Science.gov

Sample records for alarmingly high prevalence

  1. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  2. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  3. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  4. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  5. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  6. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  7. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  8. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  9. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  10. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a)...

  11. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  12. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  13. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  14. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  15. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table...

  16. Deaths resulting from residential fires and the prevalence of smoke alarms--United States, 1991-1995.

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    In 1995, residential fires accounted for an estimated 3600 deaths and approximately 18,600 injuries. In addition, property damage and other direct costs have been estimated to exceed more than $4 billion annually. To determine residential fire-related death rates, CDC analyzed death certificate data from 1991 to 1995 from U.S. vital statistics mortality tapes. Data from CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) was used to determine the prevalence of smoke alarms in U.S. households. This report presents the findings of these analyses, which indicate a seasonal variation in fire-related deaths and a high prevalence of smoke alarms in residences in the United States. PMID:9776167

  17. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a vessel of at least 7.9 meters (26 feet) in...

  18. Strategies to increase smoke alarm use in high-risk households.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Pauline A; Aitken, Mary; Ryan, George W; Demeter, Lori A; Givens, Jeanne; Sundararaman, Ramya; Goulette, Scott

    2004-10-01

    A 3-year project was undertaken to evaluate two methods of promoting residential smoke alarm installation and maintenance in high risk households across the U.S. Five states (Arkansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, and North Carolina) participated. The two strategies under study were direct installation of smoke alarms and distribution of a voucher for free smoke alarms. The target population included occupants of high-risk households without working smoke alarms who were approached as part of a door-to-door canvassing program. Fire Safety education was provided to both groups. A follow up assessment conducted 6-12 months post intervention assessed the presence and functional status of smoke alarms in each of the two groups. Demographic and fire safety data were also collected at baseline and follow up for each group. 4,455 households were enrolled in the study [Installation Group: 2,206 (49.5%), Voucher Group: 2,249 (50.5%)]. Baseline characteristics of the groups within each state were comparable. Follow up data was obtained on 1,583 installation group households and 1,545 voucher group households. At follow up, 1,421 (89.8%) households in the installation group had working smoke alarms, compared with 997 (65%) households in the voucher group, Odds Ratio 4.82 (95% CI=3.97, 5.85) (p <.0001). On average, 47% of all households enrolled in the voucher group did not redeem their vouchers (range 26-63%). Direct installation of alarms by program staff resulted in working smoke alarms in 90% of households receiving the direct installation intervention. Only 65% of voucher households had functioning alarms at follow up, largely due to failure to redeem vouchers. PMID:15471420

  19. Individual acoustic variation in Belding's ground squirrel alarm chirps in the High Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCowan, Brenda; Hooper, Stacie L.

    2002-03-01

    The acoustic structure of calls within call types can vary as function of individual identity, sex, and social group membership and is important in kin and social group recognition. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) produce alarm chirps that function in predator avoidance but little is known about the acoustic variability of these alarm chirps. The purpose of this preliminary study was to analyze the acoustic structure of alarm chirps with respect to individual differences (e.g., signature information) from eight Belding's ground squirrels from four different lakes in the High Sierra Nevada. Results demonstrate that alarm chirps are individually distinctive, and that acoustic similarity among individuals may correspond to genetic similarity and thus dispersal patterns in this species. These data suggest, on a preliminary basis, that the acoustic structure of calls might be used as a bioacoustic tool for tracking individuals, dispersal, and other population dynamics in Belding's ground squirrels, and perhaps other vocal species.

  20. Medical audible alarms: a review

    PubMed Central

    Edworthy, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

  1. Alarms Philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    White, Karen S; Kasemir, Kay

    2009-01-01

    An effective alarm system consists of a mechanism to monitor control points and generate alarm notifications, tools for operators to view, hear, acknowledge and handle alarms and a good configuration. Despite the availability of numerous fully featured tools, accelerator alarm systems continue to be disappointing to operations, frequently to the point of alarms being permanently silenced or totally ignored. This is often due to configurations that produce an excessive number of alarms or fail to communicate the required operator response. Most accelerator controls systems do a good job of monitoring specified points and generating notifications when parameters exceed predefined limits. In some cases, improved tools can help, but more often, poor configuration is the root cause of ineffective alarm systems. A SNS, we have invested considerable effort in generating appropriate configurations using a rigorous set of rules based on best practices in the industrial process controls community. This paper will discuss our alarm configuration philosophy and operator response to our new system.

  2. Krohne Flow Indicator and High Flow Alarm Local Indicator and High Flow Alarm of Helium Flow from the SCHe Purge Lines C and D to the Process Vent

    SciTech Connect

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-09-03

    Flow Indicators/alarms FI/FSH-5*52 and -5*72 are located in the process vent lines connected to the 2 psig SCHe purge lines C and D. They monitor the flow from the 2 psig SCHe purge going to the process vent. The switch/alarm is non-safety class GS.

  3. Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.

    PubMed

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings. PMID:24847936

  4. Smoke alarm ownership and installation: a comparison of a rural and a suburban community in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Jones, A R; Thompson, C J; Davis, M K

    2001-10-01

    As part of a smoke alarm giveaway and installation program (The Get-Alarmed Campaign), a total of 454 households were surveyed in two counties in Georgia, one metropolitan and one nonmetropolitan. The targeted communities in these counties had a high prevalence of low-income and minority populations and thus were at high risk of house fire-related morbidity and mortality. The objectives of the program were to determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms, and to install at least one smoke alarm and/or smoke alarm batteries in 100% of participating homes in need. Characteristics associated with smoke alarm ownership included home ownership, having a higher income, and having a central heating source, factors which should be considered in targeting future intervention strategies. At onset, 159/454 households (35.0%) had no smoke alarms installed and 56/275 households with existing smoke alarms (20.4%) had none that were functional. Regardless of ownership status, a free smoke alarm was installed in the household of 93.8% of participants and new batteries were installed in existing smoke alarms for 31.7% of participants. This project illustrates the usefulness of a door-to-door campaign in increasing smoke alarm ownership in both a rural and a suburban community with a high concentration of residents at high risk of house fire-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:11554496

  5. False alarms during patient monitoring in clinical intensive care units are highly related to poor quality of the monitored electrocardiogram signals.

    PubMed

    Tsimenidis, Charalampos; Murray, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded from patients in intensive care were investigated to quantify any relationship between ECG signal quality and false monitoring alarms. False alarms are a considerable problem for nursing and medical staff as they distract from clinical care, and are also a problem for patients as they disturb rest, which is important for clinical recovery. ECG and alarm data were obtained for 750 patient alarms from the PhysioNet database. The final 8 s period before the alarm was triggered was investigated. All but one ECG channel in 38 ECG recordings with out-of-range data were associated with false positive alarms (p  <  0.0001). The frequency contributions for baseline (BL) instability, electromyogram (EMG) muscle noise, and high frequency (HF) noise were calculated. For all three frequency bands, the contributions associated with false positive alarms were very significantly greater than for true positive alarms (p  <  0.0001). The greatest difference was for BL with a mean level for false positive alarms 4.0 times greater than for true positive alarms, followed by EMG and HF at 1.6 times and 1.4 times respectively. These results confirm that attention needs to be taken to improve ECG signal quality to reduce the frequency of clinical false alarms, and hence improve conditions for clinical staff and patients. PMID:27454130

  6. Use of pagers with an alarm escalation system to reduce cardiac monitor alarm signals.

    PubMed

    Cvach, Maria M; Frank, Robert J; Doyle, Pete; Stevens, Zeina Khouri

    2014-01-01

    Alarm fatigue desensitizes nurses to alarm signals and presents potential for patient harm. This project describes an innovative method of communicating cardiac monitor alarms to pagers using an alarm escalation algorithm. This innovation was tested on 2 surgical progressive care units over a 6-month period. There was a significant decrease in mean frequency and duration of high-priority monitor alarms and improvement in nurses' perception of alarm response time, using this method of alarm communication. PMID:23963169

  7. Alarm communication and display systems for high security department of energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An Alarm Communication and Display System collects alarm data, presents information to security operators, and enables the operators to enter commands affecting security operations; the ultimate goal of the system is to provide rapid assessment of alarms. This paper presents an overview of the architecture and operating principles used for alarm communication and display systems developed for application at several Department of Energy facilities. Although facilities have unique requirements and procedures, the architecture and operating principles of the ACDS presented in this paper have allowed site-specific implementations at several Department of Energy facilities. In addition, this technology has been transferred to other DOE facilities for adaptation to their requirements. Further efforts to enhance ACDS technology include the use of local area network technology to assist in peripheral switching, a distributed CCTV video switching system, and state-of-the-art hardware changes which improve system performance and effectiveness.

  8. Alarm fatigue: a patient safety concern.

    PubMed

    Sendelbach, Sue; Funk, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that 72% to 99% of clinical alarms are false. The high number of false alarms has led to alarm fatigue. Alarm fatigue is sensory overload when clinicians are exposed to an excessive number of alarms, which can result in desensitization to alarms and missed alarms. Patient deaths have been attributed to alarm fatigue. Patient safety and regulatory agencies have focused on the issue of alarm fatigue, and it is a 2014 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal. Quality improvement projects have demonstrated that strategies such as daily electrocardiogram electrode changes, proper skin preparation, education, and customization of alarm parameters have been able to decrease the number of false alarms. These and other strategies need to be tested in rigorous clinical trials to determine whether they reduce alarm burden without compromising patient safety. PMID:24153215

  9. Monitor alarm fatigue: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Cvach, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Alarm fatigue is a national problem and the number one medical device technology hazard in 2012. The problem of alarm desensitization is multifaceted and related to a high false alarm rate, poor positive predictive value, lack of alarm standardization, and the number of alarming medical devices in hospitals today. This integrative review synthesizes research and non-research findings published between 1/1/2000 and 10/1/2011 using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice model. Seventy-two articles were included. Research evidence was organized into five main themes: excessive alarms and effects on staff; nurse's response to alarms; alarm sounds and audibility; technology to reduce false alarms; and alarm notification systems. Non-research evidence was divided into two main themes: strategies to reduce alarm desensitization, and alarm priority and notification systems. Evidence-based practice recommendations and gaps in research are summarized. PMID:22839984

  10. Obesity Prevalence in Nepal: Public Health Challenges in a Low-Income Nation during an Alarming Worldwide Trend

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Abhinav; Shakya, Suraj; Krettek, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The future toll of the obesity epidemic will likely hit hardest in low- and middle-income countries. Ongoing urbanization promotes risk factors including sedentary lifestyle and fat- and sugar-laden diets. Low-income countries like Nepal experience a double disease burden: infectious diseases as well as rising incidence of noncommunicable diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus) frequently characterized by obesity. Nepal currently directs efforts towards curing disease but pays little attention to preventive actions. This article highlights obesity prevalence in Nepal, delineates the challenges identified by our pilot study (including low health literacy rates), and suggests strategies to overcome this trend. PMID:20644698

  11. An alarm for monitoring CPAP.

    PubMed

    Carter, B; Clare, D; Hochmann, M; Osborne, A; Fraser, T

    1993-04-01

    We have built a device for use within the hospital and at home that is designed to warn of circuit disconnection when used in conjunction with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy delivered via ventilators or CPAP generating systems. The Royal Children's Hospital CPAP alarm is a compact, battery operated alarm and monitor of circuit pressure. The device includes intrinsic safety features including a safety blow-off valve, a high pressure alarm and design features that make the device practical, safe and easy to use by both trained hospital personnel and home care attendants with limited training. PMID:8517514

  12. IMPEDANCE ALARM SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Cowen, R.G.

    1959-09-29

    A description is given of electric protective systems and burglar alarm systems of the capacitance type in which the approach of an intruder at a place to be protected varies the capacitance in an electric circuit and the change is thereafter communicated to a remote point to actuate an alarm. According to the invention, an astable transitor multi-vibrator has the amplitude at its output voltage controlled by a change in the sensing capacitance. The sensing capacitance is effectively connected between collector and base of one stage of the multivibrator circuit through the detector-to-monitor line. The output of the detector is a small d-c voltage across the detector-to-monitor line. This d- c voltage is amplified and monitored at the other end of the line, where an appropriate alarm is actuated if a sudden change in the voltage occurs. The present system has a high degree of sensitivity and is very difficult to defeat by known techniques.

  13. Making the dead talk: alarm cue-mediated antipredator behaviour and learning are enhanced when injured conspecifics experience high predation risk.

    PubMed

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Chivers, Douglas P; Mitchell, Matthew D; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2016-08-01

    Due to the costs of antipredator behaviour, prey have the ability to finely modulate their response according to the risk they have experienced, and adjust it over different scales of ecological time. Information on which to base their responses can be obtained from direct experience, but also indirectly from nearby conspecifics. In aquatic environments, alarm cues from injured conspecifics are an important and reliable source of information about current predation risk. We used wood frog tadpoles, Lithobates sylvaticus, to investigate whether prey responses to alarm cues match the level of background predation risk experienced by injured conspecifics. We found that tadpoles exposed to alarm cues from conspecifics raised in a high-risk environment showed a stronger antipredator response and an enhanced learned response to novel predators, when compared with tadpoles exposed to alarm cues from conspecifics raised in a low-risk environment. Alarm cues not only allow prey to cope with an ongoing predation event, but also to adjust their behaviour to match background risk in the environment. PMID:27531160

  14. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  15. Pattern discovery in critical alarms originating from neonates under intensive care.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Atallah, Louis; Feijs, Loe; Van Huffel, Sabine; Andriessen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Patient monitoring generates a large number of alarms, the vast majority of which are false. Excessive non-actionable medical alarms lead to alarm fatigue, a well-recognized patient safety issue. While multiple approaches to reduce alarm fatigue have been explored, patterns in alarming and inter-alarm relationships, as they manifest in the clinical workspace, are largely a black-box and hamper research efforts towards reducing alarms. The aim of this study is to detect opportunities to safely reduce alarm pressure, by developing techniques to identify, capture and visualize patterns in alarms. Nearly 500 000 critical medical alarms were acquired from a neonatal intensive care unit over a 20 month period. Heuristic techniques were developed to extract the inter-alarm relationships. These included identifying the presence of alarm clusters, patterns of transition from one alarm category to another, temporal associations amongst alarms and determination of prevalent sequences in which alarms manifest. Desaturation, bradycardia and apnea constituted 86% of all alarms and demonstrated distinctive periodic increases in the number of alarms that were synchronized with nursing care and enteral feeding. By inhibiting further alarms of a category for a short duration of time (30 s/60 s), non-actionable physiological alarms could be reduced by 20%. The patterns of transition from one alarm category to another and the time duration between such transitions revealed the presence of close temporal associations and multiparametric derangement. Examination of the prevalent alarm sequences reveals that while many sequences comprised of multiple alarms, nearly 65% of the sequences were isolated instances of alarms and are potentially irreducible. Patterns in alarming, as they manifest in the clinical workspace were identified and visualized. This information can be exploited to investigate strategies for reducing alarms. PMID:27027383

  16. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  17. False alarm reduction in critical care.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this challenge, the design of the challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  18. Smart smoke alarm

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  19. Alarm Notification System

    1995-03-12

    AN/EMS, the Alarm Notification Energy Management System, is used to monitor digital sensors in PETC buildings and to notify the safety/security operator by both a video and an audio system when a possibly hazardous condition arises.

  20. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  1. Fire detection and alarm subsystem design description: 4 x 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR [High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor] Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    Fire Detection and Alarm is an early warning system used to detect and report the presence of a fire within the plant. It detects, annunciates, and records plant-wide fire alarms, subsystem trouble, and fire console operator actions.

  2. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strączkiewicz, M.; Barszcz, T.; Jabłoński, A.

    2015-07-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine.

  3. High natural prevalence of a fungal prion

    PubMed Central

    Debets, Alfons J. M.; Dalstra, Henk J. P.; Slakhorst, Marijke; Koopmanschap, Bertha; Hoekstra, Rolf F.; Saupe, Sven J.

    2012-01-01

    Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal diseases in mammals. Prions have also been found in fungi, but studies on their role in nature are scarce. The proposed biological function of fungal prions is debated and varies from detrimental to benign or even beneficial. [Het-s] is a prion of the fungus Podospora anserina. The het-s locus exists as two antagonistic alleles that constitute an allorecognition system: the het-s allele encoding the protein variant capable of prion formation and the het-S allele encoding a protein variant that cannot form a prion. We document here that het-s alleles, capable of prion formation, are nearly twice as frequent as het-S alleles in a natural population of 112 individuals. Then, we report a 92% prevalence of [Het-s] prion infection among the het-s isolates and find evidence of the role of the [Het-s]/het-S allorecognition system on the incidence of infection by a deleterious senescence plasmid. We explain the het-s/het-S allele ratios by the existence of two selective forces operating at different levels. We propose that during the somatic stage, the role of [Het-s]/HET-S in allorecognition leads to frequency-dependent selection for which an equilibrated frequency would be optimal. However, in the sexual cycle, the [Het-s] prion causes meiotic drive favoring the het-s allele. Our findings indicate that [Het-s] is a selected and, therefore, widespread prion whose activity as selfish genetic element is counteracted by balancing selection for allorecognition polymorphism. PMID:22691498

  4. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test. PMID:21747329

  5. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ok Min; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Methods Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. One bed out of 56 ICU beds was randomly assigned to each observation time unit. Results Overall 2,184 clinical alarms were counted for 48 hours of observation, and 45.5 clinical alarms occurred per hour per subject. Of these, 1,394 alarms (63.8%) were categorized as false alarms. The alarm fatigue score was 24.3 ± 4.0 out of 35. The highest scoring item was "always get bothered due to clinical alarms". The highest scoring item in obstacles was "frequent false alarms, which lead to reduced attention or response to alarms". Conclusions Nurses reported that they felt some fatigue due to clinical alarms, and false alarms were also obstacles to proper management. An appropriate hospital policy should be developed to reduce false alarms and nurses' alarm fatigue. PMID:26893950

  6. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity. PMID:23181629

  7. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  8. Prevalence of Hearing Impairment in High Risk Infants.

    PubMed

    Vashistha, Ishika; Aseri, Yogesh; Singh, B K; Verma, P C

    2016-06-01

    Hearing impairment is prevalent in the general population, early intervention facilitates proper development. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of hearing impairment in high-risk infants born between 2013 and 2014. 100 newborns were evaluated using evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion produce and auditory behavior. Tests were reported if the results were altered. If altered results persisted, the child was referred for impedance testing and when necessary for medical evaluation. Infants referred for BOA and OAE undergone Brainstem auditory evoked potential testing. Of 100 children, 85 children have hearing within normal limits. Hearing impairment was found in 15 out of which 7 had unilateral hearing loss and 8 had bilateral hearing loss. The high prevalence of hearing impairment in this population underlines the importance of early audiological testing. PMID:27340640

  9. A high prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders in Iranian instrumentalists

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Shahram; Kazemi, Behrooz; Shooshtari, Seyed Mostafa Jazayeri; Bidari, Ali; Jafari, Peyman

    2004-01-01

    Background Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are common in musicians and their prevalence has been the subject of a number of studies in most western countries. Such studies are scarce in developing countries despite the possibility that CTDs may have a different prevalence in these countries, especially when considering traditional musical instruments and different methods of playing. Although not formally studied before, according to our experience the prevalence of CTDs seemed to be high among Iranian instrumentalists. We proposed this study to determine the prevalence of CTDs in amateur music students playing one of the two traditional Iranian instruments: Daf and Setar. Methods In a prospective cross sectional study, we interviewed and examined the students of three music training centers in Iran. Seventy eight instrumentalists, who were playing Daf or Setar and twelve students who had not started playing yet were regarded as case and control groups respectively. Some of them also underwent electrodiagnostic studies. Results Forty-seven percent (17 of 36) of the Setar players and 57% (24 of 42) of the Daf players and fifty-three percent (41 of 78) of the instrumentalists as a whole had CTDs. None of them had carpal tunnel syndrome. Conclusions Our study revealed that the prevalence of CTDs in Iranian instrumentalists was unusually high. In addition to age, other variables may be contributory. This needs to be further studied. PMID:15485578

  10. High Malaria Prevalence among Schoolchildren on Kome Island, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Siza, Julius E; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Kuboza, Josephat; Mnyeshi, Peter; Changalucha, John M; Ko, Yunsuk; Chang, Su Young; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-10-01

    In order to determine the status of malaria among schoolchildren on Kome Island (Lake Victoria), near Mwanza, Tanzania, a total of 244 schoolchildren in 10 primary schools were subjected to a blood survey using the fingerprick method. The subjected schoolchildren were 123 boys and 121 girls who were 6-8 years of age. Only 1 blood smear was prepared for each child. The overall prevalence of malaria was 38.1% (93 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable. However, the positive rate was the highest in Izindabo Primary School (51.4%) followed by Isenyi Primary School (48.3%) and Bugoro Primary School (46.7%). The lowest prevalence was found in Muungano Primary School (16.7%) and Nyamiswi Primary School (16.7%). These differences were highly correlated with the location of the school on the Island; those located in the peripheral area revealed higher prevalences while those located in the central area showed lower prevalences. Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant species (38.1%; 93/244), with a small proportion of them mixed-infected with Plasmodium vivax (1.6%; 4/244). The results revealed that malaria is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren on Kome Island, Tanzania, and there is an urgent need to control malaria in this area. PMID:26537036

  11. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  12. Alternative High School Students: Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…

  13. Control of ELT false alarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

  14. High prevalence of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-15

    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity. PMID:26541211

  15. Do smoke alarms still function a year after installation? A follow-up of the get-alarmed campaign.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corleen J; Jones, Alma R; Davis, Mary Kidd; Caplan, Lee S

    2004-04-01

    The Get-Alarmed Campaign Follow-up Study was the second phase of an initiative to assure that homes of families at high risk of fire-related injury and death had functioning smoke alarms. Smoke alarms and/or batteries were installed in over 94 percent of 454 participating households in Schley and Henry Counties, Georgia, in 2000. Before the study began, 60.6 percent of these homes had smoke alarms, but only 36.6 percent had functioning smoke alarms. The follow-up study was designed to determine the experiences of participants with smoke alarms and whether participating households had functioning smoke alarms a year after baseline. Participants were phoned or visited and asked about their experiences with smoke alarms since the baseline study. During the interview, they were asked to test a smoke alarm, the results of which could frequently be heard. Respondents included 237 from Schley County and 113 from Henry County, for an overall 77.1 percent response rate. While 80.3 percent of respondents had a smoke alarm that was heard by the interviewer when it was tested, 6.6 percent reported that their smoke alarm had been disabled or had a dead battery. Over 75 percent of respondents had smoke alarm sound offs in the prior year, predominately due to cooking smoke, but only about 5 percent reported removing the battery or otherwise disabling it to prevent sound offs. However, the measures taken may render a household unprotected at a critical time. Efforts to increase protection with smoke alarms should be augmented with programs to insure adequate and timely testing and maintenance of existing smoke alarms. PMID:15065735

  16. Hypo- and Hyperglycemic Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Howsmon, Daniel; Bequette, B. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery that insulin regulates blood glucose by Banting and Best in 1922, the symptoms and risks associated with hypoglycemia became widely recognized. This article reviews devices to warn individuals of impending hypo- and hyperglycemia; biosignals used by these devices include electroencephalography, electrocardiography, skin galvanic resistance, diabetes alert dogs, and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). While systems based on other technology are increasing in performance and decreasing in size, CGM technology remains the best method for both reactive and predictive alarming of hypo- or hyperglycemia. PMID:25931581

  17. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1987-04-13

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

  18. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P.

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

  20. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO...

  1. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO...

  2. Alarmingly High Segregation Frequencies of Quinolone Resistance Alleles within Human and Animal Microbiomes Are Not Explained by Direct Clinical Antibiotic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Field, Wesley; Hershberg, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance poses a major threat to human health. It is therefore important to characterize the frequency of resistance within natural bacterial environments. Many studies have focused on characterizing the frequencies with which horizontally acquired resistance genes segregate within natural bacterial populations. Yet, very little is currently understood regarding the frequency of segregation of resistance alleles occurring within the housekeeping targets of antibiotics. We surveyed a large number of metagenomic datasets extracted from a large variety of host-associated and non host-associated environments for such alleles conferring resistance to three groups of broad spectrum antibiotics: streptomycin, rifamycins, and quinolones. We find notable segregation frequencies of resistance alleles occurring within the target genes of each of the three antibiotics, with quinolone resistance alleles being the most frequent and rifamycin resistance alleles being the least frequent. Resistance allele frequencies varied greatly between different phyla and as a function of environment. The frequency of quinolone resistance alleles was especially high within host-associated environments, where it averaged an alarming ∼40%. Within host-associated environments, resistance to quinolones was most often conferred by a specific resistance allele. High frequencies of quinolone resistance alleles were also found within hosts that were not directly treated with antibiotics. Therefore, the high segregation frequency of quinolone resistance alleles occurring within the housekeeping targets of antibiotics in host-associated environments does not seem to be the sole result of clinical antibiotic usage. PMID:26019163

  3. Alarm Management System for the D/3 Distributed Control System

    1997-03-19

    As industrial processes continue to grow in size and complexity, the Distrubuted Control Systems that automate and monitor these processes expand in a like manner. This increase in control system complexity has resulted in ever increasing numbers of alarms presented to the operator. The challenge for today's control system designer is to find innovative ways to present alarm information to the operator such that despite the large number of alarms, the operator is able tomore » quickly assess the status of the plant and immediately respond to the most critical alarms in a timely manner. This software package, designed and developed for the Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator/Waste Removal Distributed Control System installed on the H-Area Tank Farm, provides an alarm system which utilizes the annunciator (SKID) panel as a means of statusing the plant and providing single keystroke access to the display on which an alarm resides.« less

  4. Alarm Management System for the D/3 Distributed Control System

    SciTech Connect

    McEver, M.

    1997-03-19

    As industrial processes continue to grow in size and complexity, the Distrubuted Control Systems that automate and monitor these processes expand in a like manner. This increase in control system complexity has resulted in ever increasing numbers of alarms presented to the operator. The challenge for today's control system designer is to find innovative ways to present alarm information to the operator such that despite the large number of alarms, the operator is able to quickly assess the status of the plant and immediately respond to the most critical alarms in a timely manner. This software package, designed and developed for the Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator/Waste Removal Distributed Control System installed on the H-Area Tank Farm, provides an alarm system which utilizes the annunciator (SKID) panel as a means of statusing the plant and providing single keystroke access to the display on which an alarm resides.

  5. Evaluation of ventilator alarms.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of ventilator alarms is being carried out for the DHSS within the Welsh National School of Medicine. The technical performance and safety assessments are being made within the Department of Anaesthetics and clinical trials within the South Glamorgan Area Health Authority. For this evaluation (published in 'Health Equipment Information' ['HEI'] No. 124 [June 1984]) one example of each model was assessed (Penlon IDP, Draeger, Medix Ventimonitor 101, BOC Medishield, East Ventilarm, Cape TTL) and the conclusions are based on the assumption that the sample was typical of normal production. This is a continuing programme and the next report will evaluate a group of infant ventilators. For full details of the evaluation findings, readers should consult 'HEI' 124. The following are extracts from the report. PMID:6398368

  6. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  7. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  8. High prevalence of esophageal dysmotility in asymptomatic obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Côté-Daigneault, Justin; Leclerc, Pierre; Joubert, Josette; Bouin, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is an important health problem affecting >500 million people worldwide. Esophageal dysmotility is a gastrointestinal pathology associated with obesity; however, its prevalence and characteristics remain unclear. Esophageal dysmotilities have a high prevalence among obese patients regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of esophageal dysmotility among obese patients. The secondary goals were to characterize these pathologies in obese patients and identify risk factors. METHOD: A prospective study from January 2009 to March 2010 at the University of Montreal Hospital Centre (Montreal, Quebec) was performed. Every patient scheduled for bariatric surgery underwent preoperatory esophageal manometry and was included in the study. Manometry was performed according to a standardized protocol with the following measures: superior esophageal sphincter – coordination and release during deglutition; esophageal body – presence, propagation, length, amplitude and type of esophageal waves of contraction; lower esophageal sphincter – localization, tone, release, intragastic pressure and intraesophageal pressure. All reference values were those used in the digestive motility laboratory. A gastrointestinal symptoms questionnaire was completed on the day manometry was performed. Chart reviews were performed to identify comorbidities and treatments that could influence the results. RESULTS: A total of 53 patients were included (mean [± SD] age 43±10 years; mean body mass index 46±7 kg/m2; 70% female). Esophageal manometry revealed dysmotility in 51% (n=27) of the patients. This dysmotility involved the esophageal body in 74% (n=20) of the patients and the inferior sphincter in 11% (n=3). Mixed dysmotility (body and inferior sphincter) was found in 15% (n=4) of cases. The esophageal body dysmotilities were hypomotility in 85% (n=23) of the patients, either from insignificant waves (74% [n=20]), nonpropagated waves (11

  9. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  10. Evaluation of fire-safety programs that use 10-year smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark; Wilson, Jonathan; Akoto, Judith; Dixon, Sherry; Jacobs, David E; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2010-10-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE) program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered "10-year" smoke alarms in homes at high risk for fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still present and functional 8-10 years after installation and (2) understand factors related to smoke alarm presence and functionality. Data on a total of 384 homes and 601 smoke alarms in five states were collected and analyzed. Only one-third of alarms were still functional; 37% of installed alarms were missing; and 30% of alarms were present, but not functioning. Alarms were less likely to be functioning if they were installed in the kitchen and if homes had a different resident at follow-up. Of the 351 alarms that were present and had a battery at the time of the evaluation, only 21% contained lithium-powered batteries. Of these, 78% were still functioning. Programs that install lithium-powered alarms should use units that have sealed-in batteries and "hush" buttons. Additionally, education should be given on smoke alarm maintenance that includes a message that batteries in these alarms should not be replaced. Lithium-powered smoke alarms should last up to 10 years if maintained properly. PMID:20177753

  11. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarms in high ambient noise areas must be supplemented by visual means, such as rotating beacons, that are visible throughout these areas. Red beacons must only be used for general or fire alarm...

  12. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarms in high ambient noise areas must be supplemented by visual means, such as rotating beacons, that are visible throughout these areas. Red beacons must only be used for general or fire alarm...

  13. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Junior High and Senior High School Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping-Ling; Huang, Weigang; Chuang, Yi-Li; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of death in the world. This article describes and compares tobacco use prevalence for students attending junior high schools and senior high schools in Taiwan. Methods: This report uses data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) completed among 4689 junior high school students and 4426…

  14. High Prevalence of Prothrombotic Abnormalities in Multifocal Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Peris, Pilar; Reverter, Joan Carles; Espinosa, Gerard; Martinez-Ferrer, Angeles; Monegal, Ana; Monteagudo, Juan; Tàssies, Dolors; Guañabens, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multifocal or multiple osteonecrosis (ON), defined by the involvement of 3 or more anatomic sites, is unusual, being observed in only 3%–10% of patients diagnosed with ON. We report the clinical characteristics of a cohort of 29 patients with multifocal ON from a single center and evaluate the prevalence of associated prothrombotic abnormalities in 26 of these patients. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with multifocal ON evaluated in our institution during the last 20 years. We recorded clinical manifestations and underlying diagnoses. A wide thrombophilic profile was performed, including antithrombin, protein C, protein S, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, activated protein C resistance, factor V Leiden, mutation G-20210-A of the prothrombin gene, and factor VIII. Coagulation test results were compared with those in a healthy control group and a group of patients with history of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. The mean age of the patients was 49.2 ± 15 years (range, 28–81 yr). The mean number of ON localizations per patient was 5.2 ± 2.3 (range, 3–11). Hips were the most commonly affected joint (82%), followed by knees (58%), shoulders (37%), and ankles (13%). Most patients had an underlying disease process, and 12 of 25 (48%) patients had coagulation test abnormalities. The most common alterations were high factor VIII levels and antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity in 24% and 20% of cases, respectively. These abnormalities were more prevalent in patients with multifocal ON compared with patients in the control groups. Sixty-one percent of patients had a history of corticosteroid treatment. Patients with coagulation abnormalities had a higher number of ON localizations per patient (6.5 ± 2.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.8; p = 0.002) and a higher prevalence of atypical ON localizations (25% vs. 0%; p = 0.05). In conclusion, in the present cohort of patients with multifocal ON, 48% of the patients had at

  15. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  16. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1988-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  17. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  18. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1988-04-22

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

  19. Prevalence of Weight Problems among Youth with High-Incidence Disabilities in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of weight problems among youth in general and youth in out-of-home care has been well documented; however, the prevalence of obesity/overweight among youth with high-incidence disabilities in more restrictive settings, such as residential care, has not been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of…

  20. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. 154.1325... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks. Except as allowed under § 154.1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is independent of...

  4. [Prevalence of asymmetrical blood pressure in uncontrolled hypertensive patients is high and highly related with cardiovascular diseases prevalence].

    PubMed

    Allaert, F-A; Fouchères, G; Elias-Billon, I; Maigret, P

    2016-06-01

    A meta-analysis has shown that an asymmetry of the blood pressure (ABP) between arm≥15mmHg and perhaps≥10mmHg is associated with an increase of cardiovascular diseases. To describe the prevalence of ABP in patients presenting an uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) under treatment, an observational cross sectional study was conducted. Factors influencing prevalence of ABP were identified and relation of ABP with the frequency of the cardiovascular diseases or subclinicals organs damages was evaluated. A total of 2417 patients, 63.3±11.0years old, presenting uncontrolled BP (according ESC criteria) by a previous antihypertensive therapy were included. Only 36.8% (95% CI [34.9-38.7]) were presenting a between-arm difference in systolic blood pressure≥10mmHg, and 17.1% (95% CI [15.6-18.6])≥15mmHg. MRA shows systolic ABP≥10mmHg prevalence was influenced by dyslipidemia (OR: 1.5 [1.2-1.7], P<0.0001) and by family history of early cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.6 [1.3-1.9], P<0.0001). MRA adjusted on CVRF shows that besides the dyslipidemia effect, systolic ABP≥10mmHg influences the frequency of sub-clinical impairment of target organ (OR: 1.6 [1.3-1.9], P<0.0001), of coronary heart disease (OR: 1.8 [1.4-2.4], P<0.0001), and globally the presence of a cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.7 [1.4-2.1], P<0.0001). The effect on stroke frequency was showed with an systolic ABP≥15mmHg (OR: 1.6 [1.1-2.4], P<0.02). In uncontrolled hypertensive patients, screening of an ABP should help to identify clinically patients with high risk of cardiovascular diseases or with subclinical organs damages. PMID:27211351

  5. High prevalence of thyroid ultrasonographic abnormalities in primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Scaroni, Carla; Lumachi, Franco; Selice, Riccardo; Fiore, Cristina; Favia, Gennaro; Mantero, Franco

    2003-11-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular, of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation, thyroid function, and ultrasonography were evaluated. The prevalence of ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities was 60% in primary aldosteronism and 27% in controls (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of these abnormalities in unilateral adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism with respect to controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The prevalence of multinodular nontoxic goiter in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism was higher than in controls (p < 0.001) and, in particular, in female patients. From these data it seems to be worth considering the existence of primary hyperaldosteronism in patients with multinodular goiter and hypertension. PMID:14665720

  6. High Prevalence of Insecure Attachment in Patients with Primary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Balint, Elisabeth M; Gander, Manuela; Pokorny, Dan; Funk, Alexandra; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is predicted by heightened CV reactivity to stress in healthy individuals. Patients with hypertension also show an altered stress response, while insecure attachment is linked to a heightened stress reactivity as well. This is the first study aiming to assess attachment representations in patients with primary hypertension and to investigate their CV responses when their attachment system is activated. We studied 50 patients (38 men, 12 women) with primary hypertension. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a widely used and validated interview, was performed to measure the patients' attachment representations, and to activate their attachment system. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured after 10 min at rest prior to and directly after the AAP interview. Mood and state anxiety were assessed using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (MDBF) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) before and after the experiment. The prevalence of insecure attachment (dismissing, preoccupied, unresolved) in hypertensive patients was predominant (88%), while in non-clinical populations, only about 50% of individuals had insecure attachment patterns. Blood pressure (p < 0.001), heart rate (p = 0.016), and rate pressure product (p < 0.001) significantly increased in response to the attachment interview. Secure attached patients showed the highest rise in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.020) and the lowest heart rate compared to the other attachment groups (p = 0.043). However, attachment representation showed no significant group or interaction effects on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate pressure product. Insecure attachment was highly over-represented in our sample of patients with primary hypertension. Additionally, a robust CV response to the attachment-activating stimulus was observed. Our data suggest that insecure attachment is significantly linked to primary hypertension

  7. High Prevalence of Insecure Attachment in Patients with Primary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Balint, Elisabeth M.; Gander, Manuela; Pokorny, Dan; Funk, Alexandra; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is predicted by heightened CV reactivity to stress in healthy individuals. Patients with hypertension also show an altered stress response, while insecure attachment is linked to a heightened stress reactivity as well. This is the first study aiming to assess attachment representations in patients with primary hypertension and to investigate their CV responses when their attachment system is activated. We studied 50 patients (38 men, 12 women) with primary hypertension. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), a widely used and validated interview, was performed to measure the patients' attachment representations, and to activate their attachment system. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured after 10 min at rest prior to and directly after the AAP interview. Mood and state anxiety were assessed using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (MDBF) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S) before and after the experiment. The prevalence of insecure attachment (dismissing, preoccupied, unresolved) in hypertensive patients was predominant (88%), while in non-clinical populations, only about 50% of individuals had insecure attachment patterns. Blood pressure (p < 0.001), heart rate (p = 0.016), and rate pressure product (p < 0.001) significantly increased in response to the attachment interview. Secure attached patients showed the highest rise in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.020) and the lowest heart rate compared to the other attachment groups (p = 0.043). However, attachment representation showed no significant group or interaction effects on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate pressure product. Insecure attachment was highly over-represented in our sample of patients with primary hypertension. Additionally, a robust CV response to the attachment-activating stimulus was observed. Our data suggest that insecure attachment is significantly linked to primary hypertension

  8. Research on the fire alarming system of fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yaobin

    2007-09-01

    The application of fiber grating sensing technology in fire alarming based on temperature detection has the advantages of high accuracy, high reliability and strong immunity from electronic and magnetic fields. It is especially advantageous to use this system in the petroleum and chemistry industry because it can provide an extraordinary safe means for the fire alarm. But due to the traditional optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is limited by the optic source bandwidth, the number of its multiplexing points is few. In this paper WDM technology will be developed mixing with Identified Bragg, which is called Identified and Wavelength Multiplexing, to build the Fiber Grating (FBG) fire alarm system integrated with computers. Some technologies applied in fire alarming system of fiber grating such as the transmission of test signals which pass through modulate and demodulate, the disposal of software system, the output of control signal and the strong ability of anti-disturbance have been studied and discussed.

  9. False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

    2013-05-01

    A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

  10. Intensive care alarm system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J. L.; Herbert, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Inductive loop has been added to commercially available call system fitted with earphone receiver. System transmits high frequency signals to nurse's receiver to announce patient's need for help without disturbing others.

  11. The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Chen, Xihui; Danilova, Katia

    2009-01-01

    Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

  12. Xcel Energy implements an alarm management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, J.; Abreu, G.

    2007-11-15

    Not so long ago, Xcel Energy's Pawnee Station, a 505 MW coal-fired generating station in Brush, Colorado, USA was commonly generating 300 to 400 alarms per 8-hour shift. The article describes how the alarm system was revised and improved by tackling alarm dead-bands, and rationalising alarms for routine events. Operators are trained to understand the functions of alarm management components, their use and response, and obtain feedback. Today the power station reports about one alarm per hour. 3 photos.

  13. Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

  14. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

  15. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food.

    PubMed

    Flower, Tom

    2011-05-22

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

  16. Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

    2010-11-01

    With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

  17. High Prevalence of Mansonella perstans Filariasis in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Bassene, Hubert; Sambou, Masse; Fenollar, Florence; Clarke, Siân; Djiba, Sawdiatou; Mourembou, Gaël; L. Y., Alioune Badara; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Large parts of African and American countries are colonized by Mansonella, a very common but poorly described filarial nematode. Bloodsucking flies of the genus Culicoides are suspected to be the vector of Mansonella perstans, but no study in Senegal has confirmed that Culicoides can transmit the parasite. Designed specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be used to identify microfilaria in stained blood smears. This study was performed in July and December 2010 in the southeastern Senegal, which is known to be endemic for M. perstans. We analyzed 297 blood smears from febrile and afebrile resident people by qPCR. The global prevalence of M. perstans was approximately 14.5% in both febrile and afebrile individuals. The age group of > 30 years had the highest prevalence (22.0%). No Culicoides among 1,159 studied specimens was positive for M. perstans and its vector in Senegal still requires identification. PMID:26078318

  18. High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in south-eastern Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The WHO has reported that RDT and microscopy-confirmed malaria cases have declined in recent years. However, it is still unclear if this reflects a real decrease in incidence in Bangladesh, as particularly the hilly and forested areas of the Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT) Districts report more than 80% of all cases and deaths. surveillance and epidemiological data on malaria from the CHT are limited; existing data report Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax as the dominant species. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the District of Bandarban, the southernmost of the three Hill Tracts Districts, to collect district-wide malaria prevalence data from one of the regions with the highest malaria endemicity in Bangladesh. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to collect blood samples from febrile and afebrile participants and malaria microscopy and standardized nested PCR for diagnosis were performed. Demographic data, vital signs and splenomegaly were recorded. Results Malaria prevalence across all subdistricts in the monsoon season was 30.7% (95% CI: 28.3-33.2) and 14.2% (95% CI: 12.5-16.2) by PCR and microscopy, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum mono-infections accounted for 58.9%, P. vivax mono-infections for 13.6%, Plasmodium malariae for 1.8%, and Plasmodium ovale for 1.4% of all positive cases. In 24.4% of all cases mixed infections were identified by PCR. The proportion of asymptomatic infections among PCR-confirmed cases was 77.0%, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic cases accounted for only 19.8 and 3.2%, respectively. Significantly (p < 0.01) more asymptomatic cases were recorded among participants older than 15 years as compared to younger participants, whereas prevalence and parasite density were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in patients younger than 15 years. Spleen rate and malaria prevalence in two to nine year olds were 18.6 and 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference in malaria prevalence and

  19. Improved alarm tracking for better accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Nemesure, S.; Marr, G.; Shrey, T.; Kling, N.; Hammons, L.; Ingrassia, P.; D'Ottavio, T.

    2011-03-28

    An alarm system is a vital component of any accelerator, as it provides a warning that some element of the system is not functioning properly. The severity and age of the alarm may sometimes signify whether urgent or deferred attention is required. For example, older alarms may be given a lower priority if an assumption is made that someone else is already investigating it, whereas those of higher severity or alarms that are more current may indicate the need for an immediate response. The alarm history also provides valuable information regarding the functionality of the overall system, thus careful tracking of these data is likely to improve response time, remove uncertainty about the current status and assist in the ability to promptly respond to the same warning/trigger in the future. Since one goal of every alarm display is to be free of alarms, a clear and concise presentation of an alarm along with useful historic annotations can help the end user address the warning more quickly, thus expediting the elimination of such alarm conditions. By defining a discrete set of very specific alarm management states and by utilizing database resources to maintain a complete and easily accessible alarm history, we anticipate facilitated work flow due to more efficient operator response and management of alarms.

  20. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  2. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.703 - Smoke alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Smoke alarms. 3285.703 Section 3285... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.703 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms must be functionally tested in accordance with applicable requirements of the...

  5. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  6. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm...

  7. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  8. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST... Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm). (a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to...

  13. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Markman

    2001-08-06

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of

  14. High prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pig cheeks.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-10-01

    Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. PMID:24929882

  15. High prevalence of asthma in cross country skiers.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, K; Ohlsén, P; Larsson, L; Malmberg, P; Rydström, P O; Ulriksen, H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the prevalence of asthma (asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness) in Swedish cross country skiers compared with non-skiers and monitor changes in symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness during the year. DESIGN--Cross sectional study during the winter ski season and in the summer. SETTING--Six ski clubs for élite skiers (total 47) in two different areas of Sweden. SUBJECTS--42 élite cross country skiers and 29 non-skiing referents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Bronchial responsiveness, asthma symptoms, and lung function. RESULTS--Bronchial responsiveness was significantly greater and asthma symptoms more prevalent in the skiers than in the referents. There was no difference in bronchial responsiveness within either group between winter and summer. 15 of the 42 skiers used antiasthmatic drugs regularly and 23 had a combination of asthma symptoms and hyperresponsive airways or physician diagnosed asthma, or both. Altogether 33 skiers had symptoms of asthma or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. One of the referents had symptoms of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and none used antiasthmatic drugs regularly. CONCLUSIONS--Asthma, asthma-like symptoms, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness are much more common in cross country skiers than in the general population and non-skiers. Strenuous exercise at low temperatures entailing breathing large volumes of cold air is the most probable explanation of persistent asthma in skiers. PMID:8257888

  16. High prevalence of celiac disease in Italian general population.

    PubMed

    Volta, U; Bellentani, S; Bianchi, F B; Brandi, G; De Franceschi, L; Miglioli, L; Granito, A; Balli, F; Tiribelli, C

    2001-07-01

    The worldwide increase of celiac disease prompted us to assess its prevalence in the Italian general population. The 3483 inhabitants of Campogalliano were tested for immunoglobulin A anti-endomysial antibodies. Twenty subjects showed antibody positivity and duodenal biopsy detected typical mucosal lesions of celiac disease in 17 of them; the remaining three cases had a normal villous architecture, but the finding of increased gamma/delta intraepithelial lymphocytes in all and the heterodimer DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201 in two of them was consistent with potential celiac disease. Only one patient had an overt malabsorption syndrome, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, and severe weakness. In eight subjects atypical symptoms of celiac disease, such as dyspepsia and depression, were present, whereas the remaining subjects were silent. Celiac disease was more frequent in younger age groups. Our cross-sectional design study demonstrates that celiac disease prevalence in the Italian general population is 4.9 per 1000 (95% CI 2.8-7.8), increasing up to 5.7 per 1000 (95% CI 3.5-8.8) with the inclusion of potential cases. PMID:11478502

  17. An experimental investigation of the effects of alarm processing and display on operator performance

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Brown, W.; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G.; Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance, operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition, operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. No deficient

  18. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  19. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-07-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are made at the time the alarm is activated. Alarming areas are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer-generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  20. The High Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Fang, Huiling; Han, Jianhua; Cheng, Xinqi; Xia, Liangyu; Li, Shijun; Liu, Min; Tao, Zhihua; Wang, Liang; Hou, Li’an; Qin, Xuzhen; Li, Pengchang; Zhang, Ruiping; Su, Wei; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin D deficiency, which is usually detected by using immunoassays or the more reliable liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods, has recently been considered a public health problem worldwide. However, the vitamin D status in Chinese populations, as measured using the LC-MS/MS method, is not available. The objective of this multicenter study was to determine the vitamin D status and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency by using a reliable method in 5 large cities in China. From May 1 to September 31, 2013, we conducted a multicenter study on 2173 apparently healthy adults who were recruited from 5 Chinese cities. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25OHD2 and 25OHD3 levels were measured using the LC-MS/MS method. Intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphate levels were also measured using an automatic analyzer. The mean 25OHD level of all participants was 19.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL (2.5–97.5%: 7.9–32.6 ng/mL), and only 109 (5.0%) participants had a 25OHD2 level >2.5 ng/mL (maximum, 22.4 ng/mL). In this study, the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL), vitamin D deficiency (10–20 ng/mL), vitamin D insufficiency (20–30 ng/mL), and vitamin D sufficiency (>30 ng/mL) was 5.9%, 50.0%, 38.7%, and 5.4%, respectively. Women had a significant higher rate of deficiency than men (66.3% vs 45.3%, P < 0.01). Participants aged 18 to 39 years had a lower 25OHD level than elderly individuals (>59 years). Lifestyle may influence the 25OHD level more than the latitude, with participants in Dalian having the highest 25OHD level and the lowest deficiency rate. The serum iPTH level showed a significant negative correlation with the 25OHD level (r = −0.23, P < 0.01) after correcting for age and sex. In conclusion, the present study evaluated the vitamin D status using a reliable method, and our results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among all age groups in China

  1. Evaluating alternative responses to safeguards alarms

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-04-15

    This paper describes a quantitative approach to help evaluate and respond to safeguards alarms. These alarms may be generated internally by a facility's safeguards systems or externally by individuals claiming to have stolen special nuclear material (SNM). This approach can be used to identify the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error - and to evaluate alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to external threats. Based on the results of each alarm investigation step, the evaluation revises the likelihoods of possible causes of an alarm, and uses this information to determine the optimal sequence of further responses. The choice of an optimal sequence of responses takes into consideration the costs and benefits of successful thefts or hoaxes. These results provide an analytical basis for setting priorities and developing contingency plans for responding to safeguards alarms.

  2. Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

  3. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Logan M

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  4. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. ); Ebel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  6. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communications or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.

  7. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  8. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faris, Nora A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50–74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  9. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation. PMID:26535453

  10. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    PubMed

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  11. High prevalence of trypanosome co-infections in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Losev, Alexander; Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-12-01

    One thousand three hundred seventy three fish specimens of eight different species from the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine, were examined for the presence of trypanosomes and 921 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24% in freshwater bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus), to 100% in spined loach, Cobitis 'taenia' Linnaeus. The level of parasitaemia also varied significantly between generally mild infections in pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus), and heavy ones in C. 'taenia'. In most cases the infections with trypanosomes were asymptomatic. Cases of co-infection with species of Trypanoplasma Laveran et Mesnil, 1901 were documented for five out of eight examined host species. Molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that four hosts, namely northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, freshwater bream, spined loach and European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were simultaneously infected with two different trypanosome species. Our findings advocate the view that to avoid the risk posed by mixed infections, subsequent molecular taxonomic studies should be performed on clonal lines derived from laboratory cultures of fish trypanosomes. PMID:25651690

  12. High Prevalence of Y Chromosome Partial Microdeletions in Overweight Men

    PubMed Central

    Biabangard zak, Atefeh; Golalipour, Masoud; Hadadchi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Microdeletions of the Y chromosome are one of the most frequent genetic causes of spermatogenic failure in infertile men. But their role in gaining weight is unclear. The present study investigated the possible association of these partial microdeletions and obesity. Methods: In a case-control study, 180 males were selected. The prevalence of microdeletions was assessed using PCR in AZFc area of Y chromosome and statistical analysis was done using the Fisher exact test and Pearson correlation. Results: In our study, inverse relationship was observed between body mass index and testosterone level (p-value: 0.005). Fisher exact tests showed that there was a significant association between gr/gr mutation and BMI (p-value: 0.044). Conclusion: Our study revealed that Y chromosome microdeletions are more common in obese men. Furthermore, microdeletions such as gr/gr, which were observed in normal men, could cause decreased testosterone level. So, they may contribute to gaining weight. PMID:26306148

  13. HIV Prevalence Correlates with High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Ethiopia's Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Chris R.; Tsoumanis, Achilleas; Schwartz, Ilan Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia’s eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation. Methods We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. Results There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexual risk: mean lifetime number of partners (men: r = 0.87; P < 0.001; women: r = 0.60; P = 0.05); reporting sex with a non-married, non-cohabiting partner (men: r = 0.92; P < 0.001, women r = 0.93; P < 0.001); and premarital sex. Condom usage and HIV testing were positively associated with HIV prevalence, while the prevalence of circumcision, polygamy, age at sexual debut and male migration were not associated with HIV prevalence. Conclusion Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence by region in Ethiopia. Population-level interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior in high HIV incidence regions should be considered. PMID:26496073

  14. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  15. Prevalence of Hypertension in a Tribal Land Locked Population at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Prasher, Chaman Lal; Raina, Sujeet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Extensive pubmed search reveals paucity of data on prevalence of hypertension in tribal population at high altitude. The data is all the more scarce from our part of India. Studies among tribal populations at high altitudes provide an interesting epidemiological window to study human evolution and adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods. 401 participants above the age of 20 years were evaluated for blood pressure using a stratified simple random technique among villages located at high altitude. Results. Out of a total of 401 individuals studied 43 (males: 35; females: 8) were identified as hypertensive yielding a crude prevalence of 10.7%. The prevalence was higher in males (35/270; 12.9%) as compared to females (8/131; 6%). Prevalence was the highest in the age group of 30-39 among males (16/35; 45.7%) while it was the highest in the age group of 40-49 among females (7/8; 87%). Conclusions. Prevalence of 10.5% is noteworthy when interpreted in light of prevalence of hypertension in general population especially if hypobaric hypoxia is considered to have a protective effect on blood pressure in high altitude native populations. PMID:26989560

  16. Prevalence of Hypertension in a Tribal Land Locked Population at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Prasher, Chaman Lal; Raina, Sujeet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Extensive pubmed search reveals paucity of data on prevalence of hypertension in tribal population at high altitude. The data is all the more scarce from our part of India. Studies among tribal populations at high altitudes provide an interesting epidemiological window to study human evolution and adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods. 401 participants above the age of 20 years were evaluated for blood pressure using a stratified simple random technique among villages located at high altitude. Results. Out of a total of 401 individuals studied 43 (males: 35; females: 8) were identified as hypertensive yielding a crude prevalence of 10.7%. The prevalence was higher in males (35/270; 12.9%) as compared to females (8/131; 6%). Prevalence was the highest in the age group of 30–39 among males (16/35; 45.7%) while it was the highest in the age group of 40–49 among females (7/8; 87%). Conclusions. Prevalence of 10.5% is noteworthy when interpreted in light of prevalence of hypertension in general population especially if hypobaric hypoxia is considered to have a protective effect on blood pressure in high altitude native populations. PMID:26989560

  17. Development of an on-line expert system for integrated alarm processing in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Gon; Choi, Seong Soo; Kang, Ki Sig; Chang, Soon Heung

    1994-12-31

    An on-line expert system, called AFDS (Alarm Filtering and Diagnostic System), has been developed to assist operators in effectively maintaining plant safety and to enhance plant availability using advanced computer technologies for alarm processing. The AFDS is designed to perform alarm filtering and overall plantwide diagnosis when an abnormal state occurs. in addition to these functions, it carries out alarm prognosis to provide the operator with prediction-based messages and to generate high-level alarms that can be used as another diagnostic information. The system is developed on a SUN SPARC 2 workstation, and its target domain is the alarm system in the main control room of Yonggwang units 1 and 2.

  18. Relatively High Prevalence of Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive Patients from Henan, Central China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingnuo; Sun, Binlian; Zeng, Haiyan; Sun, Zhiwu; Sun, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To elucidate the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and transmitted drug resistance in Henan, central China, HIV-1-positive blood samples from 187 antiretroviral-naive patients were collected in our study from August 2009 to November 2010. Subtype B′ (92.0%, 172 of 187) remains the predominant HIV-1 subtype in Henan province and was prevalent in all risk populations and geographic regions. Of 98 pol sequences 67 (68.4%) harbored drug resistance mutations, and only 14 (14.3%, 14 of 98) sequences have mutations associated with significantly reduced phenotypic susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs. The unexpectedly high percentage of drug resistance in Henan province is mainly due to the prevalence of minor mutations in the protease and integrase regions, especially A71T/V and L68V/I/IM/LV. In all, we detected a relatively high prevalence of drug resistance with unique mutation distributions among antiretroviral-naive patients from Henan province. PMID:23800338

  19. Alarm system management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response.

    PubMed

    Rayo, Michael F; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-04-01

    Although there are powerful incentives for creating alarm management programmes to reduce 'alarm fatigue', they do not provide guidance on how to reduce the likelihood that clinicians will disregard critical alarms. The literature cites numerous phenomena that contribute to alarm fatigue, although many of these, including total rate of alarms, are not supported in the literature as factors that directly impact alarm response. The contributor that is most frequently associated with alarm response is informativeness, which is defined as the proportion of total alarms that successfully conveys a specific event, and the extent to which it is a hazard. Informativeness is low across all healthcare applications, consistently ranging from 1% to 20%. Because of its likelihood and strong evidential support, informativeness should be evaluated before other contributors are considered. Methods for measuring informativeness and alarm response are discussed. Design directions for potential interventions, as well as design alternatives to traditional alarms, are also discussed. With the increased attention and investment in alarm system management that alarm interventions are currently receiving, initiatives that focus on informativeness and the other evidence-based measures identified will allow us to more effectively, efficiently and reliably redirect clinician attention, ultimately improving alarm response. PMID:25734193

  20. 33 CFR 127.1207 - Warning alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1207 Warning alarms. (a) Each...

  1. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  2. Clusters of Factors Identify A High Prevalence of Pregnancy Involvement Among US Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The study purpose was to use recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to identify factors that, when clustered, are associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy involvement among US adolescent males. The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative survey of individuals 15-44 years old. RPA was done for the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles to identify factors which, when combined, identify adolescent males with the highest prevalence of pregnancy involvement. Pregnancy-involvement prevalence among adolescent males was 6 %. Two clusters of adolescent males have the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence, at 84-87 %. In RPA, the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence (87 %) was seen in adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment of <11th grade, and had ≤2 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment ≥11th grade, were >17 years old, and had their first contraceptive education ≥10th grade, had a pregnancy-involvement prevalence of 84 %. Pregnancy-prevention efforts among adolescent males who have been involved in a pregnancy may need to target risk factors identified in clusters with the highest pregnancy prevalence to prevent subsequent pregnancies in these adolescent males and improve their future outcomes. PMID:25724537

  3. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communicationsmore » or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.« less

  4. Hemodynamic-impact-based prioritization of ventricular tachycardia alarms.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kalpit; Lexa, Michael; Matthews, Brett; Genc, Sahika

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach) is a very serious condition that occurs when the ventricles are driven at high rates. The abnormal excitation pathways make ventricular contraction less synchronous resulting in less effective filling and emptying of the left ventricles. However, almost half of the V-tach alarms declared through processing of patterns observed in electrocardiography are not clinically actionable. The focus of this study is to provide guidance on determining whether a technically-correct V-tach alarm is clinically-actionable by determining its "hemodynamic impact". A supervisory learning approach based on conditional inference trees to determine the hemodynamic impact of a V-tach alarm based on extracted features is described. According to preliminary results on a subset of Multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care II (MIMIC-II) database, true positive rate of more than 90% can be achieved. PMID:25570734

  5. A practical algorithm to reduce false critical ECG alarms using arterial blood pressure and/or photoplethysmogram waveforms.

    PubMed

    Zong, Wei; Nielsen, Larry; Gross, Brian; Brea, Juan; Frassica, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    There has been a high rate of false alarms for the critical electrocardiogram (ECG) arrhythmia events in intensive care units (ICUs), from which the 'crying-wolf' syndrome may be resulted and patient safety may be jeopardized. This article presents an algorithm to reduce false critical arrhythmia alarms using arterial blood pressure (ABP) and/or photoplethysmogram (PPG) waveform features. We established long duration reference alarm datasets which consist of 573 ICU waveform-alarm records (283 for development set and 290 for test set) with total length of 551 patent days. Each record has continuous recordings of ECGs, ABP and/or PPG signals and contains one or multiple critical ECG alarms. The average length of a record is 23 h. There are totally 2408 critical ECG alarms (1414 in the development set and 994 in the test set), each of which was manually annotated by experts. The algorithm extracts ABP/PPG pulse features on a beat-by-beat basis. For each pulse, five event feature indicators (EFIs), which correspond to the five critical ECG alarms, are generated. At the time of a critical ECG alarm, the corresponding EFI values of those ABP/PPG pulses around the alarm time are checked for adjudicating (accept/reject) this alarm. The algorithm retains all (100%) the true alarms and significantly reduces the false alarms. Our results suggest that the algorithm is effective and practical on account of its real-time dynamic processing mechanism and computational efficiency. PMID:27455375

  6. Development of medical equipment alarm monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoshinori; Ogaito, Tatoku; Kasamatsu, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    In a hospital, we use a large number of medical equipment. In these use, I support the safe use by the alarm such as errors from medical equipment. There is the instrument notifying of alarm in communication, but there is the instrument by a sound and the light. For the medical safety management, confirmation of the alarm is important. We thought that stability was improved by integrating alarm from the instrument of the different type. Therefore, we thought that we integrated alarm from medical equipment. We decided to transmit an alarm signal from medical equipment by adding radio module program unit. The type of the radio used IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) at a point of view of low power, International Standard, simple radio equipment. This system deals with only alarm information from medical equipment and does not handle the data. However, we understood that we were helpful very much even if it was only alarm information. We were able to in this way reduce the number of incidents. PMID:23920969

  7. T-Farm complex alarm upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

  8. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... alarm is a device intended for use in treatment of bedwetting. Through an electrical trigger...

  9. Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

  10. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An...

  11. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms. 95.15-30 Section 95.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system and...

  12. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarms. 193.15-30 Section 193.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-30 Alarms. (a) Space normally accessible to persons on board while...

  13. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon... audible alarm in such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to... sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and...

  14. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  16. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  18. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  20. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  1. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  2. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a)...

  3. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarms. 193.15-30 Section 193.15-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-30 Alarms. (a) Space normally accessible to persons on board while...

  4. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  5. Prevalence and Impact of Cyberbullying in a Sample of Indonesian Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safaria, Triantoro

    2016-01-01

    In recent years cyberbullying has become widespread throughout junior high schools around the world, resulting in high numbers of adolescents affected by cybervictimization. Cybervictimization is associated with negative psychological health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact and prevalence of cybervictimization…

  6. Criticality alarm system for plutonium process operations

    SciTech Connect

    Tyree, W H; Urano, H

    1981-05-25

    A criticality alarm system using neutron detection is described. The system includes a neutron detection unit with an internal operational testing mode. The unit uses a Li/sup 6/F foil for the production of alpha particles from a thermal neturon flux, a thorium-230 alpha particle source for the continuous monitoring of the raidation detection circuits, and an internal clock which produces an alarmed condition if the detector amplifier circuit fails. This neutron detector unit is designed to replace the existing neutron detector in the criticality alarm systems at Rocky Flats. Coincidence circuits, interface system and audio signal generators used in the output of the alarm system are described. The system meets the criteria for the American National Standards and the USDOE Manual Chapter for detection, alarm, and signal output requirements.

  7. Prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in High Vaginal Swab Samples of Infertile Females

    PubMed Central

    Seifoleslami, Mehri; Safari, Aghdas; Khayyat Khameneie, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are important causative agents of vaginitis, cervicitis, postpartum sepsis, reproductive infections and infertility in both males and females. Objectives: According to the uncertain prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in Iranian infertile females, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in high vaginal swab samples of fertile and infertile females. Patients and Methods: A total of 350 high vaginal swab specimens were taken from fertile and infertile females. Samples were cultured and those that were positive for bacteria were subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for further confirmation. Results: Of the 350 collected samples, eleven were positive for M. hominis (3.14%), fifteen were positive for U. urealyticum (4.28%) and five were positive for both of them (1.42%). Prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in the high vaginal parts of infertile females was higher than fertile females (P < 0.05). The results of traditional method were also confirmed, using the PCR amplification of urease gene of U. urealyticum and 16SrRNA gene of the M. hominis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and M. hominis had a higher prevalence in the high vaginal samples collected during the summer season. Conclusions: Considerable prevalence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in the high vaginal swab samples of infertile females compared to the low prevalence in fertile females may suggest that these two pathogens can be cause infertility. Application of the PCR method is recommended for rapid and sensitive detection of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in high vaginal swab samples. PMID:26756000

  8. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audible and visual alarms. 154.1365 Section 154.1365... Instrumentation § 154.1365 Audible and visual alarms. (a) Each audible alarm must have an arrangement that allows... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only...

  9. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have a steering failure alarm system that actuates...

  10. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which are... the control unit and terminating at manual fire alarm boxes. Power failure alarm devices may be... alarm system control unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for...

  11. High prevalence of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from pregnant women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix; Bakoua, Damien; Fesser, Anna; Nkombo, Michael; Vouvoungui, Christevy; Ntoumi, Francine

    2015-07-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) has not been evaluated in the Republic of Congo since its implementation in 2006 and there is no published data on molecular markers of SP resistance among Plasmodium falciparum isolates from pregnant women. This first study in this country aimed to describe the prevalence of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) point mutations and haplotypes in P. falciparum isolates collected from pregnant women with asymptomatic infection. From March 2012 to December 2013, pregnant women attending Madibou health centre (in Southern Brazzaville) for antenatal visits were enrolled in this study after obtaining their written informed consent. Blood samples were collected and P. falciparum infections were characterized using PCR. A total of 363 pregnant women were enrolled. P. falciparum infection was detected in 67 (18.4%) samples as their PCR amplification of dhfr and dhps genes yielded bands and all the PCR products were successfully digested. Out of these 67 isolates, 59 (88%), 57 (85%) and 53 (79.1%) carried 51I, 59R and 108N dhfr mutant alleles, respectively. The prevalence of dhps 436A, 437G and 540E mutations were 67.1% (45/67), 98.5% (66/67) and 55.2% (37/67), respectively. More than one-half of the isolates carried quintuple mutations, with highly resistant haplotype dhfr51I/59R/108N + dhps437G/540E detected in 33% (22/67) whereas 25% (17/67) were found to carry sextuple mutations. We observed significantly higher frequencies of triple dhps mutations 436A/437G/540E and quintuple mutations dhfr51I/59R/108N+dhps437G/540E in isolates from women who received IPTp-SP than those who did not. Overall, this study shows high prevalence rates of SP-associated resistance mutations in P. falciparum isolates collected from pregnant women. The presence of the dhps mutant allele 540E and the high prevalence of isolates carrying quintuple dhfr/dhps mutations are here

  12. Estimation of the patient monitor alarm rate for a quantitative analysis of new alarm settings.

    PubMed

    de Waele, Stijn; Nielsen, Larry; Frassica, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In many critical care units, default patient monitor alarm settings are not fine-tuned to the vital signs of the patient population. As a consequence there are many alarms. A large fraction of the alarms are not clinically actionable, thus contributing to alarm fatigue. Recent attention to this phenomenon has resulted in attempts in many institutions to decrease the overall alarm load of clinicians by altering the trigger thresholds for monitored parameters. Typically, new alarm settings are defined based on clinical knowledge and patient population norms and tried empirically on new patients without quantitative knowledge about the potential impact of these new settings. We introduce alarm regeneration as a method to estimate the alarm rate of new alarm settings using recorded patient monitor data. This method enables evaluation of several alarm setting scenarios prior to using these settings in the clinical setting. An expression for the alarm rate variance is derived for the calculation of statistical confidence intervals on the results. PMID:25571296

  13. Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

  14. An improved criticality alarm system

    SciTech Connect

    Tyree, W.H.; Gilpin, H.E.; Balmer, D.K.; Vennitti, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado is the primary facility for the production of plutonium components used in the US arsenal of nuclear weapons. It is operated by EG&G under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE). There are ten production buildings on plant site with neutron based criticality alarm systems. These systems have been in operation for the past seventeen years. Changes in the interpretation of A.N.S.I. standards and DOE orders have precipitated an evaluation of detector sensitivity and placement criteria. As a result of this evaluation, improvements in detector design and calibration have improved detector sensitivity by a factor of six. Testing performed on the design defined a minimum sensitivity as required by A.N.S.I. 8.3 and provided information for saturation and survivability for a fission event of up to 1 {times} 10{sup 17} fissions in 80 microseconds. A rigorous testing and calibration program has been developed and is in place. Neutron sensitivity is certified at a nearby reactor which is traceable to N.I.S.T.. 4 refs.

  15. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... § 78.47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the... “SMOKE DETECTING ALARM” as appropriate. Where such alarms on the bridge or in the fire control station...

  1. Prevalence of Refractive Errors among High School Students in Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Hassan; Rezvan, Farhad; Beiranvand, Asghar; Papi, Omid-Ali; Hoseini Yazdi, Hosein; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Norouzirad, Reza; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive errors among high school students. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we applied stratified cluster sampling on high school students of Aligoudarz, Western Iran. Examinations included visual acuity, non-cycloplegic refraction by autorefraction and fine tuning with retinoscopy. Myopia and hyperopia were defined as spherical equivalent of -0.5/+0.5 diopter (D) or worse, respectively; astigmatism was defined as cylindrical error >0.5 D and anisometropia as an interocular difference in spherical equivalent exceeding 1 D. Results Of 451 selected students, 438 participated in the study (response rate, 97.0%). Data from 434 subjects with mean age of 16±1.3 (range, 14 to 21) years including 212 (48.8%) male subjects was analyzed. The prevalence of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism was 29.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 25-33.6%], 21.7% (95%CI, 17.8-25.5%), and 20.7% (95%CI, 16.9-24.6%), respectively. The prevalence of myopia increased significantly with age [odds ratio (OR)=1.30, P=0.003] and was higher among boys (OR=3.10, P<0.001). The prevalence of hyperopia was significantly higher in girls (OR=0.49, P=0.003). The prevalence of astigmatism was 25.9% in boys and 15.8% in girls (OR=2.13, P=0.002). The overall prevalence of high myopia and high hyperopia were 0.5% and 1.2%, respectively. The prevalence of with-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism was 14.5%, 4.8% and 1.4%, respectively. Overall, 4.6% (95%CI, 2.6-6.6%) of subjects were anisometropic. Conclusion More than half of high school students in Aligoudarz had at least one type of refractive error. Compared to similar studies, the prevalence of refractive errors was high in this age group. PMID:25279126

  2. Evidence base for children affected by HIV and AIDS in low prevalence and concentrated epidemic countries: applicability to programming guidance from high prevalence countries

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Burkhalter, Bart; de Wagt, Arjan; Jennings, Larissa; Kelley, Allison Gamble; Hammink, Marie-Eve

    2009-01-01

    As global commitment grows to protect and support children affected by HIV and AIDS, questions remain about how best to meet the needs of these children in low prevalence settings and whether information from high prevalence countries can appropriately guide programming in these settings. A 2007 search for the evidence in low prevalence settings on situational challenges of HIV and AIDS-affected children and interventions to address these challenges identified 413 documents. They were reviewed and judged for quality of documentation and scientific rigor. Information was compiled across eight types of challenges (health and health care, nutrition and food security, education, protection, placement, psychosocial development, socioeconomic status, and stigma/ discrimination); and also assessed was strength of evidence for situational and intervention findings. Results were compared to three programming principles drawn from research in high prevalence countries: family-centered preventive efforts, treatment, and care; family-focused support to ensure capacity to care for and protect these children; and sustaining economic livelihood of HIV and AIDS-affected households. Findings show that children affected by HIV and AIDS in low prevalence settings face increased vulnerabilities similar to those in high prevalence settings. These findings support seeking and testing programmatic directions for interventions identified in high prevalence settings. However, low prevalence settings/countries are extremely diverse, and the strength of the evidence base among them was mixed (strong, moderate, and weak in study design and documentation), geographically limited, and had insufficient evidence on interventions to draw conclusions about how best to reduce additional vulnerabilities of affected children. Information on family, economic, sociocultural, and political factors within local contexts will be vital in the development of appropriate strategies to mitigate vulnerabilities

  3. Prevalence, Distribution, and Risk Factor Correlates of High Thoracic Periaortic Fat in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Kathryn A.; Pedley, Alison; Massaro, Joseph M.; Corsini, Erin M.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Thoracic periaortic adipose tissue (TAT) is associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and may play a role in obesity‐mediated vascular disease. We sought to determine the prevalence, distribution, and risk factor correlates of high TAT. Methods and Results Participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n=3246, 48% women, mean age 51.1 years) underwent multidetector computed tomography; high TAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were defined on the basis of sex‐specific 90th percentiles in a healthy referent sample. The prevalence of high TAT was 38.1% in women and 35.7% in men. Among individuals without high VAT, 10.1% had high TAT. After adjustment for age and VAT, both women and men with high TAT in the absence of high VAT were older and had a higher prevalence of CVD (P<0.0001) compared with those without high TAT. In addition, men in this group were more likely to be smokers (P=0.02), whereas women were more likely to have low high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.005). Conclusions Individuals in our community‐based sample with high TAT in the absence of high VAT were characterized by an adverse cardiometabolic profile. This adipose tissue phenotype may identify a subset of individuals with distinct metabolic characteristics. PMID:23316328

  4. The PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015: Reducing False Arrhythmia Alarms in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Shahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 Physio-Net/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1,250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A collection of 750 data segments was made available for training and a set of 500 was held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program’s performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year’s Challenge. PMID:27331073

  5. High prevalence of overweight among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two previous surveys conducted in Ho Chi Minh City revealed an increasing prevalence of overweight and obese adolescents, from 5.9% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2004. From 2004 to 2010, the government set up and implemented health promotion programs to promote physical activity and good nutritional habits in order to prevent overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Methods A representative sample of 1,989 students aged 11–14 years was selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. 23 schools were randomly selected from the full list of all public junior high schools. In each selected school, 2 classes were chosen at random and all students from the class were examined. Age- and sex-adjusted overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 17.8% and 3.2%, respectively. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were significantly higher in boys (22%, 5.4% ) than in girls (13.3%, 1.3%, p<0.001) and higher in children from districts with a high economic level (20.5% , 3.8% ) than in those from districts with a low economic level (12.1%, 3.8%, p<0.001). Additionally, children living in wealthier families were more overweight and obese than those living in less wealthy families. When using WHO cutoffs, the overall prevalences of overweight and obesity reached 19.6% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusion Our study’s findings suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students remains high, especially among boys living in wealthier families. Public health programs should therefore be developed or improved in order to promote good eating habits and physical activity among youth in HCMC. PMID:23414441

  6. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  7. Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.C.

    1987-05-01

    Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment.

  8. The Prevalence and Incremental Validity of Identity Problem Symptoms in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Petkus, Veronica F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the expression, prevalence, and incremental validity of identity problem symptoms in adolescence. A sample of high school students (N = 140) aged 15-18 completed measures of identity problem symptoms, identity status, and psychological symptom severity. Findings suggested that 14.3% would meet DSM IV criteria for identity…

  9. Perceived Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying Predicts High School Dropout Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Huang, Francis; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study of 276 Virginia public high schools found that the prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) as perceived by both 9th-grade students and teachers was predictive of dropout rates for this cohort 4 years later. Negative binomial regression indicated that one standard deviation increases in student- and teacher-reported PTB were…

  10. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bozza, Rodrigo; de Campos, Wagner; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; da Silva, Michael Pereira; Maziero, Renato Silva Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Background Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR) was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI) indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6). Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28) had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population. PMID:27058256

  11. High Prevalence of Biocide Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Three African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Teresa; Coelho, Céline; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of six biocide resistance genes among 82 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 219 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from three African countries; the prevalence was very high for sepA (95.3%), mepA (89.4%), and norA (86.4%), intermediate for lmrS (60.8%) and qacAB (40.5%), and low for smr (3.7%). A significant association between biocide resistance genes and antibiotic resistance was observed, and a new cutoff MIC of ≥1 mg/liter for chlorhexidine nonsusceptibility was defined. PMID:26552979

  12. High Prevalence of Biocide Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Three African Countries.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Teresa; Coelho, Céline; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of six biocide resistance genes among 82 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 219 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from three African countries; the prevalence was very high for sepA (95.3%), mepA (89.4%), and norA (86.4%), intermediate for lmrS (60.8%) and qacAB (40.5%), and low for smr (3.7%). A significant association between biocide resistance genes and antibiotic resistance was observed, and a new cutoff MIC of ≥1 mg/liter for chlorhexidine nonsusceptibility was defined. PMID:26552979

  13. The impact of recent changes in smoke alarm legislation on residential fire injuries and smoke alarm ownership in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Lara A; Poulos, Roslyn G; Sherker, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) state legislation changed from requiring smoke alarms in new houses only to all houses. We evaluated the impact of this legislative change on residential fire injury and smoke alarm ownership characteristics. Residential fire injuries for 2002 to 2010 were identified from hospitalization data for all hospitals in NSW. Data relating to smoke alarm ownership and demographic factors were obtained from the NSW Population Health Survey. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to analyze trends over time. Prior to the introduction of universal legislation, hospitalization rates were increasing slightly; however, following the introduction of legislation, hospitalization rates decreased by an estimated 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.7-55.8) annually. Smoke alarm ownership increased from 73.3% (95% CI, 72.5-74.2) prelegislation to 93.6% (95% CI, 93.1-94.2) 18 months postlegislation. Thirty percent of households reported testing their alarms regularly. Speaking a language other than English (relative risks [RRs], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.44-2.99), allowing smoking in the home (RR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.31-2.27), and being part of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic group (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.14-1.91) remain major risk factors for nonownership. Broadening the scope of state legislation has had a positive impact on residential fire-related hospitalizations and smoke alarm ownership. However, it is of concern that the legislation has been the least effective in increasing smoke alarm ownership among non-English-speaking households, in households where smoking is allowed, in low socioeconomic households, and that a high proportion of householders do not test their smoke alarms regularly. Targeted campaigns are needed to reach these high-risk groups and to ensure that smoke alarms are functional. PMID:22955160

  14. Tobacco Usage in Uttarakhand: A Dangerous Combination of High Prevalence, Widespread Ignorance, and Resistance to Quitting

    PubMed Central

    Grills, Nathan John; Singh, Rajesh; Singh, Rajkumari; Martin, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nearly one-third of adults in India use tobacco, resulting in 1.2 million deaths. However, little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to smoking in the impoverished state of Uttarakhand. Methods. A cross-sectional epidemiological prevalence survey was undertaken. Multistage cluster sampling selected 20 villages and 50 households to survey from which 1853 people were interviewed. Tobacco prevalence and KAP were analyzed by income level, occupation, age, and sex. 95% confidence intervals were calculated using standard formulas and incorporating assumptions in relation to the clustering effect. Results. The overall prevalence of tobacco usage, defined using WHO criteria, was 38.9%. 93% of smokers and 86% of tobacco chewers were male. Prevalence of tobacco use, controlling for other factors, was associated with lower education, older age, and male sex. 97.6% of users and 98.1% of nonusers wanted less tobacco. Except for lung cancer (89% awareness), awareness of diseases caused by tobacco usage was low (cardiac: 67%; infertility: 32.5%; stroke: 40.5%). Conclusion. A dangerous combination of high tobacco usage prevalence, ignorance about its dangers, and few quit attempts being made suggests the need to develop effective and evidence based interventions to prevent a health and development disaster in Uttarakhand. PMID:26273585

  15. Airborne fungi in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuraimi, M. S.; Fang, L.; Tan, T. K.; Chew, F. T.; Tham, K. W.

    Fungi exposure has been linked to asthma and allergies among children. To determine the association between fungal exposure and wheeze and rhinitis symptoms, we examined concentrations of culturable indoor and outdoor fungi of various aerodynamic sizes in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers (CCCs) in Singapore. Environmental parameters were also performed for air temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rates, while information on CCC characteristics was collected via an inspection. Most commonly recovered fungi were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Cladosporium and sterile mycelia with Geotrichum and sterile mycelia amounting to an average of 71.5% of the total airborne culturable fungi studied. Indoor and outdoor total culturable fungi concentrations and those in the size range of 1.1-3.3 μm were significantly higher in high allergic prevalence CCCs. When fungal types/genera were compared, indoor and outdoor Geotrichum and sterile mycelia of aerodynamic sizes 1.1-3.3 μm were found to be significantly elevated in high allergic prevalence CCCs. Indeed, average geometric mean diameters ( Dg, ave) of indoor and outdoor culturable fungi were consistently smaller in CCCs with high prevalence of allergies than those with low prevalence. We found significant associations of higher fungal concentrations, especially those with smaller aerodynamic sizes in CCCs situated near parks. There were no differences in fungal levels between CCCs with respect to their dampness profile mainly due to high CCC ventilation rates. Since particle size is a factor that determines where a fungi particle deposits in the respiratory tract, this study provides useful information in the etiology of wheeze and rhinitis symptoms among the CCC attending children.

  16. Tuberculosis screening in high human immunodeficiency virus prevalence settings: turning promise into reality

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, E. L.; MacPherson, P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Twenty years of sky-high tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and high TB mortality in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence countries have so far not been matched by the same magnitude or breadth of responses as seen in malaria or HIV programmes. Instead, recommendations have been narrowly focused on people presenting to health facilities for investigation of TB symptoms, or for HIV testing and care. However, despite the recent major investment and scale-up of TB and HIV services, undiagnosed TB remains highly prevalent at community level, implying that diagnosis of TB remains slow and incomplete. This maintains high transmission rates and exposes people living with HIV to high rates of morbidity and mortality. More intensive use of TB screening, with broader definitions of target populations, expanded indications for screening both inside and outside of health facilities, and appropriate selection of new diagnostic tools, offers the prospect of rapidly improving population-level control of TB. Diagnostic accuracy of suitable (high throughput) algorithms remains the major barrier to realising this goal. In the present study, we review the evidence available to guide expanded TB screening in HIV-prevalent settings, ideally through combined TB-HIV interventions that provide screening for both TB and HIV, and maximise entry to HIV and TB care and prevention. Ideally, we would systematically test, treat and prevent TB and HIV comprehensively, offering both TB and HIV screening to all health facility attendees, TB households and all adults in the highest risk communities. However, we are still held back by inadequate diagnostics, financing and paucity of population-impact data. Relevant contemporary research showing the high need for potential gains, and pitfalls from expanded and intensified TB screening in high HIV prevalence settings are discussed in this review. PMID:23928165

  17. Development of Advanced Alarm System for SMART

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Seoung, Duk-hyun; Suh, Sang-moon; Lee, Jong-bok; Park, Geun-ok; Koo, In-soo

    2004-07-01

    A SMART-Alarm System (SMART-AS) is a new system being developed as part of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) project. The SMART-AS employs modern digital technology to implement the alarm functions of the SMART. The use of modern digital technology can provide advanced alarm processing in which new algorithms such as a signal validation, advanced alarm processing logic and other features are applied to improve the control room man-machine interfaces. This paper will describe the design process of the SMART-AS, improving the system reliability and availability using the reliability prediction tool, design strategies regarding the human performance topics associated with a computer-based SMART-AS and the results of the performance analysis using a prototype of the SMART-AS. (authors)

  18. Alarm Systems: Library Confounds Criminal Capers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjettum, Pamela

    1978-01-01

    Tells the story of a small town library faced with the problem of preventing nuisance burglaries of the type becoming more and more common. The problems of selecting the right type of alarm system are discussed. (JPF)

  19. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conspicuously and centrally located and be marked as required by 46 CFR 97.37-9; and (3) Use stored gas power... approved audible alarm if: (1) The space is normally accessible to persons onboard while the vessel...

  20. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

  1. Analyzing safeguards alarms and response decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a quantitative model designed to help the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its licensees evaluate and respond to alarms indicating that special nuclear material (SNM) may be missing. The model is called the Alarm/Response (A/R) Model. The report demonstrates three principal uses of the A/R Model. The first is determining the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error. The second is evaluating alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to extortion threats from individuals claiming to possess SNM. For each possible alarm, the model identifies the best response, which can be used to develop contingency plans that the licensee and the NRC can carry out. The third use is to assist the NRC in setting performance standards, especially detection time requirements. In this application, the model helps to determine the value of more timely alarms produced by licensee safeguards systems. All three uses are demonstrated with hypothetical examples. A preliminary computer code produced sample results and determined the sensitivity of those results to subjective factors in the example.

  2. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the female population of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Vallès, Xavier; Murga, Gladys Beatriz; Hernández, Gabriela; Sabidó, Meritxell; Chuy, Alejandro; Lloveras, Belén; Alameda, Francesc; de San José, Sílvia; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; Pedroza, Isabel; Castellsagué, Xavier; Casabona, Jordi

    2009-09-01

    The potential introduction of the newly licensed HPV-vaccines at affordable prices could play a central role in preventing cervical cancer in middle and low-income countries, where most of the cases occur. In spite of this, basic epidemiological data about HPV and HPV-related lesions are still scarce. To determine the prevalence of cervical abnormalities, HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and related risk factors, we carried out a cross-sectional study in a population from Guatemala that included 297 women from the general population (GP women) and 297 sex workers (SW). All participating women were interviewed and underwent a complete gynecological examination that included collection of cervical cells for cytological diagnosis, HPV DNA detection and typing by PCR methods. Cervical HPV DNA prevalence among GP women and from SW was 38.1% (95% CI: 32.5-43.8) and 67.3% (95% CI: 61.7-72.6), respectively. The prevalence of abnormal cytology among GP women was 7.7% (ASCUS = 1.4%, LSIL = 4.7%, ASC-H = 0.3% and HSIL = 1.4%) and among SW was 21.6% (ASCUS = 7.5%, LSIL = 10.6%, ASC-H = 1.4% and HSIL = 2.1%). The most prevalent HPV types among women with normal cytology were HPVs 51 (n = 30), 66 (n = 25) and 16 (n = 25), and among women with HSIL or ASC-H (n = 14) HPVs 58 (n = 5) and 16 (n = 5). Determinants associated with HPV DNA detection were having had an occasional partner during the last 6 months and smoking habit among GP women, and being a minor among SW. HPV and abnormal cytology prevalence is high among women in Guatemala. The introduction of a HPV vaccination program would prevent an important fraction of HPV-related disease burden. PMID:19415744

  3. High Blood Pressure Prevalence and Significant Correlates: A Quantitative Analysis from Coastal Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Chythra R.; Kamath, Veena G.; Shetty, Avinash; Kamath, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is a premier risk factor for cardiovascular disease which can be recognized if sought and treated effectively. Effective management of high blood pressure is possible when the magnitude of the problem is identified. So, a cross-sectional community based survey among 1,239 respondents aged ≥30 years was designed to estimate the prevalence and the sociodemographic correlates of hypertension among adults aged ≥30 years. Data was collected by personal interviews, followed by anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. The prevalence of hypertension was 43.3%, with the prevalence being more among males (51.6%) as compared to females (38.9%). Of the total prevalence 23.1% (287) were known cases, and 20.2% (250) were newly detected cases. Based on the seventh report of the Joint National Committee (JNC VII) on high blood pressure, prehypertension was noted among 38.7%. Advancing age, male gender, current diabetic status, central obesity, overweight and obesity as defined by body mass index, and family history of hypertension were identified as significant correlates for hypertension by multivariate logistic regression. PMID:24967139

  4. High prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in Southern Belize-highlighting opportunity for control interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, Rina Girard; Ault, Steven K.; Castillo, Phillip; Serrano, Kenton; Troya, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in school age children of two southern districts as baseline information prior to implement a deworming program against intestinal parasites as part of an integrated country development plan. Methods Children randomly selected from urban and rural schools in Southern Belize provided one stool sample each, analysed by the Kato-Katz method to assess prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Epi Info software was used for data analysis; Chi-square test and Fischer exact test were applied to compare group proportions; P<0.05 was considered of statistical significance; descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages. Results A total of 500 children from 10 schools participated in the study from May to December 2005. Prevalence of STH ranged between 40% and 82% among schools, with a median of 59.2%; the majority of light intensity, and with 2.2% high intensity infection. Trichuris and Ascaris infections presented similar frequency in children aged from 6 to 9 years old; hookworm infections tended to be more frequent in the older group 10 to 12 years old. Statistical significances (P≤0.01) were found in children in rural schools infected with any species of STH, in moderate Trichuris infections, in hookworm infections in rural areas with strong Mayan presence and in Ascaris infections in children of Mayan origin. Conclusions High prevalence of STH in Southern Belize provided sound ground for implementing an integrated deworming control program. PMID:25182717

  5. Prevalence of latent and manifest suprascapular neuropathy in high-performance volleyball players.

    PubMed Central

    Holzgraefe, M; Kukowski, B; Eggert, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of latent and manifest suprascapular neuropathy in high-level male volleyball players. Thirty subjects were examined clinically and electrophysiologically. Suprascapular neuropathy, most probably at the level of the suprascapular notch, was demonstrated in 12 subjects, being latent in eight. Taking into account our clinical findings in a further 36 international-level players, a remarkably high overall prevalence of suprascapular nerve lesion of 33% (22 of 66 subjects) was found. All cases involved the side of the body with the player's smashing arm. These findings suggest that careful monitoring of suprascapular nerve function may be useful in high-performance volleyball players, as early diagnosis is essential to prevent more severe damage. Images Figure 1 PMID:8000816

  6. High prevalence of autoantibodies to RNA helicase A in Mexican patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Autoantibodies to RNA helicase A (RHA) were reported as a new serological marker of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with early stage of the disease. Anti-RHA and other autoantibodies in Mexican SLE patients and their correlation with clinical and immunological features were examined. Methods Autoantibodies in sera from 62 Mexican SLE patients were tested by immunoprecipitation of 35S-labeled K562 cell extract and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (anti-U1RNP/Sm, ribosomal P, β2GPI, and dsDNA). Anti-RHA was screened based on the immunoprecipitation of the 140-kDa protein, the identity of which was verified by Western blot using rabbit anti-RHA serum. Clinical and immunological characteristics of anti-RHA-positive patients were analyzed. Results Anti-RHA was detected in 23% (14/62) of patients, a prevalence higher than that of anti-Sm (13%, 8/62). Prevalence and levels of various autoantibodies were not clearly different between anti-RHA (+) vs. (-) cases, although there was a trend of higher levels of anti-RHA antibodies in patients without anti-U1RNP/Sm (P = 0.07). Both anti-RHA and -Sm were common in cases within one year of diagnosis; however, the prevalence and levels of anti-RHA in patients years after diagnosis did not reduce dramatically, unlike a previous report in American patients. This suggests that the high prevalence of anti-RHA in Mexican patients may be due to relatively stable production of anti-RHA. Conclusions Anti-RHA was detected at high prevalence in Mexican SLE patients. Detection of anti-RHA in races in which anti-Sm is not common should be clinically useful. Racial difference in the clinical significance of anti-RHA should be clarified in future studies. PMID:20064217

  7. Prevalent high-risk HPV infection and vaginal microbiota in Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Dareng, E O; Ma, B; Famooto, A O; Akarolo-Anthony, S N; Offiong, R A; Olaniyan, O; Dakum, P S; Wheeler, C M; Fadrosh, D; Yang, H; Gajer, P; Brotman, R M; Ravel, J; Adebamowo, C A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the association between high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and the vaginal microbiome. Participants were recruited in Nigeria between April and August 2012. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by deep sequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene fragments (V4) on Illumina MiSeq and HPV was identified using the Roche Linear Array® HPV genotyping test. We used exact logistic regression models to evaluate the association between community state types (CSTs) of vaginal microbiota and hrHPV infection, weighted UniFrac distances to compare the vaginal microbiota of individuals with prevalent hrHPV to those without prevalent hrHPV infection, and the Linear Discriminant Analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm to characterize bacteria associated with prevalent hrHPV infection. We observed four CSTs: CST IV-B with a low relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in 50% of participants; CST III (dominated by L. iners) in 39·2%; CST I (dominated by L. crispatus) in 7·9%; and CST VI (dominated by proteobacteria) in 2·9% of participants. LEfSe analysis suggested an association between prevalent hrHPV infection and a decreased abundance of Lactobacillus sp. with increased abundance of anaerobes particularly of the genera Prevotella and Leptotrichia in HIV-negative women (P < 0·05). These results are hypothesis generating and further studies are required. PMID:26062721

  8. Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm have a high prevalence of popliteal artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Tuveson, Viktoria; Löfdahl, Hedvig E; Hultgren, Rebecka

    2016-08-01

    Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are more prone to develop popliteal artery aneurysms (PAA), but the prevalence is not well known. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of PAA in patients with AAA, and to determine whether a certain risk factor profile is more commonly found in patients with concurrent aneurysms. All AAA patients (ICD code I71.3, I71.4) attending the outpatient clinic at the Karolinska University Hospital between 2011 and 2013 were included in the study cohort (n=465); 48% (225) had been subjected to an ultrasound or computed tomography scan of their popliteal arteries. In these patients, three definitions of PAA were considered (⩾ 10.5, ⩾ 12, ⩾ 15 mm), although the overall analysis is based on PAA ⩾ 12 mm. The mean age was 70.7 years (SD 7.5), 89% were men, and the mean AAA diameter was 47 mm (SD 14). The prevalence of PAA was 19% (n=43) by definition ⩾ 12 mm, and 11% (n=25) with 15 mm. Claudication was more frequently found in AAA patients with PAA than patients without PAA. Sensitivity between clinical examination and radiology was 26%, and the specificity for clinical examination was 90%. In conclusion, owing to the high prevalence of PAA in AAA patients, described by us and others, the low cost and risks associated with ultrasound and the poor sensitivity at clinical examination, all women and men with AAA should undergo one radiological examination of their popliteal arteries. PMID:27216869

  9. Dementia in a tribal landlocked elderly population at high altitude: What explains the lower prevalence?

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies across the populations have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Earlier, we reported on the prevalence of dementia in elderly population in migrant, urban, rural, and tribal populations. The present study was conducted with a view to estimating the prevalence of dementia in Tribal Landlocked Elderly Population at high altitude and therefore to draw some conclusions on the differential distribution of dementia across populations. Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and older was conducted. Phase 1 involved screening of all individuals aged 60 and above with the help of a cognitive screen specifically developed for the tribal population. Phase 2 involved clinical examination of individuals who were suspected of dementia as per the developed cognitive screening test. Results: The results revealed that six individuals out of a total of 481 studied above 60 years of age in the studied population scored between 17 and 23, thus qualifying as suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Importantly, none of the individuals above 60 years of age scored <17. Discussion: The current study is in conformity with our previous study conducted on urban, rural, and migrant areas of the state of Himachal Pradesh again emphasizing on dementia being rare in tribal populations and thereby pointing to the presence of some protective factors among tribal people. PMID:27365961

  10. A High Malaria Prevalence Identified by PCR among Patients with Acute Undifferentiated Fever in India

    PubMed Central

    Haanshuus, Christel Gill; Chandy, Sara; Manoharan, Anand; Vivek, Rosario; Mathai, Dilip; Xena, Deepika; Singh, Ashita; Langeland, Nina; Blomberg, Bjørn; Vasanthan, George; Sitaram, Usha; Appasamy, Jonathan; Nesaraj, Joel; Henry, Anil; Patil, Suvarna; Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Armstrong, Lois; Mørch, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately one million malaria cases were reported in India in 2015, based on microscopy. This study aims to assess the malaria prevalence among hospitalised fever patients in India identified by PCR, and to evaluate the performance of routine diagnostic methods. Methods During June 2011-December 2012, patients admitted with acute undifferentiated fever to seven secondary level community hospitals in Assam (Tezpur), Bihar (Raxaul), Chhattisgarh (Mungeli), Maharashtra (Ratnagiri), Andhra Pradesh (Anantapur) and Tamil Nadu (Oddanchatram and Ambur) were included. The malaria prevalence was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), routine microscopy, and a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with PCR as a reference method. Results The malaria prevalence by PCR was 19% (268/1412) ranging from 6% (Oddanchatram, South India) to 35% (Ratnagiri, West India). Among malaria positive patients P. falciparum single infection was detected in 46%, while 38% had P. vivax, 11% mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. vivax, and 5% P. malariae. Compared to PCR, microscopy had sensitivity of 29% and specificity of 98%, while the RDT had sensitivity of 24% and specificity of 99%. Conclusions High malaria prevalence was identified by PCR in this cohort. Routine diagnostic methods had low sensitivity compared to PCR. The results suggest that malaria is underdiagnosed in rural India. However, low parasitaemia controlled by immunity may constitute a proportion of PCR positive cases, which calls for awareness of the fact that other pathogens could be responsible for the febrile disease in submicroscopic malaria. PMID:27389396

  11. AB063. Prevalence of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies detected via high performance liquid chromatography in Filipinos

    PubMed Central

    Silao, Catherine Lynn; Fabella, Terence Diane; Yuson, Ernesto; Naranjo, Maria Liza; Padilla, Carmencita

    2015-01-01

    Background The thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are groups of autosomal recessive inherited blood disorders affecting the quantity and quality of hemoglobin. Patients with the disease can vary from clinically asymptomatic to transfusion dependent individuals. It is considered prevalent in many parts of the world particularly in Southeast Asia. Thus, screening and prevalence determination of these diseases are important in the Filipino population. The study aims to determine the prevalence of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in the Philippines using high performance liquid chromatography. Methods Referred patients by hematologists from different parts of the country from October 2008 to December 2014 were included. Peripheral blood extracted from the subjects, were hemolyzed and screened for thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies using VariantTM HPLC. Data interpretations were based on levels of the HbA2 Fetal Hb and HbA detected. Results Majority of the patients were beta thalassemics followed by alpha-thalassemics. Hemoglobin E was found in 1% of the population tested while 2% of the patients have beta thalassemia with HbE interaction. Conclusions A significant proportion of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies were determined from the 6-year screening of Filipinos using VariantTM HPLC. The results of this study provide not only confirmation of the occurrence and prevalence of these growing and diverse groups of genetic blood diseases but also suggest that the use of HPLC is a useful screening tool.

  12. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes Among Women With High-Grade Cervical Lesions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meizhu; Xu, Qiuxiang; Li, Hongyan; Gao, Huiqiao; Bie, Yachun; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) genotypes among Han women with high-grade cervical lesions in Beijing, China.Cervical cell specimens from patients with histopathologically confirmed cervical lesions at 7 hospitals in Beijing were examined with a validated HPV kit for 13 hr-HPV genotypes during the study period. The patients were divided into a low-grade cervical lesions group (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, CIN1) and a high-grade cervical lesions group (CIN2+, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, CIN2; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, CIN3; squamous cervical cancer, SCC; and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, ACC) based on the histopathology results.A total of 2817 eligible patients were enrolled, including 610 cases identified as CIN1 and 2207 as CIN2+. The hr-HPV positive rates in the CIN1 and CIN2+ groups were 78.2% (477/610) and 93.3% (2060/2207), respectively. The most frequently detected genotypes were HPV16, 58, 52 and18 in the CIN1 group and HPV16, 58, 33, and 52 in the CIN2+ group, in descending order of prevalence. In addition, the prevalence of HPV18 among the patients with ACC was 28.6% (14/49), significantly >7.2% (54/752) prevalence among the SCC patients (P < 0.001). Additionally, significantly more women in the CIN2+ group had multiple infections compared with those in the CIN1 group (38.1% and 24.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). However, as the cervical lesion grade increased, the prevalence of multiple hr-HPV infections gradually deceased to 44.2% in the CIN2 patients, 36.7% in the CIN3 patients, and 35.3% in the cervical cancer (CC) patients, which included SCC and ACC patients. In cases of multiple hr-HPV infections in the CIN2+ group, double infections accounted for ∼76.6%, and HPV16+58, HPV16+52, and HPV16+18 were the most common combinations, in descending order. The most frequent combination for triple infections was HPV16+58+31, with

  13. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  15. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  16. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Portable leakage current alarm. 870.2640 Section... leakage current alarm. (a) Identification. A portable leakage current alarm is a device used to measure the electrical leakage current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm...

  18. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section....050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to bilge alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in §...

  19. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  20. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  1. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system. Each sprinkler alarm system, including annunciator,...

  2. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  3. 46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alarm system. 113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm system. (a) Each vessel must have...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c) Each visual alarm must be marked to show the type and, except for remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each vessel must...

  8. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  9. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  10. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  11. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  12. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next...

  13. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  14. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE...

  15. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  18. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section....050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to bilge alarms. (b) Each bilge alarm must be designed to meet the requirements for an oil content meter in §...

  19. Enlarging the "Audacious Goal": elimination of the world's high prevalence neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter

    2011-12-30

    The high prevalence neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) exhibit a global disease burden that exceeds malaria, tuberculosis, and other better known global health conditions; they also represent a potent force in trapping the world's poorest people in poverty. Through extremely low cost national programs of disease mapping and mass drug administration (MDA) for the seven most common NTDs, integrated NTD control and elimination efforts are now in place in more than 14 countries through the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the British Department for International Development (DFID), and the Global Network for NTDs and its partners. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that in 2008 some 670 million people in 75 countries received NTD treatments through these and other sponsored programs. With continued successes the next decade could witness the global elimination of blinding trachoma, human Africa trypanosomiasis (HAT), lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, trachoma, and leprosy as public health problems, in addition to the eradication of dracunculiasis. For other high prevalence NTDs, including hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, new drugs and vaccines may still be required. Increasingly it is recognized that the high prevalence NTDs exhibit extensive geographic overlap and polyparasitism is commonly found throughout the world's low income countries. Therefore, global elimination will also require integrated packages of drugs together with vaccine-linked chemotherapy. Ultimately, the global elimination of the high prevalence NTDs will require continued large-scale support from the U.S. Government and selected European governments, however, the emerging market economies, such as Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and Nigeria, and wealthy countries in the Middle East will also have to substantially contribute. PMID:22188933

  20. From alarm systems to smart houses.

    PubMed

    Vlaskamp, F J

    1992-01-01

    The percentage of senior citizens in the Netherlands will rise in coming years. The expected percentage for the year 2010 of persons over age 65 in the total population is 15%. More persons over age 65 than ever before will continue to live in their own environment. Emergency response systems (ERS) can support independent living. The most common type of organization distributing ERS is a small, partly subsidized local alarm organization run by a social welfare office for the elderly. Government subsidy has been reduced in recent years which has motivated small organizations to join together into larger regional organizations in order to get a more solid financial base. On the other hand new semi-commercial and commercial organizations have come into being. These developments are part of the growing importance of home care, leading to more medical applications of ERS. User satisfaction with ERS is high. Portable triggers can enhance the effectiveness of the system. However, many users do not wear the portable trigger when feeling well. Future technical developments will result in multifunctionality of ERS-devices. In the long term the hardware of today will be integrated in a multimedia home terminal replacing the telephone. The portable trigger will remain the only specific hardware at home for ERS. PMID:10126436

  1. High HIV sero-prevalence among students of institutions of higher education in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Emeka-Nwabunnia, Ijeoma; Ibeh, Bartholomew Okey; Ogbulie, Tochukwu Ekwutosi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and sexual behavioural dynamics of HIV infection in students of institutions of higher education (IHEs) as a guide to the design of a tailor-made HIV intervention programmes. Methods A total of 9 709 sexually matured students from five IHEs in Southeast Nigeria aged 19-24 years were recruited to obtain representative data from the institutionalised student population. HIV status was confirmed using enzyme based immuno-assay technique. Demographic and behavioural information were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Association of HIV infection with behavioural risk factors was done using multiple logistics regression model. Results IHEs in Southeast Nigeria have a higher HIV prevalence of 3.69% against the national projected rate of 2012. The age-specific prevalence among male students (2.91%) is non-significantly (P>0.1) lower than that of females (4.31%). Female students had higher rate of infection, multiple sexual partner, transactional and forced sex, unusual genital discharge and low condom use when compared with their male counterparts. These risk factors were associated with increased HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence and sexual risky behaviour were high among students of IHEs when compared with previous estimates of their non-institutionalised age brackets. Unprotected sexual activity have a 4.2 times higher chances of infecting the partner with HIV. Conclusions The data showed a higher prevalence of HIV infection in students of IHEs in comparison with non-institutionalised persons of the same age bracket. Specifically, it could be inferred that appropriate HIV intervention measures was absent with higher incidence of the infection and risky behaviour found in female students. Therefore, a prioritised tailor-made policy for HIV control for students of IHEs should be considered.

  2. High prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in adult patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, G; Dordoni, C; Doga, M; Galderisi, F; Venturini, M; Calzavara-Pinton, P; Maroldi, R; Giustina, A; Colombi, M

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have reported an increased prevalence of osteoporosis in Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS), but these were limited by a small number of patients and lack of information on fragility fractures. In this crosssectional study, we evaluated the prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures (by quantitative morphometry) and bone mineral density (BMD, at lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in 52 consecutive patientswith EDS (10 males, 42 females; median age 41 years, range: 21–71; 12with EDS classic type, 37 with EDS hypermobility type, 1 with classic vascular-like EDS, and 2 without specific classification) and 197 control subjects (163 females and 34 males; median age 49 years, range: 26–83) attending an outpatient bone clinic. EDS patients were also evaluated for back pain by numeric pain rating scale (NRS- 11).Vertebral fractures were significantly more prevalent in EDS as compared to the control subjects (38.5% vs. 5.1%; p b 0.001) without significant differences in BMD at either skeletal sites. In EDS patients, the prevalence of vertebral fractures was not significantly (p = 0.72) different between classic and hypermobility types. BMD was not significantly different between fractured and non-fractured EDS patients either at lumbar spine (p = 0.14), total hip (p=0.08), or femoral neck (p=0.21). Severe back pain(≥7 NRS)was more frequent in EDS patients with vertebral fractures as compared to thosewithout fractures (60% vs. 28%; p=0.04). Inconclusion, this is the first study showing high prevalence of vertebral fractures in a relatively large population of EDS patients. Vertebral fractures were associated with more severe back pain suggesting a potential involvement of skeletal fragility in determining poor quality of life. The lack of correlation between vertebral fractures and BMD is consistent with the hypothesis that bone quality may be impaired in EDS. PMID:26708925

  3. Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

  4. Nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa is highly prevalent in the Jerusalem region with a high frequency of founder mutations

    PubMed Central

    Banin, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited retinal degeneration, and prevalence of the disease has been reported in populations of American and European origin with a relatively low consanguinity rate. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of nonsyndromic RP in the Jerusalem region, which has a population of about 1 million individuals with a high rate of consanguinity. Methods The patients’ clinical data included eye exam findings (visual acuity, anterior segment, and funduscopy) as well as electroretinographic (ERG) testing results under scotopic and photopic conditions. Mutation analysis on a subgroup of patients was performed mainly with candidate gene analysis and homozygosity mapping. Results We evaluated the medical records of patients with degenerative retinal diseases residing in the Jerusalem region who were examined over the past 20 years in a large tertiary medical center. A total of 453 individuals affected with nonsyndromic RP were diagnosed at our center, according to funduscopic findings and ERG testing. Based on the estimated population size of 945,000 individuals who reside in the vicinity of Jerusalem, the prevalence of nonsyndromic RP in this region is 1:2,086. The prevalence of RP was higher among Arab Muslims (1:1,798) compared to Jews (1:2,230), mainly due to consanguineous marriages that are more common in the Arab Muslim population. To identify the genetic causes of RP in our cohort, we recruited 383 patients from 183 different families for genetic analysis: 70 with autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance, 15 with autosomal dominant, 86 isolate cases, and 12 with an X-linked inheritance pattern. In 64 (35%) of the families, we identified the genetic cause of the disease, and we revised the inheritance pattern of 20 isolate cases to the AR pattern; 49% of the families in our cohort had AR inheritance. Interestingly, in 42 (66%) of the genetically identified families, the cause of disease was a founder

  5. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its correlating lifestyle factors in Japanese female junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Mie; Maruyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual disorder experienced by adolescents, and its major symptoms, including pain, adversely affect daily life and school performance. However, little epidemiologic evidence on dysmenorrhea in Japanese adolescents exists. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with dysmenorrhea in Japanese female junior high school students. Among 1,167 girls aged between 12 and 15 years, 1,018 participants completed a questionnaire that solicited information on age at menarche, menstruation, and lifestyle, as well as demographic characteristics. Dysmenorrhea was defined based on menstrual pain using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), with moderate or severe (moderate-severe) dysmenorrhea, which adversely affects daily life, defined as VAS ≥ 4, and severe dysmenorrhea defined as VAS ≥ 7. The prevalence of moderate-severe dysmenorrhea was 476/1,018 (46.8%), and that of severe dysmenorrhea was 180/1,018 (17.7%). Higher chronological and gynecological ages (years after menarche) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea regardless of severity (P for trend < 0.001). In addition, short sleeping hours (< 6/day) were associated with moderate-severe dysmenorrhea (OR = 3.05, 95%CI: 1.06-8.77), and sports activity levels were associated with severe dysmenorrhea (P for trend = 0.045). Our findings suggest that dysmenorrhea that adversely affects daily activities is highly prevalent, and may be associated with certain lifestyle factors in junior high school students. Health education teachers should be made aware of these facts, and appropriately care for those suffering from dysmenorrhea symptoms, absentees, and those experiencing difficulties in school life due to dysmenorrhea symptoms. PMID:26027596

  6. Long Term Maintenance of Neural Tube Defects Prevention in a High Prevalence State

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Julianne S.; Atkinson, Kristy K.; Dean, Jane H.; Best, Robert G.; Stevenson, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of folic acid (FA) supplementation and fortification in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in a high prevalence region of the US. Study design Active and passive surveillance methods were used to identify all fetuses/infants affected by an NTD in South Carolina. Prevalence rates were compared with FA intake to determine the effects of increased intake on NTD occurrence and recurrence. Results From 1992–2009, 916 NTD cases occurred in South Carolina with isolated defects comprising 79% of cases. The NTD rate decreased 58% during this period. There was one NTD-affected pregnancy among 418 subsequent pregnancies (0.2%) in mothers with previous NTD-affected pregnancies who consumed periconceptional FA supplements and four NTDs among 66 pregnancies (6.1%) in which the mother did not take FA supplements. Folic acid supplementation increased from 8% to 35% from 1992–2007 and knowledge of the protective benefits of FA increased from 8% to 65% in women of childbearing age. Conclusions Increased periconceptional intake of FA appeared to reduce NTDs in a high prevalence region. The rate of spina bifida and anencephaly in South Carolina is now essentially the same (0.69 cases per 1000 live births and fetal deaths) as the 1998–2005 US rate (0.69). PMID:21345450

  7. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernabe-Dones, Raul D.; Gonzalez-Pons, Maria; Villar-Prados, Alejandro; Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Arroyo, Heriberto; Fonseca-Williams, Sharon; Velazquez, Francisco E.; Diaz-Algorri, Yaritza; Lopez-Diaz, Sofia M.; Rodríguez, Nayra; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45) and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36) was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2%) CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males) and in 1 of 36 (2.8%) controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males) with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49). HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted. PMID:26904111

  8. High Prevalence and Genetic Heterogeneity of Rodent-Borne Bartonella Species on Heixiazi Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong-Mei; Hou, Yong; Song, Xiu-Ping; Fu, Ying-Qun; Li, Gui-Chang; Li, Ming; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Wu, Hai-Xia; Pang, Bo; Yue, Yu-Juan; Huang, Ying; Lu, Liang; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We performed genetic analysis of Bartonella isolates from rodent populations from Heixiazi Island in northeast China. Animals were captured at four sites representing grassland and brushwood habitats in 2011 and examined for the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species, their relationship to their hosts, and geographic distribution. A high prevalence (57.7%) and a high diversity (14 unique genotypes which belonged to 8 clades) of Bartonella spp. were detected from 71 rodents comprising 5 species and 4 genera from 3 rodent families. Forty-one Bartonella isolates were recovered and identified, including B. taylorii, B. japonica, B. coopersplainsensis, B. grahamii, B. washoensis subsp. cynomysii, B. doshiae, and two novel Bartonella species, by sequencing of four genes (gltA, the 16S rRNA gene, ftsZ, and rpoB). The isolates of B. taylorii and B. grahamii were the most prevalent and exhibited genetic difference from isolates identified elsewhere. Several isolates clustered with strains from Japan and far-eastern Russia; strains isolated from the same host typically were found within the same cluster. Species descriptions are provided for Bartonella heixiaziensis sp. nov. and B. fuyuanensis sp. nov. PMID:26362983

  9. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Bernabe-Dones, Raul D; Gonzalez-Pons, Maria; Villar-Prados, Alejandro; Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Arroyo, Heriberto; Fonseca-Williams, Sharon; Velazquez, Francisco E; Diaz-Algorri, Yaritza; Lopez-Diaz, Sofia M; Rodríguez, Nayra; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45) and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36) was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2%) CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males) and in 1 of 36 (2.8%) controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males) with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49). HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted. PMID:26904111

  10. Ethnic identity, region, and attitudes toward male circumcision in a high HIV–prevalence country

    PubMed Central

    Poulin, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    We study how considerations of male circumcision as both a favourable practice and as protective against HIV are linked with ethnicity in sub-Saharan Africa, where many ethnic groups do not traditionally circumcise. We focus on Malawi, a country with a high HIV prevalence but low male circumcision prevalence. Survey data from a population-based random sample in rural Malawi (N=3400) was analysed for ethnoregional patterns in attitudes toward male circumcision. We used logit regression models to measure how reported circumcision status, region of residence, and ethnic identity relate to attitudes toward circumcision. Overall, Malawians reported more negative than positive opinions about male circumcision, but attitudes toward circumcision varied by ethnicity and region. The implications for agencies and governments aggressively scaling up the provision of male circumcision are clear: acceptance of circumcision as a tool for HIV prevention could be low in societies divided by ethnoregional identities that also shape the practice of circumcision. PMID:23731239

  11. High Prevalence of Arcobacter Carriage in Older Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fera, Maria Teresa; Russo, Giuseppina T.; Di Benedetto, Antonino; La Camera, Erminia; Orlando, Angelo; Giandalia, Annalisa; Ruffa, Vincenzo F.; Lanza, Giulia; Lentini, Valeria; Perdichizzi, Giuseppa; Cucinotta, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Arcobacters are potential pathogens related to diarrheic infections and, rarely, septicaemia. This study evaluated the prevalence of arcobacters in stool samples of subjects with (n = 38) and without (n = 61) type 2 diabetes by using cultural and molecular techniques. Three Arcobacter positive cultures were found, all among diabetic subjects, whereas molecular analysis showed a carriage rate of 79% and 26.2% in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (P < .001), respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that type 2 diabetes (β = 1.913; 95%CI: 2.378–19.285; P < .0001) and age (β = 1.744; 95%CI: 2.077–15.766; P = .001) were the only factors independently associated with arcobacters colonization in this population. Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of arcobacters colonization in type 2 diabetic and older subjects. The clinical significance and the potential health risk associated with these emerging species remain to be determined. PMID:20508853

  12. High Prevalence of GB Virus C in Brazil and Molecular Evidence for Intrafamilial Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, João R. R.; Zanotto, Paolo M. De A.; Ferreira, João L. P.; Sumita, Laura M.; Carrilho, Flair J.; da Silva, Luiz C.; Capacci, M. Lourdes; Silva, Adávio O.; Guz, Betty; Gonçales, Fernando L.; Gonçales, Neiva S. L.; Buck, Gregory A.; Meyers, Gregory A.; Bernardini, A. Plínio

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C) in candidate Brazilian blood donors with normal and elevated alanine aminotransferase levels was found to be 5.2% (5 of 95) and 6.5% (5 of 76), respectively. Among Brazilian patients, GBV-C was found in 9.5% (13 of 137) of cases of hepatitis not caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), HBV, HCV, HDV, or HEV (non-A-E hepatitis) and in 18.2% (8 of 44) of individuals infected with HCV. Molecular characterization of GBV-C by partial sequencing of the NS3 region showed clustering between members of a single family, implying intrafamilial transmission. In conclusion, these results together suggest that contagion mechanisms which facilitate intrafamilial transmission of GBV-C may partially explain the high prevalence of viremic carriers worldwide. PMID:10203545

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Blind Children: Very High Prevalence, Potentially Better Outlook.

    PubMed

    Jure, Rubin; Pogonza, Ramón; Rapin, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders affected 19 of 38 unselected children at a school for the blind in Cordoba, Argentina. Autism was linked to total congenital blindness, not blindness' etiology, acquired or incomplete blindness, sex, overt brain damage, or socioeconomic status. Autism "recovery," had occurred in 4 verbal children. Congenital blindness causes profoundly deviant sensory experience and massive reorganization of brain connectivity. Its ≥ 30 times greater prevalence than in sighted children suggests a distinct pathogenesis. Unawareness of autism's high prevalence in blind individuals includes blindness' rarity, misunderstanding of autism as "disease" rather than dimensional behavioral diagnosis, reluctance to diagnose it in blind children, and ignorance of its potentially more favorable outcome. Future investigation may suggest interventions to prevent or mitigate it. PMID:26408327

  14. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in asymptomatic Hispanics.

    PubMed Central

    Dehesa, M; Dooley, C P; Cohen, H; Fitzgibbons, P L; Perez-Perez, G I; Blaser, M J

    1991-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in 58 asymptomatic Hispanic adult volunteers (mean age, 41 years; 59% male) by endoscopic biopsy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Forty-six subjects (79%) were found to harbor H. pylori in gastric biopsies, and all had histologic gastritis. Four other subjects were found to have gastritis in the absence of H. pylori. Similar prevalences of H. pylori and gastritis were noted in all age groups and also in American-born and immigrant Hispanics. Biopsy data and serologic studies of H. pylori antibodies correlated well. We conclude that H. pylori infection is an almost universal finding in the gastric mucosa of asymptomatic adult Hispanics, regardless of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown, but we speculate that H. pylori and its associated gastritis could have a role in the high incidence of gastric carcinoma in Hispanic populations. PMID:1864929

  15. Likelihood alarm displays. [for human operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorkin, Robert D.; Kantowitz, Barry H.; Kantowitz, Susan C.

    1988-01-01

    In a likelihood alarm display (LAD) information about event likelihood is computed by an automated monitoring system and encoded into an alerting signal for the human operator. Operator performance within a dual-task paradigm was evaluated with two LADs: a color-coded visual alarm and a linguistically coded synthetic speech alarm. The operator's primary task was one of tracking; the secondary task was to monitor a four-element numerical display and determine whether the data arose from a 'signal' or 'no-signal' condition. A simulated 'intelligent' monitoring system alerted the operator to the likelihood of a signal. The results indicated that (1) automated monitoring systems can improve performance on primary and secondary tasks; (2) LADs can improve the allocation of attention among tasks and provide information integrated into operator decisions; and (3) LADs do not necessarily add to the operator's attentional load.

  16. High Plasmodium malariae Prevalence in an Endemic Area of the Colombian Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    Camargo-Ayala, Paola Andrea; Cubides, Juan Ricardo; Niño, Carlos Hernando; Camargo, Milena; Rodríguez-Celis, Carlos Arturo; Quiñones, Teódulo; Sánchez-Suárez, Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium are the aetiological agent for this disease. The parasites are mostly diagnosed by conventional microscopy-based techniques; however, their limitations have led to under-registering the reported prevalence of Plasmodium species. This study has thus been aimed at evaluating the infection and coinfection prevalence of 3 species of Plasmodium spp., in an area of the Colombian Amazon region. Blood samples were taken from 671 symptomatic patients by skin puncture; a nested PCR amplifying the 18S ssRNA region was used on all samples to determine the presence of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. Statistical analysis determined infection and coinfection frequency; the association between infection and different factors was established. The results showed that P. vivax was the species having the greatest frequency in the study population (61.4%), followed by P. malariae (43.8%) and P. falciparum (11.8%). The study revealed that 35.8% of the population had coinfection, the P. vivax/P. malariae combination occurring most frequently (28.3%); factors such as age, geographical origin and clinical manifestations were found to be associated with triple-infection. The prevalence reported in this study differed from previous studies in Colombia; the results suggest that diagnosis using conventional techniques could be giving rise to underestimating some Plasmodium spp. species having high circulation rates in Colombia (particularly in the Colombian Amazon region). The present study’s results revealed a high prevalence of P. malariae and mixed infections in the population being studied. The results provide relevant information which should facilitate updating the epidemiological panorama and species’ distribution so as to include control, prevention and follow-up measures. PMID:27467587

  17. High Plasmodium malariae Prevalence in an Endemic Area of the Colombian Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ayala, Paola Andrea; Cubides, Juan Ricardo; Niño, Carlos Hernando; Camargo, Milena; Rodríguez-Celis, Carlos Arturo; Quiñones, Teódulo; Sánchez-Suárez, Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium are the aetiological agent for this disease. The parasites are mostly diagnosed by conventional microscopy-based techniques; however, their limitations have led to under-registering the reported prevalence of Plasmodium species. This study has thus been aimed at evaluating the infection and coinfection prevalence of 3 species of Plasmodium spp., in an area of the Colombian Amazon region. Blood samples were taken from 671 symptomatic patients by skin puncture; a nested PCR amplifying the 18S ssRNA region was used on all samples to determine the presence of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. Statistical analysis determined infection and coinfection frequency; the association between infection and different factors was established. The results showed that P. vivax was the species having the greatest frequency in the study population (61.4%), followed by P. malariae (43.8%) and P. falciparum (11.8%). The study revealed that 35.8% of the population had coinfection, the P. vivax/P. malariae combination occurring most frequently (28.3%); factors such as age, geographical origin and clinical manifestations were found to be associated with triple-infection. The prevalence reported in this study differed from previous studies in Colombia; the results suggest that diagnosis using conventional techniques could be giving rise to underestimating some Plasmodium spp. species having high circulation rates in Colombia (particularly in the Colombian Amazon region). The present study's results revealed a high prevalence of P. malariae and mixed infections in the population being studied. The results provide relevant information which should facilitate updating the epidemiological panorama and species' distribution so as to include control, prevention and follow-up measures. PMID:27467587

  18. Prevalence and predictors of suicidal behavior among Mongolian high school students.

    PubMed

    Altangerel, Uyanga; Liou, Jenn-Chang; Yeh, Pi-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of suicidal behavior among Mongolian high school students. Females were more likely to have suicidal behavior than males. No close friends, feelings of loneliness, insomnia, self perception of underweight or overweight, carrying a weapon were significant predictors of students' suicidal behavior. Missing school without permission, being bullied and going hungry were also important risk factors of suicidal ideation. Families and Schools are important environments to prevent high students' suicide. Improving students' psychological well being, quality of relationship with people, and support resources are critical to prevent suicidal behavior. PMID:24282032

  19. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, D.W.

    1995-04-11

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

  20. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Don W.

    1995-01-01

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

  1. Prevalence of Chronic Mountain Sickness in high altitude districts of Himachal Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Sahota, Inderjeet Singh; Panwar, Nidhi Singh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) is a maladaptation condition that can affect people who reside permanently at high altitude (HA). It is characterized by polycythemia, hypoxemia and dyspnea and can be fatal. Over 140 million people live permanently at HA around the world. Unfortunately, research into CMS is lacking and accurate data on the prevalence of this condition do not exist for many regions around the world. In this study, we sought to examine prevalence rates of CMS in the Indian Himalayas, focusing on the Northern State of Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 83 individuals (69 males) in eight towns across the HA districts of Sirmaur, Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India. Altitudes ranged from 2350 to 4150 m. We used an adapted Qinghai CMS scoring system to diagnose CMS. Information related to subject demographics, medical history, socioeconomic status, and geography were collected to identify risk factors for CMS. Physiologic recordings of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate were made through pulse oximetry. Results: Overall CMS prevalence was 6.17% and mean altitude was 3281 m. At altitudes above 3000 m CMS prevalence rose to 13.73%. All cases of CMS were mild and there was a significant positive correlation between CMS scores and altitude (R = 0.784, P = 0.0213). Mean SpO2 was 90.7 ± 0.4% and mean pulse rate was 80.3 ± 1.3 bpm. SpO2 significantly correlated with altitude (R = −0.929, P < 0.001). In our study, age, gender, and tobacco use were not independent risk factors for CMS. Individuals with CMS lived at higher altitudes than their non-CMS counterparts (3736.00 ± 113.30 m vs. 3279.80 ± 69.50 m, respectively; P = 0.017). Conclusion: CMS prevalence in HA towns of the Indian Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh is 6.17% and 13.73% for towns above 3000 m. Further research is required to determine the prevalence of CMS in other regions of the world and to determine risk factors associated with CMS. PMID

  2. Decision-making and response strategies in interaction with alarms: the impact of alarm reliability, availability of alarm validity information and workload.

    PubMed

    Manzey, Dietrich; Gérard, Nina; Wiczorek, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Responding to alarm systems which usually commit a number of false alarms and/or misses involves decision-making under uncertainty. Four laboratory experiments including a total of 256 participants were conducted to gain comprehensive insight into humans' dealing with this uncertainty. Specifically, it was investigated how responses to alarms/non-alarms are affected by the predictive validities of these events, and to what extent response strategies depend on whether or not the validity of alarms/non-alarms can be cross-checked against other data. Among others, the results suggest that, without cross-check possibility (experiment 1), low levels of predictive validity of alarms ( ≤ 0.5) led most participants to use one of two different strategies which both involved non-responding to a significant number of alarms (cry-wolf effect). Yet, providing access to alarm validity information reduced this effect dramatically (experiment 2). This latter result emerged independent of the effort needed for cross-checkings of alarms (experiment 3), but was affected by the workload imposed by concurrent tasks (experiment 4). Theoretical and practical consequences of these results for decision-making and response selection in interaction with alarm systems, as well as the design of effective alarm systems, are discussed. PMID:25224606

  3. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Forced Sexual Intercourse among U.S. High School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yan, Fang

    2007-01-01

    Although a history of forced sexual intercourse affects a relatively small number of U.S. adolescents, it is a persistent and alarming public health problem. This study examined the robustness of the risk profile of adolescents who report a history of forced sexual intercourse using the most current and representative data from the national 2005…

  4. High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

  5. High prevalence of early language delay exists among toddlers with neonatal brachial plexus palsy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kate Wan-Chu; Yang, Lynda J-S.; Driver, Lynn; Nelson, Virginia S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM Association of language impairment with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) has not been reported in the literature. The current treatment paradigm for NBPP focuses on upper extremity motor recovery with little formal assessment of other aspects of development, such as language. We performed a cross-sectional pilot study to investigate early language delay prevalence in toddlers with NBPP and potential NBPP-related factors involved. METHOD Twenty toddlers with NBPP were consecutively recruited (12 males, 8 females; mean age 30 mos). Preschool Language Scale Score (4th edition), demographics, and socioeconomic status were collected. NBPP-related factors such as palsy side, treatment type, Narakas grade, muscle MRC score, and Raimondi hand score were reported. Student t test, chi-square, or Fisher exact test were applied. Statistical significance level was established at p<0.05. RESULTS Of study participants, 30% were diagnosed with language delay, while the prevalence of language delay in the population with normal development in this age range was approximately 5-15%. INTERPRETATION We observed high language delay prevalence among toddlers with NBPP. Although our subject sample is small, our findings warrant further study of this phenomenon. Early identification and timely intervention based on type of language impairment may be critical for improving communication outcome in this population. PMID:25160543

  6. High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

  7. High Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Asymptomatic Individuals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mvumbi, Dieudonné Makaba; Bobanga, Thierry Lengu; Melin, Pierrette; De Mol, Patrick; Kayembe, Jean-Marie Ntumba; Situakibanza, Hippolyte Nani-Tuma; Mvumbi, Georges Lelo; Nsibu, Célestin Ndosimao; Umesumbu, Solange Efundu; Hayette, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) with 14 million cases reported by the WHO Malaria Report in 2014. Asymptomatic malaria cases are known to be prevalent in endemic areas and are generally untreated, resulting in a significant source of gametocytes that may serve as reservoir of disease transmission. Considering that microscopy certainly underestimates the prevalence of Plasmodium infections within asymptomatic carriers and that PCR assays are currently recognized as the most sensitive methods for Plasmodium identification, this study was conducted to weigh the asymptomatic carriage in DRC by a molecular method. Six provinces were randomly selected for blood collection in which 80 to 100 individuals were included in the study. Five hundred and eighty blood samples were collected and molecular diagnosis was performed. Globally, almost half of the samples collected from asymptomatic individuals (280/580; 48.2%) had Plasmodium infections and the most species identified was P. falciparum alone in combination with P. malariae. The high prevalence reported here should interpellate the bodies involved in malaria control in DR Congo to take into account asymptomatic carriers in actions taken and consider asymptomatic malaria as a major hurdle for malaria elimination. PMID:26942036

  8. High prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Luana Fiengo; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; da Silva, Aline Medeiros; Konstantyner, Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Marques, Heloisa Helena de Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents with HIV/AIDS, as well as associated factors. Methods: Ninety-one adolescents (from 10 to 19 years old) with HIV/AIDS who are patients at a university follow-up service were interviewed. Anthropometric data (weight, height, and waist circumference) were measured twice; clinical information was obtained from medical records, and habitual physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire proposed by Florindo et al. The cutoff point for sedentariness was 300 minutes/week. Results: The prevalence of inadequate height for age, malnutrition, and overweight/obesity was 15.4%, 9.9% and 12.1%, respectively. The most common physical activities were soccer (44.4%), volleyball (14.4%) and cycling (7.8%). The median times spent with physical activity and walking/bicycling to school were 141 min and 39 min, respectively. Most adolescents (71.4%) were sedentary and this proportion was higher among girls (p=0.046). Conclusions: A high prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents with HIV/AIDS was observed, similar to the general population. Promoting physical activity among adolescents, especially among girls with HIV/AIDS, as well as monitoring it should be part of the follow-up routine of these patients. PMID:25907024

  9. The Prevalence of High-Riding Jugular Bulb in Patients with Suspected Endolymphatic Hydrops.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christopher D; Buch, Karen; Kaufmann, Matthew; Sakai, Osamu; Devaiah, Anand K

    2015-12-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of a high-riding jugular bulb (HRJB) in the endolymphatic hydrops population. Methods This was a retrospective chart and radiology review of patients seen at a tertiary care medical center. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, code 386.xx (Meniere disease-unspecified), and were required to have undergone an imaging study that included views of the jugular bulb that were available for review. A radiologist then evaluated all of the imaging studies for evidence of HRJB or inner ear dehiscence with a jugular bulb abnormality. Results The prevalence of a HRJB in all endolymphatic hydrops patients was 9.0% (7 of 78), and it was 4.5% (7 of 156) in all ears. The prevalence of HRJB ipsilateral to an ear with endolymphatic hydrops was 4.6% (4 of 88 ears); it was 4.4% (3 of 68 ears) in ears without endolymphatic hydrops. The incidence of inner ear dehiscence with a HRJB was 1.3% (1 of 78). Electrocochleography results were not correlated with jugular bulb volume. Discussion The results of this study indicate that a small subset of patients treated for endolymphatic hydrops patients have a HRJB. Overall, these results suggest that HRJB does not play a major role in endolymphatic hydrops, although it may play a role in a few isolated patients. PMID:26682126

  10. Dermanyssus gallinae in layer farms in Kosovo: a high risk for salmonella prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae (D.g.) is a serious ectoparasitic pest of poultry and potential pathogen vector. The prevalence of D. g. and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. within mites on infested laying poultry farms were investigated in Kosovo. Findings In total, 14 populated layer farms located in the Southern Kosovo were assessed for D. g. presence. Another two farms in this region were investigated 6 months after depopulation. Investigated flocks were all maintained in cages, a common housing system in Kosovo. A total of eight farms were found to be infested with D. g. (50%) at varying levels, including the two depopulated farms. The detection of Salmonella spp. from D. g. was carried out using PCR. Out of the eight layer farms infested with D. g., Salmonella spp. was present in mites on three farms (37.5%). Conclusions This study confirms the high prevalence of D. g. in layer flocks in Kosovo and demonstrates the link between this mite and the presence of Salmonella spp. on infested farms. PMID:21762497

  11. High Prevalence and Clinical Relevance of Genes Affected by Chromosomal Breaks in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, Evert; Dijkstra, Maurits J. J.; Krijgsman, Oscar; Sie, Daoud; Haan, Josien C.; Traets, Joleen J. H.; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Carvalho, Beatriz; Ylstra, Bauke; Abeln, Sanne; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Fijneman, Remond J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer is caused by somatic DNA alterations such as gene point mutations, DNA copy number aberrations (CNA) and structural variants (SVs). Genome-wide analyses of SVs in large sample series with well-documented clinical information are still scarce. Consequently, the impact of SVs on carcinogenesis and patient outcome remains poorly understood. This study aimed to perform a systematic analysis of genes that are affected by CNA-associated chromosomal breaks in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to determine the clinical relevance of recurrent breakpoint genes. Methods Primary CRC samples of patients with metastatic disease from CAIRO and CAIRO2 clinical trials were previously characterized by array-comparative genomic hybridization. These data were now used to determine the prevalence of CNA-associated chromosomal breaks within genes across 352 CRC samples. In addition, mutation status of the commonly affected APC, TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, SMAD4, BRAF and NRAS genes was determined for 204 CRC samples by targeted massive parallel sequencing. Clinical relevance was assessed upon stratification of patients based on gene mutations and gene breakpoints that were observed in >3% of CRC cases. Results In total, 748 genes were identified that were recurrently affected by chromosomal breaks (FDR <0.1). MACROD2 was affected in 41% of CRC samples and another 169 genes showed breakpoints in >3% of cases, indicating that prevalence of gene breakpoints is comparable to the prevalence of well-known gene point mutations. Patient stratification based on gene breakpoints and point mutations revealed one CRC subtype with very poor prognosis. Conclusions We conclude that CNA-associated chromosomal breaks within genes represent a highly prevalent and clinically relevant subset of SVs in CRC. PMID:26375816

  12. Reducing False Alarm Rates for Critical Arrhythmias Using the Arterial Blood Pressure Waveform

    PubMed Central

    Aboukhalil, Anton; Nielsen, Larry; Saeed, Mohammed; Mark, Roger G.; Clifford, Gari D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, high false alarm (FA) rates have remained an important yet unresolved concern in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). High FA rates lead to desensitization of the attending staff to such warnings, with associated slowing in response times and detrimental decreases in the quality of care for the patient. False arrhythmia alarms are commonly due to single channel ECG artifacts and low voltage signals, and therefore it is likely that the FA rates may be reduced if information from other independent signals is used to form a more robust hypothesis of the alarm’s etiology. Methods A large multi-parameter ICU database (PhysioNet’s MIMIC II database) was used to investigate the frequency of five categories of false critical (“red” or “life-threatening”) ECG arrhythmia alarms produced by a commercial ICU monitoring system, namely: asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia. Non-critical (“yellow”) arrhythmia alarms were not considered in this study. Multiple expert reviews of 5,386 critical ECG arrhythmia alarms from a total of 447 adult patient records in the MIMIC II database were made using the associated 41,301 hours of simultaneous ECG and arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveforms. An algorithm to suppress false critical ECG arrhythmia alarms using morphological and timing information derived from the ABP signal was then tested. Results An average of 42.7% of the critical ECG arrhythmia alarms were found to be false, with each of the five alarm categories having FA rates between 23.1% and 90.7%. The FA suppression algorithm developed was able to suppress 59.7% of the false alarms, with FA reduction rates as high as 93.5% for asystole and 81.0% for extreme bradycardia. FA reduction rates were lowest for extreme tachycardia (63.7%) and ventricular-related alarms (58.2% for ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia and 33.0% for ventricular tachycardia

  13. Constant false alarm rate algorithm for the dim-small target detection based on the distribution characteristics of target coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiao-Liang; Ren, Kan; Qian, Wei-xian; Wang, Peng-cheng

    2015-10-01

    CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) is a key technology in Infrared dim-small target detection system. Because the traditional constant false alarm rate detection algorithm gets the probability density distribution which is based on the pixel information of each area in the whole image and calculates the target segmentation threshold of each area by formula of Constant false alarm rate, the problems including the difficulty of probability distribution statistics and large amount of algorithm calculation and long delay time are existing. In order to solve the above problems effectively, a formula of Constant false alarm rate based on target coordinates distribution is presented. Firstly, this paper proposes a new formula of Constant false alarm rate by improving the traditional formula of Constant false alarm rate based on the single grayscale distribution which objective statistical distribution features are introduced. So the control of false alarm according to the target distribution information is implemented more accurately and the problem of high false alarm that is caused of the complex background in local area as the cloud reflection and the ground clutter interference is solved. At the same time, in order to reduce the amount of algorithm calculation and improve the real-time characteristics of algorithm, this paper divides the constant false-alarm statistical area through two-dimensional probability density distribution of target number adaptively which is different from the general identifying methods of constant false-alarm statistical area. Finally, the target segmentation threshold of next frame is calculated by iteration based on the function of target distribution probability density in image sequence which can achieve the purpose of controlling the false alarm until the false alarm is down to the upper limit. The experiment results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the operation time and meet the real-time requirements on

  14. Ultra low frequency electromagnetic fire alarm system for underground mines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During an underground mine fire, air can be rapidly depleted of oxygen and contaminated with smoke and toxic fire gases. Any delay in warning miners could have disastrous consequences. Unfortunately, present mine fire alarm systems, such as stench, audible or visual alarms, telephones, and messengers, are often slow, unreliable, and limited in mine area coverage. Recent research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines has demonstrated that ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic signaling can be used for an underground mine fire alarm. In field tests of prototype equipment at five mines, electromagnetic signals from 630 to 2,000 Hz were transmitted through mine rock for distances as great as 1,645 m to an intrinsically safe receiver. The prototype system uses off-the-shelf components and state-of-the-art technology to ensure high reliability and low cost. When utilized, this technology would enable simultaneous and instantaneous warning of all underground personnel, regardless of their location or work activity, thereby increasing the likelihood of their successfully escaping a mine disaster. This paper presents the theoretical basis for through-the-rock ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic transmission, design of the prototype transmitter and receiver, and the results of in-mine tests of the prototype system.

  15. Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis in the high natural radiation belt of Kerala, south India.

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, R.; Raju, G. K.; Nair, S. M.; Balasubramanian, G.

    1992-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a crippling disorder which is confined almost exclusively to the Indian subcontinent. Despite its association with a significantly increased risk of cancer, the etiology is still not clear. An epidemiological assessment showed 0.4% prevalence for OSMF in Kerala, South India, which is among the highest recorded. Recently the National Tumour Registry in Trivandrum reported the highest recorded site-specific incidence rate for oral cancer (ICD 140-145) in this area. The coastal belt of the Trivandrum and Quilon districts of Kerala has a very high natural radioactivity (over 1500 mR (387 microC) per year); about 500 mR (129 microC) per year is considered to be the maximum permissible dose for populations in general. An epidemiological survey in this area and in a comparable population (without exposure to high background radiation) as a control showed that the percentage prevalence of OSMF in the study area was 0.27 and in the control area 0.32. It appears highly improbable that the OSMF in the study area was induced by high background radiation. PMID:1486676

  16. An Undergraduate Experiment in Alarm System Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, R. A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving data acquisition by a computer, digital signal transmission from the computer to a digital logic circuit and signal interpretation by this circuit. The system is being used at the Illinois Institute of Technology. Discusses the fundamental concepts involved. Demonstrates the alarm experiment as it is used in…

  17. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers §...

  18. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alarm devices. 77.311 Section 77.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers §...

  19. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to persons on board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide... automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and... arranged as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into...

  20. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  1. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  2. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  3. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  4. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-30 Alarms. (a) Spaces which are protected by a carbon dioxide... such spaces which will be automatically sounded when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space....

  5. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  6. 46 CFR 193.15-30 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... board while the vessel is being navigated which are protected by a carbon dioxide extinguishing system... when the carbon dioxide is admitted to the space. The alarm shall be conspicuously and centrally... as to sound during the 20-second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the...

  7. High prevalence and genetic diversity of Plasmodium malariae and no evidence of Plasmodium knowlesi in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Swoboda, Paul; Harl, Josef; Starzengruber, Peter; Habler, Verena Elisabeth; Bloeschl, Ingrid; Haque, Rashidul; Matt, Julia; Khan, Wasif Ali; Noedl, Harald

    2014-04-01

    Although the prevalence of malaria remains high in parts of Bangladesh, there continues to be a substantial shortage of information regarding the less common malaria parasites such as Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. Recent studies indicate that P. malariae may be extremely rare, and so far, there are no data on the presence (or absence) of P. knowlesi in southeastern Bangladesh. Genus- and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was performed to assess the presence and prevalence of P. malariae and P. knowlesi in 2,246 samples originating from asymptomatic and febrile participants of a cross-sectional and a febrile illnesses study in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in southeastern Bangladesh. P. malariae was detected in 60 samples (2.7%) corresponding to 8% of the 746 samples giving positive PCR results for Plasmodium sp., mainly because of the high prevalence (9.5%) among asymptomatic study participants testing positive for malaria. Symptomatic cases were more common (4.3% of all symptomatic malaria cases) during the dry season. Parasitemias were low (1,120-2,560/μl in symptomatic and 120-520/μl in asymptomatic carriers). Symptomatic patients presented mild to moderate symptoms like fever, chills, headache, dizziness, fatigue and myalgia.Although both the intermediate as well as the definite host are known to be endemic in southeastern Bangladesh, no evidence for the presence of P. knowlesi was found. We conclude that the role of P. malariae is highly underestimated in rural Bangladesh with major implications for malaria control and elimination strategies. PMID:24578257

  8. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  9. High Prevalence and Genotype Diversity of Anal HPV Infection among MSM in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Supindham, Taweewat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Miura, Toshiyuki; Ruanpeng, Darin; Chotirosniramit, Nuntisa; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Songsupa, Radchanok; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee; Wongthanee, Antika

    2015-01-01

    Background HPV infection is common and may cause cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal HPV infection (HPV+) was found in 85% of HIV-positive (HIV+) and 59% of HIV-negative (HIV-) MSM in Bangkok, central Thailand. As little is known about HPV in this group in northern Thailand, we studied MSM subgroups comprised of gay men (GM), bisexual men (BM), and transgender women (TGW). Methods From July 2012 through January 2013, 85 (42.5% of 200) GM, 30 (15%) BM, and 85 (42.5%) TGW who practiced receptive anal intercourse were recruited after informed consent, followed by self-assisted computer interview, HIV testing, and anal swabs for HPV genotyping. Results Of 197 adequate specimens, the overall prevalence of any HPV was 157 (80%). Prevalence was 89% (76/85) in GM, 48% (14/29) in BM, and 81% (67/83) in TGW. The most common high-risk types were HPV16 (27% of 197), HPV58 (23%), and HPV51 (18%). Prevalence of high-risk types was 74% in 85 GM, 35% in 29 BM, and 71% in 83 TGW. Prevalence of any HPV type, or high-risk type, was 100% and 94%, respectively, among 48 HIV+ MSM, 70% and 54% among 120 HIV- MSM. Of the 197 specimens, 36% (70) had HPV types 16 and/or 18 in the bivalent vaccine, compared to 48% (95) with ≥1 of types 16/18/06/11 in the quadrivalent, 56% (111) for 16/18/31/33/45/52/58 in the 7-valent, and 64% (126) for 16/18/31/33/45/52/58/06/11 in the 9-valent. HIV+, GM, and TGW were independently associated with HPV infection. Conclusions We found higher rates of both any HPV and high-risk types than previous studies. Among the heretofore unstudied TGW, their equivalent HPV rates were comparable to GM. Current and investigational HPV vaccines could substantially protect GM, BM, and TGW from the serious consequences of HPV infection especially among HIV + MSM. PMID:25932915

  10. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  11. High prevalence of West Nile virus: a continuing risk in acquiring infection from a mosquito bite.

    PubMed

    Sirigireddy, Kamesh R; Kennedy, George A; Broce, Alberto; Zurek, Ludek; Ganta, Roman R

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of West Nile Virus (WNV) was evaluated by diplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the years 2001-2005 in Culex species of mosquitoes, several species of dead birds, and clinically suspected mammals collected in Kansas. The analysis was performed using a TaqMan-based diplex real-time RT-PCR assay targeted against two regions of the WNV genome, envelope glycoprotein gene and 3' untranslated region. The assay aided in the accurate detection of WNV in mosquitoes at high prevalence for the years 2002-2005. Similarly, high incidence of birds that tested positive for WNV was detected in 2002-2004. WNV positives in mammals by the diplex real time RT-PCR assay included horses, squirrels, mules, sheep and a mountain goat. Majority of the equine WNV positives were detected only in the year 2002. Sequence analysis of a segment of the envelope glycoprotein gene from 31 randomly selected WNV positive samples revealed variations in six samples at one or two nucleotide positions. The identity of high levels of WNV positives in Kansas parallels the recent reports on the widespread distribution of the virus in the United States. The continued detection of WNV in the mosquitoes is of significant public health concern and calls for continued surveillance and public health activities. PMID:17187569

  12. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) in high prevalence-low resource settings.

    PubMed

    El Ekiaby, Magdy; Lelie, Nico; Allain, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Blood screening by NAT for major transfusion transmitted viral infections (TTIs) was originally intended to complement serology for detection of infected donations. Reports from developed countries showed limited marginal value to NAT blood screening in improving blood safety. Reports on NAT results from Europe indicated yield of 1:0.6 million donations for HBV, <1:M for HCV and HIV-1-related to low prevalence of TTI. In contrast, prevalence of TTI in resource-limited countries is almost always high. As a result, more incident cases can be expected among first-time blood donors. Most reports of NAT blood donation screening in these countries showed NAT confirmed yield as high as 1/2800 for HBV and 1/3100 blood donations for HCV as reported from Thailand and Egypt, respectively. The issues for low resource countries are mostly the high cost of NAT but also the requirements of staff qualification, adequate facilities, reagent procurement and maintenance of delicate equipment. Alternatives to commercial NAT are the use of combos antigen-antibody for HIV and HCV, anti-HBc for HBV and in-house NAT. Most of these alternatives have been reported but very few comparisons are available. Once yield data is available, models for estimation of feasibility and cost-effectiveness are proposed to help decision-making. PMID:20079664

  13. The value of screening in patient populations with high prevalence of a disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Thombs and colleagues have shown that screening consecutive attendees in primary care settings in high income countries for depression is not worthwhile. However, it is dangerous to generalize from high income countries such as the USA to the rest of the world. The positive predictive value of any screening test for depression is affected by the prevalence of the disorder in the population being considered. Populations with an increased prevalence of depression, such as those with chronic physical disorders, or with a history of depression or other mental health problems may benefit from screening, even in high income countries. Populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC) may also benefit from screening if they are experiencing severe social adversity, including poverty. Two examples are given, in which screening with a brief screening questionnaire was followed by collaborative stepped care, to the considerable benefit of the patients in LMIC. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/13. PMID:24472627

  14. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Rachel A.; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Media reports linking unusual animal behaviour with earthquakes can potentially create false alarms and unnecessary anxiety among people that live in earthquake risk zones. Recently large frog swarms in China and elsewhere have been reported as earthquake precursors in the media. By examining international media reports of frog swarms since 1850 in comparison to earthquake data, it was concluded that frog swarms are naturally occurring dispersal behaviour of juveniles and are not associated with earthquakes. However, the media in seismic risk areas may be more likely to report frog swarms, and more likely to disseminate reports on frog swarms after earthquakes have occurred, leading to an apparent link between frog swarms and earthquakes. Abstract In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by

  15. High prevalence and low awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Asian Indian women.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Pandey, R M; Misra, A; Agrawal, A; Misra, P; Dey, S; Rao, S; Menon, V U; Kamalamma, N; Vasantha Devi, K P; Revathi, K; Vikram, N K; Sharma, V; Guptha, S

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is an important public health problem in India. To determine its prevalence, awareness, treatment and control among women, we performed a nationwide study. Population-based studies among women aged 35-70 years were performed in four urban and five rural locations. Stratified sampling was performed and we enrolled 4608 (rural 2604 and urban 2004) of the targeted 8000 (57%). Demographic details, medical history, diet, physical activity, anthropometry and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Descriptive statistics are reported. Logistic regression was performed to determine the association of hypertension and its awareness, treatment and control with socioeconomic factors. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension (known or BP≥140/≥90 mm Hg) was observed in 1672 women (39.2%) (rural 746, 31.5%; urban 926, 48.2%). Significant determinants of hypertension were urban location, greater literacy, high dietary fat, low fibre intake, obesity and truncal obesity (P<0.01). Hypertension awareness was noted in 727 women (42.8%), more in urban (529, 56.8%) than in rural (198, 24.6%). Of these, 38.6% of the women were on treatment (urban 35.7, rural 46.5) and of those treated, controlled blood pressure (<140 and <90 mm Hg) was observed in 21.5% (urban 28.3 vs 10.2). Among hypertensive subjects, treatment was noted in 18.3% (rural 13.1, urban 22.5) and control in 3.9% (rural 1.3, urban 5.9). A significant determinant of low awareness, treatment and control was rural location (multivariate-adjusted P<0.05). There is a high prevalence of hypertension in middle-aged Asian Indian women. Very low awareness, treatment and control status are observed. PMID:21881598

  16. High Prevalence of HTLV-1 Infection among Japanese Immigrants in Non-endemic Area of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bandeira, Larissa M.; Uehara, Silvia N. O.; Asato, Marcel A.; Aguena, Gabriela S.; Maedo, Cristiane M.; Benites, Nikolas H.; Puga, Marco A. M.; Rezende, Grazielli R.; Finotti, Carolina M.; Cesar, Gabriela A.; Tanaka, Tayana S. O.; Castro, Vivianne O. L.; Otsuki, Koko; Vicente, Ana C. P.; Fernandes, Carlos E.; Motta-Castro, Ana R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has worldwide distribution and is considered endemic in many world regions, including southwestern Japan and Brazil. Japanese immigrants and their descendants have a high risk of acquiring this infection due to intense population exchange between Brazil and Japan. Objective This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HTLV, analyze the main risk factors associated with this infection, identify the main circulating types and subtypes of HTLV in Japanese immigrants and descendants living in Campo Grande-MS (Middle-West Brazil), as well as analyze the phylogenetic relationship among isolates of HTLV. Study Design A total of 219 individuals were interviewed and submitted to blood collection. All collected blood samples were submitted for detection of anti-HTLV-1/2 using the immunoassay ELISA and confirmed by immunoblot method. The proviral DNA of the 14 samples HTLV- 1 positive were genotyped by nucleotide sequencing. Results The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 was 6.8% (IC 95%: 3,5-10,2). Descriptive analysis of behavioral risk factors showed statistical association between HTLV-1 and age greater than or equal to 45 years. The proviral DNA of HTLV-1 was detected in all HTLV-1 positive samples. Of these, 14 were sequenced and classified as Cosmopolitan subtype, and 50% (7/14) belonged to subgroup A (transcontinental) and 50% (7/14) to the subgroup B (Japanese). Conclusion The high prevalence of HTLV-1 found evidence of the importance of early diagnosis and counseling of individuals infected with HTLV-1 for the control and prevention of the spread of this infection among Japanese immigrants and their descendants in Central Brazil. PMID:25886507

  17. High Blood Pressure in Panama: Prevalence, Sociodemographic and Biologic Profile, Treatment, and Control (STROBE)

    PubMed Central

    Mc Donald Posso, Anselmo J.; Motta Borrel, Jorge A.; Fontes, Flavia; Cruz Gonzalez, Clara E.; Pachón Burgos, Alvaro A.; Cumbrera Ortega, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence, treatment, and control of high blood pressure, hypertension (HBP) in Panama and assess its associations with sociodemographic and biologic factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in Panama by administering a survey on cardiovascular risk factors to 3590 adults and measuring their blood pressure 3 times. A single-stage, probabilistic, and randomized sampling strategy with a multivariate stratification was used. The average blood pressure, confidence intervals (CIs), odds ratio (OR), and a value of P ≤ 0.05 were used for the analysis. The estimated prevalence of HBP was 29.6% (95% CI, 28.0–31.1); it was more prevalent in men than in women, OR = 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17–1.61); it increased with age and was more frequent among Afro-Panamanians (33.8%). HBP was associated with a family history of HBP with being physically inactive and a body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m2 or a waist circumference >90 cm in men and >88 cm in women (P < 0.001). Of those found to have HBP, 65.6% were aware of having HBP and taking medications, and of these, 47.2% had achieved control (<140/90 mm ​​Hg). HBP is the most common cardiovascular risk factor among Panamanians and consequently an important public health problem in Panama. The health care system needs to give a high priority to HBP prevention programs and integrated care programs aimed at treating HBP, taking into consideration the changes in behavior that have been brought about by alterations in nutrition and sedentary lifestyles. PMID:25396327

  18. A Model of Clinical Alarm Errors in Hospital.

    PubMed

    Busch-Vishniac, Ilene

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been much attention paid recently to clinical alarms, research has primarily focused on particular aspects of the clinical alarm problem, such as how to reduce nuisance alarms. This paper takes a broad view of clinical alarms and develops a model of errors in alarm handling and how they affect patients directly. Based on reports in the literature, I estimate that alarms that should sound by current standards do not sound about 9% of the time. Additionally, about 3% of alarms that are clinically significant are ignored, either intentionally or because they were inaudible. However, these errors produce a very low rate of reported alarm-related deaths and other adverse effects (on the order of a couple adverse effects per 10 million alarm errors). While it is not yet possible to estimate the probabilities of clinical alarms having an adverse impact on patients other than the patient whose alarm is sounding, such indirect adverse effects likely occur at a low level as a result of disruption of staff workflow, creation of a noisy hospital environment, and contribution to communication difficulties. Consideration of alarms should include not only the patient connected to the device that is sounding, but also the impact of the alarm on other patients in the vicinity. PMID:26196919

  19. High prevalence of high grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women screened for anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hou, June Y; Smotkin, David; Grossberg, Robert; Suhrland, Mark; Levine, Rebecca; Smith, Harriet O; Negassa, Abdissa; McAndrew, Thomas C; Einstein, Mark H

    2012-06-01

    There is no consensus on optimal screening for anal cancer (AC) in HIV+ women. Seven hundred fifteen unique asymptomatic women in a high-prevalence HIV+ community were screened for AC with anal cytology and triage to high-resolution anoscopy after routine screening was implemented in a large urban hospital system. Of these, 75 (10.5%) had an abnormal anal cytology and 29 (38.7%) of those with an abnormality had high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Women with poorly controlled HIV were significantly more likely to have high-grade AIN (P = 0.03). Given the high rate of AIN in screened HIV-infected women, routine AC screening in all HIV-infected women should be strongly considered. PMID:22466085

  20. HIV testing among clients in high HIV prevalence venues: Disparities between older and younger adults

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Chandra L.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Wallace, Steven P.; Nakazono, Terry; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of every client presenting for services in venues where HIV prevalence is high. Because older adults (age>50 years) have particularly poor prognosis if they receive their diagnosis late in the course of HIV disease, any screening provided to younger adults in these venues should also be provided to older adults. We examined aging-related disparities in recent (past 12 months) and ever HIV testing in a probability sample of at-risk adults (N=1,238) seeking services in needle exchange sites, sexually transmitted disease clinics and Latino community clinics that provide HIV testing. Using multiple logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, we estimated associations between age category (<50 years vs. >50 years) and each HIV testing outcome. Even after controlling for covariates such as recent injection drug use, older adults had 40% lower odds than younger adults did of having tested in the past 12 months (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.40–0.90) or ever (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.40–0.90). Aging-related disparities in HIV testing exist in these high HIV prevalence venues, and may contribute to known aging-related disparities in late diagnosis of HIV infection and poor long-term prognosis. PMID:25303208

  1. High prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs from Belgrade, Serbia--short communication.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Aleksandra; Dimitrijević, Sanda; Katić-Radivojević, Sofija; Klun, Ivana; Bobrć, Branko; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2008-09-01

    To identify areas of risk for canine-related zoonoses in Serbia, the aim of this study was to provide baseline knowledge about intestinal parasites in 151 dogs (65 household pets, 75 stray and 11 military working dogs) from Belgrade. The following parasites, with their respective prevalences, were detected: Giardia duodenalis (14.6%), Ancylostomatidae (24.5%), Toxocara canis (30.5%), Trichuris vulpis (47.0%) and Taenia-type helminths (6.6%). Of all examined dogs, 75.5% (114/151) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. Of these, mixed infections with up to four species per dog occurred in 44.7% (51/114). Infections with all detected species were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in military working (100%) and stray dogs (93.3%) versus household pets (50.8%). Among all parasites, agents with zoonotic potential including Giardia, Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara were detected in 58.3% (88/151) of all examined dogs with a significant difference (p < 0.05) among the subgroups (100%, 62.7% and 46.2% for military working dogs, stray dogs and household pets, respectively). The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in south-eastern Europe indicates a potential risk to human health. Thus, veterinarians should play an important role in helping to prevent or minimise zoonotic transmission. PMID:18828485

  2. Utility of Multiple-Stool-Specimen Ova and Parasite Examinations in a High-Prevalence Setting

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Charles P.

    1999-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the results of 2,704 ova and parasite (O & P) examinations performed on stool specimens collected from 1,374 patients between October 1996 and September 1997 was performed to evaluate the utility of performing O & P examinations on multiple, independently collected stool specimens in a high-prevalence setting. A total of 995 specimens (36.8%) examined during the study contained parasites; 546 (20.2%) contained pathogenic organisms. The positivity rate (54.5%) for the patients from whom three specimens were examined was significantly higher than for the patients from whom either two specimens (33.3%) or a single specimen (19.8%) was submitted for examination. For the group of patients from whom at least 3 specimens were submitted for O & P examination, 373 independent opportunities for diagnosing infection with intestinal parasites could be analyzed. The first stool specimen collected proved to be adequate in only 75.9% (283 of 373) of evaluated cases; however, examination of two specimens increased the sensitivity of O & P detection to 92% (343 of 373). The third specimen collected provided additional information on only 30 of 373 occasions (8%). These data indicate that in populations with a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections, two independently collected stool specimens should be subjected to O & P examination to ensure adequate diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:10405376

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Highly Prevalent Amyloid A Amyloidosis Endemic to Endangered Island Foxes

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Patricia M.; Imai, Denise M.; Clifford, Deana L.; Ghassemian, Majid; Sasik, Roman; Chang, Aaron N.; O’Brien, Timothy D.; Coppinger, Judith; Trejo, Margarita; Masliah, Eliezer; Munson, Linda; Sigurdson, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a debilitating, often fatal, systemic amyloid disease associated with chronic inflammation and persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA). Elevated SAA is necessary but not sufficient to cause disease and the risk factors for AA amyloidosis remain poorly understood. Here we identify an extraordinarily high prevalence of AA amyloidosis (34%) in a genetically isolated population of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) with concurrent chronic inflammatory diseases. Amyloid deposits were most common in kidney (76%), spleen (58%), oral cavity (45%), and vasculature (44%) and were composed of unbranching, 10 nm in diameter fibrils. Peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry revealed that SAA peptides were dominant in amyloid-laden kidney, together with high levels of apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-IV, fibrinogen-α chain, and complement C3 and C4 (false discovery rate ≤0.05). Reassembled peptide sequences showed island fox SAA as an 111 amino acid protein, most similar to dog and artic fox, with 5 unique amino acid variants among carnivores. SAA peptides extended to the last two C-terminal amino acids in 5 of 9 samples, indicating that near full length SAA was often present in amyloid aggregates. These studies define a remarkably prevalent AA amyloidosis in island foxes with widespread systemic amyloid deposition, a unique SAA sequence, and the co-occurrence of AA with apolipoproteins. PMID:25429466

  4. High prevalence of hypertension among an ethnic group in Sudan: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Noor, Sufian K; Elsugud, Nada A; Bushara, Sarra O; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Ahmed, Mohamed H

    2016-04-01

    Objective Hypertension is an emerging non-communicable disease in developing countries. Due to its silent nature and serious complications, active screening is essential in order to prevent complications. For instance, premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases could be prevented by the effective control of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension among Nuba ethnic group living in Atbara city, north Sudan and to identify the associated risk factors. Subject and methods All consenting 500 adults from Nuba tribe who live in El Wihda District, Atbara were included. Blood pressure (BP) and body mass index were measured. Standard interviewing procedures were used to record medical history, socio-demographic data, and lifestyle characteristics. Results Among the 500 participants, females were 364 (72.8%) and males were 136 (27.2%). The overall prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was 49.4% (30.8% stage 1 hypertension and 18.6% stage 2 hypertension). In addition, 41% of the population was having prehypertension. The significant risk factors for high BP were: male sex, age above 45 years, overweight, illiteracy, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Undiagnosed high BP is very common among Nuba ethnic group; therefore, active screening and early management are recommended to prevent complications. PMID:26738696

  5. High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in Bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Catherine A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jiz, Mario; Olveda, Remigio M.; Ross, Allen G.; Gray, Darren J.; Williams, Gail M.; Harn, Donald; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis) have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle) from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively) and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively). The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively). The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines. PMID:25643317

  6. 8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  8. Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

  9. Estimates of HIV prevalence in a highly endemic area of China: Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Jiangping; Fan, Lu; Song, Duan; Tian, Shuming; Yang, Yuecheng; Jia, Manhong; Lu, Lin; Sun, Xinhua; Zhang, Sanguo; Kulczycki, Andrzej; Vermund, Sten H

    2008-01-01

    Background Dehong Prefecture in Yunnan Province, China, borders Myanmar. Its proximity to the ‘Golden Triangle’, one of the world's largest illicit drug production and distribution centre, contributes to drug trafficking and ready availability of heroin. Dehong's 1.1 million people confront a serious HIV problem fuelled by injection drug use. The aim of this study is to improve the 2005 estimates of the true status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Dehong Prefecture. Methods We estimated the HIV prevalence by synthesizing the results from several data sources (HIV/AIDS case reports, surveys, surveillance activities and epidemiological studies). We applied three different statistical procedures for estimations: (i) The Workbook method, adapted to meet the estimation needs in Dehong Prefecture; (ii) An estimate based on antenatal clinical data; and (iii) a dynamic model based on the local epidemic pattern. Results We estimated that the population prevalence for HIV infections in Dehong Prefecture is 1.3% (likely range from low/high of three estimates: 0.9–1.7%) such that 13 500 people were living with HIV/AIDS in Dehong Prefecture (likely range: 8200–18 300) in 2005. Infections remain concentrated among injection drug users, female sex workers and their clients with an uneven geographical distribution of estimated cases. Conclusion More reliable estimates of HIV prevalence can be made by synthesizing multiple data sources using several procedures. Current HIV prevention, care and treatment challenges are judged substantial in Dehong Prefecture, regardless of what modelling strategy is used. PMID:18922804

  10. High Prevalence of Disc Degeneration and Spondylolysis in the Lumbar Spine of Professional Beach Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Külling, Fabrice A.; Florianz, Hannes; Reepschläger, Bastian; Gasser, Johann; Jost, Bernhard; Lajtai, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beach volleyball is an intensive sport with high impact on the lumbar spine. Low back pain (LBP) is frequent among elite players. Increased prevalence of pathological changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the lumbar spine of elite athletes has been reported. Hypothesis: There is an increased prevalence of disc degeneration and spondylolysis in the MRI of the lumbar spine of professional beach volleyball players. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Twenty-nine fully competitive professional male volleyball players (mean age, 28 years) completed outcomes questionnaires and underwent a complete clinical examination and an MRI of their lumbar spine. Results: Whereas 86% of players suffered from LBP during their career, the incidence of LBP in the last 4 weeks was 35%. Pain rated using a visual analog scale (VAS) averaged 3 points (range, 0-8). Twenty-three of 29 players (79%) had at least 1 degenerated disc of Pfirrmann grade ≥3. The most affected spinal levels were L4-5 in 14 (48%) and L5-S1 in 15 players (52%); both levels were involved in 5 players (17%). Six of 29 (21%) players showed a spondylolysis grade 4 according to the Hollenburg classification; there was evidence of spondylolisthesis in 2 players. There was no significant correlation between LBP and MRI abnormalities. Conclusion: In the lumbar spine MRI of professional beach volleyball players, the prevalence of disc degeneration is 79%. Spondylolysis (21%) is up to 3 times higher compared with the normal population. Abnormal MRI findings did not correlate with LBP, thus MRIs have to be interpreted with caution. PMID:26535316

  11. High Prevalence of Hearing Impairment in HIV-Infected Peruvian Children

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Christina K.; Czechowicz, Josephine A.; Messner, Anna H.; Alarcón, Jorge; Roca, Lenka Kolevic; Rodriguez, Marsi M. Larragán; Villafuerte, César Gutiérrez; Montano, Silvia M.; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To measure the prevalence and to identify risk factors of hearing impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children living in Peru. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Two public hospitals and 1 nonprofit center in Lima, Peru, between August 2009 and April 2010. Subjects A total of 139 HIV-infected children, ages 4 to 19 years. Methods Hearing impairment and otologic health were assessed with pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and otoscopy. The primary outcome was hearing loss, defined as average threshold >25dB for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz, in one or both ears. Historical and socioeconomic information was obtained through parental survey and medical chart review. Statistical analysis included univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Results Fifty-four (38.8%) of 139 children had hearing impairment. On multivariate analysis, risk factors included: tympanic membrane perforation (odds ratio [OR] 7.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-30.5; P = .01), abnormal tympanometry (OR 2.71; 95% CI, 1.09-6.75; P = .03), cerebral infection (OR 11.6; 95% CI, 1.06-126; P = .05), seizures (OR 5.20; 95% CI, 1.21-22.4; P = .03), and CD4 cell count <500 cells/mm3 (OR 3.53; 95% CI, 1.18-10.5; P = .02). Conclusions The prevalence of hearing impairment in HIV-infected children in Lima, Peru was 38.8%. Middle ear disease, prior cerebral infection, and low CD4 cell count were significantly associated with hearing impairment. The high prevalence of hearing impairment emphasizes the need for periodic hearing assessment in the routine clinical care of HIV-infected children. PMID:22128111

  12. High prevalence of raised lipoprotein(a) in patients with refractory angina

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tina Z; Rhodes, Samantha; Pottle, Alison; Banya, Winston; Smith, Robert; Kabir, Tito; Ilsley, Charles; Pennell, Dudley J; Barbir, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Angina that is refractory to conventional medical therapy and revascularisation, remains challenging to manage and poses significant burden to patients. Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has emerged as an important independent cardiovascular risk factor and predictor of adverse outcomes in atherosclerotic disease. The prevalence of raised Lp(a) amongst patients with refractory angina has not yet been defined. Objective: To establish the prevalence of raised [Lp(a)] >500 mg/L in patients with refractory angina. Methods: We conducted an epidemiological screening pilot study in 75 patients with refractory angina from a UK tertiary cardiac centre. We determined the proportion of the cohort with raised Lp(a) >500 mg/L using an isoform-insensitive method. In addition, a full fasting lipid profile (including: LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol to HDL ratio and triglycerides) was obtained. Patients were also asked about the presence of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Our study demonstrated that 60% of the 75 patients with refractory angina had raised Lp(a) levels of >500 mg/L. The median and inter-quartile range of Lp(a) values were 771 mg/L (162 mg/L,1260 mg/L) respectively. Conclusions: This high prevalence of raised Lp(a) detected in our cohort with refractory angina may suggest a causal role. Further research is necessary to confirm this association and prospective studies are needed to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of Lp(a) reduction in patients with refractory angina. PMID:26779510

  13. Prevalence and correlates of latent tuberculosis infection among employees of a high security prison in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Tan, Cynthia; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although prison employees share the same tuberculosis (TB) risk environment with prisoners, the magnitude of TB problems among prison employees is unknown in most resource-limited prisons. This survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence and correlates of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity among employees in Malaysia’s largest prison. Methods Consented, full-time prison employees were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that included sociodemographic data, history of working in the correctional system and TB-related risk. TST was placed intradermally and read after 48–72 h. Induration size of ≥10 mm was considered positive. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore associations with TST positivity. Results Of the 445 recruited prison employees, 420 (94.4%) had complete data. Most were young (median=30.0 years) men (88.8%) who had only worked at this prison (76.4%) for a median total employment period of 60 months (IQR 34.5–132.0). The majority were correctional officers, while civilian employees represented only 7.6% of the sample. Only 26 (6.2%) reported having ever been screened for TB since employment. Prevalence of TST positivity was 81% and was independently associated with longer (≥12 months) prison employment (AOR 4.9; 95% CI 1.5 to 15.9) and current tobacco smoking (AOR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.2). Conclusions Latent TB prevalence was high in this sample, approximating that of prisoners in this setting, perhaps suggesting within prison TB transmission in this facility. Formal TB control programmes for personnel and prisoners alike are urgently needed within the Malaysian correctional system. PMID:25794506

  14. High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Asia (an ANSORP study).

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Jung, Sook-In; Ko, Kwan Soo; Kim, Na Young; Son, Jun Seong; Chang, Hyun-Ha; Ki, Hyun Kyun; Oh, Won Sup; Suh, Ji Yoeun; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Yang, Yonghong; Lu, Quan; Chongthaleong, Anan; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lalitha, M K; Perera, Jennifer; Yee, Ti Teow; Kumarasinghe, Gamini; Jamal, Farida; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Parasakthi, Navaratnam; Van, Pham Hung; Carlos, Celia; So, Thomas; Ng, Tak Keung; Shibl, Atef

    2004-06-01

    A total of 685 clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from patients with pneumococcal diseases were collected from 14 centers in 11 Asian countries from January 2000 to June 2001. The in vitro susceptibilities of the isolates to 14 antimicrobial agents were determined by the broth microdilution test. Among the isolates tested, 483 (52.4%) were not susceptible to penicillin, 23% were intermediate, and 29.4% were penicillin resistant (MICs >/= 2 mg/liter). Isolates from Vietnam showed the highest prevalence of penicillin resistance (71.4%), followed by those from Korea (54.8%), Hong Kong (43.2%), and Taiwan (38.6%). The penicillin MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC(90)s) were 4 mg/liter among isolates from Vietnam, Hong Kong, Korea, and Taiwan. The prevalence of erythromycin resistance was also very high in Vietnam (92.1%), Taiwan (86%), Korea (80.6%), Hong Kong (76.8%), and China (73.9%). The MIC(90)s of erythromycin were >32 mg/liter among isolates from Korea, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. Isolates from Hong Kong showed the highest rate of ciprofloxacin resistance (11.8%), followed by isolates from Sri Lanka (9.5%), the Philippines (9.1%), and Korea (6.5%). Multilocus sequence typing showed that the spread of the Taiwan(19F) clone and the Spain(23F) clone could be one of the major reasons for the rapid increases in antimicrobial resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates in Asia. Data from the multinational surveillance study clearly documented distinctive increases in the prevalence rates and the levels of antimicrobial resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates in many Asian countries, which are among the highest in the world published to date. PMID:15155207

  15. High prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in women with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Mancini, Tatiana; Mormando, Marilda; De Menis, Ernesto; Bianchi, Antonio; Doga, Mauro; Porcelli, Teresa; Vescovi, Pier Paolo; De Marinis, Laura; Giustina, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    Hyperprolactinemia may cause bone loss but data on fractures are scanty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vertebral fractures in women with prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenoma. In this cross-sectional study, 78 women (median age 45.5 years, range: 20-81) with PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma (66 with microadenoma and 12 with macroadenoma) and 156 control subjects, with normal PRL values and with comparable age to patients with hyperprolactinemia, were evaluated for vertebral fractures by a morphometric approach and for bone mineral density (BMD) by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Vertebral fractures were shown in 25 patients with PRL-secreting adenoma (32.6%) and in 20 controls (12.8%, P < 0.001). Fractured patients were significantly older (P < 0.001) and had lower BMD T-score (P < 0.001), longer duration of disease (P < 0.001), higher serum PRL (P = 0.004) and lower serum IGF-I (P < 0.001) values as compared to patients who did not fracture. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in post-menopausal women with PRL-secreting adenoma as compared to pre-menopausal patients. Fractures occurred more frequently (P = 0.01) in patients with untreated hyperprolactinemia versus patients treated with cabergoline. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that duration of disease maintained a significant correlation with vertebral fractures (odds ratio 1.16, C.I. 95% 1.02-1.33) even after correction for age, menopausal status, treatment with cabergoline, BMD, serum IGF-I and serum PRL values. Hyperprolactinemia is associated with high prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in women with PRL-secreting adenoma. PMID:21301967

  16. High Prevalence of Isolated Nocturnal Hypertension in Chinese Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Deng, Wen-Jie; Gong, Wen-Yu; Zhang, Jun; Tang, Hua; Peng, Hui; Zhang, Qun-Zi; Ye, Zeng-Chun; Lou, Tanqi

    2015-01-01

    Background Isolated nocturnal hypertension (INH) has been studied among the general population and hypertensive patients. However, little insight is available on the prevalence of INH and its role in target-organ damage among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods and Results We recruited 1282 CKD patients admitted to our hospital division. Patients were divided into 4 groups: INH; isolated daytime hypertension; day–night sustained; and ambulatory normotension. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlation between INH and renal/cardiovascular parameters. A total of 262 (20.44%) CKD patients had isolated nocturnal hypertension and 651 (50.78%) had day–night sustained hypertension, whereas only 350 (27.30%) patients showed normotension and 19 (1.48%) had isolated daytime hypertension. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that INH was associated mainly with age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, clinic diastolic blood pressure, and that INH was determined only by age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and clinic diastolic blood pressure. The prevalence of impaired renal function, left ventricular hypertrophy, and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with INH were higher than in normotensive patients (P<0.05), whereas impaired renal function and left ventricular hypertrophy in these patients were lower than patients in the day–night sustained hypertension group (P<0.05). INH was correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate, left ventricular mass index, and carotid intima-media thickness according to multiple linear regression analyses. Conclusions The prevalence of INH in CKD patients was high, and INH was correlated with target-organ damage in CKD patients. PMID:26089178

  17. Comparison of asthma prevalence among African American teenage youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia and urban Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Dennis R.; Tingen, Martha S.; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Christine C.; Joseph, Christine C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention while the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. Objective To compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. Methods The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. Results In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared to 1514 (60.0%) in GA. Average population density in high school ZIP codes was 5628 people/mi2 in Detroit and 45.1 people/mi2 in GA. The percent of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and GA were similar: 15.0% (95% CI 14.1–15.8), and 13.7% (CI 12.0–17.1) (p=.22), respectively. Undiagnosed asthma prevalence in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in GA (p=.56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit while those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Conclusions Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Clinical Implications Asthma prevalence was as common among African American high school students in rural Georgia as among students in urban Detroit, Michigan. Asthma is more likely related to poverty than urban residence. PMID:25825215

  18. High prevalence of Borna disease virus infection in healthy sheep in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, K; Kawamoto, S; Takahashi, H; Nakamura, Y; Nakaya, T; Hiramune, T; Ishihara, C; Ikuta, K

    1997-01-01

    Previous seroepidemiological and molecular epidemiological studies of Borna disease virus (BDV) showed considerably high rates of infection in horses, cattle, cats, and humans in Hokkaido, Japan. Here, we further demonstrate high rates of specific antibodies to BDV and BDV RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy sheep bred on the same island. The BDV prevalences by immunoblotting and/or reverse transcriptase PCR were 0% (0 of 19) in newborns (<1 month old), 51.7% (15 of 29) in lambs (1 to 6 months old), and 36.7% (11 of 30) in adults (>2 years old). Among animals positive for BDV, 60% of lambs and 45.5% of adults contained BDV RNA in PBMCs while 46.7% of lambs and 90.9% of adults contained specific antibodies to BDV. Thus, it is suggested that virus replication in the blood, as observed in lambs, is usually reduced in adulthood by raising immune responses to BDV. PMID:9144374

  19. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and cancer in Saudi Arabian populations: Can we hypothesize a link?

    PubMed

    Nabi, Gowher; Hobani, Yahya; Sarwat, Maryam

    2015-08-01

    Inspite of having so much sunshine, Saudi Arabian population is suffering from the deficiency of the 'sunshine vitamin', vitamin D, measured in the serum as 25-OHD level. According to a recent report, about 83.6% of Saudi population is vitamin D deficient. 31.9% have severe, 32% have moderate and 19.7% have mild vitamin D deficiency (VDD). The severity of VDD differs with age, gender and region. Females are more severely vitamin D deficient than males. Various factors contributing towards it deficiency are linked to their housing designs, religious practices, lifestyle choices and dark skin color. The increasing incidences of breast, prostate and colon cancer among this society are also raising an alarm. The presence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the enzyme responsible for conversion of the 25(OH)D in its active metabolite 25(OH)2D3 in extra renal tissue shows the involvement of vitamin D in other diseases like cancer, diabetes, multiple sclerosis etc. About 2000 genes related to various types of diseases are found to be regulated by VDRs. These genes possess vitamin D responsive elements (VDREs) in their promoters. Studies on population of other regions also have shown correlation with low serum levels of 25(OH)D and certain diseases So, we hypothesized that vitamin D deficiencies might cause a higher prevalence of these diseases in the Kingdom. PMID:26025591

  20. Should obesity be blamed for the high prevalence rates of hypertension in black South African women?

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Huisman, H W; Van Rooyen, J M; Schutte, R; Malan, L; Reimann, M; De Ridder, J H; van der Merwe, A; Schwarz, P E H; Malan, N T

    2008-08-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in South Africa, resulting in high stroke mortality rates. Since obesity is very common among South African women, it is likely that obesity contributes to the hypertension prevalence. The aims were to determine whether black African women have higher blood pressures (BPs) than Caucasian women, and whether obesity is related to their cardiovascular risk. African (N=102) and Caucasian (N=115) women, matched for age and body mass index, were included. Correlations between obesity (total body fat, abdominal obesity and peripheral fat) and cardiovascular risk markers (haemodynamic parameters, lipids, inflammatory markers, prothrombotic factors, adipokines, HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment insulin resistance)) were compared between the ethnic groups (adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and physical activity). Comparisons between low- and high-BP groups were also made for each ethnic group. Results showed that African women had higher BP (P<0.01) with increased peripheral vascular resistance. Surprisingly, African women showed significantly weaker correlations between obesity measures and cardiovascular risk markers when compared to Caucasian women (specifically systolic BP, arterial resistance, cardiac output, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin and resistin). Interestingly, the latter risk markers were also not significantly different between low- and high-BP African groups. African women, however, presented significant correlations of obesity with triglycerides, C-reactive protein and HOMA that were comparable to the Caucasian women. Although urban African women have higher BP than Caucasians, their obesity levels are weakly related to traditional cardiovascular risk factors compared to Caucasian women. The results, however, suggest a link with the development of insulin resistance. PMID:18432254

  1. High Prevalence of Respiratory Muscle Weakness in Hospitalized Acute Heart Failure Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Verissimo, Pedro; Timenetsky, Karina T.; Casalaspo, Thaisa Juliana André; Gonçalves, Louise Helena Rodrigues; Yang, Angela Shu Yun; Eid, Raquel Caserta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory Muscle Weakness (RMW) has been defined when the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) is lower than 70% of the predictive value. The prevalence of RMW in chronic heart failure patients is 30 to 50%. So far there are no studies on the prevalence of RMW in acute heart failure (AHF) patients. Objectives Evaluate the prevalence of RMW in patients admitted because of AHF and the condition of respiratory muscle strength on discharge from the hospital. Methods Sixty-three patients had their MIP measured on two occasions: at the beginning of the hospital stay, after they had reached respiratory, hemodynamic and clinical stability and before discharge from the hospital. The apparatus and technique to measure MIP were adapted because of age-related limitations of the patients. Data on cardiac ejection fraction, ECG, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and on the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) were collected. Results The mean age of the 63 patients under study was 75 years. On admission the mean ejection fraction was 33% (95% CI: 31–35) and the BNP hormone median value was 726.5 pg/ml (range: 217 to 2283 pg/ml); 65% of the patients used NIV. The median value of MIP measured after clinical stabilization was -52.7 cmH2O (range: -20 to -120 cmH2O); 76% of the patients had MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. On discharge, after a median hospital stay of 11 days, the median MIP was -53.5 cmH2O (range:-20 to -150 cmH2O); 71% of the patients maintained their MIP values below 70% of the predictive value. The differences found were not statistically significant. Conclusion Elderly patients admitted with AHF may present a high prevalence of RMW on admission; this condition may be maintained at similar levels on discharge in a large percentage of these patients, even after clinical stabilization of the heart condition. PMID:25671566

  2. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  3. Poly-Victimisation among Vietnamese High School Students: Prevalence and Demographic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Le, Minh T. H.; Holton, Sara; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Wolfe, Rory; Fisher, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to multiple forms of violence, including abuse and crime is termed poly-victimisation. There has been increasing research interest in poly-victimisation among children and adolescents in high income countries. However, experiences among adolescents living in low- and lower-middle-income countries are yet to be examined. Aims To establish the prevalence of lifetime exposure to poly-victimisation and demographic characteristics of victims among high school students in Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey with a self-report, anonymous questionnaire was conducted in ten high schools in Hanoi, Vietnam between October 2013 and January 2014. Poly-victimisation was assessed using the Juvenile Victimisation Questionnaire Revised 2 (JVQ R2). Results A total of 1,606/1,745 (92.0%) eligible students provided data and were included in the analyses. Lifetime exposure to at least one form of victimisation was reported by 94.3% (95%CI: 92.5-95.4%) of participants and lifetime exposure to more than 10 forms by 31.1% (95%CI: 27.8-33.5%). Poly-victimisation was associated with experiencing more adverse life events, having a chronic disease or disability, living with a step-parent, experiencing family life as unhappy, being disciplined at school, and living in a rural area. Poly-victimisation experiences differed among students from the three types of high schools in Vietnam. Conclusions These data reveal the prevalence and multi-factorial risks of exposure to poly-victimisation among adolescents in Vietnam. Prevalence rates of different forms of victimisation among Vietnamese students, including those previously un-investigated, were higher than those reported in other settings. Poly-victimisation was also common among them. There were certain subgroups who were more vulnerable to poly-victimisation. Further research to understand the broader aspects of adolescence in Vietnam, including poly-victimisation, is thus recommended. Special attention should be paid

  4. Safety vs. privacy: elderly persons' experiences of a mobile safety alarm.

    PubMed

    Melander-Wikman, Anita; Fältholm, Ylva; Gard, Gunvor

    2008-07-01

    The demographic development indicates an increased elderly population in Sweden in the future. One of the greatest challenges for a society with an ageing population is to provide high-quality health and social care. New information and communication technology and services can be used to further improve health care. To enable elderly persons to stay at home as long as possible, various kinds of technology, such as safety alarms, are used at home. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of elderly persons through testing a mobile safety alarm and their reasoning about safety, privacy and mobility. The mobile safety alarm tested was a prototype in development. Five elderly persons with functional limitations and four healthy elderly persons from a pensioner's organisation tested the alarm. The mobile alarm with a drop sensor and a positioning device was tested for 6 weeks. This intervention was evaluated with qualitative interviews, and analysed with latent content analysis. The result showed four main categories: feeling safe, being positioned and supervised, being mobile, and reflecting on new technology. From these categories, the overarching category 'Safety and mobility are more important than privacy' emerged. The mobile safety alarm was perceived to offer an increased opportunity for mobility in terms of being more active and as an aid for self-determination. The fact that the informants were located by means of the positioning device was not experienced as violating privacy as long as they could decide how to use the alarm. It was concluded that this mobile safety alarm was experienced as a tool to be active and mobile. As a way to keep self-determination and empowerment, the individual has to make a 'cost-benefit' analysis where privacy is sacrificed to the benefit of mobility and safety. The participants were actively contributing to the development process. PMID:18613909

  5. Proximate Factors Underpinning Receiver Responses to Deceptive False Alarm Calls in Wild Tufted Capuchin Monkeys: Is It Counterdeception?

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Brandon C; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that tufted capuchin monkeys use terrestrial predator alarm calls in a functionally deceptive manner to distract conspecifics when feeding on contestable resources, although the success of this tactic is limited because listeners frequently ignore these calls when given in such situations. While this decreased response rate is suggestive of a counterstrategy to deception by receivers, the proximate factors underpinning the behavior are unclear. The current study aims to test if the decreased response rate to alarm calls in competitive contexts is better explained by the perception of subtle acoustic differences between predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms, or by receivers varying their responses based on the context in which the signal is received. This was tested by first examining the acoustic structure of predator-elicited and deceptive false alarms for any potentially perceptible acoustic differences, and second by comparing the responses of capuchins to playbacks of each of predator-elicited and false alarms, played back in noncompetitive contexts. The results indicate that deceptive false alarms and predator-elicited alarms show, at best, minimal acoustic differences based on the structural features measured. Likewise, playbacks of deceptive false alarms elicited antipredator reactions at the same rate as did predator-elicited alarms, although there was a nonsignificant tendency for false alarms to be more likely to elicit escape reactions. The lack of robust acoustic differences together with the high response rate to false alarms in noncompetitive contexts suggests that the context in which the signal is received best explains receiver responses. It remains unclear, however, if listeners ascribe different meanings to the calls based on context, or if they generally ignore all signals in competitive contexts. Whether or not the decreased response rate of receivers directly stems from the deceptive use of the calls

  6. Alarm fatigue: a roadmap for mitigating the cacophony of beeps.

    PubMed

    Purbaugh, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon known as alarm fatigue is the direct result of excessive alarms in hospitals. This article highlights the effects of alarm fatigue and reviews current clinical recommendations and guidelines to raise nurse awareness and provide tools to combat the problem. PMID:24310707

  7. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 78.47-7 Section 78.47-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm bells shall...

  9. 46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 97.37-7 Section 97.37-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm...

  10. 46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bells. 196.37-7 Section 196.37-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a) All general alarm...

  11. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alarm is calibrated and zeroed to manufacturer's instructions. (2) It is then fed with water for 15 minutes and then with a mixture of Test Fluid A and water in the following concentrations: 0 ppm, 15 ppm... actuation of the alarm is taken. The alarm is then fed with water for 15 minutes. (3) Repeat steps...

  12. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must...

  13. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  17. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  18. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  19. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  4. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  5. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  6. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  7. 46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler alarm system....

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  9. 46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell, switch. 131.805 Section 131.805... Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.805 General alarm bell, switch. The switch in the pilothouse that activates the general alarm bell must be clearly and permanently identified either by...

  10. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell. 108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be identified by marking “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION” next to the bell....

  11. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked “GENERAL ALARM” on a plate or other firm noncorrosive backing....

  12. 46 CFR 169.731 - General alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bells. 169.731 Section 169.731 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.731 General alarm bells. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over each general alarm bell must be identified by red lettering at least 1/2 inch...

  13. 46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels of 100 gross tons and over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse,...

  14. 46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810 Shipping... Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general alarm bell must be...—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.”...

  15. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  16. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  17. 46 CFR 76.05-5 - Manual alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm system. 76.05-5 Section 76.05-5 Shipping... Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-5 Manual alarm system. (a) An approved manual alarm system shall be installed in all areas, other than the main machinery spaces,...

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  19. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...

  20. Evolution and Otitis Media: A Review, and a Model to Explain High Prevalence in Indigenous Populations.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Mahmood F

    2015-04-01

    Otitis media (OM; inflammation of the middle ear) comprises a group of disorders that are among the most common disorders of childhood. OM is also heritable and has effects on fecundity. This means that OM is subject to evolution, yet the evolutionary forces that may determine susceptibility to OM have not been adequately explored. Here I analyze evolutionary forces that may determine susceptibility to middle ear inflammation. These forces include those affecting function of the middle ear, host immunity, or colonization by and pathogenicity of bacteria. I review existing evolutionary models of host-pathogen interaction and coevolution and apply these to better understand the complex evolutionary landscape of middle ear infection and inflammation in humans, including factors determining transition between stable evolutionary strategies for host and bacteria. This understanding is then applied to an analysis of OM in indigenous populations to devise a new theory for OM prevalence in Australian Aborigine, Native American, Inuit, and Maori populations. I suggest that high prevalence in such groups may have resulted from encounters of these previously isolated populations with European immigrants in the 15th and 16th centuries. This exposed them to new strains of bacteria to which their immune system had not evolved immunity, perturbing a previously stable host-pathogen coevolutionary state. PMID:26829293

  1. High Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance Among Common Bacterial Isolates in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Ntirenganya, Cyprien; Manzi, Olivier; Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Ogbuagu, Onyema

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious public health threat in both developed and developing countries. Many developing countries, including Rwanda, lack adequate surveillance systems, and therefore, the prevalence of AMR is not well-known. We conducted a prospective observational study to assess the prevalence of AMR among common bacterial isolates from clinical specimens obtained from patients on the medical wards of Kigali University Teaching Hospital (KUTH). We evaluated the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacterial pathogens cultured from urine, blood, sputum, and wound swab specimens obtained over a 6-month period (July 1 to December 30, 2013). There were 154 positive cultures from specimens obtained from 141 unique patients over the study period. Urine, blood, wound swab, and sputum cultures comprised 55.2%, 25.3%, 16.2%, and 3.3% of the total specimens evaluated; 31.4% and 58.7% of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella isolates, respectively, were resistant to at least one of the third generation cephalosporins. Eight percent of E. coli isolates were resistant to imipenem; 82% and 6% of Staphylococcus aureus strains were oxacillin- and vancomycin-resistant respectively. Antimicrobial resistance rates are high in Rwanda and pose a serious therapeutic challenge to the management of common infections. PMID:25646259

  2. False alarm reduction in BSN-based cardiac monitoring using signal quality and activity type information.

    PubMed

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  3. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    PubMed Central

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  4. High prevalence of syphilis among street-based female sex workers in Nanchang, China

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xiao Hua; Jiang, Tao; Shao, Dan; Xue, Wei; Ye, Fa Shun; Wang, Ming; He, Mei Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) play a critical role in the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China. Several studies reported that street-based FSWs have higher risk behaviors than establishment-based FSWs. Therefore, street-based FSWs should be specifically targeted for HIV and STIs intervention programs. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the prevalence rates and risk factors of HIV and syphilis among FSWs in Nanchang, China. Materials and Methods: Using convenience sampling methods, 361 street-based FSWs were recruited from August 2011 to February 2012. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire on socioeconomic and sex behavioral information and were tested for HIV and syphilis. Risk for HIV and syphilis infection was assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: No HIV infections were found. The prevalence rate of syphilis was 43.5%. Nearly 46.1% of street-based FSWs reported having education for no more than 6 years. Having reproductive tract infections at current visit, duration of sex work more than 5 years, indulgence in unprotected sex trade in the last time, unprotected sex trade in the last month, and unprotected sex with boyfriend or spouse in the last month were reported by 35.2%, 43.5%, 33.8%, 60.4%, and 93.1% street-based FSWs, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, having reproductive tract infections at current visit [odds ratio (OR), 12.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.01-24.37], duration of sex work more than five years (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 2.40-7.54), and unprotected sex trade in the last month (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.06-3.22) were independently associated with syphilis infection. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of syphilis among street-based FSWs is very high. Most street-based FSWs in our survey had low education, long experience of commercial sex, and high rate of inconsistent condom use

  5. HIV prevalence among high school learners - opportunities for schools-based HIV testing programmes and sexual reproductive health services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young girls in sub Saharan Africa are reported to have higher rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared to boys in the same age group. Knowledge of HIV status amongst high schools learners provides an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. This study aimed at determining the HIV prevalence and explored the feasibility of HIV testing among high school learners. Methods Between September 2010 and February 2011, a linked, anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted in two public sector high schools in the rural KwaZulu-Natal midlands. Following written informed consent, dried blood spot samples (DBS) were collected and tested for HIV. The overall and age-specific HIV prevalence were compared with select demographic variables. Results The HIV prevalence in learners aged 12 to 25 in school A was 4.7% (95% CI 2.8-6.5) compared to 2.5% (95% CI 1.6-3.5) in school B, (p = 0.04). Whilst the HIV prevalence was similar for boys at 1.3% (95% CI 0-2.8) in school A and 1.7% (95% CI 0.5-2.8) in school B, the prevalence in girls was consistently higher and was 7.7% (95% CI 4.5-10.9) in school A and 3.2% (95% CI 1.8-4.6) in school B. The age-specific HIV prevalence in girls increased 1.5 to 2 fold for each two year age category, while for boys the prevalence was stable across all age groups. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence in female learners underscores the importance of sexual reproductive health and schools-based HIV testing programs as an important gateway to prevention and treatment services. PMID:22439635

  6. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed

    Grant, Rachel A; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of "frog swarms" from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported "frog swarms" are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre), and were probably co

  7. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    PubMed Central

    Luis, Juan Aponte; Galán, Juan Antonio Gómez; Espigado, Javier Alcina

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  8. Web-based integrated alarm monitoring system in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Akitsugu; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Akutagawa, Masatake; Ohnishi, Yoshiaki; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    2005-01-01

    A web-based monitoring system for the alarm of equipment has developed for the conventional environment of Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The system communicates with equipment using Data Collection Interface (DCI) that converts the protocol of the output of equipment from RS-232C to TCP/IP. The system creates a web-document that can be referred from any internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using the system, a staff can easily monitor the state of the patient and the equipment. If the system is installed in the ICU, monitoring and management for the equipment will be highly improved. PMID:17281636

  9. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires.

    PubMed

    Aponte Luis, Juan; Gómez Galán, Juan Antonio; Alcina Espigado, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects. PMID:26307994

  10. High Prevalence of G12 Human Rotaviruses in Children with Gastroenteritis in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Ide, Tomihiko; Higo-Moriguchi, Kyoko; Komoto, Satoshi; Htun, Khaing Win; Myint, Yi Yi; Myat, Theingi Win; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Thu, Hlaing Myat; Win, Mo Mo; Oo, Htun Naing; Htut, Than; Rahman, Shofiqur; Nguyen, Sa Van; Umeda, Kouji; Oguma, Keiji; Tsuji, Takao; Taniguchi, Koki

    2016-07-22

    Human rotavirus samples from 54 children with acute gastroenteritis in Myanmar in 2011 were subjected to reverse transcription-PCR to determine their G and P types. On G typing, G2 (24/54; 44.4%) was found to be the most prevalent, followed by G12 (17/54; 31.5%) and G1 (1/54; 1.9%). Mixed cases with G2 and G12 were found in 12 of the 54 (22.2%) samples. On P typing, P[4] was found to be the most predominant (29/54; 53.7%), followed by P[8] (17/54; 31.5%) and P[6] (4/54; 7.4%). Mixed cases with P[4] and P[8] were detected in 4 of 54 (7.4%) samples. Thus, occurrence of G2 and unusual G12 in high proportions was characteristic of human rotaviruses in Myanmar in this study setting. PMID:26370431

  11. Cloacal Lactobacillus isolates from broilers show high prevalence of resistance towards macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cauwerts, K; Pasmans, F; Devriese, L A; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2006-04-01

    Eighty-seven Lactobacillus strains isolated from cloacal swabs of broiler chickens derived from 20 different farms in Belgium were identified to species level and tested for susceptibility to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics. Five different Lactobacillus species were identified as being predominantly present in the cloacae of broilers: Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillu sreuteri. Acquired resistance prevalence to macrolides and lincosamides was very high in the investigated lactobacilli: 89% of the strains were resistant to either or both lincosamide and macrolide class antibiotics. The vast majority of these resistant strains (96%) displayed constitutive resistance. More than one-half of the macrolide and/or lincosamide resistant strains carried an erm(B), erm(C), mef(A), lnu(A) gene or a combination of these genes. PMID:16595310

  12. Stages of Behavioral Change for Physical Activity in High School Students: Prevalence and Associated Sociodemographic Factors.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Heloyse E G; Silva, Diego A S

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to estimate the prevalence of stages of change for physical activity and associated sociodemographic factors in students. The sample consisted of 942 students (44.7% males, 55.3% females; mean age = 16.1 years, SD = 1.1) in southern Brazil. Self-administered questionnaire was applied to identify stages of behavioral change for physical activity and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, maternal schooling, economic status, and school shift). Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (95%). Results showed that 9.6% were in the pre-contemplation stage, 18.4% in the contemplation, 17.6% in the preparation, 14.3% in the action, and 39.6% in the maintenance stages. Girls and adolescents with lower economic status were more likely to be at stages of behavioral risk. Students whose mothers had high education were more likely to be in the action stage. PMID:27597781

  13. High HIV Prevalence among Asylum Seekers Who Gave Birth in the Netherlands: A Nationwide Study Based on Antenatal HIV Tests

    PubMed Central

    Goosen, Simone; Waldhober, Quita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Asylum seekers are considered to be a particularly vulnerable group with respect to HIV. Data on the HIV prevalence among asylum seekers, however, are scarce. The aim of this study is to map the HIV prevalence among asylum seekers who gave birth in The Netherlands. Methods We used a nationwide electronic medical records database from the community health services for asylum seekers (MOA). The study population consisted of 4,854 women and girls who delivered in asylum reception between 2000 and 2008. A unique electronic health data base was used and case allocation was based on ICPC-codes. Results The number of women and girls that was HIV positive during their last pregnancy was 80, of which 79 originated from sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence for women from this region of origin (3.4%) was high compared to women from all other regions of origin (0.04%; OR = 90.2; 95%CI 12.5–648.8). The highest HIV prevalence rates were found for women from Rwanda (17.0%) and Cameroon (13.2%). HIV prevalence rates were higher among women who arrived in reception without partner (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 0.75–4.44) and unaccompanied minors (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 0.79–8.49), compared to women who arrived in reception with partner. Conclusions We conclude that, among asylum-seeking women from sub-Saharan Africa giving birth in The Netherlands, the HIV prevalence is high compared to the host population. For women from other regions of origin, the prevalence is at the same level as in the host population. The high HIV prevalence underlines the importance of preventive interventions and voluntary HIV testing for sub-Saharan African asylum seekers as from shortly after arrival. PMID:26296093

  14. Smoke alarms in the home: what every physician should know.

    PubMed

    Sultan, M A; Feldman, W M

    1985-12-15

    Primary care physicians interested in health education and accident prevention should be knowledgeable about smoke alarms (smoke detectors with built-in alarms). Either ionization or photoelectric smoke alarms can help save lives if they are properly installed and maintained. The number, site and maintenance of smoke alarms in the home and the steps a person should take in the event of a fire are discussed. Considering the rates of death, disability and disfigurement associated with residential fires, early warning devices such as smoke alarms make sense. PMID:4063931

  15. Smoke alarms in the home: what every physician should know

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Mohammed A.; Feldman, William M.

    1985-01-01

    Primary care physicians interested in health education and accident prevention should be knowledgeable about smoke alarms (smoke detectors with built-in alarms). Either ionization or photoelectric smoke alarms can help save lives if they are properly installed and maintained. The number, site and maintenance of smoke alarms in the home and the steps a person should take in the event of a fire are discussed. Considering the rates of death, disability and disfigurement associated with residential fires, early warning devices such as smoke alarms make sense. PMID:4063931

  16. High prevalence but limited evidence in complementary and alternative medicine: guidelines for future research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative Medicine (CAM) has increased over the past two decades in Europe. Nonetheless, research investigating the evidence to support its use remains limited. The CAMbrella project funded by the European Commission aimed to develop a strategic research agenda starting by systematically evaluating the state of CAM in the EU. CAMbrella involved 9 work packages covering issues such as the definition of CAM; its legal status, provision and use in the EU; and a synthesis of international research perspectives. Based on the work package reports, we developed a strategic and methodologically robust research roadmap based on expert workshops, a systematic Delphi-based process and a final consensus conference. The CAMbrella project suggests six core areas for research to examine the potential contribution of CAM to the health care challenges faced by the EU. These areas include evaluating the prevalence of CAM use in Europe; the EU cititzens’ needs and attitudes regarding CAM; the safety of CAM; the comparative effectiveness of CAM; the effects of meaning and context on CAM outcomes; and different models for integrating CAM into existing health care systems. CAM research should use methods generally accepted in the evaluation of health services, including comparative effectiveness studies and mixed-methods designs. A research strategy is urgently needed, ideally led by a European CAM coordinating research office dedicated to fostering systematic communication between EU governments, the public, charitable and industry funders, researchers and other stakeholders. A European Centre for CAM should also be established to monitor and further a coordinated research strategy with sufficient funds to commission and promote high quality, independent research focusing on the public’s health needs and pan-European collaboration. There is a disparity between highly prevalent use of CAM in Europe and solid knowledge about it. A strategic approach on

  17. Prevalence of high normal FBS and prediabetes among adolescents in Birjand, East of Iran, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chahkandi, Tayyebeh; Taheri, Fatemeh; Bijari, Bita; Kazemi, Toba; Namakin, Kokab; Zardast, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in adolescents in Birjand city in eastern Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 2653 students aged 11–18 years selected through multi-stage stratified and random sampling. Fasting blood glucose (FBS) of these students was measured applying the enzymatic process. The obtained data were analyzed by means of SPSS software (V: 15) and statistical tests T and X2. Results: The mean age of individual was 14.5 ± 2 years. Mean FBS of the whole population was 89.8 ± 9.8 mg/dl, but it was significantly higher among boys than girls (P < 0.001). Out of the whole subjects (92.4%), 1,328 (95.1%) of the girls and 1,122 (89.3%) of the boys, FBS was less than 100 mg/dl among whom 64.4% had FBS above 86 mg/dl. In 200 subjects (7.5%) of whole population, FBS was 100–125 mg/dl; with that of the boys was 2.3 times than the girls revealing a prediabetes condition: OR = 2.3(CI: 1.7-3.2). Among the students, 3 (0.1%) had an FBS > 126 mg/dl. Mean blood glucose was significant regarding age and sex. Conclusions: High prevalence of high FBS (within normal range) among adolescents is warning and requires special attention of health officials. Screening of children and adolescents in order to identify those at risk and plan for intervening is urgent to prevent type-2 diabetes epidemic and following cardiovascular complications in the Society PMID:26430695

  18. High prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains isolated from surgical site infections in Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Iyamba, Jean-Marie Liesse; Wambale, José Mulwahali; Lukukula, Cyprien Mbundu; Takaisi-Kikuni, Ntondo za Balega

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Surgical site infections (SSIs) after surgery are usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). In low income countries, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS) surgical site infections are particularly associated with high treatment cost and remain a source of mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the sensitivity to antibiotics of MRSA and MR-CNS isolated from SSIs. Methods Wound swabs were collected from 130 hospitalized surgical patients in two major hospitals of Kinshasa. S. aureus and CNS strains were identified by standard microbiological methods and latex agglutination test (Pastorex Staph-Plus). The antibiotic susceptibility of all staphylococcal strains was carried out using disk-diffusion method. Results Eighty nine staphylococcal strains were isolated. Out of 74 S. aureus and 15 CNS isolated, 47 (63.5%) and 9 (60%) were identified as MRSA and MR-CNS respectively. Among the MRSA strains, 47 strains (100%) were sensitive to imipenem, 39 strains (89%) to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and 38 strains (81%) to vancomycin. All MR-CNS were sensitive to imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin. The isolated MRSA and MR-CNS strains showed multidrug resistance. They were both resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. Conclusion The results of the present study showed a high prevalence of MRSA and MR-CNS. Imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin were the most active antibiotics. This study suggests that antibiotic surveillance policy should become national priority as MRSA and MR-CNS were found to be multidrug resistant. PMID:25478043

  19. High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D of patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhao-Hui; Gao, Cong-Cong; Wu, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Sheng-Yun; Li, Tian-Fang; Gao, Guan-Min; Liu, Zhang-Suo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) in China and its association with demographic characteristics of the patients. We recruited 384 patients in this cross-sectional study including 121 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 131 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 102 spondyloarthritis (SpA) and 30 other ARDs. For each patient, demographic information was collected and serum concentration of 25OHD3 was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). The multivariate logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between vitamin D deficiency and patient characteristics. The mean serum vitamin D level of the 384 patients was 18.91 (8.12) ng/mL, and the median age was 37.33 (12.01) yrs. Among these patients, 222 (57.81%) and 127 (33.07%) were found to be vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, respectively. From the disease perspective, the percentages of insufficiency and deficiency were as follow: 97.52% and 84.30% in SLE, 87.02% and 48.85% in RA, 88.24% and 40.20% in SpA, 90.89% and 57.81% in other ARDs patients. The causative factors for vitamin D deficiency included SLE per se (OR 12.54, P < 0.001) and high body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.88, P < 0.001). However, the seniors were less likely to have vitamin D deficiency (OR 0.95, P = 0.005). No correlation was disclosed between vitamin D deficiency and gender or disease duration. Hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent among autoimmune rheumatic diseases population in China. The SLE per se and the obesity are the risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Clinicians are advised to supplement vitamin D in these patients. PMID:27335701

  20. High prevalence but limited evidence in complementary and alternative medicine: guidelines for future research.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Felix H; Lewith, George; Witt, Claudia M; Linde, Klaus; von Ammon, Klaus; Cardini, Francesco; Falkenberg, Torkel; Fønnebø, Vinjar; Johannessen, Helle; Reiter, Bettina; Uehleke, Bernhard; Weidenhammer, Wolfgang; Brinkhaus, Benno

    2014-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative Medicine (CAM) has increased over the past two decades in Europe. Nonetheless, research investigating the evidence to support its use remains limited. The CAMbrella project funded by the European Commission aimed to develop a strategic research agenda starting by systematically evaluating the state of CAM in the EU. CAMbrella involved 9 work packages covering issues such as the definition of CAM; its legal status, provision and use in the EU; and a synthesis of international research perspectives. Based on the work package reports, we developed a strategic and methodologically robust research roadmap based on expert workshops, a systematic Delphi-based process and a final consensus conference. The CAMbrella project suggests six core areas for research to examine the potential contribution of CAM to the health care challenges faced by the EU. These areas include evaluating the prevalence of CAM use in Europe; the EU cititzens' needs and attitudes regarding CAM; the safety of CAM; the comparative effectiveness of CAM; the effects of meaning and context on CAM outcomes; and different models for integrating CAM into existing health care systems. CAM research should use methods generally accepted in the evaluation of health services, including comparative effectiveness studies and mixed-methods designs. A research strategy is urgently needed, ideally led by a European CAM coordinating research office dedicated to fostering systematic communication between EU governments, the public, charitable and industry funders, researchers and other stakeholders. A European Centre for CAM should also be established to monitor and further a coordinated research strategy with sufficient funds to commission and promote high quality, independent research focusing on the public's health needs and pan-European collaboration. There is a disparity between highly prevalent use of CAM in Europe and solid knowledge about it. A strategic approach on CAM

  1. The High Prevalence of Anemia in Cambodian Children and Women Cannot Be Satisfactorily Explained by Nutritional Deficiencies or Hemoglobin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Dahl, Miriam; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Kuong, Khov; Sophonneary, Prak; Sinuon, Muth; Greuffeille, Valerie; Hong, Rathavuth; Berger, Jacques; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia is highly prevalent in Cambodian women and children, but data on causes of anemia are scarce. We performed a national micronutrient survey in children and women that was linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey 2014 (CDHS-2014) to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency, hemoglobin disorders and intestinal parasite infection. Methods: One-sixth of households from the CDHS-2014 were selected for a follow-up visit for the micronutrient survey. Households were visited from two weeks to two months after the CDHS-2014 visit. Data on micronutrient status were available for 1512 subjects (792 children and 720 women). Results: Anemia was found in 43% of the women and 53% of the children. Hemoglobin disorders affected >50% of the population, with Hemoglobin-E the most prevalent disorder. Deficiencies of iron (ferritin < 15 g/L), vitamin A (retinol-binding-protein (RBP) < 0.70 mol/L) or vitamin B12 (<150 pmol/L) were not prevalent in the women (<5% for all), whereas 17.8% of the women had low concentrations of folic acid (<10 nmol/L). In the children, the prevalence of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency was <10%. Zinc deficiency, hookworm infection and hemoglobinopathy were significantly associated with anemia in children, whereas in the women none of the factors was significantly associated with anemia. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was more prevalent in children <2 years, but in older children and women, the prevalence of IDA was <5%. The most prevalent, preventable causes of anemia were hookworm infection and zinc and folic acid deficiency. Over 40% of the anemia was not caused by nutritional factors. Conclusion: The very high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian women and children cannot be explained solely by micronutrient deficiencies and hemoglobin disorders. Micronutrient interventions to improve anemia prevalence are likely to have limited impact in the Cambodian setting. The focus of current interventions to

  2. Real-time PCR Demonstrates High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines: Implications for Surveillance and Control

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Catherine. A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Olveda, Remigio M.; Ross, Allen G.; Williams, Gail M.; Gray, Darren J.; Harn, Donald; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Philippines has a population of approximately 103 million people, of which 6.7 million live in schistosomiasis-endemic areas with 1.8 million people being at risk of infection with Schistosoma japonicum. Although the country-wide prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in the Philippines is relatively low, the prevalence of schistosomiasis can be high, approaching 65% in some endemic areas. Of the currently available microscopy-based diagnostic techniques for detecting schistosome infections in the Philippines and elsewhere, most exhibit varying diagnostic performances, with the Kato-Katz (KK) method having particularly poor sensitivity for detecting low intensity infections. This suggests that the actual prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica may be much higher than previous reports have indicated. Methodology/Principal Findings Six barangay (villages) were selected to determine the prevalence of S. japonicum in humans in the municipality of Palapag, Northern Samar. Fecal samples were collected from 560 humans and examined by the KK method and a validated real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. A high S. japonicum prevalence (90.2%) was revealed using qPCR whereas the KK method indicated a lower prevalence (22.9%). The geometric mean eggs per gram (GMEPG) determined by the qPCR was 36.5 and 11.5 by the KK. These results, particularly those obtained by the qPCR, indicate that the prevalence of schistosomiasis in this region of the Philippines is much higher than historically reported. Conclusions/Significance Despite being more expensive, qPCR can complement the KK procedure, particularly for surveillance and monitoring of areas where extensive schistosomiasis control has led to low prevalence and intensity infections and where schistosomiasis elimination is on the horizon, as for example in southern China. PMID:25606851

  3. High Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in Rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. Methods From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.8; P = 0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at

  4. Prevalence of HIV, Syphilis, HCV and Their High Risk Behaviors among Migrant Workers in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Zheng, Hui; Chen, Xin; Su, Jing; Peng, Zhihang; Yu, Rongbin; Wang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to understand the knowledge about AIDS, identify the correlates and determine the prevalence of HIV infection, syphilis, HCV among migrant workers in Zhejiang, China. Methods A cross-sectional study using face-to-face anonymous questionnaire interviews was conducted and blood samples were collected for HIV, syphilis and Hepatitis C infection screening. Results 17,377 (92.8%) of 18,730 migrant workers approached were interviewed. Among 17,377 participants, the HIV/AIDS knowledge rate was 66.2%. A total of 12,694 (73%) of the participants reported having ever had sexual intercourse, with 30.1% of single participants reporting having had sexual intercourse. Among those respondents with sexual experiences, 7.5% admitted they had two or more sexual partners and 4.9% reported having had sex with casual (unpaid) partners in the previous 12 months, whilst 3.7% had paid for sex. More than half of those who had paid for sex (59.4%) had not used a condom every time in their sexual acts with the sex workers. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that high risk sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner without using a condom consistently) was associated with being divorced or widowed (P<0.05 for single); male gender; shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang; working in factory, market or domestic service (P<0.05 for odd job); having a province of origin inside Zhejiang; and drug use. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were 0.02% (95% CI: 0.01%–0.06%) and 0.40% (95%CI: 0.31%–0.51%), respectively. The prevalence of syphilis among those who were sexually active was 0.55% (95% CI: 0.43%–0.70%). Risk factors for syphilis included shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang, ethnic minority status, being divorced or widowed and having had multiple sex partners. Conclusions Much greater efforts are needed to promote safer sex, and programs for the control of syphilis need to be tailored for migrant workers

  5. The Microbiome in Populations with a Low and High Prevalence of Caries.

    PubMed

    Johansson, I; Witkowska, E; Kaveh, B; Lif Holgerson, P; Tanner, A C R

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiota was compared between Romanian adolescents with a high prevalence of caries and no dental care and Swedish caries-active and caries-free adolescents in caries prevention programs and with a low prevalence of caries. Biofilm samples were analyzed by FLX+ pyrosequencing of the V1 to V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Sequences obtained blasted to 9 phyla, 66 genera, and 401 human oral taxa (HOT) in the 16S rRNA Human Oral Microbiome Database, of which 295 were represented by ≥20 sequences. The Romanian adolescents had more sequences in Firmicutes and fewer in Actinobacteria phyla and more sequences in the genera Bacteroidetes [G-3], Porphyromonas, Abiotrophia, Filifactor, Peptostreptococcaceae [11][G-4], Pseudoramibacter, Streptococcus, and Neisseria and fewer in Actinomyces, Selenomonas, Veillonella, Campylobacter, and TM7 [G-1] than the Swedish groups. Multivariate modeling employing HOT, S. sobrinus and S. mutans (PCR/qPCR), and sugar snacks separated Romanian from Swedish adolescents. The Romanian adolescents' microbiota was characterized by a panel of streptococci, including S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and Streptococcus australis, and Alloprevotella, Leptotrichia, Neisseria, Porphyromonas, and Prevotella. The Swedish adolescents were characterized by sweet snacks, and those with caries activity were also characterized by Prevotella, Actinomyces, and Capnocytophaga species and those free of caries by Actinomyces, Prevotella, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, and Mycoplasma. Eight species including Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus species HOT070 were prevalent in Romanian and Swedish caries-active subjects but not caries-free subjects. In conclusion, S. mutans and S. sobrinus correlated with Romanian adolescents with caries and with limited access to dental care, whereas S. mutans and S. sobrinus were detected infrequently in

  6. Clinical Manifestations of Highly Prevalent Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Mutations in a Village in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Livia; Smirne, Nicoletta; Maletta, Raffaele; Tomaino, Carmine; Costanzo, Angela; Gallo, Maura; Lewis, John G.; Geracitano, Silvana; Grasso, Maria Beatrice; Potenza, Giuseppe; Monteleone, Cosimo; Brancati, Giacomino; Ho, Jui T.; Torpy, David J.; Bruni, Amalia C.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is the binding protein for cortisol. Rare kindreds with CBG mutations reducing CBG levels or altering binding affinity have been described, along with clinical manifestations encompassing fatigue, chronic pain, and hypotension. The largest kindred, exhibiting two mutations (null and Lyon) were Australian immigrants from Italy. Objective: Our objective was to determine the prevalence of the null/Lyon mutations in the village where the original null/Lyon family emigrated and compare subjects with and without CBG mutations, without previous knowledge of their mutation status. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a survey field study that included 495 adult residents. Main Outcomes: We assessed clinical history, CBG mutation analysis, plasma CBG, salivary cortisol, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and the Krupp fatigue scale. Results: Eighteen of 495 participants (3.6%, seven males and 11 females) had one of two function-altering CBG mutations. All were heterozygous for the null (n = 6) or Lyon mutations (n = 12). Of 12 Lyon participants (four males and eight females), eight (two males and six females) had chronic widespread pain and five osteoarthritis with associated pain (one male and four females). Of six null participants (three males and three females), three (one male and two females) had chronic pain and four osteoarthritis with associated pain (two males and two females). Conclusions: A high combined prevalence (3.6%) of these two CBG mutations was detected. The presence of either mutation conferred a propensity to chronic pain. In other communities, individuals with the same genetic background complain more of fatigue than pain, suggesting an environmental effect on the phenotype. These findings, combined with animal CBG gene knockout and human CBG single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype studies, suggest that CBG influences the endocrine and neurobehavioral response to stress

  7. High Prevalence and Putative Lineage Maintenance of Avian Coronaviruses in Scandinavian Waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Wille, Michelle; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Nilsson, Anna; Järhult, Josef D

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are found in a wide variety of wild and domestic animals, and constitute a risk for zoonotic and emerging infectious disease. In poultry, the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution and taxonomy of some coronaviruses have been well described, but little is known about the features of CoVs in wild birds. In this study we screened 764 samples from 22 avian species of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes in Sweden collected in 2006/2007 for CoV, with an overall CoV prevalence of 18.7%, which is higher than many other wild bird surveys. The highest prevalence was found in the diving ducks--mainly Greater Scaup (Aythya marila; 51.5%)--and the dabbling duck Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos; 19.2%). Sequences from two of the Greater Scaup CoV fell into an infrequently detected lineage, shared only with a Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula) CoV. Coronavirus sequences from Mallards in this study were highly similar to CoV sequences from the sample species and location in 2011, suggesting long-term maintenance in this population. A single Black-headed Gull represented the only positive sample from the order Charadriiformes. Globally, Anas species represent the largest fraction of avian CoV sequences, and there seems to be no host species, geographical or temporal structure. To better understand the eitiology, epidemiology and ecology of these viruses more systematic surveillance of wild birds and subsequent sequencing of detected CoV is imperative. PMID:26938459

  8. High Levels of Heavy Metals Increase the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in the Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite increasing concern regarding health problems as a result of environmental pollutants, no association of toxic heavy metals with sarcopenia has been demonstrated in the general population. We investigated the association of heavy metals, including lead, mercury and cadmium, with sarcopenia in the Korean population. Methods Participants included 344 males and 360 females older than 65 years based on data from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys. Measurements of blood lead, mercury and cadmium levels were performed. To evaluate the cumulative effect of the three heavy metals, subjects were categorized into quartiles. Sarcopenia was defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) (SMI<5.4 kg/m2 in females and <7.0 kg/m2 in males). Results Of 704 elderly persons (344 in males and 360 in females), prevalences of sarcopenia were 26.7% (92/344) in male and 7.5% (27/360) in female. Mean serum levels of lead in sarcopenia group were significantly higher than non-sarcopenia males (P=0.03). After adjustment for confounding factors, odds ratio for sarcopenia were increased with concentration category of lead (P=0.005 and P<0.001), mercury (P=0.001 and P<0.001) and cadmium (P=0.010 and P<0.001) in males and females, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates that high levels of blood lead, mercury and cadmium increase the prevalence of sarcopenia in both genders of elderly populations. PMID:27294082

  9. Identifying Areas for Improvement in the HIV Screening Process of a High-Prevalence Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Jason; Cennimo, David; Sugalski, Gregory; Swaminthan, Shobha

    2016-06-01

    Since 1993, the Centers for Disease Control recommendations for HIV testing were extended to include persons obtaining care in the emergency department (ED). Situated in Newark, New Jersey, the University Hospital (UH) ED serves a community with a greater than 2% HIV prevalence, and a recent study showed a UH ED HIV seroprevalence of 6.5%, of which 33% were unknown diagnoses. Electronic records for patients seen in the UH ED from October 1st, 2014, to February 28th, 2015, were obtained. Information was collected on demographics, ED diagnosis, triage time, and HIV testing. Random sampling of 500 patients was performed to identify those eligible for screening. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done to assess screening characteristics. Only 9% (8.8-9.3%) of patients eligible for screening were screened in the ED. Sixteen percent (15.7-16.6%) of those in the age group18-25 and 12% (11.6-12.3%) of those in the age group 26-35 were screened, whereas 8% (7.8-8.2%) of those in the age group 35-45 were screened. 19.6% (19-20.1%) of eligible patients in fast track were screened versus 1.7% (1.6-1.8%) in the main ED. Eighty-five percent of patients screened were triaged between 6 a.m. and 8 p.m. with 90% of all screening tests done by the HIV counseling, testing, and referral services. Due to the high prevalence of HIV, urban EDs play an integral public health role in the early identification and linkage to care of patients with HIV. By evaluating our current screening process, we identified opportunities to improve our screening process and reduce missed opportunities for diagnosis. PMID:27286295

  10. High prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies in leprosy: evaluation of antigen reactivity.

    PubMed

    de Larrañaga, G F; Forastiero, R R; Martinuzzo, M E; Carreras, L O; Tsariktsian, G; Sturno, M M; Alonso, B S

    2000-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been reported not only in autoimmune disorders but also in various infectious diseases. Accumulating evidence indicates that beta2 glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) and prothrombin are the main proteins to which autoimmune aPL bind. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of different aPL in patients with leprosy. We included 51 outpatients (42 lepromatous and 9 borderline leprosy) without any clinical feature of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). 35 had lupus anticoagulant and 31 had anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL). Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were highly positive in 29/51 and anti- prothrombin antibodies (anti-II) were detected in 23/51. Almost all aCL and anti-beta2GPI were of IgM isotype, while IgG isotype was more frequent among anti-II. No statistical difference was found when aPL were evaluated in patients grouped according to their bacteriological status. Furthermore, patients under treatment (n=33) had a similar frequency of positive aPL compared to patients in vigilance (n=14). Assessing the specificity of antibody binding to CL and beta2GPI in ELISA by means of inhibition studies with cardiolipin-beta2GPI liposomes, leprosy and APS sera showed a similar behaviour. Comparable results were also found in both groups of patients when inhibition experiments with lysate of Mycobacterium leprae were carried out. In summary, leprosy-related aPL resemble those found in patients with APS but the immunoglobulin isotype is different, with IgM much more prevalent in leprosy patients. PMID:11035434

  11. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. Methods: The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. Results: We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a “Work Hard, Play Hard”-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. Discussion and Conclusions: We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure. PMID:24701344

  12. Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic carotid artery plaques: high prevalence among heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Dobrilovic, N; Vadlamani, L; Meyer, M; Wright, C B

    2001-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in carotid artery plaques. Although there have been numerous studies evaluating coronary plaques for this bacterium fewer studies have assessed noncoronary vasculature. In addition we wished to evaluate whether correlation exists between the presence of C. pneumoniae in carotid plaques and established risk factors for atherosclerosis. Sixty intact carotid artery plaques removed during surgery (carotid endarterectomy) were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded according to conventional techniques. These samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect presence of C. pneumoniae DNA. Results were tabulated and compared against established risk factors for atherosclerosis: diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, age, and smoking. Forty-two (70.0%) of the 60 plaques that were evaluated tested positive for the presence of C. pneumoniae DNA by polymerase chain reaction analysis. In the sample defined as being from heavy smokers (greater than 15-pack-year history) 33 (94.3%) of 35 plaques tested positive whereas two (5.7%) tested negative. This correlation demonstrated statistical significance (P = 1.36 x 10(-6), two-tailed Fisher exact test). Presence of C. pneumoniae in carotid plaques demonstrated no statistically significant correlation with diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. Age as a risk factor was examined but not statistically evaluated because of the narrow range within our patient sample. Analysis of the data reveals that C. pneumoniae is present in large numbers of atheromatous plaques as is consistent with emerging data. What is interesting though is that 33 (94.3%) of the 35 smokers had plaques that tested positive for the bacterium as opposed to only nine (36.0%) of the 25 nonsmokers. Identification of specific populations exhibiting a high prevalence of C. pneumoniae may serve to focus future studies. Ongoing investigation will seek to determine whether C

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals a High Prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline Sporotrichosis Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n = 3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999

  14. High prevalence of Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in environmental samples of a Tunisian hospital.

    PubMed

    Dziri, Raoudha; Klibi, Naouel; Lozano, Carmen; Ben Said, Leila; Bellaaj, Ridha; Tenorio, Carmen; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Ben Slama, Karim; Torres, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of detection of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) in environmental samples of 17 services in a Tunisian hospital, determining the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes of recovered isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first study that determines the prevalence of CoNS with correlation of antibiotic resistance in the hospital environment in Tunisia. CoNS were obtained from 83 of the 200 tested samples (41.5%). Staphylococcus haemolyticus was the most prevalent species (45.8%), followed by S. saprophyticus (36.1%). The remaining CoNS species detected were S. epidermidis, S. cohnii, S. warneri, S. sciuri, S. simulans, S. pasteuri, S. arlettae, and S. xilosus. Methicillin-resistant CoNS were detected in 20 of the 200 tested samples (10%), and the mecA gene was demonstrated in 18 S. haemolyticus, one S. epidermidis and one S. saprophyticus isolates. Methicillin susceptible isolates were detected in 63 samples (31.5%). Antimicrobial resistance genes detected were as follows (number of isolates): erythromycin [msr(A) (n = 32); erm(C) (n = 8)], tetracycline [tet(K) and/or tet(M) (n = 21)], gentamicin [aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia (n = 16)], kanamycin [(aph(3')-IIIa (n = 19)], tobramycin [ant(4')-Ia (n = 14)], and streptomycin [ant(6')-Ia (n = 3)]. The high frequency of detection of multi-drug-resistant CoNS in the hospital environment, especially S. haemolyticus and S. saprophyticus, is of relevance and could be due to cross-transmission between patients, staff, and environment. PMID:27133307

  15. High Prevalence and Putative Lineage Maintenance of Avian Coronaviruses in Scandinavian Waterfowl

    PubMed Central

    Wille, Michelle; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Nilsson, Anna; Järhult, Josef D.

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are found in a wide variety of wild and domestic animals, and constitute a risk for zoonotic and emerging infectious disease. In poultry, the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution and taxonomy of some coronaviruses have been well described, but little is known about the features of CoVs in wild birds. In this study we screened 764 samples from 22 avian species of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes in Sweden collected in 2006/2007 for CoV, with an overall CoV prevalence of 18.7%, which is higher than many other wild bird surveys. The highest prevalence was found in the diving ducks—mainly Greater Scaup (Aythya marila; 51.5%)—and the dabbling duck Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos; 19.2%). Sequences from two of the Greater Scaup CoV fell into an infrequently detected lineage, shared only with a Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula) CoV. Coronavirus sequences from Mallards in this study were highly similar to CoV sequences from the sample species and location in 2011, suggesting long-term maintenance in this population. A single Black-headed Gull represented the only positive sample from the order Charadriiformes. Globally, Anas species represent the largest fraction of avian CoV sequences, and there seems to be no host species, geographical or temporal structure. To better understand the eitiology, epidemiology and ecology of these viruses more systematic surveillance of wild birds and subsequent sequencing of detected CoV is imperative. PMID:26938459

  16. High prevalence of chitotriosidase deficiency in Peruvian Amerindians exposed to chitin-bearing food and enteroparasites

    PubMed Central

    Manno, N.; Sherratt, S.; Boaretto, F.; Coico, F. Mejìa; Camus, C. Espinoza; Campos, C. Jara; Musumeci, S.; Battisti, A.; Quinnell, R.J.; León, J. Mostacero; Vazza, G.; Mostacciuolo, M.L.; Paoletti, M.G.; Falcone, F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The human genome encodes a gene for an enzymatically active chitinase (CHIT1) located in a single copy on Chromosome 1, which is highly expressed by activated macrophages and in other cells of the innate immune response. Several dysfunctional mutations are known in CHIT1, including a 24-bp duplication in Exon 10 causing catalytic deficiency. This duplication is a common variant conserved in many human populations, except in West and South Africans. Thus it has been proposed that human migration out of Africa and the consequent reduction of exposure to chitin from environmental factors may have enabled the conservation of dysfunctional mutations in human chitinases. Our data obtained from 85 indigenous Amerindians from Peru, representative of populations characterized by high prevalence of chitin-bearing enteroparasites and intense entomophagy, reveal a very high frequency of the 24-bp duplication (47.06%), and of other single nucleotide polymorphisms which are known to partially affect enzymatic activity (G102S: 42.7% and A442G/V: 25.5%). Our finding is in line with a founder effect, but appears to confute our previous hypothesis of a protective role against parasite infection and sustains the discussion on the redundancy of chitinolytic function. PMID:25256524

  17. The High Prevalence of Diabetes in a Large Cohort of Patients Drawn From Safety Net Clinics

    PubMed Central

    McBurnie, MaryAnn; Paul, Ludmilla; Potter, Jennifer E.; McCann, Sheila; Mayer, Kenneth; Melgar, Gerardo; D’Amato, Sele; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Underserved populations have been overlooked or underrepresented in research based on data from diabetes registries. We estimated diabetes prevalence using a cohort developed from the electronic health records of 3 networks of safety net clinics that provide care to underserved populations. Methods ADVANCE (Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network) is a partnership of the OCHIN Community Health Information Network (OCHIN), the Health Choice Network (HCN), and the Fenway Health Institute (FHI), representing 97 federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and 744 clinic sites in 22 US states. Among 952,316 adults with a body mass index (BMI) measurement and at least 2 outpatient visits in 2012 to 2014, we calculated diabetes prevalence using outpatient diagnoses, diagnostic laboratory results, or dispenses of anti-hyperglycemic agents no more than 730 days apart. We calculated prevalence by age, sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, and BMI class. Results The crude prevalence of diabetes was 14.4%. Men had a higher prevalence than women (16.5% vs 13.2%); diabetes prevalence increased across age categories. White patients had the lowest prevalence (11.4%) and Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, the highest prevalence (21.9%), with prevalence ranging from 15.2% to 16.5% for other race/ethnicities. The association between BMI class and diabetes prevalence was similar across all racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion The ADVANCE diabetes cohort offers an opportunity to conduct epidemiologic and comparative effectiveness research on underserved and underrepresented individuals, who have a higher prevalence of diabetes than the general US population. PMID:27309415

  18. The implications of probability matching for clinician response to vital sign alarms: a theoretical study of alarm fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bailey, James M

    2015-01-01

    Alarm fatigue has been recognised as a significant health technology safety risk. 'Probability matching', in which clinicians respond to the alarm at a rate identical to the perceived reliability of the alarm, has been postulated as a model to explain alarm fatigue. In this article, we quantitatively explore the implications of probability matching for systolic blood pressure alarms. We find that probability matching could have a profound effect on clinician response to the alarm, with a response rate of only 8.6% when the alarm threshold is 90 mm Hg and the optimal threshold for a systolic blood pressure alarm would only be 77 mm Hg. We use the mathematical framework to assess a mitigation strategy when clinicians have a limit to the capacity to respond. We find that a tiered alarm in which clinicians receive information on the severity of vital sign perturbation significantly improves the opportunity to rescue patients. Practitioner Summary: Using a theoretical model, we predict that probability matching, a postulated model of clinician behaviour, can result in a profound decrease in clinician response to alarms for decreased blood pressure. A mitigating strategy is to create alarms that convey information on the degree of vital sign perturbation. PMID:25849772

  19. To Unfold a Hidden Epidemic: Prevalence of Child Maltreatment and Its Health Implications among High School Students in Guangzhou, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, William C. W.; Leung, Phil W. S.; Tang, Catherine S. K.; Chen, Wei-Qing; Lee, Albert; Ling, Davina C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment as perpetrated by parents, its associated health outcomes, and its resilient factors among high school students in China. Methods: A multi-level stratified random school-based survey was conducted in 2005. Twenty four high schools were randomly chosen from eight districts in…

  20. Prevalence of Students with Symptoms of Depression among High School Students in a District of Western Turkey: An Epidemiological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsal, Alaaddin; Ayranci, Unal

    2008-01-01

    Background: To determine the factors affecting the prevalence of depression and also to present some pertinent comments concerning prevention of depression among high school students. This study was deemed important and relevant due to the increasing importance of depression among high school students. Methods: A sample of students aged 14-19…

  1. Hypo- and Hyperglycemic Alarms: Devices and Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Howsmon, Daniel; Bequette, B Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Soon after the discovery that insulin regulates blood glucose by Banting and Best in 1922, the symptoms and risks associated with hypoglycemia became widely recognized. This article reviews devices to warn individuals of impending hypo- and hyperglycemia; biosignals used by these devices include electroencephalography, electrocardiography, skin galvanic resistance, diabetes alert dogs, and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs). While systems based on other technology are increasing in performance and decreasing in size, CGM technology remains the best method for both reactive and predictive alarming of hypo- or hyperglycemia. PMID:25931581

  2. High prevalence of hospital-acquired infections caused by gram-negative carbapenem resistant strains in Vietnamese pediatric ICUs: A multi-centre point prevalence survey.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngai Kien; Hf, Wertheim; Vu, Phu Dinh; Khu, Dung Thi Khanh; Le, Hai Thanh; Hoang, Bich Thi Ngoc; Vo, Vu Thanh; Lam, Yen Minh; Vu, Dung Tien Viet; Nguyen, Thu Hoai; Thai, Tung Quang; Nilsson, Lennart E; Rydell, Ulf; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Nadjm, Behzad; Clarkson, Louise; Hanberger, Håkan; Larsson, Mattias

    2016-07-01

    There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals.Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral hospitals during 1 year.A total of 1363 cases (1143 children) were surveyed, 59.9% male, average age 11 months. Admission sources were: other hospital 49.3%, current hospital 36.5%, and community 15.3%. Reasons for admission were: infectious disease (66%), noninfectious (20.8%), and surgery/trauma (11.3%). Intubation rate was 47.8%, central venous catheter 29.4%, peripheral venous catheter 86.2%, urinary catheter 14.6%, and hemodialysis/filtration 1.7%. HAI was diagnosed in 33.1% of the cases: pneumonia (52.2%), septicemia (26.4%), surgical site infection (2%), and necrotizing enterocolitis (2%). Significant risk factors for HAI included age under 7 months, intubation and infection at admission. Microbiological findings were reported in 212 cases (43%) with 276 isolates: 50 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 46 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 39 Acinetobacter baumannii, with carbapenem resistance detected in 55%, 71%, and 65%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 18 cases, with 81% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most children (87.6%) received antibiotics, with an average of 1.6 antibiotics per case. Colistin was administered to 96 patients, 93% with HAI and 49% with culture confirmed carbapenem resistance.The high prevalence of HAI with carbapenem resistant gram-negative strains and common treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and colistin suggests that interventions are needed to prevent HAI and to optimize antibiotic use. PMID:27399106

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse in Australian high school students.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, D J; Gupta, L

    1997-06-01

    Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is reportedly increasing in prevalence and spreading from sportsmen to cosmetic and recreational use, though there are few accurate estimates of the extent of AAS use outside North America. In order to identify the prevalence of, and risk factors for, 'ever' (lifetime) or 'recent' (within last month) use of AAS among Australian high school students, 13,355 students (51.3% male, median age 13.8 years) in 203 schools constituting a stratified random sample of all high schools in New South Wales and Victoria completed a self-report questionnaire about drug use. Lifetime ('ever') use of AAS was reported by 213 boys (3.2%; 95% CI, 2.7-3.6%) and 74 girls (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5%). Factors associated with 'ever' use were truancy [odds ratio (OR) 17.7 (95% CI, 9.4-31.6) for 7 or more truant days compared with no trauncy over the last fortnight], unsupervised recreation [OR 8.4 (5.9-11.9) for 6 or more compared with 2 or fewer nights per week], speaking only a non-English language at home [OR 7.75 (4.4-13.1)], Aboriginality [OR 3.4 (2.0-5.5)], male gender [OR 2.8 (2.1-3.7)], higher student income [OR 2.3 (1.7-3.0)], overseas born [OR 2.2 (1.6-3.0)] and low level of social support [OR 2.5 (1.7-3.5)]. Use of AAS within the last month ('recent') was reported by 113 boys (1.7%; 95% CI, 1.4-2.0%) and 28 girls (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.3-0.6%) and virtually identical risk factor patterns except ORs were uniformly higher. We conclude that AAS abuse is relatively uncommon among Australian high school students but has distinctive and strong socio-economic and cultural predictors. Further studies of the behavioural epidemiology of AAS abuse are required to clarify the origins and significance of our findings and to identify potentially effective interventions. PMID:9354185

  4. Sustained high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Cambodia: high turnover seriously challenges the 100% condom use programme

    PubMed Central

    Sopheab, Heng; Morineau, Guy; Neal, Joyce J; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Background Cambodia's 100% Condom-Use Programme (CUP), implemented nationally in 2001, requires brothel-based female sex workers (FSWs) to use condoms with all clients. In 2005, we conducted a sexually transmitted infection (STI) survey among FSWs. This paper presents the STI prevalence and related risk factors, and discusses prevalence trends in the context of the 100% CUP in Cambodia. Methods From March-May, 1079 FSWs from eight provinces consented to participate, provided specimens for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhoea testing, and were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with STIs. STI prevalence was compared with data from the 1996 and 2001 STI surveys. Results Most FSWs were young (55% aged 15–24) and new to sex work (60% had worked 12 ≤ months). Consistent condom use with clients was reported by 80% of FSWs, but only 38% of FSWs always used condoms with sweethearts or casual partners. Being new to sex work was the only factor significantly associated with "any STI" (OR = 2.1). Prevalence of syphiliwas 2.3%; chlamydia, 14.4%; gonorrhoea, 13.0%; and any STI, 24.4%. Prevalence of each STI in 2005 was significantly lower than in 1996, but essentially the same as prevalence observed in 2001. Conclusion New FSWs were found to have substantially higher prevalence than those with longer experience. The percent of FSWs who used condoms consistently was high with clients but remained low with non-paying sex partners. Because of the high turnover of FSWs, the prevention needs of new FSWs should be ascertained and addressed. Despite 100% CUP implementation, the prevalence of STIs among FSWs was the same in 2005 as it was in 2001. Limited coverage and weak implementation capacity of the programme along with questionable quality of the STI services are likely to have contributed to the sustained high prevalence. The programme should be carefully reviewed in terms of intensity, quality and

  5. Extremely high prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Murmansk, Russia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, J; Marjamäki, M; Haanperä-Heikkinen, M; Marttila, H; Endourova, L B; Presnova, S E; Mathys, V; Bifani, P; Ruohonen, R; Viljanen, M K; Soini, H

    2011-09-01

    Drug resistance and molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the Murmansk region was investigated in a 2-year, population-based surveillance of the civilian population. During 2003 and 2004, isolates from all culture-positive cases were collected (n = 1,226). Prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) was extremely high, as 114 out of 439 new cases (26.0%), and 574 out of 787 previously treated cases (72.9%) were resistant to at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF). Spoligotyping of the primary MDR-TB isolates revealed that most isolates grouped to the Beijing SIT1 genotype (n = 91, 79.8%). Isolates of this genotype were further analyzed by IS6110 RFLP. Sequencing of gene targets associated with INH and RIF resistance further showed that the MDR-TB strains are highly homogeneous as 78% of the MDR, SIT1 strains had the same resistance-conferring mutations. The genetic homogeneity of the MDR-TB strains indicates that they are actively transmitted in Murmansk. PMID:21394425

  6. High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in Hispanic adolescents: correlations with adipocytokines and markers of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cynthia M; Ortiz, Ana P; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Velázquez-Torres, Guermarie; Santiago, Damarys; Giovannetti, Katya; Bernabe, Raúl; Lee, Mong-Hong; Yeung, Sai-Ching J

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the association of cardiometabolic risk factors with systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and adypocytokines in a Hispanic adolescent subgroup. A clinic-based sample of 101 Puerto Rican adolescents, 48 of whom were overweight or obese based on body mass index percentiles for age and sex, was recruited during 2010. Data were collected through interviews, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and blood drawing. Overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 16.8 % and increased to 37.5 % among overweight/obese youth. The overweight/obese group exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher values for abdominal obesity measures, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin resistance, C peptide, high-sensitivity C reactive protein, fibrinogen, leptin, and IL-6 and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, and IGF-1. Total adiponectin significantly correlated with most cardiovascular risk factors independent of sex, Tanner stage, and adiposity. Altered cardiometabolic and adipocytokine profiles were present in this Hispanic subgroup, reinforcing the need to strengthen strategies addressing childhood obesity. PMID:23828626

  7. Prevalence and Characteristics of School Services for High School Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Desiree W.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Glew, Kelly; Houck, Patricia; Greiner, Andrew; Fong, Dalea; Swanson, James; Arnold, L. Eugene; Lerner, Marc; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence and characteristics of services reported by school staff for 543 high school students participating in the 8 year follow-up of the multi-site Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (MTA). Overall, 51.6% of students with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were receiving services through an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) or a 504 plan, a rate higher than expected for this age group. Less than 5% of these had 504 plans; 35.5% attended special education classes. Very few services (except tutoring) were provided outside of an IEP or 504 plan. Almost all students with services received some type of academic intervention, whereas only half received any behavioral support or learning strategy. Less than one-fourth of interventions appear to be evidence-based. Students receiving services showed greater academic and behavioral needs than those not receiving services. Services varied based upon type of school, with the greatest number of interventions provided to students attending schools that only serve those with disabilities. Original MTA treatment randomization was unrelated to services, but cumulative stimulant medication and greater severity predicted more service receipt. Results highlight a need for accommodations with greater evidence of efficacy and for increased services for students who develop academic difficulties in high school. PMID:25506403

  8. Prevalence and features of migraine in Japanese junior high school students aged 12-15 yr.

    PubMed

    Ando, Naoki; Fujimoto, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Teramoto, Jun; Kobayashi, Satoru; Hattori, Ayako; Togari, Hajime

    2007-09-01

    Migraine is the most common cause of recurrent headache among children and adolescents resulting in missing of school and disabling their daily life. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and clinical features of headache in junior high school children in Japan. In December 2004, questionnaires were sent to 14 junior high schools. There were multiple-choice type questions on headache, mainly migraine. The questionnaires were given during school hours, and 6472 answers were obtained. One thousand four hundred seventy-eight (22.8%) students experienced severe headache and 476 (7.4%) had consulted physicians. Three hundred thirteen (4.8%) were identified as having migraine based on the ICHD-II criteria, consisting of 110/3346 boys (3.3%) and 203/3126 girls (6.5%): 91 (29.1%) with aura and 222 (70.9%) without aura. In about half of the children the migraine attacks were of short duration, ranging from 1 to 3 h. There were 36 boys (1.1%) and 45 girls (1.4%) who had shorter attacks of less than 1 h, whom we did not diagnose as having migraine according to the ICHD-II criteria. Although migraine is common among schoolchildren, it is often under- or miss-diagnosed since the clinical figure for childhood migraine differs from that for adults. PMID:17321091

  9. High Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis Infection among Schoolchildren in Three Townships around Yangon, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Seung Koo; Kim, Jae Won; Choi, Soo-Lyoen; Song, Gyu-Young; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Min-Jae; Cho, Jaeeun; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Cho, Seon; Park, Jong-Bok; Hong, Sooji; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among schoolchildren in suburban areas of Myanmar, 761 primary schoolchildren in 3 different townships around Yangon City were subjected to a survey using cello-tape anal swabs. The subjected schoolchildren were 383 boys and 378 girls who were 5-7 years of age. Only 1 anal swab was obtained from each child. The overall egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was 47.2% (359 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable (48.6% in boys and 45.8% in girls). However, the positive rate was the highest in South Dagon (54.6%) followed by Hlaing Thayar (43.8%) and North Dagon (34.8%). This difference was highly correlated with the living standards of the people in each township. Nucleotide sequence of the 5S rDNA from the eggs on the cello-tape (2 children) revealed 99.7% identity with that of E. vermicularis reported in GenBank. The results indicated that E. vermicularis infection is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren around Yangon, Myanmar. PMID:26797448

  10. High Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis Infection among Schoolchildren in Three Townships around Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Seung Koo; Kim, Jae Won; Choi, Soo-Lyoen; Song, Gyu-Young; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Min-Jae; Cho, Jaeeun; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Cho, Seon; Park, Jong-Bok; Hong, Sooji; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay

    2015-12-01

    In order to determine the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among schoolchildren in suburban areas of Myanmar, 761 primary schoolchildren in 3 different townships around Yangon City were subjected to a survey using cello-tape anal swabs. The subjected schoolchildren were 383 boys and 378 girls who were 5-7 years of age. Only 1 anal swab was obtained from each child. The overall egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was 47.2% (359 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable (48.6% in boys and 45.8% in girls). However, the positive rate was the highest in South Dagon (54.6%) followed by Hlaing Thayar (43.8%) and North Dagon (34.8%). This difference was highly correlated with the living standards of the people in each township. Nucleotide sequence of the 5S rDNA from the eggs on the cello-tape (2 children) revealed 99.7% identity with that of E. vermicularis reported in GenBank. The results indicated that E. vermicularis infection is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren around Yangon, Myanmar. PMID:26797448

  11. Interspecific Semantic Alarm Call Recognition in the Solitary Sahamalaza Sportive Lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Melanie; Schwitzer, Christoph; Gamba, Marco; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This “eavesdropping” was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species’ and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential signals to detect

  12. Interspecific semantic alarm call recognition in the solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Melanie; Schwitzer, Christoph; Gamba, Marco; Holderied, Marc W

    2013-01-01

    As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This "eavesdropping" was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species' and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential signals to detect

  13. Reduction of false arrhythmia alarms using signal selection and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Eerikäinen, Linda M; Vanschoren, Joaquin; Rooijakkers, Michael J; Vullings, Rik; Aarts, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm that classifies whether a generated cardiac arrhythmia alarm is true or false. The large number of false alarms in intensive care is a severe issue. The noise peaks caused by alarms can be high and in a noisy environment nurses can experience stress and fatigue. In addition, patient safety is compromised because reaction time of the caregivers to true alarms is reduced. The data for the algorithm development consisted of records of electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure, and photoplethysmogram signals in which an alarm for either asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation or flutter, or ventricular tachycardia occurs. First, heart beats are extracted from every signal. Next, the algorithm selects the most reliable signal pair from the available signals by comparing how well the detected beats match between different signals based on [Formula: see text]-score and selecting the best match. From the selected signal pair, arrhythmia specific features, such as heart rate features and signal purity index are computed for the alarm classification. The classification is performed with five separate Random Forest models. In addition, information on the local noise level of the selected ECG lead is added to the classification. The algorithm was trained and evaluated with the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2015 data set. In the test set the overall true positive rates were 93 and 95% and true negative rates 80 and 83%, respectively for events with no information and events with information after the alarm. The overall challenge scores were 77.39 and 81.58. PMID:27454128

  14. Prevalence, control and awareness of high blood pressure among Canadian adults. Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Joffres, M R; Hamet, P; Rabkin, S W; Gelskey, D; Hogan, K; Fodor, G

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of elevated blood pressure (BP) among Canadian adults and to determine the level of control, treatment, awareness and prevalence of other risk factors among adults with high BP. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: Nine Canadian provinces, from 1986 to 1990. PARTICIPANTS: A probability sample of 26,293 men and women aged 18 to 74 years was selected from the health insurance registers in each province. For 20,582 subjects, BP was measured at least twice. Nurses administered a standard questionnaire and recorded two BP measurements using a standardized technique. Two further BP readings, anthropometric measurements and a blood specimen for lipid analysis were obtained from those subjects who attended a clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP, prevalence of elevated BP using different criteria, and prevalence of smoking, elevated blood cholesterol, body mass index, physical activity and presence of diabetes by high BP status are reported. MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen percent of men and 13% of women had diastolic BP of 90 mm Hg or greater or were on treatment (or both). About 26% of these subjects were unaware of their hypertension, 42% were being treated and their condition controlled, 16% were treated and not controlled, and 16% were neither treated nor controlled. Use of non-pharmacologic treatment of high BP with or without medication was low (22%). Hypertensive subjects showed a higher prevalence of elevated total cholesterol, high body mass index, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle than normotensive subjects. Most people with elevated BP were in the 90 to 95 mm Hg range for diastolic pressure and 140 to 160 mm Hg range for systolic pressure. Prevalence of high isolated systolic BP sharply increased in men (40%) and women (49%) 65 to 74 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively low level of control of elevated BP calls for population and individual strategies, stressing a

  15. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS Services and Sites in WLCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Perez, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Gutsche, O.; Sciabà, A.; Flix, J.; Kreuzer, P.; Fajardo, E.; Boccali, T.; Klute, M.; Gomes, D.; Kaselis, R.; Du, R.; Magini, N.; Butenas, I.; Wang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

  16. False-alarm mitigation and feature-based discrimination for airborne mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Deepak; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Ganju, Ritesh; Swonger, C. W.

    2004-09-01

    The aim of an anomaly detector is to locate spatial target locations that show significantly different spectral/spatial characteristics as compared to the background. Typical anomaly detectors can achieve a high probability of detection, however at the cost of significantly high false alarm rates. For successful minefield detection there is a need for a further processing step to identify mine-like targets and/or reject non-mine targets in order to improve the mine detection to false alarm ratio. In this paper, we discuss a number of false alarm mitigation (FAM) modalities for MWIR imagery. In particular, we investigate measures based on circularity, gray scale shape profile and reflection symmetry. The performance of these modalities is evaluated for false alarm mitigation using real airborne MWIR data at different times of the day and for different spectral bands. We also motivate a feature based clustering and discrimination scheme based on these modalities to classify similar targets. While false alarm mitigation is primarily used to reject non-mine like targets, feature based clustering can be used to select similar-looking mine-like targets. Minefield detection can subsequently proceed on each localized cluster of similar looking targets.

  17. Alarm system for a nuclear control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  18. High prevalence of the EBER variant EB-8m in endemic nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-chao; Luo, Bing; Chen, Jian-ning; Chao, Yan; Shao, Chun-kui; Liu, Qian-qian; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are the most highly expressed transcripts in all EBV-associated tumors and are involved in both lymphoid and epithelioid carcinogenesis. Our previous study on Chinese isolates from non-endemic area of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) identified new EBER variants (EB-8m and EB-10m) which were less common but relatively more frequent in NPC cases than healthy donors. In the present study, we determined the EBER variants in NPC cases and healthy donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of NPC within China and compared the EBER variants, in relation to the genotypes at BamHI F region (prototype F and f variant), between population groups and between two areas. According to the phylogenetic tree, four EBER variants (EB-6m, EB-8m, EB-10m and B95-8) were identified. EB-6m was dominant in all population groups except for endemic NPC group, in which EB-8m was dominant. EB-8m was more common in endemic NPC cases (82.0%, 41/50) than non-endemic NPC cases (33.7%, 32/95) (p<0.0001), and it was also more frequent in healthy donors from endemic area (32.4%, 24/74) than healthy donors from non-endemic area (1.1%, 1/92) (p<0.0001). More importantly, the EB-8m was more prevalent in NPC cases than healthy donors in both areas (p<0.0001). The f variant, which has been suggested to associate with endemic NPC, demonstrated preferential linkage with EB-8m in endemic isolates, however, the EB-8m variant seemed to be more specific to NPC isolates than f variant. These results reveal high prevalence of EBER EB-8m variant in endemic NPC cases, suggesting an association between NPC development and EBV isolates carrying EB-8m variant. Our finding identified a small healthy population group that shares the same viral strain which predominates in NPC cases. It could be interesting to carry extensive cohort studies following these individuals to evaluate the risk to develop NPC. PMID:25807550

  19. A workplace tuberculosis case investigation in the presence of immigrant contacts from high prevalence countries.

    PubMed

    Kambali, Shrinivas; Nantsupawat, Nopakoon; Lee, Melanie; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    The highest prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) occurs in foreign born immigrants in the United States. Contact investigations at work sites with mostly immigrant workers present multiple practical problems. Recently 402 contacts were investigated at a meat packing plant in rural Texas by the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS). Our objective was to study the approach and effectiveness of this intensive investigation. We reviewed information, including symptoms, BCG status, TB history, X-rays, and treatment, on the sentinel case and 47 contacts managed by the Texas DSHS TB Division in Lubbock, TX. We used a gamma interferon release assay (T-SPOT.TB) to identify contacts with TB infection. The sentinel case was foreign born and had cavitary TB with acid-fast positive smears. Forty-two work site contacts were foreign born, and five were US born. The foreign born contacts were from Sudan, Somalia, Mexico, Burma, and Haiti; 18 contacts had a history of BCG vaccination. T-SPOT.TB tests were positive in 20 contacts, borderline in four, and negative in 23. Contacts with borderline results had negative repeat tests. Twenty-three contacts with negative T-SPOT.TB tests were scheduled for repeat tests in 4 weeks, but only four returned for this testing. Chest X-rays were abnormal in two contacts who were started on treatment. Sputum was collected in three individuals; one was culture positive for pan-sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Twelve contacts were treated for latent TB. Our investigation established an infection rate of 42.5% in this work site contact cohort, which is similar to the 39% prevalence reported by the Center for Disease Control. The use of T-SPOT.TB assays simplified testing in immigrants with high rates of BCG vaccination. Our investigation was complicated by language barriers, varying and uncertain levels of exposure, and a high rate of drop outs in the negative T-SPOT.TB contacts. This concerted effort provides a model for investigating work

  20. Prevalence of Dementia and Cognitive Complaints in the Context of High Cognitive Reserve: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Perquin, Magali; Diederich, Nico; Pastore, Jessica; Lair, Marie-Lise; Stranges, Saverio; Vaillant, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dementia and cognitive complaints in a cross-sectional sample of Luxembourg seniors, and to discuss the results in the societal context of high cognitive reserve resulting from multilingualism. Methods A population sample of 1,377 people representative of Luxembourg residents aged over 64 years was initially identified via the national social insurance register. There were three different levels of contribution: full participation in the study, partial participation, and non-participation. We examined the profiles of these three different samples so that we could infer the prevalence estimates in the Luxembourgish senior population as a whole using the prevalence estimates obtained in this study. Results After careful attention to the potential bias and of the possibility of underestimation, we considered the obtained prevalence estimates of 3.8% for dementia (with corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL) of 2.8% and 4.8%) and 26.1% for cognitive complaints (CL = [17.8–34.3]) as trustworthy. Conclusion Based on these findings, we postulate that high cognitive reserve may result in surprisingly low prevalence estimates of cognitive complaints and dementia in adults over the age of 64 years, which thereby corroborates the longer disability-free life expectancy observed in the Luxembourg population. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report such Luxembourgish public health data. PMID:26390288

  1. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in 122,053 Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Lacerda, Maria Beatriz; Moreno, Luis A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have reported high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents. To perform: i) systematically review the literature on the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescents; ii) analyze the possible methodological factors associated with HBP; and iii) compare the prevalence between developed and developing countries. We revised 10 electronic databases up to August 11, 2013. Only original articles using international diagnosis of HBP were considered. The pooled prevalence's of HBP were estimated by random effects. Meta-regression analysis was used to identify the sources of heterogeneity across studies. Fifty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and total of 122,053 adolescents included. The pooled-prevalence of HBP was 11.2%, 13% for boys, and 9.6% for girls (P < 0.01). Method of measurement of BP and year in which the survey was conducted were associated with heterogeneity in the estimates of HBP among boys. The data indicate that HBP is higher among boys than girls, and that the method of measurement plays an important role in the overall heterogeneity of HBP value distributions, particularly in boys. PMID:25501086

  2. LBTO Alarm Notification/Management and Error Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Peña, M. D.; Biddick, C.; Summers, K.; Summers, D.

    2015-09-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO) Telescope Control System (TCS) is comprised of fifteen subsystems and accepts commands from the operator, as well as from six pairs of instruments. To the operator the TCS presents as a high-level set of GUIs with each GUI corresponding to one specific subsystem and providing full state information and varying degrees of control. The TCS GUIs not only provide the operators with broad control over all aspects of the telescope, but each individual GUI also reports problems within its domain through the use of color-coded messages and widgets indicating the seriousness of the issue. While there is significant problem reporting available to the operator, until recently there was no centralized and persistent visual indication or “annunciator” display for issues. In order to provide a way to present problems in a centralized and persistent fashion with “on-the-spot guidance” to ease the job of the operator and to have an acknowledge capability, the LBTO project decided to leverage an existing Alarm Handler which is a GUI client application associated with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)1. This paper briefly describes the TCS sources of problem reporting information and how the EPICS Alarm Handler supplements the current system.

  3. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response rates 52–71%). In women, chlamydia point prevalence estimates ranged from 3.0–5.3%; the pooled average of these estimates was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4, 4.8, I2 0%). In men, estimates ranged from 2.4–7.3% (pooled average 3.5%; 95% CI 1.9, 5.2, I2 27%). Estimates in EU/EEA Member States were statistically consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men). Conclusions Population-based surveys that estimate chlamydia prevalence are at risk of participation bias owing to low response rates. Estimates obtained in nationally representative samples of the general population of EU/EEA Member States are similar to estimates from other high income countries. PMID:25615574

  4. High HIV prevalence and associated factors in a remote community in the Rwenzori region of Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rubaihayo, John; Akib, Surat; Mughusu, Ezekiel; Abaasa, Andrew

    2010-08-01

    In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15-49 years. A populationbased HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT) records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5-20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0-19.7) but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5-26.3) (χ(2) =0.76, P=0.38). Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (P<0.05). Most participants attributed the high HIV prevalence to promiscuity/multiple sexual partners (32.5%), followed by prostitution (13.6%), alcoholism (10.1%), carelessness (10.1%), poverty (9.7%), ignorance (9.5%)), rape (4.7%), drug abuse (3.6%) and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc.) (6.2%). Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm

  5. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  6. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  7. Framework for analyzing safeguards alarms and response decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-06-11

    This paper describes a quantitative approach to help evaluate and respond to safeguards alarms. These alrms may be generated internally by a facility's safeguards systems or externally by individuals claiming to possess stolen Special Nuclear Material (SNM). This approach can be used to identify the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error - and to evaluate alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to external threats. Based on the results of each alarm investigation step, the evaluation revises the likelihoods of possible causes of an alarm, and uses this information to determine the optimal sequence of further responses. The choice of an optimal sequence of responses takes into consideration the costs and benefits of successful thefts or hoaxes. These results provide an analytical basis for setting priorities and developing contingency plans for responding to safeguards alarms.

  8. Probable high prevalence of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wen-Chen; Chou, Po-Ching; Hung, Chia-Cheng; Su, Yi-Ning; Kan, Tsu-Min; Chen, Wan-Zi; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Nishino, Ichizo; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2016-03-15

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD2D), an autosomal-recessive inherited LGMD, is caused by the mutations in SGCA. SGCA encodes alpha-sarcoglycan (SG) that forms a heterotetramer with other SGs in the sarcolemma, and comprises part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. The frequency of LGMD2D is variable among different ethnic backgrounds, and so far only a few patients have been reported in Asia. We identified five patients with a novel homozygous mutation of c.101G>T (p.Arg34Leu) in SGCA from a big aboriginal family ethnically consisting of two tribes in Taiwan. Patient 3 is the maternal uncle of patients 1 and 2. All their parents, heterozygous for c.101G>T, denied consanguineous marriages although they were from the same tribe. The heterozygous parents of patients 4 and 5 were from two different tribes, originally residing in different geographic regions in Taiwan. Haplotype analysis showed that all five patients shared the same mutation-associated haplotype, indicating the probability of a founder effect and consanguinity. The results suggest that the carrier rate of c.101G>T in SGCA may be high in Taiwan, especially in the aboriginal population regardless of the tribes. It is important to investigate the prevalence of LGMD2D in Taiwan for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26944168

  9. A Systematic Review of Toxocariasis: A Neglected But High-Prevalence Disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Paula Mayara Matos; Corrêa, Carlos Roberto Silveira

    2016-06-01

    Toxocariasis is an anthropozoonosis that occurs in all parts of the world. In particular, this disease can often be found in developing countries and in regions, where basic sanitation conditions are poor. However, industrialized countries have reported seroprevalence rates as high as 14.2% in humans. The definitive hosts of the disease are dogs and cats, whereas humans are a paratenic host. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in Brazil, we followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to conduct a systematic review of the literature. Using keywords and applying the established criteria, we identified 160 publications and selected 22 articles for further analysis. The seroprevalence of toxocariasis in various regions of the country ranged from 4.2% to 65.4%. The highest prevalence was found in the northeast region, although the majority of the studies identified were from the southeast region. The findings suggest the importance of raising awareness among health professionals and public authorities about the fact that toxocariasis is a health problem. PMID:26834201

  10. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Veracruz, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Mexico. Here, we investigated antibodies to T. gondii and associated risk factors in 101 dogs from an animal shelter in Veracruz State, Mexico. Canine sera were assayed for T. gondii IgG antibodies by using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Results Sixty eight (67.3%) of 101 dogs were seropositive with titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 8, 1:100 in 9, 1:200 in 10, 1:400 in 10, 1:800 in 10, 1:1600 in 3, and 1:3200 or higher in 2. None of the dogs’ characteristics studied including age, sex, breed, and history of deworming, rabies vaccination and contact with cats was associated with seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. Conclusion Using the dogs as sentinel animals, the results indicate high contamination with T. gondii of the environment in Veracruz, Mexico. Results have public health implications, and further studies in Veracruz should be conducted to establish the sources of environmental contamination with T. gondii and to determine optimal preventive measures against T. gondii infection in humans. PMID:25134696

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Psychotropic Use in Children with High-Functioning ASDs

    PubMed Central

    Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined (1) the prevalence of psychotropic medication use for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), (2) the extent to which psychotropic agents were linked to targeted symptoms, and (3) predictors of psychotropic use. A total of 115 children, ages 6–13, with HFASDs who were enrolled in psychosocial treatment trials were included in this study. Parents completed extensive background and rating forms prior to treatment that included data on demographic characteristics, child health, child medication use, and child ASD-related symptoms. Results indicated that 33% (n = 38) of the sample was taking psychotropic medication with the most common being stimulants (25%; n = 29), antidepressants (10%; n = 12), and neuroleptics (6%; n = 7). All children taking stimulants had target symptoms that were appropriate for stimulant medication, whereas 57% of those taking neuroleptics and 42% of those taking antidepressants did not have targeted symptoms consistent with the medication. Logistic regression for the major psychotropic drug categories indicated that lower IQ was a significant predictor of increased antidepressant and neuroleptic use. A higher level of ASD-related symptoms was related to the likelihood of stimulant use. PMID:23762550

  12. High prevalence of TERT promoter mutations in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Morgan; Springer, Simeon; Nguyen, Doreen; Taheri, Diana; Guner, Gunes; Rodriguez, Maria Angelica Mendoza; Wang, Yuxuan; Kinde, Isaac; VandenBussche, Christopher J; Olson, Matthew T; Cunha, Isabela; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Ertoy, Dilek; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Kinzler, Kenneth; Vogelstein, Bert; Netto, George J; Papadopoulos, Nickolas

    2016-05-01

    TERT promoter mutations (TERT-mut) are detectable in the majority of urothelial carcinomas. The detection of TERT-mut in urine is under investigation as a potential urine-based molecular-screening assay for bladder cancer. A small but significant number of bladder carcinomas are pure squamous cell carcinoma. We sought to assess the incidence of TERT-mut in squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A retrospective search of the institutional pathology archives yielded 15 cystectomy specimens performed for squamous cell carcinoma (2000-2014). Histologic slides were reviewed by a senior urologic pathologist to confirm the diagnosis and select a representative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue block for mutational analysis. All cases yielded adequate material for DNA analysis. Sequencing for TERT-mut was performed using previously described SafeSeq technique. We detected TERT-mut in 12/15 (80%) of bladder squamous cell carcinomas. TERT promoter mutations, commonly found in conventional urothelial carcinoma, are also highly prevalent in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma suggesting a common tumorigenesis and potential utility as a molecular urine-based-screening assay. PMID:26965579

  13. Prevalence of HPV High-Risk Genotypes in Three Cohorts of Women in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Zohoncon, Theodora M.; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W.; Yonli, Albert T.; Compaore, Tegwinde R.; Sagna, Tani; Ouermi, Djeneba; Ouédraogo, Charlemagne M.R.; Pietra, Virginio; Nikiéma, Jean-Baptiste; Akpona, Simon A.; Simpore, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The development of cervical cancer is associated with high-risk Human papilloma viruses (HPV-HR). In sub-Saharan Africa cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death attributed to malignant tumors. This study aims to identify HPV genotypes within the 30′S and 50′S HPV families found in two previous studies from our laboratory, and to determine the prevalence of twelve HPV-HR genotypes in a population of women in Ouagadougou. The twelve HPV-HR genotypes were determined by real-time multiplex PCR, in 180 samples from the general population and among a group of HIV-1 infected women. The most common genotypes found were HPV-35 (29.4%) and HPV-31 (26.1%) of the 30′S family, and HPV-52 (29.4%) and HPV-58 (20.6%) of the 50′S family. Multiple infections of HPV-HR were observed in 78.03% of infected women. The frequencies of HPV genotypes from the 30′S and 50′S families were higher, while the genotypes HPV-16 and18 were lower among the women in our study. PMID:24106609

  14. The high prevalence of "soft" bipolar (II) features in atypical depression.

    PubMed

    Perugi, G; Akiskal, H S; Lattanzi, L; Cecconi, D; Mastrocinque, C; Patronelli, A; Vignoli, S; Bemi, E

    1998-01-01

    Seventy-two percent of 86 major depressive patients with atypical features as defined by the DSM-IV and evaluated systematically were found to meet our criteria for bipolar II and related "soft" bipolar disorders; nearly 60% had antecedent cyclothymic or hyperthymic temperaments. The family history for bipolar disorder validated these clinical findings. Even if we limit the diagnosis of bipolar II to the official DSM-IV threshold of 4 days of hypomania, 32.6% of atypical depressives in our sample would meet this conservative threshold, a rate that is three times higher than the estimates of bipolarity among atypical depressives in the literature. By definition, mood reactivity was present in all patients, while interpersonal sensitivity occurred in 94%. Lifetime comorbidity rates were as follows: social phobia 30%, body dysmorphic disorder 42%, obsessive-compulsive disorder 20%, and panic disorder (agoraphobia) 64%. Both cluster A (anxious personality) and cluster B (e.g., borderline and histrionic) personality disorders were highly prevalent. These data suggest that the "atypicality" of depression is favored by affective temperamental dysregulation and anxiety comorbidity, clinically manifesting in a mood disorder subtype that is preponderantly in the realm of bipolar II. In the present sample, only 28% were strictly unipolar and characterized by avoidant and social phobic features, without histrionic traits. PMID:9515190

  15. High prevalence of Capillaria plica infections in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bork-Mimm, Sabine; Rinder, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    The nematode Capillaria plica is an ubiquitous parasite of the urinary tract of Canidae and Felidae. It causes a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic infections to urinary bladder inflammation, pollacisuria, dysuria, and hematuria. Foxes serve as reservoir hosts and are considered to be a potential source of infection for companion and hunting dogs as well as domestic cats which acquire the infection by ingestion of earthworms which are the intermediate hosts. Despite its importance, epidemiological studies on this parasite are scarce and almost entirely lacking altogether for Central Europe. Therefore, we examined 116 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for the infection of C. plica by pathologic examination of the urinary bladders and microscopy of mucosal smears and urine sediments. The parasite was detected in 90 (78%; 95% CI, 68.9-84.8%) of the foxes, originating from all administrative districts of Bavaria (Southern Germany). Since Bavaria is characterized by a high number of forests and wildlife sanctuaries that provide ideal living conditions for foxes, the corresponding risk of infection of companion and hunting dogs by oral ingestion of earthworms as the intermediate hosts can likewise not be excluded. Because of the scarcity of reports on prevalences of C. plica worldwide, we also include a brief review of the available literature. PMID:21190041

  16. High prevalence of multidrug-resistance uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dehbanipour, Razieh; Rastaghi, Sedighe; Sedighi, Mansour; Maleki, Nafiseh; Faghri, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent infectious diseases and can occur in all age groups. Escherichia coli is the main cause of this infection. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents are increasing quickly in E. coli isolates and may complicate therapeutic strategies for UTI. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and the multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotypes in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Materials and Methods: A total of 135 UPEC isolates were collected from both outpatients (91 isolates) and inpatients (44 isolates) between September, 2012 and February, 2013. In order to determine the MDR among UPEC isolates, we have tested 15 antimicrobial agents and antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results: The percentage of MDR isolates (resistant to at least three drug classes such as aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, penicillins, cephalosporins, or carbapenems) was 68% in the inpatients and 61% in the outpatients. Antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, ceftazidim, nalidixic acid, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were higher than 50%. Amikacin, nitrofurantoin, and gentamicin showed markedly greater activity (89.1%, 85.9%, and 82.4% sensitivity, respectively) than other antimicrobial agents. Resistance to meropenem did show either in outpatients or in inpatients. Interpretation and Conclusions: The high prevalence of drug resistance among UTI patients calls for continuous monitoring of the incidence of drug resistance for appropriate empiric selection of antibiotic therapy. Empirical treatment of UTIs should be relied on susceptibility patterns from local studies. PMID:27003964

  17. Depression and emotional stress is highly prevalent among women with recurrent pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Kolte, A.M.; Olsen, L.R.; Mikkelsen, E.M.; Christiansen, O.B.; Nielsen, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is the prevalence of psychological stress and moderate/severe depression higher for women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) than pregnancy planners trying to conceive naturally? SUMMARY ANSWER Both psychological stress and major depression are significantly more common among women with RPL than in those trying to conceive naturally. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY RPL has a significant emotional impact on couples, especially the woman. Previous studies have shown inconclusive results. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION In this cross-sectional study, we compared the prevalence of stress and depression among 301 women with RPL and 1813 women attempting to conceive naturally. We defined RPL as three or more pregnancy losses before 12 weeks' gestation. RPL patients were enrolled from 2010 to 2013 and the comparison group from 2011 to 2014. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS RPL patients completed an online questionnaire before their first consultation at the Danish RPL Unit. In addition, we included data from a comparison group of 1813 women who participated in the Soon Parents Study (www.SnartForældre.dk). The Major Depression Index (MDI) was used to assess symptoms of depression, and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used to measure stress. Relevant demographic data were also retrieved. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Of the RPL patients, 26 (8.6%) had a score on the MDI corresponding to moderate/severe depression, as did 40 (2.2%) of the women in Soon Parents Study (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 5.53 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.09; 14.61)). A high stress level, defined as ≥19 on the PSS scale, was reported by 124 (41.2%) of the patients and 420 (23.2%) in the comparison group (adjusted OR 1.59 (95% CI 1.03; 2.44)). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION We used online questionnaires, and have no interview data. We were unaware if any of the women in the comparison group suffer from RPL. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS This study should entail a

  18. 5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing cable strand alarm located at Beach and Hyde Streets. A strand in the cable (see CA-12-7) forces the fork forward, alerting the powerhouse to the strand by means of an electrical warning device. This strand alarm operates in essentially the same manner as those first used in the 1880s. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered...

  20. Prevalence of Skin Cancer and Related Skin Tumors in High-Risk Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipients in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Iannacone, Michelle R; Sinnya, Sudipta; Pandeya, Nirmala; Isbel, Nikky; Campbell, Scott; Fawcett, Jonathan; Soyer, Peter H; Ferguson, Lisa; Davis, Marcia; Whiteman, David C; Green, Adèle C

    2016-07-01

    The increased skin cancer incidence in organ transplant recipients is well-known, but the skin cancer burden at any one time is unknown. Our objective was to estimate the period prevalence of untreated skin malignancy and actinic keratoses in high-risk kidney and liver transplant recipients and to assess associated factors. Organ transplant recipients underwent full skin examinations by dermatologically trained physicians. The proportion of examined organ transplant recipients with histopathologically confirmed skin cancer in the 3-month baseline period was estimated. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals indicated significant associations. Of 495 high-risk organ transplant recipients (average age = 54 years, time immunosuppressed = 8.9 years), 135 (27%) had basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or Bowen's disease (intraepidermal carcinoma) present and confirmed in the baseline period, with respective prevalence proportions of 10%, 11%, and 18% in kidney transplant recipients and 10%, 9%, and 13% in liver transplant recipients. Over 80% had actinic keratosis present, with approximately 30% having 5 or more actinic keratoses. Organ transplant recipients with the highest skin cancer burden were Australian born, were fair skinned (prevalence ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval = [1.07, 2.43]), reported past skin cancer (prevalence ratio =3.39, 95% confidence interval = [1.93, 5.95]), and were receiving the most frequent skin checks (prevalence ratio = 1.76, 95% confidence interval = [1.15, 2.70]). In conclusion, high-risk organ transplant recipients carry a substantial measurable skin cancer burden at any given time and require frequent review through easily accessible, specialized services. PMID:26968258

  1. The Sound of Danger: Threat Sensitivity to Predator Vocalizations, Alarm Calls, and Novelty in Gulls

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Sarah A.; Bonter, David N.

    2013-01-01

    The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

  2. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Sarah A; Bonter, David N

    2013-01-01

    The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

  3. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26811985

  4. High prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus-capsid antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive men: a serological study

    PubMed Central

    Höpfl, Reinhard; Petter, Anton; Thaler, Petra; Sarcletti, Mario; Widschwendter, Andreas; Zangerle, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Background Serological study of human papillomavirus (HPV)-antibodies in order to estimate the HPV-prevalence as risk factor for the development of HPV-associated malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men. Methods Sera from 168 HIV-positive men and 330 HIV-negative individuals (including 198 controls) were tested using a direct HPV-ELISA specific to HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and bovine PV-1 L1-virus-like particles. Serological results were correlated with the presence of HPV-associated lesions, the history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and HIV classification groups. Results In HIV-negative men low risk HPV-antibodies were prevailing and associated with condylomatous warts (25.4%). Strikingly, HIV-positive men were more likely to have antibodies to the high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -31, and low risk antibodies were not increased in a comparable range. Even those HIV-positive heterosexual individuals without any HPV-associated lesions exhibited preferentially antibody responses to the oncogenic HPV-types (cumulative 31.1%). The highest antibody detection rate (88,8%) was observed within the subgroup of nine HIV-positive homosexual men with anogenital warts. Three HIV-positive patients had HPV-associated carcinomas, in all of them HPV-16 antibodies were detected. Drug use and mean CD4-cell counts on the day of serologic testing had no influence on HPV-IgG antibody prevalence, as had prior antiretroviral therapy or clinical category of HIV-disease. Conclusion High risk HPV-antibodies in HIV-infected and homosexual men suggest a continuous exposure to HPV-proteins throughout the course of their HIV infection, reflecting the known increased risk for anogenital malignancies in these populations. The extensive increase of high risk antibodies (compared to low risk antibodies) in HIV-positive patients cannot be explained by differences in exposure history alone, but suggests defects of the immunological control of oncogenic HPV

  5. Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

  6. Evaluation of nine different types of enuresis alarms.

    PubMed

    Goel, K M; Thomson, R B; Gibb, E M; McAinsh, T F

    1984-08-01

    One hundred enuretic children were treated in closely supervised trial conditions with nine commonly used enuresis alarm systems available commercially in the United Kingdom. Although there was little difference between the systems in terms of their effectiveness in stopping bed wetting, parents preferred the Eastleigh and Urilarm De-Luxe models which had distinct advantages in respect of false alarms, breakdowns, and durability of pads. Enuresis alarms that perform poorly in these respects may lead to loss of enthusiasm and non-compliance. The systems vary widely in price, but a private buyer may find a cheaper alarm just as effective. PMID:6476872

  7. Using an alarm to improve drug trolley safety.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Emily; Pearson, Darcy; Moondi, Parvez; Gibson, John; Blunt, Mark; Young, Peter; Mariyaselvam, Maryanne

    Leaving drug trolleys unlocked and unattended during drug rounds creates opportunities for drug theft and tampering. A new device was developed by our trust to detect when an open drug trolley is left unattended; it then sounds an alarm to remind staff to return to the trolley. This article describes use of the alarm on general hospital wards in one trust in the east of England. When the alarm was installed into drug trolleys on ahospital ward, it reduced the number of times unlocked trolleys were left unattended. The drug trolley alarm successfully changed the behaviour of staff on drug rounds and, in so doing, improved patient safety. PMID:26625697

  8. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners

    PubMed Central

    Ugbomoiko, Uade Samuel; Ariza, Liana; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2008-01-01

    Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria) for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans), mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis), ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp.), and lice (Trichodectes canis); and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%). Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases. PMID:19068110

  9. High prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men in Zhejiang, China: a respondent-driven sampling survey

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaohong; Wu, Minni; Ma, Qiaoqin; Wang, Hui; Ma, Wenzhe; Zeng, Shidian; Chen, Junfang; Zhang, Yan; Miao, Dandan; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Tingting; He, Lin; Xia, Yan; Peng, Zhihang; Xia, Shichang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of HIV and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) and to explore the feasibility of using respondent-driven sampling in this population in order to conduct customised interventions among MSM in the future. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Zhejiang, China. Participants 1316 MSM. Primary and secondary outcome measures HIV prevalence rates and factors associated with HIV infection; sociodemographic and behavioural information of participants, syphilis prevalence rates. Results The adjusted prevalence of HIV and syphilis were 13.8% and 11.4%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that higher educational level, support treatment of HIV, negative syphilis are protective factors of HIV infection. MSM who had heterosexual behaviour before and whose primary sexual partner was HIV-positive were less likely to be infected with HIV compared with their counterparts, while frequency of sexual behaviour with primary sexual partner was positively associated with HIV infection. Conclusions This survey confirmed a high HIV prevalence among MSM in Zhejiang province. MSM are extremely vulnerable to HIV infection and comprehensive interventions are urgently needed to slow the spread of HIV among MSM. PMID:26656982

  10. The Prevalence of Exposure to Domestic Violence Among High School Students in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Homeira; Rahimy, Hossein; Rafiey, Hassan; Vameghi, Meroe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Domestic violence appears to be a major social problem. Researches in the last 10 years have uncovered multiple effects of witnessing domestic violence on children, ranging in severity from little or no effect to sever psychological harm. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the prevalence of exposure to domestic violence among high school students in Tehran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on high school students of Tehran in the school year 2011–2012. The “Children’s Exposure to Domestic Violence Scale” was administered to a total cohort of 1,212 students (615 males and 597 females) selected by the stratified sampling method. Results: Approximately one-half of the participants (44.3%) had been exposed to their fathers’s violence against their mothers at least sometimes in their lives, the most common form of which was preventing the mother from doing something (28.5%) and the least common, hurting the mother with sharp or deadly tools (9.6%). A substantial proportion of the students (90.6%) had been exposed to violence in the community or at school, the most common kind would be being heard from someone calling another person names or making fun of them (81.7%) and the least common, being injured a child in the community or at school (31.8%). Conclusions: Exposure to violence is a widespread problem among children in Tehran. It encompasses a wide range and children were exposed to violence in different ways and forms. PMID:24719707

  11. High prevalence of PI resistance in patients failing second-line ART in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thao, Vu Phuong; Quang, Vo Minh; Day, Jeremy N.; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Farrar, Jeremy; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Thwaites, Guy E.; Dunstan, Sarah J.; Le, Thuy

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited data from resource-limited settings on antiretroviral resistance mutations that develop in patients failing second-line PI ART. Methods We performed a cross-sectional virological assessment of adults on second-line ART for ≥6 months between November 2006 and December 2011, followed by a prospective follow-up over 2 years of patients with virological failure (VF) at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Vietnam. VF was defined as HIV RNA concentrations ≥1000 copies/mL. Resistance mutations were identified by population sequencing of the pol gene and interpreted using the 2014 IAS-USA mutation list and the Stanford algorithm. Logistic regression modelling was performed to identify predictors of VF. Results Two hundred and thirty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The median age was 32 years; 81.0% were male, 95.7% were on a lopinavir/ritonavir-containing regimen and 22 (9.5%) patients had VF. Of the patients with VF, 14 (64%) carried at least one major protease mutation [median: 2 (IQR: 1–3)]; 13 (59%) had multiple protease mutations conferring intermediate- to high-level resistance to lopinavir/ritonavir. Mutations conferring cross-resistance to etravirine, rilpivirine, tipranavir and darunavir were identified in 55%, 55%, 45% and 27% of patients, respectively. Higher viral load, adherence <95% and previous indinavir use were independent predictors of VF. The 2 year outcomes of the patients maintained on lopinavir/ritonavir included: death, 7 (35%); worsening virological/immunological control, 6 (30%); and virological re-suppression, 5 (25%). Two patients were switched to raltegravir and darunavir/ritonavir with good HIV control. Conclusions High-prevalence PI resistance was associated with previous indinavir exposure. Darunavir plus an integrase inhibitor and lamivudine might be a promising third-line regimen in Vietnam. PMID:26661398

  12. Molecular genetics of childhood papillary thyroid carcinomas after irradiation: high prevalence of RET rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Rabes, H M; Klugbauer, S

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a connection between thyroid carcinogenesis and a history of radiation. The molecular mechanisms involved are not well understood. It has been claimed that RAS, p53 or GSP mutations and RET or TRK rearrangements might play a role in adult thyroid tumors. In childhood, the thyroid gland is particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The reactor accident in Chernobyl provided a unique chance to study molecular genetic aberrations in a cohort of children who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas after a short latency time after exposure to high doses of radioactive iodine isotopes. According to the concepts of molecular genetic epidemiology, exposure to a specific type of irradiation might result in a typical molecular lesion. Childhood papillary thyroid tumors after Chernobyl exhibit a high prevalence of RET rearrangement as almost the only molecular alteration. The majority showed RET/PTC3 (i.e., ELE/RET rearrangements), including several subtypes. Less frequently, RET/PTC1 (i.e., H4/RET rearrangements), and a novel type (RET/PTC5, i.e., RFG5/RET) were observed. Proof of reciprocal transcripts suggests that a balanced intrachromosomal inversion leads to this rearrangement. Breakpoint analyses revealed short homologous nucleotide stretches at the fusion points. In all types of rearrangement, the RET tyrosine kinase domain becomes controlled by 5' fused regulatory sequences of ubiquitously expressed genes that display coiled-coil regions with dimerization potential. Oncogenic activation of RET is apparently due to ligand-independent constitutive ectopic RET tyrosine kinase activity. The analysis of this cohort of children with radiation-induced thyroid tumors after Chernobyl provides insights into typical molecular aberrations in relation to a specific mode of environmental exposure and may serve as a paradigm for molecular genetic epidemiology. PMID:10027005

  13. An initiation-promotion model of tumour prevalence from high-charge and energy radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    A repair/misrepair kinetic model for multiple radiation-induced lesions (mutation inactivation) is coupled to a two-mutation model of initiation-promotion in tissue to provide a parametric description of tumour prevalence in the mouse Harderian gland from high-energy and charge radiations. Track-structure effects are considered using an action-cross section model. Dose-response curves are described for gamma rays and relativistic ions, and good agreement with experiment is found. The effects of nuclear fragmentation are also considered for high-energy proton and alpha-particle exposures. The model described provides a parametric description of age-dependent cancer induction for a wide range of radiation fields. Radiosensitivity parameters found in the model for an initiation mutation (sigma 0 = 7.6 x 10(-10) cm2 and D0 = 148.0 Gy) are somewhat different than previously observed for neoplastic transformation of C3H10T1/2 cell cultures (sigma 0 = 0.7 x 10(-10) cm2 and D0 = 117.0 Gy). We consider the two hypotheses that radiation acts solely as an initiator or as both initiator and promoter and make model calculations for fractionation exposures from gamma rays and relativistic Fe ions. For fractionated Fe exposures, an inverse-dose-rate effect is provided by a promotion hypothesis with an increase of 30% or more, dependent on the dose level and fractionation schedule, using a mutation rate for promotion similar to that of single-gene mutations.

  14. High prevalence of muscular sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Latif, B; Vellayan, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Omar, E; Abdullah, S; Tappe, D

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of sarcocystosis in cattle and water buffaloes from peninsular Malaysia was investigated in abattoirs in Selangor state, February, 2011, to March, 2012. Fresh muscle samples were collected from the tongue, heart, oesophagus, diaphragm and skeletal muscles of 102 cattle and 18 water buffaloes. Each sample was initially screened by light microscopy and then fixed for further histopathological analysis. Out of 120 animals examined, 49 (40.8%) harboured the microscopic type of Sarcocystis spp. The positivity rate for cattle was 36.2% and for water buffaloes 66.7%. In cattle, the organs highly infected were the skeletal muscles and diaphragm (27% each), followed by tongue and esophagus (24.3% each), and the heart (8%). In water buffaloes, the heart was most often infected (66.7%), followed by the oesophagus (50%) and skeletal muscle (33.3%); no sarcocysts were detected in the tongue and diaphragm. The shape of the sarcocyst was fusiform to oval with a mean cyst size of 151.66 x 75.83 μm and wall thickness of 2.47 μm in cattle, and 114 x 50.81 μm cyst size and the wall thickness of 1.11 μm in water buffaloes, consistent with Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis levinei, respectively. Remaining tissue from cattle was subjected to parasite specific 18S rRNA gene PCR and Sarcocystis cruzi was confirmed, at least exemplarily. The peripheral metrocytes and the banana-shaped bradyzoites (15.23 x 2.2 μm in cattle and 11.49 x 2.45 μm in water buffalo hosts) were easily recognized. In conclusion, a high positivity rate was found in Malaysian meat-producing animals with possible implications for meat consumption and human health. PMID:24522140

  15. High Prevalence of Chronic Non-Communicable Conditions Among Adult Refugees: Implications for Practice and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

    2013-01-01

    The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

  16. The diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in Arctic regions with a high prevalence of infection: Expert Commentary.

    PubMed

    McMahon, B J; Bruce, M G; Koch, A; Goodman, K J; Tsukanov, V; Mulvad, G; Borresen, M L; Sacco, F; Barrett, D; Westby, S; Parkinson, A J

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of peptic ulcer and is also associated with chronic gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Guidelines have been developed in the United States and Europe (areas with low prevalence) for the diagnosis and management of this infection, including the recommendation to 'test and treat' those with dyspepsia. A group of international experts performed a targeted literature review and formulated an expert opinion for evidenced-based benefits and harms for screening and treatment of H. pylori in high-prevalence countries. They concluded that in Arctic countries where H. pylori prevalence exceeds 60%, treatment of persons with H. pylori infection should be limited only to instances where there is strong evidence of direct benefit in reduction of morbidity and mortality, associated peptic ulcer disease and MALT lymphoma and that the test-and-treat strategy may not be beneficial for those with dyspepsia. PMID:26094936

  17. High Prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella Species in Rats and Fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area. PMID:24445202

  18. Design of anti-burglar alarm systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şchiopu, Paul; Costea, Aurelian

    2015-02-01

    Security, as an important element that defines the quality of a system, represents the capacity of a system to preserve his own functional characteristics under pressure of external disruptive agents capable to represent danger for the system, for the environment of the system, and for the life of people inside the defined risk zone. The main goal of security is system stability. With ever new ideas, technology, procedures, actions and specialized institutions, integrated security services offer protection, surveillance and optimum conditions for system to function and to be used properly. Therefore, security represents the main quality parameter of all systems and processes, without it efficiency was not possible. Keyword list: Security; Anti-Burglar Alarm

  19. Temperature monitor and alarm for cryogenic instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, John B., Jr.; Keliher, Pat; Jeanpierre, Carlos

    1994-06-01

    Internal temperatures in filled cryostats must be continuously monitored to preserve the health and safety of hardware and personnel. The accidental response of cryogenic gases into the atmosphere pose a health threat and, if the gases are flammable, may lead to an explosion. One indication of an imminent cryogen release is the sudden increase in cryogen temperature. Although there are many data acquisition systems and temperature monitoring products commercially available, these systems lack the portability and safety features required during cryostat qualification tests and transport. This paper describes a temperature monitor and alarm circuit developed for the Spirit II solid hydrogen cryostat program. The instrument is battery-operated, accurate, portable, and intrinsically safe in an explosive atmosphere.

  20. Some comments on GMTI false alarm rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, A. W.

    2011-06-01

    A typical Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar specification includes the parameters Probability of Detection (PD) - typically on the order of 0.85, and False Alarm Rate (FAR) - typically on the order of 0.1 Hz. The PD is normally associated with a particular target 'size', such as Radar Cross Section (RCS) with perhaps some statistical description (e.g. Swerling number). However, the concept of FAR is embodied at a fundamental level in the detection process, which traditionally employs a Constant-FAR (CFAR) detector to set thresholds for initial decisions on whether a target is present or not. While useful, such a metric for radar specification and system comparison is not without some serious shortcomings. In particular, when comparing FAR across various radar systems, some degree of normalization needs to occur to account for perhaps swath width and scan rates. This in turn suggests some useful testing strategies.

  1. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Benzekri, Noelle A.; Sambou, Jacques; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Ngom Guèye, Ndèye Fatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou Baïla; Hawes, Stephen E.; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HIV outcomes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review. Results One hundred and nine HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 participants were enrolled. The prevalence of food insecurity was 84.6% in Dakar and 89.5% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of severe food insecurity was 59.6% in Dakar and 75.4% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of malnutrition (BMI <18.5) was 19.2% in Dakar and 26.3% in Ziguinchor. Severe food insecurity was associated with missing clinic appointments (p = 0.01) and not taking antiretroviral therapy due to hunger (p = 0.02). Malnutrition was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.01). Conclusions Severe food insecurity and malnutrition are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults in both Dakar and Ziguinchor, and are associated with poor HIV outcomes. Our findings warrant further studies to determine the root causes of malnutrition and food insecurity in Senegal, and the short- and long-term impacts of malnutrition and food insecurity on HIV care. Urgent interventions are needed to address the unacceptably high rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in this population. PMID:26529509

  2. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Carabao from Samar Province, the Philippines: implications for transmission and control.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Catherine A; Acosta, Luz P; Gray, Darren J; Olveda, Remigo M; Jarilla, Blanca; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Ross, Allen G; McManus, Donald P

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in the Philippines, China and Indonesia, and infects more than 40 mammalian host species, all of which can act as reservoirs of infection. In China, water buffaloes have been shown to be major reservoirs of human infection. However, in the Philippines, carabao have not been considered important reservoir hosts for S. japonicum due to the low prevalence and infection intensities reported, the only exception being a qPCR-based study indicating 51% of carabao were S. japonicum-positive. However, the low prevalence found for the same animals when using conventional copro-parasitological techniques means that there is still confusion about the role of carabao in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonicum. To address this inconsistency, and to shed light on the potential role of carabao in the transmission of S. japonicum in the Philippines, we undertook a pilot survey, collecting fecal samples from animals in Western Samar Province and we used a combination of molecular and copro-parasitological techniques to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum. We found a high prevalence of S. japonicum in the carabao using a validated real-time PCR (qPCR) and a copro-parasitological tool, the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique. A much lower prevalence of S. japonicum was recorded for the same fecal samples using conventional PCR, the Kato-Katz technique and miracidial hatching. These results suggest that, due to their low diagnostic sensitivity, traditional copro-parasitological techniques underestimate infection in carabao. The use of FEA-SD and qPCR provides a more accurate diagnosis. Based on these findings, the role of bovines in the transmission of S. japonicum appears to be more important in the Philippines than previously recognized, and this may have significant implications for the future control of schistosomiasis there, particularly as, in contrast with previous surveys, we found an unprecedented

  3. The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

    1995-01-01

    Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture. PMID:7816823

  4. High Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Associated Oral Mucosal Lesion Among Interstate Male Migrant Workers in Urban Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Aslesh, Ottapura Prabhakaran; Paul, Sam; Paul, Lipsy; Jayasree, Anandabhavan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kerala is a highly urbanized state in India and interstate migrant laborers working there forms a marginalized community. It was generally perceived that use of tobacco and alcohol was high among the workers, but there are no epidemiological studies assessing the actual burden. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of use of tobacco and also the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions associated with such use consumption among the adult male interstate migrant workers in North Kerala. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among male migrant workers above 18 years working in different factories in urban parts of Kannur district. Total of 244 participants attending routine health check-up camp were assessed for the use of tobacco/alcohol, type, frequency and duration of their use by a questionnaire. The trained dental interns conducted oral cavity examination for detecting oral mucosal lesions associated with tobacco use. Results: The prevalence of current use of smoked tobacco, smokeless tobacco and alcohol use were 41.8%, 71.7% and 56.6%, respectively among migrants. Oral mucosal lesions (OML) were seen in 36.3% of participants. Among smokeless tobacco users, 44.6% had lesions. Adjusted odds ratio for OML was 4.5 (CI: 1.9 - 19.84) among smokeless tobacco users. Conclusions: The current use of smokeless tobacco and oral mucosal lesions are highly prevalent among migrant workers. PMID:26855720

  5. Network meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase the uptake of smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Nicola J; Kendrick, Denise; Achana, Felix; Dhiman, Paula; He, Zhimin; Wynn, Persephone; Le Cozannet, Elodie; Saramago, Pedro; Sutton, Alex J

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first known to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase the prevalence of functioning smoke alarms in households with children. The authors identified 24 primary studies from a systematic review of reviews and of more recently published primary studies, of which 23 (17 randomized controlled trials and 6 nonrandomized comparative studies) were included in 1 of the following 2 network meta-analyses: 1) possession of a functioning alarm: interventions that were more "intensive" (i.e., included components providing equipment (with or without fitting), home inspection, or both, in addition to education) generally were more effective. The intervention containing all of the aforementioned components was identified as being the most likely to be the most effective (probability (best) = 0.66), with an odds ratio versus usual care of 7.15 (95% credible interval: 2.40, 22.73); 2) type of battery-powered alarms: ionization alarms with lithium batteries were most likely to be the best type for increasing functioning possession (probability (best) = 0.69). Smoke alarm promotion programs should ensure they provide the combination of interventions most likely to be effective. PMID:22128085

  6. Behavioral responses to the alarm pheromone of the ant Camponotus obscuripes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Takeshi; Mizunami, Makoto; Yamaoka, Ryohei

    2006-04-01

    The alarm pheromone of the ant Camponotus obscuripes (Formicinae) was identified and quantified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Comparisons between alarm pheromone components and extracts from the major exocrine gland of this ant species revealed that the sources of its alarm pheromone are Dufour's gland and the poison gland. Most components of Dufour's gland were saturated hydrocarbons. n-Undecane comprised more than 90% of all components and in a single Dufour's gland amounted to 19 microg. n-Decane and n-pentadecane were also included in the Dufour's gland secretion. Only formic acid was detected in the poison gland, in amounts ranging from 0.049 to 0.91 microl. This ant species releases a mixture of these substances, each of which has a different volatility and function. When the ants sensed formic acid, they eluded the source of the odor; however, they aggressively approached odors of n-undecane and n-decane, which are highly volatile. In contrast, n-pentadecane, which has the lowest volatility among the identified compounds, was shown to calm the ants. The volatilities of the alarm pheromone components were closely related to their roles in alarm communication. Highly volatile components vaporized rapidly and spread widely, and induced drastic reactions among the ants. As these components became diluted, the less volatile components calmed the excited ants. How the worker ants utilize this alarm communication system for efficient deployment of their nestmates in colony defense is also discussed herein. PMID:16702768

  7. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Cambodian Women: A Common Deficiency in a Sunny Country.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoffry; Wimalawansa, Sunil J; Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Un, Samoeurn; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Kuong, Khov; Chamnan, Chhoun; De Los Reyes, Francisco N; Wieringa, Frank T

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in spite of being generally close to the equator; vitamin D deficiency is common in South East Asian countries. In order to quantify micronutrient status for women and children in Cambodia; a nationally-representative survey was conducted in 2014 linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. The countrywide median of 25(OH)D was, respectively, 64.9 and 91.1 nmol/L for mothers and children. Based on The Endocrine Society cutoffs (>50<75 nmol/L = insufficiency; ≤50 nmol/L = deficiency); 64.6% of mothers and 34.8% of their children had plasma vitamin D concentrations indicating insufficiency or deficiency. For deficiency alone, 29% of the mothers were found to be vitamin D deficient, but only 13.4% of children. Children who live in urban areas had a 43% higher rate of vitamin D insufficiency versus those who live in rural areas (OR; 1.434; 95% CI: 1.007; 2.041). However, such differences were not observed in their mothers. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is likely in part due to lifestyle choices, including sun avoidance, increasingly predominant indoor work, and covered transport. These survey findings support the need for a broader national Cambodian study incorporating testing of adult men, adolescents and the elderly, and encompassing other parameters such as skeletal health. However, the data presented in this study already show significant deficiencies which need to be addressed and we discuss the benefit of establishing nationally-mandated food fortification programs to enhance the intake of vitamin D. PMID:27187456

  8. High prevalence of brain pathology in violent prisoners: a qualitative CT and MRI scan study.

    PubMed

    Schiltz, Kolja; Witzel, Joachim G; Bausch-Hölterhoff, Josef; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and extent of brain anomalies in a large sample of incarcerated violent offenders not previously considered neuropsychiatrically ill, in comparison with non-violent offenders and non-offending controls. MRI and CT brain scans from 287 male prison inmates (162 violent and 125 non-violent) not diagnosed as mentally ill before that were obtained due to headache, vertigo or psychological complaints during imprisonment were assessed and compared to 52 non-criminal controls. Brain scans were rated qualitatively with respect to evidence of structural brain damage. Each case received a semiquantitative rating of "normal" (=0), "questionably abnormal" (=1) or "definitely abnormal" (=2) for the lateral ventricles, frontal/parietal cortex and medial temporal structures bilaterally as well as third ventricle. Overall, offenders displayed a significantly higher rate of morphological abnormality, with the violent offenders scoring significantly higher than non-violent offenders and controls. This difference was statistically detectable for frontal/parietal cortex, medial temporal structures, third ventricle and the left but not the right lateral ventricle. The remarkable prevalence of brain pathology in convicted violent prisoners detectable by neuroradiological routine assessment not only highlights the importance of frontal and temporal structures in the control of social, and specifically of violent behaviour, but also raises questions on the legal culpability of violent offenders with brain abnormalities. The high proportion of undetected presence of structural brain damage emphasizes the need that in violent criminals, the comprehensive routine neuropsychiatric assessment usually performed in routine forensic psychiatric expertises should be complemented with brain imaging. PMID:23568089

  9. High prevalence of NMDA receptor IgA/IgM antibodies in different dementia types

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Sarah; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Hyman, Bradley T; Panzer, Jessica A; Synofzik, Matthis; Dickerson, Bradford; Mollenhauer, Brit; Scherzer, Clemens R; Ivinson, Adrian J; Finke, Carsten; Schöls, Ludger; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Jahn, Holger; Höltje, Markus; Biswal, Bharat B; Harms, Lutz; Ruprecht, Klemens; Buchert, Ralph; Höglinger, Günther U; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Unger, Marcus M; Körtvélyessy, Peter; Bittner, Daniel; Priller, Josef; Spruth, Eike J; Paul, Friedemann; Meisel, Andreas; Lynch, David R; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Endres, Matthias; Teegen, Bianca; Probst, Christian; Komorowski, Lars; Stöcker, Winfried; Dalmau, Josep; Prüss, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively determine the frequency of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in patients with different forms of dementia. Methods Clinical characterization of 660 patients with dementia, neurodegenerative disease without dementia, other neurological disorders and age-matched healthy controls combined with retrospective analysis of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the presence of NMDAR antibodies. Antibody binding to receptor mutants and the effect of immunotherapy were determined in a subgroup of patients. Results Serum NMDAR antibodies of IgM, IgA, or IgG subtypes were detected in 16.1% of 286 dementia patients (9.5% IgM, 4.9% IgA, and 1.7% IgG) and in 2.8% of 217 cognitively healthy controls (1.9% IgM and 0.9% IgA). Antibodies were rarely found in CSF. The highest prevalence of serum antibodies was detected in patients with “unclassified dementia” followed by progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, Parkinson’s disease-related dementia, and primary progressive aphasia. Among the unclassified dementia group, 60% of 20 patients had NMDAR antibodies, accompanied by higher frequency of CSF abnormalities, and subacute or fluctuating disease progression. Immunotherapy in selected prospective cases resulted in clinical stabilization, loss of antibodies, and improvement of functional imaging parameters. Epitope mapping showed varied determinants in patients with NMDAR IgA-associated cognitive decline. Interpretation Serum IgA/IgM NMDAR antibodies occur in a significant number of patients with dementia. Whether these antibodies result from or contribute to the neurodegenerative disorder remains unknown, but our findings reveal a subgroup of patients with high antibody levels who can potentially benefit from immunotherapy. PMID:25493273

  10. Genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Livestock in China: High Prevalence and Zoonotic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Li, Yijing; Li, Weizhi; Yang, Jinping; Song, Mingxin; Diao, Ruinan; Jia, Honglin; Lu, Yixin; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Xichen; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Despite many recent advances in genotype characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi worldwide and the exploration of the extent of cross-species transmission of microsporidiosis between humans and animals, the epidemiology of this neglected disease in China is poorly understood. In this study, a very high prevalence (60.3%; 94/156) of E. bieneusi infections in farmed pigs in Jilin province was detected by PCR of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). DNA sequence analysis of 88 E. bieneusi–positive specimens identified 12 distinct genotypes (11 known: CHN7, CS-1, CS-4, CS-6, EbpA, EbpB, EbpC, EbpD, EBITS3, G, and Henan-I; one novel: CS-9). Frequent appearance of mixed genotype infections was seen in the study animals. Weaned (74.6%; 53/71) or pre-weaned (68.8%; 22/32) pigs have infection rates significantly higher than growing pigs (35.8%; 19/53) (p<0.01). Likewise, E. bieneusi was detected in 2 of 45 sheep fecal specimens (4.4%) in Heilongjiang province, belonging to the known genotype BEB6. Genotypes EbpA, EbpC, EbpD, and Henan-I examined herein have been documented in the cases of human infections and BEB6, EbpA, EbpC, and EbpD in wastewater in central China. Infections of EbpA and EbpC in humans were also reported in other areas of the world. The other known genotypes (CHN7, CS-1, CS-4, CS-6, EBITS3, EbpB, and G) and the new genotype CS-9 were genetically clustered into a group of existing E. bieneusi genotypes with zoonotic potential. Thus, pigs could be a potential source of human E. bieneusi infections in China. PMID:24845247

  11. Why is high-risk drinking more prevalent among men than women? evidence from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is important to identify and quantify the factors that affect gender differences in high-risk drinking (HRD), from both an academic and a policy perspective. However, little is currently known about them. This study examines these factors and estimates the percentage contribution each makes to gender differences in HRD. Methods This study analyzed information on 23,587 adults obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 1998, 2001, and 2005. It found that the prevalence of HRD was about 5 times higher among men (0.37) than women (0.08). Using a decomposition approach extended from the Oaxaca-Blinder method, we decomposed the gender difference in HRD to an "overall composition effect" (contributions due to gender differences in the distribution of observed socio-economic characteristics), and an "overall HRD-tendency effect" (contributions due to gender differences in tendencies in HRD for individuals who share socio-economic characteristics). Results The HRD-tendency effect accounted for 96% of the gender difference in HRD in South Korea, whereas gender differences in observed socio-economic characteristics explained just 4% of the difference. Notably, the gender-specific HRD-tendency effect accounts for 90% of the gender difference in HRD. Conclusion We came to a finding that gender-specific HRD tendency is the greatest contributor to gender differences in HRD. Therefore, to effective reduce HRD, it will be necessary to understand gender differences in socioeconomic characteristics between men and women but also take notice of such differences in sociocultural settings as they experience. And it will be also required to prepare any gender-differentiated intervention strategy for men and women. PMID:22304965

  12. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Cambodian Women: A Common Deficiency in a Sunny Country

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Geoffry; Wimalawansa, Sunil J.; Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Un, Samoeurn; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Kuong, Khov; Chamnan, Chhoun; De los Reyes, Francisco N.; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in spite of being generally close to the equator; vitamin D deficiency is common in South East Asian countries. In order to quantify micronutrient status for women and children in Cambodia; a nationally-representative survey was conducted in 2014 linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. The countrywide median of 25(OH)D was, respectively, 64.9 and 91.1 nmol/L for mothers and children. Based on The Endocrine Society cutoffs (>50<75 nmol/L = insufficiency; ≤50 nmol/L = deficiency); 64.6% of mothers and 34.8% of their children had plasma vitamin D concentrations indicating insufficiency or deficiency. For deficiency alone, 29% of the mothers were found to be vitamin D deficient, but only 13.4% of children. Children who live in urban areas had a 43% higher rate of vitamin D insufficiency versus those who live in rural areas (OR; 1.434; 95% CI: 1.007; 2.041). However, such differences were not observed in their mothers. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is likely in part due to lifestyle choices, including sun avoidance, increasingly predominant indoor work, and covered transport. These survey findings support the need for a broader national Cambodian study incorporating testing of adult men, adolescents and the elderly, and encompassing other parameters such as skeletal health. However, the data presented in this study already show significant deficiencies which need to be addressed and we discuss the benefit of establishing nationally-mandated food fortification programs to enhance the intake of vitamin D. PMID:27187456

  13. Individuals with high bone mass have an increased prevalence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, S A; Dieppe, P; Gregson, C L; Arden, N K; Spector, T D; Hart, D J; Edwards, M H; Dennison, E M; Cooper, C; Sayers, A; Williams, M; Davey Smith, G; Tobias, J H

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported an association between high bone mass (HBM) and a bone-forming phenotype of radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA). As knee and hip OA have distinct risk factors, in this study we aimed to determine (i) whether HBM is also associated with knee OA, and (ii) whether the HBM knee OA phenotype demonstrates a similar pattern of radiographic features to that observed at the hip. HBM cases (defined by DXA BMD Z-scores) from the UK-based HBM study were compared with unaffected family controls and general population controls from the Chingford and Hertfordshire cohort studies. A single blinded observer graded AP weight-bearing knee radiographs for features of OA (Kellgren-Lawrence score, osteophytes, joint space narrowing (JSN), sclerosis) using an atlas. Analyses used logistic regression, adjusting a priori for age and gender, and additionally for BMI as a potential mediator of the HBM-OA association, using Stata v12. 609 HBM knees in 311 cases (mean age 60.8years, 74% female) and 1937 control knees in 991 controls (63.4years, 81% female) were analysed. The prevalence of radiographic knee OA, defined as Kellgren-Lawrence grade≥2, was increased in cases (31.5% vs. 20.9%), with age and gender adjusted OR [95% CI] 2.38 [1.81, 3.14], p<0.001. The association between HBM and osteophytosis was stronger than that for JSN, both before and after adjustment for BMI which attenuated the ORs for knee OA and osteophytes in cases vs. controls by approximately 50%. Our findings support a positive association between HBM and knee OA. This association was strongest for osteophytes, suggesting HBM confers a general predisposition to a subtype of OA characterised by increased bone formation. PMID:25445455

  14. High Cryptosporidium prevalences in healthy Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Flores, A; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was determined in four Aymara communities in the Bolivian Altiplano, between the city of La Paz and Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 3,800-4,200 meters. Single stool specimens were randomly collected from 377 5-19-year-old students, all apparently asymptomatic. The total prevalence (31.6%) is possibly the highest reported among healthy humans (a maximum of 9.8% and 2.0% in coprologic surveys in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively) and one of the highest even in symptomatic subjects. No significant age and sex differences were observed. Such an infection prevalence is probably related to the poor sanitation conditions, contaminated water supplies, overcrowding, and close contact with domestic animals. Continuous exposure to the parasite could be associated with protection against parasite-related symptoms in the children examined. PMID:9452292

  15. Effect of reducing iodine excess on children's goiter prevalence in areas with high iodine in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shengmin; Xie, Lijun; Xu, Dong; Wang, Yuchun; Jia, Lihui; Du, Yonggui

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of removing iodized salt on children's goiter prevalence in high iodine area (HIA). A total of 452 and 459 children aged 8-10 years old were selected by simple random sampling method before and after removing iodized salt from their diet in three towns with median water iodine content of 150-300 µg/l in Hengshui city of Hebei province of China. Their goiter status was judged using the thyroid volume (Tvol) reference for body surface area recommended by the WHO. After removing iodized salt, children's overall median urinary iodine content (MUIC) decreased from 518 (IQR 347,735) µg/l to 416 µg/l (IQR 274,609). Children's MUIC across sex and age group decreased significantly. The overall goiter prevalence in the three towns significantly decreased from 32.96 % (149/452) to 6.54 % (30/459) (P < 0.001). The goiter prevalence in 8-, 9-, and 10-year-old children decreased, respectively, from 38.04 % (35/92), 30.57 % (59/193), and 32.93 % (55/167) to 6.10 % (10/164), 6.75 % (11/163), and 6.82 % (9/132). The goiter prevalence in boys and girls decreased from 34.01 % (83/244) and 31.73 % (66/208) to 6.19 % (14/225) and 6.87 % (16/234), respectively. The decreases in children's goiter prevalence across gender and age groups were all statistically significant. The present study revealed that children's goiter prevalence decreased significantly after removing iodized salt from their diet for about one and half years in the HIA in Hebei province. PMID:26403613

  16. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Matias; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index—HDI > 0.808), and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF), or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744), and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14–20 years old). The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104), and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex), psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year), hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain), strength (lumbar and hand forces), anthropometric (body mass index), behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month), and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer) variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR < 0.79), whereas feeling lonely in the previous year, obesity, and ethnicity exhibited the highest prevalence ratio (PR > 1.30). In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables. PMID:26938456

  17. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noll, Matias; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index--HDI > 0.808), and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF), or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744), and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old). The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104), and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex), psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year), hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain), strength (lumbar and hand forces), anthropometric (body mass index), behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month), and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer) variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR < 0.79), whereas feeling lonely in the previous year, obesity, and ethnicity exhibited the highest prevalence ratio (PR > 1.30). In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables. PMID:26938456

  18. HIGH PREVALENCE OF DRUG RESISTANCE AMONGST HIV-EXPOSED AND INFECTED CHILDREN ON A TUBERCULOSIS PREVENTION TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Hesseling, Anneke C.; Kim, Soyeon; Madhi, Shabir; Nachman, Sharon; Schaaf, H. Simon; Violari, Avy; Victor, Thomas C.; McSherry, George; Mitchell, Charles; Cotton, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Background There is an emergence of drug-resistant-TB (DR-TB) in settings affected by HIV and tuberculosis (TB). Methods We investigated the prevalence of DR-TB in P1041, a multi-centred, randomized, double-blind trial which compared administration of INH to placebo, in HIV-exposed-uninfected and HIV-infected African infants in the absence of any documented TB exposure. Results The prevalence of MDR-TB was 22.2% (95% CI: 8.5–45.8%) and INH monoresistance 5.6% (95% CI 0.1–27.6%) amongst culture-confirmed cases with all MDR-TB occurring in a single site. There was no association between INH treatment or placebo group, or between HIV infection status, and DR-TB prevalence. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of DR-TB amongst HIV-exposed and infected children. Surveillance of DR-TB amongst children in high-burden TB/HIV settings should be routine. PMID:22236919

  19. Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students.

    PubMed

    Fleschler Peskin, Melissa; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Tortolero, Susan R

    2013-06-01

    Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population. PMID:23438265

  20. High HIV Prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is associated with Social Vulnerability and other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, JP; Weir, SS; Jones-Cooper, C; Byfield, L; Hobbs, MM; McKnight, I; Cummings, S

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is thought to be high in Jamaica. The objective of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors in order to improve prevention approaches. Methods With the help of influential MSM, an experienced research nurse approached MSM in four parishes to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2007. MSM were interviewed and blood taken for HIV and syphilis tests, and urine taken for gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas testing using transcription-mediated amplification assays. A structured questionnaire was administered by the nurse. Results One third (65 of 201; 32%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 25.2% – 47.9%) of MSM were HIV positive. Prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) was: Chlamydia 11%, syphilis 6%, gonorrhea 3.5% and Trichomonas 0%. One third (34%) of MSM identified themselves as being homosexual, 64% as bisexual and 1.5% as heterosexual. HIV positive MSM were significantly more likely to have ever been told by a doctor that they had a STI (48% vs. 27%, OR 2.48 CI 1.21 – 5.04, p=0.01) and to be the receptive sexual partner at last sex (41% vs. 23%, OR 2.41 CI 1.21 – 4.71, p=0.008). MSM who were of low socio-economic status, ever homeless and victims of physical violence were twice as likely to be HIV positive. The majority (60%) of HIV positive MSM had not disclosed their status to their partner and over 50% were not comfortable disclosing their status to anyone. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence among MSM is an important factor driving the HIV epidemic in Jamaica. More effective ways need to be found to reduce the high prevalence of HIV among MSM including measures to reduce their social vulnerability, combat stigma and discrimination and empower them to practice safe sex. PMID:24756602

  1. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401... direction alarms. Every vessel of 1600 gross registered tons or integrated tug and barge or articulated tug... direction and shaft r.p.m. indicators located in the wheelhouse and the engine room; and (b) Visible...

  2. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401... direction alarms. Every vessel of 1600 gross registered tons or integrated tug and barge or articulated tug... direction and shaft r.p.m. indicators located in the wheelhouse and the engine room; and (b) Visible...

  3. Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

  4. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Effective April 1, 1984, visible and audible pitch alarms, with a time delay of not greater than 8 seconds... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.17...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee... alarms required on various fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression... in this section that pertain to maintenance, testing and inspection shall apply to all local...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee... alarms required on various fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression... in this section that pertain to maintenance, testing and inspection shall apply to all local...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee... alarms required on various fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression... in this section that pertain to maintenance, testing and inspection shall apply to all local...

  8. 46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sleeping accommodations, public spaces, and machinery spaces equipped with a sufficient number of alarm... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm bells. 167.40-5 Section 167.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS...

  9. 46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sleeping accommodations, public spaces, and machinery spaces equipped with a sufficient number of alarm... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarm bells. 167.40-5 Section 167.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS...

  10. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  11. 47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals. 80.317 Section 80.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...

  12. 47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals. 80.317 Section 80.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...

  13. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual alarms in the control room and audio alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor for LNG vapors must— (1) Be in each enclosed area where vapor or gas may accumulate; and (2) Meet Section 9-4 of NFPA 59A. (c) Fixed sensors that...

  14. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section 401.16 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel of 1600...

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section 97.37-50... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The...-inch letters “VENTILATION FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  16. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section 97.37-50... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The...-inch letters “VENTILATION FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section 97.37-50... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The...-inch letters “VENTILATION FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  18. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section 97.37-50... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The...-inch letters “VENTILATION FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b)...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842 Cargo system: Controls and alarms. The master...

  20. 46 CFR 58.25-25 - Indicating and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indicating and alarm systems. 58.25-25 Section 58.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-25 Indicating and alarm systems. (a) Indication of the rudder angle must be provided both...