c voltage is amplified and monitored at the other end of the line, where an appropriate alarm is actuated if a sudden change in the voltage occurs. The present system has a high degree of sensitivity and is very difficult to defeat by known techniques.

  7. Rocky Flats CAAS System Recalibrated, Retested, and Analyzed to Install in the Criticality Experiments Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S; Heinrichs, D; Biswas, D; Huang, S; Dulik, G; Scorby, J; Boussoufi, M; Liu, B; Wilson, R

    2009-05-27

    Neutron detectors and control panels transferred from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) were recalibrated and retested for redeployment to the CEF. Testing and calibration were successful with no failure to any equipment. Detector sensitivity was tested at a TRIGA reactor, and the response to thermal neutron flux was satisfactory. MCNP calculated minimum fission yield ({approx} 2 x 10{sup 15} fissions) was applied to determine the thermal flux at selected detector positions at the CEF. Thermal flux levels were greater than 6.39 x 10{sup 6} (n/cm{sup 2}-sec), which was about four orders of magnitude greater than the minimum alarm flux. Calculations of detector survivable distances indicate that, to be out of lethal area, a detector needs to be placed greater than 15 ft away from a maximum credible source. MCNP calculated flux/dose results were independently verified by COG. CAAS calibration and the testing confirmed that the RFP CAAS system is performing its functions as expected. New criteria for the CAAS detector placement and 12-rad zone boundaries at the CEF are established. All of the CAAS related documents and hardware have been transferred from LLNL to NSTec for installation at the CEF high bay areas.

  8. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  9. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1988-04-22

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

  10. Intensive care alarm system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J. L.; Herbert, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Inductive loop has been added to commercially available call system fitted with earphone receiver. System transmits high frequency signals to nurse's receiver to announce patient's need for help without disturbing others.

  11. Personal Alarm System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Trouble in the classroom is an unpleasant fact of modern life. Space technology can't stop the trouble from occurring, but it can prevent it from spreading. In recognition of this, NASA and the Sacramento, Cal. Unified School District developed a personal security system based on space telemetry technology. The first application was for schools, but the simplicity and reliability of the system has made it more widely applicable. The heart of the system is an ultrasonic pen-size transmitter. It can be used by prison guards, teachers, or others such as the handicapped and the elderly.

  12. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Markman

    2001-08-06

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of

  13. The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Chen, Xihui; Danilova, Katia

    2009-01-01

    Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

  14. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-07-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are made at the time the alarm is activated. Alarming areas are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer-generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  16. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  17. An improved criticality alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Tyree, W.H.; Gilpin, H.E.; Balmer, D.K.; Vennitti, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado is the primary facility for the production of plutonium components used in the US arsenal of nuclear weapons. It is operated by EG&G under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE). There are ten production buildings on plant site with neutron based criticality alarm systems. These systems have been in operation for the past seventeen years. Changes in the interpretation of A.N.S.I. standards and DOE orders have precipitated an evaluation of detector sensitivity and placement criteria. As a result of this evaluation, improvements in detector design and calibration have improved detector sensitivity by a factor of six. Testing performed on the design defined a minimum sensitivity as required by A.N.S.I. 8.3 and provided information for saturation and survivability for a fission event of up to 1 {times} 10{sup 17} fissions in 80 microseconds. A rigorous testing and calibration program has been developed and is in place. Neutron sensitivity is certified at a nearby reactor which is traceable to N.I.S.T.. 4 refs.

  18. Criticality alarm system for plutonium process operations

    SciTech Connect

    Tyree, W H; Urano, H

    1981-05-25

    A criticality alarm system using neutron detection is described. The system includes a neutron detection unit with an internal operational testing mode. The unit uses a Li/sup 6/F foil for the production of alpha particles from a thermal neturon flux, a thorium-230 alpha particle source for the continuous monitoring of the raidation detection circuits, and an internal clock which produces an alarmed condition if the detector amplifier circuit fails. This neutron detector unit is designed to replace the existing neutron detector in the criticality alarm systems at Rocky Flats. Coincidence circuits, interface system and audio signal generators used in the output of the alarm system are described. The system meets the criteria for the American National Standards and the USDOE Manual Chapter for detection, alarm, and signal output requirements.

  19. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates...

  20. Development of medical equipment alarm monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoshinori; Ogaito, Tatoku; Kasamatsu, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    In a hospital, we use a large number of medical equipment. In these use, I support the safe use by the alarm such as errors from medical equipment. There is the instrument notifying of alarm in communication, but there is the instrument by a sound and the light. For the medical safety management, confirmation of the alarm is important. We thought that stability was improved by integrating alarm from the instrument of the different type. Therefore, we thought that we integrated alarm from medical equipment. We decided to transmit an alarm signal from medical equipment by adding radio module program unit. The type of the radio used IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) at a point of view of low power, International Standard, simple radio equipment. This system deals with only alarm information from medical equipment and does not handle the data. However, we understood that we were helpful very much even if it was only alarm information. We were able to in this way reduce the number of incidents. PMID:23920969

  1. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  2. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which are... the control unit and terminating at manual fire alarm boxes. Power failure alarm devices may be... alarm system control unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for...

  3. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  4. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  5. Development of Advanced Alarm System for SMART

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Seoung, Duk-hyun; Suh, Sang-moon; Lee, Jong-bok; Park, Geun-ok; Koo, In-soo

    2004-07-01

    A SMART-Alarm System (SMART-AS) is a new system being developed as part of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) project. The SMART-AS employs modern digital technology to implement the alarm functions of the SMART. The use of modern digital technology can provide advanced alarm processing in which new algorithms such as a signal validation, advanced alarm processing logic and other features are applied to improve the control room man-machine interfaces. This paper will describe the design process of the SMART-AS, improving the system reliability and availability using the reliability prediction tool, design strategies regarding the human performance topics associated with a computer-based SMART-AS and the results of the performance analysis using a prototype of the SMART-AS. (authors)

  6. Alarm Systems: Library Confounds Criminal Capers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjettum, Pamela

    1978-01-01

    Tells the story of a small town library faced with the problem of preventing nuisance burglaries of the type becoming more and more common. The problems of selecting the right type of alarm system are discussed. (JPF)

  7. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system. Each sprinkler alarm system, including annunciator,...

  8. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  9. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  10. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  11. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  12. Alarm system management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response.

    PubMed

    Rayo, Michael F; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-04-01

    Although there are powerful incentives for creating alarm management programmes to reduce 'alarm fatigue', they do not provide guidance on how to reduce the likelihood that clinicians will disregard critical alarms. The literature cites numerous phenomena that contribute to alarm fatigue, although many of these, including total rate of alarms, are not supported in the literature as factors that directly impact alarm response. The contributor that is most frequently associated with alarm response is informativeness, which is defined as the proportion of total alarms that successfully conveys a specific event, and the extent to which it is a hazard. Informativeness is low across all healthcare applications, consistently ranging from 1% to 20%. Because of its likelihood and strong evidential support, informativeness should be evaluated before other contributors are considered. Methods for measuring informativeness and alarm response are discussed. Design directions for potential interventions, as well as design alternatives to traditional alarms, are also discussed. With the increased attention and investment in alarm system management that alarm interventions are currently receiving, initiatives that focus on informativeness and the other evidence-based measures identified will allow us to more effectively, efficiently and reliably redirect clinician attention, ultimately improving alarm response. PMID:25734193

  13. SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in

  14. An Undergraduate Experiment in Alarm System Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, R. A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving data acquisition by a computer, digital signal transmission from the computer to a digital logic circuit and signal interpretation by this circuit. The system is being used at the Illinois Institute of Technology. Discusses the fundamental concepts involved. Demonstrates the alarm experiment as it is used in…

  15. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  16. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  17. Alarm Management System for the D/3 Distributed Control System

    1997-03-19

    As industrial processes continue to grow in size and complexity, the Distrubuted Control Systems that automate and monitor these processes expand in a like manner. This increase in control system complexity has resulted in ever increasing numbers of alarms presented to the operator. The challenge for today's control system designer is to find innovative ways to present alarm information to the operator such that despite the large number of alarms, the operator is able tomore » quickly assess the status of the plant and immediately respond to the most critical alarms in a timely manner. This software package, designed and developed for the Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator/Waste Removal Distributed Control System installed on the H-Area Tank Farm, provides an alarm system which utilizes the annunciator (SKID) panel as a means of statusing the plant and providing single keystroke access to the display on which an alarm resides.« less

  18. Alarm Management System for the D/3 Distributed Control System

    SciTech Connect

    McEver, M.

    1997-03-19

    As industrial processes continue to grow in size and complexity, the Distrubuted Control Systems that automate and monitor these processes expand in a like manner. This increase in control system complexity has resulted in ever increasing numbers of alarms presented to the operator. The challenge for today's control system designer is to find innovative ways to present alarm information to the operator such that despite the large number of alarms, the operator is able to quickly assess the status of the plant and immediately respond to the most critical alarms in a timely manner. This software package, designed and developed for the Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator/Waste Removal Distributed Control System installed on the H-Area Tank Farm, provides an alarm system which utilizes the annunciator (SKID) panel as a means of statusing the plant and providing single keystroke access to the display on which an alarm resides.

  19. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  20. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  1. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  2. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  3. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  4. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  5. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping... Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a) An approved manual alarm system shall be installed in all areas, other than the main machinery spaces,...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

  7. Alarm system for a nuclear control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  8. Design of anti-burglar alarm systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şchiopu, Paul; Costea, Aurelian

    2015-02-01

    Security, as an important element that defines the quality of a system, represents the capacity of a system to preserve his own functional characteristics under pressure of external disruptive agents capable to represent danger for the system, for the environment of the system, and for the life of people inside the defined risk zone. The main goal of security is system stability. With ever new ideas, technology, procedures, actions and specialized institutions, integrated security services offer protection, surveillance and optimum conditions for system to function and to be used properly. Therefore, security represents the main quality parameter of all systems and processes, without it efficiency was not possible. Keyword list: Security; Anti-Burglar Alarm

  9. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indicating and alarm systems. 58.25-25 Section 58.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-25 Indicating and alarm systems. (a) Indication of the rudder angle must be provided both...

  10. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indicating and alarm systems. 58.25-25 Section 58.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-25 Indicating and alarm systems. (a) Indication of the rudder angle must be provided both...

  11. 46 CFR 183.550 - General alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm systems. 183.550 Section 183.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.550 General alarm systems. All...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope...

  14. From alarm systems to smart houses.

    PubMed

    Vlaskamp, F J

    1992-01-01

    The percentage of senior citizens in the Netherlands will rise in coming years. The expected percentage for the year 2010 of persons over age 65 in the total population is 15%. More persons over age 65 than ever before will continue to live in their own environment. Emergency response systems (ERS) can support independent living. The most common type of organization distributing ERS is a small, partly subsidized local alarm organization run by a social welfare office for the elderly. Government subsidy has been reduced in recent years which has motivated small organizations to join together into larger regional organizations in order to get a more solid financial base. On the other hand new semi-commercial and commercial organizations have come into being. These developments are part of the growing importance of home care, leading to more medical applications of ERS. User satisfaction with ERS is high. Portable triggers can enhance the effectiveness of the system. However, many users do not wear the portable trigger when feeling well. Future technical developments will result in multifunctionality of ERS-devices. In the long term the hardware of today will be integrated in a multimedia home terminal replacing the telephone. The portable trigger will remain the only specific hardware at home for ERS. PMID:10126436

  15. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee... alarms required on various fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression... in this section that pertain to maintenance, testing and inspection shall apply to all local...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee... alarms required on various fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression... in this section that pertain to maintenance, testing and inspection shall apply to all local...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee... alarms required on various fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression... in this section that pertain to maintenance, testing and inspection shall apply to all local...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842 Cargo system: Controls and alarms. The master...

  19. Use of pagers with an alarm escalation system to reduce cardiac monitor alarm signals.

    PubMed

    Cvach, Maria M; Frank, Robert J; Doyle, Pete; Stevens, Zeina Khouri

    2014-01-01

    Alarm fatigue desensitizes nurses to alarm signals and presents potential for patient harm. This project describes an innovative method of communicating cardiac monitor alarms to pagers using an alarm escalation algorithm. This innovation was tested on 2 surgical progressive care units over a 6-month period. There was a significant decrease in mean frequency and duration of high-priority monitor alarms and improvement in nurses' perception of alarm response time, using this method of alarm communication. PMID:23963169

  20. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  1. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  2. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  3. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  4. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  5. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, D.W.

    1995-04-11

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

  6. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Don W.

    1995-01-01

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

  7. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  8. Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

    2010-11-01

    With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

  9. Research on the fire alarming system of fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yaobin

    2007-09-01

    The application of fiber grating sensing technology in fire alarming based on temperature detection has the advantages of high accuracy, high reliability and strong immunity from electronic and magnetic fields. It is especially advantageous to use this system in the petroleum and chemistry industry because it can provide an extraordinary safe means for the fire alarm. But due to the traditional optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is limited by the optic source bandwidth, the number of its multiplexing points is few. In this paper WDM technology will be developed mixing with Identified Bragg, which is called Identified and Wavelength Multiplexing, to build the Fiber Grating (FBG) fire alarm system integrated with computers. Some technologies applied in fire alarming system of fiber grating such as the transmission of test signals which pass through modulate and demodulate, the disposal of software system, the output of control signal and the strong ability of anti-disturbance have been studied and discussed.

  10. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF OLD, PUNCHTYPE MASTER FIRE ALARM SYSTEM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF OLD, PUNCH-TYPE MASTER FIRE ALARM SYSTEM, LOCATED ON S WALL OF ENGINE STORAGE ROOM; LOOKING S. (Ceronie and Ryan) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 22, Westervelt Avenue & Buffington Street, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  11. Onsite Portable Alarm System - Its Merit and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saita, J.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Recently an existence of the earthquake early warning system (EEWS) becomes popular. In general, the EEWS will be installed in a fixed observation site and it may consist of several separated components such as a sensing portion, A/D converter, an information processing potion and so on. The processed information for warning may be transmitted to network via fixed communication line, and therefore this kind of alarm system is called as Network Alarm System. On the other hand, after the severe earthquake damage, it is very important to save the disaster victims immediately. These rescue staffs are also under the risk of aftershocks and need a local alarm not depending on the network, so this kind of alarm can be called as Onsite Alarm. But the common early warning system is too complex to set onsite temporary, and even if possible to install, the alarm is too late to receive at the epicentral area. However, the new generation earthquake early warning system FREQL can issue the P wave alarm by minimum 0.2 seconds after P wave detection. And FREQL is characterized as the unique all-in-one seismometer with power unit. At the time of the 2004 Niigata-Ken-Chuetsu earthquake, a land slide attacked a car just passing. A hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department pulled the survivor, one baby, from the land slide area. During their activity the rescue team was exposed to the risk of secondary hazards caused by the aftershocks. It was clear that it is necessary to use a portable warning system to issue the onsite P wave alarm. Because FREQL was originally developed as portable equipment, Tokyo Fire Department asked us to modify it to the portable equipment with the loud sound and the light signal. In this moment, this portable FREQL has equipped in nation wide. When the hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department was sent to Pakistan as a task force for rescue work of the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, the portable FREQL was used as important onsite portable warning system and P

  12. Hypoglycemia Early Alarm Systems Based On Multivariable Models

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Bayrak, Elif S; Quinn, Lauretta; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Rollins, Derrick; Cinar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a major challenge of artificial pancreas systems and a source of concern for potential users and parents of young children with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Early alarms to warn the potential of hypoglycemia are essential and should provide enough time to take action to avoid hypoglycemia. Many alarm systems proposed in the literature are based on interpretation of recent trends in glucose values. In the present study, subject-specific recursive linear time series models are introduced as a better alternative to capture glucose variations and predict future blood glucose concentrations. These models are then used in hypoglycemia early alarm systems that notify patients to take action to prevent hypoglycemia before it happens. The models developed and the hypoglycemia alarm system are tested retrospectively using T1D subject data. A Savitzky-Golay filter and a Kalman filter are used to reduce noise in patient data. The hypoglycemia alarm algorithm is developed by using predictions of future glucose concentrations from recursive models. The modeling algorithm enables the dynamic adaptation of models to inter-/intra-subject variation and glycemic disturbances and provides satisfactory glucose concentration prediction with relatively small error. The alarm systems demonstrate good performance in prediction of hypoglycemia and ultimately in prevention of its occurrence. PMID:24187436

  13. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  14. A TWACS system alarm function for distribution automation

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, S.T.; Radford, D. )

    1994-04-01

    A new application designated as the System Alarm Function'' is made possible by using the Unsolicited Inbound'' capability recently developed for the Two Way Automatic Communication System (TWACS) System-10, which is already used by several electric utilities in the USA for demand side management, remote metering and distribution automation is reviewed here. The UNSOLICITED INBOUND'' algorithm development, the operational issues that are pertinent to the understanding of collisions between multiple alarms and the effects on the alarm response time'' are discussed in detail. This master-to-master relationship between remote transponders in the distribution network and the central control computer opens the door to multiple functional capabilities in the area of distribution automation and remote monitoring.

  15. Development of real time alarm/surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiyoshi, M.; Uchida, S.; Suenaga, S.; Iwabuchi, M.; Fujimoto, T.; Yoshimura, A.

    1987-07-01

    PNC has carried out real time alarm/surveillance system as a part of its r and d programs on the physical protection systems for its nuclear facilities from 1984 to 1986. The guard operates a closed circuit television (CCTV) camera to see whether the alarms are caused from intruders or from accident in the existing physical protection systems. But it is very difficult to assess rapidly moving objects using such a TV system. Monitor images are used to be continuously recorded by VTR, but it does not seem to be very suitable or it takes quite a long time to play back. Aiming at more effective and reliable physical protection systems, a new alarm/surveillance system was developed, the system detects persons entering into the surveillance zone and provides effective means to confirm. The system detects moving persons in a double fenced zone using image processing technique. Detection information such as time, position, detected images are displayed, printed and recorded, so that cause of false alarms, if occurred can be found easily.

  16. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  17. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  18. Alarms Philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    White, Karen S; Kasemir, Kay

    2009-01-01

    An effective alarm system consists of a mechanism to monitor control points and generate alarm notifications, tools for operators to view, hear, acknowledge and handle alarms and a good configuration. Despite the availability of numerous fully featured tools, accelerator alarm systems continue to be disappointing to operations, frequently to the point of alarms being permanently silenced or totally ignored. This is often due to configurations that produce an excessive number of alarms or fail to communicate the required operator response. Most accelerator controls systems do a good job of monitoring specified points and generating notifications when parameters exceed predefined limits. In some cases, improved tools can help, but more often, poor configuration is the root cause of ineffective alarm systems. A SNS, we have invested considerable effort in generating appropriate configurations using a rigorous set of rules based on best practices in the industrial process controls community. This paper will discuss our alarm configuration philosophy and operator response to our new system.

  19. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842...

  3. 46 CFR 120.550 - General alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm systems. 120.550 Section 120.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION...

  4. Removal of criticality accident alarm systems at the Y-12 Plant waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses why criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs) were installed in certain waste management buildings at the Y-12 Plant, why the plant now wants to remove them, and what steps were taken to allow the US Department of Energy (DOE) to authorize the removal of the systems. To begin with, the systems in question were installed in the mid- to late-1980s. Some of the facilities were new, and there was no operating experience with the processes. A CAAS, although expensive, is an absolute necessity where criticality accidents are credible. But, they are a superfluous and unnecessary expense in those facilities where it has been determined that a criticality accident is incredible (defined as having a probability of <1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/yr). The PRAs have been performed to evaluate six Y-12 Plant waste management facilities, five storage facilities, and a nondestructive analysis facility, with an additional study now being performed on the West End Treatment Facility. The results to date have shown that the probability of various criticality accident scenarios at these facilities is <1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/yr and that the CAASs are not needed in these facilities.

  5. SeaQuest/E906 Shift Alarm System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitts, Noah

    2014-09-01

    SeaQuest, Fermilab E906, is a fixed target experiment that measures the Drell-Yan cross-section ratio of proton-proton to proton-deuterium collisions in order to extract the sea anti-quark structure of the proton. SeaQuest will extend the measurements made by E866/NuSea with greater precision at higher Bjorken-x. The continuously running experiment is always being monitored. Those on shift must keep track of all of the detector readouts in order to make sure the experiment is running correctly. As an experiment that is still in its early stages of running, an alarm system for people on shift is being created to provide warnings, such as a plot showing a detector's performance is sufficiently different to need attention. This plan involves python scripts that track live data. When the data shows a problem within the experiment, a corresponding alarm ID is sent to the MySQL database which then sets off an alarm. These alarms, which will alert the person on shift through both an audible and visual response, are important for ensuring that issues do not go unnoticed, and to help make sure the experiment is recording good data.

  6. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-08-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets. PMID:26237691

  7. Software for CAA compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, T.C.

    1994-12-01

    Because of the enormous amount of emissions data that must be collected and reported quarterly to EPA, software is becoming as essential as hardware in the compliance procedure. This article reports on some problems being encountered and their solutions. By November 15, 1993, 50 some electric utilities affected by Phase 1 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAA) Title 4 had begun continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) to meet the requirements of 40CFR75. By January 1, 1995, roughly 100 Phase 2-affected utilities must implement their CEM programs to comply with the same regulations. In both cases, software for the data-acquisition and handling system (DAHS) is the overarching challenge. The quantity of CEM data that must be reported quarterly by a DAHS, in computer-readable form, is enormous. Each day, the DAHS for a typical Phase 1 unit generates 225 records of CEM data in EPA's prescribed format, consisting of 690 critical data fields. Thus, in an average quarter, a utility with five units will submit to EPA a quarterly report comprising over 100,000 records and 310,000 critical data fields. Only with quality DAHS software can these reports be generated.

  8. Alarm timing, trust and driver expectation for forward collision warning systems.

    PubMed

    Abe, Genya; Richardson, John

    2006-09-01

    In order to improve road safety, automobile manufacturers are now developing Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS). However, there has been insufficient consideration of how drivers may respond to FCWS. This driving simulator study focused on alarm timing and its impact on driver response to alarm. The experimental investigation considered driver perception of alarm timings and its influence on trust at three driving speeds (40, 60 and 70 mile/h) and two time headways (1.7 and 2.2 s). The results showed that alarm effectiveness varied in response to driving conditions. Alarm promptness had a greater influence on ratings of trust than improvements in braking performance enabled by the alarm system. Moreover, alarms which were presented after braking actions had been initiated were viewed as late alarms. It is concluded that drivers typically expect alarms to be presented before they initiate braking actions and when this does not happen driver trust in the system is substantially decreased. PMID:16364231

  9. All-optical SOA latch fail-safe alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2004-11-01

    Emergency alarm systems, for example, that switch off critical processes in process plant, are vulnerable to deliberate or accidental sabotage through coupling of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) to wires and/or from sparks due to broken wires. A proposed system significantly reduces vulnerability by using a fast all-optical latch in conjunction with an optical sensor and optical fibers. Sparks cannot be created on breaking an optical beam and electromagnetic field transients have negligible effect on optical signals. The optical latch uses optical semiconductor amplifiers (SOAs) configured to form a flip-flop. The flip-flop latches after the occurrence of an intrusion that may be as short as a few nanoseconds, much faster than most environmental changes occur. Detection of an emergency or any break in connections causes the light to drop, triggering the alarm. Computer simulation shows that the all-optical latch is fast and effective.

  10. Ultra low frequency electromagnetic fire alarm system for underground mines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During an underground mine fire, air can be rapidly depleted of oxygen and contaminated with smoke and toxic fire gases. Any delay in warning miners could have disastrous consequences. Unfortunately, present mine fire alarm systems, such as stench, audible or visual alarms, telephones, and messengers, are often slow, unreliable, and limited in mine area coverage. Recent research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines has demonstrated that ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic signaling can be used for an underground mine fire alarm. In field tests of prototype equipment at five mines, electromagnetic signals from 630 to 2,000 Hz were transmitted through mine rock for distances as great as 1,645 m to an intrinsically safe receiver. The prototype system uses off-the-shelf components and state-of-the-art technology to ensure high reliability and low cost. When utilized, this technology would enable simultaneous and instantaneous warning of all underground personnel, regardless of their location or work activity, thereby increasing the likelihood of their successfully escaping a mine disaster. This paper presents the theoretical basis for through-the-rock ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic transmission, design of the prototype transmitter and receiver, and the results of in-mine tests of the prototype system.

  11. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, Bryce A.

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  12. Web-based integrated alarm monitoring system in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Akitsugu; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Akutagawa, Masatake; Ohnishi, Yoshiaki; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2005-01-01

    A web-based monitoring system for the alarm of equipment has developed for the conventional environment of Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The system communicates with equipment using Data Collection Interface (DCI) that converts the protocol of the output of equipment from RS-232C to TCP/IP. The system creates a web-document that can be referred from any internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using the system, a staff can easily monitor the state of the patient and the equipment. If the system is installed in the ICU, monitoring and management for the equipment will be highly improved. PMID:17281636

  13. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  17. 33 CFR 149.665 - What are the requirements for a general alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...? Each pumping platform complex must have a general alarm system that: (a) Is capable of being manually activated by using alarm boxes; (b) Is audible in all parts of the pumping platform complex, except in...

  18. Orthos, an alarm system for the ALICE DAQ operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapeland, Sylvain; Carena, Franco; Carena, Wisla; Chibante Barroso, Vasco; Costa, Filippo; Denes, Ervin; Divia, Roberto; Fuchs, Ulrich; Grigore, Alexandru; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Soos, Csaba; Telesca, Adriana; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; von Haller, Barthelemy

    2012-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The DAQ (Data Acquisition System) facilities handle the data flow from the detectors electronics up to the mass storage. The DAQ system is based on a large farm of commodity hardware consisting of more than 600 devices (Linux PCs, storage, network switches), and controls hundreds of distributed hardware and software components interacting together. This paper presents Orthos, the alarm system used to detect, log, report, and follow-up abnormal situations on the DAQ machines at the experimental area. The main objective of this package is to integrate alarm detection and notification mechanisms with a full-featured issues tracker, in order to prioritize, assign, and fix system failures optimally. This tool relies on a database repository with a logic engine, SQL interfaces to inject or query metrics, and dynamic web pages for user interaction. We describe the system architecture, the technologies used for the implementation, and the integration with existing monitoring tools.

  19. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  20. Examination of criticality accident alarm coverage on the operating floors of Buildings X-333, X-330, and X-326 at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.S.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; Wollard, J.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1997-03-01

    The diffusion cascade processing equipment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is located in Buildings X-333, X-330, and X-326. These buildings were referred to as the cascade buildings. Because enriched uranium operations are performed within the cascade buildings, the potential for a criticality accident in these buildings exists. A Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) is in place to alarm in the event of a criticality accident. The CAAS is required to be designed to immediately detect the minimum accident-of-concern. A minimum accident-of-concern in an area with nominal shielding delivers the equivalent of an absorbed dose rate in free air of 20 rads per minute at a distance of 2 meters from the reacting material [Am86]. This report summarizes the analysis that was performed to evaluate the CAAS response to selected minimum accidents-of-concern on the operating floor of the cascade buildings. Selection of potential accident locations was based, in part, on the maximum distance to the closest CAAS detector. The other factor in selecting potential accident locations for analysis was the amount of intervening shielding between the accident location and CAAS detector. If the CAAS was predicted to alarm under conditions of significant shielding, then the system presumably would alarm in response to all accidents greater than the minimum accident-of-concern, at closer distances, and with less shielding.

  1. Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

  2. Development of an on-line expert system for integrated alarm processing in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Gon; Choi, Seong Soo; Kang, Ki Sig; Chang, Soon Heung

    1994-12-31

    An on-line expert system, called AFDS (Alarm Filtering and Diagnostic System), has been developed to assist operators in effectively maintaining plant safety and to enhance plant availability using advanced computer technologies for alarm processing. The AFDS is designed to perform alarm filtering and overall plantwide diagnosis when an abnormal state occurs. in addition to these functions, it carries out alarm prognosis to provide the operator with prediction-based messages and to generate high-level alarms that can be used as another diagnostic information. The system is developed on a SUN SPARC 2 workstation, and its target domain is the alarm system in the main control room of Yonggwang units 1 and 2.

  3. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  4. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  5. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  6. 46 CFR 31.35-5 - Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.-TB/ALL. 31.35-5 Section 31.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Communications; alarm systems, telephone and voice tube systems, engine telegraph systems, etc.—TB/ALL. All...

  7. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  8. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  9. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  10. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  11. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned...

  12. The research of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Tiejun; Wan, Jiaonan; Zhang, Juwen; Wang, Rui

    For the rigorous traffic safety issues resulting from rapid transportation development, as well as the more and more attention paid to the traffic accidents dynamic analysis and pre-alarm methods, combined with the practical needs of the highway safety management, this paper summarizes the experience of traffic safety pre-alarm research both in domestic and abroad, designs the frame of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system from the function and software engineering requirement, and refines kernel modules such as accident prone section judgement, traffic safety pre-alarm analysis and perfecting safety measures analysis, in order to guide the exploitation and application of the system.

  13. A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring

    2011-09-01

    By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

  14. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  15. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 95.05-1 Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems. (a) Fire detecting,...

  16. Emergency Vehicle Alarm System for Deaf Drivers by Using LEDs and Vibration Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Noriaki; Morimoto, Kazunari; Kozuki, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Tomonori

    We are developing the emergency vehicle alarm system for deaf drivers by using LEDs and vibration devices. In order to design the alarm for deaf drivers, we have conducted basic experiment in order to evaluate perceptual characteristic on visibility of LED.

  17. Development and Evaluation of New Coupling System for Lower Limb Prostheses with Acoustic Alarm System

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Ahmadian, Jalil; Rahmati, Bizhan; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with lower limb amputation need a secure suspension system for their prosthetic devices. A new coupling system was developed that is capable of suspending the prosthesis. The system's safety is ensured through an acoustic alarm system. This article explains how the system works and provides an in vivo evaluation of the device with regard to pistoning during walking. The system was designed to be used with silicone liners and is based on the requirements of prosthetic suspension systems. Mechanical testing was performed using a universal testing machine. The pistoning during walking was measured using a motion analysis system. The new coupling device produced significantly less pistoning compared to a common suspension system (pin/lock). The safety alarm system would buzz if the suspension was going to fail. The new coupling system could securely suspend the prostheses in transtibial amputees and produced less vertical movement than the pin/lock system. PMID:23881340

  18. Alarm communication and display systems for high security department of energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An Alarm Communication and Display System collects alarm data, presents information to security operators, and enables the operators to enter commands affecting security operations; the ultimate goal of the system is to provide rapid assessment of alarms. This paper presents an overview of the architecture and operating principles used for alarm communication and display systems developed for application at several Department of Energy facilities. Although facilities have unique requirements and procedures, the architecture and operating principles of the ACDS presented in this paper have allowed site-specific implementations at several Department of Energy facilities. In addition, this technology has been transferred to other DOE facilities for adaptation to their requirements. Further efforts to enhance ACDS technology include the use of local area network technology to assist in peripheral switching, a distributed CCTV video switching system, and state-of-the-art hardware changes which improve system performance and effectiveness.

  19. Nuisance alarm suppression techniques for fibre-optic intrusion detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

    2012-02-01

    The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fibre-optic intrusion detection systems is important for maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and minimize nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. A level crossings algorithm is presented for suppressing torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fibre-optic fence-based perimeter intrusion detection system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr, and intrusion events can be detected simultaneously during rain periods. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented demonstrating the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of nuisance and intrusion events in a buried pipeline fibre-optic intrusion detection system. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fibre-optic Mach Zehnder interferometer.

  20. 40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... communication equipment or an alarm system? 267.34 Section 267.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... have access to communication equipment or an alarm system? (a) Whenever hazardous waste is being poured... to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or through visual or...

  1. Earthquake alarm system for the Maui-A offshore platform, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.G.; Beck, J.L.

    1983-02-01

    Situated in the Tasman Sea, the Maui A offshore gas production platform has an earthquake alarm system that gives immediate warning when the seismic accelerations reach half the platform's design level. The system monitors only the response of the lower modes of the platform, as these make the major contribution to the stresses in the structure. In order to reduce the risk of false alarms, a radio link with similar detectors on shore confirms that an earthquake has occurred.

  2. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    PubMed Central

    Luis, Juan Aponte; Galán, Juan Antonio Gómez; Espigado, Javier Alcina

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  3. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires.

    PubMed

    Aponte Luis, Juan; Gómez Galán, Juan Antonio; Alcina Espigado, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  4. A technical approach for determining the importance of information in computerized alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, D.S.; Lim, J.J.

    1994-06-10

    Computerized alarm and access control systems must be treated as special entities rather than as generic automated information systems. This distinction arises due to the real-time control and monitoring functions performed by these systems at classified facilities and the degree of centralization of a site`s safeguards system information in the associated databases. As an added requirement for these systems, DOE safeguards and security classification policy is to protect information whose dissemination has the potential for significantly increasing the probability of successful adversary action against the facility, or lowering adversary resources needed for a successful attack. Thus at issue is just how valuable would specific alarm system information be to an adversary with a higher order objective. We have developed and applied a technical approach for determining the importance of information contained in computerized alarm and access control systems. The methodology is based on vulnerability assessment rather than blanket classification rules. This method uses a system architecture diagram to guide the analysis and to develop adversary defeat methods for each node and link. These defeat methods are evaluated with respect to required adversary resources, technical difficulty, and detection capability. Then they are incorporated into site vulnerability assessments to determine the significance of alarm system information in the context of a facility attack. This methodology was successfully applied to the Argus alarm, access control, and assessment system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Argus is software-driven, contains interrelated databases, shares host computers, and communicates with field processors and alarms through a common network. The evaluation results provided insights into the importance of alarm system information while the methodology itself provided a framework for addressing associated information protection issues.

  5. CAA: Computer Assisted Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John H.

    Computers have been used in a variety of applications for athletics since the late 1950's. These have ranged from computer-controlled electric scoreboards to computer-designed pole vaulting poles. Described in this paper are a computer-based athletic injury reporting system and a computer-assisted football scouting system. The injury reporting…

  6. Development of an on-line fuzzy expert system for integrated alarm processing in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S.S.; Kang, K.S.; Kim, H.G.; Chang, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    An on-line fuzzy expert system, called alarm filtering and diagnostic system (AFDS), was developed to provide the operator with clean alarm pictures and system-wide failure information during abnormal states through alarm filtering and diagnosis. In addition, it carries out alarm prognosis to warn the operator of process abnormalities. Clean alarm pictures that have no information overlapping are generated from multiple activated alarms at the alarm filtering stage. The meta rules for dynamic filtering were established on the basis of the alarm relationship network. In the case of alarm diagnosis, the relations between alarms and abnormal states are represented by means of fuzzy relations, and the compositional inference rule of fuzzy logic is utilized to infer abnormal states from the fuzzy relations. The AFDS offers the operator related operating procedures as well as diagnostic results. At the stage of alarm prognosis, the future values of some important critical safety parameters are predicted by means of Levinson algorithm selected from the comparative experiments, and the global trends of these parameters are estimated using data smoothing and fuzzy membership. This information enables early failure detection and is also used to supplement diagnostic symptoms.

  7. An embedded telecommunication cable auto-locating system of guard against theft and alarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Li, Jun; Jin, Tian-Bo; Zhang, Li-yong

    2005-12-01

    This system adopted two-level structure that was composed of Cable Monitoring And Controlling Device (CMCD) and Cable Monitoring Center (CMC). CMC receives the alarm data via the MODEM and the telephone net. In this way, the functions of typing the fault point's map, alarming and the cable management can be picked up. CMCD takes the processor chip Atemega128 as the center of the system that adopted the alternating current and direct current on-line switching electricity-supply mode. Also, the system includes four groups of independent power, the relay and the optical isolation to separate the system from the monitoring cable and the telephone net. CMCD accomplishes the cable real-time monitoring, malfunctions auto-locating, telephone voice alarming, long-distance parameters modification, data up-loading, error verifying and the telecommunication room's environment monitoring and so on. The longest distance of monitoring cable is 20 km, and the precision is 1%.

  8. Medical audible alarms: a review

    PubMed Central

    Edworthy, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

  9. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment §...

  10. CSER 95-003: Exemption from Criticality Alarm System requirement for 232-Z building

    SciTech Connect

    Nirider, L.T.; Miller, E.M.

    1995-05-18

    This CSER establishes an exemption for 232-Z from the requirement for a Criticality Alarm System, because the formation of a critical configuration is not a credible event for any circumstance involving the cleaning out and removal of the Burning Hood and associated equipment.

  11. 46 CFR 154.1330 - Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type C. 154.1330 Section 154.1330 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325 Section 154.1325 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation §...

  13. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: (1) Either complies with 46 CFR 108.405 or (2) Is designed and installed in compliance with a national consensus standard, as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.2, for fire detection and fire alarm... is defined in 29 CFR 1910.7, for such systems or hardware. (b) Sleeping quarters must be fitted...

  14. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) Either complies with 46 CFR 108.405 or (2) Is designed and installed in compliance with a national consensus standard, as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.2, for fire detection and fire alarm... is defined in 29 CFR 1910.7, for such systems or hardware. (b) Sleeping quarters must be fitted...

  15. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: (1) Either complies with 46 CFR 108.405 or (2) Is designed and installed in compliance with a national consensus standard, as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.2, for fire detection and fire alarm... is defined in 29 CFR 1910.7, for such systems or hardware. (b) Sleeping quarters must be fitted...

  16. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: (1) Either complies with 46 CFR 108.405 or (2) Is designed and installed in compliance with a national consensus standard, as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.2, for fire detection and fire alarm... is defined in 29 CFR 1910.7, for such systems or hardware. (b) Sleeping quarters must be fitted...

  17. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: (1) Either complies with 46 CFR 108.405 or (2) Is designed and installed in compliance with a national consensus standard, as that term is defined in 29 CFR 1910.2, for fire detection and fire alarm... is defined in 29 CFR 1910.7, for such systems or hardware. (b) Sleeping quarters must be fitted...

  18. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY... the pilothouse upon— (1) Failure of the electric power to the control system of any steering gear; (2... oil reservoir of a hydraulic, power-operated steering-gear system. (e) An audible and a visible...

  19. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.240 General... thereafter. (f) A public address system or other means of alerting all individuals on board may be used...

  20. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.240 General... thereafter. (f) A public address system or other means of alerting all individuals on board may be used...

  1. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.240 General... thereafter. (f) A public address system or other means of alerting all individuals on board may be used...

  2. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.240 General... thereafter. (f) A public address system or other means of alerting all individuals on board may be used...

  3. 46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.240 General... thereafter. (f) A public address system or other means of alerting all individuals on board may be used...

  4. 78 FR 2683 - Carriage Standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS) Aboard U.S. Flagged Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Carriage Standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS) Aboard U.S... Guard announces the implementation date of carriage standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS), in accordance with the Articles of the International Convention for the Safety of Life...

  5. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  6. Applying an integrated neuro-expert system model in a real-time alarm processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Rajiv; Dillon, Tharam S.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper we propose an integrated model which is derived from the combination of a generic neuro-expert system model, an object model, and unix operating system process (UOSP) model. This integrated model reflects the strengths of both artificial neural nets (ANNs) and expert systems (ESs). A formalism of ES object, ANN object, UOSP object, and problem domain object is used for developing a set of generic data structures and methods. These generic data structures and methods help us to build heterogeneous ES-ANN objects with uniform communication interface. The integrated model is applied in a real-time alarm processing system for a non-trivial terminal power station. It is shown how features like hierarchical/distributed ES/ANN objects, inter process communication, and fast concurrent execution help to cope with real-time system constraints like, continuity, data variability, and fast response time.

  7. Silent emergency alarm system for schools and the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Read, W. S.; Roberts, V. W. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An emergency alert system is described. In a school each classroom (or other area) is instrumented with a hidden microphone and receiver tuned to a non-audible frequency. The receivers' outputs are connected to a central display unit in the school's administrative office. Each instructor is provided with a small concealable transmitter which, when hand activated by the instructor upon the occurrance of any emergency, generates a non-audible signal at the receiver's tuned frequency.

  8. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  9. Multiple-Parameter, Low-False-Alarm Fire-Detection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Greensburg, Paul; McKnight, Robert; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, C. C.; Dutta, Prabir; Makel, Darby; Blake, D.; Sue-Antillio, Jill

    2007-01-01

    Fire-detection systems incorporating multiple sensors that measure multiple parameters are being developed for use in storage depots, cargo bays of ships and aircraft, and other locations not amenable to frequent, direct visual inspection. These systems are intended to improve upon conventional smoke detectors, now used in such locations, that reliably detect fires but also frequently generate false alarms: for example, conventional smoke detectors based on the blockage of light by smoke particles are also affected by dust particles and water droplets and, thus, are often susceptible to false alarms. In contrast, by utilizing multiple parameters associated with fires, i.e. not only obscuration by smoke particles but also concentrations of multiple chemical species that are commonly generated in combustion, false alarms can be significantly decreased while still detecting fires as reliably as older smoke-detector systems do. The present development includes fabrication of sensors that have, variously, micrometer- or nanometer-sized features so that such multiple sensors can be integrated into arrays that have sizes, weights, and power demands smaller than those of older macroscopic sensors. The sensors include resistors, electrochemical cells, and Schottky diodes that exhibit different sensitivities to the various airborne chemicals of interest. In a system of this type, the sensor readings are digitized and processed by advanced signal-processing hardware and software to extract such chemical indications of fires as abnormally high concentrations of CO and CO2, possibly in combination with H2 and/or hydrocarbons. The system also includes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based particle detector and classifier device to increase the reliability of measurements of chemical species and particulates. In parallel research, software for modeling the evolution of a fire within an aircraft cargo bay has been developed. The model implemented in the software can

  10. The Performance of Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting System in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ta-Yi; Hsiao, Nai-Chi; Wu, Yih-Min

    2016-04-01

    The Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan has operated an earthquake early warning (EEW) system and issued warnings to schools and government agencies since 2014. Because the real-time seismic data streams are integrated by the Earthworm software, some EEW modules were created under the Earthworm platform. The system is named Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting (eBEAR) system, which is currently operating. The eBEAR system consists of new Earthworm modules for managing P-wave phase picking, trigger associations, hypocenter locations, magnitude estimations, and alert filtering prior to broadcasting. Here, we outline the methodology and performance of the eBEAR system. The online performance of the eBEAR system indicated that the average reporting times afforded by the system are approximately 15 and 26 s for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively. Comparing to the earthquake catalog, the difference of the epicenters are less than 10 km for inland earthquakes; the difference of the magnitude are about 0.3. No false alarms generated by the system, but there were three false alarms issued by human. Due to the wrong operations, the EEW information created by off-line test were sent. However, we have learned from it and improved the standard operation procedure in the EEW system.

  11. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability

  12. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1987-04-13

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

  13. CAA for Jet Noise Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, Reda

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Mankbadi summarized recent CAA results. Examples of the effect of various boundary condition schemes on the computed acoustic field, for a point source in a uniform flow, were shown. Solutions showing the impact of inflow excitations on the result were also shown. Results from a large eddy simulation, using a fourth-order MacCormack scheme with a Smagorinsky sub-grid turbulence model, were shown for a Mach 2.1 unheated jet. The results showed that the results were free from spurious modes. Results were shown for a Mach 1.4 jet using LES in the near field and the Kirchhoff method for the far field. Predicted flow field characteristics were shown to be in good agreement with data and predicted far field directivities were shown to be in qualitative agree with experimental measurements.

  14. Design of DroDeASys (Drowsy Detection and Alarming System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juvale, Hrishikesh B.; Mahajan, Anant S.; Bhagwat, Ashwin A.; Badiger, Vishal T.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.; Dhabe, Priyadarshan S.; Dhore, Manikrao L.

    The paper discusses the Drowsy Detection & Alarming System that has been developed, using a non-intrusive approach. The system is basically developed to detect drivers dozing at the wheel at night time driving. The system uses a small infra-red night vision camera that points directly towards the driver`s face and monitors the driver`s eyes in order to detect fatigue. In such a case when fatigue is detected, a warning signal is issued to alert the driver. This paper discusses the algorithms that have been used to detect drowsiness. The decision whether the driver is dozing or not is taken depending on whether the eyes are open for a specific number of frames. If the eyes are found to be closed for a certain number of consecutive frames then the driver is alerted with an alarm.

  15. Visual display and alarm system for wind tunnel static and dynamic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanly, Richard D.; Fogarty, James T.

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel balance monitor and alarm system developed at NASA Ames Research Center will produce several beneficial results. The costs of wind tunnel delays because of inadvertent balance damage and the costs of balance repair or replacement can be greatly reduced or eliminated with better real-time information on the balance static and dynamic loading. The wind tunnel itself will have enhanced utility with the elimination of overly cautious limits on test conditions. The microprocessor-based system features automatic scaling and 16 multicolored LED bargraphs to indicate both static and dynamic components of the signals from eight individual channels. Five individually programmable alarm levels are available with relay closures for internal or external visual and audible warning devices and other functions such as automatic activation of external recording devices, model positioning mechanism, or tunnel shutdown.

  16. Visual display and alarm system for wind tunnel static and dynamic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanly, Richard D.; Fogarty, James T.

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel balance monitor and alarm system developed at NASA Ames Research Center will produce several beneficial results. The costs of wind tunnel delays because of inadvertent balance damage and the costs of balance repair or replacement can be greatly reduced or eliminated with better real-time information on the balance static and dynamic loading. The wind tunnel itself will have enhanced utility with the elimination of overly cautious limits on test conditions. The microprocessor-based system features automatic scaling and 16 multicolored LED bargraphs to indicate both static and dynamic components of the signals from eight individual channels. Five individually programmable alarm levels are available with relay closures for internal or external visual and audible warning devices and other functions such as automatic activation of external recording devices, model positioning mechanisms, or tunnel shutdown.

  17. Development of a criticality alarm system neutron detector: Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, A.A.

    1989-05-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a prototype neutron detector for use in criticality alarm systems (CASs) at US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor facilities wherever significant amounts of fissile material are processed or stored. Constraints placed on the design of the detector were that the overall size of the detector was to be as small as practical, the input voltage requirements were to be no more than 24 V, and that the gamma sensitivity would be as low as possible. Also, the detector should give dosimetric neutron response, and should have sufficient temporal capabilities to measure the entire range from fast (>1 ms) to slow (seconds to minutes) excursions, and sufficient dynamic range to measure from background to over 100 times background levels to insure proper activation of the Immediate Evacuation Alarm (IEA). Finally, the detector should insure rapid (<1 s) activation of the IEA in the event of a criticality excursion. 24 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Examination of criticality accident alarm coverage on the operating floors of the X-333, X-330, and X-326 facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Woollard, J.; Skapik, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an evaluation of Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) coverage of the operating floors (first floors) of the X-333, X-330, and X-326 buildings. CAAS coverage of the process cell floors (second floors) has been evaluated in previous reports. Coverage of the roadways around the three processing buildings by the cell floor detectors in these buildings has also been verified in a previous report. In order to evaluate coverage, the facilities were modeled using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer Code (MCNP). MCNP was then used to simulate criticality accidents at various locations throughout the operating floors of the buildings and the associated neutron flux at the current detector locations was calculated. The neutron flux was then converted to an absorbed dose rate (in tissue) and compared with the Portsmouth criticality accident alarm set-point of 5mrad/hr. The parameters defining the simulated criticality accidents have been calculated as ``the minimum accident of concern`` as defined in ANSI Standard ANS 8.3-1986. These calculations are documented in Portsmouth report number POEF-SH-31. The results of this evaluation indicate that the X-333 Operating Floor CAAS may not alarm in response to a minimum accident of concern. This is primarily because of shielding provided by the numerous concrete columns used to support the second floor of this building and the large distances between the CAAS detectors. Conversely, the results indicate that the X-326 and the X-330 CAAS systems would alarm in response to a minimum accident of concern occurring on the operating floors of these buildings. It should be noted that the cell floors in these two buildings are supported with steel I-beams instead of the concrete columns used in the X-333 building.

  19. Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.

    PubMed

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings. PMID:24847936

  20. Monitor alarm fatigue: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Cvach, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Alarm fatigue is a national problem and the number one medical device technology hazard in 2012. The problem of alarm desensitization is multifaceted and related to a high false alarm rate, poor positive predictive value, lack of alarm standardization, and the number of alarming medical devices in hospitals today. This integrative review synthesizes research and non-research findings published between 1/1/2000 and 10/1/2011 using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice model. Seventy-two articles were included. Research evidence was organized into five main themes: excessive alarms and effects on staff; nurse's response to alarms; alarm sounds and audibility; technology to reduce false alarms; and alarm notification systems. Non-research evidence was divided into two main themes: strategies to reduce alarm desensitization, and alarm priority and notification systems. Evidence-based practice recommendations and gaps in research are summarized. PMID:22839984

  1. An attributable cost model for a telecare system using advanced community alarms.

    PubMed

    Brownsell, S J; Bradley, D A; Bragg, R; Catling, P; Carlier, J

    2001-01-01

    We have developed an attributable cost model for a city-based telecare scheme involving 11,618 community alarm users. The equipment was assumed to cost 500 Pounds-1000 Pounds per installation, compared with 175 Pounds for the current system. Because of the significant additional capital cost of the proposed system, it would be necessary to borrow to finance it. For example, if the home equipment cost 500 Pounds per unit, an additional 2.2 million Pounds would be required. Nonetheless, it would be possible to achieve a return on the investment after 10 years. The principal savings would arise from reduced hospital bed costs and reduced residential care. The model suggests that the financial benefits of the proposed system would occur in the ratio of 4% to the local authority housing department, 43% to the National Health Service and 53% to the residential care provider. PMID:11331043

  2. Three-Alarm System: Revisited to treat Thumb-sucking Habit

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Manoj; Shetty, N Shridhar; Deoghare, Anushka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thumb and digit-sucking habits or non-nutritive sucking are considered to be the most prevalent among oral habits. Most children stop thumb sucking on their own. If the habit continues beyond 3 to 4 years of age, it not only affects the dental occlusion, but the shape of the thumb/digit may be altered as well. This article presents the management of thumb sucking by modified RURS, elbow guard incorporated with revised ‘three-alarm’ system. How to cite this article: Shetty RM, Shetty M, Shetty NS, Deoghare A. Three-Alarm System: Revisited to treat Thumb-sucking Habit. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):82-86. PMID:26124588

  3. Cluster CAA Module for PaPCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faden, J.; Åsnes, A.; Friedel, R.; Taylor, M.; McCaffrey, S.; Perry, C.; Goldstein, M. L.

    A PaPCo module for visualization of data from the CAA has been developed. This module retrieves data from the CAA web interface, and allows for discovery and plotting of new datasets. PaPCo is modular, open source IDL software that uses plug-in modules to bring new datasets on to a stack of time series plots (www.papco.org). PaPCo includes modules for plotting data from Cluster/PEACE and Cluster/RAPID, CDA Web data which includes Cluster Prime Parameters, and various modules from CRRES, POLAR, GPS, and many other spacecraft. The Cluster CAA module is presented, as well as a brief description of PaPCo's use and installation procedure.

  4. Design and validation of an intelligent patient monitoring and alarm system based on a fuzzy logic process model.

    PubMed

    Becker, K; Thull, B; Käsmacher-Leidinger, H; Stemmer, J; Rau, G; Kalff, G; Zimmermann, H J

    1997-09-01

    The process of patient care performed by an anaesthesiologist during high invasive surgery requires fundamental knowledge of the physiologic processes and a long standing experience in patient management to cope with the inter-individual variability of the patients. Biomedical engineering research improves the patient monitoring task by providing technical devices to measure a large number of a patient's vital parameters. These measurements improve the safety of the patient during the surgical procedure, because pathological states can be recognised earlier, but may also lead to an increased cognitive load of the physician. In order to reduce cognitive strain and to support intra-operative monitoring for the anaesthesiologist an intelligent patient monitoring and alarm system has been proposed and implemented which evaluates a patient's haemodynamic state on the basis of a current vital parameter constellation with a knowledge-based approach. In this paper general design aspects and evaluation of the intelligent patient monitoring and alarm system in the operating theatre are described. The validation of the inference engine of the intelligent patient monitoring and alarm system was performed in two steps. Firstly, the knowledge base was validated with real patient data which was acquired online in the operating theatre. Secondly, a research prototype of the whole system was implemented in the operating theatre. In the first step, the anaesthetists were asked to enter a state variable evaluation before a drug application or any other intervention on the patient into a recording system. These state variable evaluations were compared to those generated by the intelligent alarm system on the same vital parameter constellations. Altogether 641 state variable evaluations were entered by six different physicians. In total, the sensitivity of alarm recognition is 99.3%, the specificity is 66% and the predictability is 45%. The second step was performed using a research

  5. Evidence of a suffocation alarm system within the periaqueductal gray matter of the rat.

    PubMed

    Schimitel, F G; de Almeida, G M; Pitol, D N; Armini, R S; Tufik, S; Schenberg, L C

    2012-01-01

    Dyspnea, hunger for air, and urge to flee are the cardinal symptoms of panic attacks. Patients also show baseline respiratory abnormalities and a higher rate of comorbid and antecedent respiratory diseases. Panic attacks are also precipitated by infusion of sodium lactate and inhalation of 5% CO₂ in predisposed patients but not in healthy volunteers or patients without panic disorder. Accordingly, Klein [Klein (1993) Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:306-317] suggested that clinical panic is the misfiring of an as-yet-unidentified suffocation alarm system. In rats, selective anoxia of chemoreceptor cells by potassium cyanide (KCN) and electrical and chemical stimulations of periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) produce defensive behaviors, which resemble panic attacks. Thus, here we examined the effects of single or combined administrations of CO₂ (8% and 13%) and KCN (10-80 μg, i.v.) on spontaneous and PAG-evoked behaviors of rats either intact or bearing electrolytic lesions of PAG. Exposure to CO₂ alone reduced grooming while increased exophthalmus, suggesting an arousal response to non-visual cues of environment. Unexpectedly, however, CO₂ attenuated PAG-evoked immobility, trotting, and galloping while facilitated defecation and micturition. Conversely, KCN produced all defensive behaviors of the rat and facilitated PAG-evoked trotting, galloping, and defecation. There were also facilitatory trends in PAG-evoked exophthalmus, immobility, and jumping. Moreover, whereas the KCN-evoked defensive behaviors were attenuated or even suppressed by discrete lesions of PAG, they were markedly facilitated by CO₂. Authors suggest that the PAG harbors an anoxia-sensitive suffocation alarm system which activation precipitates panic attacks and potentiates the subject responses to hypercapnia. PMID:22062132

  6. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1988-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  7. The postman always rings twice: two cases of shotgun deaths associated with an unconventional home security alarm system.

    PubMed

    Asirdizer, Mahmut; Turkmen, Nursel; Akan, Okan; Yavuz, Mehmet Sunay

    2014-06-01

    Injury and death cases caused by booby traps are not common in forensic medicine practice. Besides, installation of booby traps including firearms is generally for suicidal and rarely for homicidal purposes. Although few patents were described about home security alarm system that were created by firearms in the United States, 1 sample of injury with a similar unconventional mechanism of home safety system was reported by Asirdizer and Yavuz in 2009. In the published case report, the story of an electrical technician who was invited to a summer house by the homeowner to check the home security alarm system was reported. In the so-called report, he was stated to be injured by the shotgun attached to the unconventional home security alarm system while checking the system. As a result, the homeowner was convicted of a possible intent to cause a life-threatening injury to the technician.The so-called homeowner and his wife died by the same shotgun attached to the same unconventional home security alarm system 4 years on from the first event. In the present case report, we have aimed to present the findings of the crime scene and the autopsies of these unusual 2 deaths and to discuss individual and legal factors in paving the way for the deaths of 2 people. PMID:24781392

  8. Hybrid CFD/CAA Modeling for Liftoff Acoustic Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strutzenberg, Louise L.; Liever, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents development efforts at the NASA Marshall Space flight Center to establish a hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Aero-Acoustics (CFD/CAA) simulation system for launch vehicle liftoff acoustics environment analysis. Acoustic prediction engineering tools based on empirical jet acoustic strength and directivity models or scaled historical measurements are of limited value in efforts to proactively design and optimize launch vehicles and launch facility configurations for liftoff acoustics. CFD based modeling approaches are now able to capture the important details of vehicle specific plume flow environment, identifY the noise generation sources, and allow assessment of the influence of launch pad geometric details and sound mitigation measures such as water injection. However, CFD methodologies are numerically too dissipative to accurately capture the propagation of the acoustic waves in the large CFD models. The hybrid CFD/CAA approach combines the high-fidelity CFD analysis capable of identifYing the acoustic sources with a fast and efficient Boundary Element Method (BEM) that accurately propagates the acoustic field from the source locations. The BEM approach was chosen for its ability to properly account for reflections and scattering of acoustic waves from launch pad structures. The paper will present an overview of the technology components of the CFD/CAA framework and discuss plans for demonstration and validation against test data.

  9. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... permanent radiographic installations. 34.75 Section 34.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent...

  10. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... permanent radiographic installations. 34.75 Section 34.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent...

  11. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... permanent radiographic installations. 34.75 Section 34.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent...

  12. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... permanent radiographic installations. 34.75 Section 34.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent...

  13. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations. 34.75 Section 34.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS...

  14. 40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operation must have immediate access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly... (immediately available at the scene of operation) or a hand-held two-way radio, capable of summoning...

  15. 40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involved in the operation must have immediate access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device... scene of operation) or a hand-held two-way radio, capable of summoning external emergency...

  16. Conservatism in SRS Criticality Alarm System 12 Rad Zone Calculations - How Much is Enough?

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, K.R.

    2002-06-13

    Savannah River Site (SRS) uses two methods (i.e., Approximate Method and MCNP) of calculating the 12-rad zone. The reasons for the two-tier approach are described in Ref. 1 and 2. Lately, there have been occasions in which the use of either the Approximate Method (AM) or MCNP3 calculations indicated potential facility impacts. For example, one or both methods may indicate that a 12-rad zone extends outside of relatively thick shielding, or extends to the roof of a facility, or extends through shielding to part of a stairwell. In such cases, a criticality alarm system may have to be installed to protect workers in a small, localized area from a potential dose that is not substantially greater than 12 rad in air. But, is the potential dose really greater than 12 rad in air? A subcommittee was appointed to look into the two 12-rad zone calculation methods for the purpose of identifying items contributing to over-conservatism and under-conservatism, and to recommend a path forward.

  17. Transformation of Ground Vibration Signal for Debris-Flow Monitoring and Detection in Alarm Systems

    PubMed Central

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems. PMID:22666064

  18. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems.

    PubMed

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems. PMID:22666064

  19. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    SciTech Connect

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies.

  20. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  1. The monitoring and alarm system based on distributed temperature fiber sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-qiang; Zhao, Yu-liang; Zhang, Yu-ye; Wang, Shu-juan

    2014-09-01

    Air material depot is a warehouse which store consumed all the parts and equipment vault of the plane. In order to ensure the various aviation equipment integrity of the backup piece rate, the inside temperature of depot must be controlled within a certain range. Therefore, the depot must be equipped a self-contained temperature real-time monitoring system. This paper presents a distributed temperature sensing alarm system to apply to real-time measure spatial distribution of temperature field. In order to eliminate influence to the scattering strength from the light source instability and the fiber bending splice loss and to improve temperature measurement accuracy, the system design used dual-channel dual- wavelength comparison method which make Anti-Stokes as signal channel and Stokes as a reference channel to collect signals of two channel respectively and detect the ratio of the two channels' signals. The light of LD directional coupling to the sensing optical fiber in the temperature field to test, domain reflect light from the sensing optical fiber directional coupling to receive channel again, Rayleigh domain reflect light is filtered after optical filter, the Anti-Stokes and Stokes are both taken out, converted and magnified, the two signals is digitalized by A/D Converter, and written to the storage machine , which linear cumulative to the content of the storage unit, The distributed measurement of the temperature field to test is finished. The collected 2900 measuring points real-time on 2km of optical fiber. The spatial resolution of the system was 0.7m, measurement range was -20-370°C, and measurement error was ± 2 °C. All index of the system achieved the desired objective. To get an accurate temperature field spatial distribution and the information of temporal variation, the system enabled real-time temperature of aviation depot monitoring and early warning . As a new sensing technology, the distributed fiber optic sensor has the functions of self

  2. Many new CAA requirements, deadlines scheduled during next five years

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanchuk, R. )

    1993-06-01

    Since the CAA Amendments were signed into law, EPA's rulemaking process has been underway, delineating specific compliance regulations. Many of the legislation's requirements and deadlines will be finalized over the next five years. The following list summarizes upcoming regulations and anticipated compliance deadlines. Title I applies to VOC and NOx controls in ozone non-attainment areas. Title III contains the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Title V consists of the operating permit rule. Title VII applies to the enhanced monitoring rule. The rule will require major sources to enhance monitoring systems to determine whether compliance is continuous or intermittent.

  3. The Fine Tuning of Pain Thresholds: A Sophisticated Double Alarm System

    PubMed Central

    Plaghki, Léon; Decruynaere, Céline; Van Dooren, Paul; Le Bars, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    illustrates the role of nociception as a “double level” and “double release” alarm system based on level detectors. By contrast, warmth detection was found to be based on difference detectors. It is hypothesized that pain results from a CNS build-up process resulting from population coding and strongly influenced by the background temperatures surrounding at large the stimulation site. We propose an alternative solution to the conventional methods that only measure a single “threshold of pain”, without knowing which of the two systems is involved. PMID:20428245

  4. CAA broadband noise prediction for aeroacoustic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, R.; Dierke, J.; Siebert, J.; Neifeld, A.; Appel, C.; Siefert, M.; Kornow, O.

    2011-08-01

    The current status of a computational aeroacoustics (CAA) approach to simulate broadband noise is reviewed. The method rests on the use of steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation to describe the time-averaged motion of turbulent flow. By means of synthetic turbulence the steady one-point statistics (e.g. turbulence kinetic energy) and turbulent length- and time-scales of RANS are translated into fluctuations having statistics that very accurately reproduce the initial RANS target-setting. The synthetic fluctuations are used to prescribe sound sources which drive linear perturbation equations. The whole approach represents a methodology to solve statistical noise theory with state-of-the-art CAA tools in the time-domain. A brief overview of the synthetic turbulence model and its numerical discretization in terms of the random particle-mesh (RPM) and fast random particle-mesh (FRPM) method is given. Results are presented for trailing-edge noise, slat noise, and jet noise. Some problems related to the formulation of vortex sound sources are discussed.

  5. Xcel Energy implements an alarm management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, J.; Abreu, G.

    2007-11-15

    Not so long ago, Xcel Energy's Pawnee Station, a 505 MW coal-fired generating station in Brush, Colorado, USA was commonly generating 300 to 400 alarms per 8-hour shift. The article describes how the alarm system was revised and improved by tackling alarm dead-bands, and rationalising alarms for routine events. Operators are trained to understand the functions of alarm management components, their use and response, and obtain feedback. Today the power station reports about one alarm per hour. 3 photos.

  6. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  7. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  8. Fire alarm system/fire suppression system for mobile tactical shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, F. K.; Lecours, C. A.; Radcliff, O.

    1985-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a fire detection/suppression capability for DoD standard family mobile tactical shelters. The systems developed and tested provide complete protection during all employment conditions; in garrison use, storage, transportation, and deployed field conditions. The reports outlines the requirement and the test and evaluation program. Two manufacturers of detection systems and two manufacturers of suppression systems were identified and qualified to meet the fire protection requirements for mobile tactical shelters.

  9. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  10. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  14. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  15. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  16. Improved alarm tracking for better accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Nemesure, S.; Marr, G.; Shrey, T.; Kling, N.; Hammons, L.; Ingrassia, P.; D'Ottavio, T.

    2011-03-28

    An alarm system is a vital component of any accelerator, as it provides a warning that some element of the system is not functioning properly. The severity and age of the alarm may sometimes signify whether urgent or deferred attention is required. For example, older alarms may be given a lower priority if an assumption is made that someone else is already investigating it, whereas those of higher severity or alarms that are more current may indicate the need for an immediate response. The alarm history also provides valuable information regarding the functionality of the overall system, thus careful tracking of these data is likely to improve response time, remove uncertainty about the current status and assist in the ability to promptly respond to the same warning/trigger in the future. Since one goal of every alarm display is to be free of alarms, a clear and concise presentation of an alarm along with useful historic annotations can help the end user address the warning more quickly, thus expediting the elimination of such alarm conditions. By defining a discrete set of very specific alarm management states and by utilizing database resources to maintain a complete and easily accessible alarm history, we anticipate facilitated work flow due to more efficient operator response and management of alarms.

  17. Second Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, C. K. W. (Editor); Hardin, J. C. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings of the Second Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems held at Florida State University are the subject of this report. For this workshop, problems arising in typical industrial applications of CAA were chosen. Comparisons between numerical solutions and exact solutions are presented where possible.

  18. Quick Win or Slow Burn: Modelling UK HE CAA Uptake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The uptake of CAA in UK higher education (HE) on a large scale lags behind the expectations of CAA specialists. A research project was undertaken with the aim of discovering and addressing the underlying reasons for this. The research was conducted according to Strauss and Corbin's (1998) prescription for grounded theory (GT) research. During…

  19. How tissue injury alarms the immune system and causes a systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is very prevalent among critically ill patients, particularly those with extensive tissue injury. Although downstream mediators (cytokines) and effector cells (phagocytes) have been identified, proximal mediators originating from injured tissues remained elusive. Alarmins (“danger signals”) released by necrotic/injured cells have been identified recently and certainly play a role in triggering local and systemic inflammation in critically ill patients. The most promising alarmin candidates are of mitochondrial origin, i.e. mitochondrial DNA and the chemotactic factor fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLP). ATP also is released from necrotic tissues and stimulates the assembly of the inflammasome, leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1ß. The identification of novel alarmins opens new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of severe SIRS, and SIRS-dependent organ dysfunction. PMID:22788849

  20. An alarm for monitoring CPAP.

    PubMed

    Carter, B; Clare, D; Hochmann, M; Osborne, A; Fraser, T

    1993-04-01

    We have built a device for use within the hospital and at home that is designed to warn of circuit disconnection when used in conjunction with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy delivered via ventilators or CPAP generating systems. The Royal Children's Hospital CPAP alarm is a compact, battery operated alarm and monitor of circuit pressure. The device includes intrinsic safety features including a safety blow-off valve, a high pressure alarm and design features that make the device practical, safe and easy to use by both trained hospital personnel and home care attendants with limited training. PMID:8517514

  1. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strączkiewicz, M.; Barszcz, T.; Jabłoński, A.

    2015-07-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine.

  2. Intelligent alarming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braden, W. B.

    1992-01-01

    This talk discusses the importance of providing a process operator with concise information about a process fault including a root cause diagnosis of the problem, a suggested best action for correcting the fault, and prioritization of the problem set. A decision tree approach is used to illustrate one type of approach for determining the root cause of a problem. Fault detection in several different types of scenarios is addressed, including pump malfunctions and pipeline leaks. The talk stresses the need for a good data rectification strategy and good process models along with a method for presenting the findings to the process operator in a focused and understandable way. A real time expert system is discussed as an effective tool to help provide operators with this type of information. The use of expert systems in the analysis of actual versus predicted results from neural networks and other types of process models is discussed.

  3. Evidence of a suffocation alarm system sensitive to clinically-effective treatments with the panicolytics clonazepam and fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Schimitel, Fagna Giacomin; Müller, Cláudia Janaina Torres; Tufik, Sérgio; Schenberg, Luiz Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Dyspnea, 'hunger for air', and the urge to flee are the cardinal symptoms of respiratory-type panic attacks. Patients also show baseline respiratory abnormalities and a higher rate of comorbid and antecedent respiratory diseases. Panic attacks are also precipitated by both the infusion of 0.5 M sodium lactate and the inhalation of 5-7% carbon dioxide (CO2) in predisposed patients, but not in healthy volunteers nor patients without panic disorder. Further studies show that patients with panic are also hyper-responsive to hypoxia. These and other observations led Klein (1993) to suggest that clinical panic is the misfiring of a suffocation alarm system. In rats, cytotoxic hypoxia of chemoreceptor cells by intravenous injection of potassium cyanide (KCN) produces short-lasting flight behaviors reminiscent of panic attacks. KCN-induced flight behaviors are blocked both by denervation of chemoreceptor cells and lesion of dorsal periaqueductal gray matter, a likely substrate of panic. Herein, we show that KCN-evoked flight behaviors are also attenuated by both acute and chronic treatment with clonazepam (0.01-0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and fluoxetine (1-4 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 21 days), respectively. Attenuation of KCN-evoked panic-like behaviors by clinically-effective treatment with panicolytics adds fresh evidence to the false suffocation alarm theory of panic disorder. PMID:25277323

  4. Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, K.M.

    1998-08-01

    The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

  5. Evaluating alternative responses to safeguards alarms

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-04-15

    This paper describes a quantitative approach to help evaluate and respond to safeguards alarms. These alarms may be generated internally by a facility's safeguards systems or externally by individuals claiming to have stolen special nuclear material (SNM). This approach can be used to identify the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error - and to evaluate alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to external threats. Based on the results of each alarm investigation step, the evaluation revises the likelihoods of possible causes of an alarm, and uses this information to determine the optimal sequence of further responses. The choice of an optimal sequence of responses takes into consideration the costs and benefits of successful thefts or hoaxes. These results provide an analytical basis for setting priorities and developing contingency plans for responding to safeguards alarms.

  6. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  11. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  12. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  13. Hypo- and Hyperglycemic Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Howsmon, Daniel; Bequette, B. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery that insulin regulates blood glucose by Banting and Best in 1922, the symptoms and risks associated with hypoglycemia became widely recognized. This article reviews devices to warn individuals of impending hypo- and hyperglycemia; biosignals used by these devices include electroencephalography, electrocardiography, skin galvanic resistance, diabetes alert dogs, and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). While systems based on other technology are increasing in performance and decreasing in size, CGM technology remains the best method for both reactive and predictive alarming of hypo- or hyperglycemia. PMID:25931581

  14. Technical Basis for the Use of Alarming Personal Criticality Detectors to Augment Permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in Areas Not Normally Occupied

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, K.R.

    2003-05-26

    The technical basis for the use of alarming personal criticality detectors (APCDs) to augment permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in areas not normally occupied is evaluated. All applicable DOE O 420.1A and ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 criticality alarm system requirements and recommendations are evaluated for applicability to APCDs. Based on this evaluation, design criteria and administrative requirements are presented for APCDs. Siemens EPD/Mk-2 and EPD-N devices are shown to meet the design criteria. A definition of not normally occupied is also presented.

  15. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  16. 46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provided a smoke detecting or other suitable type fire detecting system. (c) Enclosed spaces which are “specially suitable for vehicles” shall be fitted with an approved fire or smoke detecting system....

  17. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms. 95.15-30 Section 95.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and...

  18. Black Juveniles in the Juvenile Justice System: A Cause for Alarm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeFlore, Larry

    This report examines the representation of black youth in the juvenile justice system, describes changes in juvenile justice philosophy, and discusses policy implications. Black youth are overrepresented at all stages of the juvenile justice system compared to white youth. Positivist theories explain this overrepresentation as the result of…

  19. Implementation guidance for industrial-level security systems using radio frequency alarm links

    SciTech Connect

    Swank, R.G.

    1996-07-12

    Spread spectrum (SS) RF transmission technologies have properties that make the transmitted signal difficult to intercept, interpret, and jam. The digital code used in the modulation process results in a signal that has high reception reliability and supports multiple use of frequency bands and selective addressing. These attributes and the relatively low installation cost of RF systems make SSRF technologies candidate for communications links in security systems used for industrial sites, remote locations, and where trenching or other disturbances of soil or structures may not be desirable or may be costly. This guide provides a description of such a system and presents implementation methods that may be of engineering benefit.

  20. Improved detection and false alarm rejection using FLGPR and color imagery in a forward-looking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Spain, Christopher J.; Ho, K. C.; Keller, James M.; Ton, Tuan T.; Wong, David C.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    2010-04-01

    Forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR) has received a significant amount of attention for use in explosivehazards detection. A drawback to FLGPR is that it results in an excessive number of false detections. This paper presents our analysis of the explosive-hazards detection system tested by the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). The NVESD system combines an FLGPR with a visible-spectrum color camera. We present a target detection algorithm that uses a locally-adaptive detection scheme with spectrum-based features. The remaining FLGPR detections are then projected into the camera imagery and image-based features are collected. A one-class classifier is then used to reduce the number of false detections. We show that our proposed FLGPR target detection algorithm, coupled with our camera-based false alarm (FA) reduction method, is effective at reducing the number of FAs in test data collected at a US Army test facility.

  1. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.130 What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system... in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required under § 150.615 of...

  2. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.130 What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system... in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required under § 150.615 of...

  3. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.130 What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system... in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required under § 150.615 of...

  4. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.130 What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system... in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required under § 150.615 of...

  5. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.130 What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system... in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required under § 150.615 of...

  6. False alarms and missed events: the impact and origins of perceived inaccuracy in tornado warning systems.

    PubMed

    Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G

    2015-01-01

    Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up question--Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are--in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn impact the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. PMID:25082540

  7. Benchmark Solutions for Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Code Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has conducted a series of Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshops on Benchmark Problems to develop a set of realistic CAA problems that can be used for code validation. In the Third (1999) and Fourth (2003) Workshops, the single airfoil gust response problem, with real geometry effects, was included as one of the benchmark problems. Respondents were asked to calculate the airfoil RMS pressure and far-field acoustic intensity for different airfoil geometries and a wide range of gust frequencies. This paper presents the validated that have been obtained to the benchmark problem, and in addition, compares them with classical flat plate results. It is seen that airfoil geometry has a strong effect on the airfoil unsteady pressure, and a significant effect on the far-field acoustic intensity. Those parts of the benchmark problem that have not yet been adequately solved are identified and presented as a challenge to the CAA research community.

  8. W-026, acceptance test report fire alarm system (submittal number 1571.1)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, T.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-16

    This Acceptance Test Report was written by 3-D Protection Systems, Inc., and PCL Construction. WRAP I Facility Engineering, Solid Waste Fire Safety, Kaiser Acceptance Inspector and Hanford Fire Department personnel witnessed this test. All exceptions were resolved. The resolutions are attached. Contractor`s Material and Test Certificates are attached. Results from Solid Waste Industrial Hygiene sound level surveys are also included.

  9. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarms. 193.15-30 Section 193.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-30 Alarms. (a) Space normally accessible to persons on board while...

  10. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon... audible alarm in such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to... sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and...

  11. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  13. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  14. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  17. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  18. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  19. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  20. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarms. 193.15-30 Section 193.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-30 Alarms. (a) Space normally accessible to persons on board while...

  1. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  2. Research of pulse signal processing based on sleep-monitoring alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaisheng; Zeng, Yuan

    2009-07-01

    From pulse diagnosis of Chinese herbalist doctor to the research of cardiovascular system by modem iatrology,they all have showed and proved that human pulse has a good affinity with diseases,especially cardiovascular diseases. Human pulse contains much physical information, and it will be propitious to know the human healthy state early so as to get therapy and recovery early when pulse signal is often detected and analyzed. study how to use the embedded microcontroller to transmit physiological signal from human to personal computer by infrared communication, and the normal sphygmic parameter in one's sleeping is compared with the one measured in order to judge whether one's sleeping condition is normal, finally ascertain the best control plan.

  3. 8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. Fourth Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Fourth Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems. In this workshop, as in previous workshops, the problems were devised to gauge the technological advancement of computational techniques to calculate all aspects of sound generation and propagation in air directly from the fundamental governing equations. A variety of benchmark problems have been previously solved ranging from simple geometries with idealized acoustic conditions to test the accuracy and effectiveness of computational algorithms and numerical boundary conditions; to sound radiation from a duct; to gust interaction with a cascade of airfoils; to the sound generated by a separating, turbulent viscous flow. By solving these and similar problems, workshop participants have shown the technical progress from the basic challenges to accurate CAA calculations to the solution of CAA problems of increasing complexity and difficulty. The fourth CAA workshop emphasized the application of CAA methods to the solution of realistic problems. The workshop was held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio, on October 20 to 22, 2003. At that time, workshop participants presented their solutions to problems in one or more of five categories. Their solutions are presented in this proceedings along with the comparisons of their solutions to the benchmark solutions or experimental data. The five categories for the benchmark problems were as follows: Category 1:Basic Methods. The numerical computation of sound is affected by, among other issues, the choice of grid used and by the boundary conditions. Category 2:Complex Geometry. The ability to compute the sound in the presence of complex geometric surfaces is important in practical applications of CAA. Category 3:Sound Generation by Interacting With a Gust. The practical application of CAA for computing noise generated by turbomachinery involves the modeling of the noise source mechanism as a

  5. Decision-making and response strategies in interaction with alarms: the impact of alarm reliability, availability of alarm validity information and workload.

    PubMed

    Manzey, Dietrich; Gérard, Nina; Wiczorek, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Responding to alarm systems which usually commit a number of false alarms and/or misses involves decision-making under uncertainty. Four laboratory experiments including a total of 256 participants were conducted to gain comprehensive insight into humans' dealing with this uncertainty. Specifically, it was investigated how responses to alarms/non-alarms are affected by the predictive validities of these events, and to what extent response strategies depend on whether or not the validity of alarms/non-alarms can be cross-checked against other data. Among others, the results suggest that, without cross-check possibility (experiment 1), low levels of predictive validity of alarms ( ≤ 0.5) led most participants to use one of two different strategies which both involved non-responding to a significant number of alarms (cry-wolf effect). Yet, providing access to alarm validity information reduced this effect dramatically (experiment 2). This latter result emerged independent of the effort needed for cross-checkings of alarms (experiment 3), but was affected by the workload imposed by concurrent tasks (experiment 4). Theoretical and practical consequences of these results for decision-making and response selection in interaction with alarm systems, as well as the design of effective alarm systems, are discussed. PMID:25224606

  6. Smart smoke alarm

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  7. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  8. 2 CFR 1532.1110 - How will a CAA or CWA conviction affect my eligibility to participate in Federal contracts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1110 How will a CAA or CWA conviction affect my... debarment and suspension system (i.e. covered transactions under subpart A through I of 2 CFR part 180, or prohibited awards under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4), if you: (a) Will perform any part of the transaction...

  9. 2 CFR 1532.1110 - How will a CAA or CWA conviction affect my eligibility to participate in Federal contracts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1110 How will a CAA or CWA conviction affect my... debarment and suspension system (i.e. covered transactions under subpart A through I of 2 CFR part 180, or prohibited awards under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4), if you: (a) Will perform any part of the transaction...

  10. 2 CFR 1532.1110 - How will a CAA or CWA conviction affect my eligibility to participate in Federal contracts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1110 How will a CAA or CWA conviction affect my... debarment and suspension system (i.e. covered transactions under subpart A through I of 2 CFR part 180, or prohibited awards under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4), if you: (a) Will perform any part of the transaction...

  11. 2 CFR 1532.1110 - How will a CAA or CWA conviction affect my eligibility to participate in Federal contracts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1110 How will a CAA or CWA conviction affect my... debarment and suspension system (i.e. covered transactions under subpart A through I of 2 CFR part 180, or prohibited awards under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4), if you: (a) Will perform any part of the transaction...

  12. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  13. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  14. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  15. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  16. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  17. 46 CFR 169.731 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 169.731 Section 169.731 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.731 General alarm bells. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over each general alarm bell must be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch...

  18. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...

  19. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...

  20. Preparing the CAA Title V operating permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Wyles, T.R. )

    1994-01-01

    The CAA amendments contain 11 new and amended titles, including enhanced non-attainment area provisions, additional conditions for controlling hazardous air pollutants, expanded monitoring and record keeping requirements, and increased enforcement authority. The cornerstone of the regulation is the operating permits program (Title V). In the past, permits have been issued to construct or modify sources, and some sources have been permitted in states with operating permit programs. Such programs will remain in effect. However, under the new CAA, most emissions sources will be required to have an operating permit. Title V's permit provision initially affects about 34,000 major facilities and may affect another 350,000 smaller sources in the future. The amendments also increase the number of regulated pollutants from 21 to about 200. Operating permits limit emissions from manufacturing operations, and place further restrictions on raw materials and products.

  1. Third Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The proceedings of the Third Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems cosponsored by the Ohio Aerospace Institute and the NASA Glenn Research Center are the subject of this report. Fan noise was the chosen theme for this workshop with representative problems encompassing four of the six benchmark problem categories. The other two categories were related to jet noise and cavity noise. For the first time in this series of workshops, the computational results for the cavity noise problem were compared to experimental data. All the other problems had exact solutions, which are included in this report. The Workshop included a panel discussion by representatives of industry. The participants gave their views on the status of applying computational aeroacoustics to solve practical industry related problems and what issues need to be addressed to make CAA a robust design tool.

  2. Nitric oxide activation by caa3 oxidoreductase from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Takehiro; Soulimane, Tewfik; Kitagawa, Teizo; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2015-04-28

    Visible and UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy was employed to investigate the reaction of NO with cytochrome caa3 from Thermus thermophilus. We show the formation of the hyponitrite (HO-N=N-O)(-) bound to the heme a3 species (νN=N = 1330 cm(-1)) forming a high spin complex in the oxidized heme a3 Fe/CuB binuclear center of caa3-oxidoreductase. In the absence of heme a3 Fe(2+)-NO formation, the electron required for the formation of the N=N bond originates from the autoreduction of CuB by NO, producing nitrite. With the identification of the hyponitrite intermediate the hypothesis of a common phylogeny of aerobic respiration and bacterial denitrification is fully supported and the mechanism for the 2e(-)/2H(+) reduction of NO to N2O can be described with more certainty. PMID:25820937

  3. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test. PMID:21747329

  4. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communications or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.

  5. Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.C.

    1987-05-01

    Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment.

  6. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ok Min; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Methods Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. One bed out of 56 ICU beds was randomly assigned to each observation time unit. Results Overall 2,184 clinical alarms were counted for 48 hours of observation, and 45.5 clinical alarms occurred per hour per subject. Of these, 1,394 alarms (63.8%) were categorized as false alarms. The alarm fatigue score was 24.3 ± 4.0 out of 35. The highest scoring item was "always get bothered due to clinical alarms". The highest scoring item in obstacles was "frequent false alarms, which lead to reduced attention or response to alarms". Conclusions Nurses reported that they felt some fatigue due to clinical alarms, and false alarms were also obstacles to proper management. An appropriate hospital policy should be developed to reduce false alarms and nurses' alarm fatigue. PMID:26893950

  7. Multistation alarm system for eruptive activity based on the automatic classification of volcanic tremor: specifications and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Horst; Falsaperla, Susanna; Messina, Alfio; Spampinato, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    With over fifty eruptive episodes (Strombolian activity, lava fountains, and lava flows) between 2006 and 2013, Mt Etna, Italy, underscored its role as the most active volcano in Europe. Seven paroxysmal lava fountains at the South East Crater occurred in 2007-2008 and 46 at the New South East Crater between 2011 and 2013. Month-lasting lava emissions affected the upper eastern flank of the volcano in 2006 and 2008-2009. On this background, effective monitoring and forecast of volcanic phenomena are a first order issue for their potential socio-economic impact in a densely populated region like the town of Catania and its surroundings. For example, explosive activity has often formed thick ash clouds with widespread tephra fall able to disrupt the air traffic, as well as to cause severe problems at infrastructures, such as highways and roads. For timely information on changes in the state of the volcano and possible onset of dangerous eruptive phenomena, the analysis of the continuous background seismic signal, the so-called volcanic tremor, turned out of paramount importance. Changes in the state of the volcano as well as in its eruptive style are usually concurrent with variations of the spectral characteristics (amplitude and frequency content) of tremor. The huge amount of digital data continuously acquired by INGV's broadband seismic stations every day makes a manual analysis difficult, and techniques of automatic classification of the tremor signal are therefore applied. The application of unsupervised classification techniques to the tremor data revealed significant changes well before the onset of the eruptive episodes. This evidence led to the development of specific software packages related to real-time processing of the tremor data. The operational characteristics of these tools - fail-safe, robustness with respect to noise and data outages, as well as computational efficiency - allowed the identification of criteria for automatic alarm flagging. The

  8. Applications of the Petri net to simulate, test, and validate the performance and safety of complex, heterogeneous, multi-modality patient monitoring alarm systems.

    PubMed

    Sloane, E B; Gelhot, V

    2004-01-01

    This research is motivated by the rapid pace of medical device and information system integration. Although the ability to interconnect many medical devices and information systems may help improve patient care, there is no way to detect if incompatibilities between one or more devices might cause critical events such as patient alarms to go unnoticed or cause one or more of the devices to become stuck in a disabled state. Petri net tools allow automated testing of all possible states and transitions between devices and/or systems to detect potential failure modes in advance. This paper describes an early research project to use Petri nets to simulate and validate a multi-modality central patient monitoring system. A free Petri net tool, HPSim, is used to simulate two wireless patient monitoring networks: one with 44 heart monitors and a central monitoring system and a second version that includes an additional 44 wireless pulse oximeters. In the latter Petri net simulation, a potentially dangerous heart arrhythmia and pulse oximetry alarms were detected. PMID:17271039

  9. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

  10. 46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113.25-9 Section 113.25-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

  11. Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) Data Archiving in the CAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandouras, I. S.; Barthe, A.; Penou, E.; Brunato, S.; Reme, H.; Kistler, L. M.; Blagau, A.; Facsko, G.; Kronberg, E.; Laakso, H. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Cluster Active Archive (CAA) aims at preserving the four Cluster spacecraft data, so that they are usable in the long-term by the scientific community as well as by the instrument team PIs and Co-Is. This implies that the data are filed together with the descriptive and documentary elements making it possible to select and interpret them. The CIS (Cluster Ion Spectrometry) experiment is a comprehensive ionic plasma spectrometry package onboard the four Cluster spacecraft, capable of obtaining full three-dimensional ion distributions (about 0 to 40 keV/e) with a time resolution of one spacecraft spin (4 sec) and with mass-per-charge composition determination. The CIS package consists of two different instruments, a Hot Ion Analyser (HIA) and a time-of-flight ion Composition Distribution Function (CODIF) analyser. For the archival of the CIS data a multi-level approach has been adopted. The CAA archival includes processed raw data (Level 1 data), moments of the ion distribution functions (Level 2 data), and calibrated high-resolution data in a variety of physical units (Level 3 data). The latter are 3-D ion distribution functions and 2-D pitch-angle distributions. In addition, a software package has been developed to allow the CAA user to interactively calculate partial or total moments of the ion distributions. Instrument cross-calibration has been an important activity in preparing the data for archival. The CIS data archive includes also experiment documentation, graphical products for browsing through the data, and data caveats. In addition, data quality indexes are under preparation, to help the user. Given the complexity of an ion spectrometer, and the variety of its operational modes, each one being optimised for a different magnetospheric region or measurement objective, consultation of the data caveats by the end user will always be a necessary step in the data analysis.

  12. Analyzing safeguards alarms and response decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a quantitative model designed to help the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its licensees evaluate and respond to alarms indicating that special nuclear material (SNM) may be missing. The model is called the Alarm/Response (A/R) Model. The report demonstrates three principal uses of the A/R Model. The first is determining the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error. The second is evaluating alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to extortion threats from individuals claiming to possess SNM. For each possible alarm, the model identifies the best response, which can be used to develop contingency plans that the licensee and the NRC can carry out. The third use is to assist the NRC in setting performance standards, especially detection time requirements. In this application, the model helps to determine the value of more timely alarms produced by licensee safeguards systems. All three uses are demonstrated with hypothetical examples. A preliminary computer code produced sample results and determined the sensitivity of those results to subjective factors in the example.

  13. Control of ELT false alarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

  14. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Logan M

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  15. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. Each self-propelled...

  16. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. Each self-propelled...

  17. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. Each self-propelled...

  18. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  19. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  20. Evaluation of nine different types of enuresis alarms.

    PubMed

    Goel, K M; Thomson, R B; Gibb, E M; McAinsh, T F

    1984-08-01

    One hundred enuretic children were treated in closely supervised trial conditions with nine commonly used enuresis alarm systems available commercially in the United Kingdom. Although there was little difference between the systems in terms of their effectiveness in stopping bed wetting, parents preferred the Eastleigh and Urilarm De-Luxe models which had distinct advantages in respect of false alarms, breakdowns, and durability of pads. Enuresis alarms that perform poorly in these respects may lead to loss of enthusiasm and non-compliance. The systems vary widely in price, but a private buyer may find a cheaper alarm just as effective. PMID:6476872

  1. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communicationsmore » or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.« less

  2. FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  3. Fault Diagnosis with Multi-State Alarms in a Nuclear Power Control Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart A. Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-09-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effects of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized the use of three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. Sensitivity and criterion based on the Signal Detection Theory were used to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  4. Likelihood alarm displays. [for human operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorkin, Robert D.; Kantowitz, Barry H.; Kantowitz, Susan C.

    1988-01-01

    In a likelihood alarm display (LAD) information about event likelihood is computed by an automated monitoring system and encoded into an alerting signal for the human operator. Operator performance within a dual-task paradigm was evaluated with two LADs: a color-coded visual alarm and a linguistically coded synthetic speech alarm. The operator's primary task was one of tracking; the secondary task was to monitor a four-element numerical display and determine whether the data arose from a 'signal' or 'no-signal' condition. A simulated 'intelligent' monitoring system alerted the operator to the likelihood of a signal. The results indicated that (1) automated monitoring systems can improve performance on primary and secondary tasks; (2) LADs can improve the allocation of attention among tasks and provide information integrated into operator decisions; and (3) LADs do not necessarily add to the operator's attentional load.

  5. CAA for Jet Noise Physics: Issues and Recent Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, Reda

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Mankbadi summarized recent CAA results. Examples of the effect of various boundary condition schemes on the computed acoustic field, for a point source in a uniform flow, were shown. Solutions showing the impact of inflow excitations on the result were also shown. Results from a large eddy simulation, using a fourth-order MacCormack scheme with a Smagorinsky sub-grid turbulence model, were shown for a Mach 2.1 unheated jet. The results showed that the results were free from spurious modes. Results were shown for a Mach 1.4 jet using LES in the near field and the Kirchhoff method for the far field. Predicted flow field characteristics were shown to be in good agreement with data and predicted far field directivities were shown to be in qualitative agree with experimental measurements.

  6. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P.

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  7. Framework for analyzing safeguards alarms and response decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-06-11

    This paper describes a quantitative approach to help evaluate and respond to safeguards alarms. These alrms may be generated internally by a facility's safeguards systems or externally by individuals claiming to possess stolen Special Nuclear Material (SNM). This approach can be used to identify the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error - and to evaluate alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to external threats. Based on the results of each alarm investigation step, the evaluation revises the likelihoods of possible causes of an alarm, and uses this information to determine the optimal sequence of further responses. The choice of an optimal sequence of responses takes into consideration the costs and benefits of successful thefts or hoaxes. These results provide an analytical basis for setting priorities and developing contingency plans for responding to safeguards alarms.

  8. Using Focus Groups to Investigate the Presence of Formative Feedback in CAA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Stephen; Hernandez-Martinez, Paul; Robinson, Carol L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this project was to examine the effectiveness of feedback offered by computer-aided assessment (CAA). CAA provides practice tests for undergraduates, and feedback to help them improve their scores and mathematical understanding. However, there is a lack of evidence-based literature on the effect of formative feedback in mathematics…

  9. 40 CFR 59.1 - Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... furniture coatings; (b) Aerospace coatings; (c) Shipbuilding and repair coatings; (d) Lithographic printing...(e)(3)(C) of the CAA. 59.1 Section 59.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS General § 59.1 Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA. This...

  10. 40 CFR 59.1 - Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... furniture coatings; (b) Aerospace coatings; (c) Shipbuilding and repair coatings; (d) Lithographic printing...(e)(3)(C) of the CAA. 59.1 Section 59.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS General § 59.1 Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA. This...

  11. 40 CFR 59.1 - Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... furniture coatings; (b) Aerospace coatings; (c) Shipbuilding and repair coatings; (d) Lithographic printing...(e)(3)(C) of the CAA. 59.1 Section 59.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS General § 59.1 Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA. This...

  12. 40 CFR 59.1 - Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...(e)(3)(C) of the CAA. 59.1 Section 59.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS General § 59.1 Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA. This section... materials; (e) Letterpress printing materials; (f) Flexible packaging printing materials; (g) Flat...

  13. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  14. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  15. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  16. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  17. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a...

  18. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.445 Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2...

  19. Evaluation of ventilator alarms.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of ventilator alarms is being carried out for the DHSS within the Welsh National School of Medicine. The technical performance and safety assessments are being made within the Department of Anaesthetics and clinical trials within the South Glamorgan Area Health Authority. For this evaluation (published in 'Health Equipment Information' ['HEI'] No. 124 [June 1984]) one example of each model was assessed (Penlon IDP, Draeger, Medix Ventimonitor 101, BOC Medishield, East Ventilarm, Cape TTL) and the conclusions are based on the assumption that the sample was typical of normal production. This is a continuing programme and the next report will evaluate a group of infant ventilators. For full details of the evaluation findings, readers should consult 'HEI' 124. The following are extracts from the report. PMID:6398368

  20. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-20...) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the following: (i) The fire detection and alarm...

  1. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  2. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  3. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  4. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  5. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  6. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  7. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  8. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  9. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  10. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  11. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  12. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm..., Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, dated January 4, 1999 (incorporated by reference... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smoke alarm requirements....

  14. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm... reference, see § 3280.4), or UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, dated January 4... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke alarm requirements....

  15. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm... reference, see § 3280.4), or UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems, dated January 4... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Smoke alarm requirements....

  16. Alarm fatigue: a patient safety concern.

    PubMed

    Sendelbach, Sue; Funk, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that 72% to 99% of clinical alarms are false. The high number of false alarms has led to alarm fatigue. Alarm fatigue is sensory overload when clinicians are exposed to an excessive number of alarms, which can result in desensitization to alarms and missed alarms. Patient deaths have been attributed to alarm fatigue. Patient safety and regulatory agencies have focused on the issue of alarm fatigue, and it is a 2014 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal. Quality improvement projects have demonstrated that strategies such as daily electrocardiogram electrode changes, proper skin preparation, education, and customization of alarm parameters have been able to decrease the number of false alarms. These and other strategies need to be tested in rigorous clinical trials to determine whether they reduce alarm burden without compromising patient safety. PMID:24153215

  17. An optimized spectral difference scheme for CAA problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Junhui; Yang, Zhigang; Li, Xiaodong

    2012-05-01

    In the implementation of spectral difference (SD) method, the conserved variables at the flux points are calculated from the solution points using extrapolation or interpolation schemes. The errors incurred in using extrapolation and interpolation would result in instability. On the other hand, the difference between the left and right conserved variables at the edge interface will introduce dissipation to the SD method when applying a Riemann solver to compute the flux at the element interface. In this paper, an optimization of the extrapolation and interpolation schemes for the fourth order SD method on quadrilateral element is carried out in the wavenumber space through minimizing their dispersion error over a selected band of wavenumbers. The optimized coefficients of the extrapolation and interpolation are presented. And the dispersion error of the original and optimized schemes is plotted and compared. An improvement of the dispersion error over the resolvable wavenumber range of SD method is obtained. The stability of the optimized fourth order SD scheme is analyzed. It is found that the stability of the 4th order scheme with Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto flux points, which is originally weakly unstable, has been improved through the optimization. The weak instability is eliminated completely if an additional second order filter is applied on selected flux points. One and two dimensional linear wave propagation analyses are carried out for the optimized scheme. It is found that in the resolvable wavenumber range the new SD scheme is less dispersive and less dissipative than the original scheme, and the new scheme is less anisotropic for 2D wave propagation. The optimized SD solver is validated with four computational aeroacoustics (CAA) workshop benchmark problems. The numerical results with optimized schemes agree much better with the analytical data than those with the original schemes.

  18. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  19. Effect of direct eye contact in PTSD related to interpersonal trauma: an fMRI study of activation of an innate alarm system

    PubMed Central

    Steuwe, Carolin; Daniels, Judith K.; Frewen, Paul A.; Densmore, Maria; Pannasch, Sebastian; Beblo, Thomas; Reiss, Jeffrey; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, direct eye contact initially leads to activation of a fast subcortical pathway, which then modulates a cortical route eliciting social cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the neurobiological effects of direct eye-to-eye contact using a virtual reality paradigm in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to prolonged childhood abuse. We examined 16 healthy comparison subjects and 16 patients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD using a virtual reality functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm involving direct vs averted gaze (happy, sad, neutral) as developed by Schrammel et al. in 2009. Irrespective of the displayed emotion, controls exhibited an increased blood oxygenation level-dependent response during direct vs averted gaze within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, left temporoparietal junction and right temporal pole. Under the same conditions, individuals with PTSD showed increased activation within the superior colliculus (SC)/periaqueductal gray (PAG) and locus coeruleus. Our findings suggest that healthy controls react to the exposure of direct gaze with an activation of a cortical route that enhances evaluative ‘top–down’ processes underlying social interactions. In individuals with PTSD, however, direct gaze leads to sustained activation of a subcortical route of eye-contact processing, an innate alarm system involving the SC and the underlying circuits of the PAG. PMID:22977200

  20. Effect of direct eye contact in PTSD related to interpersonal trauma: an fMRI study of activation of an innate alarm system.

    PubMed

    Steuwe, Carolin; Daniels, Judith K; Frewen, Paul A; Densmore, Maria; Pannasch, Sebastian; Beblo, Thomas; Reiss, Jeffrey; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, direct eye contact initially leads to activation of a fast subcortical pathway, which then modulates a cortical route eliciting social cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the neurobiological effects of direct eye-to-eye contact using a virtual reality paradigm in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to prolonged childhood abuse. We examined 16 healthy comparison subjects and 16 patients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD using a virtual reality functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm involving direct vs averted gaze (happy, sad, neutral) as developed by Schrammel et al. in 2009. Irrespective of the displayed emotion, controls exhibited an increased blood oxygenation level-dependent response during direct vs averted gaze within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, left temporoparietal junction and right temporal pole. Under the same conditions, individuals with PTSD showed increased activation within the superior colliculus (SC)/periaqueductal gray (PAG) and locus coeruleus. Our findings suggest that healthy controls react to the exposure of direct gaze with an activation of a cortical route that enhances evaluative 'top-down' processes underlying social interactions. In individuals with PTSD, however, direct gaze leads to sustained activation of a subcortical route of eye-contact processing, an innate alarm system involving the SC and the underlying circuits of the PAG. PMID:22977200

  1. 2 CFR 1532.1120 - What is the purpose of CAA or CWA disqualification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Reinstatement Under the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1120 What is the purpose of CAA or CWA disqualification? As provided for in Executive Order 11738 (3 CFR, 1973 Comp., p. 799),...

  2. 2 CFR 1532.1120 - What is the purpose of CAA or CWA disqualification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Reinstatement Under the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1120 What is the purpose of CAA or CWA disqualification? As provided for in Executive Order 11738 (3 CFR, 1973 Comp., p. 799),...

  3. 2 CFR 1532.1120 - What is the purpose of CAA or CWA disqualification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Reinstatement Under the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1120 What is the purpose of CAA or CWA disqualification? As provided for in Executive Order 11738 (3 CFR, 1973 Comp., p. 799),...

  4. 2 CFR 1532.1120 - What is the purpose of CAA or CWA disqualification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Reinstatement Under the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1120 What is the purpose of CAA or CWA disqualification? As provided for in Executive Order 11738 (3 CFR, 1973 Comp., p. 799),...

  5. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's temperature... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required....

  6. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's temperature... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required....

  7. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's temperature... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required....

  8. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  9. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  10. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section... SCHOOL VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm must...

  11. Changes in Default Alarm Settings and Standard In-Service are Insufficient to Improve Alarm Fatigue in an Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Paper, Bruce Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical alarm systems safety is a national concern, specifically in intensive care units (ICUs) where alarm rates are known to be the highest. Interventional projects that examined the effect of changing default alarm settings on overall alarm rate and on clinicians’ attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms and alarm fatigue are scarce. Objective To examine if (1) a change in default alarm settings of the cardiac monitors and (2) in-service nursing education on cardiac monitor use in an ICU would result in reducing alarm rate and in improving nurses’ attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms. Methods This quality improvement project took place in a 20-bed transplant/cardiac ICU with a total of 39 nurses. We implemented a unit-wide change of default alarm settings involving 17 parameters of the cardiac monitors. All nurses received an in-service education on monitor use. Alarm data were collected from the audit log of the cardiac monitors 10 weeks before and 10 weeks after the change in monitors’ parameters. Nurses’ attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms were measured using the Healthcare Technology Foundation National Clinical Alarms Survey, pre- and postintervention. Results Alarm rate was 87.86 alarms/patient day (a total of 64,500 alarms) at the preintervention period compared to 59.18 alarms/patient day (49,319 alarms) postintervention (P=.01). At baseline, Arterial Blood Pressure (ABP), Pair Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs), and Peripheral Capillary Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) alarms were the highest. ABP and SpO2 alarms remained among the top three at the postproject period. Out of the 39 ICU nurses, 24 (62%) provided complete pre- and postproject survey questionnaires. Compared to the preintervention survey, no remarkable changes in the postproject period were reported in nurses’ attitudes. Themes in the narrative data were related to poor usability of cardiac monitors and the frequent alarms. The data showed

  12. "Turn it off!": diabetes device alarm fatigue considerations for the present and the future.

    PubMed

    Shivers, Joseph P; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

    2013-05-01

    Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a "patient safety first" perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery. PMID:23759412

  13. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; Dunn, Michael E; Wagner, John C; McMahan, Kimberly L; Authier, Nicolas; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Wolff, Herve; Savanier, Laurence; Baclet, Nathalie; Lee, Yi-kang; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Masse, Veronique; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Naury, Sylvie; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Hunter, Richard; Kim, Soon; Dulik, George Michael; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available that

  14. Perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Kiriazis, Judith; Slobodchikoff, C N

    2006-07-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs have a complex alarm communication system. We show that the escape responses of prairie dogs to naturally occurring live predators differed depending upon the species of predator. We also show that playbacks of alarm calls that were elicited originally by the live predators produced the same escape responses as the live predators themselves. The escape responses fell into two qualitatively different categories: running to the burrow and diving inside for hawks and humans, and standing upright outside the burrow for coyotes and dogs. Within these two categories there were differences in response. For hawks, only the prairie dogs that were in the direct flight path of a stooping red-tailed hawk ran to their burrows and dove inside, while for humans and human alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and diving inside. For coyotes and coyote alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and standing alert at the burrow rims, while for domestic dogs and playbacks of alarm calls for domestic dogs the prairie dogs assumed an alert posture wherever they were feeding, but did not run to their burrows. These responses to both the live predators and to predator-elicited alarm calls suggest that the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs contain meaningful referential information about the categories of predators that approach a colony of prairie dogs. PMID:16529880

  15. Volumetric Security Alarm Based on a Spherical Ultrasonic Transducer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayin, Umut; Scaini, Davide; Arteaga, Daniel

    Most of the existent alarm systems depend on physical or visual contact. The detection area is often limited depending on the type of the transducer, creating blind spots. Our proposition is a truly volumetric alarm system that can detect any movement in the intrusion area, based on monitoring the change over time of the impulse response of the room, which acts as an acoustic footprint. The device depends on an omnidirectional ultrasonic transducer array emitting sweep signals to calculate the impulse response in short intervals. Any change in the room conditions is monitored through a correlation function. The sensitivity of the alarm to different objects and different environments depends on the sweep duration, sweep bandwidth, and sweep interval. Successful detection of intrusions also depends on the size of the monitoring area and requires an adjustment of emitted ultrasound power. Strong air flow affects the performance of the alarm. A method for separating moving objects from strong air flow is devised using an adaptive thresholding on the correlation function involving a series of impulse response measurements. The alarm system can be also used for fire detection since air flow sourced from heating objects differ from random nature of the present air flow. Several measurements are made to test the integrity of the alarm in rooms sizing from 834-2080m3 with irregular geometries and various objects. The proposed system can efficiently detect intrusion whilst adequate emitting power is provided.

  16. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a vessel of at least 7.9 meters (26 feet) in...

  17. An experimental investigation of the effects of alarm processing and display on operator performance

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Brown, W.; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G.; Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance, operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition, operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. No deficient

  18. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  19. Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

  20. False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

    2012-09-01

    Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

  1. The helpful or hindering effects of in-hospital patient monitor alarms on nurses: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Kuziemsky, Craig; MacDonald, Charlotte; King, W James

    2012-04-01

    Patient monitors generate alarms to signal changes in vital signs. Some research suggests these alarms can improve patient safety. Other reports caution that these systems generate false alarms and create nursing workflow interruptions. These findings require contextualization by qualitatively investigating the lived experiences of nurses working with these monitors. Research into the dynamics involved in nursing responses to alarms can provide insights for monitor development and implementation. This study's purposes were (1) to describe the frequency of alarms generated by patient monitors and nursing responses and (2) to report nurses' explanations of the impact of alarms on workflow and strategies for responding to alarms. Forty-nine hours of observations and 14 interviews were conducted at a Canadian medical center. Four hundred forty-six monitor alarms (1 every 6.59 minutes) were observed. Of these, 70% had no immediate response from nurses. Furthermore, 34 red alarms (potential life-threatening) were observed, with 41% having no immediate response. Nurses reported feeling overloaded by alarm frequency. They described learning to interpret alarm data and developing workaround strategies (eg, ignoring alarms). Paradoxically, alarms prompted nurses to regularly consider and interpret patient information. We suggest the interpretive work associated with workarounds may hold benefits mitigating the potential harms of ignoring alarms. PMID:22156767

  2. 40 CFR 59.1 - Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final determinations under Section 183(e)(3)(C) of the CAA. 59.1 Section 59.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS General § 59.1...

  3. CFD-CAA Coupled Calculations of a Tandem Cylinder Configuration to Assess Facility Installation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redonnet, Stephane; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical assessment of acoustic installation effects in the tandem cylinder (TC) experiments conducted in the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility (QFF), an open-jet, anechoic wind tunnel. Calculations that couple the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) of the TC configuration within the QFF are conducted using the CFD simulation results previously obtained at NASA LaRC. The coupled simulations enable the assessment of installation effects associated with several specific features in the QFF facility that may have impacted the measured acoustic signature during the experiment. The CFD-CAA coupling is based on CFD data along a suitably chosen surface, and employs a technique that was recently improved to account for installed configurations involving acoustic backscatter into the CFD domain. First, a CFD-CAA calculation is conducted for an isolated TC configuration to assess the coupling approach, as well as to generate a reference solution for subsequent assessments of QFF installation effects. Direct comparisons between the CFD-CAA calculations associated with the various installed configurations allow the assessment of the effects of each component (nozzle, collector, etc.) or feature (confined vs. free jet flow, etc.) characterizing the NASA LaRC QFF facility.

  4. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  9. Hypo- and Hyperglycemic Alarms: Devices and Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Howsmon, Daniel; Bequette, B Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Soon after the discovery that insulin regulates blood glucose by Banting and Best in 1922, the symptoms and risks associated with hypoglycemia became widely recognized. This article reviews devices to warn individuals of impending hypo- and hyperglycemia; biosignals used by these devices include electroencephalography, electrocardiography, skin galvanic resistance, diabetes alert dogs, and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). While systems based on other technology are increasing in performance and decreasing in size, CGM technology remains the best method for both reactive and predictive alarming of hypo- or hyperglycemia. PMID:25931581

  10. Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Mizunami, Makoto; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons (PNs), to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive PNs are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system. PMID:20676235

  11. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  12. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  13. “Turn It Off!”: Diabetes Device Alarm Fatigue Considerations for the Present and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Shivers, Joseph P.; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a “patient safety first” perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery. PMID:23759412

  14. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  15. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108.445 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  16. The caa3 terminal oxidase of Bacillus stearothermophilus. Transient spectroscopy of electron transfer and ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, A; D'Itri, E; Giannini, S; Brunori, M; Ubbink-Kok, T; Konings, W N; Antonini, G

    1996-06-14

    The thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus possesses a caa3-type terminal oxidase, which was previously purified (De Vrij, W., Heyne, R. I. R., and Konings, W. N. (1989) Eur. J. Biochem. 178, 763-770). We have carried out extensive kinetic experiments on the purified enzyme by stopped-flow time-resolved optical spectroscopy combined with singular value decomposition analysis. The results indicate a striking similarity of behavior between this enzyme and the electrostatic complex between mammalian cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase. CO binding to fully reduced caa3 occurs with a second order rate constant (k = 7.8 x 10(4)M-1 s-1) and an activation energy (E* = 6.1 kcal mol-1) similar to those reported for beef heart cytochrome c oxidase. Dithionite reduces cytochrome a with bimolecular kinetics, while cytochrome a3 (and CuB) is reduced via intramolecular electron transfer. When the fully reduced enzyme is mixed with O2, cytochrome a3, and cytochrome c are rapidly oxidized, whereas cytochrome a remains largely reduced in the first few milliseconds. When cyanide-bound caa3 is mixed with ascorbate plus TMPD, cytochrome c and cytochrome a are synchronously reduced; the value of the second order rate constant (k = 3 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 at 30 degrees C) suggests that cytochrome c is the electron entry site. Steady-state experiments indicate that cytochrome a has a redox potential higher than cytochrome c. The data from the reaction with O2 reveal a remarkable similarity in the kinetic, equilibrium, and optical properties of caa3 and the electrostatic complex cytochrome c/cytochrome c oxidase. PMID:8662862

  17. Electron transfer kinetics of caa3 oxidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus: a hypothesis for thermophilicity.

    PubMed Central

    Giuffrè, A; Watmough, N J; Giannini, S; Brunori, M; Konings, W N; Greenwood, C

    1999-01-01

    The O2 reaction and the reverse electron transfer of the thermophilic caa3 terminal oxidase of Bacillus stearothermophilus have been studied by laser flash-photolysis. The results show that both reactions, although studied at a temperature of 20 degreesC, far from the optimal temperature of > 60 degreesC for caa3, follow a kinetic behavior essentially identical to that observed with the electrostatic complex between mammalian cyt c and cyt c oxidase. In the O2 reaction cyt a and cyt a3 are very quickly oxidized; cyt a is then re-reduced via CuA, whereas cyt c oxidation is apparently rate-limited by the oxidation of CuA. Upon photodissociation of the mixed valence-CO caa3, reverse electron transfer from the binuclear center to cyt a3+ (tau1 = 3 micros) and CuA2+ (tau2 = 64 micros) is observed, while cyt c is not reduced by any detectable level. These results seem to rule out accounting for enzymatic thermophilicity by altered kinetics of intramolecular electron transfer involving the cyt center in the reduced configuration, which is very fast. On the basis of these results and previous data, we propose that thermophilicity involves an increased activation barrier for the reduction of cyt a3-CuB in the configuration typical of the oxidized site. PMID:9876155

  18. {sup 129}Xe nuclear magnetic resonance studies of xenon in zeolite CaA.

    SciTech Connect

    Jameson, C. J.; Jameson, A. K.; Gerald, R. E., II; de Dios, A. C.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Loyola Univ.

    1992-02-01

    The average {sup 129}Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift for xenon atoms in alpha cages of zeolite CaA is observed in a single peak dependent on xenon loading ({l_angle}n{r_angle} = 0.5-8.9 Xe atoms/alpha cage) and temperature (240-360 K). The general increase of the shift with increasing average number of xenon atoms per alpha cage is shown to be due largely to the changing distribution of occupancies with increasing {l_angle}n{r_angle}, coupled with increasing increments in the chemical shifts of Xe{sub n} with increasing n. Except at the highest loadings, the results obtained for xenon in CaA are predicted nicely on the basis of {delta}{sub av}(T) = (1/{l_angle}n{r_angle}){Sigma}{sub n}n{delta}{sub n}(T)P{sub n}({l_angle}n{r_angle},T), where the fractions P{sub n} of alpha cages containing n Xe atoms are imported from the P{sub n} measured in xenon in zeolite NaA. The high loading data in CaA are interpreted in terms of contributions to the average {sup 129}Xe chemical shifts associated with xenon atoms in the window positions.

  19. Severe hepatocellular disease in mice lacking one or both CaaX prenyltransferases[S

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shao H.; Chang, Sandy Y.; Tu, Yiping; Lawson, Gregory W.; Bergo, Martin O.; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.

    2012-01-01

    Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) and protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I (GGTase-I) add 15- or 20-carbon lipids, respectively, to proteins that terminate with a CaaX motif. These posttranslational modifications of proteins with lipids promote protein interactions with membrane surfaces in cells, but the in vivo importance of the CaaX prenyltransferases and the protein lipidation reactions they catalyze remain incompletely defined. One study concluded that a deficiency of FTase was inconsequential in adult mice and led to little or no tissue pathology. To assess the physiologic importance of the CaaX prenyltransferases, we used conditional knockout alleles and an albumin–Cre transgene to produce mice lacking FTase, GGTase-I, or both enzymes in hepatocytes. The hepatocyte-specific FTase knockout mice survived but exhibited hepatocellular disease and elevated transaminases. Mice lacking GGTase-I not only had elevated transaminases but also had dilated bile cannaliculi, hyperbilirubinemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and reduced survival. Of note, GGTase-I–deficient hepatocytes had a rounded shape and markedly reduced numbers of actin stress fibers. Hepatocyte-specific FTase/GGTase-I double-knockout mice closely resembled mice lacking GGTase-I alone, but the disease was slightly more severe. Our studies refute the notion that FTase is dispensable and demonstrate that GGTase-I is crucial for the vitality of hepatocytes. PMID:22039581

  20. 33 CFR 127.1207 - Warning alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1207 Warning alarms. (a) Each...

  1. Temperature monitor and alarm for cryogenic instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, John B., Jr.; Keliher, Pat; Jeanpierre, Carlos

    1994-06-01

    Internal temperatures in filled cryostats must be continuously monitored to preserve the health and safety of hardware and personnel. The accidental response of cryogenic gases into the atmosphere pose a health threat and, if the gases are flammable, may lead to an explosion. One indication of an imminent cryogen release is the sudden increase in cryogen temperature. Although there are many data acquisition systems and temperature monitoring products commercially available, these systems lack the portability and safety features required during cryostat qualification tests and transport. This paper describes a temperature monitor and alarm circuit developed for the Spirit II solid hydrogen cryostat program. The instrument is battery-operated, accurate, portable, and intrinsically safe in an explosive atmosphere.

  2. Some comments on GMTI false alarm rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, A. W.

    2011-06-01

    A typical Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar specification includes the parameters Probability of Detection (PD) - typically on the order of 0.85, and False Alarm Rate (FAR) - typically on the order of 0.1 Hz. The PD is normally associated with a particular target 'size', such as Radar Cross Section (RCS) with perhaps some statistical description (e.g. Swerling number). However, the concept of FAR is embodied at a fundamental level in the detection process, which traditionally employs a Constant-FAR (CFAR) detector to set thresholds for initial decisions on whether a target is present or not. While useful, such a metric for radar specification and system comparison is not without some serious shortcomings. In particular, when comparing FAR across various radar systems, some degree of normalization needs to occur to account for perhaps swath width and scan rates. This in turn suggests some useful testing strategies.

  3. What can be done to reduce false alarms?

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Although (the Department for Communities and Local Government's 'Fire statistics' reveal) the number of such incidents has fallen every year since 2006/07, UK fire and rescue services still attended over 312,400 'false fire alarms,' i.e. instances where, on arriving at a site, they found no fire, in 2011/12. Such incidents have been a significant concern for healthcare facilities teams, and for the fire and rescue services serving them, for many years, and, although the past decade has seen determined efforts to substantially reduce the number bearing fruit, many believe far too many still occur. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports on a recent London roundtable discussion staged by two leading fire detection and alarm equipment specialists, Apollo Fire Detectors, and Static Systems Group, with IHEEM, which brought together experts to discuss what more can be done to minimise false fire alarms. PMID:23763086

  4. Putative involvement of the nitrergic system on the consolidation, but not initiation, of behavioral sensitization after conspecific alarm substance in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lima, Monica Gomes; Silva, Suéllen de Nazaré Dos Santos; Silva, Rhayra Xavier do Carmo; Oliveira, Karen Renata Herculano Matos; Batista, Evander de Jesus Oliveira; Maximino, Caio; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2015-12-01

    Stressful manipulations can sensitize the behavior of an organism, increasing anxiety-like behavior after a delay; this long-term stress sensitization can represent the pathophysiological basis of trauma- and stress-related disorders (TRSDs), of which the most prevalent is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A role for the glutamate-nitric oxide pathway in this sensitization is implied by behavioral, neurophysiological and genomic data on different species. Here, we report on the long-term sensitization of anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish and the possible participation of nitric oxide in this process. Zebrafish exposed to a conspecific alarm substance (AS) show increased anxiety-like behavior at least 24h after stimulus delivery. Blocking nitric oxide synthesis with l-NAME (5mg/kg) 30min, but not 90min, after AS exposure blocks the sensitization of scototaxis and risk assessment, while treatment 90min after exposure blocks the sensitization of thigmotaxis and erratic swimming; l-NAME was not effective when administered 30min before AS exposure. These data suggest a participation of nitric oxide in the consolidation, but not in the initiation, of behavioral sensitization after predator threat. PMID:26257339

  5. False alarm reduction in critical care.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this challenge, the design of the challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  6. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  7. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  8. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  9. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  10. 46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...) which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and are normally accessible to persons on... the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally...

  11. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  12. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  13. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  14. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460...

  15. T-Farm complex alarm upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

  16. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... alarm is a device intended for use in treatment of bedwetting. Through an electrical trigger...

  17. Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

  18. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An...

  19. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying with 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196.37-9...

  20. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying with 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196.37-9...

  1. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying with 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196.37-9...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audible and visual alarms. 154.1365 Section 154.1365... Instrumentation § 154.1365 Audible and visual alarms. (a) Each audible alarm must have an arrangement that allows... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only...

  3. Estimation of the patient monitor alarm rate for a quantitative analysis of new alarm settings.

    PubMed

    de Waele, Stijn; Nielsen, Larry; Frassica, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In many critical care units, default patient monitor alarm settings are not fine-tuned to the vital signs of the patient population. As a consequence there are many alarms. A large fraction of the alarms are not clinically actionable, thus contributing to alarm fatigue. Recent attention to this phenomenon has resulted in attempts in many institutions to decrease the overall alarm load of clinicians by altering the trigger thresholds for monitored parameters. Typically, new alarm settings are defined based on clinical knowledge and patient population norms and tried empirically on new patients without quantitative knowledge about the potential impact of these new settings. We introduce alarm regeneration as a method to estimate the alarm rate of new alarm settings using recorded patient monitor data. This method enables evaluation of several alarm setting scenarios prior to using these settings in the clinical setting. An expression for the alarm rate variance is derived for the calculation of statistical confidence intervals on the results. PMID:25571296

  4. Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

  5. The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

    1995-01-01

    Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture. PMID:7816823

  6. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  11. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  12. Fire detection and alarm subsystem design description: 4 x 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR [High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor] Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    Fire Detection and Alarm is an early warning system used to detect and report the presence of a fire within the plant. It detects, annunciates, and records plant-wide fire alarms, subsystem trouble, and fire console operator actions.

  13. Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

  14. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-20... there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the following:...

  15. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-20... there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the following:...

  16. ED accreditation update. Hospitals put on notice: alarm management is a top priority for 2014.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Establishing alarm management as a new National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG), The Joint Commission (TJC) is calling on hospitals to make the issue a safety priority, and to begin establishing policies and procedures designed to minimize alarm fatigue among clinical staff. Beginning on January 1,2014, hospitals need to begin identifying the most important alarm signals to manage based on input from staff as well as factors such as patient risk, and the potential for harm as demonstrated by the device's history. By January 1,2016, hospitals need to have policies and procedures in place for managing alarms identified in the first phase of the NPSG's requirements. Also, staff and independent licensed practitioners need to be educated about the purpose and proper operation of alarm systems that they are responsible for. PMID:24058949

  17. A Novel Role of the Yeast CaaX Protease Ste24 in Chitin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Derek; Odman-Naresh, Jothini; Vogelpohl, Inga

    2010-01-01

    Ste24 is a membrane-integral CaaX metalloprotease residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In yeast, the only known substrate of Ste24 is the mating factor a precursor. A global screening for protein–protein interactions indicated that Ste24 interacts with chitin synthesis deficient (Chs)3, an enzyme required for chitin synthesis. We confirmed this interaction by yeast two-hybrid analyses and mapped the interacting cytoplasmic domains. Next, we investigated the influence of Ste24 on chitin synthesis. In sterile (ste)24Δ mutants, we observed resistance to calcofluor white (CFW), which was also apparent when the cells expressed a catalytically inactive version of Ste24. In addition, ste24Δ cells showed a decrease in chitin levels and Chs3-green fluorescent protein localized less frequently at the bud neck. Overexpression of STE24 resulted in hypersensitivity to CFW and a slight increase in chitin levels. The CFW phenotype of ste24Δ cells could be rescued by its human and insect orthologues. Although Chs3 binds to Ste24, it seems not to be a substrate for this protease. Instead, our data suggest that Chs3 and Ste24 form a complex in the ER that facilitates protease action on prenylated Chs4, a known activator of Chs3 with a C-terminal CaaX motif, leading to a more efficient localization of Chs3 at the plasma membrane. PMID:20505074

  18. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conspicuously and centrally located and be marked as required by 46 CFR 97.37-9; and (3) Use stored gas power... approved audible alarm if: (1) The space is normally accessible to persons onboard while the vessel...

  19. National Fire Codes. A Compilation of NFPA Codes, Standards, Recommended Practices, and Manuals. Volume 7: Alarm and Special Extinguishing Systems. 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Protection Association, Boston, MA.

    These NFPA recommendations are phrased in terms of performance or objectives, the intent being to permit the utilization of any methods, devices, or materials which will produce the desired results. The major topics included are--(1) extinguishing systems, (2) standpipe and hose systems, (3) wetting agents, (4) fire hydrants, (5) water charges for…

  20. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section....050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to bilge alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in §...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  5. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  6. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  7. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  8. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  9. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  10. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  11. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  13. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section....050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to bilge alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in §...

  14. CAA amendments` Title III could mean `future shock` to U.S. industry competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Rocco, V.A.

    1995-06-01

    While the regulated community awaits congressional action that could alter the government`s role in environmental protection and enforcement, the stipulations of existing regulations continue to unfold. Attention is focused on upcoming permitting deadlines imposed by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, due by November for most facilities, and on products and strategies for air pollution control. Unless Congress adopts the unlikely strategy of rolling back all environmental regulations, the obligations on industry imposed by the CAA Amendments will continue to set forth a formidable compliance task. The Amendments ``created a complex maze of new and dramatically altered regulatory programs that will influence how US industry must operate well into the next century.`` This article provides an overview and guidelines for complying with the new rules.

  15. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

  16. Judging the urgency of non-verbal auditory alarms: a case study.

    PubMed

    Arrabito, G Robert; Mondor, Todd; Kent, Kimberley

    2004-06-22

    When designed correctly, non-verbal auditory alarms can convey different levels of urgency to the aircrew, and thereby permit the operator to establish the appropriate level of priority to address the alarmed condition. The conveyed level of urgency of five non-verbal auditory alarms presently used in the Canadian Forces CH-146 Griffon helicopter was investigated. Pilots of the CH-146 Griffon helicopter and non-pilots rated the perceived urgency of the signals using a rating scale. The pilots also ranked the urgency of the alarms in a post-experiment questionnaire to reflect their assessment of the actual situation that triggers the alarms. The results of this investigation revealed that participants' ratings of perceived urgency appear to be based on the acoustic properties of the alarms which are known to affect the listener's perceived level of urgency. Although for 28% of the pilots the mapping of perceived urgency to the urgency of their perception of the triggering situation was statistically significant for three of the five alarms, the overall data suggest that the triggering situations are not adequately conveyed by the acoustic parameters inherent in the alarms. The pilots' judgement of the triggering situation was intended as a means of evaluating the reliability of the alerting system. These data will subsequently be discussed with respect to proposed enhancements in alerting systems as it relates to addressing the problem of phase of flight. These results call for more serious consideration of incorporating situational awareness in the design and assignment of auditory alarms in aircraft. PMID:15204277

  17. Epidermal ‘alarm substance’ cells of fishes maintained by non-alarm functions: possible defence against pathogens, parasites and UVB radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chivers, Douglas P; Wisenden, Brian D; Hindman, Carrie J; Michalak, Tracy A; Kusch, Robin C; Kaminskyj, Susan G.W; Jack, Kristin L; Ferrari, Maud C.O; Pollock, Robyn J; Halbgewachs, Colin F; Pollock, Michael S; Alemadi, Shireen; James, Clayton T; Savaloja, Rachel K; Goater, Cameron P; Corwin, Amber; Mirza, Reehan S; Kiesecker, Joseph M; Brown, Grant E; Adrian, James C; Krone, Patrick H; Blaustein, Andrew R; Mathis, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    Many fishes possess specialized epidermal cells that are ruptured by the teeth of predators, thus reliably indicating the presence of an actively foraging predator. Understanding the evolution of these cells has intrigued evolutionary ecologists because the release of these alarm chemicals is not voluntary. Here, we show that predation pressure does not influence alarm cell production in fishes. Alarm cell production is stimulated by exposure to skin-penetrating pathogens (water moulds: Saprolegnia ferax and Saprolegnia parasitica), skin-penetrating parasites (larval trematodes: Teleorchis sp. and Uvulifer sp.) and correlated with exposure to UV radiation. Suppression of the immune system with environmentally relevant levels of Cd inhibits alarm cell production of fishes challenged with Saprolegnia. These data are the first evidence that alarm substance cells have an immune function against ubiquitous environmental challenges to epidermal integrity. Our results indicate that these specialized cells arose and are maintained by natural selection owing to selfish benefits unrelated to predator–prey interactions. Cell contents released when these cells are damaged in predator attacks have secondarily acquired an ecological role as alarm cues because selection favours receivers to detect and respond adaptively to public information about predation. PMID:17686729

  18. The evolution of urgency-based and functionally referential alarm calls in ground-dwelling species.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Roman D; Manser, Marta B

    2009-03-01

    A major evolutionary force driving functionally referential alarm calls is the need for different strategies to escape various predator types in complex structured habitats. In contrast, a single escape strategy appears to be sufficient in less-structured open habitats, and under such conditions urgency-dependent alarm calls may be favored. Nevertheless, some species, such as meerkats (Suricata suricatta), have evolved functionally referential alarm calls despite living in open areas, using only bolt-holes for retreat. To understand the evolution of different alarm call systems, we investigated the calls of sympatric Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) and compared their antipredator and foraging behavior with that of meerkats. Cape ground squirrels emitted urgency-dependent alarm calls and responded to playbacks depending on urgency, not predator type. Vigilance behavior and habitat use differed between the two species. Meerkats roam widely to find prey and for efficient foraging depend on coordinated predator vigilance and escape behavior. As herbivores with smaller territories, Cape ground squirrels depend less on coordinated antipredator behavior, and urgency-dependent alarm calls encode all essential information. We conclude that habitat complexity does not explain the evolution of functionally referential alarm calls in all species, and other constraints, such as the need to coordinate group movements to maintain foraging efficiency, could be more relevant. PMID:19199527

  19. 2 CFR 1532.1130 - How does disqualification under the CAA or CWA differ from a Federal discretionary suspension or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1130 How does disqualification under the CAA or CWA differ from... 2 CFR part 180 or under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4, are exclusions imposed at the discretion of... I of 2 CFR part 180, or under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4....

  20. 2 CFR 1532.1130 - How does disqualification under the CAA or CWA differ from a Federal discretionary suspension or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1130 How does disqualification under the CAA or CWA differ from... 2 CFR part 180 or under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4, are exclusions imposed at the discretion of... I of 2 CFR part 180, or under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4....

  1. 2 CFR 1532.1130 - How does disqualification under the CAA or CWA differ from a Federal discretionary suspension or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1130 How does disqualification under the CAA or CWA differ from... 2 CFR part 180 or under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4, are exclusions imposed at the discretion of... I of 2 CFR part 180, or under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4....

  2. 2 CFR 1532.1130 - How does disqualification under the CAA or CWA differ from a Federal discretionary suspension or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act § 1532.1130 How does disqualification under the CAA or CWA differ from... 2 CFR part 180 or under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4, are exclusions imposed at the discretion of... I of 2 CFR part 180, or under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4....

  3. 40 CFR 51.902 - Which classification and nonattainment area planning provisions of the CAA shall apply to areas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.902 Which classification and... with a 1-hour ozone design value equal to or greater than 0.121 ppm at the time the Administrator signs...) Covered under subpart 1 (CAA). An area designated nonattainment for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS with a...

  4. 40 CFR 51.902 - Which classification and nonattainment area planning provisions of the CAA shall apply to areas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.902 Which classification and... with a 1-hour ozone design value equal to or greater than 0.121 ppm at the time the Administrator signs...) Covered under subpart 1 (CAA). An area designated nonattainment for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS with a...

  5. 40 CFR 51.902 - Which classification and nonattainment area planning provisions of the CAA shall apply to areas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area planning provisions of the CAA shall apply to areas designated nonattainment for the 1997 8-hour NAAQS? 51.902 Section 51.902 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.902 Which classification...

  6. 40 CFR 51.1103 - Application of classification and attainment date provisions in CAA section 181 of subpart 2 to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ozone NAAQS (0.075 ppm) for Areas Subject to Section 51.1102(a) Area class 8-hour design value(ppm ozone... attainment date provisions in CAA section 181 of subpart 2 to areas subject to § 51.1102(a). 51.1103 Section 51.1103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  7. 40 CFR 51.902 - Which classification and nonattainment area planning provisions of the CAA shall apply to areas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... area planning provisions of the CAA shall apply to areas designated nonattainment for the 1997 8-hour NAAQS? 51.902 Section 51.902 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.902 Which classification...

  8. 40 CFR 51.126 - Determination of widespread use of ORVR and waiver of CAA section 182(b)(3) Stage II gasoline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of widespread use of ORVR and waiver of CAA section 182(b)(3) Stage II gasoline vapor recovery requirements. 51.126 Section 51... Determination of widespread use of ORVR and waiver of CAA section 182(b)(3) Stage II gasoline vapor...

  9. Constant false alarm rate algorithm for the dim-small target detection based on the distribution characteristics of target coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiao-Liang; Ren, Kan; Qian, Wei-xian; Wang, Peng-cheng

    2015-10-01

    CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) is a key technology in Infrared dim-small target detection system. Because the traditional constant false alarm rate detection algorithm gets the probability density distribution which is based on the pixel information of each area in the whole image and calculates the target segmentation threshold of each area by formula of Constant false alarm rate, the problems including the difficulty of probability distribution statistics and large amount of algorithm calculation and long delay time are existing. In order to solve the above problems effectively, a formula of Constant false alarm rate based on target coordinates distribution is presented. Firstly, this paper proposes a new formula of Constant false alarm rate by improving the traditional formula of Constant false alarm rate based on the single grayscale distribution which objective statistical distribution features are introduced. So the control of false alarm according to the target distribution information is implemented more accurately and the problem of high false alarm that is caused of the complex background in local area as the cloud reflection and the ground clutter interference is solved. At the same time, in order to reduce the amount of algorithm calculation and improve the real-time characteristics of algorithm, this paper divides the constant false-alarm statistical area through two-dimensional probability density distribution of target number adaptively which is different from the general identifying methods of constant false-alarm statistical area. Finally, the target segmentation threshold of next frame is calculated by iteration based on the function of target distribution probability density in image sequence which can achieve the purpose of controlling the false alarm until the false alarm is down to the upper limit. The experiment results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the operation time and meet the real-time requirements on

  10. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

  11. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  12. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers §...

  13. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers §...

  14. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to persons on board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide... automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and... arranged as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into...

  15. Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Learn to Use Urine Alarms and Prompts to Avoid Large Urinary Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Bosco, Andrea; Zonno, Nadia; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether three patients with Alzheimer's disease could learn to use urine alarms and caregivers' prompts to eliminate large urinary accidents. As soon as the patient began to release urine, the alarm system presented auditory and vibratory signals. In relation to those signals, the caregiver would prompt/encourage the patient to…

  16. Patient Safety Implications of Electronic Alerts and Alarms of Maternal - Fetal Status During Labor.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey; Davidson, Leigh Ann

    2016-01-01

    When nurses care for women during labor, they encounter numerous alerts and alarms from electronic fetal monitors and their surveillance systems. Notifications of values of physiologic parameters for a woman and fetus that may be outside preset limits are generated via visual and audible cues. There is no standardization of these alert and alarm parameters among electronic fetal monitoring vendors in the United States, and there are no data supporting their sensitivity and specificity. Agreement among professional organizations about physiologic parameters for alerts and alarms commonly used during labor is lacking. It is unknown if labor nurses view the alerts and alarms as helpful or a nuisance. There is no evidence that they promote or hinder patient safety. This clinical issue warrants our attention as labor nurses. PMID:27520600

  17. Reducing False Alarm Rates for Critical Arrhythmias Using the Arterial Blood Pressure Waveform

    PubMed Central

    Aboukhalil, Anton; Nielsen, Larry; Saeed, Mohammed; Mark, Roger G.; Clifford, Gari D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, high false alarm (FA) rates have remained an important yet unresolved concern in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). High FA rates lead to desensitization of the attending staff to such warnings, with associated slowing in response times and detrimental decreases in the quality of care for the patient. False arrhythmia alarms are commonly due to single channel ECG artifacts and low voltage signals, and therefore it is likely that the FA rates may be reduced if information from other independent signals is used to form a more robust hypothesis of the alarm’s etiology. Methods A large multi-parameter ICU database (PhysioNet’s MIMIC II database) was used to investigate the frequency of five categories of false critical (“red” or “life-threatening”) ECG arrhythmia alarms produced by a commercial ICU monitoring system, namely: asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia. Non-critical (“yellow”) arrhythmia alarms were not considered in this study. Multiple expert reviews of 5,386 critical ECG arrhythmia alarms from a total of 447 adult patient records in the MIMIC II database were made using the associated 41,301 hours of simultaneous ECG and arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveforms. An algorithm to suppress false critical ECG arrhythmia alarms using morphological and timing information derived from the ABP signal was then tested. Results An average of 42.7% of the critical ECG arrhythmia alarms were found to be false, with each of the five alarm categories having FA rates between 23.1% and 90.7%. The FA suppression algorithm developed was able to suppress 59.7% of the false alarms, with FA reduction rates as high as 93.5% for asystole and 81.0% for extreme bradycardia. FA reduction rates were lowest for extreme tachycardia (63.7%) and ventricular-related alarms (58.2% for ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia and 33.0% for ventricular tachycardia

  18. A Model of Clinical Alarm Errors in Hospital.

    PubMed

    Busch-Vishniac, Ilene

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been much attention paid recently to clinical alarms, research has primarily focused on particular aspects of the clinical alarm problem, such as how to reduce nuisance alarms. This paper takes a broad view of clinical alarms and develops a model of errors in alarm handling and how they affect patients directly. Based on reports in the literature, I estimate that alarms that should sound by current standards do not sound about 9% of the time. Additionally, about 3% of alarms that are clinically significant are ignored, either intentionally or because they were inaudible. However, these errors produce a very low rate of reported alarm-related deaths and other adverse effects (on the order of a couple adverse effects per 10 million alarm errors). While it is not yet possible to estimate the probabilities of clinical alarms having an adverse impact on patients other than the patient whose alarm is sounding, such indirect adverse effects likely occur at a low level as a result of disruption of staff workflow, creation of a noisy hospital environment, and contribution to communication difficulties. Consideration of alarms should include not only the patient connected to the device that is sounding, but also the impact of the alarm on other patients in the vicinity. PMID:26196919

  19. Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

  20. A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Robert D; Bennett, Thomas H

    2012-03-01

    Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

  1. A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics

    PubMed Central

    Magrath, Robert D.; Bennett, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

  2. False alarm reduction in BSN-based cardiac monitoring using signal quality and activity type information.

    PubMed

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  3. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    PubMed Central

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  4. Alarm pheromone is detected by the vomeronasal organ in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Kubota, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    It is widely known that a stressed animal releases specific pheromones, possibly for alarming nearby conspecifics. We previously investigated an alarm pheromone in male rats and found that this alarm pheromone evokes several responses, including increases in the defensive and risk assessment behaviors in a modified open-field test, and enhancement of the acoustic startle reflex. However, the role of the vomeronasal organ in these pheromone effects remains unclear. To clarify this point, vomeronasal organ-excising or sham surgeries were performed in male rats for use in 2 experimental models, after which they were exposed to alarm pheromone. We found that the vomeronasal organ-excising surgery blocked the effects of this alarm pheromone in both the modified open-field test and acoustic startle reflex test. In addition, the results of habituation/dishabituation test and soybean agglutinin binding to the accessory olfactory bulb suggested that the vomeronasal organ-excising surgery completely ablated the vomeronasal organ while preserving the functioning of the main olfactory system. From the above results, we showed that the vomeronasal organ plays an important role in alarm pheromone effects in the modified open-field test and acoustic startle reflex test. PMID:23821727

  5. Alarm fatigue: a roadmap for mitigating the cacophony of beeps.

    PubMed

    Purbaugh, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon known as alarm fatigue is the direct result of excessive alarms in hospitals. This article highlights the effects of alarm fatigue and reviews current clinical recommendations and guidelines to raise nurse awareness and provide tools to combat the problem. PMID:24310707

  6. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall...

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm...

  9. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm...

  10. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm is calibrated and zeroed to manufacturer's instructions. (2) It is then fed with water for 15 minutes and then with a mixture of Test Fluid A and water in the following concentrations: 0 ppm, 15 ppm... actuation of the alarm is taken. The alarm is then fed with water for 15 minutes. (3) Repeat steps...

  11. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must...

  12. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  17. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  3. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in the pilothouse that activates the general alarm bell must be clearly and permanently identified either by...

  4. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be identified by marking “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION” next to the bell....

  5. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....

  6. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810 Shipping... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be...—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.”...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  8. Multidentate 18F-polypegylated styrylpyridines as imaging agents for Aβ plaques in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Zhihao; Choi, Seok Rye; Ploessl, Karl; Lieberman, Brian P.; Qu, Wenchao; Hefti, Franz; Mintun, Mark; Skovronsky, Daniel; Kung, Hank F.

    2011-01-01

    Beta-amyloid plaques (Aβ plaques) in the brain are associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Imaging agents that could target the Aβ plaques in the living human brain would be potentially valuable as biomarkers in patients with CAA. A new series of 18F styrylpyridine derivatives with high molecular weights for selectively targeting Aβ plaques in the blood vessels of the brain, but excluded from the brain parenchyma is reported. The styrylpyridine derivatives, 8a–c, display high binding affinities and specificity to Aβ plaques (Ki = 2.87 nM, 3.24 and 7.71 nM, respectively). In vitro autoradiography of [18F]8a shows labeling of β-amyloid plaques associated with blood vessel walls in human brain sections of subjects with CAA, and also in the tissue of AD brain sections. The results suggest that [18F]8a may be a useful PET imaging agent for selectively detecting Aβ plaques associated with cerebral vessels in the living human brain. PMID:22011144

  9. Smoke alarms in the home: what every physician should know.

    PubMed

    Sultan, M A; Feldman, W M

    1985-12-15

    Primary care physicians interested in health education and accident prevention should be knowledgeable about smoke alarms (smoke detectors with built-in alarms). Either ionization or photoelectric smoke alarms can help save lives if they are properly installed and maintained. The number, site and maintenance of smoke alarms in the home and the steps a person should take in the event of a fire are discussed. Considering the rates of death, disability and disfigurement associated with residential fires, early warning devices such as smoke alarms make sense. PMID:4063931

  10. Smoke alarms in the home: what every physician should know

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Mohammed A.; Feldman, William M.

    1985-01-01

    Primary care physicians interested in health education and accident prevention should be knowledgeable about smoke alarms (smoke detectors with built-in alarms). Either ionization or photoelectric smoke alarms can help save lives if they are properly installed and maintained. The number, site and maintenance of smoke alarms in the home and the steps a person should take in the event of a fire are discussed. Considering the rates of death, disability and disfigurement associated with residential fires, early warning devices such as smoke alarms make sense. PMID:4063931

  11. Arrangements of the intravenous parallel infusions with anti-reflux valves decreasing occlusion alarm delay

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Han Bum; Moon, Bong-Ki; Lee, Yeon-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Background The methods of arrangement of combined intravenous parallel infusions using anti-reflux valve (ARV), with and without anti-syphon valve (ASV) that could decrease occlusion alarm delay were investigated. Methods Occlusion challenge tests were mainly performed as bench experiments of four kinds of multiple parallel infusions (10 ml/h and 50 ml/h infusions), which were connected at the proximal or distal portion of ARV, with or without ASV. Alarm threshold was set to 1000 mmHg. Occlusion alarm delays and the compliances of the infusion systems were compared among groups. Results Without ASV, compared to 10 ml/h infusion alone distal to anti-reflux valve, 50 ml/h infusion distal to anti-reflux valve reduced the mean alarm delay from 416 ± 7 s to 81 ± 3 s (P < 0.001). Compared to 50 ml/h infusion alone, combined 10 ml/h and 50 ml/h infusion distal to ARV prolonged the alarm delay from 81 ± 3 s to 133 ± 6 s (P < 0.001). However, combined infusions distal to ARV with ASV significantly reduced the alarm delay from 133 ± 6 s to 74 ± 5 s (P < 0.001), and also reduced the compliance of the infusion system from 2.31 ± 0.12 to 1.20 ± 0.08 µl/mmHg (P < 0.001). Conclusions The infusion setup of faster infusion rate, lower compliant system using ASV could effectively decrease occlusion alarm delay during multiple intravenous parallel infusions using ARV. PMID:24851166

  12. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm related C Programs for the 242-A MCS

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.F.

    1996-04-15

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades. This control system, called the Monitor and Control system (MCS), was installed in the 242-A evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme.

  13. LBTO Alarm Notification/Management and Error Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Peña, M. D.; Biddick, C.; Summers, K.; Summers, D.

    2015-09-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO) Telescope Control System (TCS) is comprised of fifteen subsystems and accepts commands from the operator, as well as from six pairs of instruments. To the operator the TCS presents as a high-level set of GUIs with each GUI corresponding to one specific subsystem and providing full state information and varying degrees of control. The TCS GUIs not only provide the operators with broad control over all aspects of the telescope, but each individual GUI also reports problems within its domain through the use of color-coded messages and widgets indicating the seriousness of the issue. While there is significant problem reporting available to the operator, until recently there was no centralized and persistent visual indication or “annunciator” display for issues. In order to provide a way to present problems in a centralized and persistent fashion with “on-the-spot guidance” to ease the job of the operator and to have an acknowledge capability, the LBTO project decided to leverage an existing Alarm Handler which is a GUI client application associated with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)1. This paper briefly describes the TCS sources of problem reporting information and how the EPICS Alarm Handler supplements the current system.

  14. 40 CFR 51.903 - How do the classification and attainment date provisions in section 181 of subpart 2 of the CAA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with section 181(a)(1) of the CAA, each area subject to § 51.902(a) shall be classified by... for 8-Hour Ozone NAAQS for Areas Subject to § 51.902(a) Area class 8-hourdesign value (ppm ozone... attainment date provisions in section 181 of subpart 2 of the CAA apply to areas subject to § 51.902(a)?...

  15. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Last at least 20 seconds; (ii) Be approved by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection during system... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-45 Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. (a) Each system protecting a space with greater than 6,000...

  16. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Last at least 20 seconds; (ii) Be approved by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection during system... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-45 Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. (a) Each system protecting a space with greater than 6,000...

  17. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Last at least 20 seconds; (ii) Be approved by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection during system... VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-45 Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. (a) Each system protecting a space with greater than 6,000...

  18. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS Services and Sites in WLCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Perez, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Gutsche, O.; Sciabà, A.; Flix, J.; Kreuzer, P.; Fajardo, E.; Boccali, T.; Klute, M.; Gomes, D.; Kaselis, R.; Du, R.; Magini, N.; Butenas, I.; Wang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

  19. The implications of probability matching for clinician response to vital sign alarms: a theoretical study of alarm fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bailey, James M

    2015-01-01

    Alarm fatigue has been recognised as a significant health technology safety risk. 'Probability matching', in which clinicians respond to the alarm at a rate identical to the perceived reliability of the alarm, has been postulated as a model to explain alarm fatigue. In this article, we quantitatively explore the implications of probability matching for systolic blood pressure alarms. We find that probability matching could have a profound effect on clinician response to the alarm, with a response rate of only 8.6% when the alarm threshold is 90 mm Hg and the optimal threshold for a systolic blood pressure alarm would only be 77 mm Hg. We use the mathematical framework to assess a mitigation strategy when clinicians have a limit to the capacity to respond. We find that a tiered alarm in which clinicians receive information on the severity of vital sign perturbation significantly improves the opportunity to rescue patients. Practitioner Summary: Using a theoretical model, we predict that probability matching, a postulated model of clinician behaviour, can result in a profound decrease in clinician response to alarms for decreased blood pressure. A mitigating strategy is to create alarms that convey information on the degree of vital sign perturbation. PMID:25849772

  20. Concatenation of 'alert' and 'identity' segments in dingoes' alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Déaux, Eloïse C; Allen, Andrew P; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Multicomponent signals can be formed by the uninterrupted concatenation of multiple call types. One such signal is found in dingoes, Canis familiaris dingo. This stereotyped, multicomponent 'bark-howl' vocalisation is formed by the concatenation of a noisy bark segment and a tonal howl segment. Both segments are structurally similar to bark and howl vocalisations produced independently in other contexts (e.g. intra- and inter-pack communication). Bark-howls are mainly uttered in response to human presence and were hypothesized to serve as alarm calls. We investigated the function of bark-howls and the respective roles of the bark and howl segments. We found that dingoes could discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar howl segments, after having only heard familiar howl vocalisations (i.e. different calls). We propose that howl segments could function as 'identity signals' and allow receivers to modulate their responses according to the caller's characteristics. The bark segment increased receivers' attention levels, providing support for earlier observational claims that barks have an 'alerting' function. Lastly, dingoes were more likely to display vigilance behaviours upon hearing bark-howl vocalisations, lending support to the alarm function hypothesis. Canid vocalisations, such as the dingo bark-howl, may provide a model system to investigate the selective pressures shaping complex communication systems. PMID:27460289

  1. Do smoke alarms still function a year after installation? A follow-up of the get-alarmed campaign.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corleen J; Jones, Alma R; Davis, Mary Kidd; Caplan, Lee S

    2004-04-01

    The Get-Alarmed Campaign Follow-up Study was the second phase of an initiative to assure that homes of families at high risk of fire-related injury and death had functioning smoke alarms. Smoke alarms and/or batteries were installed in over 94 percent of 454 participating households in Schley and Henry Counties, Georgia, in 2000. Before the study began, 60.6 percent of these homes had smoke alarms, but only 36.6 percent had functioning smoke alarms. The follow-up study was designed to determine the experiences of participants with smoke alarms and whether participating households had functioning smoke alarms a year after baseline. Participants were phoned or visited and asked about their experiences with smoke alarms since the baseline study. During the interview, they were asked to test a smoke alarm, the results of which could frequently be heard. Respondents included 237 from Schley County and 113 from Henry County, for an overall 77.1 percent response rate. While 80.3 percent of respondents had a smoke alarm that was heard by the interviewer when it was tested, 6.6 percent reported that their smoke alarm had been disabled or had a dead battery. Over 75 percent of respondents had smoke alarm sound offs in the prior year, predominately due to cooking smoke, but only about 5 percent reported removing the battery or otherwise disabling it to prevent sound offs. However, the measures taken may render a household unprotected at a critical time. Efforts to increase protection with smoke alarms should be augmented with programs to insure adequate and timely testing and maintenance of existing smoke alarms. PMID:15065735

  2. Reducing false alarms in the ICU by quantifying self-similarity of multimodal biosignals.

    PubMed

    Antink, Christoph Hoog; Leonhardt, Steffen; Walter, Marian

    2016-08-01

    False arrhythmia alarms pose a major threat to the quality of care in today's ICU. Thus, the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015 aimed at reducing false alarms by exploiting multimodal cardiac signals recorded by a patient monitor. False alarms for asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular flutter/fibrillation as well as ventricular tachycardia were to be reduced using two electrocardiogram channels, up to two cardiac signals of mechanical origin as well as a respiratory signal. In this paper, an approach combining multimodal rhythmicity estimation and machine learning is presented. Using standard short-time autocorrelation and robust beat-to-beat interval estimation, the signal's self-similarity is analyzed. In particular, beat intervals as well as quality measures are derived which are further quantified using basic mathematical operations (min, mean, max, etc). Moreover, methods from the realm of image processing, 2D Fourier transformation combined with principal component analysis, are employed for dimensionality reduction. Several machine learning approaches are evaluated including linear discriminant analysis and random forest. Using an alarm-independent reduction strategy, an overall false alarm reduction with a score of 65.52 in terms of the real-time scoring system of the challenge is achieved on a hidden dataset. Employing an alarm-specific strategy, an overall real-time score of 78.20 at a true positive rate of 95% and a true negative rate of 78% is achieved. While the results for some categories still need improvement, false alarms for extreme tachycardia are suppressed with 100% sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27454256

  3. Optimal Sensor Location Design for Reliable Fault Detection in Presence of False Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Xiao, Deyun; Shah, Sirish L.

    2009-01-01

    To improve fault detection reliability, sensor location should be designed according to an optimization criterion with constraints imposed by issues of detectability and identifiability. Reliability requires the minimization of undetectability and false alarm probability due to random factors on sensor readings, which is not only related with sensor readings but also affected by fault propagation. This paper introduces the reliability criteria expression based on the missed/false alarm probability of each sensor and system topology or connectivity derived from the directed graph. The algorithm for the optimization problem is presented as a heuristic procedure. Finally, a boiler system is illustrated using the proposed method. PMID:22291524

  4. 5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing cable strand alarm located at Beach and Hyde Streets. A strand in the cable (see CA-12-7) forces the fork forward, alerting the powerhouse to the strand by means of an electrical warning device. This strand alarm operates in essentially the same manner as those first used in the 1880s. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

  6. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO...

  7. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered...

  9. Using an alarm to improve drug trolley safety.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Emily; Pearson, Darcy; Moondi, Parvez; Gibson, John; Blunt, Mark; Young, Peter; Mariyaselvam, Maryanne

    Leaving drug trolleys unlocked and unattended during drug rounds creates opportunities for drug theft and tampering. A new device was developed by our trust to detect when an open drug trolley is left unattended; it then sounds an alarm to remind staff to return to the trolley. This article describes use of the alarm on general hospital wards in one trust in the east of England. When the alarm was installed into drug trolleys on ahospital ward, it reduced the number of times unlocked trolleys were left unattended. The drug trolley alarm successfully changed the behaviour of staff on drug rounds and, in so doing, improved patient safety. PMID:26625697

  10. A standard analysis method (SAM) for the automated analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils using the chemical analysis automation (CAA) paradigm: validation and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Rzeszutko, C.; Johnson, C.R.; Monagle, M.; Klatt, L.N.

    1997-10-01

    The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program is developing a standardized modular automation strategy for chemical analysis. In this automation concept, analytical chemistry is performed with modular building blocks that correspond to individual elements of the steps in the analytical process. With a standardized set of behaviors and interactions, these blocks can be assembled in a `plug and play` manner into a complete analysis system. These building blocks, which are referred to as Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM), interface to a host control system that orchestrates the entire analytical process, from sample preparation through data interpretation. The integrated system is called a Standard Analysis Method (SAME). A SAME for the automated determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) in soils, assembled in a mobile laboratory, is undergoing extensive testing and validation. The SAME consists of the following SLMs: a four channel Soxhlet extractor, a High Volume Concentrator, column clean up, a gas chromatograph, a PCB data interpretation module, a robot, and a human- computer interface. The SAME is configured to meet the requirements specified in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) SW-846 Methods 3541/3620A/8082 for the analysis of pcbs in soils. The PCB SAME will be described along with the developmental test plan. Performance data obtained during developmental testing will also be discussed.

  11. A Standard Analysis Method (SAM) for the automated analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils using the chemical analysis automation (CAA) paradigm: Validation and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Rzeszutko, C.; Johnson, C.R.; Monagle, M.; Klatt, L.N.

    1997-11-01

    The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program is developing a standardized modular automation strategy for chemical analysis. In this automation concept, analytical chemistry is performed with modular building blocks that correspond to individual elements of the steps in the analytical process. With a standardized set of behaviors and interactions, these blocks can be assembled in a plug-and-play manner into a complete analysis system. These building blocks, which are referred to as Standard laboratory Modules (SLM), interface to a host control system that orchestrates the entire analytical process, from sample preparation through data interpretation. The integrated system is called a Standard Analysis Method (SAM). A SAM for the automated determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils, assembled in a mobile laboratory, is undergoing extensive testing and validation. The SAM consists of the following SLMs: a four-channel Soxhlet extractor, a high-volume concentration, a column clean-up, a gas chromatography, a PCB data-interpretation module, a robot, and a human-computer interface. The SAM is configured to meet the requirements specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) SW-846 methods 3541/3620A/8082 for the analysis of PCBs in soils. The PCB SAM will be described along with the developmental test plan. Performance data obtained during developmental testing will also be discussed.

  12. Shadow Probability of Detection and False Alarm for Median-Filtered SAR Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter; Miller, John A.; Bishop, Edward E.; Horndt, Volker

    2014-06-01

    Median filtering reduces speckle in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery while preserving edges, at the expense of coarsening the resolution, by replacing the center pixel of a sliding window by the median value. For shadow detection, this approach helps distinguish shadows from clutter more easily, while preserving shadow shape delineations. However, the nonlinear operation alters the shadow and clutter distributions and statistics, which must be taken into consideration when computing probability of detection and false alarm metrics. Depending on system parameters, median filtering can improve probability of detection and false alarm by orders of magnitude. Herein, we examine shadow probability of detection and false alarm in a homogeneous, ideal clutter background after median filter post-processing. Some comments on multi-look processing effects with and without median filtering are also made.

  13. Soft real-time alarm messages for ATLAS TDAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darlea, G.; Al Shabibi, A.; Martin, B.; Lehmann Miotto, G.

    2010-05-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ network consists of three separate Ethernet-based networks (Data, Control and Management) with over 2000 end-nodes. The TDAQ system has to be aware of the meaningful network failures and events in order for it to take effective recovery actions. The first stage of the process is implemented with Spectrum, a commercial network management tool. Spectrum detects and registers all network events, then it publishes the information via a CORBA programming interface. A gateway program (called NSG—Network Service Gateway) connects to Spectrum through CORBA and exposes to its clients a Java RMI interface. This interface implements a callback mechanism that allows the clients to subscribe for monitoring "interesting" parts of the network. The last stage of the TDAQ network monitoring tool is implemented in a module named DNC (DAQ to Network Connection), which filters the events that are to be reported to the TDAQ system: it subscribes to the gateway only for the machines that are currently active in the system and it forwards only the alarms that are considered important for the current TDAQ data taking session. The network information is then synthesized and presented in a human-readable format. These messages can be further processed either by the shifter who is in charge, the network expert or the Online Expert System. This article aims to describe the different mechanisms of the chain that transports the network events to the front-end user, as well as the constraints and rules that govern the filtering and the final format of the alarm messages.

  14. Molecular dynamics analysis of a series of 22 potential farnesyltransferase substrates containing a CaaX-motif.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio F; Coimbra, João T S; Paramos, Diogo; Pinto, Rita; Guimarães, Rodrigo S; Teixeira, Vitor; Fernandes, Pedro A; Ramos, Maria J

    2013-02-01

    Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) is an important target in many research fields, more markedly so in cancer investigation since several proteins known to be involved in human cancer development are thought to serve as substrates for FTase and to require farnesylation for proper biological activity. Several FTase inhibitors (FTIs) have advanced into clinical testing. Nevertheless, despite the progress in the field several functional and mechanistic doubts on the FTase catalytic activity have persisted. This work provides some crucial information on this important enzyme by describing the application of molecular dynamics simulations using specifically designed molecular mechanical parameters for a variety of 22 CaaX peptides known to work as natural substrates or inhibitors for this enzyme. The study involves a comparative analysis of several important molecular aspects, at the mechanistic level, of the behavior of substrates and inhibitors at the dynamic level, including the behavior of the enzyme and peptides, as well as their interaction, together with the effect of the solvent. Properties evaluated include the radial distribution function of the water molecules around the catalytically important zinc metal atom and cysteine sulfur of CaaX, the conformations of the substrate and inhibitor and the corresponding RMSF values, critical hydrogen bonds, and several catalytically relevant distances. These results are discussed in light of recent experimental and computational evidence that provides new insights into the activity of this enzyme. PMID:23011608

  15. A shunt pathway limits the CaaX processing of Hsp40 Ydj1p and regulates Ydj1p-dependent phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Emily R; Cheng, Michael; Zhao, Peng; Kim, June H; Wells, Lance; Schmidt, Walter K

    2016-01-01

    The modifications occurring to CaaX proteins have largely been established using few reporter molecules (e.g. Ras, yeast a-factor mating pheromone). These proteins undergo three coordinated COOH-terminal events: isoprenylation of the cysteine, proteolytic removal of aaX, and COOH-terminal methylation. Here, we investigated the coupling of these modifications in the context of the yeast Ydj1p chaperone. We provide genetic, biochemical, and biophysical evidence that the Ydj1p CaaX motif is isoprenylated but not cleaved and carboxylmethylated. Moreover, we demonstrate that Ydj1p-dependent thermotolerance and Ydj1p localization are perturbed when alternative CaaX motifs are transplanted onto Ydj1p. The abnormal phenotypes revert to normal when post-isoprenylation events are genetically interrupted. Our findings indicate that proper Ydj1p function requires an isoprenylatable CaaX motif that is resistant to post-isoprenylation events. These results expand on the complexity of protein isoprenylation and highlight the impact of post-isoprenylation events in regulating the function of Ydj1p and perhaps other CaaX proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15899.001 PMID:27525482

  16. False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James L.; Lawson, Janice K.; Aimonetti, William D.

    2011-03-29

    According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

  17. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section 153.438 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems...

  18. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section 153.438 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems...

  19. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401... direction alarms. Every vessel of 1600 gross registered tons or integrated tug and barge or articulated tug... direction and shaft r.p.m. indicators located in the wheelhouse and the engine room; and (b) Visible...

  20. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401... direction alarms. Every vessel of 1600 gross registered tons or integrated tug and barge or articulated tug... direction and shaft r.p.m. indicators located in the wheelhouse and the engine room; and (b) Visible...